Sample records for carious tissue analise

  1. Analysis 'in vivo' of the employ of the Er:YAG laser and conventional method to remove carious tissue; Analise 'in vivo' do emprego laser de Er:YAG e do metodo convencional para remocao do tecido cariado

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    Ribeiro, Rafael Cardoso


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of carious tissue employing the use of Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. The wavelength of this laser is 2,64 {mu}m and have a good absorption by the water and hydroxyapatite present in dental hard tissue. For this purpose were selected 24 molar teeth with occlusal carious, which were divided in random in two groups. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 250 mJ to 400 mJ, and the frequency range from 2 Hz to 4 Hz; for the dentine the energy laser range was from 150 mJ to 200 mJ and the laser frequency was in the range from 2 Hz to 6 Hz. For the evaluation of the results was used a questionaire to critical evaluation of the professional and another one to evaluation of the patient. The results have shown that the Er:YAG laser is able to remove carious enamel and dentin, without cause crunch or fracture and the irradiated surface was creasy. The patients reported greatest comfort when the cavity preparation was done with the Er:YAG laser than the conventional burr and all the patients treated reported prefer to future treatments the use of the Er:YAG laser. In conclusion, for the critical evaluation of the professional the treatment with the Er:YAG laser is a safe and effective method, and for the critical evaluation of the patient the treatment is one alternative more comfortable than the conventional method to remove caries. (author)

  2. Managing Carious Lesions

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    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L


    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  3. The Evaluation of the Vector System in Removal of Carious Tissue

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    Mine Yildirim


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the Vector system in comparison to the conventional technique in cavity preparation. Four extracted primary teeth with no restorations and similar fissure carious lesions and four permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used. Class I preparations were made provided that the caries depth remained within the dentin limits. Two teeth were treated with an aerator, the other two had carious tissue removed with the Vector system. Prepared cavities were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy for the surface roughness of the dentine and enamel and for the carious tissue removal efficiency. This pilot study determined that it is possible to remove carious tissue and perform cavity preparation with the Vector system. According to this preliminary evaluation of surface quality, a cavity prepared with the Vector treatment system, allows for a slicker floor, and a more regular enamel-dentine line than that prepared with an aerator. However, the Vector system requires a longer treatment time which we believe may be a negative point, especially for young patients.

  4. Comparative analysis of bacterial decrease by Er:YAG laser radiation and by a tip mounted on a high-rotation device after remove of carious tissue in dentine: study 'in anima mobile'; Analise comparativa da reducao bacteriana com irradiacao do laser Er:YAG ou ponta montada em alta rotacao apos remocao de tecido cariado em dentina: estudo in anima nobile

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    Blay, Claudia Campos


    The purpose of this study was to analyze bacterial decrease after removal of carious tissue in dentine by Er:YAG laser, comparing the results with those achieved by using a tip mounted on a high-rotation device. In view of the difficulty of totally eliminating microorganisms from dentine, even after removing all the carious tissue, and since the presence of a smear layer is a proven fact, it would be extremely convenient to eliminate or to achieve better disinfecting of this notoriously contaminated dentine layer, so as to prevent failure of the restoration process in most cases. For this study, we selected 30 pre-molars and molars with caries rated as medium sized and which required restoration treatment. The teeth were divided in two groups, where 15 teeth received conventional treatment (control group - I) and 15 teeth were treated with Er:YAG laser (Kavo Key Laser) (laser group - II). Microbiologic analysis was used in order to determine presence or absence of bacteria. In group I as well as in group II a previous curettage of part of the dentine caries was performed, and the sample was seeded in an Agar culture medium and incubated at 37 deg C for 72 hours, for a quantitative analysis of bacteria colony forming units (c.f.u.) and qualitative bacterial analysis. After this procedure, carious lesions were removed in group I, using a spherical diamond drill mounted on a high rotation tip, followed by cleaning of the cavity with chlorhexidine digluconate at 2%. In group II, an Er:YAG laser emitting a wave length of 2,94 {mu}m, delivering a 250 mJ energy per pulse at a repetition rate of 2 Hz was used for carious tissue removal. Furthermore in group II (laser), the cavity was conditioned by performing a sweeping at all walls of the preparation with the 50/10 fiber (Kavo), in contact mode, using an energy of 60 mJ per pulse at a frequency of 10 Hz. After removing all caries and performing a cleaning operation in both groups, dentine shavings were collected and

  5. Aesthetic restoration of deciduous anterior teeth after removal of carious tissue with Papacárie ®

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    Motta Lara


    Full Text Available The development of conservative techniques for the removal of carious tissue and the improvement of dental restoration materials allow better preservation of the dental structure. Chemomechanical caries removal is a conservative and atraumatic alternative. Papacárie ® is a papain-based material developed to act only on the carious dentin, allowing its easy removal with a blunt curette. This study aims to present a clinical case of aesthetic restoration of both upper deciduous central incisors after the removal of carious tissue with Papacárie ® .

  6. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue (United States)

    MOLLICA, Fernanda Brandão; TORRES, Carlos Rocha Gomes; GONÇALVES, Sergio Eduardo de Paiva; MANCINI, †Maria Nadir Gasparoto


    There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. Material and methods The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10), according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. Results ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05) were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a), Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab), Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc). Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc), Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc), Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d). Conclusions DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values. PMID:23032207

  7. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

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    Fernanda Brandão Mollica


    Full Text Available There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10, according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05 were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a, Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab, Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc. Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc, Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc, Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d. CONCLUSIONS: DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values.

  8. Molecular and Histological Association Between Candida albicans from Oral Soft Tissue and Carious Dentine of HIV-Positive Children. (United States)

    Blignaut, Elaine; van Heerden, Willie F P


    Candida albicans and caries are frequently investigated among healthy and immunosuppressed individuals. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the presence of C. albicans on both oral soft and hard tissue and to investigate, at molecular level, the genetic subtype of the organism from the two oral sites. Tongue swabs and dentine scrapings from 362 HIV-positive children, referred for the extraction of carious primary teeth, were cultured on CHROMagar and identified to species level with ID32C. Histological staining of extracted carious teeth was also done. In patients with positive C. albicans cultures from both the tongue and carious dentine, DNA fingerprinting of such paired isolates was performed, using Southern blot hybridisation with the Ca3 probe. Yeasts were cultured from the tongue of 151 (41.7 %) individuals and 57 (37.7 %) simultaneously yielded positive C. albicans cultures from carious dentine. Nine different yeast spp. were identified from the tongue using the ID32C commercial system, but C. albicans was the only species recovered from carious dentine and histological investigation demonstrated fungal elements penetrated into the dentine and not limited to superficial debris on the floor of the cavity. Twelve of 13 paired isolates of C. albicans revealed identical fingerprinting patterns. The findings from this study demonstrated that in a particular individual, the same genetic subtype of C. albicans was capable of colonising both oral soft tissue and carious dentine. This renders carious teeth a constant source, or reservoir, of potentially infectious agents and, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, should therefore not be left unattended.

  9. Functional remineralization of carious dentin (United States)

    Pugach, Megan Kardon

    A primary goal of dental tissue engineering is the biological reconstruction of tooth substrate destroyed by caries or other diseases affecting tooth mineralization. Traditionally, dentists treat caries by using invasive techniques to remove the diseased dental tissue and restore the lesion, ideally preventing further progression of decay. Success in strategies associated with remineralization of enamel and root caries have contributed to the less invasive prospect of remineralization of dentinal carious lesions. The central hypothesis of this dissertation is that carious dentin lesions can be remineralized if the lesions contain residual mineral. Caries Detector (CD) stained zones (pink, light pink, transparent and normal) of arrested carious dentin lesions were characterized according to microstructure by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, mineral content by digital transverse microradiography, and nanomechanical properties by AFM-based nanoindentation. CD-stained and unstained zones had significantly different microstructure, mineral content and nanomechanical properties. Furthermore, the most demineralized carious zone contained residual mineral. To obtain reproducible, standardized dentin caries lesions, we characterized the lesions from an artificial carious dentin lesion model using a 0.05M acetate demineralization buffer. The artificial caries-like lesions produced by the buffer had similar mineral content and nanomechanical properties in the stained and unstained zones as natural dentin lesions. Both natural and artificial lesions had significant correlations between mineral content and nanomechanical properties. Mineral crystallite size and shape was examined by small angle x-ray scattering. Both natural and artificial carious dentin had different mineral sizes than normal dentin. Collagen in natural and artificial carious dentin lesions was examined by trichrome stain, AFM high-resolution imaging, and UV resonance Raman spectroscopy, to determine if

  10. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Terminology. (United States)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A; Schwendicke, F


    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current words used in the literature for caries removal techniques, and 2) agreed terms and definitions, explaining how these were decided.Dental cariesis the name of the disease, and thecarious lesionis the consequence and manifestation of the disease-the signs or symptoms of the disease. The termdental caries managementshould be limited to situations involving control of the disease through preventive and noninvasive means at a patient level, whereascarious lesion managementcontrols the disease symptoms at the tooth level. While it is not possible to directly relate the visual appearance of carious lesions' clinical manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm dentine; 2)stepwise removal-including stage 1,selective removal to soft dentine, and stage 2,selective removal to firm dentine6 to 12 mo later; and 3)nonselective removal to hard dentine-formerly known ascomplete caries removal(technique no longer recommended). Adoption of these terms, around managing dental caries and its sequelae, will facilitate improved understanding and communication among researchers and within dental educators and the wider clinical dentistry community.

  11. Carious dentine removal: current approach

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    Germana Coeli de Farias Sales


    Full Text Available Dentistry is renewed day after day through the results of qualified researches. The approach as regards carious dentin removal is goingthrough questioning and innovation. The scope of this study was to perform a literature review in the sense of elucidating questions pertaining to the problem of whether or not it is necessary to completely remove carious dentin, and the possibility of performing restoration in a single session, in addition to a discussion about which type of material should be applied in this type of substrate. After analyzing the referenced articles, it was concluded that the stepwise treatment controls caries progression; there is a trend in the literature to partially remove the carious dentin in deep lesions and perform definitive restoration; Calcium hydroxide cement is a classical liner in these situations, while glass ionomer cement and resinous materials are other possibilities of materials that can be in close contact with the remaining dentin.

  12. Nd:YAG laser irradiation on temporary teeth carious tissue using 12% diamine silver fluoride as a photo-absorber - a morphological study; Estudo comparativo morfologico da acao do laser de Nd:YAG em dentina cariada de dentes deciduos in vitro, condicionados com diamino fluoreto de prata a 12% e carvao mineral

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    Calmon, Andrea de Avillez


    Since Nd:YAG laser radiation was first introduced in Dentistry various photo-absorbers were employed with the intent of improving its efficacy when used on dental carious tissue. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of this radiation using Scanning and Optical microscopy over carious tissue of primary teeth using two photo-absorbers. 15 primary human teeth were used and, in each one, 3 cavity preparations were performed. Specimens were then submitted to an in vitro demineralizing environment during 18 days. Two of the cavities of each specimen were laser irradiated using the Nd:YAG laser with 60 mJ of energy per pulse, 10 Hz and average power of 0,6 W. The 12% diamine silver fluoride or the mineral coal were used as photo-absorbers. The third cavity of the specimens was used as a control and received no laser irradiation. Samples were transversally cut and the section analyzed by SEM and OM. Results showed that the 12% diamine silver fluoride is an efficient photo-absorber and, when used it the Nd:YAG laser, leading to melting and resolidification of the carious tissue. It can be concluded that the 12% diammine silver fluoride presents advantages over the mineral coal as a photo absorber when used in primary teeth as it promotes and improves the efficacy of laser irradiation. This substance also works as a barrier on the carie progression in deeper areas such as the infected and necrotic zones. (author)

  13. Permeability of normal versus carious dentin. (United States)

    Pashley, E L; Talman, R; Horner, J A; Pashley, D H


    Although a number of reports have been published demonstrating that carious dentin is less permeable than normal dentin, these reports have been qualitative rather than quantitative. The purpose of this in vitro study was to apply a quantitative technique to the study of the permeability of carious human teeth before and after excavation, before and after removal of the smear layer and before and after preparation of a control cavity of similar size and depth in normal dentin subjected to the same measurements, for comparative purposes. Dentin permeability was measured as a hydraulic conductance. The permeability values measured at each step in the protocol were expressed as a percent of the maximum permeability of both cavities, permitting each tooth the serve as its own control. Carious lesions exhibited a slight degree of permeability (2.3 +/- 0.6% of controls) which remained unchanged after excavation of the lesions. Removal of the smear layer in the excavated carious lesions increased the permeability significantly to 6.9 +/- 3.2%. Preparation of a control cavity of the same area and depth increased the permeability slightly. Removal of its smear layer increased the permeability of the dentin 91%. These results confirm previous qualitative studies that carious dentin, even after excavation and removal of the smear layer has a very low permeability.

  14. In vitro evaluation of marginal leakage in bonded restorations, with mechanical or chemical-mechanical (Carisolv removal of carious tissue Avaliação in vitro da infiltração marginal em restaurações adesivas, com remoção mecânica ou químico-mecânica (Carisolv do tecido cariado

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    Ricardo Coelho Okida


    Full Text Available This study carried out an in vitro evaluation and comparison of the occurrence of marginal leakage in bonded restorations using mechanical or chemical-mechanical (Carisolv removal of carious tissue. For that purpose, 40 extracted decayed human molars were divided into 4 groups: GI (burs + Prime & Bond NT + TPH, GII (Carisolv + Prime & Bond NT + TPH, GIII (burs + SBMP + Z100 and GIV (Carisolv + SBMP + Z100. After accomplishment of the restorations and thermal cycling, the teeth were exposed to dye, sectioned and qualitatively evaluated. The results demonstrated that the system of removal of carious tissue did not influence the results of microleakage at any of the cavity margins. At dentinal margins, use of the Prime & Bond NT + TPH restorative system allowed the occurrence of less microleakage than the SBMP + Z100 system.Este estudo avaliou e comparou in vitro a ocorrência da infiltração marginal em restaurações adesivas, com a utilização de remoção mecânica e químico-mecânica do tecido cariado. Para a proposição, 40 dentes molares humanos extraídos cariados foram divididos em quatro grupos: GI (brocas + Prime & Bond NT + TPH, GII (Carisolv + Prime & Bond NT + TPH, GIII (brocas + SBMP + Z100 e GIV (Carisolv + SBMP + Z100. Após a execução das restaurações e termociclagem, os dentes foram expostos a corante, seccionados e avaliados qualitativamente. Os resultados demonstraram que o sistema de remoção de tecido cariado não influenciou a ocorrência de microinfiltração em quaisquer margens cavitárias. Nas margens dentinárias, a utilização do sistema restaurador Prime & Bond NT + TPH demonstrou menor ocorrência de microinfiltração do que o sistema SBMP + Z100.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of medullar and cortical bone tissues from animals; Analise por ativacao com neutrons de tecidos osseos medular e cortical de animais

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    Takata, Marcelo Kazuo; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica


    In this work, neutron activation analysis was applied in the determination of the elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr and Zn present in animal bone tissues. The obtained results indicated a significant difference between the elemental concentrations present in medullar and cortical tissues. The results obtained for bone tissues from distinct animal species were also different. (author)

  16. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging) (United States)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.


    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  17. Pulp response in sound and carious teeth: a pilot study. (United States)

    Paterson, R C


    This article describes a pilot investigation in which the response of the pulps in both sound and carious rat molar teeth to traumatic exposure and treatment with three different compounds was assessed. Two of the compounds appeared to give a more favorable response in carious teeth. These results are discussed, and future experiments described.

  18. Assessment of chemomechanical removal of carious lesions using Papacarie Duo ™: Randomized longitudinal clinical trial

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    Simone Ferreira Borges Matsumoto


    Full Text Available Background: Chemomechanical removal of carious lesions consists of the dissolution of carious tissue by the application of a natural or synthetic agent, followed by atraumatic mechanical removal. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of Papacarie Duo ® gel in the chemomechanical removal of carious lesions in primary teeth in comparison to the traditional method (low-speed bur. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 children between 5 and 8 years of age. Materials and Methods: Two teeth were treated in each child (split-mouth design, with the randomization of two methods: Group 1 - chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo™; and Group 2 - removal of carious dentin tissue using a low-speed bur. Both methods involved restoration with glass ionomer cement and follow up. The following aspects were evaluated: time required for the procedure; pain (face evaluation scale; rtention of the restorative material in the cavity; and the presence of secondary caries after 30 days. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test, Student′s t-test, and Wilcoxon test. Results: No statistically significant differences between methods were found regarding time required for the procedure (P = 0.13, the occurrence of pain (P = 0.585, or restoration status at the 30-day clinical evaluation (P = 0.713. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrate that the two methods achieve similar results. The advantages of minimally invasive treatment, such as chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo™, are its ease of use, patient comfort, and the fact that it causes less damage to dental tissue.

  19. Relationship between laser fluorescence and bacterial invasion in arrested dentinal carious lesions. (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Hayashi, Mikako; Ebisu, Shigeyuki


    This study investigated the relationship between caries assessment using a laser fluorescence device (DIAGNOdent), and bacterial invasion in arrested carious dentin detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ten extracted human molars used in this study had black or dark brown, hard occlusal carious lesions, and were found to be only weakly stained or unstained with a caries detector dye of 1% acid red in propylene glycol. In those extracted human molars, dentin was removed in the direction of the pulp chamber at 150-μm intervals. During each removal (104 sections in total), the dentin surface was assessed with DIAGNOdent, and a dentinal tissue sample was taken with a round bur. Bacterial DNA of each tissue sample was examined using PCR and primers based on the nucleotide sequence of a conserved region of bacterial 16S rDNA. Rates of bacterial detection increased as the DIAGNOdent values increased. When the DIAGNOdent values were DIAGNOdent values was 0.87. These results indicate that the DIAGNOdent values of arrested dentinal carious lesion were closely related to the rates of bacterial detection.

  20. Minimal treatment of the carious lesion. (United States)

    Mount, G J


    The development of reliable adhesive technology in the oral cavity has opened the way to an entirely new approach to the treatment of active carious lesions. The initial lesion, prior to complete penetration of the enamel, can often be controlled with remineralization techniques. However, once the dentine is breached, surgical intervention is required. With modern instrumentation, including fibre-optic lighting and magnification with binocular loupes, a more surgical approach has been developed, allowing removal of caries with very limited destruction of sound tooth structure. Experience over the last 5 years has led to the development of a classification of cavity designs as well as a reliable method of instrumentation and restoration based on the use of glass-ionomer cement and composite resin. The remineralization available through the glass-ionomer cements and the adhesion developed with both the cement and composite resin allows for maintenance of the original strength of the tooth along with a high resistance to further breakdown. The classification of cavity design is presented as well as a detailed description of the suggested instrumentation for the development of the cavities.

  1. Spectroscopic investigations of carious tooth decay. (United States)

    Thareja, R K; Sharma, A K; Shukla, Shobha


    We report on the elemental composition of healthy and infected part of human tooth using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We have used prominent constituent transitions in laser-excited tooth to diagnose the state of the tooth. A nanosecond laser pulse (355nm, 5ns) was used as an ablating pulse and the sodium (3s2S-3p2P) at 588.99 and (3s2S-3p2P) at 589.99nm, strontium (5s21S-1s5P) at 460.55nm, and calcium (3d3D-4f 3F0) at 452.55nm transitions for spectroscopic analysis. The spectroscopic observations in conjunction with discriminate analysis showed that calcium attached to the hydroxyapatite structure of the tooth was affected severely at the infected part of the tooth. The position-time plots generated from two-dimensional (2D) images conclusively showed a decrease in calcium concentration in the infected region of the irradiated tooth. Using the technique, we could distinguish between the healthy and carious parts of the tooth with significant accuracy.

  2. Bonding longevity of flowable GIC layer in artificially carious dentin

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    Tedesco, T.K.; Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Lenzi, T.L.; Raggio, D.P.


    Purpose To evaluate the bond longevity of glass ionomer cement (GIC) to sound and artificially carious dentin, using a high viscosity material with regular consistency and using a flowable GIC, after one year water storage. Material and methods Sixty bovine incisors were polished to obtain flat bucc

  3. Radiographic display of carious lesions and cavitation in approximal surfaces

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    Wenzel, Ann


    . In addition, there are few longitudinal observational studies on the behaviour of dentinal carious lesions, particularly in adults. Cone beam computed tomography. Cone beam CT is an advanced 3-dimensional radiographic modality, which seems much more accurate than intra-oral modalities for displaying...

  4. Dynamics of and diagnostic methods for detecting small carious lesions

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    Pine, CM; tenBosch, JJ


    This paper reviews and discusses the dynamics of carious lesions and diagnostic methods for their detection. Summary data are presented on progression rates of differing lesion types with differing initial severity. Among the non-invasive techniques, fibre-optic transillumination, used appropriately

  5. Distribution of the amelogenin protein in developing, injured and carious human teeth

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    Thimios eMitsiadis


    Full Text Available Amelogenin is the major enamel matrix protein with key roles in amelogenesis. Although for many decades amelogenin was considered to be exclusively expressed by ameloblasts, more recent studies have shown that amelogenin is also expressed in other dental and no-dental cells. However, amelogenin expression in human tissues remains unclear. Here, we show that amelogenin protein is not only expressed during human embryonic development but also in pathological conditions such as carious lesions and injuries after dental cavity preparation. In developing embryonic teeth, amelogenin stage-specific expression is found in all dental epithelia cell populations but with different instensities. In the different layers of enamel matrix, waves of positive versus negative immunostaining for amelogenin are detected suggesting that the secretion of amelogenin protein is orchestreted by a biological clock. Amelogenin is also expressed transiently in differentiating odontoblasts during predentin formation, but was absent in mature functional odontoblasts. In intact adult teeth, amelogenin was not present in dental pulp, odontoblasts, and dentin. However, in injured and carious adult human teeth amelogenin is strongly re-expressed in newly differentiated odontoblasts and is distributed in the dentinal tubuli under the lesion site. In an in vitro culture system, amelogenin is expressed preferentially in human dental pulp cells that start differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and form mineralization nodules. These data suggest that amelogenin plays important roles not only during cytodifferentiation, but also during tooth repair processes in humans.

  6. Conservative approach of a symptomatic carious immature permanent tooth using a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine): a case report. (United States)

    Villat, Cyril; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Seux, Dominique; Farge, Pierre


    The restorative management of deep carious lesions and the preservation of pulp vitality of immature teeth present real challenges for dental practitioners. New tricalcium silicate cements are of interest in the treatment of such cases. This case describes the immediate management and the follow-up of an extensive carious lesion on an immature second right mandibular premolar. Following anesthesia and rubber dam isolation, the carious lesion was removed and a partial pulpotomy was performed. After obtaining hemostasis, the exposed pulp was covered with a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine, Septodont) and a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX extra, GC Corp.) restoration was placed over the tricalcium silicate cement. A review appointment was arranged after seven days, where the tooth was asymptomatic with the patient reporting no pain during the intervening period. At both 3 and 6 mon follow up, it was noted that the tooth was vital, with normal responses to thermal tests. Radiographic examination of the tooth indicated dentin-bridge formation in the pulp chamber and the continuous root formation. This case report demonstrates a fast tissue response both at the pulpal and root dentin level. The use of tricalcium silicate cement should be considered as a conservative intervention in the treatment of symptomatic immature teeth.

  7. The presence of non-carious lesions in children

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    Demko-Rihter Ivana


    Full Text Available Introduction. A non-carious lesion (NCL is the loss of hard dental tissue on the neck, tuberculum and incisal edges of the teeth. Interest in clinical presence and in unclear etiology of these lesions allows for their future prevention and treatment. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine presence and clinical characteristics of NCLs and dentine hypersensitivity (DH, as well as their possible risk factors in children, in the population of the city of Novi Sad. Methods. A total of 55 subjects were included in the present study, aged between three and 18 years. Each subject completed a structured questionnaire related to the etiological factors, and all teeth of each subject were examined by two independent clinical dentists to determine NCLs and DH. In the case of small children, their parents or guardians filled out the questionnaire. Teeth with NCLs and DH were diagnosed according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE index and by a blast of air according to Schiff and Hypersensitivity Index. The review was carried out by inspection and probing. Results. The data were analyzed by clinical examination and comparison of the answers to the questionnaires. We observed an increased presence of non-caries lesions on primary teeth, compared to permanent teeth, with a statistically significant difference (χ2=3.86, df=1, p=0.04. The changes were observed in 82 teeth, and were most frequent on the canine deciduous teeth (65% and canine permanent teeth (51%. BEWE index was 10-11% to 92-100% in permanent, and 51-57% in deciduous teeth. Majority of patients with primary teeth (89.36% did not respond to air stimulus, while most patients with permanent teeth (74.29% did not react to Schiff Index. In the estimate of sensitivity, the respondents reported hypersensitivity on 6.38% of the deciduous teeth and 22.86% of the permanent teeth. Comparison of etiology factors did not reveal a direct link with the appearance of NCLs. Conclusion. Research

  8. Partial pulpotomy in young permanent teeth with deep carious lesions. (United States)

    Mejàre, I; Cvek, M


    The material comprised 37 young posterior teeth with deep carious lesions and exposed pulps, treated with partial pulpotomy and dressed with calcium hydroxide. The teeth were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 31 teeth with no clinical or radiographic symptoms before treatment, Group 2 of 6 teeth with temporary pain, widened periodontal space periapically and/or productive osteitis, i.e. increased density of the surrounding alveolar bone. After an observation time of 24 to 140 months (mean = 56 months), healing had occurred in 29 of 31 teeth in Group 1 (93.5%) and in 4 of 6 teeth in Group 2. It was concluded that the present, as well as previously reported results indicate that partial pulpotomy may be an adequate treatment for young permanent molars with a carious exposure, although more studies are needed before the treatment can be recommended for routine clinical use.

  9. Early detection of the carious conditions by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Gisbreht, Alexander I.; Avramov, Lachezar A.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the natural intrinsic fluorescence in sound and diseased human teeth and the correspondence of such autofluorescence to the stages of the dental lesions. Direct visual examination was used for comparison. Different stages of caries lesions are detected, by using a nitrogen laser (337 nm), light-emitting diode (LED) (440 nm) and argon laser (488 nm). Besides caries, there were investigated samples of the fluorosa dentis and odontolithiasis, for better determination of the influence of other teeth pathologies over the teeth autofluorescence spectra. There was observed a significant decrease in the intensity of the autofluorescence signal in the case of caries. The carious lesions revealed characteristic emission of endogenous fluorophores with fluorescence band in the red spectral region. Healthy hard dental tissue exhibited no emission bands in the red. An algorithm for early diagnosis is created on the basis of collected significant statistical material.

  10. Carious growth monitoring with optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Freitas, A. Z.; Zezell, D. M.; Mayer, M. P. A.; Ribeiro, A. C.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Vieira, N. D., Jr.


    Optical Coherence Tomography was used to monitor subsurface caries evolution process in vitro. Human tooth was used and bacteria were employed to induce caries lesions. Twenty-five human third molars, were used in this study. The teeth were cut longitudinally at mesio-distal direction; the surfaces were coated with nail varnish except for two squared windows (2x4 mm); at the cement-enamel junction. Artificial lesions were induced by a S. Mutans microbiological culture. The samples (N = 50) were divided into groups according to the demineralization time: 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days. The culture medium, was changed each 48 hours. After the demineralization process the samples were rinsed with double-deionized water and stored in a humid environment. The OCT system was implemented with average power of 96 μW in the sample arm, providing a 23 μm of axial resolution. The images were produced with lateral scans step of 10 μm. The detection system was composed by a detector, a demodulator and a computer. With the images generated by OCT it was possible to determine the lesion depth as function of sample exposition time to microbiological culture. We observed that the depth of the lesion in the root dentine increased from 70 μm to 230 μm, depending of exposure time, and follows the bacterial population growth law. This OCT system accurately depicts hard dental tissue and it was able to detect early caries in its structure, providing a powerful contactless high resolution image of lesions.

  11. An X-ray microtomography study on the mineral concentration of carious dentine removed during cavity preparation in deciduous molars. (United States)

    Willmott, N S; Wong, F S L; Davis, G R


    Dentists use a number of criteria in order to assess when a cavity is caries free, amongst which hardness is probably the most widely used. However, the judgement is subjective. X-ray microtomography (XMT) is a non-destructive microscopic technique that allows in vitro specimens to be scanned, manipulated and then rescanned. In this study, a high-definition XMT scanner was used to determine the mineral distribution of carious dentine in 10 deciduous molars, and the extent of dentine removed by an experienced clinician was investigated. For each tooth, after an initial XMT scan, caries was removed using a steel bur in a slow hand-piece. The tooth was then repositioned and rescanned. Mineral concentrations were calculated from the linear attenuation coefficients assuming the mineral phase to be hydroxyapatite and the organic phase to be collagen. The volume of dentine tissues removed was calculated by subtracting data of the second scan from the first. The results showed that the mean modal mineral concentration for the 10 teeth was 1.42 g x cm(-3) for sound dentine. Because of uncertainty about collagen concentration in carious dentine, the mean modal mineral concentration for the carious dentine had a range of 0.37-0.5 g x cm(-3). It was found that the subjective criteria used by the operator could lead to inconsistency of cavity preparation. The cavities could be overprepared by 8.5-44.3% in volume. However, the overpreparation was not uniform throughout the cavity: residual demineralised dentine could still be detected in the postoperative scan in isolated regions.

  12. Discrimination of healthy and carious teeth using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and partial least square discriminant analysis. (United States)

    Gazmeh, Meisam; Bahreini, Maryam; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan


    In the laser drilling of teeth, a microplasma is generated which may be utilized for elemental analysis of ablated tissue via a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. In this study, LIBS is used to investigate the possibility of discrimination of healthy and carious tooth tissues. This possibility is examined using multivariate statistical analysis called partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on atomic and ionic emission lines of teeth LIBS spectra belonging to P, Ca, Mg, Zn, K, Sr, C, Na, H, and O elements. Results show an excellent discrimination and prediction of unknown tooth tissues. It is shown that using the PLS-DA method, the spectroscopic analysis of plasma emission during the laser drilling, would be a promising technique for caries detection.

  13. Comparison of reflectance spectra of sound and carious enamel (United States)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Ando, Masatoshi; Stookey, George K.


    Development of dental caries is associated with the loss of minerals and change in the enamel structure. In this study, we have measured and compared reflectance spectra of sound and carious enamel, to investigate its utility in detection and analysis of dental caries. One hundred twenty, 3-mm diameter human enamel cores, with no sign of fluorosis, tetracycline stain, hypoplasia, fracture and restorations, were prepared. The enamel surfaces then were ground and polished. Specimens were placed on a fitted holder with either black or white color for background, with no fluorescence. The baseline spectra were measured using a spectrophotometer with enclosed diffused illumination. Spectra measured from 380 to 780 nm at 5 nm intervals. All measurements were corrected to compensate for the spectrum of illumination. The specimens were divided into two groups and exposed to a demineralizing solution, for 48 and 96 hours, respectively. Reflectance spectra of specimens were measured following lesion induction. All specimens were sectioned and analyzed by transverse microradiography (TMR), where lesion depth and mineral loss ((Delta) Z) were measured. Dimensionality of multi-spectral data was reduced through its conversion to L*a*b* color coordinates and principal component analysis (PCA). Multiple linear regression analysis showed low correlation between L*a*b* and lesion depth and mineral loss. PCA analysis showed higher correlation coefficient, compared to L*a*b*. Preliminary results of this study suggest that multi-spectral measurement and analysis of the tooth surface could be useful in predicting the depth and severity of an early carious lesion.

  14. Raman imaging of carious lesions using a hollow optical fiber probe. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji


    Raman spectroscopy using a hollow optical fiber probe with a glass ball lens at the distal end is proposed for detection of early caries lesions. Raman spectroscopy on carious lesions of extracted teeth showed that the probe enables measurement with a high signal-to-noise ratio when combined with a ball lens with a high refractive index. The proposed probe and lens combination detects changes in Raman spectra caused by morphological differences between sound and carious enamel. We also obtained a high-contrast image of an early carious lesion by scanning the tooth surface with the probe.

  15. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em tecido osseo bovino por espectroscoia ATR-FTIR e analise dinamica-mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha


    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/{sub v1,v3}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  16. Carious Exposure versus Mechanical Exposure for MTA Pulpotomy in Primary Teeth (United States)


    Introduction. The etiology of exposure determines pulpal response, making it crucial to distinguish between mechanical and carious exposure. This study clinically and radiographically evaluated the success of MTA pulpotomies conducted to treat carious and mechanical pulp exposure. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted with 50 mandibular primary molar teeth. Teeth were divided into 2 groups according to status of the exposure site, with teeth surrounded by carious dentin placed in a carious exposure group and those surrounded by sound dentin in a mechanical exposure group. MTA pulpotomies were performed for both groups. Treatment was followed up clinically and radiographically for 18 months. Results. Clinical and radiographic success rates at 18 months were 100% for both groups. Success rates did not vary significantly between the groups (p = 1.000). Pulp canal obliteration was only seen in the carious exposure group, observed in 2 teeth (8.3%). Conclusion. The long term success rates achieved in this study indicate that MTA can be used as a vital pulpotomy material for the long term success in primary teeth with either mechanical or carious exposure. The findings of the present study highlight the fact that treatment prognosis is dependent upon diagnosis and selection of the appropriate materials for treatment. PMID:27995139

  17. Carious Exposure versus Mechanical Exposure for MTA Pulpotomy in Primary Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Nihan Çelik


    Full Text Available Introduction. The etiology of exposure determines pulpal response, making it crucial to distinguish between mechanical and carious exposure. This study clinically and radiographically evaluated the success of MTA pulpotomies conducted to treat carious and mechanical pulp exposure. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted with 50 mandibular primary molar teeth. Teeth were divided into 2 groups according to status of the exposure site, with teeth surrounded by carious dentin placed in a carious exposure group and those surrounded by sound dentin in a mechanical exposure group. MTA pulpotomies were performed for both groups. Treatment was followed up clinically and radiographically for 18 months. Results. Clinical and radiographic success rates at 18 months were 100% for both groups. Success rates did not vary significantly between the groups (p=1.000. Pulp canal obliteration was only seen in the carious exposure group, observed in 2 teeth (8.3%. Conclusion. The long term success rates achieved in this study indicate that MTA can be used as a vital pulpotomy material for the long term success in primary teeth with either mechanical or carious exposure. The findings of the present study highlight the fact that treatment prognosis is dependent upon diagnosis and selection of the appropriate materials for treatment.

  18. Clinical effect of photodynamic therapy on primary carious dentin after partial caries removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Adriano Moreno NEVES


    Full Text Available Abstract This study was conducted to assess the clinical effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT in the decontamination of the deep dentin of deciduous molars submitted to partial removal of carious tissue. After cavity preparation, dentin samples were taken from the pulp wall of nineteen deciduous molars before and after PDT application. Remaining dentin was treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye followed by irradiation with an InGaAlP diode laser (λ – 660 nm; 40 mW; 120 J/cm2; 120 s. Dentin samples were microbiologically assessed for the enumeration of total microorganisms, Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci. There was no significant difference in the number of colony-forming units (CFU for any of the microorganisms assessed (p > 0.05. Photodynamic therapy, using 0.01% methylene blue dye at a dosimetry of 120 J/cm2 would not be a viable clinical alternative to reduce bacterial contamination in deep dentin.

  19. Metateks ('n Vakfilosofiese vergelyking van twee analises van ‘Droogte’ van Leon Strydom

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    J. Swanepoel


    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel sal twee analises van Leon Strydom se gedig “Droogte” uit ’n vakfilosofiese hoek met mekaar vergelyk word. Die analises is uitgevoer deur dr. G.F.T. Kuschke en prof. Ina Grähe, albei opgeleide literatore, maar wetenskaplikes wal die literatuur uit verskillende denkraamwerke benader.

  20. Glass ionomer cements and their role in the restoration of non-carious cervical lesions

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    Luciana Fávaro Francisconi


    Full Text Available Glass ionomer based materials are clinically popular in several areas of restorative dentistry, but restoration of cervical lesions has proven particularly successful. Various etiologies, conformations, locations and structural characteristics make non-carious cervical lesions more challenging to adhesive restorative procedures and marginal seal in the long run. Due to their characteristics, glass ionomer cements (GICs have precise indication for these cases. Moreover, the use of a GIC base underneath composite resin, the so-called "sandwich" or mixed technique, allows associating the good characteristics of composite resins and GICs, and has been considered quite useful in the restoration of non-carious cervical defects. The aim of this paper is to critically review the literature and discuss peculiar features of GICs regarding their role in the restoration of non-carious cervical lesions.

  1. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi


    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  2. The effect of fluoride gel on incipient carious lesions in a low-caries child population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, G.J.; Hof, M.A. van 't


    OBJECTIVES: Secondary analyses were performed to study the cariostatic efficacy of semi-annual professional fluoride gel application on incipient carious lesions in low-caries children initially aged 9.5-11.5 years. METHODS: Double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. RESULTS: The mean treatm

  3. Comparing different enamel pretreatment options for resin-infiltration of natural non-cavitated carious lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdelaziz, M.; Rizzini, A.L.; Bortolotto, T.; Rocca, G.T.; Feilzer, A.J.; Garcia-Godoy, F.; Krejci, I.


    Purpose: To compare two different enamel pretreatments and their effect on the efficiency of penetration of a one-component adhesive into natural carious lesions. Methods: Eight extracted human molars and premolars with non-cavitated interproximal lesions were selected. ICDAS code 1-2 was assessed b

  4. The dilemma of selecting suitable proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using ART technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemoli, A.M.; van Amerongen, W.E.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the examiner's accuracy in selecting proximal carious lesions in primary molars for restoration using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Intervention study. CLINICAL SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 804 six to eight year-olds from

  5. Comparison of visual, impedance spectroscopy and laser fluorescence methods in detecting early carious lesions on occlusal surfaces

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    Chalas Renata


    Full Text Available The diagnostic management is a very important and integral part of the entire treatment process and has a direct influence on the decision-taking on the choice of the most appropriate form of therapy consistent with current knowledge. Knowledge of the morphology of hard dental tissues lesions has led to the development of quantitative methods for diagnosis and monitoring of dental caries, which enabled the implementation of appropriate treatments aimed at repairing than replacing damaged tissue. The aim of the study was to compare selected diagnostic methods: visual (ICDAS, impedance spectroscopy (CarieScan PRO and laser fluorescence (Diagnodent Pen in detecting caries in grooves on the chewing surfaces of molars and premolars. The obtained results indicated a high concordance of measurements performed with the Diagnodent Pen with the results of visual examination and a lower compliance of visual examination with the results obtained using the CarieScan PRO. A combination of visual and tactile method with tests using advanced technology provides greater opportunity to confirm the diagnosis of carious lesions requiring medical intervention.

  6. Stress Analysis of Occlusal Forces in Canine Teeth and Their Role in the Development of Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

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    Shihab A. Romeed


    Full Text Available Non-carious cervical tooth lesions for many decades were attributed to the effects of abrasion and erosion mainly through toothbrush trauma, abrasive toothpaste, and erosive acids. However, though the above may be involved, more recently a biomechanical theory for the formation of these lesions has arisen, and the term abfraction was coined. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of abfraction lesions in upper canine teeth under axial and lateral loading conditions using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. An extracted human upper canine tooth was scanned by μCT machine (Skyscan, Belgium. These μCT scans were segmented, reconstructed, and meshed using ScanIP (Simpleware, Exeter, UK to create a three-dimensional finite element model. A 100 N load was applied axially at the incisal edge and laterally at 45° midpalatally to the long axis of the canine tooth. Separately, 200 N axial and non-axial loads were applied simultaneously to the tooth. It was found that stresses were concentrated at the CEJ in all scenarios. Lateral loading produced maximum stresses greater than axial loading, and pulp tissues, however, experienced minimum levels of stresses. This study has contributed towards the understanding of the aetiology of non-carious cervical lesions which is a key in their clinical management.

  7. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

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    Kenneth Gilbert


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and

  8. Effect of fluoride in phosphate buffer solution on bonding to artificially carious enamel. (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on resin bonding to artificially carious enamel. Specimens from demineralized human enamel sections were prepared using two commercially available adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Single Bond, 3M) and a composite resin (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray) according to manufacturers' instructions. They were then immersed in phosphate buffered saline solution with varied fluoride concentrations at 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 10 ppm. After immersion in each solution for one, three, or seven days, microshear bond strength was measured. The bond strengths of both adhesive systems to artificially carious enamel significantly increased after immersion in fluoride-phosphate buffer solution. Based on the findings obtained, we thus proposed not to remove the white enamel lesions for bonding in the clinic. They might be preserved and treated using fluoride applications.

  9. Comparing different enamel pretreatment options for resin-infiltration of natural non-cavitated carious lesions


    Abdelaziz, M.; Rizzini, A.L.; Bortolotto, T.; Rocca, G.T.; Feilzer, A.J.; Garcia-Godoy, F.; Krejci, I.


    Purpose: To compare two different enamel pretreatments and their effect on the efficiency of penetration of a one-component adhesive into natural carious lesions. Methods: Eight extracted human molars and premolars with non-cavitated interproximal lesions were selected. ICDAS code 1-2 was assessed by visual, microscopic, X-ray and Diagnocam record analysis. Samples were cut vertically across the demineralization to obtain two symmetrical lesions, (n=16). After isolating the cut surfaces with ...

  10. Application of two fluorescence methods for detection and quantification of smooth surface carious lesions


    Aljehani, Abdulaziz Saad


    Early diagnosis of carious lesions is a key factor in prevention and management of dental caries. With non-invasive, quantitative diagnostic methods it should be possible to detect lesions at an initial stage and subsequently monitor lesion changes over time during which preventive measures are introduced. Conventional methods are inadequate for a modern approach to clinical caries management. The need for objective and quantitative methods for detecting and monitoring progr...

  11. One-year clinical evaluation of tooth-coloured materials in non-carious cervical lesions

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    Stojanac Igor


    Full Text Available Introduction. The restoration of non-carious cervical lesions is specific, mostly because of the location of their margins, especially the cervical margin, which is determined in cement and/or dentine. This feature makes the cervical margin more susceptible to micro-leak­age, causing marginal discoloration, postoperative sensitivity, development of the secondary caries and loss of the restoration. Material and methods. One of the criteria for inclusion of a patient in this study was the presence of at least two non-carious cervical lesions to be restored with the minimum depth of 1mm, independently of their location in the dental arch. A total of 60 restorations were placed in 30 patients, and every patient received both tested materials (composite resins and compomer on their non-carious cervical lesions. The clinical evaluation of the therapeutic success was performed six months and then one year after the day of the placement of restorations using the modified-United States Public Health Service criteria. The following was evaluated: retention, marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, wear, postoperative sensitivity and secondary caries. Results. A statistically significant high percent of restorations/teeth with postoperative sensitivity was found in the group of resin composite restorations after six months. At the end of the evaluation period, that is after one year, there were no statistically significant differences between materials for all evaluated criteria. Conclusion. The results of this study show the identical quality of both examined materials one year after the readjustment of non-carious cervical lesions.

  12. Carious Dentine Provides a Habitat for a Complex Array of Novel Prevotella-Like Bacteria


    Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Caldon, C. Elizabeth; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Fisher, Ilana P.; Martin, F. Elizabeth; Jacques, Nicholas A.; Hunter, Neil


    Previous analysis of the microbiology of advanced caries by culture and real-time PCR emphasized the high incidence and abundance of gram-negative anaerobic species, particularly Prevotella-like bacteria. The diversity of Prevotella-like bacteria was further explored by analyzing pooled bacterial DNA from lesions of carious dentine. This was achieved by amplification of a region of the 16S ribosomal DNA with a Prevotella genus-specific forward primer and a universal bacterial reverse primer, ...

  13. Effect of gallic acid on the wear behavior of early carious enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, S S; Huang, S B; Yu, H Y [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Qian, L M, E-mail: [Tribology Research Institute, National Traction Power Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the wear behavior of early carious enamel remineralized with gallic acid. Forty natural human premolar specimens with early caries lesions were prepared. A remineralization pH-cycling treatment agent of 4000 ppm gallic acid was used for 12 days to treat the early lesions. The changes in microhardness were monitored. Nanoscratch tests were used to evaluate wear resistance. The experimental data were analyzed by using a t-test. The widths of traces were measured by an AMBIOS XP-2 stylus profilometer. After remineralization, all samples re-hardened significantly. The coefficients of friction became higher, and the widths of scratches were larger than they were before remineralization. Gallic acid significantly improved the early carious enamel's hardness. The wear damage of the samples treated with gallic acid was more severe than that of the control group. There were more obvious cracks and delaminations on the traces of the treated group. Compared with the control group, the enamel remineralized with gallic acid had inferior wear resistance. After remineralization, the dominant damage mechanisms of early carious enamel had changed from plastic deformation and adhesive wear to a combination of brittle cracks and delamination of enamel.

  14. Non-carious cervical lesions associated with multiple gingival recessions in the maxillary arch. A restorative-periodontal effort for esthetic success. A 12-month case report. (United States)

    Allegri, Mario Alessio; Landi, Luca; Zucchelli, Giovanni


    Restoration of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) represents a major challenge for resin materials due to the different adhesive properties of the tooth structure, the biomechanical aspects of the cervical area, and the difficulties in the access and isolation of the operative field. Furthermore, NCCLs should be approached with a complete understanding of the role played by the marginal periodontal tissue. Whenever a cervical lesion is associated with a gingival recession, the interplay between restorative dentistry and periodontology is decisive for full esthetic and long-term success. A case report is presented dealing with the treatment of NCCLs associated with multiple gingival recessions using a combined restorative and periodontal treatment with a 12-month follow-up.

  15. Effects of occlusal adjustment on clinical success of non carious cervical restoration’s

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    Ghavam Nasiri M.


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Parafunctional habits are the most important factor in the creation of non-carious cervical lesions and correcting of these habits may affect cervical lesions. Purpose: The goal of this study was to survey the effects of one-year occlusal adjustment on clinical success of non- carious cervical restorations. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, sixty tooth-colored cervical restorations on canines and premolars in patients with parafunctional habits (bruxism and clenching were studied. The teeth, according to the type of restorative material, were randomly divided into two groups: One group with a composite resin (Tetric Flow; Group A: n=30 and the other group with a compomer (Compoglass Flow; Group B: n=30. After restoration, each group was divided into two subgroups: (A1, B1 with occlusal adjustment (case group, (A2, B2 without occlusal adjustment (control group. The evaluation was perfumed single blind at 6 and 12 months after restorative operations according to Us Public Health Service (USPHS classification. Assessment criteria included: marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, recurrent caries, postoperative sensitivity and loss of filling. Statistical analysis was completed using Fisher’s exact test. Results: In 12 month period between two groups of compoglass Flow restorations, group B1 showed superior results than group B2, however, no significant difference was found between both groups of tetric flow restorations (A1 and A2. There was also no difference in clinical conditions between A2 and B2 groups. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, it can be concluded that occlusal adjustment puts a considerable effect on clinical success of compoglass non- carious cervical restorations. However, it should be mentioned that such and effect was not found among Tetric flow restoration.

  16. Treatment of cariously involved fused maxillary primary lateral and central incisors. (United States)

    ElBadrawy, H E; Diab, M


    A 3-and-a-half-year-old male child presented with fused cariously involved right maxillary primary central and lateral incisors as well as a previously traumatized non-vital left primary central incisor with a draining fistula. The child also had other restorative needs and the decision taken was to address all needs under a G.A. With respect to the fused incisors, these were split and root canals treatment was performed for all three incisors which were then restored with stainless steel crowns with esthetic facings.

  17. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation upon the microflora of carious cavities and root canal (United States)

    Shumilovitch, Bogdan R.; Nekrylov, Valery; Mazo, Leonid


    Laser stomatology- a relatively young branch of stomatology -has been developing actively lately. Bactericidal action of laser radiation enables to use it widely for processing carious cavities and root canals in the treatment of caries and its complications. 113 patients were studied by us. The 40 patients had antiseptic procedure of the caries cavity and then the procedure of laser therapy, so micro-organisms were found out in 26% cases. The 63 patients had antiseptic procedure only, so micro-organisms were found out in 70% cases. Control group were consisted of patients, where laser therapy was carried out without antiseptic remedies.

  18. Guided fluorescence diagnosis of childhood caries: preliminary measures correlate with depth of carious decay (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina; Zhang, Liang; Dickinson, Brian A.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Kim, Amy S.; Baltuck, Camille T.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.


