WorldWideScience

Sample records for carious tissue analise

  1. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L; Maltz, M; Manton, D J; Ricketts, D; Van Landuyt, K; Banerjee, A; Campus, G; Doméjean, S; Fontana, M; Leal, S; Lo, E; Machiulskiene, V; Schulte, A; Splieth, C; Zandona, A F; Innes, N P T

    2016-05-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal or control first. Only when cavitated carious lesions either are noncleansable or can no longer be sealed are restorative interventions indicated. When a restoration is indicated, the priorities are as follows: preserving healthy and remineralizable tissue, achieving a restorative seal, maintaining pulpal health, and maximizing restoration success. Carious tissue is removed purely to create conditions for long-lasting restorations. Bacterially contaminated or demineralized tissues close to the pulp do not need to be removed. In deeper lesions in teeth with sensible (vital) pulps, preserving pulpal health should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary or permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth tissue and retaining teeth long-term. PMID:27099358

  2. Imaging carious dental tissues with multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Po-Yen; Lyu, Hong-Chou; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen; Chang, Chia-Seng; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2010-01-01

    In this study, multiphoton excitation was utilized to image normal and carious dental tissues noninvasively. Unique structures in dental tissues were identified using the available multimodality (second harmonic, autofluorescence, and fluorescence lifetime analysis) without labeling. The collagen in dentin exhibits a strong second harmonic response. Both dentin and enamel emit strong autofluorescence that reveals in detail morphological features (such as dentinal tubules and enamel rods) and,...

  3. Analysis 'in vivo' of the employ of the Er:YAG laser and conventional method to remove carious tissue; Analise 'in vivo' do emprego laser de Er:YAG e do metodo convencional para remocao do tecido cariado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Cardoso

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of carious tissue employing the use of Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. The wavelength of this laser is 2,64 {mu}m and have a good absorption by the water and hydroxyapatite present in dental hard tissue. For this purpose were selected 24 molar teeth with occlusal carious, which were divided in random in two groups. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 250 mJ to 400 mJ, and the frequency range from 2 Hz to 4 Hz; for the dentine the energy laser range was from 150 mJ to 200 mJ and the laser frequency was in the range from 2 Hz to 6 Hz. For the evaluation of the results was used a questionaire to critical evaluation of the professional and another one to evaluation of the patient. The results have shown that the Er:YAG laser is able to remove carious enamel and dentin, without cause crunch or fracture and the irradiated surface was creasy. The patients reported greatest comfort when the cavity preparation was done with the Er:YAG laser than the conventional burr and all the patients treated reported prefer to future treatments the use of the Er:YAG laser. In conclusion, for the critical evaluation of the professional the treatment with the Er:YAG laser is a safe and effective method, and for the critical evaluation of the patient the treatment is one alternative more comfortable than the conventional method to remove caries. (author)

  4. Comparative analysis of bacterial decrease by Er:YAG laser radiation and by a tip mounted on a high-rotation device after remove of carious tissue in dentine: study 'in anima mobile'; Analise comparativa da reducao bacteriana com irradiacao do laser Er:YAG ou ponta montada em alta rotacao apos remocao de tecido cariado em dentina: estudo in anima nobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blay, Claudia Campos

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze bacterial decrease after removal of carious tissue in dentine by Er:YAG laser, comparing the results with those achieved by using a tip mounted on a high-rotation device. In view of the difficulty of totally eliminating microorganisms from dentine, even after removing all the carious tissue, and since the presence of a smear layer is a proven fact, it would be extremely convenient to eliminate or to achieve better disinfecting of this notoriously contaminated dentine layer, so as to prevent failure of the restoration process in most cases. For this study, we selected 30 pre-molars and molars with caries rated as medium sized and which required restoration treatment. The teeth were divided in two groups, where 15 teeth received conventional treatment (control group - I) and 15 teeth were treated with Er:YAG laser (Kavo Key Laser) (laser group - II). Microbiologic analysis was used in order to determine presence or absence of bacteria. In group I as well as in group II a previous curettage of part of the dentine caries was performed, and the sample was seeded in an Agar culture medium and incubated at 37 deg C for 72 hours, for a quantitative analysis of bacteria colony forming units (c.f.u.) and qualitative bacterial analysis. After this procedure, carious lesions were removed in group I, using a spherical diamond drill mounted on a high rotation tip, followed by cleaning of the cavity with chlorhexidine digluconate at 2%. In group II, an Er:YAG laser emitting a wave length of 2,94 {mu}m, delivering a 250 mJ energy per pulse at a repetition rate of 2 Hz was used for carious tissue removal. Furthermore in group II (laser), the cavity was conditioned by performing a sweeping at all walls of the preparation with the 50/10 fiber (Kavo), in contact mode, using an energy of 60 mJ per pulse at a frequency of 10 Hz. After removing all caries and performing a cleaning operation in both groups, dentine shavings were collected and

  5. The Evaluation of the Vector System in Removal of Carious Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Yildirim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the Vector system in comparison to the conventional technique in cavity preparation. Four extracted primary teeth with no restorations and similar fissure carious lesions and four permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used. Class I preparations were made provided that the caries depth remained within the dentin limits. Two teeth were treated with an aerator, the other two had carious tissue removed with the Vector system. Prepared cavities were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy for the surface roughness of the dentine and enamel and for the carious tissue removal efficiency. This pilot study determined that it is possible to remove carious tissue and perform cavity preparation with the Vector system. According to this preliminary evaluation of surface quality, a cavity prepared with the Vector treatment system, allows for a slicker floor, and a more regular enamel-dentine line than that prepared with an aerator. However, the Vector system requires a longer treatment time which we believe may be a negative point, especially for young patients.

  6. Dentine microhardness after different methods for detection and removal of carious dentine tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Brandão Mollica

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods for identifying carious dentinal tissue aiming to avoid removal of healthy dentinal tissue. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test different methods for the detection of carious dentinal tissue regarding the amount of carious tissue removed and the remaining dentin microhardness after caries removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The dentin surfaces of 20 bovine teeth were exposed and half of the surface was protected with nail polish. Cariogenic challenge was performed by immersion in a demineralizing solution for 14 days. After transverse cross-section of the crown, the specimens were divided into four groups (n=10, according to the method used to identify and remove the carious tissue: "Papacárie", Caries-detector dye, DIAGNOdent and Tactile method. After caries removal, the cross-sectional surface was included in acrylic resin and polished. In a microhardness tester, the removed dentin thickness and the Vickers microhardness of the following regions were evaluated: remaining dentin after caries removal and superficial and deep healthy dentin. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05 were performed, except for DIAGNOdent, which did not detect the presence of caries. Results for removed dentin thickness were: "Papacárie" (424.7±105.0; a, Caries-detector dye (370.5±78.3; ab, Tactile method (322.8±51.5; bc. Results for the remaining dentin microhardness were: "Papacárie" (42.2±10.5; bc, Caries-detector dye (44.6±11.8; abc, Tactile method (24.3±9.0; d. CONCLUSIONS: DIAGNOdent did not detect the presence of carious tissue; Tactile method and "Papacárie" resulted in the least and the most dentinal thickness removal, respectively; Tactile method differed significantly from "Papacárie" and Caries-detector dye in terms of the remaining dentin microhardness, and Tactile method was the one which presented the lowest microhardness values.

  7. Molecular and Histological Association Between Candida albicans from Oral Soft Tissue and Carious Dentine of HIV-Positive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blignaut, Elaine; van Heerden, Willie F P

    2015-10-01

    Candida albicans and caries are frequently investigated among healthy and immunosuppressed individuals. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the presence of C. albicans on both oral soft and hard tissue and to investigate, at molecular level, the genetic subtype of the organism from the two oral sites. Tongue swabs and dentine scrapings from 362 HIV-positive children, referred for the extraction of carious primary teeth, were cultured on CHROMagar and identified to species level with ID32C. Histological staining of extracted carious teeth was also done. In patients with positive C. albicans cultures from both the tongue and carious dentine, DNA fingerprinting of such paired isolates was performed, using Southern blot hybridisation with the Ca3 probe. Yeasts were cultured from the tongue of 151 (41.7 %) individuals and 57 (37.7 %) simultaneously yielded positive C. albicans cultures from carious dentine. Nine different yeast spp. were identified from the tongue using the ID32C commercial system, but C. albicans was the only species recovered from carious dentine and histological investigation demonstrated fungal elements penetrated into the dentine and not limited to superficial debris on the floor of the cavity. Twelve of 13 paired isolates of C. albicans revealed identical fingerprinting patterns. The findings from this study demonstrated that in a particular individual, the same genetic subtype of C. albicans was capable of colonising both oral soft tissue and carious dentine. This renders carious teeth a constant source, or reservoir, of potentially infectious agents and, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, should therefore not be left unattended. PMID:26153022

  8. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L;

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...... caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal or...... permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth...

  9. Analysis 'in vivo' of the employ of the Er:YAG laser and conventional method to remove carious tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of carious tissue employing the use of Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. The wavelength of this laser is 2,64 μm and have a good absorption by the water and hydroxyapatite present in dental hard tissue. For this purpose were selected 24 molar teeth with occlusal carious, which were divided in random in two groups. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 250 mJ to 400 mJ, and the frequency range from 2 Hz to 4 Hz; for the dentine the energy laser range was from 150 mJ to 200 mJ and the laser frequency was in the range from 2 Hz to 6 Hz. For the evaluation of the results was used a questionaire to critical evaluation of the professional and another one to evaluation of the patient. The results have shown that the Er:YAG laser is able to remove carious enamel and dentin, without cause crunch or fracture and the irradiated surface was creasy. The patients reported greatest comfort when the cavity preparation was done with the Er:YAG laser than the conventional burr and all the patients treated reported prefer to future treatments the use of the Er:YAG laser. In conclusion, for the critical evaluation of the professional the treatment with the Er:YAG laser is a safe and effective method, and for the critical evaluation of the patient the treatment is one alternative more comfortable than the conventional method to remove caries. (author)

  10. Nd:YAG laser irradiation on temporary teeth carious tissue using 12% diamine silver fluoride as a photo-absorber - a morphological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Nd:YAG laser radiation was first introduced in Dentistry various photo-absorbers were employed with the intent of improving its efficacy when used on dental carious tissue. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of this radiation using Scanning and Optical microscopy over carious tissue of primary teeth using two photo-absorbers. 15 primary human teeth were used and, in each one, 3 cavity preparations were performed. Specimens were then submitted to an in vitro demineralizing environment during 18 days. Two of the cavities of each specimen were laser irradiated using the Nd:YAG laser with 60 mJ of energy per pulse, 10 Hz and average power of 0,6 W. The 12% diamine silver fluoride or the mineral coal were used as photo-absorbers. The third cavity of the specimens was used as a control and received no laser irradiation. Samples were transversally cut and the section analyzed by SEM and OM. Results showed that the 12% diamine silver fluoride is an efficient photo-absorber and, when used it the Nd:YAG laser, leading to melting and resolidification of the carious tissue. It can be concluded that the 12% diammine silver fluoride presents advantages over the mineral coal as a photo absorber when used in primary teeth as it promotes and improves the efficacy of laser irradiation. This substance also works as a barrier on the carie progression in deeper areas such as the infected and necrotic zones. (author)

  11. Functional remineralization of carious dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugach, Megan Kardon

    A primary goal of dental tissue engineering is the biological reconstruction of tooth substrate destroyed by caries or other diseases affecting tooth mineralization. Traditionally, dentists treat caries by using invasive techniques to remove the diseased dental tissue and restore the lesion, ideally preventing further progression of decay. Success in strategies associated with remineralization of enamel and root caries have contributed to the less invasive prospect of remineralization of dentinal carious lesions. The central hypothesis of this dissertation is that carious dentin lesions can be remineralized if the lesions contain residual mineral. Caries Detector (CD) stained zones (pink, light pink, transparent and normal) of arrested carious dentin lesions were characterized according to microstructure by atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, mineral content by digital transverse microradiography, and nanomechanical properties by AFM-based nanoindentation. CD-stained and unstained zones had significantly different microstructure, mineral content and nanomechanical properties. Furthermore, the most demineralized carious zone contained residual mineral. To obtain reproducible, standardized dentin caries lesions, we characterized the lesions from an artificial carious dentin lesion model using a 0.05M acetate demineralization buffer. The artificial caries-like lesions produced by the buffer had similar mineral content and nanomechanical properties in the stained and unstained zones as natural dentin lesions. Both natural and artificial lesions had significant correlations between mineral content and nanomechanical properties. Mineral crystallite size and shape was examined by small angle x-ray scattering. Both natural and artificial carious dentin had different mineral sizes than normal dentin. Collagen in natural and artificial carious dentin lesions was examined by trichrome stain, AFM high-resolution imaging, and UV resonance Raman spectroscopy, to determine if

  12. Laser treatment of first degree carious lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Pilgrim, Christian G.; Hennig, Thomas

    2001-04-01

    The therapy of initial carious lesions aims in a minimal invasive removal of infected dental hard tissue. Typically standard preparation instruments bear the risk of removing a big amount of sound structures as a result of access. On the other hand the competence of Er:YAG lasers for caries removal has been repeatedly proven.

  13. Comparative analysis of bacterial decrease by Er:YAG laser radiation and by a tip mounted on a high-rotation device after remove of carious tissue in dentine: study 'in anima mobile'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze bacterial decrease after removal of carious tissue in dentine by Er:YAG laser, comparing the results with those achieved by using a tip mounted on a high-rotation device. In view of the difficulty of totally eliminating microorganisms from dentine, even after removing all the carious tissue, and since the presence of a smear layer is a proven fact, it would be extremely convenient to eliminate or to achieve better disinfecting of this notoriously contaminated dentine layer, so as to prevent failure of the restoration process in most cases. For this study, we selected 30 pre-molars and molars with caries rated as medium sized and which required restoration treatment. The teeth were divided in two groups, where 15 teeth received conventional treatment (control group - I) and 15 teeth were treated with Er:YAG laser (Kavo Key Laser) (laser group - II). Microbiologic analysis was used in order to determine presence or absence of bacteria. In group I as well as in group II a previous curettage of part of the dentine caries was performed, and the sample was seeded in an Agar culture medium and incubated at 37 deg C for 72 hours, for a quantitative analysis of bacteria colony forming units (c.f.u.) and qualitative bacterial analysis. After this procedure, carious lesions were removed in group I, using a spherical diamond drill mounted on a high rotation tip, followed by cleaning of the cavity with chlorhexidine digluconate at 2%. In group II, an Er:YAG laser emitting a wave length of 2,94 μm, delivering a 250 mJ energy per pulse at a repetition rate of 2 Hz was used for carious tissue removal. Furthermore in group II (laser), the cavity was conditioned by performing a sweeping at all walls of the preparation with the 50/10 fiber (Kavo), in contact mode, using an energy of 60 mJ per pulse at a frequency of 10 Hz. After removing all caries and performing a cleaning operation in both groups, dentine shavings were collected and seeded

  14. Carious dentine removal: current approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Coeli de Farias Sales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is renewed day after day through the results of qualified researches. The approach as regards carious dentin removal is goingthrough questioning and innovation. The scope of this study was to perform a literature review in the sense of elucidating questions pertaining to the problem of whether or not it is necessary to completely remove carious dentin, and the possibility of performing restoration in a single session, in addition to a discussion about which type of material should be applied in this type of substrate. After analyzing the referenced articles, it was concluded that the stepwise treatment controls caries progression; there is a trend in the literature to partially remove the carious dentin in deep lesions and perform definitive restoration; Calcium hydroxide cement is a classical liner in these situations, while glass ionomer cement and resinous materials are other possibilities of materials that can be in close contact with the remaining dentin.

  15. Elemental comparison in sound and carious human teeth by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Zn in human dentin and enamel tissues from carious and sound teeth. Comparisons were made between the results obtained in carious and sound dental tissues for dentin and enamel. The findings obtained were also compared with the published data. Accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by analyzing certified reference material. (author)

  16. Nd:YAG laser irradiation on temporary teeth carious tissue using 12% diamine silver fluoride as a photo-absorber - a morphological study; Estudo comparativo morfologico da acao do laser de Nd:YAG em dentina cariada de dentes deciduos in vitro, condicionados com diamino fluoreto de prata a 12% e carvao mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, Andrea de Avillez

    2001-07-01

    Since Nd:YAG laser radiation was first introduced in Dentistry various photo-absorbers were employed with the intent of improving its efficacy when used on dental carious tissue. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of this radiation using Scanning and Optical microscopy over carious tissue of primary teeth using two photo-absorbers. 15 primary human teeth were used and, in each one, 3 cavity preparations were performed. Specimens were then submitted to an in vitro demineralizing environment during 18 days. Two of the cavities of each specimen were laser irradiated using the Nd:YAG laser with 60 mJ of energy per pulse, 10 Hz and average power of 0,6 W. The 12% diamine silver fluoride or the mineral coal were used as photo-absorbers. The third cavity of the specimens was used as a control and received no laser irradiation. Samples were transversally cut and the section analyzed by SEM and OM. Results showed that the 12% diamine silver fluoride is an efficient photo-absorber and, when used it the Nd:YAG laser, leading to melting and resolidification of the carious tissue. It can be concluded that the 12% diammine silver fluoride presents advantages over the mineral coal as a photo absorber when used in primary teeth as it promotes and improves the efficacy of laser irradiation. This substance also works as a barrier on the carie progression in deeper areas such as the infected and necrotic zones. (author)

  17. Odontoblast layer structure alteration as a response to carious lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is a bacterial disease affecting the hard tissue of the teeth as well as the pulp. The human dental pulp consists of odontoblast which are organized as a densely packed cell layer. Odontoblasts is located at the periphery of the pulp; therefore, they are the first cells encountered by cariogenic bacteria and their products that are represented in the carious lesion. Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the effect of cariogenic bacteria to odontoblasts of human teet...

  18. Gene expression analysis in cells of the dentine-pulp complex in healthy and carious teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Julia L; Smith, Anthony J; Sloan, Alastair J; Cooper, Paul R

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of the molecular events that occur in carious disease has so far been constrained due to difficulties in obtaining sufficient quantities of the dental tissues and cells involved. Our histological findings indicate that a pulp-odontoblast cellular complex can be obtained from carious and healthy human teeth when exposed to low-temperatures prior to pulpal extirpation and from rodent teeth processed at room-temperature. In contrast, pulpal tissue extracted from room-temperature processed human teeth and low-temperature processed rodent teeth resulted in the odontoblast layer remaining attached to the pulp chamber. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sq-RT-PCR) analysis confirmed that markers previously shown to be preferentially expressed in odontoblasts, namely dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and Nestin, amplified more readily from the extracted pulp-odontoblast complex, as compared to pulpal tissue alone, in both human and rodent samples. Subsequent gene expression analysis of collagen-1alpha and collagen-3alpha indicated levels were significantly higher in carious pulpal tissue. In addition, analysis characterising the expression of members of the transforming growth factor and bone morphogenic protein families and their receptors indicated in general, that these genes were expressed by healthy odontoblasts and up-regulated in both pulpal cells and odontoblasts in response to carious injury. Use of this temperature-sensitive dental tissue preparation procedure allows detection of differential gene expression in odontoblasts and other pulpal cells in healthy and carious tissue. PMID:12663072

  19. Do the levels of selected metals differ significantly between the roots of carious and non-carious teeth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the metals deposited in teeth during formation and mineralization processes are to a large extent retained, human teeth receive a considerable attention as the indicators of the heavy metal exposure. The use of permanent teeth is limited because the extraction of healthy permanent teeth just for this purpose is hardly acceptable. As the issue of the loss of elements from a carious lesion in the coronal part of a tooth remains controversial, the valuable material could only be the root of carious and fractured permanent teeth. However, to ensure the validity of the results, it should be ascertained that the levels of certain toxic and essential elements do not differ significantly between the roots of non-carious and carious teeth, and therefore this is the aim of this project. The levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium were determined in the roots of 344 permanent teeth (189 carious and 155 caries-free teeth) from the residents of Ruda Slaska, Poland, aged 18 to 34. No statistically significant difference between the concentration of these metals in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth was found. This finding applies to both the general population and after the grouping by donor's gender and tooth type. The concentration of lead, iron, calcium and manganese in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth exhibited dependence upon tooth type, as well as the concentration of potassium in the roots of carious teeth. Since the mineral composition of the roots of permanent teeth is similar for the non-carious, as well as the carious teeth, they can be indiscriminately selected for the tests required by a research project, as they will produce the comparable results. However, in the case of lead, iron, calcium, potassium and manganese, the comparison should be made after grouping by tooth type

  20. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture. (paper)

  1. Detection of early carious lesions using contrast enhancement with coherent light scattering (speckle imaging)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deana, A. M.; Jesus, S. H. C.; Koshoji, N. H.; Bussadori, S. K.; Oliveira, M. T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dental caries still represent one of the chronic diseases with the highest prevalence and present in most countries. The interaction between light and teeth (absorption, scattering and fluorescence) is intrinsically connected to the constitution of the dental tissue. Decay induced mineral loss introduces a shift in the optical properties of the affected tissue; therefore, study of these properties may produce novel techniques aimed at the early diagnosis of carious lesions. Based on the optical properties of the enamel, we demonstrate the application of first-order spatial statistics in laser speckle imaging, allowing the detection of carious lesions in their early stages. A highlight of this noninvasive, non-destructive, real time and cost effective approach is that it allows a dentist to detect a lesion even in the absence of biofilm or moisture.

  2. Distribution of the amelogenin protein in developing, injured and carious human teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; Filatova, Anna; Papaccio, Gianpaolo; Goldberg, Michel; About, Imad; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenin is the major enamel matrix protein with key roles in amelogenesis. Although for many decades amelogenin was considered to be exclusively expressed by ameloblasts, more recent studies have shown that amelogenin is also expressed in other dental and no-dental cells. However, amelogenin expression in human tissues remains unclear. Here, we show that amelogenin protein is not only expressed during human embryonic development but also in pathological conditions such as carious lesions a...

  3. Polarization Resolved Near-IR Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light is reflected from and transmitted through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of optical imaging devices. New optical imaging tools employing non-ionizing radiation are needed for the detection and assessment of dental caries. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-element Mueller Matrix. The polarized light was controlled by linear polarizers and liqu...

  4. Near-IR Polarization Imaging of Sound and Carious Dental Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Jiao, Jane J.; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Fried, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A thorough understanding of how polarized near-IR light propagates through sound and carious dental hard tissues is important for the development of dental optical imaging systems. New optical imaging tools for the detection and assessment of dental caries (dental decay) such as near-IR imaging and optical coherence tomography can exploit the enhanced contrast provided by polarization sensitivity. In this investigation, an automated system was developed to collect images for the full 16-eleme...

  5. The relationship between the color of carious dentin stained with a caries detector dye and bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Yukiteru; Shimizu, Ayako; Narimatsu, Masahiro; Kinomoto, Yoshifumi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2005-01-01

    This in vitro study aimed to design a method for the objective evaluation of carious dentin using numerical values. This study also investigated the relationship between the color of carious dentin stained with a caries detector dye using this objective method and the rate of bacterial detection as detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In 15 molars with occlusal dentin caries and three extracted sound molars, dentin was removed in multiple steps with 300 microm removed each step. Before and after every removal, images of a color-matching sticker and carious surfaces stained with a caries detector dye were acquired simultaneously using a CCD camera and dentinal tissue samples were removed with a round bur. Next, corrected L*, a* and b* values of the carious surfaces (CIE 1976 L*a*b* color system) were calculated from the color changes of the stickers in the images. In addition, bacterial DNA in the dentinal tissue was detected by PCR. From evaluations of the receiver operating characteristic curves for the L*, a* and b* values, the L* value was determined to be a more useful parameter than a* or b* for detecting bacterial infection using the caries detector dye. The bacterial detection rates of carious dentin decreased as the L* values of carious dentin stained with the dye increased. When the L* values were more than 60, the dentin had no bacterial infection. This study clarified the relationship between the colors of lesions stained with a caries detector dye and the rates of bacterial detection. PMID:15765962

  6. Assessment of chemomechanical removal of carious lesions using Papacarie Duo ™: Randomized longitudinal clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ferreira Borges Matsumoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemomechanical removal of carious lesions consists of the dissolution of carious tissue by the application of a natural or synthetic agent, followed by atraumatic mechanical removal. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of Papacarie Duo ® gel in the chemomechanical removal of carious lesions in primary teeth in comparison to the traditional method (low-speed bur. Settings and Design: A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 20 children between 5 and 8 years of age. Materials and Methods: Two teeth were treated in each child (split-mouth design, with the randomization of two methods: Group 1 - chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo™; and Group 2 - removal of carious dentin tissue using a low-speed bur. Both methods involved restoration with glass ionomer cement and follow up. The following aspects were evaluated: time required for the procedure; pain (face evaluation scale; rtention of the restorative material in the cavity; and the presence of secondary caries after 30 days. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test, Student′s t-test, and Wilcoxon test. Results: No statistically significant differences between methods were found regarding time required for the procedure (P = 0.13, the occurrence of pain (P = 0.585, or restoration status at the 30-day clinical evaluation (P = 0.713. Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrate that the two methods achieve similar results. The advantages of minimally invasive treatment, such as chemomechanical caries removal with Papacarie Duo™, are its ease of use, patient comfort, and the fact that it causes less damage to dental tissue.

  7. Odontoblast layer structure alteration as a response to carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial disease affecting the hard tissue of the teeth as well as the pulp. The human dental pulp consists of odontoblast which are organized as a densely packed cell layer. Odontoblasts is located at the periphery of the pulp; therefore, they are the first cells encountered by cariogenic bacteria and their products that are represented in the carious lesion. Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the effect of cariogenic bacteria to odontoblasts of human teeth. Methods: Five intact third molars and 15 third molars with occlusal caries at various stages of decay were extracted because of orthodontic or therapeutic reasons. The tooth specimens were fixed, decalcified with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of 5 μm thickness were cut and stained with haematoxylin eosin and Gram’s, in addition to nestin immunohistochemistry. The specimens were then examined under light microscopy. Results: In normal teeth, odontoblast layer were aligned along the pulp chamber showing normal morphology of the cells. Slight disorganization of odontoblast layer was seen in the cases of carious lesions confined to enamel. In the cases of carious lesions confined to dentin, odontoblast layer was not observed in the areas subjacent to the lesions, only single cells showing flattened cell morphology were found. Odontoblasts beneath the lesion suffered severe damage and diminished nestin immunoreaction were observed in all cases of carious lesions with pulp exposure. Conclusion: Cariogenic bacteria invasion may damage the odontoblasts by affecting the morphology and vitality of the cells. The severity of the damage of the odontoblasts may increase as the bacterial invasion progresses toward the pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri, yang dapat memengaruhi jaringan keras gigi maupun pulpa. Pada pulpa gigi manusia terdapat sel odontoblas yang tersusun atas lapisan sel

  8. Optical Spectroscopy Study of Transparent Non-Carious Human Dentin and Dentin-Enamel Junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.; Gallagher, R.R.; Demos, S.

    1999-12-14

    Improving our knowledge of the morphology, composition and properties of the dentin, enamel, and the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) is vital for the development of improved restorative materials and clinical placement techniques. Most studies of dental tissues have used light microscopy for characterization. In our investigation, the spectroscopic properties of normal and non-carious transparent human root dentin, and the dentin-enamel junction were investigated using emission imaging microscopy, and micro-spectroscopy. Experimental results reveal new information on the structural and biochemical characteristics of these dental tissues.

  9. Image processing with the radial Hilbert transform of photo-thermal imaging for carious detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge of heat transfer in biological bodies has many diagnostic and therapeutic applications involving either raising or lowering of temperature, and often requires precise monitoring of the spatial distribution of thermal histories that are produced during a treatment protocol. The present paper therefore aims to design and implementation of laser therapeutic and imaging system used for carious tracking and drilling by develop a mathematical algorithm using Hilbert transform for edge detection of photo-thermal imaging. photothermal imaging has the ability to penetrate and yield information about an opaque medium well beyond the range of conventional optical imaging. Owing to this ability, Q- switching Nd:YAG laser at wavelength 1064 nm has been extensively used in human teeth to study the sub-surface deposition of laser radiation. The high absorption coefficient of the carious rather than normal region rise its temperature generating IR thermal radiation captured by high resolution thermal camera. Changing the pulse repetition frequency of the laser pulses affects the penetration depth of the laser, which can provide three-dimensional (3D) images in arbitrary planes and allow imaging deep within a solid tissue.

  10. Distribution of the amelogenin protein in developing, injured and carious human teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimios Mitsiadis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenin is the major enamel matrix protein with key roles in amelogenesis. Although for many decades amelogenin was considered to be exclusively expressed by ameloblasts, more recent studies have shown that amelogenin is also expressed in other dental and no-dental cells. However, amelogenin expression in human tissues remains unclear. Here, we show that amelogenin protein is not only expressed during human embryonic development but also in pathological conditions such as carious lesions and injuries after dental cavity preparation. In developing embryonic teeth, amelogenin stage-specific expression is found in all dental epithelia cell populations but with different instensities. In the different layers of enamel matrix, waves of positive versus negative immunostaining for amelogenin are detected suggesting that the secretion of amelogenin protein is orchestreted by a biological clock. Amelogenin is also expressed transiently in differentiating odontoblasts during predentin formation, but was absent in mature functional odontoblasts. In intact adult teeth, amelogenin was not present in dental pulp, odontoblasts, and dentin. However, in injured and carious adult human teeth amelogenin is strongly re-expressed in newly differentiated odontoblasts and is distributed in the dentinal tubuli under the lesion site. In an in vitro culture system, amelogenin is expressed preferentially in human dental pulp cells that start differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and form mineralization nodules. These data suggest that amelogenin plays important roles not only during cytodifferentiation, but also during tooth repair processes in humans.

  11. Conservative approach of a symptomatic carious immature permanent tooth using a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villat, Cyril; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Seux, Dominique; Farge, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The restorative management of deep carious lesions and the preservation of pulp vitality of immature teeth present real challenges for dental practitioners. New tricalcium silicate cements are of interest in the treatment of such cases. This case describes the immediate management and the follow-up of an extensive carious lesion on an immature second right mandibular premolar. Following anesthesia and rubber dam isolation, the carious lesion was removed and a partial pulpotomy was performed. After obtaining hemostasis, the exposed pulp was covered with a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine, Septodont) and a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX extra, GC Corp.) restoration was placed over the tricalcium silicate cement. A review appointment was arranged after seven days, where the tooth was asymptomatic with the patient reporting no pain during the intervening period. At both 3 and 6 mon follow up, it was noted that the tooth was vital, with normal responses to thermal tests. Radiographic examination of the tooth indicated dentin-bridge formation in the pulp chamber and the continuous root formation. This case report demonstrates a fast tissue response both at the pulpal and root dentin level. The use of tricalcium silicate cement should be considered as a conservative intervention in the treatment of symptomatic immature teeth. PMID:24303363

  12. The presence of non-carious lesions in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demko-Rihter Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A non-carious lesion (NCL is the loss of hard dental tissue on the neck, tuberculum and incisal edges of the teeth. Interest in clinical presence and in unclear etiology of these lesions allows for their future prevention and treatment. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine presence and clinical characteristics of NCLs and dentine hypersensitivity (DH, as well as their possible risk factors in children, in the population of the city of Novi Sad. Methods. A total of 55 subjects were included in the present study, aged between three and 18 years. Each subject completed a structured questionnaire related to the etiological factors, and all teeth of each subject were examined by two independent clinical dentists to determine NCLs and DH. In the case of small children, their parents or guardians filled out the questionnaire. Teeth with NCLs and DH were diagnosed according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE index and by a blast of air according to Schiff and Hypersensitivity Index. The review was carried out by inspection and probing. Results. The data were analyzed by clinical examination and comparison of the answers to the questionnaires. We observed an increased presence of non-caries lesions on primary teeth, compared to permanent teeth, with a statistically significant difference (χ2=3.86, df=1, p=0.04. The changes were observed in 82 teeth, and were most frequent on the canine deciduous teeth (65% and canine permanent teeth (51%. BEWE index was 10-11% to 92-100% in permanent, and 51-57% in deciduous teeth. Majority of patients with primary teeth (89.36% did not respond to air stimulus, while most patients with permanent teeth (74.29% did not react to Schiff Index. In the estimate of sensitivity, the respondents reported hypersensitivity on 6.38% of the deciduous teeth and 22.86% of the permanent teeth. Comparison of etiology factors did not reveal a direct link with the appearance of NCLs. Conclusion. Research

  13. Radiographic display of carious lesions and cavitation in approximal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. Treatment strategies have changed with efforts on arresting carious lesions suspected to have an intact surface sparing operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Radiography is still the most recommended adjunct method in the diagnosis of clinically inaccessible approximal...... depth and clinical cavitation in approximal surfaces, a threshold for operative treatment decision has been suggested when a lesion is observed radiographically more than one-third into dentine. However, the results from previous studies are contradictory and the majority of studies are ∼25 years old...... radiography is, thus, still state-of-the-art as an adjunct in diagnosing carious lesions in clinically inaccessible approximal surfaces. The risk for cavitation is related to lesion depth, but new studies are needed in both child and adult populations to validate current thresholds for the operative treatment...

  14. CARIOUS EXPERIENCE IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Olar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is one of the most common pathologies of the chronic diseases of childhood, recording an ever-increasing frequency. The paper develops a control-type case study on the carious experience of 25 children suffering from bronchial asthma, comparatively with 25 healthy children. In both groups, the dmf-t/DMFT indices were calculated and the presence of Streptococcus mutans (SM and Lactobacillus acidophillus (LA in stimulated saliva, in concentrations with high cariogeneity risk, was determined. Carious experience and the SM level in concentrations with cariogenic risk were statistically significant in children with bronchic asthma (p=0.02. The presence of LA in concentrations with cariogenic risk was also higher in these children, yet statistically insignificant, comparatively with the reference (p>0.05.

  15. Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength of Nanocomposite on Carious and Sound Deciduous Dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Seema; Nandlal, B

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of conventional composites with nanocomposites in carious and sound deciduous dentin with the use of self-etching adhesive. Methodology: Human primary molars were ground to obtain flat dentin surfaces and divided into two groups: Carious dentin and sound dentin group. The carious teeth specimens were prepared by removing infected dentin and area with affected dentin was used for bonding composite. Teeth wit...

  16. Early detection of the carious conditions by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Gisbreht, Alexander I.; Avramov, Lachezar A.

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the natural intrinsic fluorescence in sound and diseased human teeth and the correspondence of such autofluorescence to the stages of the dental lesions. Direct visual examination was used for comparison. Different stages of caries lesions are detected, by using a nitrogen laser (337 nm), light-emitting diode (LED) (440 nm) and argon laser (488 nm). Besides caries, there were investigated samples of the fluorosa dentis and odontolithiasis, for better determination of the influence of other teeth pathologies over the teeth autofluorescence spectra. There was observed a significant decrease in the intensity of the autofluorescence signal in the case of caries. The carious lesions revealed characteristic emission of endogenous fluorophores with fluorescence band in the red spectral region. Healthy hard dental tissue exhibited no emission bands in the red. An algorithm for early diagnosis is created on the basis of collected significant statistical material.