    The current rise in childhood caries worldwide has increased the demand for portable technologies that can quickly and accurately detect and diagnose early stage carious lesions. These lesions, if identified at an early stage, can be reversed with remineralization treatments, education, and improvements in home care. A multi-modal optical prototype for detecting and diagnosing occlusal caries demineralization in vivo has been developed and pilot tested. The device uses a 405-nm laser as a scanned illumination source to obtain high resolution and high surface contrast reflectance images, which allows the user to quickly image and screen for any signs of demineralized enamel. When a suspicious region is located, the device can be switched to perform dual laser fluorescence spectroscopy using 405-nm and 532-nm laser excitations. These spectra are used to compute an auto-fluorescence (AF) ratio of the suspicious region and the percent difference of AF ratios from a healthy region of the same tooth. The device was tested on 7 children's teeth in vivo with clinically diagnosed carious lesions. Lesion depth was then visually estimated from the video image using the 405-nm scanned light source, and within a month the maximum drill depth was assessed by a clinician. The researcher and clinicians were masked from previous measurements in a blinded study protocol. Preliminary results show that the ratiometric percent difference measurement of the AF spectrum of the tooth correlates with the severity of the demineralization as assessed by the clinician after drilling.

  19. Detection of questionable occlusal carious lesions using an electrical bioimpedance method with fractional electrical model (United States)

    Morais, A. P.; Pino, A. V.; Souza, M. N.


    This in vitro study evaluated the diagnostic performance of an alternative electric bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS-STEP) detect questionable occlusal carious lesions. Six specialists carried out the visual (V), radiography (R), and combined (VR) exams of 57 sound or non-cavitated occlusal carious lesion teeth classifying the occlusal surfaces in sound surface (H), enamel caries (EC), and dentinal caries (DC). Measurements were based on the current response to a step voltage excitation (BIS-STEP). A fractional electrical model was used to predict the current response in the time domain and to estimate the model parameters: Rs and Rp (resistive parameters), and C and α (fractional parameters). Histological analysis showed caries prevalence of 33.3% being 15.8% hidden caries. Combined examination obtained the best traditional diagnostic results with specificity = 59.0%, sensitivity = 70.9%, and accuracy = 60.8%. There were statistically significant differences in bioimpedance parameters between the H and EC groups (p = 0.016) and between the H and DC groups (Rs, p = 0.006; Rp, p = 0.022, and α, p = 0.041). Using a suitable threshold for the Rs, we obtained specificity = 60.7%, sensitivity = 77.9%, accuracy = 73.2%, and 100% of detection for deep lesions. It can be concluded that BIS-STEP method could be an important tool to improve the detection and management of occlusal non-cavitated primary caries and pigmented sites.

  20. Nd:YAG Lasers Treating of Carious Lesion and Root Canal In Vitro

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    Danqing Xia


    Full Text Available Dental caries is a transmissible bacterial disease process, with cavities at the end, and caused by acids from bacterial metabolism. The essence of dental treatment is to clean and disinfect bacterial contamination from the tooth. In this work, we tried to demonstrate the cleaning and disinfecting effects of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on dental carious lesion and root canal in vitro. Acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG lasers were employed to treat caries lesion and the root canal, respectively. Results showed that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation could rapidly clean decayed material and bacterial contamination from dental carious lesion and the narrow tail end of root canal with minimally invasive in vitro, respectively. It was concluded that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous laser irradiation may be a rapid and effective alternative caries treatment, and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation may be an effective method for canal cleaning and disinfecting during root canal therapy.

  1. Clinical use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for the treatment of deep carious lesions (United States)

    Guglielmi, Camila De Almeida B.; Simionato, Maria Regina L.; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Imparato, José Carlos P.; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Maria A. A. C.


    The purpose of this study was to assess photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) via irradiation, using a low power laser associated with a photosensitization dye, as an alternative to remove cariogenic microorganisms by drilling. Remaining dentinal samples in deep carious lesions on permanent molars (n = 26) were treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye and irradiated with a low power laser (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 320 Jcm-2 90 s; 9J). Samples of dentin from the pulpal wall region were collected with a micropunch before and immediately after PACT and kept in a transport medium for microbiological analysis. Samples were cultured in plates of Brucella blood agar, Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Rogosa SL agar to determine the total viable bacteria, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. counts, respectively. After incubation, colony-forming units were counted and microbial reduction was calculated for each group of bacteria. PACT led to statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci (1.38 log), Lactobacillus spp. (0.93 log), and total viable bacteria (0.91 log). This therapy may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of deep carious lesions using minimally invasive procedures.

  2. Comparative study of substance P and neurokinin A in gingival crevicular fluid of healthy and painful carious permanent teeth (United States)

    Heidari, Alireza; Shahrabi, Mahdi; Rokouei, Mehrak; Amirzargar, Aliakbar; Rahbar, Pegah


    Background: It is shown that neuropeptides can be transported from pulp chamber to periodontal ligament through apical foramen and accessory canals. Therefore, clinical pulpal pain leads to expression of preinflammatory neuropeptides such as substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). This study aimed to evaluate levels of SP and NKA in GCF of carious and healthy permanent teeth, comparatively. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on twenty children referred to Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, who had a painful permanent first molar. Sampling was done by sterile paper cone from GCF of the mentioned teeth and the intact tooth of the other side of the jaw in the same patient. Values of SP and NKA were measured by ELISA test. Results: The mean concentration of SP in GCF of painful carious and healthy teeth was 2.65 ± 0.56 and 1.83 ± 0.65 pcgr/ml, respectively. This value was 2.29 ± 0.29 and 1.61 ± 0.35 pcgr/ml for NKA concentration in carious and healthy teeth as well. Conclusion: Significant higher levels of both SP and NKA in GCF of painful carious teeth were observed, which is in line with previous studies’ findings.

  3. Influence of hydration and mechanical characterization of carious primary dentine using an ultra-micro indentation system (UMIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angker, Linny; Nijhof, Niels; Swain, Michael V.; Kilpatrick, Nicola M.


    The conditions under which mechanical properties of dentine are tested influence the values recorded. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of hydration on the mechanical properties of primary carious dentine and to provide information on changes in hardness and modulus of elasticity cha

  4. Antimicrobial activity of ginger and honey on isolates of extracted carious teeth during orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roopal V Patel; Vidhi T Thaker; VK Patel


    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro effects of ginger and honey on micro-organisms on carious teeth by employing antibiotic sensitivity test. Methods: Two hundred and fifty (250) extracted, carious teeth were aseptically collected into sterile peptone water. Bacterial species were isolated from the peptone water broth, characterized and identified according to standard methods described in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Aqueous ginger extract and honey were employed for sensitivity test. Suspensions of the bacterial isolates were made in sterile normal saline and adjusted to the 0.5 McFarland’s standard. Each Mueller Hinton (MH) agar plate was uniformly seeded by means of sterile swab dipped in the suspension and streaked on the agar plate surface, and the plates left on the bench for excess fluid to be absorbed. Approximately 100μL of the extracts were dropped into each well which filled them respectively to fullness. The setup was allowed to stabilize for 3 h before being incubated at 37 ℃ for 24 h. The mean zones of inhibition were thereafter measured in mm, for all the individual isolates. Results: Streptococcusmutans (88.0%) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) (39.0%) were most prevalent as compared with other isolates. The diameter of the zone of inhibition ranged from (18.0 ± 0.5) mm to (27.0 ± 1.0) mm for ginger and (20.0 ± 0.5) mm to (27.0 ± 0.7) mm for honey, as compared with (18.0 ± 0.7) mm to (23.0 ± 0.5) mm for gentamycin, at the various concentrations used. Results indicate a considerable antibacterial activity of ginger and honey. The combined extracts were most effective against Staphylococcus aureus (30.0.0 ± 1.5) mm but least effective against L. acidophilus (21.0 ± 0.7) mm. Conclusions: For the prevention of the emergence of resistant microorganisms, use of combination of herbal preparations is more useful.Considering in vitro data obtained in this study, there is a significant synergistic effect of antimicrobial

  5. Excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy and time-gated Raman microscopy analysis of dental tissues (United States)

    Mukhin, M.; Sen, S.; Kouklin, Nikolai A.; Skliarov, A.; Dhuru, D. B.; Iacopino, A. M.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.


    We applied two new spectroscopic techniques (time-gated Raman microscopy and excitation-emission fluorescence microspectroscopy) to characterize healthy and carious dental tissues. These methods were used together with visual inspection, DIAGNOdent, optical polarization microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical microanalysis to get a more detailed picture of chemical and structural transformations in dental tissues as a result of caries development.

  6. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as an adjunct for treatment of deep carious lesions-a systematic review. (United States)

    Cieplik, Fabian; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Maisch, Tim; Karygianni, Lamprini


    For deep carious lesions, a more conservative treatment modality ("selective caries removal") has been proposed, where only the heavily contaminated dentine is removed. In this regard, effective adjuncts for cavity disinfection such as the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) can be valuable clinically prior to definitive restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically assess clinical studies on the effectiveness of aPDT as a supplementary tool in the treatment of deep caries lesions. Searches were performed in four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, from 1st January, 2011 until 21st June, 2016 for search terms relevant to the observed parameters, pathological condition, intervention and anatomic entity. The pooled information was evaluated according to PRISMA guidelines. At first, 1,651 articles were recovered, of which 1,249 full-text articles were evaluated, 270 articles thereof were reviewed for eligibility and finally 6 articles met all inclusion criteria. The aPDT protocols involved Methylene Blue, Toluidine Blue and aluminium-chloride-phthalocyanine as photosensitizers and diode lasers, light-emitting diodes and halogen light-sources. The data from five reports, utilizing both culture-dependent and -independent methods, disclosed significant reduction of cariogenic bacterial load after mechanical caries removal with adjunct aPDT. As these studies exhibit some methodological limitations, e.g. lack of positive controls, this systematic review can support the application of aPDT to a limited extent only in terms of reducing the microbial load in deep carious lesions before restorative treatment.

  7. 0 Dizer-Verdadeiro: Analise Narrativa de"Desenredo.:conto de Guimaraes Rosa

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    Diana Luz Pessoa de Barros


    Full Text Available Retoma-se, neste artigo, um exercicio de analise narrative do conto Desenredo l , de Guimaraas Rosa, realizado com a finalidade didatica de ilustrar, em s.ale de aula, passes, possibilidades e interesse do exame da organizacao narrative de textos da "grande literatura". A analise obedece aos principios da teoria semiotics do discurso, tal coma vem sendo desenvolvida pelo Grupo de Investigações Sêmio-Lingüísticas, sob a direç]aoo de A.J. Greimas. Da teoria, serão retomados aqui apenas dois principios gerais: o de percurso gerativo do sentido, necessário para situar o nível de análise da narrativa, e a definçãoo mesma da narratividade.

  8. Ambrosiaster se uitleg van die Filemonbrief en die retoriese analise van hierdie brief

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    D. Francois Tolmie


    Full Text Available Die studie van Paulus se brief aan Filemon het gebaat by die hernude belangstelling in die retoriese analise van Nuwe-Testamentiese geskrifte, in die sin dat ’n groot aantal retoriese analises van die brief gepubliseer is. Hierdie retoriese analises is vanuit ’n verskeidenheid perspektiewe gedoen, maar tot dusver het niemand nog die manier sistematies ondersoek waarop die vierde-eeuse outeur, wat later die naam Ambrosiastergekry het, die brief in sy kommentaar op die Pauliniese briewe geïnterpreteer het nie. Hierdie artikel bied dus ’n oorsig van Ambrosiaster se interpretasie van die brief aan Filemon en dui aan watter bydrae dit tot die retoriese analise van die brief kan maak. Ambrosiaster’s exposition of the Letter to Philemon and the rhetorical analysis of the letter. In recent times, the study of Paul’s letter to Philemon benefitted from the renewed interest in the rhetorical analysis of New Testament writings, in the sense that a large number of rhetorical studies of the letter have been published. These rhetorical analyses of the letter have been done from different perspectives, but thus far, no one has systematically investigated the way in which the fourth-century author, who was later called Ambrosiaster, interpreted the letter in his commentary on the Pauline letters. Accordingly, this article offers an overview of Ambrosiaster’s interpretation of the letter to Philemon, and then outlines the contribution that his reading of the letter can make to the rhetorical interpretation of it.

  9. Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli on healthy and carious teeth in the same mouth of children with and without dental caries


    Toi, C. S.; Mogodiri, R.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.


    Interactions between mutans streptococci and lactobacilli contribute towards the microbial challenge of dental caries. A comparison was made between numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in plaque from primary teeth in healthy children and between caries-free teeth and carious lesions in the same mouth of children with caries. The study group comprised 107 nursery-school children with a clinically healthy dentition and 117 children with caries. After a dental examination with mirror...

  10. Dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein in human sound and carious teeth: an immunohistochemical and colorimetric assay

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    D. Martini


    Full Text Available Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP are extracellular matrix proteins produced by odontoblasts involved in the dentin mineralization. The aim this study was to compare the distribution of DMP1 and DSPP in human sound dentin vs human sclerotic dentin. Sixteen sound and sixteen carious human molars were selected, fixed in paraformaldehyde and processed for immunohistochemical detection of DMP1 and DSPP by means of light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and high-resolution field emission in-lens scanning electron microscopy (FEI-SEM. Specimens were submitted to a pre-embedding or a post-embedding immunolabeling technique using primary antibodies anti DMP1 and anti-DSPP and gold-conjugated secondary antibodies. Other samples were processed for the detection of DMP1 and DSPP levels. Dentin from these samples was mechanically fractured to powder, then a protein extraction and a protein level detection assay were performed. DMP1 and DSPP were more abundant in carious than in sound samples. Immunohistochemical analyses in sclerotic dentin disclosed a high expression of DMP1 and DSPP inside the tubules, suggesting an active biomineralization of dentin by odontoblasts. Furthermore, the detection of small amounts of these proteins inside the tubules far from the carious lesion, as shown in the present study, is consistent with the hypothesis of a preventive defense of all dentin after a noxious stimulus has undermined the tooth.

  11. Dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein in human sound and carious teeth: an immunohistochemical and colorimetric assay. (United States)

    Martini, D; Trirè, A; Breschi, L; Mazzoni, A; Teti, G; Falconi, M; Ruggeri, A


    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) are extracellular matrix proteins produced by odontoblasts involved in the dentin mineralization. The aim this study was to compare the distribution of DMP1 and DSPP in human sound dentin vs human sclerotic dentin. Sixteen sound and sixteen carious human molars were selected, fixed in paraformaldehyde and processed for immunohistochemical detection of DMP1 and DSPP by means of light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution field emission in-lens scanning electron microscopy (FEI-SEM). Specimens were submitted to a pre-embedding or a post-embedding immunolabeling technique using primary antibodies anti DMP1 and anti-DSPP and gold-conjugated secondary antibodies. Other samples were processed for the detection of DMP1 and DSPP levels. Dentin from these samples was mechanically fractured to powder, then a protein extraction and a protein level detection assay were performed. DMP1 and DSPP were more abundant in carious than in sound samples. Immunohistochemical analyses in sclerotic dentin disclosed a high expression of DMP1 and DSPP inside the tubules, suggesting an active biomineralization of dentin by odontoblasts. Furthermore, the detection of small amounts of these proteins inside the tubules far from the carious lesion, as shown in the present study, is consistent with the hypothesis of a preventive defense of all dentin after a noxious stimulus has undermined the tooth.

  12. Assessment of non-carious root surface defects in areas of gingival recession: A descriptive study (United States)

    Jacob, Caroline-Annette; Nainar, Deepavalli-Arumuga


    Background The purpose of this descriptive study was to observe the distribution of four different classes of non-carious cervical root surface discrepancies in teeth with gingival recession. Additionally to explore the different treatment modalities in the literature for each of these defects. Material and Methods A total of 150 subjects with at least one labial gingival recession were included in the study. 1400 teeth were evaluated using 2.5 X magnification loupes and UNC -15 probe for the presence of the cemento-enamel junction and step like defects according to Pini-Prato’s classification: A-, identifiable CEJ without defect; A+, identifiable CEJ with defect; B-, unidentifiable CEJ without defect, B+, unidentifiable CEJ with defect. Further a comprehensive electronic and hand search of pubmed indexed journals was performed to identify appropriate treatment modalities for these defects and their predictability following restorative/surgical or combination of both. Results A total of 1400 teeth with exposed root surfaces were examined (793 Maxillary; 607 mandibular). 499 teeth were A-, 405 were A+, 322 were B+ and 174 were B-. The distribution of these defects in different teeth was: 36% premolars, 32% molars, 21% incisors and 11% canines, collectively 68% in the aesthetic zone. Conclusions Majority of these lesions are in the maxillary aesthetic zone. Hence the presence of the CEJ and the defect must be taken into account while managing these defects surgically. Key words:Cervical abrasion, gingival recession, magnification loupes, root coverage, step defects.

  13. In vitro evaluation of proximal carious lesions using digital radiographic systems. (United States)

    Vieira, Mayana Soares; Nogueira, Caroline Parente Ribeiro; Silva, Marcos André dos Santos; Bauer, José Roberto de Oliveira; Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos


    The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars) were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin). Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick) and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists). The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%), Kodak (63.9%), Sirona (59.0%), specialists (69.4%), students (62.5%), dentists (61.8%), premolars (70.1%), canines (65.3%), and molars (58.3%). No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (P > 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick), 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona), and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak). The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas.

  14. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of carious dentin from transparent zone to normal zone. (United States)

    Liu, Y; Yao, X; Liu, Y W; Wang, Y


    It is well known that caries invasion leads to the differentiation of dentin into zones with altered composition, collagen integrity and mineral identity. However, understanding of these changes from the fundamental perspective of molecular structure has been lacking so far. In light of this, the present work aims to utilize Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to directly extract molecular information regarding collagen's and hydroxyapatite's structural changes as dentin transitions from the transparent zone (TZ) into the normal zone (NZ). Unembedded ultrathin dentin films were sectioned from carious teeth, and an FTIR imaging system was used to obtain spatially resolved FTIR spectra. According to the mineral-to-matrix ratio image generated from large-area low-spectral-resolution scan, the TZ, the NZ and the intermediate subtransparent zone (STZ) were identified. High-spectral-resolution spectra were taken from each zone and subsequently examined with regard to mineral content, carbonate distribution, collagen denaturation and carbonate substitution patterns. The integrity of collagen's triple helical structure was also evaluated based on spectra collected from demineralized dentin films of selected teeth. The results support the argument that STZ is the real sclerotic layer, and they corroborate the established knowledge that collagen in TZ is hardly altered and therefore should be reserved for reparative purposes. Moreover, the close resemblance between the STZ and the NZ in terms of carbonate content, and that between the STZ and the TZ in terms of being A-type carbonate-rich, suggest that the mineral that initially occludes dentin tubules is hydroxyapatite newly generated from odontoblastic activities, which is then transformed into whitlockite in the demineralization/remineralization process as caries progresses.

  15. Two-year clinical evaluation of three adhesive systems in non-carious cervical lesions

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    Evrim Eliguzeloglu Dalkilic


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Adhesive systems are continuously being introduced to Dentistry, unfortunately often without sufficient clinical validation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of cervical restorations done with three different adhesive systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 158 non-carious cervical lesions of 23 patients were restored with a nanofilled composite resin (Filtek Supreme, 3M/ESPE combined with Single Bond (3M/ESPE, group SI, Clearfil SE (Kuraray Medical Inc., group CL and Xeno III (De Trey Dentsply, group XE. In groups SI-B, CL-B and XE-B, the outer surface of the sclerotic dentin was removed by roughening with a diamond bur before application of the respective adhesive systems. In groups CL-BP and XE-BP, after removal of the outer surface of the sclerotic dentin with the bur, the remaining dentin was etched with 37% phosphoric acid and the self-etch adhesive systems Clearfil SE and Xeno III were applied, respectively. Lesions were evaluated at baseline, and restorations after 3 months, 1 year and 2 years using modified USPHS criteria. RESULTS: After 2 years, no significant difference was found between the retention rates of the groups (p >0.05. Although groups CL and SI showed significantly better marginal adaptation than group XE (p0.05. After 2 years no significant difference was observed among the marginal staining results of all groups (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: Although all adhesive systems showed similar retention rates, Clearfil SE and Single Bond showed better marginal adaptation than Xeno III after 2 years of follow-up.

  16. In vitro evaluation of fluoride products in the development of carious lesions in deciduous teeth

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    Lucineide de Melo Santos


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of fluoride products on the development of enamel caries in deciduous teeth. A total of 108 deciduous teeth were chosen for the study. Acid-resistant varnish was applied on the teeth, leaving only one area of 5 mm x 1 mm of dental enamel exposed. The teeth were allocated randomly to one of the following groups: 1 control - toothpaste without fluoride; 2 1.23% fluoride gel; 3 Duraflur fluoride varnish; 4 Duraphat fluoride varnish; 5 Fluorniz fluoride varnish; 6 Fluorphat fluoride varnish; 7 varnish with Duofluorid; 8 12% silver fluoride diamine (Cariestop; 9 children's fluoride toothpaste (500 ppm. The tested products were applied on the teeth according to the manufacturer's recommendations and the teeth were stored in a moist environment for 24 hours. Each group of teeth was then subjected to a pH cycling model for 14 days, after which the teeth were cut through the center for an analysis of the depth of the carious lesion by polarized light microscopy. Comparisons were made between the treatments and the control group. The mean lesion depth values were 318 μm ± 39 (control, 213 μm ± 27 (fluoride gel, 203 μm ± 34 (Duraflur, 133 μm ± 25 (Duraphat, 207 μm ± 27 (Fluor-niz, 212 μm ± 27 (Fluorphat, 210 ± 28 (Duofluorid, 146 ± 31 (Cariestop and 228 ± 24 (fluoride toothpaste. None of the products used here was able to completely prevent the formation of lesions. The highest cariostatic effect was achieved by fluoride varnish Duraphat and the lowest by the fluoride toothpaste.

  17. Effectiveness of fluoride sealant in the prevention of carious lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation

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    Matheus Melo Pithon


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This article aimed to evaluate in vitro the efficiency of Pro Seal fluoride sealant application in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of bovine incisors, and five groups were formed (n = 15 according to the exposure of teeth to oral hygiene substances and the application of enamel sealant: G1 (control, only brushing was performed with 1.450 ppm fluoride; G2 (control brushing associated with the use of mouthwash with 225 ppm fluoride; G3, only Pro Seal sealant application was performed with 1.000 ppm fluoride; G4 Pro Seal associated with brushing; G5 Pro Seal associated with brushing and mouthwash. Experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described. All specimens were kept at a temperature of 37 °C throughout the entire experiment. Both brushing and immersion in solutions were performed within a time interval of one minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days. Afterwards, an evaluation by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT of the spectral type was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the sites where brackets were bonded and depth measurement of carious lesions were performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied to determine whether there were significant differences among groups. For post hoc analysis, Tukey test was used. Results: There was statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.003, 1 and 3 (p = 0.008, 1 and 4 (p = 0.000 and 1 and 5 (p = 0.000. The group in which only brushing was performed (Group 1 showed deeper enamel lesion. Conclusion: Pro Seal sealant alone or combined with brushing and/or brushing and the use of a mouthwash with fluoride was more effective in protecting enamel, in comparison to brushing alone.

  18. Clinical comparative study between the use of lasers and conventional methods of diagnosis and treatment in deciduous teeth with presence of carious lesion; Estudo clinico comparativo entre o uso de lasers e metodos convencionais de diagnostico e tratamento em dentes deciduos da presenca de lesao cariosa

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    Pulga, Fabiane Galvao


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of deciduous tooth cavity preparation by the Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. Besides, we have used the laser fluorescence technique (DIAGNOdent equipment) for diagnosis and compared it to the usual tactile and visual examination as well as X-ray diagnosis. For this purpose, 20 chronic occlusal carious deciduous molar teeth from children with the ages between 5 to 10 years old were selected. Selection was ma de according to visual inspection, X-ray periapical image and measures of the DIAGNOdent. For treatment the teeth were divided in two groups, 10 to be treated by the Er:YAG laser and 10 with conventional burr. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 200 to 300 mJ; for the dentine the range was from 100 mJ to 200 mJ. In both cases, the laser frequency was in the range from 2 to 4 Hz. The results have shown that the laser treatment was more accepted by the children than the conventional burro Clinical evaluation of the cavity preparation indicates that the Er:YAG laser treatment is recommend. The DIAGNOdent evaluation method was very effective for diagnosis of carious tissue for initial detection. After successful removal of the carious tissue, confirmed by visual inspection, the DIAGNOdent evaluation method was only effective for the treatment with conventional burro For evaluation of the tooth after cavity preparation with the Er:YAG laser, the measurements oscillate covering the full range of the equipment. Therefore, the use of the DIAGNOdent equipment is indicated only for initial caries diagnosis. (author)

  19. Analises morfometricas em bacias hidrograficas integradas a um sistema de informações geograficas


    Rafaeli Neto, Silvio Luis; Dalmolin, Quintino; Robbi, Claudia


    Orientador: Quintino Dalmolin Co-orientador: M.Sc.Claudia Robbi Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná Resumo: Bacia hidrográfica e uma unidade topograficamente definida, que apresenta relações sistêmicas entre seus componentes e sobre a qual são realizados estudos de caráter hidrológico, geomorfológico, pedológico, geológico, ambiental, social e de uso, manejo e conservação do solo. Analises nestes campos podem usufruir dos benefícios da quantificação das variáveis ...

  20. Express diagnostics of intact and pathological dental hard tissues by optical PNC method (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.


    The results of hard tooth tissues research by the optical PNC- method in experimental and clinical conditions are presented. In the experiment under 90 test-sample of tooth slices with thickness about 1 mm (enamel, dentine and cement) were researched. The results of the experiment were processed by the method of correlation analyze. Clinical researches were executed on teeth of 210 patients. The regions of tooth tissue diseases with initial, moderate and deep caries were investigated. Spectral characteristics of intact and pathologically changed tooth tissues are presented and their peculiar features are discussed. The results the optical PNC- method application while processing tooth carious cavities are presented in order to estimate efficiency of the mechanical and antiseptic processing of teeth. It is revealed that the PNC-method can be used as for differential diagnostics of a degree dental carious stage, as for estimating of carefulness of tooth cavity processing before filling.

  1. Restoration of non-carious cervical lesions with ceramic inlays: A possible model for clinical testing of adhesive cements

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    Michal Staninec


    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many luting cements coming to market which claim to be adhesive, but there is no clinical protocol currently for testing these claims. There is a standardized protocol for testing direct restorations bonded to dentin and it is used extensively. Case Report: We describe a clinical procedure for restoring a non-carious cervical lesion (NCCL with a ceramic inlay using Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM technology and an adhesive resin cement.The procedure was straightforward and the result was good at one month. Discussion: NCCL′s can be restored with CAD-CAM technology in one appointment. This technique can be used to clinically test adhesion of luting cements to dentin, similarly to the current standard for direct restorations.

  2. Bacteriology of deep carious lesions underneath amalgam restorations with different pulp-capping materials - an in vivo analysis

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    Prasanna Neelakantan


    Full Text Available Microorganisms remaining in dentin following cavity preparation may induce pulp damage, requiring the use of pulp-capping agents with antimicrobial activity underneath permanent restorations. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the bacteriological status of carious dentin and to assess the efficacy of different base underneath silver amalgam restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 50 patients aged 13 to 30 years. Sterile swabs were used to take samples after cavity preparation, which was assessed by microbiological culture to identify the microorganisms present. Following this, cavities were restored with silver amalgam, using one of the materials being investigated, as the base: calcium hydroxide (Group II, polyantibiotic paste (Group III, a novel light-cured fluoride-releasing hydroxyapatite-based liner (Group IV and mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (Group V. In Group I, the cavities were restored with silver amalgam, without any base. After 3 months, the amalgam was removed and samples taken again and analyzed for the microbial flora. RESULTS: Lactobacilli were the most commonly isolated microorganisms in the samples of carious dentin. Groups IV and V showed negative culture in the 3-month samples. There was no statistically significant difference between Groups I, II and III. There was no significant difference between Groups IV and V (p>0.05. Both Groups IV and V showed significantly better results when compared to Groups I, II and III (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroxyapatite-based liner and MTA performed significantly better in terms of antibacterial activity than the other materials.

  3. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

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    Schulze, Ralf K.W., E-mail: [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grimm, Stefanie, E-mail: [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schulze, Dirk, E-mail: [Klinik fuer Mund,- Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Sektion Roentgen, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Hugstetterstr. 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Voss, Kai, E-mail: [Zahnaerztekammer Schleswig-Holstein, Vorstand fuer Praxisfuehrung, Westring 496, D- 24106 Kiel (Germany); Keller, Hans-Peter, E-mail: [NA Dental (NADENT) im DIN, Alexander-Wellendorff-Str. 2, D-75172 Pforzheim (Germany); Wedel, Matthias, E-mail: [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Postfach 32 60, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)


    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding {+-}2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  4. Carious lesions and maize consumption among the Prehispanic Maya: an analysis of a coastal community in northern Yucatan. (United States)

    Cucina, Andrea; Cantillo, Cristina Perera; Sosa, Thelma Sierra; Tiesler, Vera


    Patterns of carious lesions were analyzed in the Classic period coastal Maya population of Xcambó, a salt production and administration center in northern Yucatan. To this end, the study investigated caries in the permanent dentitions of 163 adult skeletons, 23 from the Early Classic (AD 250-550) and 140 from the Late Classic period (AD 550-750), equally distributed between sexes. The archaeological and bioarchaeological evidence indicates a wealthy and socially homogeneous population dedicated to salt production and administration in the Early Classic that switched to pure administrative functions in the Late Classic. The results indicate an increase in caries from 7.4% and 21.2% (males and females respectively) from the Early Classic to 14.0% in males and 27.4% in females from the Late Classic period. The rate of caries in the Early and in the Late Classic phases of continuous occupation is not consistent with a simple interpretation of a heavier reliance on maize during the latter phase, characterized by a sedentary lifestyle, particularly for the male segment of the society now dedicated completely to the administration of the salt mines. Rather, the increase in caries rates in both sexes is best explained within a broader context of overall food habits, new cariogenic foods for both sexes, and the changes in lifestyle imposed by the increased socioeconomic role of the site. Our conclusions stress the limitations imposed by interpreting carious lesions solely in terms of single dietary components, such as maize consumption, without taking into account broader aspects of cultural and socioeconomic relevance.

  5. Um Estudo Empirico Sobre o Fim da CorregAo Monetaria Integral e sea Impacto na Analise das Demonstrag6es Contabeis: Uma Analise Setorial"

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    Bruno Meirelles Salotti


    Full Text Available Esse estudo avalia as consequencias de não se considerarem os efeitos da inflação nas analises das demonstrações contábeis e, além disso, se esses impactos são diferentes em cada setor da economia. A pesquisa considera apenas as empresas que divulgaram as suas demonstrações contábeis corrigidas no periodo de 1996 a 2002. Verificou-se a existência de diferença significativa entre indices calculados pela Lei Societária (sem corregAo e pela Correção Monetária Integral, tendo sido utilizado o teste de médias emparelhadas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que a falta de correção monetária nas demonstrações contábeis apresentadas de 1996 a 2002 pode causar distorções na análise da real condição patrimonial e financeira das empresas. Embora essas distorções não sejam igualmente percebidas em todos os setores e em todos os indices, elas podem resultar em conclusões equivocadas por parte dos usuários dessas informações.

  6. Environmental lead pollution and its possible influence on tooth loss and hard dental tissue lesions

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    Cenić-Milošević Desanka


    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Environmental lead (Pb pollution is a global problem. Hard dental tissue is capable of accumulating lead and other hard metals from the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate any correlation between the concentration of lead in teeth extracted from inhabitants of Pančevo and Belgrade, Serbia, belonging to different age groups and occurrence of tooth loss, caries and non-carious lesions. Methods. A total of 160 volunteers were chosen consecutively from Pančevo (the experimental group and Belgrade (the control group and divided into 5 age subgroups of 32 subjects each. Clinical examination consisted of caries and hard dental tissue diagnostics. The Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Significant Caries Index were calculated. Extracted teeth were freed of any organic residue by UV digestion and subjected to voltammetric analysis for the content of lead. Results. The average DMFT scores in Pančevo (20.41 were higher than in Belgrade (16.52; in the patients aged 31-40 and 41-50 years the difference was significant (p < 0.05 and highly significant in the patients aged 51-60 (23.69 vs 18.5, p < 0.01. Non-carious lesions were diagnosed in 71 (44% patients from Pančevo and 39 (24% patients from Belgrade. The concentrations of Pb in extracted teeth in all the groups from Pančevo were statistically significantly (p < 0.05 higher than in all the groups from Belgrade. In the patients from Pančevo correlations between Pb concentration in extracted teeth and the number of extracted teeth, the number of carious lesions and the number of non-carious lesions showed a statistical significance (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion. According to correlations between lead concentration and the number of extracted teeth, number of carious lesions and non-carious lesions found in the patients living in Pančevo, one possible cause of tooth loss and hard dental tissue damage could be a long

  7. The sound of dental tissue ablation as a possible parameter for conservative dentistry (United States)

    Robles, Fábio Renato P.; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Matos, Adriana Bona


    Studies in cariology have been struggling for the development of caries prevention techniques, precocious diagnoses of lesions, re-mineralization of incipient carious lesions and early restorative intervention with minimally invasive procedures. When removing caries, healthy dental structure is often removed inadvertently during its final phase, for being quite difficult to precise the limits between viable and decayed dental tissues clinically. With laser technologies, a subjective clinical hint, often used to indicate when tissue ablation should be stopped is that different sounds are perceptive whether in carious (bass) or in healthy (treble) dental structure; when sound produced by ablation turned treble it would mean that healthy tissue was reached. This study aims to classify those audio differences and to turn them into objective parameters for a conservative operative dentistry with minimally invasive tissue removal when using erbium lasers. Twenty freshly extracted human teeth were used (10 decayed and 10 sound teeth). Dentine was erbium laser irradiated under same parameters, distance and refrigeration and a mono directional microphone was set 10 cm far from the operative area in order to capture and record the ablation produced sounds when working either on carious or healthy dentine. Ten pulses per file were then analysed in a computer software (200 analyses). It was permitted to draw similarities among the patterns in each group (decayed and healthy teeth) as well as differences between decayed and healthy produced sounds. Audio analysis came out to be a technical reliable objective parameter to determine whether laser ablated dentine substrates are decayed or sound; therefore it can be proposed as a conservative parameter, avoiding unnecessary removal of healthy dentine and restricting it to carious one.

  8. Micro-tensile bond strength of self-etching primer adhesive systems to human coronal carious dentin. (United States)

    Doi, J; Itota, T; Torii, Y; Nakabo, S; Yoshiyama, M


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the micro-tensile bond strengths of three self-etching primer adhesive systems to normal dentin (ND), caries-affected dentin (CAD) and caries-infected dentin (CID). Human extracted molars with caries were used, and flat dentin surfaces ground by 600-grit SiC paper were prepared. The surfaces were dyed using Caries-Detector solution, treated with Clearfil SE Bond, Mac-Bond II and UniFil Bond, and then covered with resin composites according to manufacturer's instructions. After immersion in 37 degrees C water for 24 h, the teeth were serially sectioned into multiple slices. Each slice was distinguished into ND, CAD and CID groups by the degree of staining, and the bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation was also performed. For statistical analysis, anova and Scheffe's test were used (P bond strengths of the three adhesive systems to CAD and CID were significantly lower than those to ND. There was significant difference in the bond strength to ND between Clearfil SE Bond and UniFil Bond, but no significant differences to CAD and CID among the three adhesive systems. On SEM, the hybrid layers in CAD and CID showed more porous structures compared with ND. The results indicated that the bond strengths to CAD and CID were not affected by a variety of self-etching primer adhesive systems because of the porous hybrid layer formation in carious dentin.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions related to occupational exposure to acid mists. (United States)

    Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; Crosato, Edgard; Mazzilli, Luiz Eugênio Nigro; Frias, Antonio Carlos


    This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in a Brazilian population of workers exposed and non-exposed to acid mists and chemical products. One hundred workers (46 exposed and 54 non-exposed) were evaluated in a Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador - CEREST (Worker's Health Reference Center). The workers responded to questionnaires regarding their personal information and about alcohol consumption and tobacco use. A clinical examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of NCCLs, according to WHO parameters. Statistical analyses were performed by unconditional logistic regression and multiple linear regression, with the critical level of p smoking (p = 0.01) and age group (p = 0.04). The prevalence of NCCLs in the study population was particularly high (76.84%), and the risk factors for NCCLs were age, exposure to acid mists and smoking habit. Controlling risk factors through preventive and educative measures, allied to the use of personal protective equipment to prevent the occupational exposure to acid mists, may contribute to minimizing the prevalence of NCCLs.

  10. Efficacy of 1.23% APF gel applications on incipient carious lesions: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

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    Maria Laura Menezes Bonow


    Full Text Available The aim of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of 1.23% APF gel application on the arrest of active incipient carious lesions in children. Sixty 7- to 12-year-old children, with active incipient lesions were included in the study. Children were divided randomly into 2 groups: 1.23% APF gel and placebo gel applications. Each group received 8 weekly applications of treatment. The lesions were re-evaluated at the 4th and 8th appointments. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks of the presence of active white spot lesions. Groups showed similar results (PR = 1.67; CI 95% 0.69–3.98. The persistence of at least 1 active lesion was associated with a higher number of lesions in the baseline (PR = 2.67; CI 95% 1.19–6.03, but not with sugar intake (PR = 1.06; CI 95% 0.56–2.86 and previous exposure to fluoride dentifrice (PR = 1.26; CI 95% 0.49–2.29. The trial demonstrates the equivalence of the treatments. The use of the APF gel showed no additional benefits in this sample of children exposed to fluoridated water and dentifrice. The professional dental plaque removal in both groups may also account for the resulting equivalence of the treatments.

  11. The prevalence and morphological types of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL) in a contemporary sample of people. (United States)

    Igarashi, Yuriko; Yoshida, Satoru; Kanazawa, Eisaku


    Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) were examined in 6541 extracted human teeth and classified based on the morphology of the lesions. As a result, NCCLs were found on 38.7% of teeth (41.6% on maxillary teeth and 36.0% on mandibular teeth), and were most frequent on canines and first premolars. According to the new method of classification, the morphology of NCCLs was classified both by the surface contour (SC) and by the cross-sectional contour (CC). Three types of NCCLs appeared to be dominant. The causes of these NCCLs were discussed based on their morphologies, positions where these NCCLs were frequently found, and the results of previous studies. NCCLs with a horizontal oval SC and a round CC (Type I), which were frequent on the labial surfaces of maxillary canines and buccal surfaces of maxillary first premolars, may be associated with wear by friction and chemical degradation. NCCLs with a vertical oval SC and a round CC (Type II), which were frequent on the lingual surfaces of mandibular incisors and canines, might be mainly related to chemical degradation. NCCLs with a horizontal oval SC and a wedge shape CC (Type III), which were extensively found on the buccal surfaces of maxillary premolars, had formed most probably due to wear by friction and microstructural loss by stress. This new method can classify the morphology of NCCLs more precisely and deduce the mechanisms of the formation of NCCLs more clearly than former methods.

  12. Current considerations concerning endodontically treated teeth: alteration of hard dental tissues and biomechanical properties following endodontic therapy. (United States)

    Dimitriu, Bogdan; Vârlan, Constantin; Suciu, Ioana; Vârlan, Virginia; Bodnar, Dana


    The aim of this general article is to present an overview of the current knowledge about composition and structural changes and also about specific biomechanical alterations related to vitality loss or endodontic therapy. For a long time, these issues have been controversially approached from a clinical standpoint and are therefore still confusing for many practitioners. Vitality loss or endodontic procedures seem to induce only negligible changes in hard dental tissue moisture. Physico-chemical properties of dentin can be modified by some of the endodontic chemical products used for chemo-mechanical debridement. On the other hand, tooth biomechanical behavior is affected, since tooth strength is reduced proportionally to coronal tissue loss, due to either pre-existent carious/non-carious lesions or cavity acces preparation, besides restorative procedures. The related literature shows the lack of accepted clinical standards and consensus regarding the optimal way of approaching the specific tooth biomechanics following endodontic therapy.

  13. Phase transformations in a human tooth tissue at the initial stage of caries.

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    Pavel Seredin

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study phase transformations in solid tissues of the human teeth during the development of fissure caries by Raman and fluorescence microspectroscopy. The study of the areas with fissure caries confirmed the assumption of the formation of a weak interaction between phosphate apatite enamel and organic acids (products of microorganisms. The experimental results obtained with by Raman microspectroscopy showed the formation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate - CaHPO4-2H2O in the area of mural demineralization of carious fissure. A comparative analysis of structural and spectroscopic data for the intact and carious enamel shows that emergence of a more soluble phase - carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite - is typical for the initial stage of caries. It is shown that microareas of dental hard tissues in the carious fissure due to an emerging misorientation of apatite crystals have a higher fluorescence yield than the area of the intact enamel. These areas can be easily detected even prior to a deep demineralization (white spot stage for the case of irreversibly changed organomineral complex and intensive removal of the mineral component.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions related to occupational exposure to acid mists

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    Rafael Aiello BOMFIM


    Full Text Available This study evaluates the prevalence and risk factors of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs in a Brazilian population of workers exposed and non-exposed to acid mists and chemical products. One hundred workers (46 exposed and 54 non-exposed were evaluated in a Centro de Referência em Saúde do Trabalhador – CEREST (Worker’s Health Reference Center. The workers responded to questionnaires regarding their personal information and about alcohol consumption and tobacco use. A clinical examination was conducted to evaluate the presence of NCCLs, according to WHO parameters. Statistical analyses were performed by unconditional logistic regression and multiple linear regression, with the critical level of p < 0.05. NCCLs were significantly associated with age groups (18-34, 35-44, 45-68 years. The unconditional logistic regression showed that the presence of NCCLs was better explained by age group (OR = 4.04; CI 95% 1.77-9.22 and occupational exposure to acid mists and chemical products (OR = 3.84; CI 95% 1.10-13.49, whereas the linear multiple regression revealed that NCCLs were better explained by years of smoking (p = 0.01 and age group (p = 0.04. The prevalence of NCCLs in the study population was particularly high (76.84%, and the risk factors for NCCLs were age, exposure to acid mists and smoking habit. Controlling risk factors through preventive and educative measures, allied to the use of personal protective equipment to prevent the occupational exposure to acid mists, may contribute to minimizing the prevalence of NCCLs.

  15. Non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in a random sampling community population and the association of NCCLs with occlusive wear. (United States)

    Yang, J; Cai, D; Wang, F; He, D; Ma, L; Jin, Y; Que, K


    This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and association of occlusive wear with non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in the general Chinese population. A total of 1320 subjects were recruited, and multistage and random sampling methods of survey spots were performed. All age groups comprised similar numbers of participants and equal numbers of males and females. Each subject completed a structured interview, and all teeth of each subject were examined by a practitioner to determine NCCLs and occlusive wear. Binary logistic regression was conducted by analysing the association of risk factors with the occurrence of NCCLs. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed by determining the association of NCCLs dimension or depth with the range of occlusive wear facets. Clinical assessment showed that the overall prevalence of subjects diagnosed with NCCLs was 63%. The proportion of subjects or teeth with NCCLs significantly increased with age. Pre-molars were the most commonly affected teeth. Single variables and interactive effects of variables associated with the occurrence of NCCLs include the following: age group, intensity of toothbrushing, frequency of fresh fruit consumption and interactive effect between intensity of toothbrushing and frequency of fresh fruit consumption. A weak positive correlation of the grading index was found between NCCLs dimension, size or depth and range of occlusive wear facets. This study reported the higher prevalence of NCCLs in the general Chinese population. Implementation of a combined strategy to reduce risk factors of NCCLs could be more effective than individual techniques; meanwhile, the occurrence of NCCL could be related to the wear degree of occlusive defects in the population studied.

  16. Remineralization potential of bioactive glass and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on initial carious lesion: An in-vitro pH-cycling study

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    Adit Bharat Mehta


    Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using ANOVA and multiple comparisons within groups was done using Bonferroni method (post-hoc tests to detect significant differences at P < 0.05 levels. Results: Group A showed significantly higher values (P < 0.05 when compared with the hardness values of Group B. Conclusions: Within the limits; the present study concluded that; both BAG and CPP-ACP are effective in remineralizing early enamel caries. Application of BAG more effectively remineralized the carious lesion when compared with CPP-ACP.

  17. Clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions at 2 years. (United States)

    Ermis, R Banu; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; De Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Peumans, Marleen


    A 2-year randomized, controlled prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive and a "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in non-carious Class-V lesions. The null hypothesis tested was that the one-step self-etch adhesive does perform clinically equally well as the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. A total of 161 lesions in 26 patients were restored with Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray). The restorations were bonded either with the "all-in-one" adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray) or with the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months, 1 and 2 years, regarding their retention, marginal adapation, marginal discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality and post-operative sensivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 2 years was 93.8%. Only one Clearfil S3 Bond restoration was lost at the 2-year recall. All other restorations were clinically acceptable. The number of restorations with defect-free margins decreased severely during the 2-year study period (to 6.7% and 25.3% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively). The Clearfil S3 Bond restorations presented significantly more small marginal defects at the enamel side than the Optibond FL restorations (Clearfil S3 Bond: 93.3%; Optibond FL: 73.3%; p = 0.000). Superficial marginal discoloration increased in both groups (to 53.3% and 36% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively) and was also more pronounced in the Clearfil S3 Bond group (p = 0.007). After 2 years, the simplified one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond and the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL were clinically equally successful, even though both adhesives were characterized by progressive degradation in marginal

  18. Assessing consequences of untreated carious lesions using pufa index among 5-6 years old school children in an urban Indian population

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    Abhishek Mehta


    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a major chronic noncommunicable disease affecting whole of mankind. Nontreatment of caries can have severe consequences such as pain, abscess formation, space infection, etc., which leads to loss of function, working hours or absence from school in children. These consequences are equally important, while planning dental care program for a community. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and severity of consequences of untreated carious lesions using pufa index that is, pulpal involvement, and ulcer due to root fragments, fistula, and abscess index among 5-6 year old school children in an urban Indian population. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 603 school going children of 5-6 year age group in mainly an urban Indian population. Children from 12 randomly selected schools were examined for pufa and decayed extracted filled indices. Results and Conclusions: Overall mean pufa value was 0.9 ± 1.93 and prevalence was 38.6% with major contribution from P component of index. Untreated caries ratio was 35%, suggesting that more than one-third of the developed carious lesions cause adverse events in a population. This study emphasis the need for treating dental caries at its earliest possible stage to avoid severe consequences. The pufa index can be used as tool to highlight these adverse consequences to dental professionals and health authorities.

  19. Surgical lasers and hard dental tissue. (United States)

    Parker, S


    The cutting of dental hard tissue during restorative procedures presents considerable demands on the ability to selectively remove diseased carious tissue, obtain outline and retention form and maintain the integrity of supporting tooth tissue without structural weakening. In addition, the requirement to preserve healthy tissue and prevent further breakdown of the restoration places the choice of instrumentation and clinical technique as prime factors for the dental surgeon. The quest for an alternative treatment modality to the conventional dental turbine has been, essentially, patient-driven and has led to the development of various mechanical and chemical devices. The review of the literature has endorsed the beneficial effects of current laser machines. However utopian, there is additional evidence to support the development of ultra-short (nano- and femto-second) pulsed lasers that are stable in use and commercially viable, to deliver more efficient hard tissue ablation with less risk of collateral thermal damage. This paper explores the interaction of laser energy with dental hard tissues and bone and the integration of current laser wavelengths into restorative and surgical dentistry.

  20. Laser ablation of hard tissue: correlation between the laser beam parameters and the post-ablative tissue characteristics (United States)

    Serafetinides, Alexandros A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan


    Hard dental tissue laser applications, such as preventive treatment, laser diagnosis of caries, laser etching of enamel, laser decay removal and cavity preparation, and more recently use of the laser light to enlarge the root canal during the endodontic therapy, have been investigated for in vitro and in vivo applications. Post-ablative surface characteristics, e.g. degree of charring, cracks and other surface deformation, can be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental data are discussed in relevance with the laser beam characteristics, e.g. pulse duration, beam profile, and the beam delivery systems employed. Techniques based on the laser illumination of the dental tissues and the subsequent evaluation of the scattered fluorescent light will be a valuable tool in early diagnosis of tooth diseases, as carious dentin or enamel. The laser induced autofluorescence signal of healthy dentin is much stronger than that of the carious dentin. However, a better understanding of the transmission patterns of laser light in teeth, for both diagnosis and therapy is needed, before the laser procedures can be used in a clinical environment.