  17. Clinical effect of photodynamic therapy on primary carious dentin after partial caries removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Pierre Adriano Moreno; Lima, Leonardo Abrantes; Rodrigues, Fernanda Cristina Nogueira; Leitão, Tarcisio Jorge; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa

    2016-05-20

    This study was conducted to assess the clinical effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the decontamination of the deep dentin of deciduous molars submitted to partial removal of carious tissue. After cavity preparation, dentin samples were taken from the pulp wall of nineteen deciduous molars before and after PDT application. Remaining dentin was treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye followed by irradiation with an InGaAlP diode laser (λ - 660 nm; 40 mW; 120 J/cm2; 120 s). Dentin samples were microbiologically assessed for the enumeration of total microorganisms, Lactobacillus spp. and mutans streptococci. There was no significant difference in the number of colony-forming units (CFU) for any of the microorganisms assessed (p > 0.05). Photodynamic therapy, using 0.01% methylene blue dye at a dosimetry of 120 J/cm2 would not be a viable clinical alternative to reduce bacterial contamination in deep dentin. PMID:27223131

  18. In vitro evaluation of ionizing radiation effects in bone tissue by FTIR spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis; Avaliacao in vitro dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em tecido osseo bovino por espectroscoia ATR-FTIR e analise dinamica-mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloso, Marcelo Noronha

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation from gamma radiation sources or X-ray generators is frequently used in Medical Science, such as radiodiagnostic exams, radiotherapy, and sterilization of haloenxerts. Ionizing radiation is capable of breaking polypeptidic chains and causing the release of free radicals by radiolysis.of water. It interacts also with organic material at the molecular level, and it may change its mechanical properties. In the specific case of bone tissue, studies report that ionizing radiation induces changes in collagen molecules and reduces the density of intermolecular crosslinks. The aim of this study was to verify the changes promoted by different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Samples of bovine bone were irradiated using Cobalt-60 with five different doses: 0.01 kGy, 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy, 15 kGy and 75 kGy. To study the effects of ionizing irradiation on the chemical structure of the bone, the sub-bands of amide I, the crystallinity index and relation of organic and inorganic materials, were studied. The mechanical changes were evaluated using the elastic modulus and the damping value. To verify whether the chemical changes and the mechanical characteristics of the bone were correlated, the relation between the analysis made with spectroscopic data and the mechanical analysis data was studied. It was possible to evaluate the effects of different doses of ionizing radiation in bone tissue. With ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, it was possible to observe changes in the organic components and in the hydroxyapatite crystals organization. Changes were also observed in the elastic modulus and in the damping value. High correlation with statistical significance was observed among (amide III + collagen)/{sub v1,v3}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} and the delta tangent, and among 1/FHWM and the elastic modulus. (author)

  19. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  20. Influence of caries detection dye on bond strength of sound and carious affected dentin: An in-vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Udai Pratp Singh; Tikku, A. P.; Anil Chandra; Kapil Loomba; Lalit Chandra Boruah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of caries detection dye on the in-vitro tensile bond strength of adhesive materials to sound and carious affected dentin. Materials and Methods : Forty healthy and carious human molars were ground to expose superficial sound dentin and carious affected dentin. Caries Detector dye was applied to sound and carious affected dentin and rinsed. Subsequently the dentin was etched with 37% phosphoric acid and rinsed leaving ...

  1. Carious growth monitoring with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A. Z.; Zezell, D. M.; Mayer, M. P. A.; Ribeiro, A. C.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Vieira, N. D., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography was used to monitor subsurface caries evolution process in vitro. Human tooth was used and bacteria were employed to induce caries lesions. Twenty-five human third molars, were used in this study. The teeth were cut longitudinally at mesio-distal direction; the surfaces were coated with nail varnish except for two squared windows (2x4 mm); at the cement-enamel junction. Artificial lesions were induced by a S. Mutans microbiological culture. The samples (N = 50) were divided into groups according to the demineralization time: 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days. The culture medium, was changed each 48 hours. After the demineralization process the samples were rinsed with double-deionized water and stored in a humid environment. The OCT system was implemented with average power of 96 μW in the sample arm, providing a 23 μm of axial resolution. The images were produced with lateral scans step of 10 μm. The detection system was composed by a detector, a demodulator and a computer. With the images generated by OCT it was possible to determine the lesion depth as function of sample exposition time to microbiological culture. We observed that the depth of the lesion in the root dentine increased from 70 μm to 230 μm, depending of exposure time, and follows the bacterial population growth law. This OCT system accurately depicts hard dental tissue and it was able to detect early caries in its structure, providing a powerful contactless high resolution image of lesions.

  2. Characteristics, Detection Methods and Treatment of Questionable Occlusal Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, S.K.; Gilbert, G.H.; Funkhouser, E.;

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates 1/3 of patients have a QOC...... consenting patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion and treatments. A total of 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. The lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky...

  3. Metateks ('n Vakfilosofiese vergelyking van twee analises van ‘Droogte’ van Leon Strydom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel sal twee analises van Leon Strydom se gedig “Droogte” uit ’n vakfilosofiese hoek met mekaar vergelyk word. Die analises is uitgevoer deur dr. G.F.T. Kuschke en prof. Ina Grähe, albei opgeleide literatore, maar wetenskaplikes wal die literatuur uit verskillende denkraamwerke benader.

  4. Selective treatment of carious dentin using a mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser at 6 μm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Masayuki; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Optical technologies have good potential for caries detection, prevention, excavation, and the realization of minimal intervention dentistry. This study aimed to develop a selective excavation technique of carious tissue using the specific absorption in 6 μm wavelength range. Bovine dentin demineralized with lactic acid solution was used as a carious dentin model. A mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser was obtained by difference-frequency generation technique. The wavelength was tuned to 6.02 and 6.42 μm which correspond to absorption bands called amide I and amide II, respectively. The laser delivers 5 ns pulse width at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The morphological change after irradiation was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the measurement of ablation depth was performed with a confocal laser microscope. At λ = 6.02 μm and the average power density of 15 W/cm2, demineralized dentin was removed selectively with less-invasive effect on sound dentin. The wavelength of 6.42 μm also showed the possibility of selective removal. High ablation efficiency and low thermal side effect were observed using the nanosecond pulsed laser with λ = 6.02 μm. In the near future, development of compact laser device will open the minimal invasive laser treatment to the dental clinic.

  5. [Biological evaluation of means for chemomechanical removal of carious dentine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechina, G N; Vinnichenko, Iu A; Rudenko, O E

    2007-01-01

    Biological evaluation of the 1st domestically developed and produced preparation for chemomechanical removal of carious dentine Caricleans (firm "VladMiVa", Belgorod) was performed in the CRIS with the use of express techniques of the hemolytic activity (HA) and cytotoxic effect (CTE). It was established that according to HA data both gels of the Caricleans preparation were nontoxic. CTE of 2 gels was also determined on 2 cells lines - LECH (lung embryon cell human) and HeLa; higher sensitivity was received on HeLa cells, the toxic effect of gel #2 of the Caricleans preparation was higher. The received results allowed the authors come to the conclusion that taking into account high sensitivity, high specificity and high cost of the CTE-test not to recommend its use for evaluation of the preparations for short-term action in stomatology. PMID:17690636

  6. Comparison of reflectance spectra of sound and carious enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Ando, Masatoshi; Stookey, George K.

    2000-03-01

    Development of dental caries is associated with the loss of minerals and change in the enamel structure. In this study, we have measured and compared reflectance spectra of sound and carious enamel, to investigate its utility in detection and analysis of dental caries. One hundred twenty, 3-mm diameter human enamel cores, with no sign of fluorosis, tetracycline stain, hypoplasia, fracture and restorations, were prepared. The enamel surfaces then were ground and polished. Specimens were placed on a fitted holder with either black or white color for background, with no fluorescence. The baseline spectra were measured using a spectrophotometer with enclosed diffused illumination. Spectra measured from 380 to 780 nm at 5 nm intervals. All measurements were corrected to compensate for the spectrum of illumination. The specimens were divided into two groups and exposed to a demineralizing solution, for 48 and 96 hours, respectively. Reflectance spectra of specimens were measured following lesion induction. All specimens were sectioned and analyzed by transverse microradiography (TMR), where lesion depth and mineral loss ((Delta) Z) were measured. Dimensionality of multi-spectral data was reduced through its conversion to L*a*b* color coordinates and principal component analysis (PCA). Multiple linear regression analysis showed low correlation between L*a*b* and lesion depth and mineral loss. PCA analysis showed higher correlation coefficient, compared to L*a*b*. Preliminary results of this study suggest that multi-spectral measurement and analysis of the tooth surface could be useful in predicting the depth and severity of an early carious lesion.

  7. Structural and thermal behaviour of carious and sound powders of human tooth enamel and dentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E; Garcia-Garcia, R; Reyes-Gasga, J, E-mail: jreyes@fisica.unam.m [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-12-07

    Powder from carious human tooth enamel and dentine were structurally, chemically and thermally analysed and compared against those from sound (healthy) teeth. Structural and chemical analyses were performed using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal analysis was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results demonstrate partially dissolved crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with substitutions of Na, Mg, Cl and C, and a greater weight loss in carious dentine as compared with carious enamel. A greater amount of thermal decomposition is observed in carious dentine as compared with sound dentine, with major variations in the a-axis of the HAP unit cell than in the c-axis. Variations in shape and intensity of the OH{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} FTIR bands were also found.

  8. Structural and thermal behaviour of carious and sound powders of human tooth enamel and dentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powder from carious human tooth enamel and dentine were structurally, chemically and thermally analysed and compared against those from sound (healthy) teeth. Structural and chemical analyses were performed using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal analysis was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results demonstrate partially dissolved crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with substitutions of Na, Mg, Cl and C, and a greater weight loss in carious dentine as compared with carious enamel. A greater amount of thermal decomposition is observed in carious dentine as compared with sound dentine, with major variations in the a-axis of the HAP unit cell than in the c-axis. Variations in shape and intensity of the OH-, CO32- and PO43- FTIR bands were also found.

  9. Proteomic analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from normal and deep carious dental pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Ma

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs, precursor cells of odontoblasts, are ideal seed cells for tooth tissue engineering and regeneration. Our previous study has demonstrated that stem cells exist in dental pulp with deep caries and are called carious dental pulp stem cells (CDPSCs. The results indicated that CDPSCs had a higher proliferative and stronger osteogenic differentiation potential than DPSCs. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the biological differences between DPSCs and CDPSCs are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to define the molecular features of DPSCs and CDPSCs by comparing the proteomic profiles using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Our results revealed that there were 18 protein spots differentially expressed between DPSCs and CDPSCs in a narrow pH range of 4 to 7. These differently expressed proteins are mostly involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, cell cytoskeleton and motility. In addition, our results suggested that CDPSCs had a higher expression of antioxidative proteins that might protect CDPSCs from oxidative stress. This study explores some potential proteins responsible for the biological differences between DPSCs and CDPSCs and expands our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of mineralization of DPSCs in the formation of the dentin-pulp complex.

  10. Laser-dye ablation technique for removal of carious dentin and enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Gillings, Barrie R.; Dawes, Judith M.

    1997-05-01

    A GaAlAs semiconductor diode laser operating at a wavelength of 796 nm has been sued in conjunction with Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye to ablate carious dentin and enamel from extracted human teeth. The laser-dye ablation technique offers selective ablation as it is controlled by the placement of the ICG dye. In contrast with other laser techniques, the risk of collateral thermal damage is substantially reduced. The diode laser is suitable for ordinary fiber delivery and is cheaper and more compact than the higher power CO2; Er:YAG, Nd:YAG and Argon lasers currently being used by researchers. This paper reports the ablation of dental caries in fifty extracted teeth with various laser diode powers and dye concentrations. The mass of material ablated, temperature rise in the pulp and surface temperature were measured. The ablation was found to be efficient with negligible thermal damage to surrounding tissue. At the same time average surface temperatures reached during ablation may be sufficient to sterilize the treated surface. Hardness measurements and scanning electron microscopy of the laser treated cavity surfaces show the new surfaces to be suitable for placement of a dental filling.

  11. Conservative approach of a symptomatic carious immature permanent tooth using a tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine): a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Villat, Cyril; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Seux, Dominique; Farge, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The restorative management of deep carious lesions and the preservation of pulp vitality of immature teeth present real challenges for dental practitioners. New tricalcium silicate cements are of interest in the treatment of such cases. This case describes the immediate management and the follow-up of an extensive carious lesion on an immature second right mandibular premolar. Following anesthesia and rubber dam isolation, the carious lesion was removed and a partial pulpotomy was performed. ...

  12. Secondary mineralization in carious lesions of human dentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dentinal carious lesions having a remineralized surface layer were studied by means electron-probe microanalysis, electron microscopy, electron diffraction. As the results of electron-probe study, F, Mg, and Na were found to be distributed mainly in the remineralized surface layer and S in the decalcified region where decreases in Ca, P, and Mg concentration were usually observed. The decrease in Mg concentration always started earlier than that of Ca and P concentration. Electron microscope and electron diffraction studies revealed that apatic crystals in the remineralized surface layer were much larger than those in the intact dentin. Although they were less conspicuous, crystals in the decalcified region also were larger than those in the intact region. Dentinal tubules, occluded by many crystals, were frequently seen during the observations. Crystals in the tubules varied in morphology, showing granular, needle, rhomboid, and tabular shapes. By means of electron diffraction, the granular- or needle-shaped crystals were identified as apatite and the rhomboid-shaped crystals as whitlockite. Some of the tabular-shaped crystals appeared to be cotacalcium phosphate. (auth.)

  13. Clinical comparative study between the use of lasers and conventional methods of diagnosis and treatment in deciduous teeth with presence of carious lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of deciduous tooth cavity preparation by the Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. Besides, we have used the laser fluorescence technique (DIAGNOdent equipment) for diagnosis and compared it to the usual tactile and visual examination as well as X-ray diagnosis. For this purpose, 20 chronic occlusal carious deciduous molar teeth from children with the ages between 5 to 10 years old were selected. Selection was ma de according to visual inspection, X-ray periapical image and measures of the DIAGNOdent. For treatment the teeth were divided in two groups, 10 to be treated by the Er:YAG laser and 10 with conventional burr. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 200 to 300 mJ; for the dentine the range was from 100 mJ to 200 mJ. In both cases, the laser frequency was in the range from 2 to 4 Hz. The results have shown that the laser treatment was more accepted by the children than the conventional burro Clinical evaluation of the cavity preparation indicates that the Er:YAG laser treatment is recommend. The DIAGNOdent evaluation method was very effective for diagnosis of carious tissue for initial detection. After successful removal of the carious tissue, confirmed by visual inspection, the DIAGNOdent evaluation method was only effective for the treatment with conventional burro For evaluation of the tooth after cavity preparation with the Er:YAG laser, the measurements oscillate covering the full range of the equipment. Therefore, the use of the DIAGNOdent equipment is indicated only for initial caries diagnosis. (author)

  14. Metateks ('n Vakfilosofiese vergelyking van twee analises van ‘Droogte’ van Leon Strydom)

    OpenAIRE

    J. Swanepoel

    1984-01-01

    In hierdie artikel sal twee analises van Leon Strydom se gedig “Droogte” uit ’n vakfilosofiese hoek met mekaar vergelyk word. Die analises is uitgevoer deur dr. G.F.T. Kuschke en prof. Ina Grähe, albei opgeleide literatore, maar wetenskaplikes wal die literatuur uit verskillende denkraamwerke benader.

  15. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi;

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  16. Identification of the microbiota in carious dentin lesions using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Obata

    Full Text Available While mutans streptococci have long been assumed to be the specific pathogen responsible for human dental caries, the concept of a complex dental caries-associated microbiota has received significant attention in recent years. Molecular analyses revealed the complexity of the microbiota with the predominance of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in carious dentine lesions. However, characterization of the dentin caries-associated microbiota has not been extensively explored in different ethnicities and races. In the present study, the bacterial communities in the carious dentin of Japanese subjects were analyzed comprehensively with molecular approaches using the16S rRNA gene. Carious dentin lesion samples were collected from 32 subjects aged 4-76 years, and the 16S rRNA genes, amplified from the extracted DNA with universal primers, were sequenced with a pyrosequencer. The bacterial composition was classified into clusters I, II, and III according to the relative abundance (high, middle, low of Lactobacillus. The bacterial composition in cluster II was composed of relatively high proportions of Olsenella and Propionibacterium or subdominated by heterogeneous genera. The bacterial communities in cluster III were characterized by the predominance of Atopobium, Prevotella, or Propionibacterium with Streptococcus or Actinomyces. Some samples in clusters II and III, mainly related to Atopobium and Propionibacterium, were novel combinations of microbiota in carious dentin lesions and may be characteristic of the Japanese population. Clone library analysis revealed that Atopobium sp. HOT-416 and P. acidifaciens were specific species associated with dentinal caries among these genera in a Japanese population. We summarized the bacterial composition of dentinal carious lesions in a Japanese population using next-generation sequencing and found typical Japanese types with Atopobium or Propionibacterium predominating.

  17. Pulp nerve fibers distribution of human carious teeth: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human dental pulp is richly innervated by trigeminal afferent axons that subserve nociceptive function. Accordingly, they respond to stimuli that induce injury to the pulp tissue. An injury to the nerve terminals and other tissue components in the pulp stimulate metabolic activation of the neurons in the trigeminal ganglion which result in morphological changes in the peripheral nerve terminals. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe caries-related changes in the distribution of human pulpal nerve. Methods: Under informed consents, 15 third molars with caries at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted because of orthodontic or therapeutic reasons. All samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition 3-dimensionally, before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4. The specimens were then processed for immunohistochemistry using anti-protein gene products (PGP 9.5, a specific marker for the nerve fiber. Results: In normal intact teeth, PGP 9.5 immunoreactive nerve fibers were seen concentrated beneath the odontoblast cell layer. Nerve fibers exhibited an increased density along the pulp-dentin border corresponding to the carious lesions. Conclusion: Neural density increases throughout the pulp chamber with the progression of caries. The activity and pathogenicity of the lesion as well as caries depth, might influence the degree of neural sprouting.Latar belakang: Pulpa gigi manusia diinervasi oleh serabut saraf trigeminal yang berespon terhadap stimuli penyebab perlukaan dengan menimbulkan rasa sakit. Perlukaan pada akhiran saraf dan komponen lain dari pulpa akan menstimulasi aktivasi metabolik dari neuron pada ganglion trigeminal sehingga mengakibatkan perubahan morfologi pada akhiran saraf perifer. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati perubahan distribusi saraf pada pulpa gigi manusia yang disebabkan oleh proses karies. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan

  18. The fluorescence in the diagnosis of dental tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental method for obtaining fluorescence of the dental tissue is described. A comparative analysis for the behaviour of the tissue fluorescence, both, healthy or intact enamel and carious samples is presented; the comparison of the obtained results with the ones described in the literature is done. Optical methods for the detection of carious lesions have the advantage of being minimally invasive. For this reason, induced fluorescence with a blue light to detect the presence of the Streptococcus in the oral cavity is proposed as an identifier method for find initial caries in dentistry in our country. (Author)

  19. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and

  20. One-year clinical evaluation of tooth-coloured materials in non-carious cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanac Igor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The restoration of non-carious cervical lesions is specific, mostly because of the location of their margins, especially the cervical margin, which is determined in cement and/or dentine. This feature makes the cervical margin more susceptible to micro-leak­age, causing marginal discoloration, postoperative sensitivity, development of the secondary caries and loss of the restoration. Material and methods. One of the criteria for inclusion of a patient in this study was the presence of at least two non-carious cervical lesions to be restored with the minimum depth of 1mm, independently of their location in the dental arch. A total of 60 restorations were placed in 30 patients, and every patient received both tested materials (composite resins and compomer on their non-carious cervical lesions. The clinical evaluation of the therapeutic success was performed six months and then one year after the day of the placement of restorations using the modified-United States Public Health Service criteria. The following was evaluated: retention, marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, wear, postoperative sensitivity and secondary caries. Results. A statistically significant high percent of restorations/teeth with postoperative sensitivity was found in the group of resin composite restorations after six months. At the end of the evaluation period, that is after one year, there were no statistically significant differences between materials for all evaluated criteria. Conclusion. The results of this study show the identical quality of both examined materials one year after the readjustment of non-carious cervical lesions.

  1. Randomized in vivo evaluation of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on deciduous carious dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Longo, Priscila Larcher; Aranha, Ana Cecília Corrêa; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this randomized in vivo study was to compare antimicrobial chemotherapies in primary carious dentin. Thirty-two participants ages 5 to 7 years underwent partial caries removal from deep carious dentin lesions in primary molars and were subsequently divided into three groups: control [chlorhexidine and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC)], LEDTB [photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with light-emitting diode associated with toluidine blue solution and RMGIC], and LMB [PACT with laser associated with methylene blue solution and RMGIC]. The participants were submitted to initial clinical and radiographic examinations. Demographic features and biofilm, gingival, and DMFT/DMFS indexes were evaluated, in addition to clinical and radiographic followups at 6 and 12 months after treatments. Carious dentin was collected before and after each treatment, and the number of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Atopobium rimae, and total bacteria was established by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. No signs of pain or restoration failure were observed. All therapies were effective in reducing the number of microorganisms, except for S. sobrinus. No statistical differences were observed among the protocols used. All therapies may be considered as effective modern approaches to minimal intervention for the management of deep primary caries treatment.

  2. Effectiveness of Photogem® activated by LED on the decontamination of artificial carious bovine dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, J. S. M.; Santos-Pinto, L.; Pizzolitto, A. C.; Kurachi, C.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy on the decontamination of artificially induced carious bovine dentin, using Photogem® as the photosensitizer agent and an LED device as a light source. Dentin samples obtained from bovine incisors were immersed in sterile broth supplemented by Lactobacillus acidophillus 108 colony formation units (CFU) and Streptococcus mutans 108 CFU. Different concentrations of photosensitizer, PA = 1 mg/ml, PB = 2 mg/ml, and PC = 3 mg/ml, and two fluences, D = 24 J/cm2 and D = 48 J/cm2, were investigated. After CFU counting per milligram of carious dentin and statistical analysis, we observed that the photodynamic therapy (PDT) parameters used were effective for bacterial reduction in the in vitro model under study. The best result was achieved with the application of Photogem® at 2 mg/ml and photoactivated under 24 J/cm2 showing a survival factor of 0.14. At higher photosensitizer concentrations, a higher dark toxicity was observed. We propose a simple mathematical expression for the determination of PDT parameters of photosensitizer concentration and light fluence for different survival factor values. Since LED devices are simpler and cheaper compared to laser systems, it would be interesting to verify their efficacy as a light source in photodynamic therapy for the decontamination of carious dentin.

  3. Effect of gallic acid on the wear behavior of early carious enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, S S; Huang, S B; Yu, H Y [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Qian, L M, E-mail: yhyang6812@scu.edu.c [Tribology Research Institute, National Traction Power Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the wear behavior of early carious enamel remineralized with gallic acid. Forty natural human premolar specimens with early caries lesions were prepared. A remineralization pH-cycling treatment agent of 4000 ppm gallic acid was used for 12 days to treat the early lesions. The changes in microhardness were monitored. Nanoscratch tests were used to evaluate wear resistance. The experimental data were analyzed by using a t-test. The widths of traces were measured by an AMBIOS XP-2 stylus profilometer. After remineralization, all samples re-hardened significantly. The coefficients of friction became higher, and the widths of scratches were larger than they were before remineralization. Gallic acid significantly improved the early carious enamel's hardness. The wear damage of the samples treated with gallic acid was more severe than that of the control group. There were more obvious cracks and delaminations on the traces of the treated group. Compared with the control group, the enamel remineralized with gallic acid had inferior wear resistance. After remineralization, the dominant damage mechanisms of early carious enamel had changed from plastic deformation and adhesive wear to a combination of brittle cracks and delamination of enamel.

  4. Fluorine determination in human healthy and carious teeth using the PIGE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the fluorine concentration in human teeth from two different populations, living in the Portuguese quite isolated islands of Acores: S. Miguel and Terceira. Both populations have similar dietary habits, similar occupational activities, mostly rural, and the age of both populations is more or less the same, around 40 years. No chronic diseases were registered in any of the donors. The two groups are exposed to different levels of fluorine in drinking water. Terceira island has moderate fluorine concentration levels (1-2 μg g-1) while S. Miguel island is known for the high fluorine concentration levels in its water (>3 μg g-1), especially in one area known as Furnas. Thirty-three teeth, 17 healthy and 16 carious without restoration (14 incisors and canines, 7 premolars and 12 molars), were collected and analyzed for the determination of fluorine concentration in the dentine region, using the nuclear reaction 19F(p,αγ)16O. The teeth were cross-sectioned along the vertical plane and polished, in order to obtain a smooth and plane surface of about 1 mm thickness. In this work an association between caries prevalence and fluorine content of drinking water is discussed and the variation of fluorine concentration among different types of teeth (canines and incisors, premolars, molars) and physical state (carious and non-carious) is examined

  5. Caries Detection Methods Based on Changes in Optical Properties between Healthy and Carious Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Karlsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A conservative, noninvasive or minimally invasive approach to clinical management of dental caries requires diagnostic techniques capable of detecting and quantifying lesions at an early stage, when progression can be arrested or reversed. Objective evidence of initiation of the disease can be detected in the form of distinct changes in the optical properties of the affected tooth structure. Caries detection methods based on changes in a specific optical property are collectively referred to as optically based methods. This paper presents a simple overview of the feasibility of three such technologies for quantitative or semiquantitative assessment of caries lesions. Two of the techniques are well-established: quantitative light-induced fluorescence, which is used primarily in caries research, and laser-induced fluorescence, a commercially available method used in clinical dental practice. The third technique, based on near-infrared transillumination of dental enamel is in the developmental stages.

  6. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin in primary teeth: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lula, E C O; Monteiro-Neto, V; Alves, C M C; Ribeiro, C C C

    2009-01-01

    Since viable bacteria can persist in tooth cavities regardless of the technique used for caries removal, the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to examine the microflora of primary teeth treated by complete or partial removal of carious dentin. Deciduous molars with acute carious lesions in the inner half of dentin and vital pulp were randomly divided into two groups of 16: complete removal, in which the carious dentin was completely removed with the help of a caries detector dye, and partial removal, in which the carious dentin was completely removed from the dentinoenamel junction and lateral walls, while the necrotic carious dentin from the cavity floor was only removed superficially. Dentin samples were obtained with a sterile No. 3 bur after caries removal and 3-6 months after protection with calcium hydroxide cement and restoration of the cavities with resin composite. The samples were stored in thioglycolate. Decimal dilutions were then prepared and seeded for the enumeration of Streptococcus spp., mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus spp. and total microorganisms. Before sealing, a larger number of microorganisms was detected in teeth submitted to partial caries removal compared to the complete removal group. However, after sealing the level of colonization was similar in the two groups for all microorganisms studied. The results suggest that persistence of bacteria does not seem to be a reason for reopening of cavities in deciduous teeth after partial caries removal. PMID:19648746

  7. Selective excavation of human carious dentin using the nanosecond pulsed laser in 5.8-μm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Tetsuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    Less-invasive treatment of caries has been needed in laser dentistry. Based on the absorption property of dentin substrates, 6 μm wavelength range shows specific absorptions and promising characteristics for the excavation. In our previous study, 5.8 μm wavelength range was found to be effective for selective excavation of carious dentin and restoration treatment using composite resin from the irradiation experiment with bovine sound and demineralized dentin. In this study, the availability of 5.8 μm wavelength range for selective excavation of human carious dentin was investigated for clinical application. A mid-infrared tunable nanosecond pulsed laser by difference-frequency generation was used for revealing the ablation property of human carious dentin. Irradiation experiments indicated that the wavelength of 5.85 μm and the average power density of 30 W/cm2 realized the selective excavation of human carious dentin, but ablation property was different with respect to each sample because of the different caries progression. In conclusion, 5.8 μm wavelength range was found to be effective for selective excavation of human carious dentin.

  8. 0 Dizer-Verdadeiro: Analise Narrativa de"Desenredo.:conto de Guimaraes Rosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Luz Pessoa de Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Retoma-se, neste artigo, um exercicio de analise narrative do conto Desenredo l , de Guimaraas Rosa, realizado com a finalidade didatica de ilustrar, em s.ale de aula, passes, possibilidades e interesse do exame da organizacao narrative de textos da "grande literatura". A analise obedece aos principios da teoria semiotics do discurso, tal coma vem sendo desenvolvida pelo Grupo de Investigações Sêmio-Lingüísticas, sob a direç]aoo de A.J. Greimas. Da teoria, serão retomados aqui apenas dois principios gerais: o de percurso gerativo do sentido, necessário para situar o nível de análise da narrativa, e a definçãoo mesma da narratividade.

  9. Remineralization efficiency of bioactive glass on artificially induced carious lesion an in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Sathya Narayana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of bioactive glass containing product on remineralization of artificial induced carious enamel lesion and to compare its efficiency with other remineralization products using an in-vitro pH cycling method. The null hypothesis tested was bioactive glass has no effect on enamel remineralization. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 enamel samples of human molar teeth were subjected to artificial caries lesion formation using pH cycling method and was verified using high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM. Each demineralized sample was then divided into five test groups each containing twenty. Group A - Bioactive glass (SHY-NM, Group B - Fluoride tooth paste (Amflor, Group C - CPP-ACP (Tooth mousse, Group D - CPP-ACPF (Tooth mousse plus, Group E - control. All the test groups were exposed to the pH cycling regime, the remineralizing agents were applied for 10 min except control. After 10 days period, the entire test groups were evaluated with HRSEM and quantitative assessment by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The obtained data was analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA, Student′s t-test and Tukey′s multiple comparison tests. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Rejection of the null hypothesis and highlights the concept of biomimetic bioactive glass as an effective remineralizing agent. Clinical Relevance: To focus on the importance of minimal invasive treatment on incipient carious lesion by remineralization.

  10. Clinical use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for the treatment of deep carious lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Camila De Almeida B.; Simionato, Maria Regina L.; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Imparato, José Carlos P.; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Maria A. A. C.

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) via irradiation, using a low power laser associated with a photosensitization dye, as an alternative to remove cariogenic microorganisms by drilling. Remaining dentinal samples in deep carious lesions on permanent molars (n = 26) were treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye and irradiated with a low power laser (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 320 Jcm-2 90 s; 9J). Samples of dentin from the pulpal wall region were collected with a micropunch before and immediately after PACT and kept in a transport medium for microbiological analysis. Samples were cultured in plates of Brucella blood agar, Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Rogosa SL agar to determine the total viable bacteria, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. counts, respectively. After incubation, colony-forming units were counted and microbial reduction was calculated for each group of bacteria. PACT led to statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci (1.38 log), Lactobacillus spp. (0.93 log), and total viable bacteria (0.91 log). This therapy may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of deep carious lesions using minimally invasive procedures.

  11. Guided fluorescence diagnosis of childhood caries: preliminary measures correlate with depth of carious decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina; Zhang, Liang; Dickinson, Brian A.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Kim, Amy S.; Baltuck, Camille T.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Berg, Joel H.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2014-02-01

    The current rise in childhood caries worldwide has increased the demand for portable technologies that can quickly and accurately detect and diagnose early stage carious lesions. These lesions, if identified at an early stage, can be reversed with remineralization treatments, education, and improvements in home care. A multi-modal optical prototype for detecting and diagnosing occlusal caries demineralization in vivo has been developed and pilot tested. The device uses a 405-nm laser as a scanned illumination source to obtain high resolution and high surface contrast reflectance images, which allows the user to quickly image and screen for any signs of demineralized enamel. When a suspicious region is located, the device can be switched to perform dual laser fluorescence spectroscopy using 405-nm and 532-nm laser excitations. These spectra are used to compute an auto-fluorescence (AF) ratio of the suspicious region and the percent difference of AF ratios from a healthy region of the same tooth. The device was tested on 7 children's teeth in vivo with clinically diagnosed carious lesions. Lesion depth was then visually estimated from the video image using the 405-nm scanned light source, and within a month the maximum drill depth was assessed by a clinician. The researcher and clinicians were masked from previous measurements in a blinded study protocol. Preliminary results show that the ratiometric percent difference measurement of the AF spectrum of the tooth correlates with the severity of the demineralization as assessed by the clinician after drilling.

  12. Detection of questionable occlusal carious lesions using an electrical bioimpedance method with fractional electrical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, A P; Pino, A V; Souza, M N

    2016-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the diagnostic performance of an alternative electric bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS-STEP) detect questionable occlusal carious lesions. Six specialists carried out the visual (V), radiography (R), and combined (VR) exams of 57 sound or non-cavitated occlusal carious lesion teeth classifying the occlusal surfaces in sound surface (H), enamel caries (EC), and dentinal caries (DC). Measurements were based on the current response to a step voltage excitation (BIS-STEP). A fractional electrical model was used to predict the current response in the time domain and to estimate the model parameters: Rs and Rp (resistive parameters), and C and α (fractional parameters). Histological analysis showed caries prevalence of 33.3% being 15.8% hidden caries. Combined examination obtained the best traditional diagnostic results with specificity = 59.0%, sensitivity = 70.9%, and accuracy = 60.8%. There were statistically significant differences in bioimpedance parameters between the H and EC groups (p = 0.016) and between the H and DC groups (Rs, p = 0.006; Rp, p = 0.022, and α, p = 0.041). Using a suitable threshold for the Rs, we obtained specificity = 60.7%, sensitivity = 77.9%, accuracy = 73.2%, and 100% of detection for deep lesions. It can be concluded that BIS-STEP method could be an important tool to improve the detection and management of occlusal non-cavitated primary caries and pigmented sites. PMID:27587136

  13. Nd:YAG Lasers Treating of Carious Lesion and Root Canal In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danqing Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a transmissible bacterial disease process, with cavities at the end, and caused by acids from bacterial metabolism. The essence of dental treatment is to clean and disinfect bacterial contamination from the tooth. In this work, we tried to demonstrate the cleaning and disinfecting effects of Nd:YAG laser irradiation on dental carious lesion and root canal in vitro. Acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG lasers were employed to treat caries lesion and the root canal, respectively. Results showed that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous Nd:YAG laser irradiation and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation could rapidly clean decayed material and bacterial contamination from dental carious lesion and the narrow tail end of root canal with minimally invasive in vitro, respectively. It was concluded that acousto-optic Q-switched quasicontinuous laser irradiation may be a rapid and effective alternative caries treatment, and Cr3+:YAG crystal Q-switched pulse Nd:YAG laser irradiation may be an effective method for canal cleaning and disinfecting during root canal therapy.

  14. Dentinal composition and Knoop hardness measurements of cavity floor following carious dentin removal with Carisolv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mozammal; Nakamura, Yukio; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Yamada, Yoshishige; Jayawardena, Jayanetti Asiri; Matsumoto, Koukichi

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the dentinal composition and Knoop hardness measurements of the cavity floor following the removal of carious dentin by the Carisolv chemo-mechanical caries removal system, in vitro. The carious dentin of 25 extracted human teeth was removed by using Carisolv for one minute with instruments and excavation that was performed until the gel was clear. Caries removal with a sharp explorer was verified according to the color and hardness of the lesion, then, by means of DIAGNOdent. Atomic analysis of treated cavities was performed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and the Knoop hardness number (KHN) of the cavity floor was determined. Surface characteristics were observed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Adjacent sound dentin was used as a control reference. No significant differences were found between the quantities of calcium content (Ca weight %), phosphorus content (P weight %) and the Ca/P weight ratio of Carisolv cavities with that of the adjacent, sound dentin (psound dentin. SEM analysis revealed an extremely rough or irregular surface, and there remained a minimal debris-like smear layer; most of the dentinal tubules were opened. The results indicated that Carisolv does not produce any adverse side effects on dentinal compositions of the treated cavities. The possibility of remaining residual softened dentin was also minimal in this study. PMID:12877418

  15. Dissecação de lesões cariosas: nova técnica de estudo histopatológico tridimensional Dissection of carious lesions: a new technique for three-dimensional histopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Batista Pereira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As análises bidimensionais no estudo histopatológico de lesões cariosas apresentam vieses que podem comprometer o valor científico dos estudos. Neste artigo, os autores apresentam uma nova técnica de análise tridimensional de lesões cariosas, sem perda de partes da lesão, que consiste na dissecação das áreas afetadas pela lesão com brocas odontológicas de desgaste, sob refrigeração, realizada com auxílio de um estereomicroscópio. Três casos de lesões cariosas oclusais em primeiros e segundos molares permanentes são apresentados, nos quais foi possível observar as reações internas de esmalte e dentina em relação às características macroscópicas das lesões. Alguns aspectos comparativos entre a técnica da dissecação e as técnicas bidimensionais são discutidos.Two-dimensional analyses of the histopathological aspect of carious lesions present bias that may compromise the scientific value of studies. In this paper, the authors present a new three-dimensional technique for the histopathological analysis of carious lesions. It consists in the dissection of the affected areas under the stereomicroscope, utilizing refrigerated dental burs, without any loss of carious tissue. The dissection of three occlusal lesions located on first and second permanent molars is presented. It was possible to observe the internal reactions of enamel and dentin, and correlate the results to the macroscopic features of the occlusal surface. Some comparative aspects between the dissecting and two-dimensional techniques are discussed.