  1. Laser and caries diagnosis: the state of the art and evaluation in vitro of the differences of the fluorescence between sound, carious and demineralized enamel; Laser e diagnostico de caries: estado da arte e avaliacao in vitro das diferencas de fluorescencia entre esmalte sadio, cariado e desmineralizado

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    Mendonca, Maria Angelica Lopes Chaves


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for establishing dental caries diagnosis that make use of Laser light as source of illumination, establishing the 'state of the art'. Experimental observation of the differences among fluorescence of sound, demineralized and carious enamel by visible luminescent spectroscopy was also done. Six human teeth, extracted for clinical reasons were studied, and the results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized ones. The differences are more evident relative to sond enamel and carious enamel, the same occurring between demineralized and carious enamel. The review of the literature aimed to make comparative considerations between QLF, LF and DELF; their effectiveness relative to traditional methods such as visual, visual with probe, radiography. It was verified that DELF was more sensitive, but could not discriminate between different degrees of mineral loss. QLF, compared to DIAGNOdent has the same sensitivity, but it is better for scientific purposes. The experimental part of the present study used on argon ion Laser to illuminated the teeth and signs of emission of fluorescence were captured by a PMT and then analyzed by a computer system with EG and G software. The results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized. The differences are more evident in relation to sound and carious enamel, the same occurs between demineralized and carious enamel. (author)

  2. Effect of enamel organic matrix on the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro

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    Zhang Linglin; Zou Ling; Li Jiyao; Hao Yuqing; Xiao Liying; Zhou Xuedong; Li Wei, E-mail:, E-mail: zhll_sc@yahoo.c [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)


    Galla chinensis, a natural traditional Chinese medicine with main composition of tannic acid and gallic acid, is formed when the Chinese sumac aphid Baker (Melaphis chinensis bell) parasitizes the levels of Rhus chinensis Mill. Galla chinensis has shown the potential to enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, but the mechanism is still unknown. This study was to investigate whether the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries. Bovine sound enamel blocks and non-organic enamel blocks were demineralized and exposed to a 12 day pH cycling. During the pH cycling, 30 specimens with the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into three groups, and treated with 1 g L{sup -1} NaF (group A), 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B1) or double deionized water (group C1). Twenty specimens without the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into two groups, and treated with 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B2) or double deionized water (group C2). The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of all the specimens were analysed by transverse microradiography. The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of group B1 were less than those of groups B2, C1 and C2, and there were no statistical differences among groups B2, C1 and C2. In conclusion, Galla chinensis can enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, and the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in this potential of Galla chinensis.

  3. Partial or total removal of carious tissue: a current approach = Remoção parcial ou total do tecido cariado: uma abordagem atual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Fábio R. L.


    Full Text Available Considerando as lesões extensas de cárie, uma grande variedade de técnicas é utilizada para a remoção do tecido cariado. Entretanto, existem controvérsias na literatura quanto a real necessidade da remoção total desse tecido, tendo em vista que, quando um adequado selamento da cavidade é realizado, a porção mais interna da dentina afetada pela cárie é passível de remineralização. Por isso, muitos estudos preconizam a técnica de remoção parcial por promover a interrupção do circuito metabólico dos micro-organismos remanescentes, impedindo a progressão da lesão de cárie. Assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi apresentar evidências científicas da literatura sobre a aplicabilidade clínica de se remover completa ou parcialmente o tecido cariado e discutir as variantes que influenciam os resultados de cada um desses tratamentos

  4. A 7-year randomized prospective study of a one-step self-etching adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions. The effect of curing modes and restorative material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla


    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical retention of a one-step self-etching adhesive system (Xeno III) in Class V non-carious cervical lesions and the effect of restorative material and curing techniques on longevity of the restorations. Material and methods: A total of 139...... Class V restorations were placed with the self-etching primer Xeno III and a resin composite (Tetric Ceram) or a poly-acid modified resin composite (Dyract AP) in non-carious cervical lesions without intentional enamel involvement. The materials were cured with a conventional continuous light, a soft...... be evaluated. No post-operative sensitivity was reported by the participants. Overall relative cumulative loss rate frequencies for the adhesive system at 6, 18 and 7 years, independent of curing technique and restorative material, were 0.8%, 6.9% and 23.0%, respectively. The self-etching adhesive fulfilled...

  5. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues.

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    Sabra I Djomehri

    Full Text Available Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca to phosphorus (P and Ca to zinc (Zn elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095 mg/cc, bone: 570-1415 mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340 mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590 mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220 mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450 mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740 mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770 mg/cc. A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49, hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46, cementum (1.51, and bone (1.68 were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765 and in cementum (595-990, highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  6. Comparison between laser-induced photoemissions and phototransmission of hard tissues using fibre-coupled Nd:YAG and Er(3+)-doped fibre lasers. (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf Fathy


    During pulsed laser irradiation of dental enamel, laser-induced photoemissions result from the laser-tissue interaction through mechanisms including fluorescence and plasma formation. Fluorescence induced by non-ablative laser light interaction has been used in tissue diagnosis, but the photoemission signal accompanying higher power ablative processes may also be used to provide real-time monitoring of the laser-tissue interaction. The spectral characteristics of the photoemission signals from normal and carious tooth enamel induced by two different pulsed lasers were examined. The radiation sources compared were a high-power extra-long Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 1,066 nm giving pulses (with pulse durations in the range 200-250 μs) in the near infrared and a free-running Er(3+)-doped ZBLAN fibre laser operating at a wavelength near 3 μm with similar pulse durations in the mid-infrared region. The photoemission spectra produced during pulsed laser irradiation of enamel samples were recorded using a high-resolution spectrometer with a CCD array detector that enabled an optical resolution as high as 0.02 nm (FWHM). The spectral and time-dependence of the laser-induced photoemission due to thermal emission and plasma formation were detected during pulsed laser irradiation of hard tissues and were used to distinguish between normal and carious teeth. The use of these effects to distinguish between hard and soft biological tissues during photothermal ablation with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser or an Er fibre laser appears feasible. The real-time spectrally resolved phototransmission spectrum produced during pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation of human tooth enamel samples was recorded, with a (normalized) relative transmission coefficient of 1 (100%) for normal teeth and 0.6 (60%) for the carious teeth. The photoemission signal accompanying ablative events may also be used to provide real-time monitoring of the laser-tissue interaction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Mouette


    Full Text Available

    O estudo de impacto ambiental envolve uma grande quantidade de critérios e parâmetros, sendo necessário o trabalho conjunto de uma equipe multidisciplinar. A complexidade dos impactos decorrentes dos sistemas de transporte urbanos que possuem características e magnitudes muito diferentes, somada a não obrigatoriedade do estudo, fizeram com que poucos estudos fossem efetuados e tornou evidente a necessidade de metodologias de avaliação dos mesmos. Este estudo aborda a utilização do Método de Analise Hierárquica, um procedimento multicriterial na analise e avaliação dos impactos ambientais dos sistemas de transportes urbanos.


    The study of environmental impacts involves a large amount of criteria and parameters being necessary to work with a multisciplinary team. The impacts due to urban transportation are very complex having different characteristics and magnitude, besides that, in Brazil, these studies are not obliged by law. These facts leads to few studies of the environmental impacts and evidences the necessity of developing methodologies which makes possible the impact's evaluation. This study refers to the utilization of the Analytical Hierarchy Process, a multicriteria procedure in the evaluation and analysis of environmental impacts in urban transportation.

  8. Depth and activity of carious lesions as indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp after intervention. (United States)

    Bjørndal, Lars; Demant, Sune; Dabelsteen, Sally


    Studies on dental regeneration involving interventions for pulp therapy such as regeneration and revascularization procedures are promising for the injured tooth; however, a complete replication of the original pulp tissue does not seem to take place. In cases in which we wish to preserve or maintain parts of the pulp during treatment, it is apparent that the effectiveness of healing or biological regeneration is dependent on the degree of inflammation of the pulp tissue. Thus, the control or prevention of a pulp infection is still a major issue for the clinicians. Data indicate that the typical reason for performing endodontic treatment is deep caries. The biological concept of vital pulp therapy associated with deep caries takes the treatment and evaluation of the unexposed as well as the exposed pulp into account. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis is typically the same. Deep caries with reversible pulpitis may receive differing treatments such as excavation procedures aiming to avoid pulp exposure or more pulp invasive treatments such as pulp capping or pulpotomy. This should not be the case. Consequently, huge treatment variation is noted among clinicians based on the same caries diagnosis. Which treatment should be selected? High-quality trials are needed, and it is important to obtain information on the actual lesion depth and an estimate of the lesion activity before treatment. These may be basic indicators for the regenerative potential of dental pulp. Recent clinical trials dealing with the treatment of deep caries lesion are discussed, including pulp invasive and noninvasive concepts, to attempt to solve the task of getting the best clinical outcome for adult patients.

  9. SEM evaluation of the morphological changes in hard dental tissues prepared by Er: YAG laser and rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomov Georgi


    Full Text Available Effective ablation of dental hard tissues by means of the erbium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er: YAG laser has been reported recently, and its application to caries removal and cavity preparation has been expected. However, few studies have investigated the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries treatment. In the present study the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries ablation in vitro was compared with that of conventional mechanical treatment. Thirty extracted human teeth with caries were used. Ten tooth was treated with the Er: YAG laser, and the other was treated with a conventional steel and diamond burs. Laser treatment was performed by means of a non-contact irradiation modes with cooling water spray, with a new Er: YAG laser (LiteTouch. Conventional bur treatment was conducted by means of a low-speed micromotor and air turbine with water cooling. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations were performed for each treatment. The Er: YAG laser ablated carious dentin effectively with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding intact dentin, and removed infected and softened carious dentin to the same degree as the burtreatment. In addition, a lower degree of vibration was noted with the Er: YAG laser treatment. The SEM examination revealed characteristic micro-irregularities of the lased dentin and enamel surfaces with potential benefits for adhesive restorations. Our results show that the Er: YAG laser is promising as a new technical modality for caries treatment

  10. Comparing natural and artificial carious lesions in human crowns by means of conventional hard x-ray micro-tomography and two-dimensional x-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation (United States)

    Botta, Lea Maria; White, Shane N.; Deyhle, Hans; Dziadowiec, Iwona; Schulz, Georg; Thalmann, Peter; Müller, Bert


    Dental caries, one of the most prevalent infectious bacterial diseases in the world, is caused by specific types of acid-producing bacteria. Caries is a disease continuum resulting from the earliest loss of ions from apatite crystals through gross cavitation. Enamel dissolution starts when the pH-value drops below 5.5. Neutralizing the pH-value in the oral cavity opposes the process of demineralization, and so caries lesions occur in a dynamic cyclic de-mineralizing/remineralizing environment. Unfortunately, biomimetic regeneration of cavitated enamel is not yet possible, although remineralization of small carious lesions occurs under optimal conditions. Therefore, the development of methods that can regenerate carious lesions, and subsequently recover and retain teeth, is highly desirable. For the present proceedings we analyzed one naturally occurring sub-surface and one artificially produced lesion. For the characterization of artificial and natural lesions micro computed tomography is the method of choice when looking to determine three-dimensional mineral distribution and to quantify the degree of mineralization. In this pilot study we elucidate that the de-mineralized enamel in natural and artificially induced lesions shows comparable X-ray attenuation behavior, thereby implying that the study protocol employed herein seems to be appropriate. Once we know that the lesions are comparable, a series of well-reproducible in vitro experiments on enamel regeneration could be performed. In order to quantify further lesion morphology, the anisotropy of the enamel's nanostructure can be characterized by using spatially resolved, small-angle X-ray scattering. We wanted to demonstrate that the artificially induced defect fittingly resembles the natural carious lesion.

  11. A 13-year clinical evaluation of two three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in non-carious class-V lesions. (United States)

    Peumans, Marleen; De Munck, Jan; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, Andre; Lambrechts, Paul; Van Meerbeek, Bart


    This 13-year randomized clinical trial compared the clinical effectiveness of two three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in combination with a hybrid, stiffer composite versus a micro-filled, more flexible composite. The influence of composite stiffness on the clinical performance of one of the adhesives was assessed as well. One hundred and forty-two non-carious cervical lesions were restored with composites with contrasting stiffness. Seventy-one patients randomly received two cervical restorations placed following two out of three adhesive procedures: (1) the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Permaquick applied with the stiff micro-hybrid composite Amelogen Hybrid (PMQ-H, Ultradent), (2) Permaquick applied with the more flexible micro-filled Amelogen Microfill (PMQ-M, Ultradent), or (3) the "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL applied with the micro-hybrid composite Prodigy (OFL-P, Kerr). The restorations were evaluated after 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 13 years of clinical service regarding their retention, marginal integrity and discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality, and post-operative sensitivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects, and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 13 years was 77%. Bond degradation after 13 years was mainly characterized by a further increase in the presence of small but clinically acceptable marginal defects and superficial marginal discoloration. Twelve percent of the OFL-P restorations were clinically unacceptable. In the PMQ group, 22% of the PMQ-M restorations and 26% of the PMQ-H restorations needed repair or replacement. Regarding the clinical failure rate, Optibond FL scored significantly better than Permaquick (McNemar; p = 0.015). No statistically significant differences were found between the micro-filled and the hybrid composite for each of the

  12. Tissue tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.


    Tissue tests are widely used in horticulture practice and have in comparison with soil or substrate testing advantages as well disadvantages in comparison with soil testing. One of the main advantages of tissue tests is the certainty that analysed nutrients in plant tissues are really present in the

  13. Analysis of contrast and absorbed doses in mammography; Analise de contraste e doses absorvidas em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, F.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica]. E-mail:; Dias, T.S.K. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ghilardi Netto, T.; Subtil, L.J.; Silva, R. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica


    One of the great causes of mortality between women in the world is the breast cancer. The mammograms are the method most efficient to detect some cases of cancer of breast before this to be clinically concrete. The quality of a picture system must be determined by the ability to detect tissue soft masses, cyst or tumors, but also calcifications. This detection is directly connected with the contrast obtained in these pictures. This work has for objective to develop a method for the analysis of this contrast in mammograms verifying the doses referred to these mammograms and comparing them with national and international levels of reference. (author)

  14. Can Caries-Affected Dentin be Completely Remine-ralized by Guided Tissue Remineralization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Mao


    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, there is no evidence that conventional remineralization techniques us-ing calcium and phosphate ion-containing media will completely remineralize carious lesions in regions where remnant apatite seed crystallites are absent. Conversely, guided tissue remineralization using biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins is successful in remineralizing thin layers of completely demineralized dentin. The hypothesis: Conventional remineralization strategy depends on epitaxial growth over existing apatite crystallites. If there are no or few crystallites, there will be no remineralization. Guided tissue remineralization uses biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins to introduce sequestered amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecur-sors into the internal water compartments of collagen fibrils. Attachment of templating analogs of matrix phosphoproteins to the colla-gen fibrils further guided the nucleation and growth of apatite crystallites within the fibril. Such a strategy is independent of apatite seed crystallites. Our hypothesis is that 250-300 microns thick artificial carious lesions can be completely remineralized in vitro by guide tissue remineralization but not by conventional remineralization techniques.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Validation of the hypothesis will address the critical barrier to progress in remineralization of caries-affected dentin and shift existing paradigms by providing a novel method of remineralization based on a nanotechnology-based bottom-up approach. This will also generate important information to support the translation of the proof-of-concept biomimetic strategy into a clinically-relevant delivery system for remineralizing caries-affected dentin created by micro-organisms in the oral cavity.

  15. Clinical study on partial pulpotomy in cariously exposured pulps of young permanent molars%部分活髓切断术治疗龋源性露髓年轻恒磨牙的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of partial pulpotomy on young permanent molars with cariously exposured pulps. Methods Totally 26 young permanent molars of 22 patients with cariously exposured pulps were treated with a partial pulpotomy technique and assessed clinically by followed up 1 to 3 years. Results Totally 23 of the treated teeth did not show any clinical or radio-graphic signs of failure during the follow - up period. The success rate of this treatment was 88. 46% . Conclusions Partial pulpotomy may be a successful and effective treatment for young permanent molars with cariously exposed pulps and Vitapex may be a suitable method for it.%目的 应用Vitapex糊剂作为活髓保存剂对年轻恒磨牙龋源性露髓进行部分活髓切断术治疗,并对其临床效果进行评价分析.方法 回顾性分析了采用部分活髓切断术治疗的22例患者的临床资料,男l5例,女7例,共26颗龋源性露髓年轻恒磨牙,Vitapex糊剂作为活髓保存剂,随访1~3年,通过临床检查和X线检查评价部分活髓切断术的治疗效果.结果 Vitapex部分活髓切断术治疗龋源性露髓年轻恒磨牙26颗,成功23颗,成功率为88.46%.19颗术后X线片复查中显示牙本质桥形成,占82.61%.无1颗出现根管内钙化及根内、外吸收等并发症.结论 对于龋源性露髓的年轻恒磨牙,Vitapex部分活髓切断术是有效的治疗方法.

  16. The Hall Technique; a randomized controlled clinical trial of a novel method of managing carious primary molars in general dental practice: acceptability of the technique and outcomes at 23 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes Nicola P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scotland has high levels of untreated dental caries in primary teeth. The Hall Technique is a simplified method of managing carious primary molars using preformed metal crowns (PMCs cemented with no local anaesthesia, caries removal or tooth preparation. This study compared the acceptability of the Hall Technique for children, their carers, and dentists, and clinical outcomes for the technique, with conventional restorations. Methods General dental practice based, split mouth, randomized controlled trial (132 children, aged 3–10. General dental practitioners (GDPs, n = 17 in Tayside, Scotland (dmft 2.7 placed conventional (Control restorations in carious primary molars, and Hall Technique PMCs on the contralateral molar (matched clinically and radiographically. Dentists ranked the degree of discomfort they felt the child experienced for each procedure; then children, their carers and dentists stated which technique they preferred. The teeth were followed up clinically and radiographically. Results 128 conventional restorations were placed on 132 control teeth, and 128 PMCs on 132 intervention teeth. Using a 5 point scale, 118 Hall PMCs (89% were rated as no apparent discomfort up to mild, not significant; for Control restorations the figure was 103 (78%. Significant, unacceptable discomfort was recorded for two Hall PMCs (1.5% and six Control restorations (4.5%. 77% of children, 83% of carers and 81% of dentists who expressed a preference, preferred the Hall technique, and this was significant (Chi square, p a 'Major' failures (signs and symptoms of irreversible pulpal disease: 19 Control restorations (15%; three Hall PMCs (2% (P b 'Minor' failures (loss of restoration, caries progression: 57 Control restorations (46%; six Hall PMCs (5% (P c Pain: 13 Control restorations (11%; two Hall PMCs (2% (P = 0.003. Conclusion The Hall Technique was preferred to conventional restorations by the majority of children, carers and GDPs

  17. Tissue types (image) (United States)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue ... and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of ...

  18. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula


    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  19. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel


    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  20. 应用PAR指数评价拔除龋坏第一恒磨牙的矫治效果%Evaluation of orthodontic treatment with carious first molars extraction by PAR index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉楼; 王鑫; 王坤; 刘芳


    目的 应用PAR指数评价拔除龋坏第一恒磨牙正畸治疗的临床效果.方法 对20例拔除1~4颗龋坏第一恒磨牙进行矫治的病例做回顾性分析研究.按照PAR指数的规则对20例患者治疗前后的石膏模型进行测量、评估、分析.结果 20例病例PAR总分值矫治前、后为29.50±7.05、2.00±2.00,减少27.50±6.39,差异有极显著性(P<0.01);加权PAR总分值矫治前、后为24.00±9.25、1.94±2.54,减少22.06±9.75,差异有显著性意义(P<0.01);PAR指数各项指标中包括牙齿排列、颊侧(牙合)关系、覆盖、覆(牙合)等矫治前后分值差异均有极显著性(P<0.01),中线矫治前后分值差异有显著性(P<0.05).PAR总分值减少百分率为(93.63±6.02)%;加权PAR总分值减少百分率为(87.90±24.69)%.结论 应用PAR指数评价认为拔除龋坏第一恒磨牙进行正畸治疗能够取得理想的临床效果.%Objective To assess the clinical effects of orthodontic treatment with carious firat molars extraction by PAR ( Peer Assessment Rating) index. The aim of this research was to provide reference for clinical plan of orthodontic treatment. Methods 20 cases treated with carious first molars extraction were chosen. There were 6 males and 14 females,aged from 12 to 25 years with an average age of 14.5 years. All of them received orthodontic treatment with 1 lo 4 carious first molars extracted. Pretrealment and posttreat-mettf study models of 20 cases were assessed by PAR index. Results The PAR score of 20 cases was 29.50 ±7.05 before treatment, and was 2.00 ± 2.00 after the treatment, which decreased significantly after orthodontic treatment (P < 0. 01). The weighted PAR score of 20 cases was 24.00 ±9.25 before treatment,and was 1.94 ±2.54 after treatment,which decreased significantly (P<0.01). The PAR scores of the teeth alignment,buccal occlusion,overjet.overbite were significantly different after orthodontic treatment (P<0. 01). Centerline

  1. Photochemical tissue bonding (United States)

    Redmond, Robert W.; Kochevar, Irene E.


    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  2. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Vardkar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  3. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bidar


    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  4. Tissue Photolithography (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive


    Tissue lithography will enable physicians and researchers to obtain macromolecules with high purity (greater than 90 percent) from desired cells in conventionally processed, clinical tissues by simply annotating the desired cells on a computer screen. After identifying the desired cells, a suitable lithography mask will be generated to protect the contents of the desired cells while allowing destruction of all undesired cells by irradiation with ultraviolet light. The DNA from the protected cells can be used in a number of downstream applications including DNA sequencing. The purity (i.e., macromolecules isolated form specific cell types) of such specimens will greatly enhance the value and information of downstream applications. In this method, the specific cells are isolated on a microscope slide using photolithography, which will be faster, more specific, and less expensive than current methods. It relies on the fact that many biological molecules such as DNA are photosensitive and can be destroyed by ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to protect the contents of desired cells, yet destroy undesired cells. This approach leverages the technologies of the microelectronics industry, which can make features smaller than 1 micrometer with photolithography. A variety of ways has been created to achieve identification of the desired cell, and also to designate the other cells for destruction. This can be accomplished through chrome masks, direct laser writing, and also active masking using dynamic arrays. Image recognition is envisioned as one method for identifying cell nuclei and cell membranes. The pathologist can identify the cells of interest using a microscopic computerized image of the slide, and appropriate custom software. In one of the approaches described in this work, the software converts the selection into a digital mask that can be fed into a direct laser writer, e.g. the Heidelberg DWL66. Such a machine uses a metalized glass plate (with

  5. Avaliação de métodos de diagnóstico da lesão de cárie Evaluation of methods for diagnosing dental carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Cristina KAIRALLA


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar in vitro a efetividade de três métodos de diagnóstico da lesão de cárie em 26sítios de interesse, dispostos na face palatina de 20 coroas de dentes caninos permanentes de humanos. Quatro examinadores receberam orientação teórico-prática para o diagnóstico, através de três métodos: inspeção visual; táctil (inspeção visual - sonda exploradora com ponta romba; e videoscópico (sistema AcuCam. Para a validação dos dados, os dentes foram seccionados paralelamente ao seu longo eixo por um disco de diamante e analisados histologicamente em um microscópio estereoscópico com aumento de 40X. Diagnósticos compatíveis com o exame histológico apresentaram percentual de acerto no método de inspeção visual de 40,4%, no exame táctil de 38,5% e no videoscópico de 41,3%, resultados que não demonstraram diferença estatisticamente significante. Concluiu-se, pelos resultados obtidos, que os três métodos apresentaram acuidade semelhante no diagnóstico da lesão de cárie; dentre os métodos estudados, o exame ao videoscópio foi o que mais se aproximou do histológico, seguido pelo visual; o mais distante foi o táctil. Constatou-se também uma elevada porcentagem de erro de diagnósticos (59,9%, o que conseqüentemente acarretaria uma conduta terapêutica inadequadaThe objective of this study was to compare in vitro the effectiveness of three methods for diagnosing carious lesions in 26 sites on palatal surfaces of 20 crowns in human permanent cuspids. Four examiners were given theoretical-practical guidance for diagnosis, by means of three methods: visual inspection, tactile (visual inspection - explorer probe with blunt tip; and videoscope (AcuCam System. To validate data, the teeth were sectioned parallel to the long axis with a diamond disk and analyzed histologically in a stereoscopic microscope with X40 magnification. Diagnoses compatible with the histological examination showed a

  6. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of fluoride varnish Duraphat for incipient carious lesions in permanent anterior teeth%氟保护漆Duraphat治疗前牙初期龋损的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛蔚妮; 许青峰


    Objective To assess the therapeutic effect of fluoride varnish Duraphat on the performance of incipient carious lesions white spot lesions (WSL) in anterior teeth in vivo. Methods The sample included 120 children aged 7 to 13 years old , with a total of 146 active WSL in permanent anterior teeth. The children were randomly divided into 3 groups, according to the treatment received:Group A (fluoride varnish Duraphat+oral health instrument, n=52), Group B (oral health instrument, n=47) and Group C (control, n=47). Maximum WSL dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival) were measured in millimeters by a previously calibrated single examiner using a periodontal probe . The oral hygiene was assessed by the plaque index . Results Wilcoxon test revealed a statistically significant difference (χ2=29.1,P<0.001) between the initial size and final size in A group (1.53 vs. 0.88) and B group (1.56 vs. 1.47). Pearson′s chi-square test revealed statistically significant differences (χ2=42.5, P<0.001) in the caries activity of the WSL among three groups. Conclusions The fluoride varnish Duraphat is effective to the incipient carious lesions in permanent anterior teeth .%目的:探讨氟保护漆Duraphat对前牙初期龋损白垩色斑块的治疗效果。方法共纳入并分析120例患者146个前牙唇侧白垩斑病损,分为三组:A组(涂氟保护漆Duraphat+口腔健康教育组,n=52),B组(口腔健康教育组,n=47)和C组(对照组,n=47)。由同一位已经过培训的医生采用牙周探针对白垩斑的直径及龋活动性进行评估,同时对研究对象的口腔卫生采用改良菌斑指数进行评估。结果 A组在接受2年的涂氟治疗后其白垩斑直径明显缩小,与另外两组差异有统计学意义(χ2=29.1,P<0.001),初期龋损白垩色斑块活动性龋的比例明显下降(χ2=42.5,P<0.001)。结论氟保护漆Duraphat能有效治疗光滑面的初期龋损。

  7. [Hard dental tissue minimal-invasive preparation using contemporary polymer rotating instruments and laser]. (United States)

    Beloica, Milos; Vulićević, Zoran R; Mandinić, Zoran; Radović, Ivana; Jovicić, Olivera; Carević, Momir; Tekić, Jasmina


    Goal of contemporary dentistry is to decrease the patient's discomfort during treatment. Dentists aim to achieve maximum with the newly developed dental materials as well as with new cavity preparation techniques in the shortest time span. Since the development of the first constructed borer (drilling machine) for caries removal, the preparation techniques have considerably changed. The progress of dental materials as well as the cavity preparation techniques has led us to contemporary carbide tungsten and diamond borers that are used with obligatory water cooling. The innovation within this field represents newly developed polymer borers that can detect the difference between carious lesions and healthy tooth structure. In this way the cavity preparation may be performed without damaging dental healthy tissue. This is possible owing to their hardness which is lower than the hardness of intact dentin. Polymer borer preparation is painless with less vibration, while the increase in temperature is negligible. Lasers have been used in clinical dentistry since 1980s so it can be said that they represent a new technology. The function of lasers is based on ablation which requires water. Erbium lasers have shown the highest potential with their ability to produce effective ablation of hard dental tissues. Laser application in dentistry requires special training as well as some protective measures. Laser advantages, compared to traditional preparation techniques, involve the absence of vibration, painless preparation, possibility of preparation without anesthetic and easier patient's adjustment to dental intervention which is of importance, especially in pediatric dentistry.

  8. Analysis of dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures for forensic applications: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh Shekhawat


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to observe and record the macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic findings obtained after subjecting the teeth to high temperatures. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to observe macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic changes in dental hard tissues in 60 unrestored non carious extracted human teeth. The teeth were grouped based on age: Below 30 years, 30–40 years, and above 40 years The teeth from each age group were further divided into five subgroups, and each subgroup was subjected to a particular temperature: 200$#176;C, 400$#176;C, 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. [C = Celsius]. Results: Various degrees of changes in relation to temperature were observed macroscopically, radiographically, and microscopically. The histological examination was limited for teeth exposed to 200°C. Conclusion: This investigation was carried out to study the gross changes, radiographic changes and histological changes in dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures, which is an important part of forensic science. The aforementioned alterations caused by heat may provide useful information about temperature ranges and duration of exposure to high temperatures.

  9. Analysis of dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures for forensic applications: An in vitro study (United States)

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima


    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe and record the macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic findings obtained after subjecting the teeth to high temperatures. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to observe macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic changes in dental hard tissues in 60 unrestored non carious extracted human teeth. The teeth were grouped based on age: Below 30 years, 30–40 years, and above 40 years The teeth from each age group were further divided into five subgroups, and each subgroup was subjected to a particular temperature: 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. [C = Celsius]. Results: Various degrees of changes in relation to temperature were observed macroscopically, radiographically, and microscopically. The histological examination was limited for teeth exposed to 200°C. Conclusion: This investigation was carried out to study the gross changes, radiographic changes and histological changes in dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures, which is an important part of forensic science. The aforementioned alterations caused by heat may provide useful information about temperature ranges and duration of exposure to high temperatures. PMID:27555725

  10. Implementation of statistical analysis methods for medical physics data; Implementacao de metodos de analise estatistica para dados de fisica medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Marilia S.; Pinto, Nivia G.P.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica


    The objective of biomedical research with different radiation natures is to contribute for the understanding of the basic physics and biochemistry of the biological systems, the disease diagnostic and the development of the therapeutic techniques. The main benefits are: the cure of tumors through the therapy, the anticipated detection of diseases through the diagnostic, the using as prophylactic mean for blood transfusion, etc. Therefore, for the better understanding of the biological interactions occurring after exposure to radiation, it is necessary for the optimization of therapeutic procedures and strategies for reduction of radioinduced effects. The group pf applied physics of the Physics Institute of UERJ have been working in the characterization of biological samples (human tissues, teeth, saliva, soil, plants, sediments, air, water, organic matrixes, ceramics, fossil material, among others) using X-rays diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The application of these techniques for measurement, analysis and interpretation of the biological tissues characteristics are experimenting considerable interest in the Medical and Environmental Physics. All quantitative data analysis must be initiated with descriptive statistic calculation (means and standard deviations) in order to obtain a previous notion on what the analysis will reveal. It is well known que o high values of standard deviation found in experimental measurements of biologicals samples can be attributed to biological factors, due to the specific characteristics of each individual (age, gender, environment, alimentary habits, etc). This work has the main objective the development of a program for the use of specific statistic methods for the optimization of experimental data an analysis. The specialized programs for this analysis are proprietary, another objective of this work is the implementation of a code which is free and can be shared by the other research groups. As the program developed since the

  11. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... L. Goldstein, MD, MMSc (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  12. Necrotizing soft tissue infection (United States)

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... 2014:chap 137. Pasternack MS, Swartz MN. Cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and subcutaneous tissue infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin ...

  13. Color stability of carious incipient lesions in the enamel treated with resin infiltration%渗透树脂在早期釉质龋修复中的应用:颜色稳定性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李歆; 高平; 代晓华


    背景:采用渗透树脂微创技术治疗釉质脱矿的修复效果优于传统的再矿化治疗,但目前研究渗透树脂修复非实质性缺损龋病后颜色变化的文献很少。  目的:通过体外研究评估渗透树脂修复早期釉质龋的颜色稳定性。  方法:将具有完整釉质面的48颗人离体牙浸泡在脱矿液中4周,制作成人工龋模型,之后进行渗透树脂修复,再随机均分成4组,分别置于红酒、咖啡、茶和人工唾液中浸泡2,4周。采用分光光度仪对病损区的颜色进行检测,以渗透树脂治疗后的检测作为基准色,计算出色差数值。  结果与结论:浸泡后,4组样本都有不同程度的颜色变化。浸泡2周后,颜色变化大小顺序为:红酒>咖啡>茶>人工唾液,4组间比较差异有显著性意义(P茶>人工唾液,红酒组与咖啡组比较差异无显著性意义(P >0.05),其他组间比较差异有显著性意义(P3.7)。说明渗透树脂颜色的稳定性受浸泡时间长短和浸泡溶液种类的影响,其中红酒、咖啡对其颜色稳定性影响较大,在人工唾液中颜色稳定性最好。%BACKGROUND:The resin infiltration technique for masking white spot lesions has obtained a result superior to the conventional remineralization. Up to now, few studies have evaluated the color of carious incipient lesions treated with the resin infiltration. OBJECTIVE:To assess the color change of caries incipient lesions in the enamel treated with resin infiltration. METHODS: Forty-eight extracted teeth were exposed to demineralizing solution for 4 weeks to establish artificial caries models. Then artificial caries models were treated with resin infiltration and randomized into four groups: these specimens were immersed in red wine, coffee, tea and artificial saliva for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The base line color was evaluated by spectrophotometer. The variation in color (ΔE) was analyzed by one

  14. Progress in theoretical, experimental, and computational investigations in turbid tissue phantoms and human teeth using laser infrared photothermal radiometry (United States)

    Mandelis, Andreas


    This paper reviews and describes the state-of-the-art in the development of frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR) for biomedical and dental applications. The emphasis is placed on the measurement of the optical and thermal properties of tissue-like materials using FD-PTR. A rigorous three-dimensional thermal-wave formulation with three-dimensional diffuse and coherent photon-density-wave sources is presented, and is applied to data from model tissue phantoms and dental enamel samples. The combined theoretical, experimental and computational methodology shows good promise with regard to its analytical ability to measure optical properties of turbid media uniquely, as compared to PPTR, which exhibits uniqueness problems. From data sets obtained with calibrated test phantoms, the reduced optical scattering and absorption coefficients were found to be within 20% and 10%, respectively, from the independently derived values using Mie scattering theory and spectrophotometric measurements. Furthermore, the state-of-the-art and recent developments in applications of laser infrared FD-PTR to dental caries research is described, with examples and histological studies from carious dental tissue. The correlation of PTR signals with modulated dental luminescence is discussed as a very promising potential quantitative methodology for the clinical diagnosis of sub-surface incipient dental caries. The application of the turbid-medium thermal-wave model to the measurement of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients of enamel is also presented.

  15. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering. (United States)

    Green, David W


    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic.

  16. Effect of different kinds of lasers on micro-tensile bond strength of non-carious sclerotic dentin%2种激光对硬化牙本质粘接强度影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海燕; 仇丽鸿


    Objective To compare the effect of different kinds of lasers on micro-tensile bond strength of non-carious sclerotic den-tin.Methods Thirty human molars with occlusal wear were randomly divided into group E ,group N and the control group .Group E were treated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser,while group N were treated with Nd:YAG laser.Then all three groups were treated with Adper Prompt L-Pop,filled with Z350 resin,and preserved in normal saline (37 ℃)for 24 h.Then fatigue test pieces were made and the mi-cro-tensile bond strength was evaluated .Results were subject to statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).Re-sults The bonding strength was (24.71 ±3.13)MPa in group E,(21.72 ±2.36)MPa in group N,and (18.61 ±2.01)MPa in the control group.The differences among all groups were statistically significant (P<0.05).The breakage mostly happened in adhesive dentine surface .Conclusions The bonding strength of molars to Z 350 resin can be increased by Er ,Cr:YSGG laser and Nd:YAG la-ser,and the former is more effective .%目的:比较2种不同激光对硬化牙本质与复合树脂粘接强度的影响。方法选择牙本质视觉分级3级以上牙面磨损的后牙30颗,按照随机数字表法随机分为Er,Cr:YSGG激光处理组( E组)、Nd:YAG激光处理组( N组)和对照组,联合Adper Prompt L-Pop处理、Z350复合树脂充填,置于37℃生理盐水中24 h,制作微拉伸试件并进行微拉伸粘接强度测试。采用SPSS13.0软件对微拉伸粘接强度值进行单因素方差分析。结果 E组粘接强度(24.71±3.13)MPa,N组粘接强度(21.72±2.36)MPa,对照组粘接强度(18.61±2.01)MPa。 E组的粘接强度最高,3组之间相比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。体视显微镜观察结果发现断裂多发生于牙本质-树脂粘接界面。结论 Er,Cr:YSGG激光和Nd:YAG激光均能够提高硬化牙本质与复合树脂的粘接强度,且Er

  17. One-year clinical evaluation of tooth-colored materials in non-carious cervical lesions Avaliação clínica de restaurações de lesões cervicais não cariosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Lima Santiago


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical performance of bonded composite (Excite/Tetric Ceram - Vivadent versus a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer - 3M for restoring non-carious cervical lesions. A total of 70 restorations (thirty-five per material were placed in 30 patients, 18-50 aged, by one operator. Rubber dam was employed in all cases, lesions were pumiced, enamel margins were not beveled, and no mechanical retention was placed. The restorations were directly assessed by two independent evaluators using modified-USPHS criteria for six clinical categories. The ratings for clinical acceptability restorations (alfa plus bravo were as follows (Tetric Ceram/Vitremer: retention (86%/100%, marginal integrity (100%/100%, marginal discoloration (100%/100%, wear (97%/100%, postoperative sensitivity (100%/100% and recurrent caries (100%/100%. Statistical analysis was completed with Fisher's exact or Pearson Chi-square tests at a significance level of 5% (PAvaliou-se o desempenho clínico de um sistema restaurador adesivo (Excite - Tetric Ceram/ Vivadent e do cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina (Vitremer/ 3M na restauração de lesões cervicais não cariosas por meio do sistema de avaliação do USPHS modificado. Um total de setenta restaurações, trinta e cinco por material, foi realizado por um único operador em trinta pacientes voluntários com idades de 18 a 50 anos. Previamente à execução das restaurações, foi realizada uma profilaxia com pedra-pomes e água a fim de remover quaisquer resíduos. As lesões cervicais não foram submetidas a qualquer tipo de preparo cavitário, sendo restauradas sob isolamento absoluto e de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Todas as restaurações foram avaliadas pelo método direto por dois examinadores usando os critérios de retenção (R, integridade marginal (IM, descoloração marginal (DM, desgaste (D, sensibilidade pós-operatória (S e incidência de

  18. Measuring tissue oxygenation (United States)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)


    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  19. Connective Tissue Disorders (United States)

    Connective tissue is the material inside your body that supports many of its parts. It is the "cellular ... their work. Cartilage and fat are examples of connective tissue. There are over 200 disorders that impact connective ...

  20. Laser/tissue interaction. (United States)

    Dederich, D N


    When laser light impinges on tissue, it can reflect, scatter, be absorbed, or transmit to the surrounding tissue. Absorption controls to a great degree the extent to which reflection, scattering and transmission occur, and wavelength is the primary determinant of absorption. The CO2 laser is consistently absorbed by most materials and tissues and the Nd-YAG laser wavelength is preferentially absorbed in pigmented tissues. The factors which determine the initial tissue effect include the laser wavelength, laser power, laser waveform, tissue optical properties, and tissue thermal properties. There are almost an infinite number of combinations of these factors possible, many of which would result in unacceptable damage to the tissues. This underscores the need to thoroughly test any particular combination of these factors on the conceptual, in-vitro, and in-vivo level before a treatment is offered.

  1. Plant tissue culture techniques


    Rolf Dieter Illg


    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  2. Soft Tissue Sarcoma (United States)

    ... other body structures. The soft tissues include muscle, fat, blood vessels, nerves, tendons and the lining of your joints. Many types of soft tissue sarcoma exist. Some types are more likely to ...

  3. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a majorinterest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissuecells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteinswhose composition and remodeling is of crucial importancefor cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue inobesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygenand hypoxia development. Subsequent activation ofhypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocytedifferentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. Therebyadipose tissue growth is limited and excess triglyceridesare stored in ectopic tissues. Stressed adipocytes andhypoxia contribute to immune cell immigration andactivation which further aggravates adipose tissuefibrosis. There is substantial evidence that adipose tissuefibrosis is linked to metabolic dysfunction,both in rodentmodels and in the clinical setting. Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor gamma agonists and adiponectin bothreduce adipose tissue fibrosis, inflammation and insulinresistance. Current knowledge suggests that antifibroticdrugs, increasing adipose tissue oxygen supply or HIF-1antagonists will improve adipose tissue function andthereby ameliorate metabolic diseases.

  4. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg


    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  5. FRD tissue archive (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fishery genetics tissue collection has over 80,000 tissues stored in 95% ethanol representing fishes and invertebrates collected globally but with a focus on the...

  6. Tissue-level cytoprotection


    Hightower, L E; Brown, M A; Renfro, J.L.; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T.; House, S.D.


    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprote...

  7. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue (United States)

    ... another method called the free flap procedure, skin, fat, and muscle tissue are removed from your lower belly. This tissue ... breast that was removed. The surgeon loosens skin, fat, and muscle from this area. This tissue is then tunneled under your skin to the ...

  8. Prevascularized bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwkema, Jeroen


    Tissue engineering has been an active field of research for several decades now. However, the number of successful clinical applications in the field of tissue engineering are limited and can mainly be found in thin or avascular tissues like skin and cartilage. One of the current limitations of tiss

  9. Vascularization in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; Rivron, Nicolas C.; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.


    Tissue engineering has been an active field of research for several decades now. However, the amount of clinical applications in the field of tissue engineering is still limited. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is its inability to provide sufficient blood supply in the initial p

  10. Mechanics of tissue compaction. (United States)

    Turlier, Hervé; Maître, Jean-Léon


    During embryonic development, tissues deform by a succession and combination of morphogenetic processes. Tissue compaction is the morphogenetic process by which a tissue adopts a tighter structure. Recent studies characterized the respective roles of cells' adhesive and contractile properties in tissue compaction. In this review, we formalize the mechanical and molecular principles of tissue compaction and we analyze through the prism of this framework several morphogenetic events: the compaction of the early mouse embryo, the formation of the fly retina, the segmentation of somites and the separation of germ layers during gastrulation.

  11. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server


    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  12. 不同排龈方法修复龈下楔状缺损临床疗效观察%The clinical effect of different gingival retraction methods in subgingival non-carious cervical lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫雪冰; 彭红; 刘利; 宋爱平; 孙凤


    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effect of different gingival retraction methods in the treatment of subgingival non-carious cervical lesions. Methods; The teeth with wedge-shaped defects at subgingival depth of 0 - 2 mm were selected and divided into 3 groups. 40 teeth with the defects at subgingival depth of 0-1 mm in group 1 were restored with the aid of gingival retraction code. 40 teeth with the defects at subgingival depth of 0 - 1 mm in group 2 were restored with the aid of LM gingival retractor. 20 teeth with the defects at subgingival depth of 1 - 2 mm in group 3 were restored with the aid of LM gingival retractor. Additionally, 40 teeth with the defects above gingival margins were directly restored as the controls. All the defects were filled with Clearfil SE Bond system and 3M Z250 composite resin. All cases were followed up for 1 year、The results were evaluated by modified USPHS criteria and statistically analyzed using the Fishers exact test. Results; 100% retention rates were recorded in the 3 experimental groups, 2 restorations of the control groups were lost. No significant differences were detected for one year successful rates among the four groups ( P >0. 05). There was no significant difference in main indexes including retention, marginal adaptation, recurrent caries, marginal discolor, new defect, gingival response and pulp response(P >0. 05). In each group, the parameters of assessment between baseline and 1-year follow-up were not significantly different(P >0. 05). Conclusion; With the aid of effective gingival retraction methods, subgingival defects can be satisfactorily restored. The depth of cervical margin does not affect the clinical effects. The LM gingival retractor is valuable for the treatment of the subgingival wedge-shaped defects.%目的:评估不同排龈方法修复龈下楔状缺损(楔缺)的临床疗效.方法:选择颈部边缘位于龈下0~2 mm内较难充填的楔缺,分3组:Ⅰ组:龈边缘位于龈下0~1 mm

  13. Restoration of non-carious cervical lesions in the first maxillary premolar:a three dimentional finiet element study%上颌前磨牙非龋性颈部缺损修复的有限元研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皇甫若奇; 徐晓


    目的:探讨充填治疗非龋性颈部缺损时,洞型设计、窝洞深度及充填材料和咬合调整因素的影响.方法:构建成人上颌第一前磨牙三维有限元模型,其颊侧颈部有不同洞型(楔形、矩形和弧形)和窝洞深度(0.5mm、1.0mm和1.5mm),模拟用玻璃离子黏固剂(GIC)、复合树脂和银汞合金充填,计算模型在正常(牙合)的侧向、垂直向加载及创伤(牙合)的侧向、垂直向加载时,应力值和应力分布.结果:正常(牙合)颊侧颈部主要为拉应力,近根尖向出现压应力,应力分布较均匀:创伤(牙合)时主要也为拉应力但应力集中,且较正常(牙合)产生更大的应力.2种咬合状态在侧向加载都比垂直向产生更大应力和加重应力集中.不同窝洞深度间应力差异小,但有深度加深、应力变大的正相关性.深度0.5mm、1.0mm的楔形、弧形和矩形洞型差异小.但在1.5mm时,矩形洞型产生的应力远大于楔形(约4倍),楔形洞型应力略大于弧形(0.8~4.1MPa).相同条件下,银汞合金充填体界面应力值大于GIC和复合树脂(3-9倍),GIC小于复合树脂(0.2~2.4MPa).结论:窝洞较浅时,洞型不是影响治疗的首要因素,窝洞较深则应避免矩形洞型.%PURPOSE: To investigate the influences of factors such as cavity depth,shape,restorative materials and occlusai adjustment on the restoration of non-carious cervical lesions(NCCL) in the first maxillary premolars.METHODS:3-D finite element models of adult first maxillary premolars which had cavities of different depths and shapes in buccal cervical region were built.The models were restored and divided into three groups: glass ion cement (GIC), amalgam and composite resin.The stress profiles and distribution in normal occlusion and malocclusion were evaluated from vertical to lateral loading.RESULTS: In normal occlusion, there was mainly tensile stress and uniform distribution on the buccal cervical margin, compressive stress appeared when

  14. Retoriek, retoriese analise en prediking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. du Toit


    Full Text Available In characterising rhetoric, its persuasive intent should be highlighted because the persuasive element is true of all three rhetorical genera. Graeco-Roman pupils were well-trained in the rhetorical arts and it can be accepted that Paul also had a working knowledge of rhetoric. Rhetorical analysis of the New Testament attempts to study the texts of the New Testament in the light of rhetorical features, as developed by the classical theorists and refined by a modern scholar like Perelman. Since the 1970's rhetorical analysis of the New Testament has flourished, although approaches have varied considerably and not all efforts were convincing. Nevertheless, it has become clear that the rhetorical approach can enrich our understanding of the New Testament, and especially of its letters, considerably. Examples from Romans and Galatians are presented to underscore this point. Since preaching, like rhetoric, aims at convincing and persuading an audience, rhetoric can provide us with important stimuli for the praxis of preaching, as can be demonstrated from the five prescribed phases of preparing a public speech, as well as from the three modes of persuasion: logos, ethos and pathos.

  15. Regeneration of periodontal tissues: guided tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Villar, Cristina C; Cochran, David L


    The concept that only fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament or undifferentiated mesenchymal cells have the potential to re-create the original periodontal attachment has been long recognized. Based on this concept, guided tissue regeneration has been applied with variable success to regenerate periodontal defects. Quantitative analysis of clinical outcomes after guided tissue regeneration suggests that this therapy is a successful and predictable procedure to treat narrow intrabony defects and class II mandibular furcations, but offers limited benefits in the treatment of other types of periodontal defects.