  16. Laser and caries diagnosis: the state of the art and evaluation in vitro of the differences of the fluorescence between sound, carious and demineralized enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for establishing dental caries diagnosis that make use of Laser light as source of illumination, establishing the 'state of the art'. Experimental observation of the differences among fluorescence of sound, demineralized and carious enamel by visible luminescent spectroscopy was also done. Six human teeth, extracted for clinical reasons were studied, and the results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized ones. The differences are more evident relative to sond enamel and carious enamel, the same occurring between demineralized and carious enamel. The review of the literature aimed to make comparative considerations between QLF, LF and DELF; their effectiveness relative to traditional methods such as visual, visual with probe, radiography. It was verified that DELF was more sensitive, but could not discriminate between different degrees of mineral loss. QLF, compared to DIAGNOdent has the same sensitivity, but it is better for scientific purposes. The experimental part of the present study used on argon ion Laser to illuminated the teeth and signs of emission of fluorescence were captured by a PMT and then analyzed by a computer system with EG and G software. The results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized. The differences are more evident in relation to sound and carious enamel, the same occurs between demineralized and carious enamel. (author)

  17. Antimicrobial activity of ginger and honey on isolates of extracted carious teeth during orthodontic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roopal V Patel; Vidhi T Thaker; VK Patel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vitro effects of ginger and honey on micro-organisms on carious teeth by employing antibiotic sensitivity test. Methods: Two hundred and fifty (250) extracted, carious teeth were aseptically collected into sterile peptone water. Bacterial species were isolated from the peptone water broth, characterized and identified according to standard methods described in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Aqueous ginger extract and honey were employed for sensitivity test. Suspensions of the bacterial isolates were made in sterile normal saline and adjusted to the 0.5 McFarland’s standard. Each Mueller Hinton (MH) agar plate was uniformly seeded by means of sterile swab dipped in the suspension and streaked on the agar plate surface, and the plates left on the bench for excess fluid to be absorbed. Approximately 100μL of the extracts were dropped into each well which filled them respectively to fullness. The setup was allowed to stabilize for 3 h before being incubated at 37 ℃ for 24 h. The mean zones of inhibition were thereafter measured in mm, for all the individual isolates. Results: Streptococcusmutans (88.0%) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) (39.0%) were most prevalent as compared with other isolates. The diameter of the zone of inhibition ranged from (18.0 ± 0.5) mm to (27.0 ± 1.0) mm for ginger and (20.0 ± 0.5) mm to (27.0 ± 0.7) mm for honey, as compared with (18.0 ± 0.7) mm to (23.0 ± 0.5) mm for gentamycin, at the various concentrations used. Results indicate a considerable antibacterial activity of ginger and honey. The combined extracts were most effective against Staphylococcus aureus (30.0.0 ± 1.5) mm but least effective against L. acidophilus (21.0 ± 0.7) mm. Conclusions: For the prevention of the emergence of resistant microorganisms, use of combination of herbal preparations is more useful.Considering in vitro data obtained in this study, there is a significant synergistic effect of antimicrobial

  18. Fluorine mapping in sound and carious fissures of human teeth using PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the PIGE technique at JAERI Takasaki, we measured fluorine (F) distribution in a micro area of occlusal fissures in the enamel of human teeth. The fissures were classified into three groups: Group I, no caries; Group II, incipient caries; Group III, advanced caries. The extracted teeth were embedded in epoxy resin and cut along the longitudinal axis through the fissures. The F concentration in the fissure at the cut surface was measured. A 1.7 MeV proton beam accelerated by the TIARA single-ended accelerator was delivered to a micro-beam apparatus. The beam spot size was about 1 μm with a beam current of about 100 pA. A nuclear reaction, 19F (p,αγ)16O, was used to measure the F concentration and gamma-rays from this reaction were detected with a 4' NaI(Tl) detector. X-rays induced by proton were detected with a Ge detector to measure calcium concentration and the beam intensity was monitored with the X-ray yield from a copper foil for quantitative analysis. The obtained results were shown as two-dimensional mapping. In all specimens, an F concentration was observed around the fissure. The F concentration varied depending on the location of the fissure and decreased towards the inner part of the tooth. The maximum F concentration values in the measured area ranged from 3500-11700 ppm (mean 6000 ppm) in Group I, 2400-10700 ppm (mean = 6300 ppm) in Group II, and 5200-16900 ppm (mean = 9300 ppm) in Group III. Although high F concentrations tended to be measured in the carious fissures, high values were also recognized in the sound fissures. More studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between F and carious lesions

  19. Fluorine mapping in sound and carious fissures of human teeth using PIGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan)]. E-mail: yhiroko@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, Tsuruga, Fukui, 914-0192 (Japan); Iwami, Y. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Ebisu, S. [Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Sakai, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology Center, Japan Atomic Energy, Research Institute (JAERI), Takasaki, Gunma, 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, M. [Advanced Radiation Technology Center, Japan Atomic Energy, Research Institute (JAERI), Takasaki, Gunma, 370-1292 (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    By using the PIGE technique at JAERI Takasaki, we measured fluorine (F) distribution in a micro area of occlusal fissures in the enamel of human teeth. The fissures were classified into three groups: Group I, no caries; Group II, incipient caries; Group III, advanced caries. The extracted teeth were embedded in epoxy resin and cut along the longitudinal axis through the fissures. The F concentration in the fissure at the cut surface was measured. A 1.7 MeV proton beam accelerated by the TIARA single-ended accelerator was delivered to a micro-beam apparatus. The beam spot size was about 1 {mu}m with a beam current of about 100 pA. A nuclear reaction, {sup 19}F (p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O, was used to measure the F concentration and gamma-rays from this reaction were detected with a 4' NaI(Tl) detector. X-rays induced by proton were detected with a Ge detector to measure calcium concentration and the beam intensity was monitored with the X-ray yield from a copper foil for quantitative analysis. The obtained results were shown as two-dimensional mapping. In all specimens, an F concentration was observed around the fissure. The F concentration varied depending on the location of the fissure and decreased towards the inner part of the tooth. The maximum F concentration values in the measured area ranged from 3500-11700 ppm (mean 6000 ppm) in Group I, 2400-10700 ppm (mean = 6300 ppm) in Group II, and 5200-16900 ppm (mean = 9300 ppm) in Group III. Although high F concentrations tended to be measured in the carious fissures, high values were also recognized in the sound fissures. More studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between F and carious lesions.

  20. Caries arresting effect of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesion with S. mutans and L. acidophilus dual-species cariogenic biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, May Lei; CHU, CHUN HUNG; Low, Kan-Hung; Che, Ching-Ming; Lo, Edward Chin Man

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study investigated the effects of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) on dentine carious lesion with cariogenic biofilm. Study Design: Thirty human dentine blocks were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus dual-species biofilm to create carious lesion. They were equally divided into test and control group to receive topical application of SDF and water. After incubation anaerobically using micro-well plate at 37oC for 7 days, the biofilms were ...

  1. Effects of silver diamine fluoride on dentine carious lesions induced by Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun Hung; Mei, Lei; Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Lo, Edward Chin Man

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has been shown to be a successful treatment for arresting caries. However, the mechanism of SDF is to be elucidated. AIM. To characterize the effects of SDF on dentine carious induced by Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii. DESIGN.  Thirty-two artificially demineralized human dentine blocks were inoculated: 16 with S. mutans and 16 with A. naeslundii. Either SDF or water was applied to eight blocks in each group. Biofilm morphology, microbial kinetics and viability were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, colony forming units, and confocal microscopy. The crosssection of the dentine carious lesions were assessed by microhardness testing, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. RESULTS. Biofilm counts were reduced in SDF group than control (P naeslundii formed on dentine surfaces. SDF slowed down demineralization of dentine. This dual activity could be the reason behind clinical success of SDF. PMID:21702854

  2. Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli on healthy and carious teeth in the same mouth of children with and without dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, C. S.; Mogodiri, R.; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between mutans streptococci and lactobacilli contribute towards the microbial challenge of dental caries. A comparison was made between numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in plaque from primary teeth in healthy children and between caries-free teeth and carious lesions in the same mouth of children with caries. The study group comprised 107 nursery-school children with a clinically healthy dentition and 117 children with caries. After a dental examination with mirror...

  3. Dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein in human sound and carious teeth: an immunohistochemical and colorimetric assay

    OpenAIRE

    D. Martini; A. Trirè; Breschi, L.; Mazzoni, A.; Teti, G; Falconi, M; A. Ruggeri Jr

    2013-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) are extracellular matrix proteins produced by odontoblasts involved in the dentin mineralization. The aim this study was to compare the distribution of DMP1 and DSPP in human sound dentin vs human sclerotic dentin. Sixteen sound and sixteen carious human molars were selected, fixed in paraformaldehyde and processed for immunohistochemical detection of DMP1 and DSPP by means of light microscopy, transmission electron microsco...

  4. Radiographic detection of initial carious lesions on the proximal surfaces of teeth. Part I. The influence of exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between a number of technical exposure conditions and the diagnostic value of bitewing radiographs in the interpretation of initial proximal carious lesions was evaluated. The most important exposure factors for radiographs are tube voltage, filtration, and exposure time. Tube voltage and filtration were found to have an insignificant influence on the diagnostic quality. Exposure time proved to be the most critical factor in influencing diagnostic quality. The greatest difference in diagnostic quality, however, was caused by differences between observers

  5. Comparative evaluation of combined amalgam and composite resin restorations in extensively carious vital posterior teeth: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Gagandeep Kaur; Manpreet Singh; C S Bal; Singh, U. P.

    2011-01-01

    Aim : The clinical performance of the combined composite - amalgam restorations in posterior teeth was evaluated. Materials and Methods : One hundred carious posterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 25 teeth each. In Group A, the teeth were restored with composite Z250 and amalgam FusionAlloy. In Group B, composite Surefil and amalgam were used. In Groups C and D, the teeth were restored with composite Surefil and amalgam FusionAlloy, respectively. The restorations were ...

  6. Comparative evaluation of combined amalgam and composite resin restorations in extensively carious vital posterior teeth: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Singh, Manpreet; Bal, CS; Singh, UP

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The clinical performance of the combined composite – amalgam restorations in posterior teeth was evaluated. Materials and Methods: One hundred carious posterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 25 teeth each. In Group A, the teeth were restored with composite Z250 and amalgam FusionAlloy. In Group B, composite Surefil and amalgam were used. In Groups C and D, the teeth were restored with composite Surefil and amalgam FusionAlloy, respectively. The restorations were evaluat...

  7. Restoration of non-carious cervical lesions with ceramic inlays: A possible model for clinical testing of adhesive cements

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Staninec; Tsuji, Grant H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: There are many luting cements coming to market which claim to be adhesive, but there is no clinical protocol currently for testing these claims. There is a standardized protocol for testing direct restorations bonded to dentin and it is used extensively. Case Report: We describe a clinical procedure for restoring a non-carious cervical lesion (NCCL) with a ceramic inlay using Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and an adhesive resin cement...

  8. Dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein in human sound and carious teeth: an immunohistochemical and colorimetric assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP are extracellular matrix proteins produced by odontoblasts involved in the dentin mineralization. The aim this study was to compare the distribution of DMP1 and DSPP in human sound dentin vs human sclerotic dentin. Sixteen sound and sixteen carious human molars were selected, fixed in paraformaldehyde and processed for immunohistochemical detection of DMP1 and DSPP by means of light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and high-resolution field emission in-lens scanning electron microscopy (FEI-SEM. Specimens were submitted to a pre-embedding or a post-embedding immunolabeling technique using primary antibodies anti DMP1 and anti-DSPP and gold-conjugated secondary antibodies. Other samples were processed for the detection of DMP1 and DSPP levels. Dentin from these samples was mechanically fractured to powder, then a protein extraction and a protein level detection assay were performed. DMP1 and DSPP were more abundant in carious than in sound samples. Immunohistochemical analyses in sclerotic dentin disclosed a high expression of DMP1 and DSPP inside the tubules, suggesting an active biomineralization of dentin by odontoblasts. Furthermore, the detection of small amounts of these proteins inside the tubules far from the carious lesion, as shown in the present study, is consistent with the hypothesis of a preventive defense of all dentin after a noxious stimulus has undermined the tooth.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of three Veillonella spp. present in carious dentine and in the saliva of caries-free individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy eDo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Veillonella spp. are predominant bacteria found in all oral biofilms. In this study, a metatranscriptomic approach was used to investigate the gene expression levels of three oral Veillonella spp. (V. parvula, V. dispar and V. atypica in whole stimulated saliva from caries-free volunteers and in carious lesions (n=11 for each group. In the lesions the greatest proportion of reads were assigned to V. parvula and genes with the highest level of expression in carious samples were those coding for membrane transport systems. All three Veillonella spp. increased expression of genes involved in the catabolism of lactate and succinate, notably the alpha- and beta-subunits of L(+-tartrate dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.32. There was also significantly increased expression of histidine biosynthesis pathway in V. parvula, suggesting higher intra-cellular levels of histidine that could provide intra-cellular buffering capacity and, therefore, assist survival in the acidic environment. Various other systems such as potassium uptake systems were also up regulated that may aid in the survival and proliferation of V. parvula in carious lesions.

  10. In vitro evaluation of proximal carious lesions using digital radiographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mayana Soares; Nogueira, Caroline Parente Ribeiro; Silva, Marcos André dos Santos; Bauer, José Roberto de Oliveira; Maia Filho, Etevaldo Matos

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars) were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin). Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick) and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists). The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%), Kodak (63.9%), Sirona (59.0%), specialists (69.4%), students (62.5%), dentists (61.8%), premolars (70.1%), canines (65.3%), and molars (58.3%). No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (P > 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick), 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona), and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak). The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas. PMID:25695099

  11. Selective excavation of human carious dentin using a nanosecond pulsed laser with a wavelength of 5.85 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Tetsuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-06-01

    Less-invasive treatment of caries has been needed in laser dentistry. Based on the absorption property of dentin substrates, 6 μm wavelength range shows specific absorptions and promising characteristics for the excavation. In our previous study, 5.8 μm wavelength range was found to be effective for selective excavation of carious dentin and restoration treatment using composite resin from the irradiation experiment with bovine sound and demineralized dentin. In this study, the availability of 5.8 μm wavelength range for selective excavation of human carious dentin was investigated for clinical application. A mid-infrared tunable nanosecond pulsed laser by difference-frequency generation was used for revealing the ablation property of human carious dentin. Irradiation experiments indicated that the wavelength of 5.85 μm and the average power density of 30 W/cm2 realized the selective excavation of human carious dentin, but ablation property was different with respect to each sample because of the different caries progression. In conclusion, the wavelength of 5.85 μm could realize the selective excavation of human carious dentin, but it was necessary to evaluate the stage of caries progression in order to control the ablation property.

  12. Clinical comparative study between the use of lasers and conventional methods of diagnosis and treatment in deciduous teeth with presence of carious lesion; Estudo clinico comparativo entre o uso de lasers e metodos convencionais de diagnostico e tratamento em dentes deciduos da presenca de lesao cariosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulga, Fabiane Galvao

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of deciduous tooth cavity preparation by the Er:YAG laser in comparison with the conventional burr rotary instrument. Besides, we have used the laser fluorescence technique (DIAGNOdent equipment) for diagnosis and compared it to the usual tactile and visual examination as well as X-ray diagnosis. For this purpose, 20 chronic occlusal carious deciduous molar teeth from children with the ages between 5 to 10 years old were selected. Selection was ma de according to visual inspection, X-ray periapical image and measures of the DIAGNOdent. For treatment the teeth were divided in two groups, 10 to be treated by the Er:YAG laser and 10 with conventional burr. For enamel, the laser energy used was in the interval from 200 to 300 mJ; for the dentine the range was from 100 mJ to 200 mJ. In both cases, the laser frequency was in the range from 2 to 4 Hz. The results have shown that the laser treatment was more accepted by the children than the conventional burro Clinical evaluation of the cavity preparation indicates that the Er:YAG laser treatment is recommend. The DIAGNOdent evaluation method was very effective for diagnosis of carious tissue for initial detection. After successful removal of the carious tissue, confirmed by visual inspection, the DIAGNOdent evaluation method was only effective for the treatment with conventional burro For evaluation of the tooth after cavity preparation with the Er:YAG laser, the measurements oscillate covering the full range of the equipment. Therefore, the use of the DIAGNOdent equipment is indicated only for initial caries diagnosis. (author)

  13. Advanced zinc-doped adhesives for high performance at the resin-carious dentin interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; García-Godoy, Franklin; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the remineralization ability of an etch-and-rinse Zn-doped resin applied on caries-affected dentin (CAD). CAD surfaces were subjected to: (i) 37% phosphoric acid (PA) or (ii) 0.5M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). 10wt% ZnO nanoparticles or 2wt% ZnCl2 were added into the adhesive Single Bond (SB), to create the following groups: PA+SB, PA+SB-ZnO, PA+SB-ZnCl2, EDTA+SB, EDTA+SB-ZnO, EDTA+SB-ZnCl2. Bonded interfaces were submitted to mechanical loading or stored during 24h. Remineralization of the bonded interfaces was studied by AFM nano-indentation (hardness and Young׳s modulus), Raman spectroscopy [mapping with principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA)] and Masson׳s trichrome staining technique. Dentin samples treated with PA+SB-ZnO attained the highest values of nano-mechanical properties. Load cycling increased both mineralization and crystallographic maturity at the interface; this effect was specially noticed when using ZnCl2-doped resin in EDTA-treated carious dentin. Crosslinking attained higher frequencies indicating better conformation and organization of collagen in specimens treated with PA+SB-ZnO, after load cycling. Trichrome staining technique depicted a deeper demineralized dentin fringe that became reduced after loading, and it was not observable in EDTA+SB groups. Multivariate analysis confirmed de homogenizing effect of load cycling in the percentage of variances, traces of centroids and distribution of clusters, especially in specimens treated with EDTA+SB-ZnCl2. PMID:27232828

  14. Effectiveness of fluoride sealant in the prevention of carious lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This article aimed to evaluate in vitro the efficiency of Pro Seal fluoride sealant application in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of bovine incisors, and five groups were formed (n = 15 according to the exposure of teeth to oral hygiene substances and the application of enamel sealant: G1 (control, only brushing was performed with 1.450 ppm fluoride; G2 (control brushing associated with the use of mouthwash with 225 ppm fluoride; G3, only Pro Seal sealant application was performed with 1.000 ppm fluoride; G4 Pro Seal associated with brushing; G5 Pro Seal associated with brushing and mouthwash. Experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described. All specimens were kept at a temperature of 37 °C throughout the entire experiment. Both brushing and immersion in solutions were performed within a time interval of one minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days. Afterwards, an evaluation by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT of the spectral type was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the sites where brackets were bonded and depth measurement of carious lesions were performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied to determine whether there were significant differences among groups. For post hoc analysis, Tukey test was used. Results: There was statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.003, 1 and 3 (p = 0.008, 1 and 4 (p = 0.000 and 1 and 5 (p = 0.000. The group in which only brushing was performed (Group 1 showed deeper enamel lesion. Conclusion: Pro Seal sealant alone or combined with brushing and/or brushing and the use of a mouthwash with fluoride was more effective in protecting enamel, in comparison to brushing alone.