  16. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted


    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  17. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla Friis; Olsen, Maia E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted


    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle - although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  18. Vascularised Tissue Engineering Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irza Sukmana


    Full Text Available The guidance of endothelial cell organization into a capillary network has been a long-standing challenge in tissue engineering. Some research efforts have been made to develop methods to promote capillary networks inside engineered tissue constructs. Capillary and vascular networks that would mimic blood microvessel function can be used to subsequently facilitate oxygen and nutrient transfer as well as waste removal. Vascularization of engineering tissue construct is one of the most favorable strategies to overpass nutrient and oxygen supply limitation, which is often the major hurdle in developing thick and complex tissue and artificial organ. This paper addresses recent advances and future challenges in developing three-dimensional culture systems to promote tissue construct vascularization allowing mimicking blood microvessel development and function encountered in vivo. Bioreactors systems that have been used to create fully vascularized functional tissue constructs will also be outlined.

  19. Hard dental tissue minimal-invasive preparation using contemporary polymer rotating instruments and laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloica Miloš


    Full Text Available Goal of contemporary dentistry is to decrease the patient’s discomfort during treatment. Dentists aim to achieve maximum with the newly developed dental materials as well as with new cavity preparation techniques in the shortest time span. Since the development of the first constructed borer (drilling machine for caries removal, the preparation techniques have considerably changed. The progress of dental materials as well as the cavity preparation techniques has led us to contemporary carbide tungsten and diamond borers that are used with obligatory water cooling. The innovation within this field represents newly developed polymer borers that can detect the difference between carious lesions and healthy tooth structure. In this way the cavity preparation may be performed without damaging dental healthy tissue. This is possible owing to their hardness which is lower than the hardness of intact dentin. Polymer borer preparation is painless with less vibration, while the increase in temperature is negligible. Lasers have been used in clinical dentistry since 1980s so it can be said that they represent a new technology. The function of lasers is based on ablation which requires water. Erbium lasers have shown the highest potential with their ability to produce effective ablation of hard dental tissues. Laser application in dentistry requires special training as well as some protective measures. Laser advantages, compared to traditional preparation techniques, involve the absence of vibration, painless preparation, possibility of preparation without anesthetic and easier patient’s adjustment to dental intervention which is of importance, especially in pediatric dentistry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  20. General evaluation of hard dental tissue and risk factors of dental caries in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Антоніна Михайлівна Політун


    Full Text Available The prognostication of caries in youth is important for determination and prescription of individual prophylactic arrangements and its further influence on mineralization of the hard dental tissues.Aim of the work: the study of the prevalence and intensity of caries among the young people and determination of possible connection with the risk factor of caries development for further choice of the reasonable prophylactic arrangement.Materials and methods of research: epidemiological, clinical, statistic ones.Results of research: The article describes results of the comprehensive dental examination of 135 persons18-25 years old. There was determined the high prevalence of caries (96,3±0,74 % with considerable intensity (8,87±0,39. The main etiological factors among youth are: poor nutrition with prevalence of carbohydrate (74,81±0,56 %, lack of oral hygiene (59,27±0,73 %, quantitative and qualitative composition of oral fluid, presence of somatic diseases (40±0,30 %, bad habits (31,85±0,24 %, neglect of the sport (48,88±0,36 %, chronic emotional stress (38,51±0,29 %, due to the increased workload and related stress factors.Conclusions: the high prevalence (96,3±0,74 % and intensity of carious process (8,87±0,39 is caused by the unsatisfactory state of oral cavity, (1,91±0,06, under the influence of general factors (somatic diseases, stress, poor nutrition the reactivity of protective mechanisms is lowered and the risk of dental morbidity of youth increases. So, it proves the necessity of elaboration and introduction of the active arrangements of primary prophylaxis directed on the raise of caries resistance of the hard dental tissues in young people

  1. Neural tissue-spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Johansen, Mathias; Blaabjerg, Morten


    By combining new and established protocols we have developed a procedure for isolation and propagation of neural precursor cells from the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) of newborn rats. Small tissue blocks of the SVZ were dissected and propagated en bloc as free-floating neural tissue...... content, thus allowing experimental studies of neural precursor cells and their niche...

  2. Adipose tissue macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutens, Lily; Stienstra, Rinke


    Inflammation originating from the adipose tissue is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Although a plethora of different immune cells shapes adipose tissue inflammation, this review is specifically foc

  3. Advances in tissue engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Tissue engineering is a newly developed specialty involved in the construction of tissues and organs either in vitro or in vivo. Tremendous progress has been achieved over the past decade in tisse construction as well as in other related areas, such as bone marrow stromal cells, embryonic stem cells and tissue progenitor cells. In our laboratory, tissues of full-thickness skin, bone, cartilage and tendon have been successfully engineered, and the engineered tissues have repaired full-thickness skin wound, cranial bone defects, articular cartilage defects and tendon defects in animals. In basic research areas, bone marrow stromal cells have been induced and transformed into osteoblasts and chondrocytes in vitro. Mouse embryo stem cell lines we established have differentiated into neuron precursor, cardiac muscle cells and epithelial cells. Genetic modifications of seed cells for promoting cell proliferation, delaying cell aging and inducing immune tolerance have also been investigated.

  4. Effects of holmium laser on dental structure in vivo: thermal evaluation and histological analysis on pulpal tissue; Efeitos in vivo do laser de holmio em estrutura dental: monitoracao termica e analise histologica do tecido pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strefezza, Claudia


    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Ho:YLF laser is capable of inducing physical and chemical changes on dental surfaces treated for caries prevention. The temperature in the pulp chamber was in vitro evaluated to as a function of the power and frequency of the laser irradiation. The purpose of this work is to verify the occurrence of pulp inflammation after Ho:YLF laser irradiation using different parameters in rabbits' teeth. The premolars and molars of ten rabbits (NZB) were divided in two groups according to the irradiation energy values of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at 2.065{mu}m wave length, frequency of O,5Hz and pulse length of 250{mu}s. An group A teeth were irradiated with using ten pulses of 334mJ/pulse of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at O.5Hz, and group B, with 512mJ/pulse. Animals were killed by transcardiac perfusion and the samples were prepared for histopathological analysis. The in vitro temperature monitoring revealed an increase of 1 deg C for the 334mJ/pulse energy and 4.5 deg C for the 512mJ/pulse energy. SEM observations showed the occurrence of melting and resolidification in dental surface. From the in vivo analysis it can be concluded that both employed laser parameters did not induce to any inflammatory response from the pulp. (author)

  5. Tissue engineered periodontal products. (United States)

    Bartold, P M; Gronthos, S; Ivanovski, S; Fisher, A; Hutmacher, D W


    Attainment of periodontal regeneration is a significant clinical goal in the management of advanced periodontal defects arising from periodontitis. Over the past 30 years numerous techniques and materials have been introduced and evaluated clinically and have included guided tissue regeneration, bone grafting materials, growth and other biological factors and gene therapy. With the exception of gene therapy, all have undergone evaluation in humans. All of the products have shown efficacy in promoting periodontal regeneration in animal models but the results in humans remain variable and equivocal concerning attaining complete biological regeneration of damaged periodontal structures. In the early 2000s, the concept of tissue engineering was proposed as a new paradigm for periodontal regeneration based on molecular and cell biology. At this time, tissue engineering was a new and emerging field. Now, 14 years later we revisit the concept of tissue engineering for the periodontium and assess how far we have come, where we are currently situated and what needs to be done in the future to make this concept a reality. In this review, we cover some of the precursor products, which led to our current position in periodontal tissue engineering. The basic concepts of tissue engineering with special emphasis on periodontal tissue engineering products is discussed including the use of mesenchymal stem cells in bioscaffolds and the emerging field of cell sheet technology. Finally, we look into the future to consider what CAD/CAM technology and nanotechnology will have to offer.

  6. 抗龋IgY原料及牙膏上清液对变形链球菌粘附作用的影响%The Effect of the Anti-dental Carious IgY and its Dentifrice on the Adherence of Streptococcus Mutans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江千舟; 闵智鹏; 易安华; 张文娟; 樊明文


    Objective: To investigate the adherence of streptococcus mutans incubated with the anti-dental carious IgY or its dentifrice in balanced medium or high nutrient medium. Methods: S. mutans were cultured with IgY or its dentifrice of different concentrations. After anaerobic culture, the percentage of the tight adherent S. mutans was calculated. Results: After cultured with IgY and dentifrice, the rates of adhesion were lower than the control. Conclusion; The anti-dental carious IgY and its dentifrice can suppress the adherence of S. mutans cells to the glass in balanced medium and high nutrient medium.%目的:研究抗龋齿蛋黄球蛋白(IgY)原料及含该原料的牙膏上清液对变形链球菌在平衡培养液和高营养培养液中蔗糖依赖性粘附作用的影响.方法:在含0.1%蛋白胨生理盐水和含1%蔗糖的BHI培养基中加入不同浓度的抗龋IgY原料或含该原料的牙膏上清液,厌氧培养变形链球菌,采用试管贴壁实验定量计算紧密粘附的细菌百分粘附率.结果:在两种培养基中加入抗龋IgY原料或含该原料的牙膏上清液后,变形链球菌的粘附率显著下降.结论:抗龋齿蛋黄球蛋白(IgY)原料及含该原料的牙膏上清液在平衡培养液和高营养培养液中对变形链球菌的蔗糖依赖性粘附均有抑制作用.

  7. Rapporteur report: Other tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienkiewicz, Z


    This report covers the session devoted to other tissues. It considers the effects of internal electric fields such as those induced by exposure to weak, extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, on cardiac physiology, neuroendocrine (pineal) function and on the processes of tissue repair and embryonic development. Summaries are provided for each of the papers presented, and the major aspects of the plenary session are discussed. Overall, these tissues and processes were not considered to be sensitive to the direct effects of weak ELF fields, although indirect effects may occur via field induced changes to the central nervous system. (author)

  8. Analysis of Rayleigh and Compton scattering for breast cancer diagnosis;Analise do espalhamento Rayleigh e Compton para o diagnostico de neoplasias mamarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniassi, Marcelo; Conceicao, Andre Luiz Coelho; Poletti, Martin Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica


    In this work we have been measured the intensity of Rayleigh and Compton scattering from normal (adipose and fibrous) and neoplastic (benign and malignant) breast tissues using a monoenergetic beam of 17,44keV and a Si(Li) detector positioned at 90 degrees of the direction of incidence. From the scattering peaks were obtained parameters like area, full width at half maximum (FWHM) and combined like the Rayleigh to Compton area ratio (R/C). The results showed that the FWHM and the R/C ratio are different for each tissue type. In this way, the obtained results suggest that it is possible to use this information to characterize and to differentiate the breast tissues, pointing the possibility of its use as complementary tool to the breast cancer diagnosis. (author)

  9. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...

  10. Connective Tissue Naevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Ramesh M


    Full Text Available A young adult female patient of connective tissue naevus presented with papules and indurated plaques on both les and left arm. Histopathology showed increased amount of collagen in the dermis. Osteopoikilosis was absent.

  11. Regulating tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Lloyd-Evans


    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a radical new approach to the repair and replacement of damaged or diseased body tissues. Cells, often seeded into or shaped around a biomaterial matrix, are used to replace damaged or diseased tissue or stimulate repair by the body. Because it is an area of tremendous focus and achievement, there is a risk that technical developments will outstrip the capacity of existing regulatory frameworks to cope with these novel products. Australia, the USA, and Canada are somewhat ahead of Japan in establishing a feasible regulatory approach. All four are currently ahead of the European Union (EU, but individual European countries and the EU as a whole are catching up. However, for the foreseeable future, it may still be possible in certain European countries to use autologous cell therapies in hospitals and market allogeneic tissue-engineered products, especially skin replacements, without regulatory control.

  12. Forehead tissue expander. (United States)

    Kisner, W H


    The use of the forehead flap for nasal reconstruction has long been used by reconstructive surgeons. A case is presented in which comprised forehead skin is utilized following expansion by a tissue expander.

  13. Spectromicroscopy of Brain Tissue (United States)

    Frazer, Bradley; Cannara, Rachel; Gilbert, Benjamin; Destasio, Gelsomina; Ogg, Mandy; Gough, Kathy


    X-ray PhotoElectron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM) was originally developed for studying the surface microchemistry of materials science specimens. It has then evolved into a valuable tool to investigate the magnetic properties of materials and the microchemistry of cells and tissues. We used the MEPHISTO X-PEEM instrument, installed at the UW-Synchrotron Radiation Center to detect trace concentrations of non-physiological elements in senile brain tissue specimens. These tissues contain a large number of plaques, in which all the compounds and elements that the brain does not need are disposed and stored. We hypothesized that plaques should contain elements, such as Si, B, and Al which are very abundant on the Earth crust but absent from healthy tissues. We verified this hypothesis with MEPHISTO and found evidence of Si and B, and suspect Al. We also found a higher than normal concentration of Fe.

  14. Connective Tissue Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2008349 A clinical analysis of 32 patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in diffuse connective tissue diseases. CHEN Guangxing(陈光星), et al. Dept Rheumatol, PUMC & CAMS Beijing 100730. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(5):362-365.Objective To provide clues to diagnosis and treatment for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage(DAH)in patients with diffuse connective tissue diseases(CTD).Method To analyze restropectively the data of clinical features,

  15. Bypassing damaged nervous tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N


    We show the principal ability of bypassing damaged demyelinated portions of nervous tissue, thereby restoring its normal function for the passage of action potentials. We carry out a theoretical analysis on the basis of the synchronization mechanism of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons, proposed recently in [1]. And we discuss the feasibility of implement a bypass to restore damaged nervous tissue and creating an artificial neuron network.

  16. Engineering graded tissue interfaces. (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Burns, Kellie L; Le Doux, Joseph M; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J


    Interfacial zones between tissues provide specialized, transitional junctions central to normal tissue function. Regenerative medicine strategies focused on multiple cell types and/or bi/tri-layered scaffolds do not provide continuously graded interfaces, severely limiting the integration and biological performance of engineered tissue substitutes. Inspired by the bone-soft tissue interface, we describe a biomaterial-mediated gene transfer strategy for spatially regulated genetic modification and differentiation of primary dermal fibroblasts within tissue-engineered constructs. We demonstrate that zonal organization of osteoblastic and fibroblastic cellular phenotypes can be engineered by a simple, one-step seeding of fibroblasts onto scaffolds containing a spatial distribution of retrovirus encoding the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/Cbfa1. Gradients of immobilized retrovirus, achieved via deposition of controlled poly(L-lysine) densities, resulted in spatial patterns of transcription factor expression, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralized matrix deposition. Notably, this graded distribution of mineral deposition and mechanical properties was maintained when implanted in vivo in an ectopic site. Development of this facile and robust strategy is significant toward the regeneration of continuous interfacial zones that mimic the cellular and microstructural characteristics of native tissue.

  17. Comparsion of the efficacy of chemomechanical and mechanical methods of caries removal in the reduction of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus spp in carious dentine of primary teeth Comparação da eficácia dos métodos químico-mecânico e mecânico de remoção de cárie na redução de streptococcus mutans e lactobacillus spp da dentina criada de dentes decíduos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Quariguasi Tobias Lima


    Full Text Available The methods of caries removal have been the subject of many studies over the last years. At present, methods involving the least tissue invasion have been outstanding in the field of surgical-restorative treatment. In this context, the Carisolv™ system has appeared as a less traumatic and less invasive approach, particularly in pedodontics. Thus, the objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the dentinal structure of primary molars before and after the removal of carious tissue by mechanical (low speed drills and conventional dentinal curettes and chemomechanical (Carisolv™ kit procedures based on quantitative culture for cariogenic bacteria to determine the number of bacteria present in the carious dentine after both treatments. Sixty primary molars from children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years, with active occlusal caries in dentine, were divided into two groups (A and B of 30 teeth each, with group A having been treated by the chemomechanical technique and group B by the mechanical technique. Dentin samples were placed in glass vials containing 1 mL thioglycolate broth and submitted to culture to determine the number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus per mg of decayed dentine. The results did not reveal significant differences between the two methods of caries removal; however, the chemomechanical method was more efficient in completely eliminating S. mutans (p=0.02. In summary, the present results confirm previous studies showing that the two methods are comparable in reducing Lactobacillus, but Carisolv™ is more effective in the elimination of S. mutans.Os métodos de remoção de cárie têm sido objeto de muitos estudos nos últimos anos. Atualmente, aqueles que determinam mínima invasão tecidual têm se sobressaído no campo do tratamento cirúrgico-restaurador. Neste contexto, surgiu o sistema Carisolv™ como uma abordagem menos traumática, com destaque na odontopediatria e menos invasiva. Desta

  18. 西安市无龋和有龋中青年人群口腔健康行知因素的对比分析%Comparative analysis of the knowledge and behavior relevant factors on oral health between noncarious and carious middle-aged and young people of Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 王胜朝; 程小刚; 倪龙兴; 郭静; 公文


    AIM: To investigate carious relevant risk factors in middle-aged and young people of Xincheng town, Xi' an, thus providing theoretical basis for the strategy of caries prevention. METHODS: 585 subjects aged 31~40 years old from Xincheng town, Xi'an, were included in the study. 324 of them were in carious group (DMFT≥ 1) , and 261 in noncarious group (DMFT = 0). The individuals in both groups received oral health examination and questionnaire survey on oral health knowledge and behavior relevant factors. The data obtained were analysed statistically using Single factor x2 test and Logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The caries incidence of all the subjects was 55.4% and the average individual caries was 1. 85 ± 2. 370. Single factor x2 test showed that there were statistical differences (P<0. 05) on the gender distribution, education background constitution, tooth-brushing method, frequency of routine oral examination, awareness of oral health, knowledge of oral health and family income between the carious and noncarious groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that caries occurrence was related to following factors : gender, education background, tooth - brushing method, awareness of oral health, view on the cost for going to a dentist. There was a higher caries incidence in the female and in the subjects with lower education background, wrong application of tooth-brushing and little awareness of oral health. And the carious population tend to accept higher cost for going to a dentist. CONCLUSION: Strengthening oral health education and directing tooth-brushing method may be practical and beneficial for middle-aged and young people in caries prevention. More attention should be palid to the female and the people with low education background.%目的:探讨西安市中青年人群患龋的行知危险因素,为制定有针对性的预防措施提供依据.方法:选择西安市新城区5所小学二、三年级小学生家长,进行口腔健康检查和

  19. [Periodontitis and tissue regeneration]. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuhisa


    Chronic periodontitis is a destructive disease that affects the supporting structures of the teeth including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. If left untreated, patients may lose multiple teeth and extensive prosthetic treatment will be required. In order to re-engineer lost tooth-supporting tissues, various therapeutic modalities have been used clinically. Periodontal regeneration procedures including guided tissue regeneration have achieved substantial effects. However, there are several issues to be solved. They are highly technique-sensitive, applicable to limited cases which are susceptible to treatment, and supposed to have relatively low predictability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new approaches to improve the predictability and effectiveness of regenerative therapies for periodontal tissues. Recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been introduced to restore lost tissues more effectively where the biological process of healing is mimicked. To achieve this, integration of three key elements is required: progenitor/stem cells, growth factors and the extracellular matrix scaffold. Although it has been shown that implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into periodontal osseous defects induced regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in dogs, further extensive preclinical studies are required. On the other hand, application of growth factors, particularly basic fibroblast growth factor in the treatment of human periodontitis, is promising and is now in clinical trial. Furthermore, the rate of release of growth factor from the scaffold also can profoundly affect the results of tissue engineering strategies and the development of new materials is expected. In addition, as tissue regenerative potential is negatively regulated by aging, the effects of aging have to be clarified to gain complete regeneration.

  20. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue (United States)

    ... Connective Tissue Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles Connective Tissue August 2016 Questions and Answers about Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue This publication contains general information about heritable (genetic) ...

  1. Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs given into ... Depending on the type and stage of sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or ...

  2. [Connective tissue and inflammation]. (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos


    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  3. Tissue-level cytoprotection. (United States)

    Hightower, L E; Brown; Renfro, J L; Perdrizet, G A; Rewinski, M; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T; House, S D


    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprotected tissues. These functions include transepithelial transport in renal epithelium and attachment and transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelium in response to mediators of inflammation. Evidence pointing to inflammation as a major venue for the heat shock response in vertebrates continues to mount. One such venue is wound healing. Heat shock proteins are induced early in wound responses, and some are released into the extracellular wound fluid where they appear to function as proinflammatory cytokines. However, within responding cells in the wound, heat shock proteins contribute to the acquisition of a state of cytoprotection that protects cells from the hostile environment of the wound, an environment created to destroy pathogens and essentially sterilize the wound. We propose that the cytoprotected state is an anti-inflammatory state that contributes to limiting the inflammatory response; that is, it serves as a brake on inflammation.

  4. Tissue specific electrochemical fingerprinting.

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    Pavlina Sobrova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proteomics and metalloproteomics are rapidly developing interdisciplinary fields providing enormous amounts of data to be classified, evaluated and interpreted. Approaches offered by bioinformatics and also by biostatistical data analysis and treatment are therefore of extreme interest. Numerous methods are now available as commercial or open source tools for data processing and modelling ready to support the analysis of various datasets. The analysis of scientific data remains a big challenge, because each new task sets its specific requirements and constraints that call for the design of a targeted data pre-processing approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a mathematical approach for evaluating and classifying datasets obtained by electrochemical analysis of metallothionein in rat 9 tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, spleen, gonad, blood, liver and femoral muscle. Tissue extracts were heated and then analysed using the differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. The voltammograms were subsequently processed. Classification models were designed making separate use of two groups of attributes, namely attributes describing local extremes, and derived attributes resulting from the level=5 wavelet transform. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: On the basis of our results, we were able to construct a decision tree that makes it possible to distinguish among electrochemical analysis data resulting from measurements of all the considered tissues. In other words, we found a way to classify an unknown rat tissue based on electrochemical analysis of the metallothionein in this tissue.

  5. Tissue-like phantoms (United States)

    Frangioni, John V.; De Grand, Alec M.


    The invention is based, in part, on the discovery that by combining certain components one can generate a tissue-like phantom that mimics any desired tissue, is simple and inexpensive to prepare, and is stable over many weeks or months. In addition, new multi-modal imaging objects (e.g., beads) can be inserted into the phantoms to mimic tissue pathologies, such as cancer, or merely to serve as calibration standards. These objects can be imaged using one, two, or more (e.g., four) different imaging modalities (e.g., x-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence) simultaneously.

  6. Tissue adhesives in otorhinolaryngology

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    Schneider, Gerlind


    Full Text Available The development of medical tissue adhesives has a long history without finding an all-purpose tissue adhesive for clinical daily routine. This is caused by the specific demands which are made on a tissue adhesive, and the different areas of application. In otorhinolaryngology, on the one hand, this is the mucosal environment as well as the application on bones, cartilage and periphery nerves. On the other hand, there are stressed regions (skin, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, trachea and unstressed regions (middle ear, nose and paranasal sinuses, cranial bones. But due to the facts that adhesives can have considerable advantages in assuring surgery results, prevention of complications and so reduction of medical costs/treatment expenses, the search for new adhesives for use in otorhinolaryngology will be continued intensively. In parallel, appropriate application systems have to be developed for microscopic and endoscopic use.

  7. Polarized light propagation through tissue and tissue phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaran, V; Walsh, J T JR; Maitland, D J


    We show that standard tissue phantoms can be used to mimic the intensity and polarization properties of tissue. Polarized light propagation through biologic tissue is typically studied using tissue phantoms consisting of dilute aqueous suspensions of microspheres. The dilute phantoms can empirically match tissue polarization and intensity properties. One discrepancy between the dilute phantoms and tissue exist: common tissue phantoms, such as dilute Intralipid and dilute 1-{micro}m-diameter polystyrene microsphere suspensions, depolarize linearly polarized light more quickly than circularly polarized light. In dense tissue, however, where scatterers are often located in close proximity to one another, circularly polarized light is depolarized similar to or more quickly than linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that polarized light propagates differently in dilute versus densely packed microsphere suspensions, which may account for the differences seen between polarized light propagation in common dilute tissue phantoms versus dense biologic tissue.

  8. Changes of hard dental and bone tissue of alveolar process in rats on the orthodontic tooth movement on the background of an experimental goiter

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    Kamila A. Kolesnik


    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to study the state of dental hard and bone tissues of alveolar process in rats with the model of orthodontic tooth movement at the experimental goiter based on the analysis of bone phosphatases and proteases activity. Material and Methods —Experimental study with the model of goiter and orthodontic tooth movement in rats. The experiment was carried out with 30 Wistar rats of gregarious breeding. During the first stage of the experiment the goitre was being simulated by giving 1% solution of potassium perchlorate with drinking water for 20 days. During the second experimental stage using thiopental the orthodontic model of tooth movement (OMtM was being reproduced for 21 days. The lower jaw in rats served to reveal carious cavities and atrophy rate of alveolar process, the upper jaw served for determining the common activity of alkaline, acid phosphatase, elastase and total proteolytic activity (OPA, the pulp of incisors served to determine the activity of bone phosphatases. Statistical analysis — One way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Сomparison between experimental groups was carried out with the help of t-Student U and Mann-Whitney test (p.asymp.sig<0.05 was considered significant. Results — in animals under experiment the orthodontic tooth movement together with thyroid disorders is accompanied by increased proteases activity of bone tissue and impaired activity of bone phosphatases. Conclusions — sudden aggravation in the resorption processes of bone tissue of alveolar process, demineralization of hard dental tissue during the orthodontic tooth movement in relation to experimental goiter show that child with the thyroid gland disorders are in need of active treatment and preventive measures during active apparatus treatment of dentoalveolar anomalies.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    930734 Measurement of serum soluble interleukin—2 receptor in connective tissue diseases.CAI Houronget al.Dept Intern Med,Affili Gulou Hosp,Med School,Nanjing Univ,Nanjing,210008,ShanghaiJ Immunol 1993;13(4):216—218December 1993 Vol 10 No 4

  10. Photoacoustic thermography of tissue (United States)

    Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Wang, Lihong V.


    Abstract. Photoacoustic (PA) techniques can measure temperature in biological tissues because PA signal amplitude is sensitive to tissue temperature. So far, temperature-measuring PA techniques have focused on sensing of temperature changes at a single position. In this work, we photoacoustically measured spatial distribution of temperature in deep tissue. By monitoring the temperature at a single position using a thermocouple, the relationship between the PA signal amplitude and the actual temperature was determined. The relationship was then used to translate a PA image into a temperature map. This study showed that it is possible to calibrate the system for the temperature range of hyperthermia using single-point measurements over a smaller temperature range. Our experimental results showed a precision of −0.8±0.4°C (mean±standard error) in temperature measurement, and a spatial resolution as fine as 1.0 mm. PA techniques can be potentially applied to monitor temperature distribution deep in tissue during hyperthermia treatment of cancer. PMID:24522803

  11. Plant Tissue Culture Studies. (United States)

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  12. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues (United States)

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Sacks, Michael S.


    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue. PMID:21394222

  13. Targeting adipose tissue

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    Haas Bodo


    Full Text Available Abstract Two different types of adipose tissues can be found in humans enabling them to respond to starvation and cold: white adipose tissue (WAT is generally known and stores excess energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TG, insulates against cold, and serves as a mechanical cushion. Brown adipose tissue (BAT helps newborns to cope with cold. BAT has the capacity to uncouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain, thereby generating heat rather than adenosine triphosphate (ATP. The previously widely held view was that BAT disappears rapidly after birth and is no longer present in adult humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET, however, it was recently shown that metabolically active BAT occurs in defined regions and scattered in WAT of the adult and possibly has an influence on whole-body energy homeostasis. In obese individuals adipose tissue is at the center of metabolic syndrome. Targeting of WAT by thiazolidinediones (TZDs, activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ a ‘master’ regulator of fat cell biology, is a current therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since its unique capacity to increase energy consumption of the body and to dissipate surplus energy as heat, BAT offers new perspectives as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Recent discoveries of new signaling pathways of BAT development give rise to new therapeutic possibilities in order to influence BAT content and activity.

  14. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

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    Fernando Ruiz Santiago


    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  15. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture (United States)


    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. Biomimetic 3D tissue printing for soft tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Ha, Dong-Heon; Jang, Jinah; Han, Hyun Ho; Rhie, Jong-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo


    Engineered adipose tissue constructs that are capable of reconstructing soft tissue with adequate volume would be worthwhile in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Tissue printing offers the possibility of fabricating anatomically relevant tissue constructs by delivering suitable matrix materials and living cells. Here, we devise a biomimetic approach for printing adipose tissue constructs employing decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) matrix bioink encapsulating human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). We designed and printed precisely-defined and flexible dome-shaped structures with engineered porosity using DAT bioink that facilitated high cell viability over 2 weeks and induced expression of standard adipogenic genes without any supplemented adipogenic factors. The printed DAT constructs expressed adipogenic genes more intensely than did non-printed DAT gel. To evaluate the efficacy of our printed tissue constructs for adipose tissue regeneration, we implanted them subcutaneously in mice. The constructs did not induce chronic inflammation or cytotoxicity postimplantation, but supported positive tissue infiltration, constructive tissue remodeling, and adipose tissue formation. This study demonstrates that direct printing of spatially on-demand customized tissue analogs is a promising approach to soft tissue regeneration.

  17. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis; Analise de esmalte e dentina de humanos pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marco A.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:; Adachi, Eduardo M.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  18. Tissue regeneration with photobiomodulation (United States)

    Tang, Elieza G.; Arany, Praveen R.


    Low level light therapy (LLLT) has been widely reported to reduce pain and inflammation and enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration in various settings. LLLT has been noted to have both stimulatory and inhibitory biological effects and these effects have been termed Photobiomodulation (PBM). Several elegant studies have shown the key role of Cytochrome C oxidase and ROS in initiating this process. The downstream biological responses remain to be clearly elucidated. Our work has demonstrated activation of an endogenous latent growth factor complex, TGF-β1, as one of the major biological events in PBM. TGF-β1 has critical roles in various biological processes especially in inflammation, immune responses, wound healing and stem cell biology. This paper overviews some of the studies demonstrating the efficacy of PBM in promoting tissue regeneration.

  19. Genital soft tissue tumors. (United States)

    Schoolmeester, John K; Fritchie, Karen J


    Mesenchymal neoplasms of the vulvovaginal and inguinoscrotal regions are among the most diagnostically challenging specimens in the pathology laboratory owing largely to their unique intersection between general soft tissue tumors and relatively genital-specific mesenchymal tumors. Genital stromal tumors are a unique subset of soft tissue tumors encountered at this location, and this group includes fibroepithelial stromal polyp, superficial (cervicovaginal) myofibroblastoma, cellular angiofibroma, mammary-type myofibroblastoma, angiomyofibroblastoma and aggressive angiomyxoma. Aside from the striking morphologic and immunophenotypic similarity that is seen with these entities, there is evidence that a subset of genital stromal tumors may be linked genetically. This review will focus on simplifying this group of tumors and provide the pathologist or dermatopathologist with practical management information. Smooth muscle tumors of the external genitalia will also be discussed.

  20. Nicotine and periodontal tissues

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    Malhotra Ranjan


    Full Text Available Tobacco use has been recognized to be a significant risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Its use is associated with increased pocket depths, loss of periodontal attachment, alveolar bone and a higher rate of tooth loss. Nicotine, a major component and most pharmacologically active agent in tobacco is likely to be a significant contributing factor for the exacerbation of periodontal diseases. Available literature suggests that nicotine affects gingival blood flow, cytokine production, neutrophil and other immune cell function; connective tissue turnover, which can be the possible mechanisms responsible for overall effects of tobacco on periodontal tissues. Inclusion of tobacco cessation as a part of periodontal therapy encourages dental professionals to become more active in tobacco cessation counseling. This will have far reaching positive effects on our patients′ oral and general health.

  1. Tissue engineering the kidney. (United States)

    Hammerman, Marc R


    The means by which kidney function can be replaced in humans include dialysis and renal allotransplantation. Dialytic therapies are lifesaving, but often poorly tolerated. Transplantation of human kidneys is limited by the availability of donor organs. During the past decades, a number of different approaches have been applied toward tissue engineering the kidney as a means to replace renal function. The goals of one or another of them included the recapitulation of renal filtration, reabsorptive and secretory functions, and replacement of endocrine/metabolic activities. This review will delineate the progress to date recorded for five approaches: (1) integration of new nephrons into the kidney; (2) growing new kidneys in situ; (3) use of stem cells; (4) generation of histocompatible tissues using nuclear transplantation; and (5) bioengineering of an artificial kidney. All five approaches utilize cellular therapy. The first four employ transplantation as well, and the fifth uses dialysis.

  2. Myoepithelioma of soft tissue

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    Pai Mukhta


    Full Text Available Myoepitheliomas and mixed tumors involving deep subcutaneous and subfascial soft tissues of limb or limb girdle are rare lesions as against salivary lesions that are well established conditions. Here, we report a 22-year-old female who presented with painful hard swelling in the left gluteal region of 1½ year duration. MRI showed a large ill-defined heterogeneous mass lesion measuring about 7-8 cm. in the left sacral region eroding the left sacroiliac region and left sacroiliac joint. With a clinical diagnosis of chondrosarcoma, the tumor with the surrounding tissue was resected in segments at surgery. Histomorphology revealed nests, sheets and cords of round to spindled cells with extensive squamous metaplasia in a myxoid to fibrous stroma. These cells extensively infiltrated muscle and bone. The tumor cells expressed immunoreactivity for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and S-100.

  3. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

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    A. Sbarbati


    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  4. Cardiac tissue engineering

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    Full Text Available We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick,compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3 can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of perfluorocarbons, or with electrical stimulation (continuous application of biphasic pulses, 2 ms, 5 V, 1 Hz. Tissue constructs cultured without perfusion or electrical stimulation served as controls. Medium perfusion and addition of perfluorocarbons resulted in compact, thick constructs containing physiologic density of viable, electromechanically coupled cells, in contrast to control constructs which had only a ~100 mm thick peripheral region with functionally connected cells. Electrical stimulation of cultured constructs resulted in markedly improved contractile properties, increased amounts of cardiac proteins, and remarkably well developed ultrastructure (similar to that of native heart as compared to non-stimulated controls. We discuss here the state of the art of cardiac tissue engineering, in light of the biomimetic approach that reproduces in vitro some of the conditions present during normal tissue development.

  5. Connective tissue ulcers. (United States)

    Dabiri, Ganary; Falanga, Vincent


    Connective tissue disorders (CTD), which are often also termed collagen vascular diseases, include a number of related inflammatory conditions. Some of these diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis (scleroderma), localized scleroderma (morphea variants localized to the skin), Sjogren's syndrome, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. In addition to the systemic manifestations of these diseases, there are a number of cutaneous features that make these conditions recognizable on physical exam. Lower extremity ulcers and digital ulcers are an infrequent but disabling complication of long-standing connective tissue disease. The exact frequency with which these ulcers occur is not known, and the cause of the ulcerations is often multifactorial. Moreover, a challenging component of CTD ulcerations is that there are still no established guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. The morbidity associated with these ulcerations and their underlying conditions is very substantial. Indeed, these less common but intractable ulcers represent a major medical and economic problem for patients, physicians and nurses, and even well organized multidisciplinary wound healing centers.

  6. Stereolithography in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Skoog, Shelby A; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J


    Several recent research efforts have focused on use of computer-aided additive fabrication technologies, commonly referred to as additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping, solid freeform fabrication, or three-dimensional printing technologies, to create structures for tissue engineering. For example, scaffolds for tissue engineering may be processed using rapid prototyping technologies, which serve as matrices for cell ingrowth, vascularization, as well as transport of nutrients and waste. Stereolithography is a photopolymerization-based rapid prototyping technology that involves computer-driven and spatially controlled irradiation of liquid resin. This technology enables structures with precise microscale features to be prepared directly from a computer model. In this review, use of stereolithography for processing trimethylene carbonate, polycaprolactone, and poly(D,L-lactide) poly(propylene fumarate)-based materials is considered. In addition, incorporation of bioceramic fillers for fabrication of bioceramic scaffolds is reviewed. Use of stereolithography for processing of patient-specific implantable scaffolds is also discussed. In addition, use of photopolymerization-based rapid prototyping technology, known as two-photon polymerization, for production of tissue engineering scaffolds with smaller features than conventional stereolithography technology is considered.

  7. Steroid biosynthesis in adipose tissue. (United States)

    Li, Jiehan; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Vihma, Veera


    Tissue-specific expression of steroidogenic enzymes allows the modulation of active steroid levels in a local manner. Thus, the measurement of local steroid concentrations, rather than the circulating levels, has been recognized as a more accurate indicator of the steroid action within a specific tissue. Adipose tissue, one of the largest endocrine tissues in the human body, has been established as an important site for steroid storage and metabolism. Locally produced steroids, through the enzymatic conversion from steroid precursors delivered to adipose tissue, have been proven to either functionally regulate adipose tissue metabolism, or quantitatively contribute to the whole body's steroid levels. Most recently, it has been suggested that adipose tissue may contain the steroidogenic machinery necessary for the initiation of steroid biosynthesis de novo from cholesterol. This review summarizes the evidence indicating the presence of the entire steroidogenic apparatus in adipose tissue and discusses the potential roles of local steroid products in modulating adipose tissue activity and other metabolic parameters.

  8. Aspectos ético-legais da retirada e transplante de tecidos, órgãos e partes do corpo humano Aspectos ético-legales de la retirada y transplante de tejidos, organos y partes del cuerpo humano Legal-ethical aspects of the removal and transplantation of tissues, organs and parts of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Dias Ribeiro de Paula Lima


    Full Text Available As autoras fazem uma análise crítica da legislação em vigor relativa aos transplantes de órgãos, tecidos e partes do corpo humano, e tecem comentários sobre os artigos pertinentes a eles nos respectivos códigos de ética médica e da enfermagem, alertando os profissionais de enfermagem para a necessidade de registrarem as infrações cometidas contra o cliente, à luz desses códigos.Las autoras hacen un analisis crítico de la legislación en vigor referente a los transplantes de órganos, tejidos y partes del cuerpo humano y hacen comentarios sobre los artículos pertinentes a ellos en los respectivos códigos de ética médica y de enfermería, alertando a los profesionales de enfermería sobre la necesidad de registrar las transgresiones hechas contra el cliente, a la luz de esos códigos.The authors analise critically the current legislation related to the transplantation of organs, tissues and parts of the human body, as well as they comment the articles which refer to this topic and which are found in medical and nursing ethical codes, advising nursing professionals to the need of registration of legal infractions attempted against the clients.

  9. Biomaterials & scaffolds for tissue engineering

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    Fergal J. O'Brien


    Full Text Available Every day thousands of surgical procedures are performed to replace or repair tissue that has been damaged through disease or trauma. The developing field of tissue engineering (TE aims to regenerate damaged tissues by combining cells from the body with highly porous scaffold biomaterials, which act as templates for tissue regeneration, to guide the growth of new tissue. This article describes the functional requirements, and types, of materials used in developing state of the art of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, it describes the challenges and where future research and direction is required in this rapidly advancing field.

  10. Tissue response: biomaterials, dental implants, and compromised osseous tissue. (United States)

    Babu RS, Arvind; Ogle, Orrett


    Tissue response represents an important feature in biocompatibility in implant procedures. This review article highlights the fundamental characteristics of tissue response after the implant procedure. This article also highlights the tissue response in compromised osseous conditions. Understanding the histologic events after dental implants in normal and abnormal bone reinforces the concept of case selection in dental implants.

  11. [Human brown adipose tissue]. (United States)

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo


    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  12. Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Hypobaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Chattopadhyay


    Full Text Available Possible factors affecting the metabolism of adipose tissue under hypobaric conditions have been reviewed. The hormonal changes brought into play under hypoxic stress generally stress generally increase the adipose tissue lipolysis.

  13. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato


    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  14. Mechanical Aspects of Tissue Engineering


    Liebschner, Michael; Bucklen, Brandon; Wettergreen, Matthew


    Tissue engineering describes an initiative whereby a deficit of tissue may be replaced with an engineered construct, typically thought to be some combination of a structural support element and a cellular element. There are several mechanical aspects that come into play during the design of such a construct. First, the way in which the mechanical behavior of a tissue is characterized varies depending on the tissue type. For example, one would not consider the ultimate strength of a non–load-b...

  15. Acquired disorders of elastic tissue: Part II. decreased elastic tissue. (United States)

    Lewis, Kevan G; Bercovitch, Lionel; Dill, Sara W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie


    Elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix are integral components of dermal connective tissue. The resilience and elasticity required for normal structure and function of the skin are attributable to the network of elastic tissue. Advances in our understanding of elastic tissue physiology provide a foundation for studying the pathogenesis of elastic tissue disorders. Many acquired disorders are nevertheless poorly understood owing to the paucity of reported cases. Several acquired disorders in which loss of dermal elastic tissue produces prominent clinical and histopathologic features have recently been described, including middermal elastolysis, papular elastorrhexis, and pseudoxanthoma-like papillary dermal elastolysis, which must be differentiated from more well-known disorders such as anetoderma, acquired cutis laxa, and acrokeratoelastoidosis. Learning objective At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should have an understanding of the similarities and differences between acquired disorders of elastic tissue that are characterized by a loss of elastic tissue.

  16. Daily quality controls analysis of a CT scanner simulator; Analise dos testes diarios de controle de qualidade de um tomografo simulador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasques, Maira Milanelo; Santos, Gabriela R.; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina


    With the increasing technological developments, radiotherapy practices, which allow for better involvement of the tumor with the required therapeutic dose and minimize the complications of normal tissues, have become reality in several Radiotherapy services. The use of these resources in turn, was only possible due to the progress made in planning based on digital volumetric images of good quality, such as computed tomography (CT), which allow the correct delimitation of the tumor volume and critical structures. Specific tests for quality control in a CT scanner used in radiotherapy, named CT simulator, should be applied as part of the institutional Quality Assurance Program. This study presents the methodology used in the Instituto de Radiologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMUSP) for daily testing of the CT scanner simulator and the results obtained throughout more than two years. The experience gained in the period conducted showed that the tests are easy to perform and can be done in a few minutes by a trained professional. Data analysis showed good reproducibility, which allowed the tests could be performed less frequently, after 16 months of data collection. (author)

  17. Compartmental analysis and dosimetric aspects applied to cholesterol with {sup 3}H labeled; Analise compartimental e aspectos dosimetricos aplicados ao colesterol marcado com {sup 3}H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos


    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major reasons of death around the world according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It is well known that changes in levels of plasma lipoproteins, which are responsible for the transport of cholesterol into the bloodstream, are associated with cardiovascular diseases. For this reason to know the biokinetic parameters of plasma lipoproteins and quantifies them is important to correct and deep understanding about the diseases associated with these disorders. The main aim of this study is to provide a biokinetic model and estimate the radiometric doses for {sup 3}H-Cholesterol, a radioactive tracer widely used in physiological and metabolic studies. The model was based on [Schwartz et al. 2004] about the distribution of cholesterol by the lipoprotein and gastrointestinal model [ICRP 30, 1979]. The doses distribution in compartments of the model and other organs and tissues of a standard adult described in [ICRP 106, 2008] was calculated using MIRD method (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) and compartmental analysis using the computer program Matlab®. The dose coefficients were estimated for a standard phantom man (73 kg) described in [ICRP 60, 1991]. The estimated doses for both model and for other organs were low and did not exceed the highest dose obtained that was in the upper large intestine, as 44,8 μGy these parameters will assist in ethics committee's opinions on the use of works that use the {sup 3}H-cholesterol which radioactive tracer. (author)

  18. Critical analysis of the positioning of monitoring system of the cyclotron accelerator; Analise critica do posicionamento de um sistema de monitoramento de acelerador Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Julia A.; Passaro, Bruno M.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    Ever since the first concerns arose about the possibility that the ionizing radiation induced detriment to human health, were created the methods of production, characterization and measurement of radiation, as well as definition of quantities that realistically express its interaction with human tissue. From this point, the monitoring program of the installation of a cyclotron must be continuously performed and contain the critical points of contamination according to the CNEN standard N.E. 3.02 - Radioprotection Service to avoid contamination and maintain radioactive exposure rates as low as reasonably achievable. The results obtained during the analysis showed that the positioning of monitors is suitable, except for the physico-chemical control laboratory monitors, which were installed next to the chapel of manipulation and below the dose calibrator. The answer obtained from the monitoring system in the position that the ionization chamber is in the door of the bunker should be taken into account, because the intensity of radiation emitted by the activation of the targets is slightly attenuated by the cyclotron. (author)

  19. Amostragem em cana-de-açúcar, para fins de analise foliar Sampling leaves for leaf analysis studies in sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo


    Full Text Available Êste trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar, a partir da experimentação local, um sistema adequado de amostragem de fôlhas, como base para posteriores estudos que visem estabelecer os níveis de nutrição para a cana-de-açúcar, através da análise foliar. A amostragem foi efetuada na cana planta, variedade CB. 41/76, num experimento fatorial reduzido a NPK 2³ e obedeceu ao seguinte critério: foram colhidas fôlhas de quatro posições, definidas pelo sistema de Kuijper (fôlha +1, + 2, +3, e +4; para as fôlhas de uma mesma posição foram separadas três partes (lâmina com nervura, lâmina sem nervura, e bainha; as amostras foram retiradas em seis idades da planta (4, 5, 6, 7, 8 e 9 meses. A variação dos teores dos principais constituintes minerais nos tecidos colhidos, em cada época, foi examinada estatísticamente, em função da adubação química usada, considerados seus efeitos na produção de cana. Pelos resultados obtidos e levando em conta o trabalho analítico no laboratório e simplificação de amostragem, é indicada a seleção da fôlha de posição +3, aos 4 e 8-9 meses de idade da planta, para determinar nos 20 cm centrais da lâmina, excluída a nervura principal, os elementos nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio e magnésio.A group of 576 leaf samples of cane, variety CB.41/76. was collected form a 2³ NPK factorial experiment in order to determine the most raliable sampling technique as a basis for the local conditions of the State of São Paulo. The selection of tissues for analysis was carried out on the plantation with respect to the age at sampling time (4, 5. 6, 7, 8 and 9 months in age, leaf part (blades, blades with midribs removed, and sheaths, and leaf position (leaves +1, +2, +3 and +4. This included the four youngest visible-dewlap leaves on the cane top, numbered according to the system of Kuijper. After each tissue was analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, the data were examined

  20. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla Friis; Bertelsen, Mads Frost


    Although good quality DNA can be recovered from the base of the calamus of freshly sampled feathers, as from other fully keratinized tissues such as nail or hair shaft, the quality and quantity of DNA in the majority of feather structures is much poorer. Little research has been performed...... to characterize the quality of this DNA is, and thus what a researcher might be able to achieve when using feathers as a source of DNA. In this review, we expand on our companion article detailing the quality of DNA in nail and hair, by synthesizing published, and new preliminary genetic data obtained from...... feathers. As with nail and hair, we demonstrate that although DNA can, in general, be recovered from all parts of the feather, the quality of such DNA varies. As such, although one can expect a priori that genetic analyses are possible on the feather, for PCR based analyses, it is extremely difficult...

  1. Soft tissue lipoleiomyoma. (United States)

    Scurry, J P; Carey, M P; Targett, C S; Dowling, J P


    A primary tumor composed of mature adipose tissue and smooth muscle occurring in the anterior abdominal wall of a 46 yr old Filipino woman is described. The tumor was not attached to the uterus, but had an appearance similar to a uterine lipoleiomyoma. It appeared as a soft, rubbery, encapsulated 11 cm ovoid mass with a uniform, white cut surface. Histologically, there were long intersecting bundles of bland smooth muscle mixed with nests of mature fat cells. The presence of differentiated smooth muscle was confirmed by fuchsinophilia, desmin positivity and electron microscopy. The patient also had 6 intramural leiomyomas, an area of adenomyosis, a subcutaneous lipoma of the subscapular region and chronic schistosomiasis of the appendix and left adnexa.

  2. Housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in mouse tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Amand Jonny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to characterize the housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in 15 mouse tissues by using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE strategy which indicates the relative level of expression for each transcript matched to the tag. Results Here, we identified constantly expressed housekeeping genes, such as eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, which is expressed in all tissues without significant difference in expression levels. Moreover, most of these genes were not regulated by experimental conditions such as steroid hormones, adrenalectomy and gonadectomy. In addition, we report previously postulated housekeeping genes such as peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin, which are expressed in all the tissues, but with significant difference in their expression levels. We have also identified genes uniquely detected in each of the 15 tissues and other tissues from public databases. Conclusion These identified housekeeping genes could represent appropriate controls for RT-PCR and northern blot when comparing the expression levels of genes in several tissues. The results reveal several tissue-specific genes highly expressed in testis and pituitary gland. Furthermore, the main function of tissue-specific genes expressed in liver, lung and bone is the cell defence, whereas several keratins involved in cell structure function are exclusively detected in skin and vagina. The results from this study can be used for example to target a tissue for agent delivering by using the promoter of tissue-specific genes. Moreover, this study could be used as basis for further researches on physiology and pathology of these tissues.