  15. NON - OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF NON - CAVITATED APPROXIMAL CARIOUS LESIONS OF PERMANENT CHIDREN’S TEETH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossiza I. Kabakchieva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To apply and follow up in clinical conditions the success rate of microinvasive technique of infiltration with low viscosity resin ICON® (DMG of non cavitated approximal caries lesions of permanent children's teeth for a period of one year. Material and methods: The study included 18 children aged 7-16 years. They were divided into two groups - children with medium and high caries risk. The survey include 20 teeth with approximal non-cavitated enamel lesions up to the outer third of dentin (E1, E2, D1 – according to the manufacturer’s instructions of ICON®. The size of the lesions was determined using bitewing radiographs and the activity - by Papilla Bleeding Index. The clinical application of the infiltr+ant (ICON® Caries Infiltrant Proximal, DMG was conducted according to the manufacturer's instructions. Bitewing radiographs were made at 6 and 12 months after infiltration in order to evaluate the success of the method. A test of the difference between two relative proportions and alternative test for analysis of the results were used. Results: Our study confirm the hypothesis that this method of infiltration is equally successful for permanent teeth in patients with moderate caries risk as well as those at high caries risk. Conclusion: This study is the first survey regarding the success of the application of ICON® for treatment of non-cavitated approximal carious lesions in permanent dentition of children in the country. Research in this direction should continue in order to increase the conviction that caries can be controlled and arrested in its earliest stages.

  16. In vitro evaluation of fluoride products in the development of carious lesions in deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineide de Melo Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of fluoride products on the development of enamel caries in deciduous teeth. A total of 108 deciduous teeth were chosen for the study. Acid-resistant varnish was applied on the teeth, leaving only one area of 5 mm x 1 mm of dental enamel exposed. The teeth were allocated randomly to one of the following groups: 1 control - toothpaste without fluoride; 2 1.23% fluoride gel; 3 Duraflur fluoride varnish; 4 Duraphat fluoride varnish; 5 Fluorniz fluoride varnish; 6 Fluorphat fluoride varnish; 7 varnish with Duofluorid; 8 12% silver fluoride diamine (Cariestop; 9 children's fluoride toothpaste (500 ppm. The tested products were applied on the teeth according to the manufacturer's recommendations and the teeth were stored in a moist environment for 24 hours. Each group of teeth was then subjected to a pH cycling model for 14 days, after which the teeth were cut through the center for an analysis of the depth of the carious lesion by polarized light microscopy. Comparisons were made between the treatments and the control group. The mean lesion depth values were 318 μm ± 39 (control, 213 μm ± 27 (fluoride gel, 203 μm ± 34 (Duraflur, 133 μm ± 25 (Duraphat, 207 μm ± 27 (Fluor-niz, 212 μm ± 27 (Fluorphat, 210 ± 28 (Duofluorid, 146 ± 31 (Cariestop and 228 ± 24 (fluoride toothpaste. None of the products used here was able to completely prevent the formation of lesions. The highest cariostatic effect was achieved by fluoride varnish Duraphat and the lowest by the fluoride toothpaste.

  17. Construction of database for three-dimensional human tooth models and its ability for education and research--Carious tooth models -.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Sakae; Yoshida, Takamitsu; Tamura, Kaoru; Yamazoe, Masatoshi; Hayano, Keigo; Arai, Yoshinori; Yamada, Hirohito; Kasahara, Etsuo; Ito, Michio

    2010-03-01

    To construct a human teeth database which is freely available to researchers and students, three-dimensional human tooth models were generated in a previous study, by means of micro-CT, from 35 human teeth extracted during orthodontic treatment. In this study, X-ray images of 55 extracted human teeth were acquired using three-dimensional micro-CT at a resolution of 50x50x50 microm, and then visualized using a numerical data visualization software. These carious tooth models provided insight into the morphology and progression of carious defects as well as a rare insight into the morphology of carious tooth pulp, therefore rendering them as a useful tool and efficient method for dental students' learning. Moreover, these three-dimensional models could be simultaneously observed and used by many students and researchers at any one time, which was a superior advantage than having only one actual tooth for learning and study by many. PMID:20379022

  18. Express diagnostics of intact and pathological dental hard tissues by optical PNC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-03-01

    The results of hard tooth tissues research by the optical PNC- method in experimental and clinical conditions are presented. In the experiment under 90 test-sample of tooth slices with thickness about 1 mm (enamel, dentine and cement) were researched. The results of the experiment were processed by the method of correlation analyze. Clinical researches were executed on teeth of 210 patients. The regions of tooth tissue diseases with initial, moderate and deep caries were investigated. Spectral characteristics of intact and pathologically changed tooth tissues are presented and their peculiar features are discussed. The results the optical PNC- method application while processing tooth carious cavities are presented in order to estimate efficiency of the mechanical and antiseptic processing of teeth. It is revealed that the PNC-method can be used as for differential diagnostics of a degree dental carious stage, as for estimating of carefulness of tooth cavity processing before filling.

  19. The autoradiographic pattern of the in vitro uptake of proline by the coronal areas of intact and carious human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosynthesis of collagen in teeth was studied by following the uptake of proline in vitro. Whole crowns of human teeth were incubated for 6 h with (14C)- or (3H)-proline. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of intact teeth and teeth with carious lesions of varying depths and location. The number of silver grains per cm2 in the predentine, odontoblast layer and pulp were counted in selected fields magnified x 430 representing the deepest parts of the carious lesions. No differences in the labelling pattern were observed between the intact teeth incubated freshly after extraction and those preserved in liquid nitrogen. The densest labelling of intact teeth was seen in the predentine and odontoblast layer. The alterations under initial dentine caries appeared as increased labelling of the predentine and decreased labelling of the odontoblast layer; no alterations were observed in the underlying pulp. In advanced lesions, the predentine labelling decreased and that in the odontoblast layer and pulp increased. In the initial stages, caries seem to activate collagen synthesis in a relatively restricted area of the underlying structures, but in advanced stages, caries seem to increase the odontoblastic cellular polypeptide chain formation but prevent further maturation of the collagen. (author)

  20. Ablation of human carious dentin with a nanosecond pulsed laser at a wavelength of 5.85 μm: relationship between hardness and ablation depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Kita, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-02-01

    Less invasive treatment and preservation of teeth, referred to as minimal intervention, are strong requirements in dentistry. In our previous study, the fundamental ablation properties of human dentin at wavelengths around 5.8 μm were investigated, and the results indicated that the wavelength of 5.85 μm was optimal for selective removal of carious dentin with less damage to normal dentin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ablation depth and hardness of human dentin including carious lesion. A nanosecond pulsed laser produced by difference-frequency generation was used for irradiations to human carious dentin. It was observed that correlation between ablation depth and Vickers hardness after 2 s laser irradiation at the wavelength of 5.85 μm and the average power density of 30 W/cm2. On the other hand, ablations did not depend on Vickers hardness at the wavelength of 6.00 μm. A nanosecond pulsed laser with the wavelength at 5.85 μm is useful for selective ablation of human carious dentin in accordance with the hardness.

  1. The sound of dental tissue ablation as a possible parameter for conservative dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Fábio Renato P.; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Matos, Adriana Bona

    2007-02-01

    Studies in cariology have been struggling for the development of caries prevention techniques, precocious diagnoses of lesions, re-mineralization of incipient carious lesions and early restorative intervention with minimally invasive procedures. When removing caries, healthy dental structure is often removed inadvertently during its final phase, for being quite difficult to precise the limits between viable and decayed dental tissues clinically. With laser technologies, a subjective clinical hint, often used to indicate when tissue ablation should be stopped is that different sounds are perceptive whether in carious (bass) or in healthy (treble) dental structure; when sound produced by ablation turned treble it would mean that healthy tissue was reached. This study aims to classify those audio differences and to turn them into objective parameters for a conservative operative dentistry with minimally invasive tissue removal when using erbium lasers. Twenty freshly extracted human teeth were used (10 decayed and 10 sound teeth). Dentine was erbium laser irradiated under same parameters, distance and refrigeration and a mono directional microphone was set 10 cm far from the operative area in order to capture and record the ablation produced sounds when working either on carious or healthy dentine. Ten pulses per file were then analysed in a computer software (200 analyses). It was permitted to draw similarities among the patterns in each group (decayed and healthy teeth) as well as differences between decayed and healthy produced sounds. Audio analysis came out to be a technical reliable objective parameter to determine whether laser ablated dentine substrates are decayed or sound; therefore it can be proposed as a conservative parameter, avoiding unnecessary removal of healthy dentine and restricting it to carious one.

  2. Restoration of non-carious cervical lesions with ceramic inlays: A possible model for clinical testing of adhesive cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Staninec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are many luting cements coming to market which claim to be adhesive, but there is no clinical protocol currently for testing these claims. There is a standardized protocol for testing direct restorations bonded to dentin and it is used extensively. Case Report: We describe a clinical procedure for restoring a non-carious cervical lesion (NCCL with a ceramic inlay using Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD-CAM technology and an adhesive resin cement.The procedure was straightforward and the result was good at one month. Discussion: NCCL′s can be restored with CAD-CAM technology in one appointment. This technique can be used to clinically test adhesion of luting cements to dentin, similarly to the current standard for direct restorations.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors for non-carious cervical lesions in children attending special needs schools in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kumar, Arunoday; Debnath, Nitai; Kumar, Amit; K Badiyani, Bhumika; Basak, Debashish; S A Ali, Mohamed; B Ismail, Mohammed

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for development of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) in children attending special needs schools in India. The participants were 395 children aged 12-15 years with disabilities in learning, communication, physical function, and/or development. A questionnaire was designed in order to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, and risk factors for NCCLs. The chi-square test, bivariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Presence of NCCLs was associated with use of toothpowder or other materials for teeth cleaning, use of harder toothbrushes, use of a horizontal scrub technique for toothbrushing, consumption of a vegetarian diet, and greater consumption of lemon. The overall prevalence of NCCLs was 22.7%. Most lesions involved minimal loss of contour or defects health care among children attending special needs schools. PMID:25807907

  4. Bacteriology of deep carious lesions underneath amalgam restorations with different pulp-capping materials - an in vivo analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Neelakantan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms remaining in dentin following cavity preparation may induce pulp damage, requiring the use of pulp-capping agents with antimicrobial activity underneath permanent restorations. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the bacteriological status of carious dentin and to assess the efficacy of different base underneath silver amalgam restorations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 50 patients aged 13 to 30 years. Sterile swabs were used to take samples after cavity preparation, which was assessed by microbiological culture to identify the microorganisms present. Following this, cavities were restored with silver amalgam, using one of the materials being investigated, as the base: calcium hydroxide (Group II, polyantibiotic paste (Group III, a novel light-cured fluoride-releasing hydroxyapatite-based liner (Group IV and mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (Group V. In Group I, the cavities were restored with silver amalgam, without any base. After 3 months, the amalgam was removed and samples taken again and analyzed for the microbial flora. RESULTS: Lactobacilli were the most commonly isolated microorganisms in the samples of carious dentin. Groups IV and V showed negative culture in the 3-month samples. There was no statistically significant difference between Groups I, II and III. There was no significant difference between Groups IV and V (p>0.05. Both Groups IV and V showed significantly better results when compared to Groups I, II and III (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroxyapatite-based liner and MTA performed significantly better in terms of antibacterial activity than the other materials.

  5. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Ralf K.W., E-mail: rschulze@mail.uni-mainz.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grimm, Stefanie, E-mail: StefanieGrimm@gmx.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schulze, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.schulze@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Klinik fuer Mund,- Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Sektion Roentgen, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Hugstetterstr. 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Voss, Kai, E-mail: zahnarzt@drvoss.eu [Zahnaerztekammer Schleswig-Holstein, Vorstand fuer Praxisfuehrung, Westring 496, D- 24106 Kiel (Germany); Keller, Hans-Peter, E-mail: hans-peter.keller@din.de [NA Dental (NADENT) im DIN, Alexander-Wellendorff-Str. 2, D-75172 Pforzheim (Germany); Wedel, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.wedel@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Postfach 32 60, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding {+-}2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  6. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding ±2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  7. Pulp nerve fibers distribution of human carious teeth: An immunohistochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2010-01-01

    Background: Human dental pulp is richly innervated by trigeminal afferent axons that subserve nociceptive function. Accordingly, they respond to stimuli that induce injury to the pulp tissue. An injury to the nerve terminals and other tissue components in the pulp stimulate metabolic activation of the neurons in the trigeminal ganglion which result in morphological changes in the peripheral nerve terminals. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe caries-related changes in the distributio...

  8. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the dentin-pulp complex of healthy and carious teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Sulkala, M. (Merja)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The dentin-pulp complex comprises mineralized dentin and the vital soft tissues encased inside dentin, i.e. odontoblasts and pulp tissue. During caries progression, the dentinal minerals are dissolved and eventually the collagenous organic matrix is degraded. However, the exact mechanisms and enzymes responsible for the organic matrix breakdown remain unknown. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of endopeptidases capable of degrading in concert virtually all extracellular m...

  9. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal, Deepak Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Thakur, Arun Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materials ...

  10. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar Singhal; Shashidhar Acharya; Arun Singh Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materi...

  11. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-pr...

  12. Efficacy of 1.23% APF gel applications on incipient carious lesions: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Menezes Bonow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of 1.23% APF gel application on the arrest of active incipient carious lesions in children. Sixty 7- to 12-year-old children, with active incipient lesions were included in the study. Children were divided randomly into 2 groups: 1.23% APF gel and placebo gel applications. Each group received 8 weekly applications of treatment. The lesions were re-evaluated at the 4th and 8th appointments. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks of the presence of active white spot lesions. Groups showed similar results (PR = 1.67; CI 95% 0.69–3.98. The persistence of at least 1 active lesion was associated with a higher number of lesions in the baseline (PR = 2.67; CI 95% 1.19–6.03, but not with sugar intake (PR = 1.06; CI 95% 0.56–2.86 and previous exposure to fluoride dentifrice (PR = 1.26; CI 95% 0.49–2.29. The trial demonstrates the equivalence of the treatments. The use of the APF gel showed no additional benefits in this sample of children exposed to fluoridated water and dentifrice. The professional dental plaque removal in both groups may also account for the resulting equivalence of the treatments.

  13. Characteristics, detection methods and treatment of questionable occlusal carious lesions: findings from the national dental practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, S K; Gilbert, G H; Funkhouser, E; Bader, J D; Gordan, V V; Rindal, D B; Pihlstrom, D J; Qvist, V

    2014-01-01

    Questionable occlusal carious lesions (QOC) can be defined as an occlusal tooth surface with no cavitation and no radiographic radiolucencies, but caries is suspected due to roughness, surface opacities or staining. An earlier analysis of data from this study indicates 1/3 of patients have a QOC. The objective of this report has been to quantify the characteristics of these common lesions, the diagnostic aids used and the treatment of QOC. A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from the USA and Denmark in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated. When consenting patients presented with a QOC, information was recorded about the patient, tooth, lesion and treatments. A total of 2,603 QOC from 1,732 patients were analyzed. The lesions were usually associated with a fissure, on molars, and varied from yellow to black in color. Half presented with a chalky luster and had a rough surface when examined with an explorer. There was an association between color and luster: 10% were chalky-light, 47% were shiny-dark and 42% were mixtures. A higher proportion of chalky than of shiny lesions were light (22 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Lesions light in color were less common in adults than in pediatric patients (9 vs. 32%; p < 0.001). Lesions that were chalky and light were more common among pediatric than among adult patients (22 vs. 6%; p < 0.001). This is the first study to investigate characteristics of QOC in routine clinical practice. Clinicians commonly face this diagnostic uncertainty. Determining the characteristics of these lesions is relevant when making diagnostic and treatment decisions. PMID:24480989

  14. Effect of CPP-ACP Paste on Enamel Carious Lesion of Primary Upper Anterior Teeth Assessed by Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence: A One-Year Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthisettapong, Thanya; Doi, Takashi; Nishida, Yuhei; Kambara, Masaki; Phantumvanit, Prathip

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of 1 year of daily application of 10% w/v CPP-ACP (casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate) paste in addition to regular toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste on the remineralization of enamel carious lesions in preschool children using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). A total of 103 Thai children (aged 2(1)/2-3(1)/2 years) with high caries risk who had at least 1 enamel carious lesion (ICDAS 1-3) on the labial surface of the upper anterior teeth were assigned to receive either CPP-ACP paste (n = 53) or placebo control (n = 50) following toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste after lunch at school. QLF measurement was performed at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. At 1 year, a significant reduction in fluorescence loss (ΔF), lesion area and lesion volume (ΔQ; p ≤ 0.001) of the lesions were found over time in both groups. However, no significant difference was observed between the groups (p = 0.79, 0.98 and 0.88, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the odds of ΔQ transition to a stage of regression or arrest compared with progression from baseline to 1 year between the two groups (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.31-3.39). The daily application of 10% w/v CPP-ACP paste on a school day for 1 year resulted in no improvement of enamel carious lesion remineralization in the primary upper anterior teeth as assessed by QLF. The lesion improvement was not superior to remineralization from regular toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste alone in these children. PMID:26228178

  15. Nuclear analytical methods for trace element studies in calcified tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Various nuclear analytical methods have been developed and applied to determine the elemental composition of calcified tissues (teeth and bones). Fluorine was determined by prompt gamma activation analysis through the 19F(p,ag)16O reaction. Carbon was measured by activation analysis with He-3 ions, and the technique of Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied to simultaneously determine Ca, P, and trace elements in well-documented teeth. Dental hard tissues, enamel, dentine, cement, and their junctions, as well as different parts of the same tissue, were examined separately. Furthermore, using a Proton Microprobe, we measured the surface distribution of F and other elements on and around carious lesions on the enamel. The depth profiles of F, and other elements, were also measured right up to the amelodentin junction

  16. Laser ablation of hard tissue: correlation between the laser beam parameters and the post-ablative tissue characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafetinides, Alexandros A.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan

    2003-11-01

    Hard dental tissue laser applications, such as preventive treatment, laser diagnosis of caries, laser etching of enamel, laser decay removal and cavity preparation, and more recently use of the laser light to enlarge the root canal during the endodontic therapy, have been investigated for in vitro and in vivo applications. Post-ablative surface characteristics, e.g. degree of charring, cracks and other surface deformation, can be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The experimental data are discussed in relevance with the laser beam characteristics, e.g. pulse duration, beam profile, and the beam delivery systems employed. Techniques based on the laser illumination of the dental tissues and the subsequent evaluation of the scattered fluorescent light will be a valuable tool in early diagnosis of tooth diseases, as carious dentin or enamel. The laser induced autofluorescence signal of healthy dentin is much stronger than that of the carious dentin. However, a better understanding of the transmission patterns of laser light in teeth, for both diagnosis and therapy is needed, before the laser procedures can be used in a clinical environment.

  17. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous Calcium Phosphate Treatment on Microtensile Bond Strength to Carious Affected Dentin Using Two Adhesive Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Bahari; Siavash Savadi Oskoee; Soodabeh Kimyai; Firoz Pouralibaba; Farrokh Farhadi; Marouf Norouzi

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim was to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to carious affected dentin (CAD) using etch-and-rinse and self-etch ad-hesive systems. Materials and methods. The occlusal surface of 32 human molars with moderate occlusal caries was removed. Infected dentin was removed until reaching CAD and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups based on the Single Bond (SB) and Clearfil SE ...

  18. Remineralization potential of bioactive glass and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on initial carious lesion: An in-vitro pH-cycling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adit Bharat Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using ANOVA and multiple comparisons within groups was done using Bonferroni method (post-hoc tests to detect significant differences at P < 0.05 levels. Results: Group A showed significantly higher values (P < 0.05 when compared with the hardness values of Group B. Conclusions: Within the limits; the present study concluded that; both BAG and CPP-ACP are effective in remineralizing early enamel caries. Application of BAG more effectively remineralized the carious lesion when compared with CPP-ACP.

  19. Clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, R Banu; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; De Munck, Jan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Peumans, Marleen

    2012-06-01

    A 2-year randomized, controlled prospective study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a one-step self-etch adhesive and a "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive in non-carious Class-V lesions. The null hypothesis tested was that the one-step self-etch adhesive does perform clinically equally well as the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive. A total of 161 lesions in 26 patients were restored with Clearfil AP-X (Kuraray). The restorations were bonded either with the "all-in-one" adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray) or with the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months, 1 and 2 years, regarding their retention, marginal adapation, marginal discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality and post-operative sensivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 2 years was 93.8%. Only one Clearfil S3 Bond restoration was lost at the 2-year recall. All other restorations were clinically acceptable. The number of restorations with defect-free margins decreased severely during the 2-year study period (to 6.7% and 25.3% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively). The Clearfil S3 Bond restorations presented significantly more small marginal defects at the enamel side than the Optibond FL restorations (Clearfil S3 Bond: 93.3%; Optibond FL: 73.3%; p = 0.000). Superficial marginal discoloration increased in both groups (to 53.3% and 36% for Clearfil S3 Bond and Optibond FL, respectively) and was also more pronounced in the Clearfil S3 Bond group (p = 0.007). After 2 years, the simplified one-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil S3 Bond and the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL were clinically equally successful, even though both adhesives were characterized by progressive degradation in marginal

  20. Investigation of non-carious cervical lesions of populations in Guangzhou area%广州市中高收入人群楔状缺损调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫文娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey the prevalence, characteristics of non-carious cervical lesion and analyze its relationship with life style. Methods Eight hundred and eighty-five subjects including 490 males and 395 females who underwent oral health assessment in Nanfang hospital were surveyed. The shape, size, location of non-carious cervical lesion , tooth brushing habits, hand preference and bruxism were recorded for analysis. Results Non-carious cervical lesions were found in 76. 61% of subjects without gender difference. 70.17% affected teeth demonstrated v-shape lesion. Non-carious cervical lesions were mostly on posterior maxillary teeth and first premolars (34.29% ) were mostly affected. Non-carious cervical lesions were more common in right-hand tooth brusher. Senior patients were more likely to have non carious cervical lesions. Conclusion The prevalence of non-carious cervical lesions in Guangzhou area was high and the knowledge on this disease need to be improved.%目的 调查广州市部分中高收入人群的牙颈部楔状缺损患病率、病变特征及病因,为制定楔状缺损防治措施提供依据.方法 对885名中高收入人员楔状缺损状况进行调查,以楔状缺损牙数、缺损形状、好发牙位、刷牙方式等情况作为统计指标,对所得数据进行统计学分析.结果 该人群楔状缺损患病率为76.61%,男女差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);70.17%的楔状缺损为V形,主要发生在上颌后牙,以上颌第一前磨牙最常见,患病率为34.29%.年龄越大、习惯横向刷牙及爱吃硬食的人,楔状缺损患病率更高.调查人群中楔状缺损的就诊率为20.64%.结论 广州市部分中高收入人群的楔状缺损患病率较高,有喜欢吃硬食、横向刷牙等不良习惯的人群患病率更高.

  1. Laser and caries diagnosis: the state of the art and evaluation in vitro of the differences of the fluorescence between sound, carious and demineralized enamel; Laser e diagnostico de caries: estado da arte e avaliacao in vitro das diferencas de fluorescencia entre esmalte sadio, cariado e desmineralizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Maria Angelica Lopes Chaves

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods for establishing dental caries diagnosis that make use of Laser light as source of illumination, establishing the 'state of the art'. Experimental observation of the differences among fluorescence of sound, demineralized and carious enamel by visible luminescent spectroscopy was also done. Six human teeth, extracted for clinical reasons were studied, and the results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized ones. The differences are more evident relative to sond enamel and carious enamel, the same occurring between demineralized and carious enamel. The review of the literature aimed to make comparative considerations between QLF, LF and DELF; their effectiveness relative to traditional methods such as visual, visual with probe, radiography. It was verified that DELF was more sensitive, but could not discriminate between different degrees of mineral loss. QLF, compared to DIAGNOdent has the same sensitivity, but it is better for scientific purposes. The experimental part of the present study used on argon ion Laser to illuminated the teeth and signs of emission of fluorescence were captured by a PMT and then analyzed by a computer system with EG and G software. The results showed that the spectrum of carious enamel is different from the sound and demineralized. The differences are more evident in relation to sound and carious enamel, the same occurs between demineralized and carious enamel. (author)

  2. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser at Different Output Powers on the Micromorphology and the Bond Property of Non-Carious Sclerotic Dentin to Resin Composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Sun

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiated at different powers on the micromorphology and the bonding property of non-carious sclerotic dentin to resin composites.Two hundred bovine incisors characterized by non-carious sclerotic dentin were selected, and the seventy-two teeth of which for surface morphological analysis were divided into nine groups according to various treatments (A: the control group, B: only treated with the adhesive Adper Easy One, C: diamond bur polishing followed by Adper Easy One, D-I: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiating at 1W, 2W, 3W, 4W, 5W, 6W output power, respectively, followed by Adper Easy One. The surface roughness values were measured by the non-contact three-dimensional morphology scanner, then the surface micromorphologies of surfaces in all groups were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM; meanwhile, Image Pro-Plus 6.0 software was used to measure the relative percentage of open tubules on SEM images. The rest, one hundred twenty-eight teeth for bond strength test, were divided into eight groups according to the different treatments (A: only treated with the adhesive Adper Easy One, B: diamond bur polishing followed by the above adhesive, C-H: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiating at 1 W, 2 W, 3 W, 4 W, 5 W, 6 W output power, respectively, followed by the above adhesive, and each group was subsequently divided into two subgroups according to whether aging is performed (immediately tested and after thermocycling. Micro-shear bond strength test was used to evaluate the bond strength.The 4W laser group showed the highest roughness value (30.84±1.93μm, which was statistically higher than the control group and the diamond bur groups (p<0.05. The mean percentages ((27.8±1.8%, (28.0±2.2%, (30.0±1.9% of open tubules area in the 4W, 5W, 6W group were higher than other groups (p<0.05. The 4W laser group showed the highest micro-shear bond strength not only in immediately

  3. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser at Different Output Powers on the Micromorphology and the Bond Property of Non-Carious Sclerotic Dentin to Resin Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguo; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Wanshan; Yang, Yanwei; Wei, Jingjing; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiated at different powers on the micromorphology and the bonding property of non-carious sclerotic dentin to resin composites. Methods Two hundred bovine incisors characterized by non-carious sclerotic dentin were selected, and the seventy-two teeth of which for surface morphological analysis were divided into nine groups according to various treatments (A: the control group, B: only treated with the adhesive Adper Easy One, C: diamond bur polishing followed by Adper Easy One, D-I: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiating at 1W, 2W, 3W, 4W, 5W, 6W output power, respectively, followed by Adper Easy One). The surface roughness values were measured by the non-contact three-dimensional morphology scanner, then the surface micromorphologies of surfaces in all groups were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM); meanwhile, Image Pro-Plus 6.0 software was used to measure the relative percentage of open tubules on SEM images. The rest, one hundred twenty-eight teeth for bond strength test, were divided into eight groups according to the different treatments (A: only treated with the adhesive Adper Easy One, B: diamond bur polishing followed by the above adhesive, C-H: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiating at 1 W, 2 W, 3 W, 4 W, 5 W, 6 W output power, respectively, followed by the above adhesive), and each group was subsequently divided into two subgroups according to whether aging is performed (immediately tested and after thermocycling). Micro-shear bond strength test was used to evaluate the bond strength. Results The 4W laser group showed the highest roughness value (30.84±1.93μm), which was statistically higher than the control group and the diamond bur groups (plaser group showed the highest micro-shear bond strength not only in immediately tested (17.60±2.55 PMa) but after thermocycling (14.35±2.08MPa). Conclusion The Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 4W power can effectively improve the bonding

  4. Photodynamic therapy disinfection of carious tissue mediated by aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine entrapped in cationic liposomes: an in vitro and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, João Paulo F; Leal, Soraya C; Simioni, Andreza R; de Fátima Menezes Almeida-Santos, Maria; Tedesco, Antônio C; Azevedo, Ricardo B

    2012-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique employed in the treatment of several superficial infections, such as caries. PDT uses a non-toxic drug termed photosensitizer (PS) followed by light irradiation. The cytotoxic effects of the therapy are related to the production of reactive species produced after light activation of a photosensitizer, which reacts with surrounding molecules and disrupts several of the cell's functions. Within this context, this study aimed to develop a clinical protocol involving PDT application mediated by aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine (AlClPc) entrapped in cationic liposomes against cariogenic bacteria in caries lesions. Cationic liposomes were used to delivery AlClPc preferentially to bacterial cells due to the strong anionic superficial charges of these cell types. The results are represented in two fundamental steps: (1) in vitro evaluation of AlClPc delivery to cariogenic bacteria and pulp cells, as well as its potential phototoxicity; (2) a clinical study involving volunteer patients that were treated with the PDT protocol mediated by AlClPc-cationic liposome. The main results showed that the AlClPc-cationic liposome was preferentially absorbed by bacterial cells compared to eukaryotic dental pulp cells, and it was efficient in the reduction of microbial load from bacterial cultures. In addition, the clinical study showed a mean reduction of 82% of total bacterial in the treated cavities after PDT application. Taken together, the results presented in this study showed that the antimicrobial PDT protocol mediated by cationic liposomes containing AlClPc is safety for clinical application and is efficient in the reduction of bacterial load in caries lesions. PMID:21809069

  5. Selective removal of carious human dentin using a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at a wavelength of 5.85 μ m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Kita, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-05-01

    Less invasive methods for treating dental caries are strongly desired. However, conventional dental lasers do not always selectively remove caries or ensure good bonding to the composite resin. According to our previous study, demineralized dentin might be removed by a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at wavelengths of around 5.8 μm. The present study investigated the irradiation effect of the light on carious human dentin classified into "remove," "not remove," and "unclear" categories. Under 5.85-μm laser pulses, at average power densities of 30 W/cm2 and irradiation time of 2 s, the ablation depth of "remove" and "not remove," and also the ablation depth of "unclear" and "not remove," were significantly different (p<0.01). The ablation depth was correlated with both Vickers hardness and Ca content. Thus, a nanosecond pulsed laser operating at 5.85 μm proved an effective less-invasive caries treatment.

  6. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Deepak Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Thakur, Arun Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materials and Methods: Primary molars with acute carious lesions in inner half of dentine and vital pulp were randomly divided into three groups of 14 each: Group A: Partial caries removal using hand instruments atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) only; Group B: Partial caries removal using bur; Group C: Complete caries removal using bur and caries detector dye. Dentine sample obtained after caries removal and 3 weeks after restoration, were subjected to microbial culture and counting (colony-forming units [CFU]/mg of dentine) for total viable bacterial count, Streptococcus spp., mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus spp. Results: Three techniques of caries removal showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all microorganisms studied after 3 weeks of evaluation, but there was no statistically significant difference in percentage reduction of microbial count among three groups. Conclusion: Results suggest the use of partial caries removal in a single session as compared to complete caries removal as a part of treatment of deep lesions in deciduous teeth in order to reduce the risk of pulp exposure. Partial caries removal using ART can be preferred for community settings as public health procedure for caries management. PMID:26962313

  7. Effect of enamel organic matrix on the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesions in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Linglin; Zou Ling; Li Jiyao; Hao Yuqing; Xiao Liying; Zhou Xuedong; Li Wei, E-mail: leewei2000@sina.co, E-mail: zhll_sc@yahoo.c [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2009-06-15

    Galla chinensis, a natural traditional Chinese medicine with main composition of tannic acid and gallic acid, is formed when the Chinese sumac aphid Baker (Melaphis chinensis bell) parasitizes the levels of Rhus chinensis Mill. Galla chinensis has shown the potential to enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, but the mechanism is still unknown. This study was to investigate whether the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in the potential of Galla chinensis to promote the remineralization of initial enamel caries. Bovine sound enamel blocks and non-organic enamel blocks were demineralized and exposed to a 12 day pH cycling. During the pH cycling, 30 specimens with the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into three groups, and treated with 1 g L{sup -1} NaF (group A), 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B1) or double deionized water (group C1). Twenty specimens without the enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into two groups, and treated with 4 g L{sup -1} Galla chinensis extract (group B2) or double deionized water (group C2). The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of all the specimens were analysed by transverse microradiography. The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of group B1 were less than those of groups B2, C1 and C2, and there were no statistical differences among groups B2, C1 and C2. In conclusion, Galla chinensis can enhance the remineralization of initial enamel carious lesion, and the enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in this potential of Galla chinensis.