  3. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change (United States)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.


    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  4. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics. (United States)

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas


    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  5. Computational Modeling in Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server


    One of the major challenges in tissue engineering is the translation of biological knowledge on complex cell and tissue behavior into a predictive and robust engineering process. Mastering this complexity is an essential step towards clinical applications of tissue engineering. This volume discusses computational modeling tools that allow studying the biological complexity in a more quantitative way. More specifically, computational tools can help in:  (i) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering product, e.g. by adapting scaffold design to optimize micro-environmental signals or by adapting selection criteria to improve homogeneity of the selected cell population; (ii) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering process, e.g. by adapting bioreactor design to improve quality and quantity of the final product; and (iii) assessing the influence of the in vivo environment on the behavior of the tissue engineering product, e.g. by investigating vascular ingrowth. The book presents examples of each...

  6. Integrated Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Haikel, Youssef


    "Integrated Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering" features all aspects from fundamental principles to current technological advances in biomaterials at the macro/micro/nano/molecular scales suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The book is unique as it provides all important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, and applications of biomaterials in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  7. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. (United States)

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng


    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation.

  8. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  9. Biomechanical properties of soft tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾衍钧; 许传青; 杨坚; 徐小虎


    Viscoelasticity is the primary mechanical property of bio-soft tissues. It has been widely applied in basic research of biological tissues including cornea, lung, heart and blood vessels. Along with the development of tissue engineering research, the evaluation of soft tissue viscoelasticity is becoming more and more important. In this paper, using the Whittaker function, we give an approximate power series of the exponential integral E1(x) and the parameters c, ?1 and ?2 of the generalized relaxation function G(t) and generalized creep function J(t). With expanded skin as an example, the relationship between stress relaxation, creep and stress-strain finite deformation are studied.

  10. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo


    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  11. Geometric control of tissue morphogenesis (United States)

    Nelson, Celeste M.


    Summary Morphogenesis is the dynamic and regulated change in tissue form that leads to creation of the body plan and development of mature organs. Research over the past several decades has uncovered a multitude of genetic factors required for morphogenesis in animals. The behaviors of individual cells within a developing tissue are determined by combining these genetic signals with information from the surrounding microenvironment. At any point in time, the local microenvironment is influenced by macroscale tissue geometry, which sculpts long range signals by affecting gradients of morphogens and mechanical stresses. The geometry of a tissue thus acts as both a template and instructive cue for further morphogenesis. PMID:19167433

  12. Electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Wang, Min


    Tissue engineering holds great promises in providing successful treatments of human body tissue loss that current methods are unable to treat or unable to achieve satisfactory clinical outcomes. In scaffold-based tissue engineering, a highperformance scaffold underpins the success of a tissue engineering strategy and a major direction in the field is to create multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds for enhanced biological performance and for regenerating complex body tissues. Electrospinning can produce nanofibrous scaffolds that are highly desirable for tissue engineering. The enormous interest in electrospinning and electrospun fibrous structures by the science, engineering and medical communities has led to various developments of the electrospinning technology and wide investigations of electrospun products in many industries, including biomedical engineering, over the past two decades. It is now possible to create novel, multicomponent tissue engineering scaffolds with multiple functions. This article provides a concise review of recent advances in the R & D of electrospun multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds. It also presents our philosophy and research in the designing and fabrication of electrospun multicomponent scaffolds with multiple functions.

  13. Computational modeling of epithelial tissues. (United States)

    Smallwood, Rod


    There is an extensive literature on the computational modeling of epithelial tissues at all levels from subcellular to whole tissue. This review concentrates on behavior at the individual cell to whole tissue level, and particularly on organizational aspects, and provides an indication of where information from other areas, such as the modeling of angiogenesis, is relevant. The skin, and the lining of all of the body cavities (lung, gut, cervix, bladder etc) are epithelial tissues, which in a topological sense are the boundary between inside and outside the body. They are thin sheets of cells (usually of the order of 0.5 mm thick) without extracellular matrix, have a relatively simple structure, and contain few types of cells. They have important barrier, secretory and transport functions, which are essential for the maintenance of life, so homeostasis and wound healing are important aspects of the behavior of epithelial tissues. Carcinomas originate in epithelial tissues.There are essentially two approaches to modeling tissues--to start at the level of the tissue (i.e., a length scale of the order of 1 mm) and develop generalized equations for behavior (a continuum approach); or to start at the level of the cell (i.e., a length scale of the order of 10 µm) and develop tissue behavior as an emergent property of cellular behavior (an individual-based approach). As will be seen, these are not mutually exclusive approaches, and they come in a variety of flavors.

  14. Tissue regeneration during tissue expansion and choosing an expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agrawal


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the various aspects of tissue regeneration during the process of tissue expansion. "Creep" and mechanical and biological "stretch" are responsible for expansion. During expansion, the epidermis thickens, the dermis thins out, vascularity improves, significant angiogenesis occurs, hair telogen phase becomes shorter and the peripheral nerves, vessels and muscle fibres lengthen. Expansion is associated with molecular changes in the tissue. Almost all these biological changes are reversible after the removal of the expander.This study is also aimed at reviewing the difficulty in deciding the volume and dimension of the expander for a defect. Basic mathematical formulae and the computer programmes for calculating the dimension of tissue expanders, although available in the literature, are not popular. A user-friendly computer programme based on the easily available Microsoft Excel spread sheet has been introduced. When we feed the area of defect and base dimension of the donor area or tissue expander, this programme calculates the volume and height of the expander. The shape of the expander is decided clinically based on the availability of the donor area and the designing of the future tissue movement. Today, tissue expansion is better understood biologically and mechanically. Clinical judgement remains indispensable in choosing the size and shape of the tissue expander.

  15. Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells (United States)

    ... and structure to the skin and internal organs. Epithelial tissue provides a covering for deeper body layers. The ... such as the gastrointestinal system, are made of epithelial tissue. Muscle tissue includes three types of tissue: Striated ...

  16. Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Furuike


    Full Text Available Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  17. Er,Cr∶ YSGG激光备洞对老年人非龋性硬化牙本质微拉伸粘接强度的影响%Influence of Er, Cr∶YSGG Laser on the Microtensile Bond Strength of the Non-Carious Sclerotic Dentin of the Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 王洋; 贾兴亚


    Objective To evaluate the influence of Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the microtensile bond strength of the non-carious sclerotic dentin of the elderly, and compare the influence of two different filling materials on the bond strength. Methods Forty elderly premolars having wedge-shaped defects and typical sclerotic dentin on the surface were randomly divided into the experimental group and control group. The premolars in the experimental group were processed with Er, Cr: YSGG laser, and those in the control group with high-speed dental turbine handpiece. Each group was further divided into two subgroups, having composite resin or glass ionomer cement as filling agents. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 371C and then cut into dumbbell - shaped specimens approximating 1 mm in thickness. The microtensile bond strength was determined with Instron 5 848 Micro Tester. Then the morphological change of dentin surface was observed with SEM. Results n the experimental group, the microtensile bond strength stood at (35. 24 7.05) Mpa and (17.71 5. 74) Mpa respectively for the composite resin subgroup and glass ionomer cement subgroup. In the control group, it was (27. 56 4. 79) Mpa and (11.47 5. 12) Mpa respectively for the composite resin subgroup and glass ionomer cement subgroup. The difference of microtensile bond strength between the experimental group and control group was statistically significant (P < 0.05 ). Within either group, the difference of microtensile bond strength between the composite resin subgroup and glass ionomer cement subgroup was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions The elderly non - carious sclerotic dentin processed with Er, Cr: YSGG laser has higher bonding strength than that with high - speed dental turbine handpiece. Composite resin is greater than glass ionomer in bonding strength.%目的 评价Er,Cr∶ YSGG激光备洞对硬化牙本质微拉伸粘接强度的影响,并比较其对两种不同充填材

  18. Strategic directions in tissue engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, P.C.; Mikos, A.G.; Fisher, J.P.; Jansen, J.A.


    The field of tissue engineering is developing rapidly. Given its ultimate importance to clinical care, the time is appropriate to assess the field's strategic directions to optimize research and development activities. To characterize strategic directions in tissue engineering, a distant but reachab

  19. Cryobanking of human ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Andersen, Claus Yding


    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is one way of preserving fertility in young women with a malignant disease or other disorders that require gonadotoxic treatment. The purpose of the study was to explore how many women remained interested in continued cryostorage of their ovarian tissue beyond a...

  20. Mechanical device for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Maij, E.


    The invention relates to a mechanical device for tissue- regeneration inside a patient, comprising means (2, 3) to place a scaffold for the tissue under mechanical stress. Said means comprise a first device-part (2) and a second device-part (3) which parts are arranged to be movable with respect to

  1. Collagen for bone tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Marina; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Chiono, Valeria; Ciardelli, Gianluca


    In the last decades, increased knowledge about the organization, structure and properties of collagen (particularly concerning interactions between cells and collagen-based materials) has inspired scientists and engineers to design innovative collagen-based biomaterials and to develop novel tissue-engineering products. The design of resorbable collagen-based medical implants requires understanding the tissue/organ anatomy and biological function as well as the role of collagen's physicochemical properties and structure in tissue/organ regeneration. Bone is a complex tissue that plays a critical role in diverse metabolic processes mediated by calcium delivery as well as in hematopoiesis whilst maintaining skeleton strength. A wide variety of collagen-based scaffolds have been proposed for different tissue engineering applications. These scaffolds are designed to promote a biological response, such as cell interaction, and to work as artificial biomimetic extracellular matrices that guide tissue regeneration. This paper critically reviews the current understanding of the complex hierarchical structure and properties of native collagen molecules, and describes the scientific challenge of manufacturing collagen-based materials with suitable properties and shapes for specific biomedical applications, with special emphasis on bone tissue engineering. The analysis of the state of the art in the field reveals the presence of innovative techniques for scaffold and material manufacturing that are currently opening the way to the preparation of biomimetic substrates that modulate cell interaction for improved substitution, restoration, retention or enhancement of bone tissue function.

  2. Coronal Pulpotomy Technique Analysis as an Alternative to Pulpectomy for Preserving the Tooth Vitality, in the Context of Tissue Regeneration: A Correlated Clinical Study across 4 Adult Permanent Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Viola Solomon


    Full Text Available Aim. (1 The aim of the clinical study revolves around the accurate diagnosis, proper case selection, and the management of acute irreversible pulpitis in permanent molars with closed apices using conservative and economical treatment modalities like vital pulpotomies with regenerative approaches over conventional root canal procedures. (2 To evaluate the use of autologous substances such as platelet concentrates and calcium silicate based materials in promoting the healing and regeneration of the inflamed pulp. Summary. Vital pulpotomy was performed on 5 carious involved, permanent molars diagnosed with acute irreversible pulpitis in 17- to 22-year-old patients. Taking into consideration the patient’s age and the condition of the underlying pulp tissue, PRF pulpotomy was planned in view of preserving the vitality of the intact radicular pulps. Regenerative procedures with second generation blood matrices were chosen to encourage the recovery of the inflamed pulps. The systematic follow-up examinations performed at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 22, and 24 months revealed a successful clinical and radiological outcome. Within the limits of the present clinical study and correlating the success across the treated clinical cases, we safely conclude the potential scope of regenerative pulpotomy approaches in acute irreversible pulpitis in adult permanent teeth.

  3. Tissue Engineering of the Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish N. Patel


    Full Text Available Congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, or other conditions of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant organ damage or loss of function, necessitating eventual reconstruction or replacement of the damaged structures. However, current reconstructive techniques are limited by issues of tissue availability and compatibility. Physicians and scientists have begun to explore tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies for repair and reconstruction of the genitourinary tract. Tissue engineering allows the development of biological substitutes which could potentially restore normal function. Tissue engineering efforts designed to treat or replace most organs are currently being undertaken. Most of these efforts have occurred within the past decade. However, before these engineering techniques can be applied to humans, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these new materials. Recent progress suggests that engineered urologic tissues and cell therapy may soon have clinical applicability.

  4. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan


    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  5. Tissue engineering for periodontal regeneration. (United States)

    Kao, Richard T; Conte, Greg; Nishimine, Dee; Dault, Scott


    As a result of periodontal regeneration research, a series of clinical techniques have emerged that permit tissue engineering to be performed for more efficient regeneration and repair of periodontal defects and improved implant site development. Historically, periodontal regeneration research has focused on a quest for "magic filler" material. This search has led to the development of techniques utilizing autologous bone and bone marrow, allografts, xenografts, and various man-made bone substitutes. Though these techniques have had limited success, the desire for a more effective regenerative approach has resulted in the development of tissue engineering techniques. Tissue engineering is a relatively new field of reconstructive biology which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biologic mediators to facilitate reconstruction/regeneration of a particular tissue. In periodontology, the concept of tissue engineering had its beginnings with guided tissue regeneration, a mechanical approach utilizing nonresorbable membranes to obtain regeneration in defects. In dental implantology, guided bone regeneration membranes +/- mechanical support are used for bone augmentation of proposed implant placement sites. With the availability of partially purified protein mixture from developing teeth and growth factors from recombinant technology, a new era of tissue engineering whereby biologic mediators can be used for periodontal regeneration. The advantage of recombinant growth factors is this tissue engineering device is consistent in its regenerative capacity, and variations in regenerative response are due to individual healing response and/or poor surgical techniques. In this article, the authors review how tissue engineering has advanced and discuss its impact on the clinical management of both periodontal and osseous defects in preparation for implant placement. An understanding of these new tissue engineering techniques is essential for comprehending today's ever

  6. Developmental biology and tissue engineering. (United States)

    Marga, Francoise; Neagu, Adrian; Kosztin, Ioan; Forgacs, Gabor


    Morphogenesis implies the controlled spatial organization of cells that gives rise to tissues and organs in early embryonic development. While morphogenesis is under strict genetic control, the formation of specialized biological structures of specific shape hinges on physical processes. Tissue engineering (TE) aims at reproducing morphogenesis in the laboratory, i.e., in vitro, to fabricate replacement organs for regenerative medicine. The classical approach to generate tissues/organs is by seeding and expanding cells in appropriately shaped biocompatible scaffolds, in the hope that the maturation process will result in the desired structure. To accomplish this goal more naturally and efficiently, we set up and implemented a novel TE method that is based on principles of developmental biology and employs bioprinting, the automated delivery of cellular composites into a three-dimensional (3D) biocompatible environment. The novel technology relies on the concept of tissue liquidity according to which multicellular aggregates composed of adhesive and motile cells behave in analogy with liquids: in particular, they fuse. We emphasize the major role played by tissue fusion in the embryo and explain how the parameters (surface tension, viscosity) that govern tissue fusion can be used both experimentally and theoretically to control and simulate the self-assembly of cellular spheroids into 3D living structures. The experimentally observed postprinting shape evolution of tube- and sheet-like constructs is presented. Computer simulations, based on a liquid model, support the idea that tissue liquidity may provide a mechanism for in vitro organ building.

  7. [Muscles and connective tissue: histology]. (United States)

    Delage, J-P


    Here, we give some comments about the DVD movies "Muscle Attitudes" from Endovivo productions, the movies up lighting some loss in the attention given to studies on the connective tissue, and especially them into muscles. The main characteristics of the different components in the intra-muscular connective tissue (perimysium, endomysium, epimysium) are shown here with special references to their ordered architecture and special references to their spatial distributions. This connective tissue is abundant into the muscles and is in continuity with the muscles in vicinity, with their tendons and their sheath, sticking the whole on skin. This connective tissue has also very abundant connections on the muscles fibres. It is then assumed that the connective tissue sticks every organs or cells of the locomotion system. Considering the elastic properties of the collagen fibres which are the most abundant component of connective tissue, it is possible to up light a panel of connective tissue associated functions such as the transmission of muscle contractions or the regulation of protein and energetic muscles metabolism.

  8. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor endocytosis. (United States)

    Schwartz, A L; Broze, G J


    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), a 42 kD protein, provides the physiological inhibition of tissue factor initiated coagulation by inhibition of both factor Xa and factor VIIa/tissue factor. In plasma, most TFPI is lipoprotein bound with an additional "releasable" pool bound to the endothelial cell surface. TFPI clearance is via receptor mediated endocytosis into liver. Heparin sulfate proteoglycans and LRP (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein), an extremely large (∼600 kD) cell surface protein, primarily mediate this clearance, although additional TFPI binding sites and endocytosis pathways exist. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997; 7:234-239). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. Force transmission in epithelial tissues. (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Martin, Adam C


    In epithelial tissues, cells constantly generate and transmit forces between each other. Forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton regulate tissue shape and structure and also provide signals that influence cells' decisions to divide, die, or differentiate. Forces are transmitted across epithelia because cells are mechanically linked through junctional complexes, and forces can propagate through the cell cytoplasm. Here, we review some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for force generation, with a specific focus on the actomyosin cortex and adherens junctions. We then discuss evidence for how these mechanisms promote cell shape changes and force transmission in tissues.

  10. Sustainable three-dimensional tissue model of human adipose tissue. (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Marra, Kacey G; Kaplan, David L


    The need for physiologically relevant sustainable human adipose tissue models is crucial for understanding tissue development, disease progression, in vitro drug development and soft tissue regeneration. The coculture of adipocytes differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells, with endothelial cells, on porous silk protein matrices for at least 6 months is reported, while maintaining adipose-like outcomes. Cultures were assessed for structure and morphology (Oil Red O content and CD31 expression), metabolic functions (leptin, glycerol production, gene expression for GLUT4, and PPARγ) and cell replication (DNA content). The cocultures maintained size and shape over this extended period in static cultures, while increasing in diameter by 12.5% in spinner flask culture. Spinner flask cultures yielded improved adipose tissue outcomes overall, based on structure and function, when compared to the static cultures. This work establishes a tissue model system that can be applied to the development of chronic metabolic dysfunction systems associated with human adipose tissue, such as obesity and diabetes, due to the long term sustainable functions demonstrated here.

  11. Soft tissue tumours: imaging strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, Herve J. [Institute Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Orbach, Daniel [Institute Curie, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Klijanienko, Jerzy [Institute Curie, Department of Pathology, Paris (France)


    Vascular tumours and malformations, fibrous and fibrohistiocytic tumours and pseudotumours are the most common benign soft-tissue masses observed in children, and can be treated conservatively. Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumours, accounting for about half of soft tissue sarcomas. A child referred for a soft-tissue mass should ideally be managed by a multidisciplinary team and primary excision should be proscribed until a definite diagnosis has been established. Clinical examination, conventional radiography and US with Doppler represent the first-line examinations and are sometimes sufficient to make a diagnosis. In all other situations, MRI is mandatory to establish the aggressiveness and extension of the tumour. This technique provides the relevant data to guide the decision regarding tissue sampling. (orig.)

  12. Er,Cr:YSGG 激光对老年人非龋性硬化牙本质粘结强度的影响%Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the Bonding strength of the elderly non-carious sclerotic dentin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 付强; 葛志华; 贾兴亚


    AIM:To evaluate the effect of Er , Cr:YSGG laser preparation on the bonding properties be-tween composite resin and the the sclerotic dentin of elderly subjects .METHODS:40 extracted premolars with cervi-cal wedge-shaped defect and sclerotic dentin on the surface from 60~70 year-old people were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=20).In the experimental group Er,Cr:YSGG laser was used for cavity preparation , in the control group regular burs with high-speed turbines was used for cavity preparation .The cavies of all teeth were filled with composite resin Filtek Z350.15 samples in each group were cut into dumbbell-shaped specimens with a bonding area of 1 mm2 . The micro-tensile bond strength (MBS) was tested on Instron 5848 Micro Tester.Each tooth of the remaining 5 sam-ples in each groupe were divided into two parts along buccolingual directions parallel to the long axis of the tooth .The bonding interface was observed by SEM .RESULTS: The MBS ( MPa ) of experimental and control groups was (35.24 ±7.05)MPa and(27.56 ±4.79)MPa respectively(P<0.05).SEM observation showed that hybrid layer be-tween sclerotic dentin and composite resin was thinner in experimental group , resin tags, and crystallizing column with-in dentinal tubules connected together tightly .CONCLUSION:Er,Cr:YSGG laser preparation can improve the bond strength between elderly non-carious sclerotic dentin and composite resin .%目的:评价Er,Cr:YSGG激光备洞对离体牙楔形缺损处非龋性硬化牙本质与复合树脂间粘结性能的影响。方法:选取40个颊侧颈部有楔形缺损的老年人(60~70岁)前磨牙,随机分2组(n=20),分别用Er,Cr:YSGG激光(实验组)和高速涡轮牙钻(对照组)备洞后,用复合树脂Filtek Z350进行充填;然后每组各取15个样本制备成粘结面积约为1 mm ×1 mm的哑铃形片状试件,用Instron 5848微力试验机测定其微拉伸粘结强度( MBS);每组剩余的另5个样本分别

  13. 中药五倍子对不同根面龋损提取非胶原蛋白后再矿化的影响%Re-mineralization Ability of Galla Chinensis Extracts on Root Carious Lesions with or without Non-collagen Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阙克华; 郭斌; 王博; 粱倩倩; 谢红慧


    目的 体外观察人工形成的牛牙根面龋提取非胶原蛋白前后,中药五倍子对人工龋再矿化的影响.方法 体外37℃恒温箱中,两种脱矿溶液中用牛牙模拟人牙形成不同形态根而龋模型(酸蚀性病损和表层下脱矿).每组随机选择两个样本用偏光显微镜(PLM)观察表面形态;用盐溶液提取根面龋暴露区的可溶性牙本质磷蛋白(S-DPP),在恒温箱中用五倍子多酚化合物(GCE)对提取非胶原蛋白前后的根面龋同时进行再矿化循环7d,用激光共聚焦扫描显微镜(LSCM)观察样本并分析平均荧光量.结果 PLM观察显示表层下脱矿形成了较完好的表层,而酸蚀性病损则无表层形成.LSCM分析结果显示在酸蚀性病损形态下提取S-DPP后GCE处理荧光强度明显下降(P<0.05),而在表层下脱矿形态下提取S-DPP前后GCE处理荧光强度无明显差异(P>0.05).结论 在酸蚀性病损条件下提取S-DDP后GCE可能有更高的再矿化效果.%Objective To evaluate the re-mineralization ability of Galla Chinensis extracts (GCE) on two artificial carious lesions in bovine root de-mineralized in vitro. Methods Fourteen bovine root blocks were divided into two parts from buccal to lingual direction. The mesial blocks were treated with a demineralization solution and the distant blocks were treated with another demineralization solution. Two specimens from each group were selected randomly and examined with polarization microscope (PLM). After all blocks were demineralized, half surface of the demineralized zone was covered and the another half was treated with 0. 5 % NaCl to extract soluble dentin phosphate protein (S-DPP). Then all specimens were submitted to pH-cycling for one week. In the first four days, all specimens were treated with GCE for 21 h and with demineralization solution for 3 h. In the remaining three days, all specimens were treated with GCE. The re-mineralization ability of GCE on the specimens was evaluated by

  14. [Connective tissue diseases in adolescents]. (United States)

    Peitz, J; Tantcheva-Poór, I


    In this article we provide a brief review of systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic scleroderma, and mixed connective tissue disease in adolescents. As skin manifestations often belong to the presenting symptoms and may have a significant impact on the quality of life, dermatologists play an important role in the management of patients with connective tissue diseases. Early diagnosis and therapy onset are crucial for the patients' long-term outcome.

  15. Mechanobiology and Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Céline; HUSELSTEIN; Natalia; de; ISLA; Sylvaine; MULLER; Jean-Franois; STOLTZ


    1 IntroductionThe cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue in joints that withstands and distributes mechanical forces. Chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to maintain tissue homeostasis. They regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Although some of the mechanisms of mechanotransduction are known today, there are certainly many others left unrevealed. Different topics of chondrocytes mechanobiology have led to the de...

  16. Carbon nanotubes in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Bosi, Susanna; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio


    As a result of their peculiar features, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging in many areas of nanotechnology applications. CNT-based technology has been increasingly proposed for biomedical applications, to develop biomolecule nanocarriers, bionanosensors and smart material for tissue engineering purposes. In the following chapter this latter application will be explored, describing why CNTs can be considered an ideal material able to support and boost the growth and the proliferation of many kinds of tissues.

  17. Tissue culture: the unrealized potential


    Sato, Gordon


    Lack of differentiated functions of the tissue of origin in tissue culture thought to be due to dedifferentiation was shown to be due to selective overgrowth of fibroblasts. Enrichment culture techniques, (alternate animal and culture passage), designed to give the functionally differentiated cells selective advantage over the fibroblasts resulted in a large number of functionally differentiated clonal strains. Thus the dogma of dedifferentiation was destroyed. It is proposed to substitute th...

  18. Analise Termodinamica da aceleracao de uma massa

    CERN Document Server

    De Abreu, R


    We analyse the acceleration of a mass with a simple structure taking into account Thermodynamics. Two situations are analysed. The first one for the application of a localized force to a point of the mass. The second one for the application of a force to the entire mass. The two situations are not equivalent. For the first situation we have an increase of temperature of the mass, resulting from an internal damping, during a transient.

  19. [Soft tissue rheumatism in erderly]. (United States)

    Szczepański, Leszek


    Disorders of soft, peri-articular tissues are a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in elderly patients. Nevertheless, most physicians underestimate the role of soft tissue rheumatism in the pathomechanism of the pain. The impairments of soft tissue can not be diagnosed by X-rays examinations, whereas degenerative lesions of joints are easy diagnosed using this method even despite of their uncertain role in producing the symptoms. The incidence of pain syndromes originated from soft tissues differ regarding to the age of patients. In young subjects the incidence of all of them is generally low. Syndromes provoked by overloading during work: repetitive strain syndrome, canal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, golfers elbow, shoulder tendon coin disorders and myofascial pain syndrome are common in middle-aged patients. The morbidity of fibromialgia syndrome is also lower in old people probably as the result of diminished numbers and degenerative changes in nociceptive fibers. The syndromes prevailing in elderly patients include trochanteric syndrome and the pain syndromes provoked by muscle spasm depended on posture abnormalities. In the soft tissue pain syndrome prevention adapted to old age kinesitherapy and avoiding muscle overloading are recommended. Soft tissue pain syndromes are usually treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. In local pain syndromes better results can be obtained by local treatment. Local injections of glikocorticosteroids are usually very effective and safe.

  20. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Tissue Engineered Bone Tissue Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Eriberto


    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering strategies are emerging as attractive alternatives to autografts and allografts in bone tissue reconstruction, in particular thanks to their association with nanotechnologies. Nanostructured biomaterials, indeed, mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM of the natural bone, creating an artificial microenvironment that promotes cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. At the same time, the possibility to easily isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different adult tissues together with their multi-lineage differentiation potential makes them an interesting tool in the field of bone tissue engineering. This review gives an overview of the most promising nanostructured biomaterials, used alone or in combination with MSCs, which could in future be employed as bone substitutes. Recent works indicate that composite scaffolds made of ceramics/metals or ceramics/polymers are undoubtedly more effective than the single counterparts in terms of osteoconductivity, osteogenicity and osteoinductivity. A better understanding of the interactions between MSCs and nanostructured biomaterials will surely contribute to the progress of bone tissue engineering.

  1. Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas (United States)

    ... Stage Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treating Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Radiation therapy uses ... spread. This is called palliative treatment . Types of radiation therapy External beam radiation therapy: For this treatment, ...

  2. Multiphoton tomography for tissue engineering (United States)

    König, Karsten


    Femtosecond laser multiphoton tomography has been employed in the field of tissue engineering to perform 3D high-resolution imaging of the extracellular matrix proteins elastin and collagen as well as of living cells without any fixation, slicing, and staining. Near infrared 80 MHz picojoule femtosecond laser pulses are able to excite the endogenous fluorophores NAD(P)H, flavoproteins, melanin, and elastin via a non-resonant two-photon excitation process. In addition, collagen can be imaged by second harmonic generation. Using a two-PMT detection system, the ratio of elastin to collagen was determined during optical sectioning. A high submicron spatial resolution and 50 picosecond temporal resolution was achieved using galvoscan mirrors and piezodriven focusing optics as well as a time-correlated single photon counting module with a fast microchannel plate detector and fast photomultipliers. Multiphoton tomography has been used to optimize the tissue engineering of heart valves and vessels in bioincubators as well as to characterize artificial skin. Stem cell characterization and manipulation are of major interest for the field of tissue engineering. Using the novel sub-20 femtosecond multiphoton nanoprocessing laser microscope FemtOgene, the differentiation of human stem cells within spheroids has been in vivo monitored with submicron resolution. In addition, the efficient targeted transfection has been demonstrated. Clinical studies on the interaction of tissue-engineered products with the natural tissue environment can be performed with in vivo multiphoton tomograph DermaInspect.

  3. Tissue engineering chamber promotes adipose tissue regeneration in adipose tissue engineering models through induced aseptic inflammation. (United States)

    Peng, Zhangsong; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Zhan, Weiqing; Zeng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shengchang; Lu, Feng


    Tissue engineering chamber (TEC) makes it possible to generate significant amounts of mature, vascularized, stable, and transferable adipose tissue. However, little is known about the role of the chamber in tissue engineering. Therefore, to investigate the role of inflammatory response and the change in mechanotransduction started by TEC after implantation, we placed a unique TEC model on the surface of the groin fat pads in rats to study the expression of cytokines and tissue development in the TEC. The number of infiltrating cells was counted, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression levels in the chamber at multiple time points postimplantation were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tissue samples were collected at various time points and labeled for specific cell populations. The result showed that new adipose tissue formed in the chamber at day 60. Also, the expression of MCP-1 and VEGF in the chamber decreased slightly from an early stage as well as the number of the infiltrating cells. A large number of CD34+/perilipin- perivascular cells could be detected at day 30. Also, the CD34+/perilipin+ adipose precursor cell numbers increased sharply by day 45 and then decreased by day 60. CD34-/perilipin+ mature adipocytes were hard to detect in the chamber content at day 30, but their number increased and then peaked at day 60. Ki67-positive cells could be found near blood vessels and their number decreased sharply over time. Masson's trichrome showed that collagen was the dominant component of the chamber content at early stage and was replaced by newly formed small adipocytes over time. Our findings suggested that the TEC implantation could promote the proliferation of adipose precursor cells derived from local adipose tissue, increase angiogenesis, and finally lead to spontaneous adipogenesis by inducing aseptic inflammation and changing local mechanotransduction.

  4. Adipokines in connective tissue diseases. (United States)

    Sawicka, Karolina; Krasowska, Dorota


    Adipokines, pleiotropic molecules produced by white adipose tissue (WAT) have attracted the attention of scientists since 1994. The role of adipokines in metabolic syndrome is known and fixed. Adipokines exerting a variety of metabolic activities have contributed to the ethiopathogenesis and the consequences of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, adipokines are involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and autoimmunity in the light of pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases. Given some evidence for the influence of adipokines in metabolic syndrome, there may be a link between CVDs and rheumatic diseases. This review provides an overview of the literature focusing on the role of adipokines in rheumatic diseases by putting special emphasis on the potential role of leptin, resistin, adiponectin, chemerin, visfatin and novel adipokines in connective tissue diseases.

  5. Aluminium in human breast tissue. (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Charles, Lisa M; Barr, Lester; Martin, Claire; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa D


    Aluminium is omnipresent in everyday life and increased exposure is resulting in a burgeoning body burden of this non-essential metal. Personal care products are potential contributors to the body burden of aluminium and recent evidence has linked breast cancer with aluminium-based antiperspirants. We have used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) to measure the aluminium content in breast biopsies obtained following mastectomies. The aluminium content of breast tissue and breast tissue fat were in the range 4-437 nmol/g dry wt. and 3-192 nmol/g oil, respectively. The aluminium content of breast tissue in the outer regions (axilla and lateral) was significantly higher (P=0.033) than the inner regions (middle and medial) of the breast. Whether differences in the regional distribution of aluminium in the breast are related to the known higher incidence of tumours in the outer upper quadrant of the breast remains to be ascertained.

  6. Guided tissue regeneration. Absorbable barriers. (United States)

    Wang, H L; MacNeil, R L


    Over the past 15 years, techniques aimed at regeneration of lost periodontal tissue have become widely used and accepted in clinical practice. Among these techniques are those which use the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR), wherein barriers (i.e., membranes) are used to control cell and tissue repopulation of the periodontal wound. A variety of non-absorbable and absorbable barriers have been developed and used for this purpose, with a trend in recent years toward increased use of absorbable GTR materials. This article describes the evolution of absorbable barrier materials and overview materials available for clinical use today. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of these materials are discussed, as well as possible new developments in barrier-based GTR therapy.

  7. Pleura: In connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha


    Full Text Available Connective tissue diseases (CTDs (or collagen vascular diseases represent a heterogeneous group of immunologically mediated disorders that affects many organs of the body including pleura. Frequency, presentation, and prognosis of pleural involvement depend on the underlying CTD. Connective tissue disorders may be heritable such as Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta; and autoimmune such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic sclerosis, mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sjögren's syndrome (SS, dermatomyositis (DM, and polymyositis (PM. The subject of this review is to describe the variety of pleural disorders observed in the most frequent types of CTD: SLE, RA, scleroderma, SS, DM, PM, and MCTD.

  8. Porous decellularized adipose tissue foams for soft tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Yu, Claire; Bianco, Juares; Brown, Cody; Fuetterer, Lydia; Watkins, John F; Samani, Abbas; Flynn, Lauren E


    To design tissue-specific bioscaffolds with well-defined properties and 3-D architecture, methods were developed for preparing porous foams from enzyme-solubilized human decellularized adipose tissue (DAT). Additionally, a technique was established for fabricating "bead foams" comprised of interconnected networks of porous DAT beads fused through a controlled freeze-thawing and lyophilization procedure. In characterization studies, the foams were stable without the need for chemical crosslinking, with properties that could be tuned by controlling the protein concentration and freezing rate during synthesis. Adipogenic differentiation studies with human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) suggested that stiffness influenced ASC adipogenesis on the foams. In support of our previous work with DAT scaffolds and microcarriers, the DAT foams and bead foams strongly supported adipogenesis and were also adipo-inductive, as demonstrated by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) enzyme activity, endpoint RT-PCR analysis of adipogenic gene expression, and intracellular lipid accumulation. Adipogenic differentiation was enhanced on the microporous DAT foams, potentially due to increased cell-cell interactions in this group. In vivo assessment in a subcutaneous Wistar rat model demonstrated that the DAT bioscaffolds were well tolerated and integrated into the host tissues, supporting angiogenesis and adipogenesis. The DAT-based foams induced a strong angiogenic response, promoted inflammatory cell migration and gradually resorbed over the course of 12 weeks, demonstrating potential as scaffolds for wound healing and soft tissue regeneration.

  9. [Endotracheal dystopia of thyroid tissue]. (United States)

    Otte, T; Kleinsasser, O


    Endotracheal ectopic thyroid tissue is rare. It can cause gradual obstruction of the tracheal lumen culminating in sudden dyspnoea. The diagnosis is relatively easy to make with the aid of a laryngeal mirror, by endoscopy, or by x-rays. However, it is most important to take the clinical picture into consideration. It is thought that the ectopic tissue arises from splitting of the thyroid gland during the descent in the embryonal stage. Treatment consists of removal via a tracheofissure. The tracheal mucous membrane must be treated with special care to prevent cicatricial stenosis of the trachea.

  10. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  11. Soft Tissue Engineering with Micronized-Gingival Connective Tissues. (United States)

    Noda, Sawako; Sumita, Yoshinori; Ohba, Seigo; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Asahina, Izumi


    The free gingival graft (FGG) and connective tissue graft (CTG) are currently considered to be the gold standards for keratinized gingival tissue reconstruction and augmentation. However, these procedures have some disadvantages in harvesting large grafts, such as donor-site morbidity as well as insufficient gingival width and thickness at the recipient site post-treatment. To solve these problems, we focused on an alternative strategy using micronized tissue transplantation (micro-graft). In this study, we first investigated whether transplantation of micronized gingival connective tissues (MGCTs) promotes skin wound healing. MGCTs (≤100 µm) were obtained by mincing a small piece (8 mm(3) ) of porcine keratinized gingiva using the RIGENERA system. The MGCTs were then transplanted to a full skin defect (5 mm in diameter) on the dorsal surface of immunodeficient mice after seeding to an atelocollagen matrix. Transplantations of atelocollagen matrixes with and without micronized dermis were employed as experimental controls. The results indicated that MGCTs markedly promote the vascularization and epithelialization of the defect area 14 days after transplantation compared to the experimental controls. After 21 days, complete wound closure with low contraction was obtained only in the MGCT grafts. Tracking analysis of transplanted MGCTs revealed that some mesenchymal cells derived from MGCTs can survive during healing and may function to assist in wound healing. We propose here that micro-grafting with MGCTs represents an alternative strategy for keratinized tissue reconstruction that is characterized by low morbidity and ready availability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Xu; T.J.Lu; K.A.Seffen


    Advances in laser,microwave and similar tech nologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue.The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal,mechanical,biological and neural responses of the affected tissue:a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects.Currently,even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood,none exists to date in the interdisciplinarv area.A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin,involving bioheat transfer.biomechanics and physiology.A comprehensive literature review penrtinent to the subject is presented in this paper,covering four subject areas:(a)skin structure,(b)skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage,(c)skin biomechanics,and(d)skin biothermomechanics.The major problems,issues,and topics for further studies are also outlined.This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years.Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue,the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

  13. History of plant tissue culture. (United States)

    Thorpe, Trevor


    Plant tissue culture, or the aseptic culture of cells, tissues, organs, and their components under defined physical and chemical conditions in vitro, is an important tool in both basic and applied studies as well as in commercial application. It owes its origin to the ideas of the German scientist, Haberlandt, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The early studies led to root cultures, embryo cultures, and the first true callus/tissue cultures. The period between the 1940s and the 1960s was marked by the development of new techniques and the improvement of those that were already in use. It was the availability of these techniques that led to the application of tissue culture to five broad areas, namely, cell behavior (including cytology, nutrition, metabolism, morphogenesis, embryogenesis, and pathology), plant modification and improvement, pathogen-free plants and germplasm storage, clonal propagation, and product (mainly secondary metabolite) formation, starting in the mid-1960s. The 1990s saw continued expansion in the application of the in vitro technologies to an increasing number of plant species. Cell cultures have remained an important tool in the study of basic areas of plant biology and biochemistry and have assumed major significance in studies in molecular biology and agricultural biotechnology in the twenty-first century. The historical development of these in vitro technologies and their applications is the focus of this chapter.

  14. Hypothalamic control of adipose tissue. (United States)

    Stefanidis, A; Wiedmann, N M; Adler, E S; Oldfield, B J


    A detailed appreciation of the control of adipose tissue whether it be white, brown or brite/beige has never been more important to the development of a framework on which to build therapeutic strategies to combat obesity. This is because 1) the rate of fatty acid release into the circulation from lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) is integrally important to the development of obesity, 2) brown adipose tissue (BAT) has now moved back to center stage with the realization that it is present in adult humans and, in its activated form, is inversely proportional to levels of obesity and 3) the identification and characterization of "brown-like" or brite/beige fat is likely to be one of the most exciting developments in adipose tissue biology in the last decade. Central to all of these developments is the role of the CNS in the control of different fat cell functions and central to CNS control is the integrative capacity of the hypothalamus. In this chapter we will attempt to detail key issues relevant to the structure and function of hypothalamic and downstream control of WAT and BAT and highlight the importance of developing an understanding of the neural input to brite/beige fat cells as a precursor to its recruitment as therapeutic target.

  15. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L


    of about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  16. Platelets, inflammation and tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Nurden, Alan T


    Blood platelets have long been recognised to bring about primary haemostasis with deficiencies in platelet production and function manifesting in bleeding while upregulated function favourises arterial thrombosis. Yet increasing evidence indicates that platelets fulfil a much wider role in health and disease. First, they store and release a wide range of biologically active substances including the panoply of growth factors, chemokines and cytokines released from a-granules. Membrane budding gives rise to microparticles (MPs), another active participant within the blood stream. Platelets are essential for the innate immune response and combat infection (viruses, bacteria, micro-organisms). They help maintain and modulate inflammation and are a major source of pro-inflammatory molecules (e.g. P-selectin, tissue factor, CD40L, metalloproteinases). As well as promoting coagulation, they are active in fibrinolysis; wound healing, angiogenesis and bone formation as well as in maternal tissue and foetal vascular remodelling. Activated platelets and MPs intervene in the propagation of major diseases. They are major players in atherosclerosis and related diseases, pathologies of the central nervous system (Alzheimers disease, multiple sclerosis), cancer and tumour growth. They participate in other tissue-related acquired pathologies such as skin diseases and allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, liver disease; while, paradoxically, autologous platelet-rich plasma and platelet releasate are being used as an aid to promote tissue repair and cellular growth. The above mentioned roles of platelets are now discussed.

  17. Epigenetics in plant tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Klerk, de G.J.M.


    Plants produced vegetatively in tissue culture may differ from the plants from which they have been derived. Two major classes of off-types occur: genetic ones and epigenetic ones. This review is about epigenetic aberrations. We discuss recent studies that have uncovered epigenetic modifications at

  18. Ultrasound tomography of breast tissue (United States)

    Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter J.; Holsapple, Earle; Babkin, Alex; Duncan, Robert; Kalinin, Arkady; Pevzner, Roman; Tokarev, Michael


    The Karmanos Cancer Institute is developing an ultrasound device for measuring and imaging acoustic parameters of human tissue. This paper discusses the experimental results relating to tomographic reconstructions of phantoms and tissue. The specimens were scanned by the prototype scanner at a frequency of 1.5 MHz using 2 microsecond pulses. The receivers and transmitters were positioned along a ring trajectory having a diameter of 20 cm. The ring plane is translated in the vertical direction allowing for 3-D reconstructions from stacked 2-D planes of data. All ultrasound scans were performed at 10 millimeter slice thickness to generate multiple tomographic images. In a previous SPIE paper we presented preliminary results of ultrasound tomographic reconstruction of formalin-fixed breast tissue. We now present new results from data acquired with the scanner. Images were constructed using both reflection-based and transmission based algorithms. The resulting images demonstrate the ability to detect sub-mm features and to measure acoustic properties such as sound speed. Comparison with conventional ultrasound indicates the potential for better margin definition and acoustic characterization of tissue.

  19. Radiotherapy of hypertrophic connective tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, W.


    Peyronie's disease, Dupuytren's contractures and keloids produce similar pathologic-anatomic alterations of hypertrophic tissue. Different therapeutic modalities are presented in detail. The radiation therapy is one of the most effective treatments. Radiation technique, dose and fractionation are discussed. The results of the different modalities are reviewed.

  20. Calcifying tissue regeneration via biomimetic materials chemistry


    Green, David W.; Goto, Tazuko K.; Kim, Kye-Seong; Jung, Han-Sung


    Materials chemistry is making a fundamental impact in regenerative sciences providing many platforms for tissue development. However, there is a surprising paucity of replacements that accurately mimic the structure and function of the structural fabric of tissues or promote faithful tissue reconstruction. Methodologies in biomimetic materials chemistry have shown promise in replicating morphologies, architectures and functional building blocks of acellular mineralized tissues dentine, enamel...

  1. Histopathology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.


    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a generalized term incorporating a disseminated collection of lymphoid tissues in multiple sites throughout the body. MALT sites that have been/are primarily studied include bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT),

  2. Membrane supported scaffold : architectures for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettahalli, Narasimha Murthy Srivatsa


    Tissue engineering aims at restoring or regenerating a damaged tissue. Often the tissue recreation occurs by combining cells, derived from a patient biopsy, onto a 3D porous matrix, functioning as a scaffold. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is the inability to provide sufficie

  3. Fetal tissue transplant research: ethical dilemmas. (United States)

    Farnam, C R


    The transplant of cells from fetal tissue shows promise as a therapy for certain diseases. The use and research of fetal tissue, and methods of obtaining the tissue, have raised ethical dilemmas. Consideration must be given concerning the mother, the fetus, and the tissue recipient.

  4. 21 CFR 878.4010 - Tissue adhesive. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tissue adhesive. 878.4010 Section 878.4010 Food... DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4010 Tissue adhesive. (a) Tissue adhesive for the topical approximation of skin—(1) Identification. A tissue adhesive for the...

  5. A Team Approach to Improving Tissue Management. (United States)

    Sions, Jacqueline A; Cheuvront, Kimberly A; Grove, Georgiana L; Beach, Myra J; Bowers, Jay W; Cendaña, Cinthia R; Hixson, Jesse R; Wilson, Mary C


    Tissue implant management can be labor intensive because of multiple storage locations and cumbersome tracking systems. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to enhance patient safety and nursing satisfaction by upgrading our tissue-management facility and processes. We created a centralized storage room for tissue implants and staffed this room during all shifts. Tissue management was executed using tracking software and transportation devices that supported tissue receipt, storage, disposition, documentation, and reporting. Our project resulted in our full compliance with tissue implant requirements from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission. We also reduced our documentation error rate from 3% to less than 1%, and decreased the tissue-expiration rate by 1.1%. Tissues are now delivered to ORs, which allows RNs to focus on patient care rather than retrieval of implants. Monitoring of the tissue inventory has improved, resulting in the reduction of tissue wastage.

  6. Informing tendon tissue engineering with embryonic development


    Glass, Zachary A.; Schiele, Nathan R.; Kuo, Catherine K


    Tendon is a strong connective tissue that transduces muscle-generated forces into skeletal motion. In fulfilling this role, tendons are subjected to repeated mechanical loading and high stress, which may result in injury. Tissue engineering with stem cells offers the potential to replace injured/damaged tissue with healthy, new living tissue. Critical to tendon tissue engineering is the induction and guidance of stem cells towards the tendon phenotype. Typical strategies hav...

  7. Analysis of dose in heterogeneity adjuvant radiotherapy after surgical treatment of cases of breast cancer; Analise da heterogeneidade de dose em radioterapia adjuvante apos tratamento cirurgico de casos de cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechi, Bruna E.; Schwarz, Ana Paula, E-mail: [Centro Universitario Franciscano (UNIFRA), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Teston, Adriano; Rodrigues, Joanilso S. [Clinica de Radioterapia Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)


    Assuming the systems planning radiotherapy recognize all body structures of the same density (d=1 g/cm³), variations in electron density within the irradiated area, as is the case of patients who undergo reconstruction mammary processes and use tissue expanders, may influence the dose distribution in the treatment and may produce heterogeneities which are not measured by changing its actual distribution into healthy tissues or in the target volume to be irradiated. Through the calculation of the algorithms' dose distribution of the XiO® planning system (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition e Clarkson), when using correction of heterogeneity between tissues of different densities, there was obtained a percentage ratio of dose increase in the structures of interest, and of the amount of absorbed dose by healthy organs adjacent to the target volume. (author)

  8. Mechanical formalism for tissue dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tlili, Sham; Graner, Francois; Marcq, Philippe; MOLINO, François; Saramito, Pierre


    The understanding of morphogenesis in living organisms has been renewed by tremendous progress in experimental techniques that provide access to cell-scale, quantitative information both on the shapes of cells within tissues and on the genes being expressed. This information suggests that our understanding of the respective contributions of gene expression and mechanics, and of their crucial entanglement, will soon leap forward. Biomechanics increasingly benefits from models, which assist the design and interpretation of experiments, point out the main ingredients and assumptions, and can ultimately lead to predictions. The newly accessible local information thus urges for a reflection on how to select suitable classes of mechanical models. We review both mechanical ingredients suggested by the current knowledge of tissue behaviour, and modelling methods that can help generate a constitutive equation. We also recall the mathematical framework developped for continuum materials and how to transform a constitut...

  9. Tissue Biopsies in Diabetes Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning


    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance in major metabolic tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver and fat cells, and failure of the pancreatic ß-cells to compensate for this abnormality (1,2). Skeletal muscle is the major site of glucose disposal in response to insulin, and insulin...... resistance of glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis in this tissue are hallmark features of type 2 diabetes in humans (2,3). During the past two decades, we have carried out more than 1200 needle biopsies of skeletal muscle to study the cellular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes....... Together with morphological studies, measurement of energy stores and metabolites, enzyme activity and phosphorylation, gene and protein expression in skeletal muscle biopsies have revealed a variety of cellular abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. The possibility to establish...

  10. Distribution Principle of Bone Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu


    Using the analytic and experimental techniques we present an exploratory study of the mass distribution features of the high coincidence of centre of mass of heterogeneous bone tissue in vivo and its centroid of geometry position. A geometric concept of the average distribution radius of bone issue is proposed and functional relation of this geometric distribution feature between the partition density and its relative tissue average distribution radius is observed. Based upon the mass distribution feature, our results suggest a relative distance assessment index between the center of mass of cortical bone and the bone center of mass and establish a bone strength equation. Analysing the data of human foot in vivo, we notice that the mass and geometric distribution laws have expanded the connotation of Wolff's law, which implies a leap towards the quantitative description of bone strength. We finally conclude that this will not only make a positive contribution to help assess osteoporosis, but will also provide...

  11. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue in gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylhin Joana Lopez Marcano


    Full Text Available The heterotopic pancreas (PH is the atypical presence of pancreatic tissue without any anatomic or vascular continuity with the pancreas. PH is a rare condition that can be observed at any level of the gastrointestinal tract and even in other organs. Histopathological characterization of PH allows surgeons to distinguish it from other lesions. Although it is usually a benign and asymptomatic disease, it can occasionally cause complications (obstruction, hemorrhage, inflammation, or malignant transformation. In conclusion, localization in the gallbladder in the few cases of PH is very rare. We present two cases in which, after cholecystectomy indicated by other causes, in the pathological study of the surgical specimen, type 2 pancreatic tissue was found according to the Heinrich classification. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 250-253

  12. Fluorescence diagnosis in tissue injury (United States)

    Maciel, Vitória H.; Ferreira, Juliana; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.


    Background and Objectives: The paper aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the fluorescence spectroscopy in the detection of UV-induced skin change of Wistar rats. Study Design/ Materials and Methods: In a group male Wistar rats, the skin damage was produced by an UV-C lamp, periodically monitored using the laser-induced fluorescence, until complete healing process. After determining a characteristic emission band present in the fluorescence spectra of the induced injuries, the amplitude band monitoring allowed the follow up on the injury and the recovery. Results: We observed the appearance of two new emission bands more evident at the injury spectra when compared to the spectrums from normal non-exposed tissue. Following such spectral bands was possible to observe the establishment and recovery. Conclusions: The fluorescence spectroscopy is a promising technique in distinguishing between normal and UV induced skin change helping the evaluation of changes which are irreversible cancer tissue characteristics.

  13. Photoacoustic microscopy in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai


    Full Text Available Photoacoustic tomography (PAT is an attractive modality for noninvasive, volumetric imaging of scattering media such as biological tissues. By choosing the ultrasonic detection frequency, PAT enables scalable spatial resolution with an imaging depth of up to ∼7 cm while maintaining a high depth-to-resolution ratio of ∼200 and consistent optical absorption contrasts. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM, the microscopic embodiment of PAT, aims to image at millimeter depth and micrometer-scale resolution. PAM is well-suited for characterizing three-dimensional scaffold-based samples, including scaffolds themselves, cells, and blood vessels, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we review our previous work on applications of PAM in tissue engineering and then discuss its future developments.

  14. Electrical breakdown in tissue electroporation. (United States)

    Guenther, Enric; Klein, Nina; Mikus, Paul; Stehling, Michael K; Rubinsky, Boris


    Electroporation, the permeabilization of the cell membrane by brief, high electric fields, has become an important technology in medicine for diverse application ranging from gene transfection to tissue ablation. There is ample anecdotal evidence that the clinical application of electroporation is often associated with loud sounds and extremely high currents that exceed the devices design limit after which the devices cease to function. The goal of this paper is to elucidate and quantify the biophysical and biochemical basis for this phenomenon. Using an experimental design that includes clinical data, a tissue phantom, sound, optical, ultrasound and MRI measurements, we show that the phenomenon is caused by electrical breakdown across ionized electrolysis produced gases near the electrodes. The breakdown occurs primarily near the cathode. Electrical breakdown during electroporation is a biophysical phenomenon of substantial importance to the outcome of clinical applications. It was ignored, until now.

  15. Tissue regeneration the material enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsh


    Full Text Available The potential rewards are well worth the effort. Estimates in the US put the number of patients on transplant waiting lists at over 75,000. Recent figures from the United Network for Organ Sharing indicate that around 5% of these die while waiting for a transplant organ to become available. Interest and investment levels are high—the US National Institute of Standards and Technology's Advanced Technology Program has poured millions of dollars into tissue engineering product development and the National Institute of Health set up a working group last year. Several biotech companies have sprung up to meet demand, such as Organogenesis and Advanced Tissue Sciences (ATS. Gail Naughton, president of ATS, was named the 2000 National Inventor of the Year for her pioneering work in this field.

  16. Intraluminal tissue welding for anastomosis (United States)

    Glinsky, Michael; London, Richard; Zimmerman, George; Jacques, Steven


    A method and device are provided for performing intraluminal tissue welding for anastomosis of a hollow organ. A retractable catheter assembly is delivered through the hollow organ and consists of a catheter connected to an optical fiber, an inflatable balloon, and a biocompatible patch mounted on the balloon. The disconnected ends of the hollow organ are brought together on the catheter assembly, and upon inflation of the balloon, the free ends are held together on the balloon to form a continuous channel while the patch is deployed against the inner wall of the hollow organ. The ends are joined or "welded" using laser radiation transmitted through the optical fiber to the patch. A thin layer of a light-absorbing dye on the patch can provide a target for welding. The patch may also contain a bonding agent to strengthen the bond. The laser radiation delivered has a pulse profile to minimize tissue damage.

  17. Endoscopic tissue diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harewood, Gavin C


    The extremely poor outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, in large part, reflects the late presentation of these tumors and the challenging nature of establishing a tissue diagnosis. Establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma requires obtaining evidence of malignancy from sampling of the epithelium of the biliary tract, which has proven to be challenging. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration performs slightly better than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, both endoscopic approaches demonstrate disappointing performance characteristics.

  18. Biomedical advances from tissue culture


    Okamoto, Tetsuji; Sato, J. Denry; Barnes, David W.; Sato, Gordon H.


    The demonstration that the “dedifferentiation” of cells commonly observed in the early days of tissue culture was due to selective overgrowth of fibroblasts led to enrichment culture techniques (alternate animal and culture passage) designed to give a selective advantage to functionally differentiated tumor cells. These experiments resulted in the derivation of a large number of functionally differentiated clonal strains of a range of cell types. These results gave rise to the hypothesis that...

  19. Adipose tissue, diet and aging. (United States)

    Zamboni, Mauro; Rossi, Andrea P; Fantin, Francesco; Zamboni, Giulia; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Zoico, Elena; Mazzali, Gloria


    Age related increase in body fat mass, visceral adipose tissue (AT), and ectopic fat deposition are strongly related to worse health conditions in the elderly. Moreover, with aging higher inflammation in adipose tissue may be observed and may contribute to inflammaging. Aging may significantly affect AT function by modifying the profile of adipokines produced by adipose cells, reducing preadipocytes number and their function and increasing AT macrophages infiltration. The initiating events of the inflammatory cascade promoting a greater AT inflammatory profile are not completely understood. Nutrients may determine changes in the amount of body fat, in its distribution as well as in AT function with some nutrients showing a pro-inflammatory effect on AT. Evidences are sparse and quite controversial with only a few studies performed in older subjects. Different dietary patterns are the result of the complex interaction of foods and nutrients, thus more studies are needed to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and changes in adipose tissue structure, distribution and function in the elderly.

  20. Gender determination from pulpal tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha M. Khorate


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of X (Barr body [BB] and Y (F body [FB] chromosomes observed in dental pulp tissue for gender determination of an individual. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 100 teeth (50 male and 50 female, which were indicated for extraction. The teeth were sectioned at various intervals (within 12 h to 49 days post-extraction, and the pulpal tissue was obtained. Two slides for each pulp tissue were prepared, one for 5% Quinacrine dihydrochloride stain (FB and the other for Hemotoxylin and Eosin stain (BB. The slides were then observed under the fluorescent microscope for FB and under the light microscope for the BB respectively. Results: Gender determination from human pulp is possible up to 7 weeks. The percentage of FB and BB decrease gradually as the time interval increases. Further, an equation was derived from the data based on the canonical discriminant function coefficients. Conclusion: The determination of gender based on a joint search for the presence or absence of X (BB and Y (FB Chromosome is a reliable and cost-effective technique.

  1. Adipose Tissue Immunity and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eCatalan


    Full Text Available Inflammation and altered immune response are important components of obesity and contribute greatly to the promotion of obesity-related metabolic complications, especially cancer development. Adipose tissue expansion is associated with increased infiltration of various types of immune cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells secrete proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines providing a microenvironment favourable for tumour growth. Accumulation of B and T cells in adipose tissue precedes macrophage infiltration causing a chronic low-grade inflammation. Phenotypic switching towards M1 macrophages and Th1 T cells constitutes an important mechanism described in the obese state correlating with increased tumour growth risk. Other possible synergic mechanisms causing a dysfunctional adipose tissue include fatty acid-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and hypoxia. Recent investigations have started to unravel the intricacy of the cross-talk between tumour cell/immune cell/adipocyte. In this sense, future therapies should take into account the combination of anti-inflammatory approaches that target the tumour microenvironment with more sophisticated and selective anti-tumoural drugs.

  2. Tissue/blood partition coefficients for xenon in various adipose tissue depots in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf; Astrup, A;


    Tissue/blood partition coefficients (lambda) for xenon were calculated for subcutaneous adipose tissue from the abdominal wall and the thigh, and for the perirenal adipose tissue after chemical analysis of the tissues for lipid, water and protein content. The lambda in the perirenal tissue...

  3. Hematopoietic stem cell origin of connective tissues. (United States)

    Ogawa, Makio; Larue, Amanda C; Watson, Patricia M; Watson, Dennis K


    Connective tissue consists of "connective tissue proper," which is further divided into loose and dense (fibrous) connective tissues and "specialized connective tissues." Specialized connective tissues consist of blood, adipose tissue, cartilage, and bone. In both loose and dense connective tissues, the principal cellular element is fibroblasts. It has been generally believed that all cellular elements of connective tissue, including fibroblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes, and bone cells, are generated solely by mesenchymal stem cells. Recently, a number of studies, including those from our laboratory based on transplantation of single hematopoietic stem cells, strongly suggested a hematopoietic stem cell origin of these adult mesenchymal tissues. This review summarizes the experimental evidence for this new paradigm and discusses its translational implications.

  4. Novel Utilization of Serum in Tissue Decellularization (United States)

    Gui, Liqiong; Chan, Stephen A.; Breuer, Christopher K.


    Decellularization of native tissues is a promising technique with numerous applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, there are various limitations of currently available decellularization methods, such as alteration of extracellular matrix mechanics and restricted use on certain tissues. This study was conducted to explore the effect of serum on the decellularization of various types of tissues. Fetal bovine serum–containing cell culture medium endothelial growth media-2 removed DNA but not cellular β-actin from human umbilical artery after detergent treatment, without compromising the tissue mechanical strength assessed by burst pressure. In addition, the effect of serum-containing endothelial growth media-2 on DNA removal was replicated in other types of tissues such as tissue-engineered vessels and myocardium. Other types of serum, including human serum, were also shown to remove DNA from detergent-pretreated tissues. In conclusion, we describe a novel utilization of serum that may have broad applications in tissue decellularization. PMID:19419244

  5. Forces in tissue morphogenesis and patterning. (United States)

    Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Bellaïche, Yohanns


    During development, mechanical forces cause changes in size, shape, number, position, and gene expression of cells. They are therefore integral to any morphogenetic processes. Force generation by actin-myosin networks and force transmission through adhesive complexes are two self-organizing phenomena driving tissue morphogenesis. Coordination and integration of forces by long-range force transmission and mechanosensing of cells within tissues produce large-scale tissue shape changes. Extrinsic mechanical forces also control tissue patterning by modulating cell fate specification and differentiation. Thus, the interplay between tissue mechanics and biochemical signaling orchestrates tissue morphogenesis and patterning in development.

  6. [Chondrocyte mecanobiology. Application in cartilage tissue engineering]. (United States)

    Stoltz, Jean François; Netter, Patrick; Huselstein, Céline; de Isla, Natalia; Wei Yang, Jing; Muller, Sylvaine


    Cartilage is a hydrated connective tissue that withstands and distributes mechanical forces within joints. Chondrocytes utilize mechanical signals to maintain cartilaginous tissue homeostasis. They regulate their metabolic activity through complex biological and biophysical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Some mechanotransduction mechanisms are known, while many others no doubt remain to be discovered. Various aspects of chondrocyte mechanobiology have been applied to tissue engineering, with the creation of replacement tissue in vitro from bioresorbable or non-bioresorbable scaffolds and harvested cells. The tissues are maintained in a near-physiologic mechanical and biochemical environment. This paper is an overview of both chondrocyte mechanobiology and cartilage tissue engineering

  7. Hounsfield unit dynamics of adipose tissue and non-adipose soft tissue in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcevoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;


    Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs.......Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs....

  8. Tissue culture of ornamental cacti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pérez-Molphe-Balch


    Full Text Available Cacti species are plants that are well adapted to growing in arid and semiarid regions where the main problem is water availability. Cacti have developed a series of adaptations to cope with water scarcity, such as reduced leaf surface via morphological modifications including spines, cereous cuticles, extended root systems and stem tissue modifications to increase water storage, and crassulacean acid metabolism to reduce transpiration and water loss. Furthermore, seeds of these plants very often exhibit dormancy, a phenomenon that helps to prevent germination when the availability of water is reduced. In general, cactus species exhibit a low growth rate that makes their rapid propagation difficult. Cacti are much appreciated as ornamental plants due to their great variety and diversity of forms and their beautiful short-life flowers; however, due to difficulties in propagating them rapidly to meet market demand, they are very often over-collected in their natural habitats, which leads to numerous species being threatened, endangered or becoming extinct. Therefore, plant tissue culture techniques may facilitate their propagation over a shorter time period than conventional techniques used for commercial purposes; or may help to recover populations of endangered or threatened species for their re-introduction in the wild; or may also be of value to the preservation and conservation of the genetic resources of this important family. Herein we present the state-of-the-art of tissue culture techniques used for ornamental cacti and selected suggestions for solving a number of the problems faced by members of the Cactaceae family.

  9. Autoimmune connective tissue disease: scleroderma. (United States)

    Wilson, Helen; Vincent, Rachel

    Scleroderma is an umbrella term for a spectrum of rare and complex autoimmune connective tissue diseases, the cause and pathogenesis of which is only partially defined. Scleroderma can be divided into two main subgroups--systemic and localized--but the hallmark of both is skin fibrosis. As yet no drug has been found to be effective in reversing the disease process, however early intervention has been shown to give maximum benefit. Due to the chronic nature of the condition a multidisciplinary approach is essential and the nurse's input from an early stage is vital in supporting the patient to manage both their medical treatment and their activities of daily living.

  10. Undulation Instability of Epithelial Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Basan, Markus; Prost, Jacques; Risler, Thomas; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.158101


    Treating the epithelium as an incompressible fluid adjacent to a viscoelastic stroma, we find a novel hydrodynamic instability that leads to the formation of protrusions of the epithelium into the stroma. This instability is a candidate for epithelial fingering observed in vivo. It occurs for sufficiently large viscosity, cell-division rate and thickness of the dividing region in the epithelium. Our work provides physical insight into a potential mechanism by which interfaces between epithelia and stromas undulate, and potentially by which tissue dysplasia leads to cancerous invasion.

  11. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. (United States)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D


    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  12. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik;


    Subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis was studied in vivo by Fick's arteriovenous (a-v) principle using either calculated (microdialysis) or directly measured (catheterization) adipose tissue venous glycerol concentration. We compared results during steady-state (rest and prolonged continuous...

  13. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  14. Hydrodynamic theory of tissue shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Popović, Marko; Merkel, Matthias; Etournay, Raphaël; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank; Salbreux, Guillaume


    We propose a hydrodynamic theory to describe shear flows in developing epithelial tissues. We introduce hydrodynamic fields corresponding to state properties of constituent cells as well as a contribution to overall tissue shear flow due to rearrangements in cell network topology. We then construct a constitutive equation for the shear rate due to topological rearrangements. We identify a novel rheological behaviour resulting from memory effects in the tissue. We show that anisotropic deformation of tissue and cells can arise from two distinct active cellular processes: generation of active stress in the tissue, and actively driven cellular rearrangements. These two active processes result in distinct cellular and tissue shape changes, depending on boundary conditions applied on the tissue. Our findings have consequences for the understanding of tissue morphogenesis during development.

  15. Rapid Prototyping Technology of Tissue Engineering Scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the modern medicine field, the transplant of organ and tissue is a big problem due to serious shortage of donor organ. Artificial organ and tissue is one of solutions. With the development of science, various tissue manufacture techniques emerged. Hereinto, due to its versatility both in materials and structure, rapid prototyping technology has become one of the important methods for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication in this field.

  16. Advanced tissue engineering in periodontal Regeneration


    Seyed Ali Banihashemrad


    The old wishes of people were to regenerate lost tissues of periodontium that this fact is achieved by gen and cell therapy .Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammation around the tooth by microbes that causes destruction of supporting structure of tissue of tooth such as alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament. For treatment of periodontal diseases we can use the biomaterials which help to regenerate the periodontal tissues like; autogenous bone grafts, allograft, guided tissue re...

  17. Soft Tissue Wounds and Principles of Healing (United States)


    tissues, the hemodynamic status, and the effects of sub- stances such as cortisone , vitamins A and C, and zinc [21]. Nutrition is a fac- tor that...plays a dominant role in hemostasis. In the tissues that are exposed from wounds involving the brain, lung , placenta, heart, and uterus, a tissue complex

  18. 75 FR 5115 - Tissue Paper From China (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Tissue Paper From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain tissue paper products from... antidumping duty order on certain tissue paper products from China would be likely to lead to continuation...

  19. Hard-Soft Tissue Interface Engineering. (United States)

    Armitage, Oliver E; Oyen, Michelle L


    The musculoskeletal system is comprised of three distinct tissue categories: structural mineralized tissues, actuating muscular soft tissues, and connective tissues. Where connective tissues - ligament, tendon and cartilage - meet with bones, a graded interface in mechanical properties occurs that allows the transmission of load without creating stress concentrations that would cause tissue damage. This interface typically occurs over less than 1 mm and contains a three order of magnitude difference in elastic stiffness, in addition to changes in cell type and growth factor concentrations among others. Like all engineered tissues, the replication of these interfaces requires the production of scaffolds that will provide chemical and mechanical cues, resulting in biologically accurate cellular differentiation. For interface tissues however, the scaffold must provide spatially graded chemical and mechanical cues over sub millimetre length scales. Naturally, this complicates the manufacture of the scaffolds and every stage of their subsequent cell seeding and growth, as each region has different optimal conditions. Given the higher degree of difficulty associated with replicating interface tissues compared to surrounding homogeneous tissues, it is likely that the development of complex musculoskeletal tissue systems will continue to be limited by the engineering of connective tissues interfaces with bone.

  20. Skeletal tissue engineering using embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jukes, Jojanneke Maria


    Tissue engineering aims at repairing or replacing damaged or diseased tissue. In this thesis, we investigated the potential of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for cartilage tissue engineering. After differentiation of mouse and human ESCs into the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineage had been established

  1. Towards improved scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandakumar, A.


    Tissue engineering aims to restore, maintain or improve tissue function of damaged tissues. In a classical set-up, a scaffold functions as a supporting structure and a carrier for growth factors and/or cells. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) have the ability to differentiate into bone, cartil

  2. Hydrophobicity of peritoneal tissues in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Bruinsma, GM; Rakhorst, G; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ


    In this study, an inventory of the hydrophobicity of peritoneal tissues in the living rat was made. Peritoneal tissues were divided into mesentery (i.e., omentum) and parietal and visceral peritoneum and their hydrophobicity was determined by the sessile drop method. All peritoneal tissues were hydr

  3. Extracellular matrix and tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Hugo; Moroni, Lorenzo; Blitterswijk, van Clemens; Boer, de Jan


    The extracellular matrix is a key component during regeneration and maintenance of tissues and organs, and it therefore plays a critical role in successful tissue engineering as well. Tissue engineers should recognise that engineering technology can be deduced from natural repair processes. Due to a

  4. Dielectric characterisation of human tissue samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, W.L. van; Nennie, F.; Deiana, D.; Veen, A.J. van der; Monni, S.


    The electrical properties of tissues samples are required for investigation and simulation purposes in biomedical applications of EM sensors. While available open literature mostly deals with ex-vivo characterization of isolated tissues, knowledge on dielectric properties of these tissues in their o

  5. Biokinetics analysis of I-131 and cytogenetic dosimetry in patients, after radionuclide administration for thyroid; Analise biocinetica do iodo-131 e dosimetria citogenetica em pacientes, apos administracao do radionuclideo para o tratamento de cancer de tireoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ana Cristina de Holanda


    Thyroid cancer patients are submitted to an oral administration of {sup 131} I in order to eliminate remanescent thyroid tissue, after subtotal thyroidectomy. The average activity administered in this treatment is 3.7 GBq (ablation dose), with significant irradiation of body tissues. However, there are no conclusive results on the literature about the radiation absorbed dose of these patients. The metabolic behaviour of radioiodine in 4 patients submitted to {sup 131} I ablation therapy doses was studied, through measurements of {sup 131} I in total body, thyroid and urine samples. Cytogenetic estimates of the radiation doses of these patients were obtained through chromosomal aberration analysis in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Our results suggest that ten days after ablation dose, almost all remanescent thyroid tissue will be eliminated and {sup 131} I will be homogeneously distributed through the patient's body. The retention of {sup 131} I in the body after the first ten days following the ablation dose may be mathematically represented by the sum of two exponential terms: the first and shorter one with a biological half-life approximately 3.2 days (effective half-life = 2.3 days) and the second one, with a biological half-life of approximately 26 days (effective half-life = 6.2 days). The absorbed dose using the average of the observed chromosomal aberrations yields in blood samples of all patients was estimated in the range of 0,3 to 0,4 Gy. (author)

  6. Systems biology characterization of engineered tissues. (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Padmavathy; Kasif, Simon; Murali, T M


    Tissue engineering and molecular systems biology are inherently interdisciplinary fields that have been developed independently so far. In this review, we first provide a brief introduction to tissue engineering and to molecular systems biology. Next, we highlight some prominent applications of systems biology techniques in tissue engineering. Finally, we outline research directions that can successfully blend these two fields. Through these examples, we propose that experimental and computational advances in molecular systems biology can lead to predictive models of bioengineered tissues that enhance our understanding of bioengineered systems. In turn, the unique challenges posed by tissue engineering will usher in new experimental techniques and computational advances in systems biology.

  7. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Wen Ting; Lu Tianjian; Seffen Keith


    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great problem for burn patients. Thus, it is of great importance to quantify the thermal damage in skin tissue. In this paper, the available models and experimental methods for quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue are discussed.

  8. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim


    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  9. Tissue simulating gel for medical research (United States)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)


    A tissue simulating gel and a method for preparing the tissue simulating gel are disclosed. The tissue simulating gel is prepared by a process using water, gelatin, ethylene glycol, and a cross-linking agent. In order to closely approximate the characteristics of the type of tissue being simulated, other material has been added to change the electrical, sound conducting, and wave scattering properties of the tissue simulating gel. The result of the entire process is a formulation that will not melt at the elevated temperatures involved in hyperthermia medical research. Furthermore, the tissue simulating gel will not support mold or bacterial growth, is of a sufficient mechanical strength to maintain a desired shape without a supporting shell, and is non-hardening and non-drying. Substances have been injected into the tissue simulating gel prior to the setting-up thereof just as they could be injected into actual tissue, and the tissue simulating gel is translucent so as to permit visual inspection of its interior. A polyurethane spray often used for coating circuit boards can be applied to the surface of the tissue simulating gel to give a texture similar to human skin, making the tissue simulating gel easier to handle and contributing to its longevity.

  10. Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases. (United States)

    Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Sciascia, Savino; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Roccatello, Dario; Alongi, Filippo


    The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity (dendritic cells) through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases. Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer. In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy.

  11. Tissue engineering of cartilages using biomatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melrose, J.; Chuang, C.; Whitelock, J.


    Tissue engineering is an exciting new cross-disciplinary methodology which applies the principles of engineering and structure-function relationships between normal and pathological tissues to develop biological substitute to restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Tissue engineering...... engineering approaches and many of these are discussed and their in vitro and in vivo applications covered in this review. Tissue engineering is entering an exciting era; significant advances have been made; however, many technical challenges remain to be solved before this technology becomes widely...... therefore involves a melange of approaches encompassing developmental biology, tissue mechanics, medicine, cell differentiation and survival biology, mechanostransduction and nano-fabrication technology. The central tissue of interest in this review is cartilage. Traumatic injuries, congenital abnormalities...

  12. [Gastroenterologic aspects of connective tissue diseases]. (United States)

    Altomonte, L; Zoli, A; Alessi, F; Ghirlanda, G; Greco, A V; Magarò, M


    The connective tissue disorders are a protean group of acquired diseases which have in common widespread immunologic and inflammatory alterations of connective tissue. The acquired connective tissue diseases generally include the following clinical entities: rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, polyarteritis nodosa, scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease, Sjögren's and Behcet's sindromes. These entities have certain features in common which include sinovitis, pleuritis, myocarditis, endocarditis, pericarditis, peritonitis, vasculitis, myositis, changes in skin, alteration of connective tissue and nephritis. Gastrointestinal and hepatic involvement in connective tissue disorders are not the most important features, nevertheless appear almost regularly. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, malabsorption may affect patients suffering by rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and other collagenophaties. In some cases mesenteric vasculitis may cause intestinal ischemia which may result in bowel infarction, mucosal ulceration, hemorrhage, perforation. After an extensive review of the existing literature the Authors make an accurate evaluation of gastrointestinal and hepatic alterations in connective tissue diseases.

  13. Endothelial cells, tissue factor and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes-Bezerra L.M.


    Full Text Available Tissue factor is a transmembrane procoagulant glycoprotein and a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily. It activates the extrinsic coagulation pathway, and induces the formation of a fibrin clot. Tissue factor is important for both normal homeostasis and the development of many thrombotic diseases. A wide variety of cells are able to synthesize and express tissue factor, including monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. Tissue factor expression can be induced by cell surface components of pathogenic microorganisms, proinflammatory cytokines and membrane microparticles released from activated host cells. Tissue factor plays an important role in initiating thrombosis associated with inflammation during infection, sepsis, and organ transplant rejection. Recent findings suggest that tissue factor can also function as a receptor and thus may be important in cell signaling. The present minireview will focus on the role of tissue factor in the pathogenesis of septic shock, infectious endocarditis and invasive aspergillosis, as determined by both in vivo and in vitro models.

  14. Depth-resolved fluorescence of biological tissue (United States)

    Wu, Yicong; Xi, Peng; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Yim, So Fan; Yu, Mei-Yung; Qu, Jianan Y.


    The depth-resolved autofluorescence ofrabbit oral tissue, normal and dysplastic human ectocervical tissue within l20μm depth were investigated utilizing a confocal fluorescence spectroscopy with the excitations at 355nm and 457nm. From the topmost keratinizing layer of oral and ectocervical tissue, strong keratin fluorescence with the spectral characteristics similar to collagen was observed. The fluorescence signal from epithelial tissue between the keratinizing layer and stroma can be well resolved. Furthermore, NADH and FADfluorescence measured from the underlying non-keratinizing epithelial layer were strongly correlated to the tissue pathology. This study demonstrates that the depth-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy can reveal fine structural information on epithelial tissue and potentially provide more accurate diagnostic information for determining tissue pathology.

  15. Mechanics of epithelial tissue homeostasis and morphogenesis. (United States)

    Guillot, Charlène; Lecuit, Thomas


    Epithelia are robust tissues that support the structure of embryos and organs and serve as effective barriers against pathogens. Epithelia also chemically separate different physiological environments. These vital functions require tight association between cells through the assembly of junctions that mechanically stabilize the tissue. Remarkably, epithelia are also dynamic and can display a fluid behavior. Cells continuously die or divide, thereby allowing functional tissue homeostasis. Epithelial cells can change shape or intercalate as tissues deform during morphogenesis. We review the mechanical basis of tissue robustness and fluidity, with an emphasis on the pivotal role of junction dynamics. Tissue fluidity emerges from local active stresses acting at cell interfaces and allows the maintenance of epithelial organization during morphogenesis and tissue renewal.

  16. Active dynamics of tissue shear flow (United States)

    Popović, Marko; Nandi, Amitabha; Merkel, Matthias; Etournay, Raphaël; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank; Salbreux, Guillaume


    We present a hydrodynamic theory to describe shear flows in developing epithelial tissues. We introduce hydrodynamic fields corresponding to state properties of constituent cells as well as a contribution to overall tissue shear flow due to rearrangements in cell network topology. We then construct a generic linear constitutive equation for the shear rate due to topological rearrangements and we investigate a novel rheological behaviour resulting from memory effects in the tissue. We identify two distinct active cellular processes: generation of active stress in the tissue, and actively driven topological rearrangements. We find that these two active processes can produce distinct cellular and tissue shape changes, depending on boundary conditions applied on the tissue. Our findings have consequences for the understanding of tissue morphogenesis during development.

  17. [Regeneration and fibrosis of corneal tissues]. (United States)

    Simirskiĭ, V N


    In this review, the features of the regeneration of corneal tissue and its disorders leading to the development of fibrosis are considered. The data on the presence of stem (clonogenic) cell pool in the corneal tissues (epithelium, endothelium, stroma) are given; these cells can serve as a source for regeneration of the tissues at injury or various diseases. The main steps of regeneration of corneal tissues and their disorders that lead to outstripping proliferation of myofibroblasts and secretion of extracellular matrix in the wound area and eventually cause the formation of connective tissue scar and corneal opacity are considered. Particular attention is given to the successes of translational medicine in the treatment of corneal tissue fibrosis. The methods of cell therapy aimed at the restoration of stem cell pool of corneal tissues are the most promising. Gene therapy provides more opportunities; one of its main objectives is the suppression of the myofibroblast proliferation responsible for the development of fibrosis.

  18. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery and/or the body (transdermal delivery. In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

  19. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana


    Stem cells are the building blocks for all other cells in an organism. The human body has about 200 different types of cells and any of those cells can be produced by a stem cell. This fact emphasizes the significance of stem cells in transplantational medicine, regenerative therapy and bioengineering. Whether embryonic or adult, these cells can be used for the successful treatment of a wide range of diseases that were not treatable before, such as osteogenesis imperfecta in children, different forms of leukemias, acute myocardial infarction, some neural damages and diseases, etc. Bioengineering, e.g. successful manipulation of these cells with multipotential capacity of differentiation toward appropriate patterns and precise quantity, are the prerequisites for successful outcome and treatment. By combining in vivo and in vitro techniques, it is now possible to manage the wide spectrum of tissue damages and organ diseases. Although the stem-cell therapy is not a response to all the questions, it provides more...

  20. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor (United States)


    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  1. Le Tissu et le texte


    Jean-Marie Lassus


    Le premier chapitre de La tumba del relámpago (1978) de l’écrivain péruvien Manuel Scorza synthétise une grande partie de la problématique de La guerra silenciosa, sa fresque de cinq romans racontant la lutte interminable des comuneros des Andes Centrales dans leur quête de justice et de reconnaissance, à partir de faits réels survenus dans le Pérou de la fin des années cinquante. Dans ce chapitre, la lecture du tissu de Doña Añada par Remigio Villena amène ce dernier à interpréter le dilemme...

  2. Cephalometric soft tissue facial analysis. (United States)

    Bergman, R T


    My objective is to present a cephalometric-based facial analysis to correlate with an article that was published previously in the American Journal of Orthodontic and Dentofacial Orthopedics. Eighteen facial or soft tissue traits are discussed in this article. All of them are significant in successful orthodontic outcome, and none of them depend on skeletal landmarks for measurement. Orthodontic analysis most commonly relies on skeletal and dental measurement, placing far less emphasis on facial feature measurement, particularly their relationship to each other. Yet, a thorough examination of the face is critical for understanding the changes in facial appearance that result from orthodontic treatment. A cephalometric approach to facial examination can also benefit the diagnosis and treatment plan. Individual facial traits and their balance with one another should be identified before treatment. Relying solely on skeletal analysis, assuming that the face will balance if the skeletal/dental cephalometric values are normalized, may not yield the desired outcome. Good occlusion does not necessarily mean good facial balance. Orthodontic norms for facial traits can permit their measurement. Further, with a knowledge of standard facial traits and the patient's soft tissue features, an individualized norm can be established for each patient to optimize facial attractiveness. Four questions should be asked regarding each facial trait before treatment: (1) What is the quality and quantity of the trait? (2) How will future growth affect the trait? (3) How will orthodontic tooth movement affect the existing trait (positively or negatively)? (4) How will surgical bone movement to correct the bite affect the trait (positively or negatively)?

  3. [Connective tissue and prolapse genesis]. (United States)

    Tremollieres, F


    The pathophysiology of pelvic floor disorders still remains not well understood. Increasing age as well as vaginal multiparity are the main commonly accepted factors. The hypothesis of a defect of connective tissues of the pelvic floor with aging due to collagen deficiency and/or elastic fiber degradation is often highlighted. The issue of a potential protective role of HRT is also discussed although the recent results from the WHI would suggest a negative impact of HRT on urinary incontinence, especially when HRT is initiated in elderly women, far from the menopause. Nevertheless, environmental factors cannot explain the full pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and the contribution of genetic factors to the development of pelvic floor disorders is widely recognized. Support for a genetic influence on POP derives from reports suggesting that heritability is a strong contributing factor and a familial history of POP is considered as a classical risk factor. However, the characterization of the underlying molecular mechanisms remains limited, since POP may be considered the end result of a multifactorial process leading to destruction of vaginal wall connective tissue. Experimental studies in mice with null mutations in the genes encoding different putative factors involved in elastic fibers remodeling and homeostasis are crucial in the understanding of the pathogenesis of POP. Mice with null mutation in the gene encoding lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) or fibulin-5, demonstrate signs of elastinopathy including the development of a POP in the postpartum. Likewise, homeobox genes such as HOXA11, which are essential in the embryonic development of the urogenital tract might also be involved in the pathogenesis of POP. The better understanding of the underlying determinants of pelvic floor disorders with a special focus on genetic factors may offer new therapeutic strategies, in addition to or replacement of surgical procedures.

  4. Radioprotection of normal tissue cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Patrick; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten [Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)


    Improvements of radiotherapy in combination with surgery and systemic therapy have resulted in increased survival rates of tumor patients. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is still dose limiting. Several strategies have been pursued with the goal to develop substances which may prevent or reduce damage to normal tissue. Drugs applied before radiotherapy are called radioprotectors; those given after radiotherapy to reduce long-term effects are radiomitigators. Despite more than 50 years of research, until now only two substances, amifostine and palifermin, have overcome all obstacles of clinical approval and are applied during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer or total body irradiation, respectively. However, better understanding of the cellular pathways involved in radiation response has allowed the development of several highly promising drugs functioning as scavengers of reactive oxygen species or targeting specific molecules involved in regulation of cell death pathways or cell cycle arrest. The present review describes the major targets for radioprotectors or radiomitigators currently tested in clinical trials. (orig.) [German] Verbesserungen in der Radiotherapie in Kombination mit Chirurgie und Chemotherapie fuehrten zu erhoehten Ueberlebensraten von Tumorpatienten. Trotzdem sind Strahlenfolgen am Normalgewebe weiterhin dosislimitierend. Verschiedene Ansaetze wurden verfolgt, um Substanzen zu entwickeln, die Normalgewebstoxizitaeten verhindern oder verringern. Medikamente, die vor der Radiotherapie verabreicht werden, heissen Radioprotektoren, solche die danach gegeben werden, um langfristige Effekte zu reduzieren, Radiomitigatoren. Trotz mehr als 50 Jahre Forschung ueberwanden nur zwei Substanzen, Amifostin und Palifermin, alle Huerden der klinischen Pruefung und sind fuer die Anwendung waehrend der Radiotherapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren bzw. bei Ganzkoerperbestrahlung zugelassen. Jedoch erlaubte das bessere Verstaendnis der Signalwege

  5. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy (United States)

    Pahk, K. J.; Dhar, D. K.; Malago, M.; Saffari, N.


    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  6. Transcriptome architecture across tissues in the pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folch Josep M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial selection has resulted in animal breeds with extreme phenotypes. As an organism is made up of many different tissues and organs, each with its own genetic programme, it is pertinent to ask: How relevant is tissue in terms of total transcriptome variability? Which are the genes most distinctly expressed between tissues? Does breed or sex equally affect the transcriptome across tissues? Results In order to gain insight on these issues, we conducted microarray expression profiling of 16 different tissues from four animals of two extreme pig breeds, Large White and Iberian, two males and two females. Mixed model analysis and neighbor – joining trees showed that tissues with similar developmental origin clustered closer than those with different embryonic origins. Often a sound biological interpretation was possible for overrepresented gene ontology categories within differentially expressed genes between groups of tissues. For instance, an excess of nervous system or muscle development genes were found among tissues of ectoderm or mesoderm origins, respectively. Tissue accounted for ~11 times more variability than sex or breed. Nevertheless, we were able to confidently identify genes with differential expression across tissues between breeds (33 genes and between sexes (19 genes. The genes primarily affected by sex were overall different than those affected by breed or tissue. Interaction with tissue can be important for differentially expressed genes between breeds but not so much for genes whose expression differ between sexes. Conclusion Embryonic development leaves an enduring footprint on the transcriptome. The interaction in gene × tissue for differentially expressed genes between breeds suggests that animal breeding has targeted differentially each tissue's transcriptome.

  7. Modeling Tissue Growth Within Nonwoven Scaffolds Pores (United States)

    Church, Jeffrey S.; Alexander, David L.J.; Russell, Stephen J.; Ingham, Eileen; Ramshaw, John A.M.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.


    In this study we present a novel approach for predicting tissue growth within the pores of fibrous tissue engineering scaffolds. Thin nonwoven polyethylene terephthalate scaffolds were prepared to characterize tissue growth within scaffold pores, by mouse NR6 fibroblast cells. On the basis of measurements of tissue lengths at fiber crossovers and along fiber segments, mathematical models were determined during the proliferative phase of cell growth. Tissue growth at fiber crossovers decreased with increasing interfiber angle, with exponential relationships determined on day 6 and 10 of culture. Analysis of tissue growth along fiber segments determined two growth profiles, one with enhanced growth as a result of increased tissue lengths near the fiber crossover, achieved in the latter stage of culture. Derived mathematical models were used in the development of a software program to visualize predicted tissue growth within a pore. This study identifies key pore parameters that contribute toward tissue growth, and suggests models for predicting this growth, based on fibroblast cells. Such models may be used in aiding scaffold design, for optimum pore infiltration during the tissue engineering process. PMID:20687775

  8. Dynamics and Mechanics of Zebrafish Embryonic Tissues. (United States)

    Schoetz, Eva-Maria; Burdine, R. D.; Steinberg, M. S.; Heisenberg, C.-P.; Foty, R. A.; Julicher, F.


    In early zebrafish embryonic development, complex flows of cell populations occur, which ultimately lead to the spatial organization of the three germ layers: Ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Here, we study the material properties of these germ layer tissues which are important for their dynamics and spatial organization in the embryo. In general, tissues can be classified as inherently active complex fluids. However, here we present examples of observed tissue behavior, which can be described satisfactorily in terms of passive visco-elastic fluids. We determined the material properties of the germ layer tissues quantitatively and found that differences in their properties influence tissue interaction. Specifically, quantitative differences in tissue surface tension result in tissue immiscibility and cell sorting behavior analogous to that of ordinary immiscible liquids. Surface tensions were measured with a tissue surface tensiometer. Furthermore, by tracking individual cells in the developing zebrafish embryo, we found differences in the migratory behavior of the different tissue types, which are, to some extent, governed by their mechanical properties. Finally, we generated a 3D velocity flow profile describing the tissue movements during zebrafish embryonic organizer development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja Rajan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tissue expansion is a unique reconstructive option in the armamentarium of a reconstructive surgeon whereby skin and soft tissues of our body can be stretched to large dimensions for wound coverage. The basis for such stretch ability lies in the inherent viscoelastic properties of skin. AIMS: This paper explores the prospects of using tissue expanders to reconstruct defects arising due to a kaleidoscope of pathological conditions including burns scars, post traumatic scars, congenital anomalies like hairy nevus, involutional scars in haemangioma as well as in post mastectomy breast reconstruction . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our experience with tissue expansion in 14 patients over 24 months is presented. Tissue expanders made of silicone in sizes from 100 - 250ml, of round, rectangular or croissant (crescent shapes have been used. Areas expanded include scalp, forehead, neck, abdomen and forearm. Multiple expanders have been used when possible. Average expansion time was 8 - 12 weeks and the expanded tissue was transferred as advancement flaps. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Tissue expansion was successfully completed in 13 patients. Expansion had to be aborted in 1 paediatric patient undergoing neck expansion due to infection. Implant failure occurred in 1 patient during serial expansion. Nevertheless, in our experience tissue expan sion is an invaluable reconstructive tool to give excellent donor tissue with colour and texture match in countless situations demanding aesthetic and functional reconstruction. KEYWORDS: Burns scars, Reconstruction, Tissue expansion .

  10. Multiscale mechanical modeling of soft biological tissues (United States)

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos


    Soft biological tissues include both native and artificial tissues. In the human body, tissues like the articular cartilage, arterial wall, and heart valve leaflets are examples of structures composed of an underlying network of collagen fibers, cells, proteins and molecules. Artificial tissues are less complex than native tissues and mainly consist of a fiber polymer network with the intent of replacing lost or damaged tissue. Understanding of the mechanical function of these materials is essential for many clinical treatments (e.g. arterial clamping, angioplasty), diseases (e.g. arteriosclerosis) and tissue engineering applications (e.g. engineered blood vessels or heart valves). This thesis presents the derivation and application of a multiscale methodology to describe the macroscopic mechanical function of soft biological tissues incorporating directly their structural architecture. The model, which is based on volume averaging theory, accounts for structural parameters such as the network volume fraction and orientation, the realignment of the fibers in response to strain, the interactions among the fibers and the interactions between the fibers and the interstitial fluid in order to predict the overall tissue behavior. Therefore, instead of using a constitutive equation to relate strain to stress, the tissue microstructure is modeled within a representative volume element (RVE) and the macroscopic response at any point in the tissue is determined by solving a micromechanics problem in the RVE. The model was applied successfully to acellular collagen gels, native blood vessels, and electrospun polyurethane scaffolds and provided accurate predictions for permeability calculations in isotropic and oriented fiber networks. The agreement of model predictions with experimentally determined mechanical properties provided insights into the mechanics of tissues and tissue constructs, while discrepancies revealed limitations of the model framework.

  11. Oestrone sulphate, adipose tissue, and breast cancer. (United States)

    Hawkins, R A; Thomson, M L; Killen, E


    Oestrone sulphate, the oestrogen in highest concentration in the plasma, may play a role in the induction and growth of breast cancers. By enzymolysis and radioimmunoassay, oestrone sulphate concentrations were measured in 3 biological fluids. High concentrations of the conjugate (up to 775 nmol/l) were detected in breast cyst fluids from some premenopausal women, the concentrations in blood plasma (0.91-4.45 nmol/l) being much lower. Concentrations in the plasmas from postmenopausal women with (0.23-4.63 nmol/l) or without (0.18-1.27 nmol/l) breast cancer were still lower. Oestrone sulphate concentration in cow's milk or cream (0.49-0.67 nmol/l) was also low: dietary intake in these fluids is probably of little consequence. The capacity of breast tissues for hydrolysis of oestrone sulphate was examined in two ways: In tissue slices incubated with 85 pM (3H) oestrone sulphate solution at 37 degrees C, cancers (131-412 fmol/g tissue/hr) and adipose tissues (23-132 fmol/g tissue/hr) hydrolysed significantly more sulphate than did benign tissues (1-36 fmol/g tissue/hr). In tissue homogenates incubated with 5-25 microM [3H] oestrone sulphate at 37 degrees much higher capacities for hydrolysis (nmol/g tissue/hr) were demonstrated with a Km of 2-16.5 microM: cancers (34-394) and benign tissues (9-485) had significantly higher sulphatase activities than adipose tissues (9-39). On a protein basis, however, the sulphatase activities in the 3 tissues were comparable. It is concluded that oestrone sulphate is present in breast cysts and blood plasma and that in vitro, the conjugated hormone can be hydrolysed by breast tissues. The biological significance of these findings in vivo remains to be established.

  12. Computed tomography in the analysis of calcification patterns in pediatric bone tumors of the hip: a new approach; Tomografia computadorizada na analise dos padroes de calcificacoes nos tumores osseos da bacia em pediatria: nova abordagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio de; Werlang, Henrique Zambenedetti; Bergoli, Pedro Martins [Hospital Universitario Cassiano Antonio de Morais/Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Gloria, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:; Frechiani, Madalena; Oliveira, Fernao [Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Gloria, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)


    Objective: In the pediatric group, the radiological diagnosis of bone tumors of the hip is difficult and presents some peculiarities, but reviewed literature does not approach this specific problem. The objective of the present study was to investigate the existence of reliable radiological patterns for the differential diagnosis of these tumors. Materials And Methods: Radiological findings of bone tumors of the hip in ten patients in the age range between 8 and 19 years have been reviewed. Results: Bone reaction (sclerosis or lysis), periosteal reaction (lamellar with single or multiple layers, or radial), tumor extent in the bone and level of soft tissues invasion have presented low specificity. Soft tissue calcifications, when considered as a whole, were non-specific. However, when those calcifications with varied shapes and sizes, nearby the affected bone (pattern I) were separated from those, thin and amorphous, away from the bone (pattern II), we have observed that the pattern I was totally non-specific, and the pattern II was found in the three cases of osteosarcoma (100%) and in only one case of Ewing's sarcoma (16.6%). Conclusion: In the present study, pattern II calcifications have shown a 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity for osteosarcoma. However, their importance may be not limited to the radiological diagnosis. Pattern II calcifications indicate probably ideal sites for biopsy. (author)

  13. Photon dynamics in tissue imaging (United States)

    Chance, Britton; Haselgrove, John C.; Wang, NaiGuang; Maris, Michael B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.


    The emerging need for a fast, safe economical approach to global and localized measures of desaturation of hemoglobin with oxygen (HbO2) in the human brain motivates further research on time-resolved spectroscopy in four areas of study. (1) To afford quantization of hemoglobin saturation through time-resolved spectroscopy in the time domain (TD) and in the frequency domain (FD). Evaluation of dual-wavelength TD and FD spectrometers for determining quantitatively hemoglobin desaturation and blood-volume changes by calculations that are insensitive to mutual interference is proposed. The diffusion equation, as it applies especially to TD studies, and the absorption ((mu) a) and scattering ((mu) s) coefficients provide their independent determination from the late and early respective portions of the kinetics of the emergent photons in response to a short input pulse (50-100 psec). (2) The identification of the photon-pathlength change due to the arterial pulse in the brain tissue by FD methods with Fourier transformation affords an opportunity to employ principles of pulse oximetry to vessels localized deep within the brain tissue. (3) Localization of desaturation of hemoglobin in portions of the brain can be achieved through dual-wavelength scanning of the input/output optical fibers across the head for an X-Y coordinate and varying the distance between input and output ((rho) ) or the time delay in data acquisition to afford an in-depth Z scan. Localizations of shed blood, which have an effective concentration of over 10 times that of capillary-bed blood, are identified by X, Y, Z scans using only a single wavelength. (4) Independent measurements of absorption ((mu) a) and scattering ((mu) s) coefficients, particularly by TD techniques, affords structural mapping of the brain, which can be used to diagnose brain tumor and neuronal degeneration. Two experimental systems are used to critically evaluate these studies; the first, a hemoglobin/lipid/yeast model in which

  14. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive


    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called tissue microfluidics because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets. The proposed principles represent a paradigm shift in microfluidic technology in three important ways: Microfluidic devices are to be directly integrated with, onto, or around tissue samples, in contrast to the conventional method of off-chip sample extraction followed by sample insertion in microfluidic devices. Architectural and operational principles of microfluidic devices are to be subordinated to suit specific tissue structure and needs, in contrast to the conventional method of building devices according to fluidic function alone and without regard to tissue structure. Sample acquisition from tissue is to be performed on-chip and is to be integrated with the diagnostic measurement within the same device, in contrast to the conventional method of off-chip sample prep and

  15. Intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissues: Bad vs. good adipose tissues. (United States)

    Hausman, Gary J; Basu, Urmila; Du, Min; Fernyhough-Culver, Melinda; Dodson, Michael V


    Human studies of the influence of aging and other factors on intermuscular fat (INTMF) were reviewed. Intermuscular fat increased with weight loss, weight gain, or with no weight change with age in humans. An increase in INTMF represents a similar threat to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance as does visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Studies of INTMF in animals covered topics such as quantitative deposition and genetic relationships with other fat depots. The relationship between leanness and higher proportions of INTMF fat in pigs was not observed in human studies and was not corroborated by other pig studies. In humans, changes in muscle mass, strength and quality are associated with INTMF accretion with aging. Gene expression profiling and intrinsic methylation differences in pigs demonstrated that INTMF and VAT are primarily associated with inflammatory and immune processes. It seems that in the pig and humans, INTMF and VAT share a similar pattern of distribution and a similar association of components dictating insulin sensitivity. Studies on intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in meat animals were reviewed. Gene expression analysis and genetic analysis have identified candidate genes involved in IM adipocyte development. Intramuscular (IM) adipocyte development in human muscle is only seen during aging and some pathological circumstance. Several genetic links between human and meat animal adipogenesis have been identified. In pigs, the Lipin1 and Lipin 2 gene have strong genetic effects on IM accumulation. Lipin1 deficiency results in immature adipocyte development in human lipodystrophy. In humans, overexpression of Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) facilitates intramyocellular lipid accretion whereas in pigs PLIN2 gene expression is associated with IM deposition. Lipins and perilipins may influence intramuscular lipid regardless of species.

  16. Mitochondria and endocrine function of adipose tissue. (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Gema


    Excess of adipose tissue is accompanied by an increase in the risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other complications. Nevertheless, total or partial absence of fat or its accumulation in other tissues (lipotoxicity) is also associated to these complications. White adipose tissue (WAT) was traditionally considered a metabolically active storage tissue for lipids while brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered as a thermogenic adipose tissue with higher oxidative capacity. Nowadays, WAT is also considered an endocrine organ that contributes to energy homeostasis. Experimental evidence tends to link the malfunction of adipose mitochondria with the development of obesity and T2D. This review discusses the importance of mitochondrial function in adipocyte biology and the increased evidences of mitochondria dysfunction in these epidemics. New strategies targeting adipocyte mitochondria from WAT and BAT are also discussed as therapies against obesity and its complications in the near future.

  17. Adipose and mammary epithelial tissue engineering. (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Nelson, Celeste M


    Breast reconstruction is a type of surgery for women who have had a mastectomy, and involves using autologous tissue or prosthetic material to construct a natural-looking breast. Adipose tissue is the major contributor to the volume of the breast, whereas epithelial cells comprise the functional unit of the mammary gland. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into both adipocytes and epithelial cells and can be acquired from autologous sources. ASCs are therefore an attractive candidate for clinical applications to repair or regenerate the breast. Here we review the current state of adipose tissue engineering methods, including the biomaterials used for adipose tissue engineering and the application of these techniques for mammary epithelial tissue engineering. Adipose tissue engineering combined with microfabrication approaches to engineer the epithelium represents a promising avenue to replicate the native structure of the breast.

  18. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  19. Using Polymeric Scaffolds for Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Abruzzo


    Full Text Available With the high occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increasing numbers of patients requiring vascular access, there is a significant need for small-diameter (<6 mm inner diameter vascular graft that can provide long-term patency. Despite the technological improvements, restenosis and graft thrombosis continue to hamper the success of the implants. Vascular tissue engineering is a new field that has undergone enormous growth over the last decade and has proposed valid solutions for blood vessels repair. The goal of vascular tissue engineering is to produce neovessels and neoorgan tissue from autologous cells using a biodegradable polymer as a scaffold. The most important advantage of tissue-engineered implants is that these tissues can grow, remodel, rebuild, and respond to injury. This review describes the development of polymeric materials over the years and current tissue engineering strategies for the improvement of vascular conduits.

  20. Biodegradable polymeric fiber structures in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Tuzlakoglu, Kadriye; Reis, Rui L


    Tissue engineering offers a promising new approach to create biological alternatives to repair or restore function of damaged or diseased tissues. To obtain three-dimensional tissue constructs, stem or progenitor cells must be combined with a highly porous three-dimensional scaffold, but many of the structures purposed for tissue engineering cannot meet all the criteria required by an adequate scaffold because of lack of mechanical strength and interconnectivity, as well as poor surface characteristics. Fiber-based structures represent a wide range of morphological and geometric possibilities that can be tailored for each specific tissue-engineering application. The present article overviews the research data on tissue-engineering therapies based on the use of biodegradable fiber architectures as a scaffold.

  1. Tissue refractometry using Hilbert phase microscopy. (United States)

    Lue, Niyom; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Lessard, Mark D; Badizadegan, Kamran; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Popescu, Gabriel


    We present, for the first time to our knowledge, quantitative phase images associated with unstained 5 mum thick tissue slices of mouse brain, spleen, and liver. The refractive properties of the tissue are retrieved in terms of the average refractive index and its spatial variation. We find that the average refractive index varies significantly with tissue type, such that the brain is characterized by the lowest value and the liver by the highest. The spatial power spectra of the phase images reveal power law behavior with different exponents for each tissue type. This approach opens a new possibility for stain-free characterization of tissues, where the diagnostic power is provided by the intrinsic refractive properties of the biological structure. We present results obtained for liver tissue affected by a lysosomal storage disease and show that our technique can quantify structural changes during this disease development.

  2. Bubble dynamics in perfused tissue undergoing decompression. (United States)

    Meisel, S; Nir, A; Kerem, D


    A mathematical model describing bubble dynamics in a perfused tissue undergoing decompression is presented, taking into account physical expansion and inward diffusion from surrounding supersaturated tissue as growth promoting factors and tissue gas elimination by perfusion, tissue elasticity, surface tension and inherent unsaturation as resolving driving forces. The expected behavior after a step reduction of pressure of a bubble initially existing in the tissue, displaying both growth and resolution has been demonstrated. A strong perfusion-dependence of bubble resolution time at low perfusion rates is apparent. The model can account for various exposure pressures and saturation fractions of any inert gas-tissue combination for which a set of physical and physiological parameters is available.

  3. Macrophages in Tissue Repair, Regeneration, and Fibrosis. (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas A; Vannella, Kevin M


    Inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages are key regulators of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis. After tissue injury, monocytes and macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes to play critical roles during the initiation, maintenance, and resolution phases of tissue repair. Disturbances in macrophage function can lead to aberrant repair, such that uncontrolled production of inflammatory mediators and growth factors, deficient generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages, or failed communication between macrophages and epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem or tissue progenitor cells all contribute to a state of persistent injury, and this could lead to the development of pathological fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that instruct macrophages to adopt pro-inflammatory, pro-wound-healing, pro-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-resolving, and tissue-regenerating phenotypes after injury, and we highlight how some of these mechanisms and macrophage activation states could be exploited therapeutically.

  4. Nanomaterials for Cardiac Myocyte Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Amezcua


    Full Text Available Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possibly resulting in the development of arrhythmia, ventricular remodeling, and eventual heart failure. Scarred cardiac muscle results in heart failure for millions of heart attack survivors worldwide. Modern cardiac tissue engineering research has developed nanomaterial applications to combat heart failure, preserve normal heart tissue, and grow healthy myocardium around the infarcted area. This review will discuss the recent progress of nanomaterials for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications through three main nanomaterial approaches: scaffold designs, patches, and injectable materials.

  5. Tissue Factor Structure and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Butenas


    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF is an integral membrane protein that is essential to life. It is a component of the factor VIIa-TF complex enzyme and plays a primary role in both normal hemostasis and thrombosis. With a vascular injury, TF becomes exposed to blood and binds plasma factor VIIa, and the resulting complex initiates a series of enzymatic reactions leading to clot formation and vascular sealing. Many cells, both healthy, and tumor cells, produce detectable amounts of TF, especially when they are stimulated by various agents. Despite the relative simplicity and small size of TF, there are numerous contradictory reports about the synthesis and presentation of TF on blood cells and circulation in normal blood either on microparticles or as a soluble protein. Another subject of controversy is related to the structure/function of TF. It has been almost commonly accepted that cell-surface-associated TF has low (if any activity, that is, is “encrypted” and requires specific conditions/reagents to become active, that is, “decrypted.” However there is a lack of agreement related to the mechanism and processes leading to alterations in TF function. In this paper TF structure, presentation, and function, and controversies concerning these features are discussed.

  6. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road (United States)

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao


    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world’s best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration. PMID:27527229

  7. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road. (United States)

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao


    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration.

  8. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 文婷; 卢天健; Seffen; Keith


    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great...

  9. PLA-based foams: tissue engineering


    Velasco Perero, José Ignacio; Antunes, Marcelo de Sousa Pais


    Biodegradable porous scaffolds with or without bioactive molecules prepared by clean techniques attract an enormous interest for tissue engineering applications. Scaffolds work as structural support for both cell implantation and growth, favoring the regeneration or formation of new tissue. Scaffold requisites for tissue engineering applications include a proper material selection, which has to be biocompatible and biodegradable and with a good balance of mechanical properties, as...

  10. Methadone Recycling Sustains Drug Reservoir in Tissue. (United States)

    Linares, Oscar A; Fudin, Jeffrey; Daly, Annemarie; Schiesser, William E; Boston, Raymond C


    We hypothesize that there is a tissue store of methadone content in humans that is not directly accessible, but is quantifiable. Further, we hypothesize the mechanism by which methadone content is sustained in tissue stores involves methadone uptake, storage, and release from tissue depots in the body (recycling). Accordingly, we hypothesize that such tissue stores, in part, determine plasma methadone levels. We studied a random sample of six opioid-naïve healthy subjects. We performed a clinical trial simulation in silico using pharmacokinetic modeling. We found a large tissue store of methadone content whose size was much larger than methadone's size in plasma in response to a single oral dose of methadone 10 mg. The tissue store measured 13-17 mg. This finding could only be explained by the contemporaneous storage of methadone in tissue with dose recycling. We found that methadone recycles 2-5 times through an inaccessible extravascular compartment (IAC), from an accessible plasma-containing compartment (AC), before exiting irreversibly. We estimate the rate of accumulation (or storage) of methadone in tissue was 0.029-7.29 mg/h. We predict 39 ± 13% to 83 ± 6% of methadone's tissue stores "spillover" into the circulation. Our results indicate that there exists a large quantifiable tissue store of methadone in humans. Our results support the notion that methadone in humans undergoes tissue uptake, storage, release into the circulation, reuptake from the circulation, and re-release into the circulation, and that spillover of methadone from tissue stores, in part, maintain plasma methadone levels in humans.

  11. Effects of orthodontic forces on pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinandi Sri Pudyani


    Full Text Available Numerous researches on pulp tissue changes caused by orthodontic forces have been performed, among others are: pulp angiogenesis, pulp tissue respiration rate, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase enzyme activities; micro vascular response inside the pulp and the effect of dental movement i.e. extrusion, intrusion, and torque. The result is still controversial, as some researchers claim that orthodontic force has a negative effect, others deny by saying there is no such effect on pulp tissue.

  12. The character of biological tissue's SHG spectrum (United States)

    Tian, Long; Guo, Zhouyi; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Zhai, Juan; Zhuang, Zhengfei


    In biological tissue, the relative strongly SHG (second-harmonic Generation) will be shown in the collagen and the cell membrane with dye molecules under the irradiation of laser. The SHG has a broad prospect in detecting and imaging of the biological tissue for its non-phototoxicity and non-photobleaching. In biological tissue, not only the SHG intensity and emission angle will have more obvious change, but also the spectrum of the SHG will be subject to certain changes when the temperature in the outside world and its structure got a obviously change. According to Kuzyk and Kruhlak's dipole-free sum-over-states theory which gives a introduction for the nonlinear susceptibilities, the relationship between hyperpolarizability of biological tissue, environment temperature and biological tissue's structure is shown in mathematics. In the conditions of control the temperature in experiments, the biological tissue's structure shift can be detected by analyze the SHG spectrum of biological. Also diverse biological tissues' differences in structure can be demonstrated in the spectrum. The change of SHG spectrum for the same biological tissue with environment temperature is discussed. Therefore, SHG spectroscopy analysis provides a new technology for the process of biological tissue lesions. Beside, this research gives a theory results provided by environment temperature which give an explanation for experiment result.

  13. Guided tissue regeneration in periapical surgery. (United States)

    Lin, Louis; Chen, Melody Y-H; Ricucci, Domenico; Rosenberg, Paul A


    Tissue regeneration by using membrane barriers and bone grafting materials in periapical surgery is an example of tissue engineering technology. Membrane barriers and/or bone grafts are often used to enhance periapical new bone formation. However, the periapical tissues also consist of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and cementum. For regeneration of the periapical tissues after periapical surgery, one of the important requirements is recruitment and differentiation of progenitor/stem cells into committed pre-osteoblasts, pre-PDL cells, and pre-cementoblasts. Homing of progenitor/stem cells into the wounded periapical tissues is regulated by factors such as stromal cell-derived factor 1, growth factors/cytokines, and by microenvironmental cues such as adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix and associated noncollagenous molecules. Tissue regeneration after injury appears to recapitulate the pathway of normal embryonic tissue development. Multiple tissue regeneration involves a complex interaction between different cells, extracellular matrix, growth/differentiation factors, and microenvironmental cues. Little is known concerning the biologic mechanisms that regulate temporal and spatial relationship between alveolar bone, PDL, and cementum regeneration during periapical wound healing. Simply applying a membrane barrier and/or bone graft during periapical surgery might not result in complete regeneration of the periapical tissues. It has not been clearly demonstrated that these biomaterials are capable of recruiting progenitor/stem cells and inducing these undifferentiated mesenchymal cells to differentiate into PDL cells and cementoblasts after periapical surgery.

  14. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.


    Full Text Available Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization. In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal organs. With humans there are white and brown adipose tissues, which is predominant with infants and small children. Histologic characteristics From a histological point of view, it is a special form of reticular connective tissue, which contains adipocytes with netlike structure. Human adipose tissue has four types of adrenergic receptors with different topographic dispositions, which manifest different metabolic activity of adipocytes of particular body organs. Changes in adipose tissue are associated with the process of adipocyte differentiation. Critical moments for this process are last months of pregnancy, the first six months of infancy and then puberty. However, the differentiation process may also begin during maturity. Namely, as size of adipocytes can increase to a certain limit, this process can be activated after reaching a 'critical' adipocyte volume. The differentiation process is affected by a number of hormones (insulin, glucagon, corticosteroids, somatotropin (STH, thyroid gland hormones, prolactin, testosterone, but also by some other substances (fatty acids, prostaglandins, liposoluble vitamins, butyrate, aspirin, indomethacin, metylxanthine, etc..

  15. Scalable robotic biofabrication of tissue spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehesz, A Nagy; Hajdu, Z; Visconti, R P; Markwald, R R; Mironov, V [Advanced Tissue Biofabrication Center, Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Brown, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Beaver, W [York Technical College, Rock Hill, SC (United States); Da Silva, J V L, E-mail: [Renato Archer Information Technology Center-CTI, Campinas (Brazil)


    Development of methods for scalable biofabrication of uniformly sized tissue spheroids is essential for tissue spheroid-based bioprinting of large size tissue and organ constructs. The most recent scalable technique for tissue spheroid fabrication employs a micromolded recessed template prepared in a non-adhesive hydrogel, wherein the cells loaded into the template self-assemble into tissue spheroids due to gravitational force. In this study, we present an improved version of this technique. A new mold was designed to enable generation of 61 microrecessions in each well of a 96-well plate. The microrecessions were seeded with cells using an EpMotion 5070 automated pipetting machine. After 48 h of incubation, tissue spheroids formed at the bottom of each microrecession. To assess the quality of constructs generated using this technology, 600 tissue spheroids made by this method were compared with 600 spheroids generated by the conventional hanging drop method. These analyses showed that tissue spheroids fabricated by the micromolded method are more uniform in diameter. Thus, use of micromolded recessions in a non-adhesive hydrogel, combined with automated cell seeding, is a reliable method for scalable robotic fabrication of uniform-sized tissue spheroids.

  16. Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook. (United States)

    Ghosh, Nirmalya; Vitkin, I Alex


    Polarimetry has a long and successful history in various forms of clear media. Driven by their biomedical potential, the use of the polarimetric approaches for biological tissue assessment has also recently received considerable attention. Specifically, polarization can be used as an effective tool to discriminate against multiply scattered light (acting as a gating mechanism) in order to enhance contrast and to improve tissue imaging resolution. Moreover, the intrinsic tissue polarimetry characteristics contain a wealth of morphological and functional information of potential biomedical importance. However, in a complex random medium-like tissue, numerous complexities due to multiple scattering and simultaneous occurrences of many scattering and polarization events present formidable challenges both in terms of accurate measurements and in terms of analysis of the tissue polarimetry signal. In order to realize the potential of the polarimetric approaches for tissue imaging and characterization/diagnosis, a number of researchers are thus pursuing innovative solutions to these challenges. In this review paper, we summarize these and other issues pertinent to the polarized light methodologies in tissues. Specifically, we discuss polarized light basics, Stokes-Muller formalism, methods of polarization measurements, polarized light modeling in turbid media, applications to tissue imaging, inverse analysis for polarimetric results quantification, applications to quantitative tissue assessment, etc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bankov


    Full Text Available Objective. Investigation the opportunity for measurement of biological tissue impedance to visualize its parameters.Materials and methods. Studies were undertook on the experimental facility, consists of registrating measuring cell, constructed from flat inductors system, formed in oscillatory circuit, herewith investigated biological tissue is the part of this oscillatory circuit. An excitation of oscillatory circuit fulfilled by means of exciter inductor which forms impulse complex modulated electromagnetic field (ICM EMF. The measurement process and visualizations provided by set of certificated instruments: a digital oscillograph AKTAKOM ADS-2221MV, a digital generator АКТАКОМ AWG-4150 (both with software and a gauge RLC E7-22. Comparative dynamic studies of fixed volume and weight pig’s blood, adipose tissue, muscular tissue impedance were conducted by contact versus contactless methods. Contactless method in contrast to contact method gives opportunity to obtain the real morphological visualization of biological tissue irrespective of their nature.Results. Comparison of contact and contactless methods of impedance measurement shows that the inductance to capacitance ratio X(L / X(C was equal: 17 – for muscular tissue, 4 – for blood, 1 – for adipose tissue. It demonstrates the technical correspondence of both impedance registration methods. If propose the base relevance of X (L and X (C parameters for biological tissue impedance so contactless measurement method for sure shows insulating properties of adipose tissue and high conductivity for blood and muscular tissue in fixed volume-weight parameters. Registration of biological tissue impedance complex parameters by contactless method with the help of induced ICM EMF in fixed volume of biological tissue uncovers the most important informative volumes to characterize morphofunctional condition of biological tissue namely X (L / X (C.Conclusion. Contactless method of biological

  18. Medical image of the week: granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh A


    Full Text Available A 57 year old woman presented with a tickling sensation in the back of throat and intermittent bleeding from the healing stoma one month after decannulation of her tracheostomy tube. On bronchoscopy a granuloma with surrounding granulation tissue was present in the subglottic space (Figure 1. Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed to cauterize the granulation tissue (Figure 2. Formation of granulation tissue after tracheostomy is a common complication which can result in tracheal stenosis. APC and electrocautery using flexible bronchoscopy has been shown to safely and effectively remove the granulation tissue.

  19. Composite scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. (United States)

    Moutos, Franklin T; Guilak, Farshid


    Tissue engineering remains a promising therapeutic strategy for the repair or regeneration of diseased or damaged tissues. Previous approaches have typically focused on combining cells and bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines and DNA fragments) with a biomaterial scaffold that functions as a template to control the geometry of the newly formed tissue, while facilitating the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of embedded cells. Biomaterial scaffolds also play a crucial role in determining the functional properties of engineered tissues, including biomechanical characteristics such as inhomogeneity, anisotropy, nonlinearity or viscoelasticity. While single-phase, homogeneous materials have been used extensively to create numerous types of tissue constructs, there continue to be significant challenges in the development of scaffolds that can provide the functional properties of load-bearing tissues such as articular cartilage. In an attempt to create more complex scaffolds that promote the regeneration of functional engineered tissues, composite scaffolds comprising two or more distinct materials have been developed. This paper reviews various studies on the development and testing of composite scaffolds for the tissue engineering of articular cartilage, using techniques such as embedded fibers and textiles for reinforcement, embedded solid structures, multi-layered designs, or three-dimensionally woven composite materials. In many cases, the use of composite scaffolds can provide unique biomechanical and biological properties for the development of functional tissue engineering scaffolds.

  20. Adipose tissue: cell heterogeneity and functional diversity. (United States)

    Esteve Ràfols, Montserrat


    There are two types of adipose tissue in the body whose function appears to be clearly differentiated. White adipose tissue stores energy reserves as fat, whereas the metabolic function of brown adipose tissue is lipid oxidation to produce heat. A good balance between them is important to maintain energy homeostasis. The concept of white adipose tissue has radically changed in the past decades, and is now considered as an endocrine organ that secretes many factors with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions. In addition, we can no longer consider white adipose tissue as a single tissue, because it shows different metabolic profiles in its different locations, with also different implications. Although the characteristic cell of adipose tissue is the adipocyte, this is not the only cell type present in adipose tissue, neither the most abundant. Other cell types in adipose tissue described include stem cells, preadipocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and endothelial cells. The balance between these different cell types and their expression profile is closely related to maintenance of energy homeostasis. Increases in adipocyte size, number and type of lymphocytes, and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to the metabolic syndrome diseases. The study of regulation of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and stem cells, and understanding of the interrelationship between the different cell types will provide new targets for action against these diseases.

  1. Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds (United States)

    Derby, Brian


    New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can grow for later implantation into the body. A more exciting prospect is the printing and patterning in three dimensions of all the components that make up a tissue (cells and matrix materials) to generate structures analogous to tissues; this has been termed bioprinting. Such techniques have opened new areas of research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  2. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive


    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  3. Strategies for cell engineering in tissue repair. (United States)

    Brown, R A; Smith, K D; Angus McGrouther, D


    Cellular and tissue engineering are new areas of research, currently attracting considerable interest because of the remarkable potential they have for clinical application. Some claims have indeed been dramatic, including the possibility of growing complete, artificial organs, such as the liver. However, amid such long-term aspirations there is the very real possibility that small tissues (artificial grafts) may be fabricated in the near future for use in reconstructive surgery. Logically, we should focus on how it is possible to produce modest, engineered tissues for tissue repair. It is evident that strategies to date either depend on innate information within implanted cells, to reform the target tissue or aim to provide appropriate environmental cues or guidance to direct cell behavior. It is argued here that present knowledge of tissue repair biology points us toward the latter approach, providing external cues which will direct how cells should organize the new tissue. This will be particularly true where we need to reproduce microscopic and ultrastructural features of the original tissue architecture. A number of such cues have been identified, and methods are already available, including substrate chemistry, substrate contact guidance, mechanical loading, and biochemical mediators to provide these cues. Examples of these are already being used with some success to control the formation of tissue structures.

  4. Extraintestinal heterotopic gastric tissue simulating acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth Bender; Steven P Schmidt


    We describe the case of a 68-year-old otherwise healthy male who presented to our emergency room with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. Exploratory surgery revealed a normal appendix. Further examination revealed an enlarged lymph node-like mass of tissue near the appendix, in the ileocecal mesentery. This mass was removed and was found to be inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue. Although reports of heterotopic gastric tissue in the literature are common, we believe that this case represents the first report of inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue simulating appendicitis.

  5. Segmentation and Quantitative Analysis of Epithelial Tissues. (United States)

    Aigouy, Benoit; Umetsu, Daiki; Eaton, Suzanne


    Epithelia are tissues that regulate exchanges with the environment. They are very dynamic and can acquire virtually any shape; at the cellular level, they are composed of cells tightly connected by junctions. Most often epithelia are amenable to live imaging; however, the large number of cells composing an epithelium and the absence of informatics tools dedicated to epithelial analysis largely prevented tissue scale studies. Here we present Tissue Analyzer, a free tool that can be used to segment and analyze epithelial cells and monitor tissue dynamics.

  6. Epoxyeicosanoids promote organ and tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Panigrahy, Dipak; Kalish, Brian T; Huang, Sui; Bielenberg, Diane R; Le, Hau D; Yang, Jun; Edin, Matthew L; Lee, Craig R; Benny, Ofra; Mudge, Dayna K; Butterfield, Catherine E; Mammoto, Akiko; Mammoto, Tadanori; Inceoglu, Bora; Jenkins, Roger L; Simpson, Mary A; Akino, Tomoshige; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Ingber, Donald E; Hammock, Bruce D; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijaya L; Kaipainen, Arja; D'Amore, Patricia A; Puder, Mark; Zeldin, Darryl C; Kieran, Mark W


    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases, regulate inflammation, angiogenesis, and vascular tone. Despite pleiotropic effects on cells, the role of these epoxyeicosanoids in normal organ and tissue regeneration remains unknown. EETs are produced predominantly in the endothelium. Normal organ and tissue regeneration require an active paracrine role of the microvascular endothelium, which in turn depends on angiogenic growth factors. Thus, we hypothesize that endothelial cells stimulate organ and tissue regeneration via production of bioactive EETs. To determine whether endothelial-derived EETs affect physiologic tissue growth in vivo, we used genetic and pharmacological tools to manipulate endogenous EET levels. We show that endothelial-derived EETs play a critical role in accelerating tissue growth in vivo, including liver regeneration, kidney compensatory growth, lung compensatory growth, wound healing, corneal neovascularization, and retinal vascularization. Administration of synthetic EETs recapitulated these results, whereas lowering EET levels, either genetically or pharmacologically, delayed tissue regeneration, demonstrating that pharmacological modulation of EETs can affect normal organ and tissue growth. We also show that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, which elevate endogenous EET levels, promote liver and lung regeneration. Thus, our observations indicate a central role for EETs in organ and tissue regeneration and their contribution to tissue homeostasis.

  7. Nanomaterials for Tissue Engineering In Dentistry (United States)

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Pagano, Stefano; Moretti, Silvia; Pinna, Roberto; Milia, Egle; Torre, Luigi; Eramo, Stefano


    The tissue engineering (TE) of dental oral tissue is facing significant changes in clinical treatments in dentistry. TE is based on a stem cell, signaling molecule, and scaffold triad that must be known and calibrated with attention to specific sectors in dentistry. This review article shows a summary of micro- and nanomorphological characteristics of dental tissues, of stem cells available in the oral region, of signaling molecules usable in TE, and of scaffolds available to guide partial or total reconstruction of hard, soft, periodontal, and bone tissues. Some scaffoldless techniques used in TE are also presented. Then actual and future roles of nanotechnologies about TE in dentistry are presented.

  8. A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications (United States)

    Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin


    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

  9. Self-synthesized extracellular matrix contributes to mature adipose tissue regeneration in a tissue engineering chamber. (United States)

    Zhan, Weiqing; Chang, Qiang; Xiao, Xiaolian; Dong, Ziqing; Zeng, Zhaowei; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng


    The development of an engineered adipose tissue substitute capable of supporting reliable, predictable, and complete fat tissue regeneration would be of value in plastic and reconstructive surgery. For adipogenesis, a tissue engineering chamber provides an optimized microenvironment that is both efficacious and reproducible; however, for reasons that remain unclear, tissues regenerated in a tissue engineering chamber consist mostly of connective rather than adipose tissue. Here, we describe a chamber-based system for improving the yield of mature adipose tissue and discuss the potential mechanism of adipogenesis in tissue-chamber models. Adipose tissue flaps with independent vascular pedicles placed in chambers were implanted into rabbits. Adipose volume increased significantly during the observation period (week 1, 2, 3, 4, 16). Histomorphometry revealed mature adipose tissue with signs of adipose tissue remolding. The induced engineered constructs showed high-level expression of adipogenic (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ), chemotactic (stromal cell-derived factor 1a), and inflammatory (interleukin 1 and 6) genes. In our system, the extracellular matrix may have served as a scaffold for cell migration and proliferation, allowing mature adipose tissue to be obtained in a chamber microenvironment without the need for an exogenous scaffold. Our results provide new insights into key elements involved in the early development of adipose tissue regeneration.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography in Tissue Engineering (United States)

    Zhao, Youbo; Yang, Ying; Wang, Ruikang K.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    Tissue engineering holds the promise for a therapeutic solution in regenerative medicine. The primary goal of tissue engineering is the development of physiologically functional and biocompatible tissues/organs being implanted for the repair and replacement of damaged or diseased ones. Given the complexity in the developing processes of engineered tissues, which involves multi-dimensional interactions among cells of different types, three-dimensionally constructed scaffolds, and actively intervening bioreactors, a capable real-time imaging tool is critically required for expanding our knowledge about the developing process of desired tissues or organs. It has been recognized that optical coherence tomography (OCT), an emerging noninvasive imaging technique that provides high spatial resolution (up to the cellular level) and three-dimensional imaging capability, is a promising investigative tool for tissue engineering. This chapter discusses the existing and potential applications of OCT in tissue engineering. Example OCT investigations of the three major components of tissue engineering, i.e., cells, scaffolds, and bioreactors are overviewed. Imaging examples of OCT and its enabling functions and variants, e.g., Doppler OCT, polarization-sensitive OCT, optical coherence microscopy are emphasized. Remaining challenges in the application of OCT to tissue engineering are discussed, and the prospective solutions including the combination of OCT with other high-contrast and high-resolution modalities such as two-photon fluorescence microscopy are suggested as well. It is expected that OCT, along with its functional variants, will make important contributions toward revealing the complex cellular dynamics in engineered tissues as well as help us culture demanding tissue/organ implants that will advance regenerative medicine.

  11. TISSUE REGENERATION. Inhibition of the prostaglandin-degrading enzyme 15-PGDH potentiates tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyou; Desai, Amar; Yang, Sung Yeun; Bae, Ki Beom; Antczak, Monika I; Fink, Stephen P; Tiwari, Shruti; Willis, Joseph E; Williams, Noelle S; Dawson, Dawn M; Wald, David; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Zhenghe; Kasturi, Lakshmi; Larusch, Gretchen A; He, Lucy; Cominelli, Fabio; Di Martino, Luca; Djuric, Zora; Milne, Ginger L; Chance, Mark; Sanabria, Juan; Dealwis, Chris; Mikkola, Debra; Naidoo, Jacinth; Wei, Shuguang; Tai, Hsin-Hsiung; Gerson, Stanton L; Ready, Joseph M; Posner, Bruce; Willson, James K V; Markowitz, Sanford D


    Agents that promote tissue regeneration could be beneficial in a variety of clinical settings, such as stimulating recovery of the hematopoietic system after bone marrow transplantation. Prostaglandin PGE2, a lipid signaling molecule that supports expansion of several types of tissue stem cells, is a candidate therapeutic target for promoting tissue regeneration in vivo. Here, we show that inhibition of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a prostaglandin-degrading enzyme, potentiates tissue regeneration in multiple organs in mice. In a chemical screen, we identify a small-molecule inhibitor of 15-PGDH (SW033291) that increases prostaglandin PGE2 levels in bone marrow and other tissues. SW033291 accelerates hematopoietic recovery in mice receiving a bone marrow transplant. The same compound also promotes tissue regeneration in mouse models of colon and liver injury. Tissues from 15-PGDH knockout mice demonstrate similar increased regenerative capacity. Thus, 15-PGDH inhibition may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for tissue regeneration in diverse clinical contexts.

  12. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness (United States)

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng


    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion. PMID:28262796

  13. A flexible infrared sensor for tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl; Thyssen, Anders; Engholm, Mathias


    We present a flexible infrared sensor for use in tissue oximetry with the aim of treating prematurely born infants. The sensor will detect the oxygen saturation in brain tissue through near infrared spectroscopy. The sensor itself consists of several individual silicon photo detectors fully...

  14. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag. (United States)

    Beck, Mike


    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  15. Prostatic tissue ectopia in the rectum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xin-lin; SHI Lin; ZHAO Li-zhen; WANG Jing-yuan; DONG Pei-de; XIA Yang-zhi


    @@ Areview of the literature on ectopic prostatic tissue reveals about 200 reports dating back to as early as 1894. The presence of prostate tissue outside the genitourinary system is extremely rare. It is usually incidentally found in surgical pathology and autopsy.

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma) (United States)

    ... first formed. This summary is about the following types of soft tissue sarcoma: Fat tissue tumors Liposarcoma . This is a rare cancer of the fat cells. Liposarcoma usually forms in the fat layer just under the skin. In ... types of liposarcoma. Myxoid liposarcoma is usually low grade ...

  17. General Information about Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma (United States)

    ... first formed. This summary is about the following types of soft tissue sarcoma: Fat tissue tumors Liposarcoma . This is a rare cancer of the fat cells. Liposarcoma usually forms in the fat layer just under the skin. In ... types of liposarcoma. Myxoid liposarcoma is usually low grade ...

  18. Treatment Options for Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma (United States)

    ... first formed. This summary is about the following types of soft tissue sarcoma: Fat tissue tumors Liposarcoma . This is a rare cancer of the fat cells. Liposarcoma usually forms in the fat layer just under the skin. In ... types of liposarcoma. Myxoid liposarcoma is usually low grade ...

  19. Stages of Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma (United States)

    ... first formed. This summary is about the following types of soft tissue sarcoma: Fat tissue tumors Liposarcoma . This is a rare cancer of the fat cells. Liposarcoma usually forms in the fat layer just under the skin. In ... types of liposarcoma. Myxoid liposarcoma is usually low grade ...

  20. Vitamin D3 in Fat Tissue (United States)

    The literature describing vitamin D content of fat tissue is extremely limited. We conducted a pilot study that measured the concentrations of vitamin D3 in the fat tissue and serum of obese adults. These measurements were performed using a new liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) metho...

  1. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  2. Engineering tissue with BioMEMS. (United States)

    Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana


    In summary, microfluidic-BioMEMS platforms are increasingly contributing to tissue engineering in many different ways. First, the accurate control of the cell environment in settings suitable for cell screening and with imaging compatibility is greatly advancing our ability to optimize cell sources for a variety of tissue-engineering applications. Second, the microfluidic technology is ideal for the formation of perfusable networks, either to study their stability and maturation or to use these networks as templates for engineering vascularized tissues. Third, the approaches based on microfluidic and BioMEMS devices enable engineering and the study of minimally functional modules of complex tissues, such as liver sinusoid, kidney nephron, and lung bronchiole. This brief article highlighted some of the unique advantages of this elegant technology using representative examples of tissue-engineering research. We focused on some of the universal needs of the area of tissue engineering: tissue vascularization, faithful recapitulation in vitro of functional units of our tissues and organs, and predictable selection and differentiation of stem cells that are being addressed using the power and versatility of microfluidic-BioMEMS platforms.

  3. Development of multilayer constructs for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettahalli, N. M. S.; Groen, N.; Steg, H.; Unadkat, H.; de Boer, J.; van Blitterswijk, C. A.; Wessling, M.; Stamatialis, D.


    The rapidly developing field of tissue engineering produces living substitutes that restore, maintain or improve the function of tissues or organs. In contrast to standard therapies, the engineered products become integrated within the patient, affording a potentially permanent and specific cure of

  4. Informing tendon tissue engineering with embryonic development (United States)

    Glass, Zachary A.; Schiele, Nathan R.; Kuo, Catherine K.


    Tendon is a strong connective tissue that transduces muscle-generated forces into skeletal motion. In fulfilling this role, tendons are subjected to repeated mechanical loading and high stress, which may result in injury. Tissue engineering with stem cells offers the potential to replace injured/damaged tissue with healthy, new living tissue. Critical to tendon tissue engineering is the induction and guidance of stem cells towards the tendon phenotype. Typical strategies have relied on adult tissue homeostatic and healing factors to influence stem cell differentiation, but have yet to achieve tissue regeneration. A novel paradigm is to use embryonic developmental factors as cues to promote tendon regeneration. Embryonic tendon progenitor cell differentiation in vivo is regulated by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. We propose that these cues will guide stem cells to recapitulate critical aspects of tenogenesis and effectively direct the cells to differentiate and regenerate new tendon. Here, we review recent efforts to identify mechanical and chemical factors of embryonic tendon development to guide stem/progenitor cell differentiation toward new tendon formation, and discuss the role this work may have in the future of tendon tissue engineering. PMID:24484642

  5. Nonlinear spectral imaging of biological tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palero, J.A.


    The work presented in this thesis demonstrates live high resolution 3D imaging of tissue in its native state and environment. The nonlinear interaction between focussed femtosecond light pulses and the biological tissue results in the emission of natural autofluorescence and second-harmonic signal.

  6. Single domain antibodies in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Emilie Dooms


    The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the potential of VHH in tissue engineering applications, with a focus on bone and cartilage tissue regeneration. After a general introduction to this thesis in chapter 1, the selection of VHH targeting growth factors is described in chapter 2. VHH were select

  7. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada. (United States)

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim


    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  8. Immunohistochemistry on freely floating fixed tissue sections. (United States)

    Bachman, Julia


    Immunohistochemistry on free floating tissue sections is done for many reasons, all of which involve labeling tissue to visualize a certain cell type, protein, or structural component. Visualization is aided by mounting sections on microscope slides for stabilization, and is in most cases necessary for the appropriate use of objectives with a high numerical aperture and high degree of magnification.

  9. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential. (United States)

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S


    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  10. Dynamics of cancerous tissue correlates with invasiveness (United States)

    West, Ann-Katrine Vransø; Wullkopf, Lena; Christensen, Amalie; Leijnse, Natascha; Tarp, Jens Magelund; Mathiesen, Joachim; Erler, Janine Terra; Oddershede, Lene Broeng


    Two of the classical hallmarks of cancer are uncontrolled cell division and tissue invasion, which turn the disease into a systemic, life-threatening condition. Although both processes are studied, a clear correlation between cell division and motility of cancer cells has not been described previously. Here, we experimentally characterize the dynamics of invasive and non-invasive breast cancer tissues using human and murine model systems. The intrinsic tissue velocities, as well as the divergence and vorticity around a dividing cell correlate strongly with the invasive potential of the tissue, thus showing a distinct correlation between tissue dynamics and aggressiveness. We formulate a model which treats the tissue as a visco-elastic continuum. This model provides a valid reproduction of the cancerous tissue dynamics, thus, biological signaling is not needed to explain the observed tissue dynamics. The model returns the characteristic force exerted by an invading cell and reveals a strong correlation between force and invasiveness of breast cancer cells, thus pinpointing the importance of mechanics for cancer invasion.

  11. PATMA: parser of archival tissue microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Roszkowiak


    Full Text Available Tissue microarrays are commonly used in modern pathology for cancer tissue evaluation, as it is a very potent technique. Tissue microarray slides are often scanned to perform computer-aided histopathological analysis of the tissue cores. For processing the image, splitting the whole virtual slide into images of individual cores is required. The only way to distinguish cores corresponding to specimens in the tissue microarray is through their arrangement. Unfortunately, distinguishing the correct order of cores is not a trivial task as they are not labelled directly on the slide. The main aim of this study was to create a procedure capable of automatically finding and extracting cores from archival images of the tissue microarrays. This software supports the work of scientists who want to perform further image processing on single cores. The proposed method is an efficient and fast procedure, working in fully automatic or semi-automatic mode. A total of 89% of punches were correctly extracted with automatic selection. With an addition of manual correction, it is possible to fully prepare the whole slide image for extraction in 2 min per tissue microarray. The proposed technique requires minimum skill and time to parse big array of cores from tissue microarray whole slide image into individual core images.

  12. PATMA: parser of archival tissue microarray. (United States)

    Roszkowiak, Lukasz; Lopez, Carlos


    Tissue microarrays are commonly used in modern pathology for cancer tissue evaluation, as it is a very potent technique. Tissue microarray slides are often scanned to perform computer-aided histopathological analysis of the tissue cores. For processing the image, splitting the whole virtual slide into images of individual cores is required. The only way to distinguish cores corresponding to specimens in the tissue microarray is through their arrangement. Unfortunately, distinguishing the correct order of cores is not a trivial task as they are not labelled directly on the slide. The main aim of this study was to create a procedure capable of automatically finding and extracting cores from archival images of the tissue microarrays. This software supports the work of scientists who want to perform further image processing on single cores. The proposed method is an efficient and fast procedure, working in fully automatic or semi-automatic mode. A total of 89% of punches were correctly extracted with automatic selection. With an addition of manual correction, it is possible to fully prepare the whole slide image for extraction in 2 min per tissue microarray. The proposed technique requires minimum skill and time to parse big array of cores from tissue microarray whole slide image into individual core images.

  13. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L


    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate.

  14. Nonlinear spectral imaging of biological tissues (United States)

    Palero, J. A.


    The work presented in this thesis demonstrates live high resolution 3D imaging of tissue in its native state and environment. The nonlinear interaction between focussed femtosecond light pulses and the biological tissue results in the emission of natural autofluorescence and second-harmonic signal. Because biological intrinsic emission is generally very weak and extends from the ultraviolet to the visible spectral range, a broad-spectral range and high sensitivity 3D spectral imaging system is developed. Imaging the spectral characteristics of the biological intrinsic emission reveals the structure and biochemistry of the cells and extra-cellular components. By using different methods in visualizing the spectral images, discrimination between different tissue structures is achieved without the use of any stain or fluorescent label. For instance, RGB real color spectral images of the intrinsic emission of mouse skin tissues show blue cells, green hair follicles, and purple collagen fibers. The color signature of each tissue component is directly related to its characteristic emission spectrum. The results of this study show that skin tissue nonlinear intrinsic emission is mainly due to the autofluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), flavins, keratin, melanin, phospholipids, elastin and collagen and nonlinear Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation in Type I collagen. In vivo time-lapse spectral imaging is implemented to study metabolic changes in epidermal cells in tissues. Optical scattering in tissues, a key factor in determining the maximum achievable imaging depth, is also investigated in this work.

  15. Estrogen receptors in human vaginal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, M.A.H.M.; Poortman, J.; Agema, A.R.; Thijssen, J.H.H.


    The presence of specific estrogen receptors could be demonstrated in vaginal tissue, obtained during operation from 38 women, age 27–75 yr. In 23 premenopausal women the receptor concentration in the vaginal tissue varied between 12 and 91 fmol/mg protein, no significant difference in the receptor

  16. Informing tendon tissue engineering with embryonic development. (United States)

    Glass, Zachary A; Schiele, Nathan R; Kuo, Catherine K


    Tendon is a strong connective tissue that transduces muscle-generated forces into skeletal motion. In fulfilling this role, tendons are subjected to repeated mechanical loading and high stress, which may result in injury. Tissue engineering with stem cells offers the potential to replace injured/damaged tissue with healthy, new living tissue. Critical to tendon tissue engineering is the induction and guidance of stem cells towards the tendon phenotype. Typical strategies have relied on adult tissue homeostatic and healing factors to influence stem cell differentiation, but have yet to achieve tissue regeneration. A novel paradigm is to use embryonic developmental factors as cues to promote tendon regeneration. Embryonic tendon progenitor cell differentiation in vivo is regulated by a combination of mechanical and chemical factors. We propose that these cues will guide stem cells to recapitulate critical aspects of tenogenesis and effectively direct the cells to differentiate and regenerate new tendon. Here, we review recent efforts to identify mechanical and chemical factors of embryonic tendon development to guide stem/progenitor cell differentiation toward new tendon formation, and discuss the role this work may have in the future of tendon tissue engineering.

  17. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma (United States)


    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  18. Renin dynamics in adipose tissue: adipose tissue control of local renin concentrations


    Fowler, Jason D.; Krueth, Stacy B.; Bernlohr, David A.; Katz, Stephen A.


    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in a variety of adipose tissue functions, including tissue growth, differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation. Although expression of all components necessary for a locally derived adipose tissue RAS has been demonstrated within adipose tissue, independence of local adipose RAS component concentrations from corresponding plasma RAS fluctuations has not been addressed. To analyze this, we varied in vivo rat plasma concentrations of two ...

  19. Soft tissue biotype affects implant success. (United States)

    Lee, Angie; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wang, Hom-Lay


    The influence of tissue biotype in natural dentition is already well demonstrated in the literature, with numerous articles showing that thicker tissue is a preferred biotype for optimal surgical and prosthetic outcomes. In this same line of thought, current studies are directed to explore whether mucosal thickness would have similar implications around dental implants. The purpose of this review was to investigate the effects of soft tissue biotype in relation to success of implant therapy. The influence of tissue biotype was divided into 3 main categories: its relationship with periimplant mucosa and the underlying bone, immediate implant placement, and restorative outcomes. Soft tissue biotype is an important parameter to consider in achieving esthetic implant restoration, improving immediate implant success, and preventing future mucosal recession.

  20. Gentamicin concentrations in human subcutaneous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Hanne; Kallehave, Finn Lasse; Kolmos, Hans Jørn Jepsen


    in human subcutaneous adipose tissue by a microdialysis technique. Seven healthy young volunteers each had four microdialysis probes placed in the fat (subcutaneous) layer of the abdominal skin. After the administration of a 240-mg gentamicin intravenous bolus, consecutive measurements of the drug......Wound infections frequently originate from the subcutaneous tissue. The effect of gentamicin in subcutaneous tissue has, however, normally been evaluated from concentrations in blood or wound fluid. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of gentamicin...... concentrations in serum and subcutaneous interstitial fluid were obtained simultaneously for 6 h. The tissue gentamicin concentration peaked after 10 to 30 min. The peak concentration in the tissue was 6.7 +/- 2.0 mg.liter-1 (standard deviation), equivalent to 39.1% of the peak concentration in serum. The area...

  1. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura


    Adipose tissue is not only a tissue where energy is stored but is also involved in regulating several body functions such as appetite and energy expenditure via its endocrine activity. Moreover, it thereby modulates complex processes like reproduction, inflammation and immune response. The products...... secreted from adipose tissue comprise hormones and cytokines that are collectively termed as adipocytokines or "adipokines"; the discovery and characterization of new proteins secreted by adipose tissue is still ongoing and their number is thus increasing. Adipokines act in both endocrine manner as well...... as locally, as autocrine or paracrine effectors. Proteomics has emerged as a valuable technique to characterize both cellular and secreted proteomes from adipose tissues, including those of main cellular fractions, i.e. the adipocytes or the stromal vascular fraction containing mainly adipocyte precursors...

  2. [Update on protein analysis of fixed tissues]. (United States)

    Becker, K-F; Berg, D; Malinowsky, K; Wolff, C; Ergin, B; Meding, S; Walch, A; Höfler, H


    Tissue samples have been routinely used for decades to distinguish healthy from diseased tissue in histopathological characterization. While nucleic acid-based methodologies have been successfully in use for many years, protein-based techniques, in contrast, are at a very early stage (with the exception of immunohistochemistry). One reason for this delay may be that the scientific community has long thought that formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are unfit for protein analysis. However, recent reports demonstrate that many protein methods that are routinely used for frozen tissues can also be applied for FFPE tissues, including Western blot, protein microarray, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging and 2D gel electrophoresis. The present article provides an overview of recent developments in this field, focussing particular attention on quantitative analysis and high throughput technologies that have the potential to be integrated into the routine workflow of clinical pathology laboratories.

  3. Absolute photoacoustic thermometry in deep tissue. (United States)

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V


    Photoacoustic thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes embedded ~9 mm deep in chicken tissue were measured in a biologically relevant range from 28°C to 46°C. The temperature measurement accuracy was ~0.6°C. The results suggest that our method can be potentially used for absolute temperature monitoring in deep tissue during thermotherapy.

  4. Grating-based tomography of human tissues (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Mehlin, Andrea; Herzen, Julia; Lang, Sabrina; Holme, Margaret; Zanette, Irene; Hieber, Simone; Deyhle, Hans; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weitkamp, Timm


    The development of therapies to improve our health requires a detailed knowledge on the anatomy of soft tissues from the human body down to the cellular level. Grating-based phase contrast micro computed tomography using synchrotron radiation provides a sensitivity, which allows visualizing micrometer size anatomical features in soft tissue without applying any contrast agent. We show phase contrast tomography data of human brain, tumor vessels and constricted arteries from the beamline ID 19 (ESRF) and urethral tissue from the beamline W2 (HASYLAB/DESY) with micrometer resolution. Here, we demonstrate that anatomical features can be identified within brain tissue as well known from histology. Using human urethral tissue, the application of two photon energies is compared. Tumor vessels thicker than 20 μm can be perfectly segmented. The morphology of coronary arteries can be better extracted in formalin than after paraffin embedding.

  5. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekh Rahman


    Full Text Available Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.

  6. Aloe Vera for Tissue Engineering Applications. (United States)

    Rahman, Shekh; Carter, Princeton; Bhattarai, Narayan


    Aloe vera, also referred as Aloe barbadensis Miller, is a succulent plant widely used for biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Aloe vera has been used for thousands of years. However, recent significant advances have been made in the development of aloe vera for tissue engineering applications. Aloe vera has received considerable attention in tissue engineering due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and low toxicity properties. Aloe vera has been reported to have many biologically active components. The bioactive components of aloe vera have effective antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulatory effects that promote both tissue regeneration and growth. The aloe vera plant, its bioactive components, extraction and processing, and tissue engineering prospects are reviewed in this article. The use of aloe vera as tissue engineering scaffolds, gels, and films is discussed, with a special focus on electrospun nanofibers.

  7. Imaging white adipose tissue with confocal microscopy. (United States)

    Martinez-Santibañez, Gabriel; Cho, Kae Won; Lumeng, Carey N


    Adipose tissue is composed of a variety of cell types that include mature adipocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocyte progenitors, and a range of inflammatory leukocytes. These cells work in concert to promote nutrient storage in adipose tissue depots and vary widely based on location. In addition, overnutrition and obesity impart significant changes in the architecture of adipose tissue that are strongly associated with metabolic dysfunction. Recent studies have called attention to the importance of adipose tissue microenvironments in regulating adipocyte function and therefore require techniques that preserve cellular interactions and permit detailed analysis of three-dimensional structures in fat. This chapter summarizes our experience with the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy for imaging adipose tissue in rodents.

  8. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P; Troppmann, C


    Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.

  9. Imaging challenges in biomaterials and tissue engineering. (United States)

    Appel, Alyssa A; Anastasio, Mark A; Larson, Jeffery C; Brey, Eric M


    Biomaterials are employed in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) in order to enhance the regeneration or replacement of tissue function and/or structure. The unique environments resulting from the presence of biomaterials, cells, and tissues result in distinct challenges in regards to monitoring and assessing the results of these interventions. Imaging technologies for three-dimensional (3D) analysis have been identified as a strategic priority in TERM research. Traditionally, histological and immunohistochemical techniques have been used to evaluate engineered tissues. However, these methods do not allow for an accurate volume assessment, are invasive, and do not provide information on functional status. Imaging techniques are needed that enable non-destructive, longitudinal, quantitative, and three-dimensional analysis of TERM strategies. This review focuses on evaluating the application of available imaging modalities for assessment of biomaterials and tissue in TERM applications. Included is a discussion of limitations of these techniques and identification of areas for further development.

  10. Studying cytokinesis in Drosophila epithelial tissues. (United States)

    Pinheiro, D; Bellaïche, Y


    Epithelial tissue cohesiveness is ensured through cell-cell junctions that maintain both adhesion and mechanical coupling between neighboring cells. During development, epithelial tissues undergo intensive cell proliferation. Cell division, and particularly cytokinesis, is coupled to the formation of new adhesive contacts, thereby preserving tissue integrity and propagating cell polarity. Remarkably, the geometry of the new interfaces is determined by the combined action of the dividing cell and its neighbors. To further understand the interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors, as well as the role of cell division for tissue morphogenesis, it is important to analyze cytokinesis in vivo. Here we present methods to perform live imaging of cell division in Drosophila epithelial tissues and discuss some aspects of image processing and analysis.

  11. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel


    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  12. Depositing archived paraffin tissue core biopsy specimens in paraffin tissue microarrays using a paraffin tissue punch modified with a countersink. (United States)

    Vogel, Ulrich Felix


    Paraffin tissue microarrays (PTMAs) introduced by Kononen et al in 1998 have become a widely used technique in routine pathology and even more so in research. Kononen used a tissue puncher/arrayer (Beecher Instruments, Sun Prairie, WI, USA) to take paraffin tissue core biopsy specimens (PTCBs) of 0.6-2 mm in diameter from routine paraffin tissue blocks and transfer them to another paraffin block with up to 1000 holes. As pointed out by Mengel et al, however, it is not possible to use the Kononen/Beecher system to construct PTMAs out of archived PTCBs. To overcome this drawback in the extremely popular Beecher system, the paraffin tissue punch was modified by incorporating a conical 4 mm deep countersink. This countersink was milled with a conical precision cutter that can be bought in an ordinary hardware store (cost PTCB into the paraffin tissue punch and enables the construction of PTMAs with previously archived PTCBs using the widely distributed Beecher system. Moreover, this paraffin tissue punch can be used for other systems to create PTMAs, such as the low-budget systems designed by Vogel.

  13. Characterization and comparison of adipose tissue-derived cells from human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. (United States)

    Toyoda, Mito; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Lin, Konghua; Sugimachi, Keizou; Furue, Masutaka


    Different fat depots contribute differently to disease and function. These differences may be due to the regional variation in cell types and inherent properties of fat cell progenitors. To address the differences of cell types in the adipose tissue from different depots, the phenotypes of freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived cells (ATDCs) from subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissues were compared using flow cytometry. Our results showed that CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(+) population, containing vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, was specifically defined in the SC adipose tissue while no such population was observed in OM adipose tissue. On the other hand, CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(-) population, which is an undefined cell population, were found solely in OM adipose tissue. Overall, the SC adipose tissue contained more ATDCs than OM adipose tissue, while OM adipose tissue contained more blood-derived cells. Regarding to the inherent properties of fat cell progenitors from the two depots, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from SC had higher capacity to differentiate into both adipogenic and osteogenic lineages than those from OM, regardless of that the proliferation rates of ADSCs from both depots were similar. The higher differentiation capacity of ADSCs from SC adipose tissue suggests that SC tissue is more suitable cell source for regenerative medicine than OM adipose tissue.

  14. The importance of establishing an international network of tissue banks and regional tissue processing centers. (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge


    During the past four decades, many tissue banks have been established across the world with the aim of supplying sterilized tissues for clinical use and research purposes. Between 1972 and 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported the establishment of more than sixty of these tissue banks in Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, Africa and Eastern Europe; promoted the use of the ionizing radiation technique for the sterilization of the processed tissues; and encouraged cooperation between the established tissue banks during the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking at national, regional and international levels. Taking into account that several of the established tissue banks have gained a rich experience in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and medical use of sterilized tissues, it is time now to strengthen further international and regional cooperation among interested tissue banks located in different countries. The purpose of this cooperation is to share the experience gained by these banks in the procurement, processing, sterilization, storage, and used of different types of tissues in certain medical treatments and research activities. This could be done through the establishment of a network of tissue banks and a limited number of regional tissue processing centers in different regions of the world.

  15. Stokes-polarimetry imaging of tissue (United States)

    Wu, Paul J.

    A novel Stokes-polarimetry imaging system and technique was developed to quantify fully the polarization properties of light remitted from tissue. The uniqueness of the system and technique is established in the incident polarization. Here, the diffuse illumination is varied and controlled with the intention to improve the visibility of tissue structures. Since light retains some polarization even after multiple-scattering events, the polarization of remitted light depends upon the interactions within the material. Differentiation between tissue structures is accomplished by two-dimensional mapping of the imaged area using metrics such as the degree of linear polarization, degree of circular polarization, ellipticity, and Stokes parameters. While Stokes-polarimetry imaging can be applied to a variety of tissues and conditions, this thesis focuses on tissue types associated with the disease endometriosis. The current standard in diagnosing endometriosis is visual laparoscopy with tissue biopsy. The documented correlation between laparoscopy inspection and histological confirmation of suspected lesions was at best 67%. Endometrial lesions vary greatly in their appearance and depth of infiltration. Although laparoscopy permits tissue to be assessed by color and texture, to advance beyond the state-of-the-art, a new imaging modality involving polarized light was investigated; in particular, Stokes-polarimetry imaging was used to determine the polarization signature of light that interacted with tissue. Basic science studies were conducted on rat tails embedded within turbid gelatin. The purpose of these experiments was to determine how identification of sub-surface structures could be improved. Experimental results indicate image contrast among various structures such as tendon, soft tissue and intervertebral discs. Stokes-polarimetry imaging experiments were performed on various tissues associated with endometriosis to obtain a baseline characterization for each

  16. Model applied to wistar rats for analysis of atrial alteration radioinduced: role of the TGFBeta1 cytokine on the lesions development; Modelo em ratos Wistar para analise de alteracoes atriais radioinduzidas: papel da citocina TGFBeta1 no desenvolvimento das lesoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Viviane Fernandes da; Andrade, Cherley Borba V. de; Nascimento, Ana Lucia Rosa do; Silva, Claudia Marcello da; Ribeiro, Andreia Fortes; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes


    This paper develops a radiobiological model on Wistar rats for evaluation of atrium radioinduced alterations. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetised, immobilized and irradiated with 500, 1000 and 1500 cGy irradiated doses in the cardiac volume, pre-define through tomography. The animals were sacrificed after 15 days irradiation. The atriums were collected, fixed in formaldehyde and soaked into paraffin. A part of samples were dyed with hematoxyline-eosin (HE) and another submitted to immunohistochemistry for visualization of the cytokine TGFbeta1 expression. The observation of samples with HE indicated lesions om blood vessels and discrete inflamed infiltrated on some samples. The immunohistochemistry shown an intense expression of the TGFbeta1 cytokine, mainly on the only intine of the blood vessels. The data indicate that the atria develop alterations compatible to inflammatory answer as reaction to the damage caused by the tissue irradiation, and this answer is responsible by the production of TGFbeta1 cytokine, considered a cytokine pro-fibrotic on various models of cardiac disease. The lesions at atrium level can reflect on the correct functioning of the system generator of cardiac impulse, and can induce arrythmias and to prejudice the production of natriuretic peptides, molecules involved on the cardiac homeostasis

  17. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method; Estabelecimento de procedimento para determinacao de vanadio em mexilhoes pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele, E-mail: [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail:, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S., E-mail: edvinett@usp.b, E-mail: camilo.pereira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha


    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the {sup 52}V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  18. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma and macrodystrofia lipomatosa: imaging and clinical data analysis of four cases and review of the literature; Hamartoma fibrolipomatoso e macrodistrofia lipomatosa: analise dos achados clinicos e de imagem em quatro casos, com revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Rafael Darahem de Souza; Simao, Marcelo Novelino; Trad, Clovis Simao [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas]. E-mail:


    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve and macrodystrophia lipomatosa are rare conditions that present characteristic imaging findings. The plain films, magnetic resonance imaging studies and medical records of four patients were reviewed. The lesion was resected in one patient allowing histological confirmation of the diagnosis. Diagnosis was based on imaging and clinical findings in three patients who had unavailable biopsy data. We describe two cases of isolated macrodystrophia lipomatosa, one case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma and one case where both conditions were found. In the macrodystrophia lipomatosa cases plain films demonstrated enlargement of osseous and soft tissue structures in the affected limbs, with fatty streaks interspersed along the muscle fibers. The median nerve was affected in the cases of fibrolipomatous hamartoma. Magnetic resonance imaging findings included nerve fascicle thickening characterized by low signal on both T1 and T2-weighted sequences, and surrounding fat, which appears as high signal on T1 and low signal on T2-weighted sequences with fat saturation. Both nerves had a coaxial cable appearance on axial images. The fibrolipomatous hamartoma extended to the nerve branches, which is a typical finding. The typical imaging findings of macrodystrophia lipomatosa and fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve, particularly at magnetic resonance imaging examination, allowed a reliable diagnosis of these frequently coexistent conditions. (author)

  19. Three-dimensional radiotherapy planning system for esophageal tumors: comparison of treatment techniques and analysis of probability of complications; Planejamento tridimensional para radioterapia de tumores de esofago: comparacao de tecnicas de tratamento e analise de probabilidade de complicacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justino, Pitagoras Baskara; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Ferauche, Debora; Ros, Renato [Sao Paulo Uni., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto de Radioterapia (InRad)]. E-mail:


    Radiotherapy techniques for esophageal cancer were compared using a three-dimensional planning system. We studied the following treatment techniques used for a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the middle third of the esophagus: two antero-posterior and two latero-lateral parallel opposed fields, three fields ('Y' and 'T'), and four fields ('X'). Dose-volume histograms were obtained considering spinal cord and lungs as organs at risk. Analysis was performed comparing doses in these organs as recommended by the Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) and Tumor Control Probability (TCP). When only the lungs were considered the best technique was two antero-posterior parallel opposed fields. The spinal cord was best protected using latero-lateral fields. We suggest the combination of at least two treatment techniques: antero-posterior fields with 'Y' or 'T' techniques, or latero-lateral fields in order to balance the doses in the lungs and the spinal cord. Another option may be the use of any of the three-field techniques during the whole treatment. (author)

  20. Raman spectroscopic evidence of tissue restructuring in heat-induced tissue fusion. (United States)

    Su, Lei; Cloyd, Kristy L; Arya, Shobhit; Hedegaard, Martin A B; Steele, Joseph A M; Elson, Daniel S; Stevens, Molly M; Hanna, George B


    Heat-induced tissue fusion via radio-frequency (RF) energy has gained wide acceptance clinically and here we present the first optical-Raman-spectroscopy study on tissue fusion samples in vitro. This study provides direct insights into tissue constituent and structural changes on the molecular level, exposing spectroscopic evidence for the loss of distinct collagen fibre rich tissue layers as well as the denaturing and restructuring of collagen crosslinks post RF fusion. These findings open the door for more advanced optical feedback-control methods and characterization during heat-induced tissue fusion, which will lead to new clinical applications of this promising technology.

  1. Superior Tissue Evolution in Slow-Degrading Scaffolds for Valvular Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Brugmans, Marieke M C P; Soekhradj-Soechit, R Sarita; van Geemen, Daphne; Cox, Martijn; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Baaijens, Frank P T; Driessen-Mol, Anita


    Synthetic polymers are widely used to fabricate porous scaffolds for the regeneration of cardiovascular tissues. To ensure mechanical integrity, a balance between the rate of scaffold absorption and tissue formation is of high importance. A higher rate of tissue formation is expected in fast-degrading materials than in slow-degrading materials. This could be a result of synthetic cells, which aim to compensate for the fast loss of mechanical integrity of the scaffold by deposition of collagen fibers. Here, we studied the effect of fast-degrading polyglycolic acid scaffolds coated with poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (PGA-P4HB) and slow-degrading poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds on amount of tissue, composition, and mechanical characteristics in time, and compared these engineered values with values for native human heart valves. Electrospun PGA-P4HB and PCL scaffolds were either kept unseeded in culture or were seeded with human vascular-derived cells. Tissue formation, extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, remaining scaffold weight, tissue-to-scaffold weight ratio, and mechanical properties were analyzed every week up to 6 weeks. Mass of unseeded PCL scaffolds remained stable during culture, whereas PGA-P4HB scaffolds degraded rapidly. When seeded with cells, both scaffold types demonstrated increasing amounts of tissue with time, which was more pronounced for PGA-P4HB-based tissues during the first 2 weeks; however, PCL-based tissues resulted in the highest amount of tissue after 6 weeks. This study is the first to provide insight into the tissue-to-scaffold weight ratio, therewith allowing for a fair comparison between engineered tissues cultured on scaffolds as well as between native heart valve tissues. Although the absolute amount of ECM components differed between the engineered tissues, the ratio between ECM components was similar after 6 weeks. PCL-based tissues maintained their shape, whereas the PGA-P4HB-based tissues deformed during culture. After 6 weeks

  2. Photon-tissue interaction model for quantitative assessment of biological tissues (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yup; Lloyd, William R.; Wilson, Robert H.; Chandra, Malavika; McKenna, Barbara; Simeone, Diane; Scheiman, James; Mycek, Mary-Ann


    In this study, we describe a direct fit photon-tissue interaction model to quantitatively analyze reflectance spectra of biological tissue samples. The model rapidly extracts biologically-relevant parameters associated with tissue optical scattering and absorption. This model was employed to analyze reflectance spectra acquired from freshly excised human pancreatic pre-cancerous tissues (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), a common precursor lesion to pancreatic cancer). Compared to previously reported models, the direct fit model improved fit accuracy and speed. Thus, these results suggest that such models could serve as real-time, quantitative tools to characterize biological tissues assessed with reflectance spectroscopy.

  3. Tubular heart valves from decellularized engineered tissue. (United States)

    Syedain, Zeeshan H; Meier, Lee A; Reimer, Jay M; Tranquillo, Robert T


    A novel tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) was fabricated from a decellularized tissue tube mounted on a frame with three struts, which upon back-pressure cause the tube to collapse into three coapting "leaflets." The tissue was completely biological, fabricated from ovine fibroblasts dispersed within a fibrin gel, compacted into a circumferentially aligned tube on a mandrel, and matured using a bioreactor system that applied cyclic distension. Following decellularization, the resulting tissue possessed tensile mechanical properties, mechanical anisotropy, and collagen content that were comparable to native pulmonary valve leaflets. When mounted on a custom frame and tested within a pulse duplicator system, the tubular TEHV displayed excellent function under both aortic and pulmonary conditions, with minimal regurgitant fractions and transvalvular pressure gradients at peak systole, as well as well as effective orifice areas exceeding those of current commercially available valve replacements. Short-term fatigue testing of one million cycles with pulmonary pressure gradients was conducted without significant change in mechanical properties and no observable macroscopic tissue deterioration. This study presents an attractive potential alternative to current tissue valve replacements due to its avoidance of chemical fixation and utilization of a tissue conducive to recellularization by host cell infiltration.

  4. Trends in Tissue Engineering for Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judee Grace Nemeno-Guanzon


    Full Text Available Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient’s conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering.

  5. Tylosin depletion in edible tissues of turkeys. (United States)

    Montesissa, C; De Liguoro, M; Santi, A; Capolongo, F; Biancotto, G


    The depletion of tylosin residues in edible turkey tissues was followed after 3 days of administration of tylosin tartrate at 500 mg l-1 in drinking water, to 30 turkeys. Immediately after the end of the treatment (day 0) and at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 of withdrawal, six turkeys (three males and three females) per time were sacrificed and samples of edible tissues were collected. Tissue homogenates were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC according to a method previously published for the analysis of tylosin residues in pig tissues. In all tissues, tylosin residues were already below the detection limits of 50 micrograms kg-1 at time zero. However, in several samples of tissues (skin + fat, liver, kidney, muscle), from the six turkeys sacrificed at that time, one peak corresponding to an unknown tylosin equivalent was detected at measurable concentrations. The identification of this unknown compound was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts from incurred samples. The mass fragmentation of the compound was consistent with the structure of tylosin D (the alcoholic derivative of tylosin A), the major metabolite of tylosin previously recovered and identified in tissues and/or excreta from treated chickens, cattle and pigs.

  6. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Tunks


    Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients.

  7. Bioimpedance of soft tissue under compression. (United States)

    Dodde, R E; Bull, J L; Shih, A J


    In this paper compression-dependent bioimpedance measurements of porcine spleen tissue are presented. Using a Cole-Cole model, nonlinear compositional changes in extracellular and intracellular makeup; related to a loss of fluid from the tissue, are identified during compression. Bioimpedance measurements were made using a custom tetrapolar probe and bioimpedance circuitry. As the tissue is increasingly compressed up to 50%, both intracellular and extracellular resistances increase while bulk membrane capacitance decreases. Increasing compression to 80% results in an increase in intracellular resistance and bulk membrane capacitance while extracellular resistance decreases. Tissues compressed incrementally to 80% show a decreased extracellular resistance of 32%, an increased intracellular resistance of 107%, and an increased bulk membrane capacitance of 64% compared to their uncompressed values. Intracellular resistance exhibits double asymptotic curves when plotted against the peak tissue pressure during compression, possibly indicating two distinct phases of mechanical change in the tissue during compression. Based on these findings, differing theories as to what is happening at a cellular level during high tissue compression are discussed, including the possibility of cell rupture and mass exudation of cellular material.

  8. Epidermal growth factor (urogastrone) in human tissues. (United States)

    Hirata, Y; Orth, D N


    Human epidermal growth factor (hEGF), which stimulates the growth of a variety of tissues, was first isolated from mouse submandibular glands, but is also excreted in large amounts (about 50 micrograms/day) in human urine and is probably identical to human beta-urogastrone (hUG), a potent inhibitor of stimulated gastric acid secretion. However, the primary tissue source of hEGF/hUG is as yet unknown. The hEGF/hUG in homogenates of human salivary glands and a wide variety of other endocrine and nonendocrine tissues was extracted by Amberlite CG-50 cation exchange chromatography and immune affinity chromatography using the immunoglobulin fraction of rabbit anti-hEGF serum covalently bound to agarose. The extracts were subjected to homologous hEGF RIA. Immunoreactive hEGF was found in extracts of adult submandibular gland, thyroid gland, duodenum, jejunum, and kidney, but not in several fetal tissues. The tissue immunoreactive hEGF was similar to standard hEGF in terms of immunoreactivity and elution from Sephadex G-50 Fine resin, but its concentrations were very low (1.3-5.5 ng/g wet tissue). Thus, it is not certain that these tissues represent the only source of the large amounts of hEGF/hUG that appear to be filtered by the kidneys each day.

  9. Lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules. (United States)

    Cheriyan, Thomas; Guo, Lifei; Orgill, Dennis P; Padera, Robert F; Schmid, Thomas M; Spector, Myron


    Capsular contraction is the most common complication of breast reconstruction surgery. While presence of the contractile protein alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is considered among the causes of capsular contraction, the exact etiology and pathophysiology is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of lubricin in capsular formation and contraction by determining the presence and distribution of the lubricating protein lubricin in human breast tissue expander capsules. Related aims were to evaluate select histopathologic features of the capsules, and the percentage of cells expressing α-SMA, which reflects the myofibroblast phenotype. Capsules from tissue expanders were obtained from eight patients. Lubricin, at the tissue-implant interface, in the extracellular matrix, and in cells, and α-SMA-containing cells were evaluated immunohistochemically. The notable finding was that lubricin was identified in all tissue expander capsules: as a discrete layer at the tissue-implant interface, extracellular, and intracellular. There was a greater amount of lubricin in the extracellular matrix in the intimal-subintimal zone when compared with the tissue away from the implant. Varying degrees of synovial metaplasia were seen at the tissue-implant interface. α-SMA-containing cells were also seen in all but one patient. The findings might help us better understand factors involved in capsule formation.

  10. Critical steps in tissue processing in histopathology. (United States)

    Comanescu, Maria; Annaratone, Laura; D'Armento, Giuseppe; Cardos, Georgeta; Sapino, Anna; Bussolati, Gianni


    Histopathological diagnosis using Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) tissues is essential for the prognostic and therapeutic management of cancer patients. Pathologists are being confronted with increasing demands, from both clinicians and patients, to provide immunophenotypic and gene expression data from FFPE tissues to allow the planning of personalized therapeutic regimens. Recent improvements in the protocols for pre-analysis processing of pathological tissues aim to better preserve cellular details and to conserve antigens and nucleic acid sequences. These developments have been recently patented. The international protocol for the transporting of surgical specimens from the surgical theatre to the pathology department is to immerse the specimen in formalin. The alternative method of sealing the specimens into bags under a vacuum and then cooling is a well-accepted and environmentally safe procedure that overcomes the many drawbacks linked to transfer in formalin. Importantly, RNA is notoriously poorly preserved in FFPE tissue. Due to this, successful procedures for the extraction of genetic information from archival tissues have been the object of several studies and patents. Novel molecular approaches for RT-qPCR and gene array analysis on FFPE tissues are presented here. Moreover, a major advance is reported in this study, the observation that tissue fixation in cold conditions allows a much better preservation of nucleic acid sequences.

  11. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A


    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  12. Biomimetic materials design for cardiac tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Dunn, David A; Hodge, Alexander J; Lipke, Elizabeth A


    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the absence of sufficient numbers of organs for heart transplant, alternate approaches for healing or replacing diseased heart tissue are under investigation. Designing biomimetic materials to support these approaches will be essential to their overall success. Strategies for cardiac tissue engineering include injection of cells, implantation of three-dimensional tissue constructs or patches, injection of acellular materials, and replacement of valves. To replicate physiological function and facilitate engraftment into native tissue, materials used in these approaches should have properties that mimic those of the natural cardiac environment. Multiple aspects of the cardiac microenvironment have been emulated using biomimetic materials including delivery of bioactive factors, presentation of cell-specific adhesion sites, design of surface topography to guide tissue alignment and dictate cell shape, modulation of mechanical stiffness and electrical conductivity, and fabrication of three-dimensional structures to guide tissue formation and function. Biomaterials can be engineered to assist in stem cell expansion and differentiation, to protect cells during injection and facilitate their retention and survival in vivo, and to provide mechanical support and guidance for engineered tissue formation. Numerous studies have investigated the use of biomimetic materials for cardiac regeneration. Biomimetic material design will continue to exploit advances in nanotechnology to better recreate the cellular environment and advance cardiac regeneration. Overall, biomimetic materials are moving the field of cardiac regenerative medicine forward and promise to deliver new therapies in combating heart disease.

  13. Métodos de analise dos danos da lagarta da espiga¹, em médias de gerações envolvendo IAC Maya e Zapalote Chico Method for analysis of damage of the corn earworm heliothis zea in generation means from IAC Maya and Zapalote Chico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende


    utilizing the revised scale described by WIDSTROM (27. The data obtained was analised by two different ways. The grades were distributed at first in two different classes: grades 0 and 1 and grades > 2. The grades were afterwards distributed in the following two classes: grades 0 and grades > 1. The chi-square test was applied to verify which of the two types of classes adjusts better with their respective expected ratios. The results showed that when the grades were divided in the classes 0+1 and > 2 the data were more uniform within each treatment. The analysis of variance for each damage class separately, presented F values highly significant for the classes zero and zero plus one, whereas for the classes > 1 and > 2 the damage averages were very similar and the F values were not significant. The class zero plus one had F value higher and the coefficient of variation smaller than the class zero. The ZC 2451 corn compared to the variety IAC Maya XII, exibited good resistance to the corn earworm, under the field conditions of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This resistance is of the type non preference and or antibiosis, because there was a higher percentage of ears of ZC 2451 free of earworm damage.

  14. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  15. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Tissue-Specific Progenitor Cells: Their Role in Tissue Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Klimczak


    Full Text Available Multipotent mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs reside in many human organs and comprise heterogeneous population of cells with self-renewal ability. These cells can be isolated from different tissues, and their morphology, immunophenotype, and differentiation potential are dependent on their tissue of origin. Each organ contains specific population of stromal cells which maintain regeneration process of the tissue where they reside, but some of them have much more wide plasticity and differentiate into multiple cells lineage. MSCs isolated from adult human tissues are ideal candidates for tissue regeneration and tissue engineering. However, MSCs do not only contribute to structurally tissue repair but also MSC possess strong immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties and may influence in tissue repair by modulation of local environment. This paper is presenting an overview of the current knowledge of biology of tissue-resident mesenchymal stromal and progenitor cells (originated from bone marrow, liver, skeletal muscle, skin, heart, and lung associated with tissue regeneration and tissue homeostasis.

  16. Renin dynamics in adipose tissue: adipose tissue control of local renin concentrations. (United States)

    Fowler, Jason D; Krueth, Stacy B; Bernlohr, David A; Katz, Stephen A


    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in a variety of adipose tissue functions, including tissue growth, differentiation, metabolism, and inflammation. Although expression of all components necessary for a locally derived adipose tissue RAS has been demonstrated within adipose tissue, independence of local adipose RAS component concentrations from corresponding plasma RAS fluctuations has not been addressed. To analyze this, we varied in vivo rat plasma concentrations of two RAS components, renin and angiotensinogen (AGT), to determine the influence of their plasma concentrations on adipose and cardiac tissue levels in both perfused (plasma removed) and nonperfused samples. Variation of plasma RAS components was accomplished by four treatment groups: normal, DOCA salt, bilateral nephrectomy, and losartan. Adipose and cardiac tissue AGT concentrations correlated positively with plasma values. Perfusion of adipose tissue decreased AGT concentrations by 11.1%, indicating that adipose tissue AGT was in equilibrium with plasma. Cardiac tissue renin levels positively correlated with plasma renin concentration for all treatments. In contrast, adipose tissue renin levels did not correlate with plasma renin, with the exception of extremely high plasma renin concentrations achieved in the losartan-treated group. These results suggest that adipose tissue may control its own local renin concentration independently of plasma renin as a potential mechanism for maintaining a functional local adipose RAS.

  17. Anisotropy of light propagation in biological tissue (United States)

    Kienle, A.; Forster, F. K.; Hibst, R.


    We investigated the propagation of light in biological tissues that have aligned cylindrical microstructures (e.g., muscle, skin, bone, tooth). Because of pronounced anisotropic light scattering by cylindrical structures (e.g., myofibrils and collagen fibers) the spatially resolved reflectance exhibits a directional dependence that is different close to and far from the incident source. We applied Monte Carlo simulations, using the phase function of an infinitely long cylinder, to explain quantitatively the experimental results. These observations have consequences for noninvasive determination of the optical properties of tissue as well as for the diagnosis of early tissue alterations.

  18. Tissue damage and oxidant/antioxidant balance. (United States)

    Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Borekci, Bunyamin; Yapca, O Erkan; Bilen, Habib; Suleyman, Halis


    The oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy tissues is maintained with a predominance of antioxidants. Various factors that can lead to tissue damage disrupt the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants. In this study, disruptions of the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants were found to be a consequence of the over-consumption of antioxidants. For this reason, antioxidants are considered to be of importance in the prevention and treatment of various types of tissue damage that are aggravated by stress.

  19. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager


    We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...... markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised...

  20. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Joachim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and tissue har- monic imaging (THI) are combined to improve the image quality of medical ultrasound imaging. The technique is evaluated in a compar- ative study against dynamic receive focusing (DRF). The objective is to investigate if SASB combined......, and data were recorded with and without pulse inversion for tissue harmonic imaging. Data were acquired using a Sound Technol- ogy 192 element convex array transducer from both a wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom to investigate spatial resolution and pen- etration. In-vivo scans were also...

  1. Skeletal tissue engineering: opportunities and challenges. (United States)

    Luyten, F P; Dell'Accio, F; De Bari, C


    Tissue engineering is a field of biomedicine that is growing rapidly and is critically driven by scientific advances in the areas of developmental and cell biology and biomaterial sciences. Regeneration of skeletal tissues is among the most promising areas of biological tissue repair and is providing a broad spectrum of potential clinical applications, including joint resurfacing. The availability of novel tools such as pluripotent stem cells, morphogens, smart biomaterials and gene transfer technologies, makes us dream of many exciting novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these opportunities in regenerative medicine, good clinical practice requires the clinician to question the consistency, reproducibility, validation and appropriate regulation of these new biological treatments.

  2. Photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels in tissues (United States)

    de Mul, Frits F. M.; Pilatou, Magdalena C.; Kolkman, Roy G. M.; Hondebrink, Erwin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt


    To localize and monitor the blood content in tissue we developed very sensitive photoacoustical detectors. In these detectors a PVdF-layer has been used as piezo-electric material and also fibers for the illumination of the sample are integrated. The resolution is about 20 im in depth and about 50-100 im laterally. The wavelengths ofthe laser light were 532and 1064 nm. With these colors we can measure at different depths in tissue. We will report measurements on real tissue: vessels in chicken breast, in the human arm, and in test animals at various positions.

  3. Adipose tissues as endocrine target organs. (United States)

    Lanthier, Nicolas; Leclercq, Isabelle A


    In the context of obesity, white adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue macrophage infiltration result in the production of pro-inflammatory adipocytokines inducing insulin resistance locally but also in distant organs and contributing to low grade inflammatory status associated with the metabolic syndrome. Visceral adipose tissue is believed to play a prominent role. Brown and beige adipose tissues are capable of energy dissipation, but also of cytokine production and their role in dysmetabolic syndrome is emerging. This review focuses on metabolic and inflammatory changes in these adipose depots and contribution to metabolic syndrome. Also we will review surgical and pharmacological procedures to target adiposity as therapeutic interventions to treat obesity-associated disorders.

  4. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. (United States)

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M


    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling.

  5. Bidirectional extracellular matrix signaling during tissue morphogenesis (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.


    Normal tissue development and function are regulated by the interplay between cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM provides biochemical and mechanical contextual information that is conveyed from the cell membrane through the cytoskeleton to the nucleus to direct cell phenotype. Cells, in turn, remodel the ECM and thereby sculpt their local microenvironment. Here we review the mechanisms by which cells interact with, respond to, and influence the ECM, with particular emphasis placed on the role of this bidirectional communication during tissue morphogenesis. We also discuss the implications for successful engineering of functional tissues ex vivo. PMID:19896886

  6. Imaging in cellular and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hanry


    Details on specific imaging modalities for different cellular and tissue engineering applications are scattered throughout articles and chapters in the literature. Gathering this information into a single reference, Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering presents both the fundamentals and state of the art in imaging methods, approaches, and applications in regenerative medicine. The book underscores the broadening scope of imaging applications in cellular and tissue engineering. It covers a wide range of optical and biological applications, including the repair or replacement of whole tiss

  7. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes. (United States)

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T


    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  8. Expression of immunoreactive urocortin in human tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qing; Vicki L Clifton; CUI Ying; HUI Ning; ZHOU Xiao-ning; HE Qian; HAN Qing-feng; SHA Jin-yan; Roger Smith


    To localize where urocortin is expressed in human tissue in an attempt to study its physiological functions. Methods: Expression of immunoreactive urocortin in different human tissue was examined using a specific urocortin antibody and the immunoperoxidase staining method. Results: Immunoreactive urocortin was observed in the anterior pituitary cells, decidual stromal cells, syncytiotrophoblasts, amnion epithelium, the vascular smooth muscles of myometrium, fallopian tube and small intestine. Conclusion: The study indicates that urocortin is expressed in some specific areas of human tissue. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that urocortin is produced locally as an endocrine factor, which may act as a neural regulator and a regulator of local blood flow.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The quantification of tissue properties by optical measurements will facilitate the development of noninvasive methods of cancer diagnosis and detection. Optical measurements are sensitive to tissue structure which is known to change during tumorigenesis. The goals of the work presented in this paper were to verify that the primary scatterers of light in cells are structures much smaller than the nucleus and then to develop an optical technique that can quantify parameters of structures the same size as the scattering features in cells. Polarized, elastic back-scattering was found to be able to quantify changes in scattering properties for turbid media consisting of scatterers of the size found in tissue.

  10. Injectable, Biodegradable Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Tan


    Full Text Available Hydrogels have many different applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Biodegradable, injectable hydrogels could be utilized as delivery systems, cell carriers, and scaffolds for tissue engineering. Injectable hydrogels are an appealing scaffold because they are structurally similar to the extracellular matrix of many tissues, can often be processed under relatively mild conditions, and may be delivered in a minimally invasive manner. This review will discuss recent advances in the field of injectable hydrogels, including both synthetic and native polymeric materials, which can be potentially used in cartilage and soft tissue engineering applications.

  11. Progress in planta transformation without tissue culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yun-Hong; YU Zeng-Liang; QIN Guang-Yong; HUO Yu-Ping


    With the development of planta genetic engineering, more emphases have been laid on convenient and high efficient genetic transformation methods. And transformation without tissue culture is a prospective direction of it. In this paper, traditional transformation methods and the methods of non-tissue culture were summarized. With the exploration and application of Arabidopsis transformation mechanism, with the use of ion beam-mediated transformation invented by Chinese scientists and the development of other transformation methods, transformation methods without tissue culture and planta genetic engineering could be improved rapidly.

  12. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects. (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai


    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  13. Flexible adult flatfoot: soft tissue procedures. (United States)

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S


    Classically, adult posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) was considered primarily a tendon rupture and was treated as such with soft tissue repair alone. The understanding that PTTD involves more than simply an inflammatory condition or tendon rupture but also a muscle imbalance, leading to a flatfoot, osteoarthritis, and peritalar subluxation, led to surgeons advocating osseous procedures as well. The advancements in knowledge of the pathomechanics of the deformity have modified the role that soft tissue repair plays in surgical treatment, but the importance of soft tissue restoration in flatfoot repair should not be overlooked.

  14. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration. (United States)

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans


    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evolutionarily important process. Recent insights have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes through which conventional inflammatory cytokines and Wnt factors control mammalian tissue repair and regeneration. This is particularly important for regeneration in the gastrointestinal system, especially for intestine and liver tissues in which aberrant and deregulated repair results in severe pathologies.

  15. Silicone breast implants and connective tissue disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Loren; Holmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K


    The association of silicone breast implants with connective tissue diseases (CTDs), including systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia, as well as a hypothesized new "atypical" disease, which does not meet established diagnostic criteria for any known...

  16. Tissue characterization by using narrow band imaging (United States)

    Gono, Kazuhiro


    NBI (Narrow Band Imaging) was first introduced in the market in 2005 as a technique enabling to enhance image contrast of capillaries on a mucosal surface(1). It is classified as an Optical-Digital Method for Image-Enhanced Endoscopy(2). To date, the application has widely spread not only to gastrointestinal fields such as esophagus, stomach and colon but also the organs such as bronchus and bladder. The main target tissue of NBI enhancement is capillaries. However, findings of many clinical studies conducted by endoscopy physicians have revealed that NBI observation enables to enhance more other structures in addition to capillaries. There is a close relationship between those enhanced structures and histological microstructure of a tissue. This report introduces the tissue microstructures enhanced by NBI and discusses the possibility of optimized illumination wavelength in observing living tissues.

  17. Synthetic aperture tissue and flow ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    imaging applied to medical ultrasound. It is divided into two major parts: tissue and blood flow imaging. Tissue imaging using synthetic aperture algorithms has been investigated for about two decades, but has not been implemented in medical scanners yet. Among the other reasons, the conventional scanning...... and beamformation methods are adequate for the imaging modalities in clinical use - the B-mode imaging of tissue structures, and the color mapping of blood flow. The acquisition time, however, is too long, and these methods fail to perform real-time three-dimensional scans. The synthetic transmit aperture......, on the other hand, can create a Bmode image with as little as 2 emissions, thus significantly speeding-up the scan procedure. The first part of the dissertation describes the synthetic aperture tissue imaging. It starts with an overview of the efforts previously made by other research groups. A classification...

  18. DOPA, norepinephrine, and dopamine in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Richter, Erik; Christensen, N J


    We studied the effect of unilateral sympathectomy on rat quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle concentrations of endogenous dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) and assessed the relationships between these catecholamines in several rat tissues. Catecholamines were...

  19. Characterizing the elastic properties of tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Akhtar


    Full Text Available The quality of life of ageing populations is increasingly determined by age-related changes to the mechanical properties of numerous biological tissues. Degradation and mechanical failure of these tissues has a profound effect on human morbidity and mortality. Soft tissues have complex and intricate structures and, similar to engineering materials, their mechanical properties are controlled by their microstructure. Thus age-relate changes in mechanical behavior are determined by changes in the properties and relative quantities of microstructural tissue components. This review focuses on the cardiovascular system; it discusses the techniques used both in vivo and ex vivo to determine the age-related changes in the mechanical properties of arteries.

  20. Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues (United States)

    ... page: Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues Monkey study may ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have learned where the Zika virus attacks the body in monkeys. In their ...

  1. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A


    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  2. High-dose erythropoietin for tissue protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anton; Lundby, Carsten; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal


    BACKGROUND: The discovery of potential anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has led to clinical trials investigating the use of high-dose, short-term rHuEPO therapy for tissue protection in conditions such as stroke and myocardial infarction....... Experimental studies have been favourable, but the clinical efficacy has yet to be validated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have reviewed clinical studies regarding the use of high-dose, short-term rHuEPO therapy for tissue protection in humans with the purpose to detail the safety and efficacy of r...... no effect of rHuEPO therapy on measures of tissue protection. Five trials including 1025 patients reported safety concerns in the form of increased mortality or adverse event rates. No studies reported reduced mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is sparse to support a tissue-protective benefit of r...

  3. Neutrophil extracellular traps in tissue pathology. (United States)

    Nakazawa, Daigo; Kumar, Santosh; Desai, Jyaysi; Anders, Hans-Joachim


    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are innate immune systems against invading pathogens. NETs are characterized as released DNA mixed with cytoplasmic antimicrobial proteins such as myeloperoxidase, proteinase3 and neutrophil elastase. While NETs are thought to have an important role in host defense, recent work has suggested that NETs contribute to tissue injury in non-infectious disease states. Uncontrolled NET formation in autoimmune diseases, metabolic disorders, cancers and thrombotic diseases can exacerbate a disease or even be a major initiator of tissue injury. But spotting NETs in tissues is not easy. Here we review the available histopathological evidence on the presence of NETs in a variety of diseases. We discuss technical difficulties and potential sources of misinterpretation while trying to detect NETs in tissue samples.

  4. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M [Physics Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago)


    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm{sup 3} blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  5. National Organ and Tissue Donation Initiative (United States)

    ... More Nearly 95% of U.S. adults support organ donation. Show your support and sign up today. Sign ... donation statistics Information about Organ, Eye, and Tissue Donation Every day, lives are saved and improved by ...

  6. NCI’s Cooperative Human Tissue Network (United States)

    Quality biospecimens are a foundational resource for cancer research. One of NCI’s longest running biospecimen programs is the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, a resource mainly for basic discovery and early translational research.

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma) (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  8. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma (United States)

    ... Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft ... dye reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  9. Cultivation of Hepatitis Virus in Tissue Culture. (United States)

    as the feeder source and primary human hepatocytes as the feeder layer. Feeder layers are also being formed using other sensitive tissue culture lines including human diploid lung cells (WI 38) and Hela cells .

  10. Tissue proteomics of the human mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso; Cabezón, Teresa; Gromova, Irina


    the phenotypes of the different cell subpopulations present in normal human mammary tissue, partly due to the formidable heterogeneity of mammary tissue, but also due to limitations of the current proteomic technologies. Work in our laboratories has attempted to address in a systematic fashion some...... of these limitations and here we present our efforts to search for biomarkers using normal fresh tissue from non-neoplastic breast samples. From the data generated by the 2D gel-based proteomic profiling we were able to compile a protein database of normal human breast epithelial tissue that was used to support...... human breast epithelial cells and their progenitors in resting acini, lactating alveoli, and large collecting ducts of the nipple. Preliminary results are also presented concerning DRP3 positive usual ductal hyperplasias (UDHs) and on single cell layer columnar cells (CCCs). At least two bona fide...

  11. Immunological contributions to adipose tissue homeostasis. (United States)

    DiSpirito, Joanna R; Mathis, Diane


    Adipose tissue is composed of many functionally and developmentally distinct cell types, the metabolic core of which is the adipocyte. The classification of "adipocyte" encompasses three primary types - white, brown, and beige - with distinct origins, anatomic distributions, and homeostatic functions. The ability of adipocytes to store and release lipids, respond to insulin, and perform their endocrine functions (via secretion of adipokines) is heavily influenced by the immune system. Various cell populations of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system can resist or exacerbate the development of the chronic, low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Here, we discuss these interactions, with a focus on their consequences for adipocyte and adipose tissue function in the setting of chronic overnutrition. In addition, we will review the effects of diet composition on adipose tissue inflammation and recent evidence suggesting that diet-driven disruption of the gut microbiota can trigger pathologic inflammation of adipose tissue.

  12. Electrical stimulation systems for cardiac tissue engineering. (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Cannizzaro, Christopher; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Au, Hoi Ting Heidi; Radisic, Milica; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana


    We describe a protocol for tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cells with the application of pulsatile electrical fields designed to mimic those present in the native heart. Tissue culture is conducted in a customized chamber built to allow for cultivation of (i) engineered three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue constructs, (ii) cell monolayers on flat substrates or (iii) cells on patterned substrates. This also allows for analysis of the individual and interactive effects of pulsatile electrical field stimulation and substrate topography on cell differentiation and assembly. The protocol is designed to allow for delivery of predictable electrical field stimuli to cells, monitoring environmental parameters, and assessment of cell and tissue responses. The duration of the protocol is 5 d for two-dimensional cultures and 10 d for 3D cultures.

  13. Incision for pleural tissue biopsy (image) (United States)

    ... the pleural tissue is removed through a surgical incision in the chest. After the sample is obtained, a chest tube is placed and the incision is closed with stitches. Abnormal results may indicate ...

  14. Cardiac tissue engineering: state of the art. (United States)

    Hirt, Marc N; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas


    The engineering of 3-dimensional (3D) heart muscles has undergone exciting progress for the past decade. Profound advances in human stem cell biology and technology, tissue engineering and material sciences, as well as prevascularization and in vitro assay technologies make the first clinical application of engineered cardiac tissues a realistic option and predict that cardiac tissue engineering techniques will find widespread use in the preclinical research and drug development in the near future. Tasks that need to be solved for this purpose include standardization of human myocyte production protocols, establishment of simple methods for the in vitro vascularization of 3D constructs and better maturation of myocytes, and, finally, thorough definition of the predictive value of these methods for preclinical safety pharmacology. The present article gives an overview of the present state of the art, bottlenecks, and perspectives of cardiac tissue engineering for cardiac repair and in vitro testing.

  15. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  16. Drugs Approved for Soft Tissue Sarcoma (United States)

    ... 2015 2014 2013 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for soft tissue sarcoma. The list includes ...

  17. Direct plasma interaction with living tissue (United States)

    Fridman, Gregory

    For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

  18. Engineering functionally graded tissue engineering scaffolds. (United States)

    Leong, K F; Chua, C K; Sudarmadji, N; Yeong, W Y


    Tissue Engineering (TE) aims to create biological substitutes to repair or replace failing organs or tissues due to trauma or ageing. One of the more promising approaches in TE is to grow cells on biodegradable scaffolds, which act as temporary supports for the cells to attach, proliferate and differentiate; after which the scaffold will degrade, leaving behind a healthy regenerated tissue. Tissues in nature, including human tissues, exhibit gradients across a spatial volume, in which each identifiable layer has specific functions to perform so that the whole tissue/organ can behave normally. Such a gradient is termed a functional gradient. A good TE scaffold should mimic such a gradient, which fulfils the biological and mechanical requirements of the target tissue. Thus, the design and fabrication process of such scaffolds become more complex and the introduction of computer-aided tools will lend themselves well to ease these challenges. This paper reviews the needs and characterization of these functional gradients and the computer-aided systems used to ease the complexity of the scaffold design stage. These include the fabrication techniques capable of building functionally graded scaffolds (FGS) using both conventional and rapid prototyping (RP) techniques. They are able to fabricate both continuous and discrete types of FGS. The challenge in fabricating continuous FGS using RP techniques lies in the development of suitable computer aided systems to facilitate continuous FGS design. What have been missing are the appropriate models that relate the scaffold gradient, e.g. pore size, porosity or material gradient, to the biological and mechanical requirements for the regeneration of the target tissue. The establishment of these relationships will provide the foundation to develop better computer-aided systems to help design a suitable customized FGS.

  19. Soft tissue trauma and scar revision. (United States)

    Mobley, Steven R; Sjogren, Phayvanh P


    Numerous techniques and treatments have been described for scar revision, with most studies focusing on the adult population. A comprehensive review of the literature reveals a paucity of references related specifically to scar revision in children. This review describes the available modalities in pediatric facial scar revision. The authors have integrated current practices in soft tissue trauma and scar revision, including closure techniques and materials, topical therapy, steroid injection, cutaneous laser therapy, and tissue expanders.

  20. Tissue culture in forestry and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, R.R.; Hughes, K.W.; Constantin, M.J.; Hollaender, A. (eds.)


    This symposium aims to examine the current state-of-the-art in tissue culture technology and to relate this state of technology to practical, applied, and commercial interests. Thus the focus is on embryogenesis in culture: how to recognize it, factors which affect embryogenesis, use of embryogenic systems, etc.; and variability from culture. A special session on woody species again emphasized somatic embryogenesis as a means of rapid propagation. This volume emphasizes tissue culture of forest trees.