  8. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra I Djomehri

    Full Text Available Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca to phosphorus (P and Ca to zinc (Zn elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095 mg/cc, bone: 570-1415 mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340 mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590 mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220 mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450 mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740 mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770 mg/cc. A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49, hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46, cementum (1.51, and bone (1.68 were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765 and in cementum (595-990, highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  9. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomehri, Sabra I; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S H; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P

    2015-01-01

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095 mg/cc, bone: 570-1415 mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340 mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590 mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220 mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450 mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740 mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770 mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations. PMID:25856386

  10. Elementary analysis of human dental samples by using SRXRF; Analise elementar de amostras dentarias humanas usando SRXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Marcelino J.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.br; Barroso, Regina C. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Perez, Carlos A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil; Dias, Katia R. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2002-07-01

    Human teeth were analysed by {mu}SRXRF. The measurements were carried out in small areas of the teeth from enamel to root. The aim of this work was to evaluated the local elemental variations in the dental regions, enamel, dentine and pulp from patterns of relative intensities. The distributions of the elements Ca, Zn and Sr were studied. The samples (canine, premolars and molar teeth) were cross-sectioned along the vertical median plane, by polishing the whole tooth in order to obtain a smooth and plane surface, of about 1 mm thick. The measurements were carried out in the XRF beamline of the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil using a conventional collimation system (orthogonal slits 300 {mu}m x 300 {mu}m). The Ca concentration is quite constant and it is independent of the tooth type and individual characteristics. Ca and Sr distributions show a similar behavior. An increase of the Zn concentration was found for the pulp region and for untreated carious areas. (author)

  11. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair. PMID:26930453

  12. SEM evaluation of the morphological changes in hard dental tissues prepared by Er: YAG laser and rotary instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomov Georgi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective ablation of dental hard tissues by means of the erbium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Er: YAG laser has been reported recently, and its application to caries removal and cavity preparation has been expected. However, few studies have investigated the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries treatment. In the present study the morphological changes in hard dental tissues after Er: YAG laser caries ablation in vitro was compared with that of conventional mechanical treatment. Thirty extracted human teeth with caries were used. Ten tooth was treated with the Er: YAG laser, and the other was treated with a conventional steel and diamond burs. Laser treatment was performed by means of a non-contact irradiation modes with cooling water spray, with a new Er: YAG laser (LiteTouch. Conventional bur treatment was conducted by means of a low-speed micromotor and air turbine with water cooling. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations were performed for each treatment. The Er: YAG laser ablated carious dentin effectively with minimal thermal damage to the surrounding intact dentin, and removed infected and softened carious dentin to the same degree as the burtreatment. In addition, a lower degree of vibration was noted with the Er: YAG laser treatment. The SEM examination revealed characteristic micro-irregularities of the lased dentin and enamel surfaces with potential benefits for adhesive restorations. Our results show that the Er: YAG laser is promising as a new technical modality for caries treatment

  13. INVESTIGATING THE MANAGEMENT OF CARIOUS PRIMARY TEETH IN GENERAL DENTAL PRACTICE: AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND CONDUCT OF THE FICTION TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Keightley, Alexander; Maguire, Anne; Chadwick, Barbara; Vale, Luke; Homer, Tara; Douglas, Gail; Deery, Chris; Marshman, Zoe; Ryan, Vicky; Innes, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    The management of carious primary teeth is a challenge for patients, parents and clinicians. Most evidence supporting different management strategies originates from a specialist setting and therefore its relevance to the primary care setting is questionable. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) has commissioned the FiCTION (Filling Children's Teeth: Indicated Or Not?) trial; a multi-centre primary dental care randomised controlled trial (RCT) to determine the most clinically and cost- effective approach to managing caries in the primary dentition in the UK. This large trial began in 2012, is due to be completed in late 2017 and involves 72 practices and 1,124 children initially aged three to seven years with dentine caries, following randomisation to one of three caries management strategies. Clinical, radiographic, quality of life, treatment acceptability and health economics data are collected during the three-year follow up period. This article provides an overview of the development and conduct of FiCTION and discusses some approaches adopted to manage challenges and achieve the patient recruitment target. PMID:26966776

  14. Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-amorphous Calcium Phosphate Treatment on Microtensile Bond Strength to Carious Affected Dentin Using Two Adhesive Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim was to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP on microtensile bond strength (μTBS to carious affected dentin (CAD using etch-and-rinse and self-etch ad-hesive systems. Materials and methods. The occlusal surface of 32 human molars with moderate occlusal caries was removed. Infected dentin was removed until reaching CAD and the teeth were randomly divided into two groups based on the Single Bond (SB and Clearfil SE Bond (CSE adhesive systems. Before composite resin bonding, each group was subdivided into three subgroups of ND, CAD and CPP-ACP-treated CAD (CAD-CPP based on the dentin substrate. After dissecting samples to l-mm-thick cross-sections (each subgroup: n = 13, μTBS was measured at a strain rate of 0.5 mm/min. Data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and post-hoc Tukey tests (α=0.05. Results. Bond strength of both adhesive systems to ND was significantly higher than that to CAD (P 0.05. μTBS of CSE to CAD-CPP was higher than that to CAD; however, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Significant differences were found between SB and CSE systems only with CAD substrate (P < 0.001. Conclusion. Regardless of the adhesive system used, surface treatment of CAD with CPP-ACP did not have a significant effect on bond strength. However, bond strength to CAD was higher with SB rather than with CSE.

  15. Three-year clinical performance of a HEMA-free one-step self-etch adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Peumans, Marleen; De Munck, Jan; Cardoso, Marcio V; Ermis, Banu; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that one-step adhesives are currently used routinely in clinical practice, long-term studies on their clinical performance are scarce. The objective of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to test the hypothesis that a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-free one-step self-etch adhesive performs worse than a conventional multistep etch-and-rinse adhesive. Two-hundred and seventy-six non-carious cervical lesions in 52 patients were restored with a micro-hybrid composite (Gradia Direct; GC). These restorations were bonded in random order either with the HEMA-free one-step adhesive G-Bond (GC) or with the 'gold-standard' (control) three-step adhesive Optibond FL (Kerr). The restorations were evaluated after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of clinical service regarding retention, marginal adaptation, microleakage, caries occurrence, and sensitivity. After a medium-long period of 3 yr, similar success in clinical performance was observed for the simplified all-in-one adhesive and the conventional three-step adhesive. However, the one-step adhesive exhibited significantly more incisal marginal defects and discolorations. Whereas marginal degradation appeared to arrest for the multistep etch-and-rinse adhesive after 12 months, the enamel margins of the restorations bonded with the one-step self-etch adhesive continued to deteriorate. These incisal marginal defects were, however, small and could easily be removed by polishing. For both adhesives, large and sclerosed lesions appeared to be at higher risk of retention loss. PMID:22112039

  16. Can Caries-Affected Dentin be Completely Remine-ralized by Guided Tissue Remineralization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Mao

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, there is no evidence that conventional remineralization techniques us-ing calcium and phosphate ion-containing media will completely remineralize carious lesions in regions where remnant apatite seed crystallites are absent. Conversely, guided tissue remineralization using biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins is successful in remineralizing thin layers of completely demineralized dentin. The hypothesis: Conventional remineralization strategy depends on epitaxial growth over existing apatite crystallites. If there are no or few crystallites, there will be no remineralization. Guided tissue remineralization uses biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins to introduce sequestered amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecur-sors into the internal water compartments of collagen fibrils. Attachment of templating analogs of matrix phosphoproteins to the colla-gen fibrils further guided the nucleation and growth of apatite crystallites within the fibril. Such a strategy is independent of apatite seed crystallites. Our hypothesis is that 250-300 microns thick artificial carious lesions can be completely remineralized in vitro by guide tissue remineralization but not by conventional remineralization techniques.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Validation of the hypothesis will address the critical barrier to progress in remineralization of caries-affected dentin and shift existing paradigms by providing a novel method of remineralization based on a nanotechnology-based bottom-up approach. This will also generate important information to support the translation of the proof-of-concept biomimetic strategy into a clinically-relevant delivery system for remineralizing caries-affected dentin created by micro-organisms in the oral cavity.

  17. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are no...... software packages such as SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer....

  18. Tissue Tregs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro, Marisella; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2016-05-20

    The immune system is responsible for defending an organism against the myriad of microbial invaders it constantly confronts. It has become increasingly clear that the immune system has a second major function: the maintenance of organismal homeostasis. Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important contributors to both of these critical activities, defense being the primary purview of Tregs circulating through lymphoid organs, and homeostasis ensured mainly by their counterparts residing in parenchymal tissues. This review focuses on so-called tissue Tregs. We first survey existing information on the phenotype, function, sustaining factors, and human equivalents of the three best-characterized tissue-Treg populations-those operating in visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the colonic lamina propria. We then attempt to distill general principles from this body of work-as concerns the provenance, local adaptation, molecular sustenance, and targets of action of tissue Tregs, in particular. PMID:27168246

  19. Conversion of a one-step self-etch adhesive into a two-step self-etch adhesive: six-months clinical results in non-carious cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar Sartori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical performance of a one-step self-etch adhesive system in non-carious cervical lesions with and without the application of an additional hydrophobic resin coat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-four non-carious cervical lesions were selected and randomly assigned to one of the two bonding technique: 1 a one-step self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy Bond, 3M ESPE was applied following manufacturer´s instructions; 2 a hydrophobic resin coat (Scotchbond Multipurpose Bonding Agent, 3M ESPE was applied over the uncured Adper Easy Bond adhesive. All lessons were restored using a microhybrid composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE. Clinical effectiveness was recorded at baseline and after 6-months of clinical service. RESULTS: Two restorations of each group debonded after a 6-months period. The overall clinical success was 93.8%, and no statistical significant differences could be detected for all evaluated criteria within this period. CONCLUSION: The applications of a hydrophobic resin coat over Easy Bond did not increase bonding effectiveness over a 6-months period.

  20. A 13-year clinical evaluation of two three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in non-carious class-V lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Marleen; De Munck, Jan; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, Andre; Lambrechts, Paul; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2012-02-01

    This 13-year randomized clinical trial compared the clinical effectiveness of two three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in combination with a hybrid, stiffer composite versus a micro-filled, more flexible composite. The influence of composite stiffness on the clinical performance of one of the adhesives was assessed as well. One hundred and forty-two non-carious cervical lesions were restored with composites with contrasting stiffness. Seventy-one patients randomly received two cervical restorations placed following two out of three adhesive procedures: (1) the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Permaquick applied with the stiff micro-hybrid composite Amelogen Hybrid (PMQ-H, Ultradent), (2) Permaquick applied with the more flexible micro-filled Amelogen Microfill (PMQ-M, Ultradent), or (3) the "gold-standard" three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive Optibond FL applied with the micro-hybrid composite Prodigy (OFL-P, Kerr). The restorations were evaluated after 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 13 years of clinical service regarding their retention, marginal integrity and discoloration, caries occurrence, preservation of tooth vitality, and post-operative sensitivity. Retention loss, severe marginal defects, and/or discoloration that needed intervention (repair or replacement) and the occurrence of caries were considered as clinical failures. The recall rate at 13 years was 77%. Bond degradation after 13 years was mainly characterized by a further increase in the presence of small but clinically acceptable marginal defects and superficial marginal discoloration. Twelve percent of the OFL-P restorations were clinically unacceptable. In the PMQ group, 22% of the PMQ-M restorations and 26% of the PMQ-H restorations needed repair or replacement. Regarding the clinical failure rate, Optibond FL scored significantly better than Permaquick (McNemar; p = 0.015). No statistically significant differences were found between the micro-filled and the hybrid composite for each of the

  1. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph ...

  2. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  3. The Structure Of Intact Side Tissue Loss Based On FTIR Spectroscopic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N.; Al-Hadithi, K. O.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2009-09-01

    Laser applications in dentistry were strongly evolved during the last three decades. Among those applications are laser ablation of dental hard tissue, caries inhibition treatments by localized surface heating, and surface conditioning for bonding. In addition, infra-red lasers are ideally suited for the selective and precise removal of carious dental hard tissue while minimizing the healthy tissue loss. In the present study we applied laser spectroscopy technique FTIR for the study of the structure of intact side tissue of teeth. The aim of the recent work is to study the effect of race and sex (genealogy) on the structure of intact side tissue loss. Our sample consists of twenty Malay females' teeth where the FTIR has been applied. The data show a decrease in the amounts of main substances (like Hydroxyapatite crystals ([Ca5(PO4)3(OH)4], CaF2) than those in healthy teeth. The measured spectra represent the enamel with the characteristic peaks due to the phosphate group in carbonated, hydroxyapatite at 1000 cm-1 and two small peaks near 1500 cm-1 due to the carbonate group. The data explains the effect of the several factors on the intact side tissue loss.

  4. The Hall Technique; a randomized controlled clinical trial of a novel method of managing carious primary molars in general dental practice: acceptability of the technique and outcomes at 23 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes Nicola P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scotland has high levels of untreated dental caries in primary teeth. The Hall Technique is a simplified method of managing carious primary molars using preformed metal crowns (PMCs cemented with no local anaesthesia, caries removal or tooth preparation. This study compared the acceptability of the Hall Technique for children, their carers, and dentists, and clinical outcomes for the technique, with conventional restorations. Methods General dental practice based, split mouth, randomized controlled trial (132 children, aged 3–10. General dental practitioners (GDPs, n = 17 in Tayside, Scotland (dmft 2.7 placed conventional (Control restorations in carious primary molars, and Hall Technique PMCs on the contralateral molar (matched clinically and radiographically. Dentists ranked the degree of discomfort they felt the child experienced for each procedure; then children, their carers and dentists stated which technique they preferred. The teeth were followed up clinically and radiographically. Results 128 conventional restorations were placed on 132 control teeth, and 128 PMCs on 132 intervention teeth. Using a 5 point scale, 118 Hall PMCs (89% were rated as no apparent discomfort up to mild, not significant; for Control restorations the figure was 103 (78%. Significant, unacceptable discomfort was recorded for two Hall PMCs (1.5% and six Control restorations (4.5%. 77% of children, 83% of carers and 81% of dentists who expressed a preference, preferred the Hall technique, and this was significant (Chi square, p a 'Major' failures (signs and symptoms of irreversible pulpal disease: 19 Control restorations (15%; three Hall PMCs (2% (P b 'Minor' failures (loss of restoration, caries progression: 57 Control restorations (46%; six Hall PMCs (5% (P c Pain: 13 Control restorations (11%; two Hall PMCs (2% (P = 0.003. Conclusion The Hall Technique was preferred to conventional restorations by the majority of children, carers and GDPs

  5. Injectable Tissue-Engineered Soft Tissue for Tissue Augmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Sung-Mi; You, Hi-Jin; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue augmentation is a process of implanting tissues or materials to treat wrinkles or soft tissue defects in the body. Over the years, various materials have evolved to correct soft tissue defects, including a number of tissues and polymers. Autogenous dermis, autogenous fat, autogenous dermis-fat, allogenic dermis, synthetic implants, and fillers have been widely accepted for soft tissue augmentations. Tissue engineering technology has also been introduced and opened a new venue of o...

  6. A 7-year randomized prospective study of a one-step self-etching adhesive in non-carious cervical lesions. The effect of curing modes and restorative material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Class V restorations were placed with the self-etching primer Xeno III and a resin composite (Tetric Ceram) or a poly-acid modified resin composite (Dyract AP) in non-carious cervical lesions without intentional enamel involvement. The materials were cured with a conventional continuous light, a soft...... fulfilled at 18 months the full acceptance ADA criteria. Tetric Ceram showed at 7 years a 20.9% loss of retention and Dyract AP a 25.0% loss rate (Log rank p=0.48). The loss rates for the 3 curing techniques: continuous, soft start and pulse delay were 17%, 27.9% and 24.4%, respectively (Log rank p=0...

  7. Tissue Photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Tissue lithography will enable physicians and researchers to obtain macromolecules with high purity (greater than 90 percent) from desired cells in conventionally processed, clinical tissues by simply annotating the desired cells on a computer screen. After identifying the desired cells, a suitable lithography mask will be generated to protect the contents of the desired cells while allowing destruction of all undesired cells by irradiation with ultraviolet light. The DNA from the protected cells can be used in a number of downstream applications including DNA sequencing. The purity (i.e., macromolecules isolated form specific cell types) of such specimens will greatly enhance the value and information of downstream applications. In this method, the specific cells are isolated on a microscope slide using photolithography, which will be faster, more specific, and less expensive than current methods. It relies on the fact that many biological molecules such as DNA are photosensitive and can be destroyed by ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to protect the contents of desired cells, yet destroy undesired cells. This approach leverages the technologies of the microelectronics industry, which can make features smaller than 1 micrometer with photolithography. A variety of ways has been created to achieve identification of the desired cell, and also to designate the other cells for destruction. This can be accomplished through chrome masks, direct laser writing, and also active masking using dynamic arrays. Image recognition is envisioned as one method for identifying cell nuclei and cell membranes. The pathologist can identify the cells of interest using a microscopic computerized image of the slide, and appropriate custom software. In one of the approaches described in this work, the software converts the selection into a digital mask that can be fed into a direct laser writer, e.g. the Heidelberg DWL66. Such a machine uses a metalized glass plate (with

  8. Implementation of statistical analysis methods for medical physics data; Implementacao de metodos de analise estatistica para dados de fisica medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Marilia S.; Pinto, Nivia G.P.; Barroso, Regina C.; Oliveira, Luis F., E-mail: mariliasilvat@gmail.co, E-mail: lfolive@oi.com.b, E-mail: cely_barroso@hotmail.co, E-mail: nitatag@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    The objective of biomedical research with different radiation natures is to contribute for the understanding of the basic physics and biochemistry of the biological systems, the disease diagnostic and the development of the therapeutic techniques. The main benefits are: the cure of tumors through the therapy, the anticipated detection of diseases through the diagnostic, the using as prophylactic mean for blood transfusion, etc. Therefore, for the better understanding of the biological interactions occurring after exposure to radiation, it is necessary for the optimization of therapeutic procedures and strategies for reduction of radioinduced effects. The group pf applied physics of the Physics Institute of UERJ have been working in the characterization of biological samples (human tissues, teeth, saliva, soil, plants, sediments, air, water, organic matrixes, ceramics, fossil material, among others) using X-rays diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The application of these techniques for measurement, analysis and interpretation of the biological tissues characteristics are experimenting considerable interest in the Medical and Environmental Physics. All quantitative data analysis must be initiated with descriptive statistic calculation (means and standard deviations) in order to obtain a previous notion on what the analysis will reveal. It is well known que o high values of standard deviation found in experimental measurements of biologicals samples can be attributed to biological factors, due to the specific characteristics of each individual (age, gender, environment, alimentary habits, etc). This work has the main objective the development of a program for the use of specific statistic methods for the optimization of experimental data an analysis. The specialized programs for this analysis are proprietary, another objective of this work is the implementation of a code which is free and can be shared by the other research groups. As the program developed since the

  9. Change of microbiological composition of deminer-alized dentin from the bottom of carious cavity during the course of treatment of acute deep caries in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakova L.N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine bigluconate used in different forms for the treatment of acute deep caries, to define the percentage of complications in the treatment of acute deep caries in children on the stage of its development in 6 and 12 months. Material and methods: Bacteriological study of demineralized dentin taken from the bottom of «the work space» by the sterile instrument, clinical monitoring of children after 6 and 12 months. Results. A significant reduction of colonies forming odontopathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms during the application of the film «Diplen» and a high percentage of favorable outcomes over the period of follow-up in the second study group. Conclusion. Qualitative etiological treatment conducted in a timely manner taking into account the structural features of hard and soft tissues of the tooth, creates the conditions for full formation of all tooth tissues.

  10. Analysis of dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures for forensic applications: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe and record the macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic findings obtained after subjecting the teeth to high temperatures. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to observe macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic changes in dental hard tissues in 60 unrestored non carious extracted human teeth. The teeth were grouped based on age: Below 30 years, 30–40 years, and above 40 years The teeth from each age group were further divided into five subgroups, and each subgroup was subjected to a particular temperature: 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. [C = Celsius]. Results: Various degrees of changes in relation to temperature were observed macroscopically, radiographically, and microscopically. The histological examination was limited for teeth exposed to 200°C. Conclusion: This investigation was carried out to study the gross changes, radiographic changes and histological changes in dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures, which is an important part of forensic science. The aforementioned alterations caused by heat may provide useful information about temperature ranges and duration of exposure to high temperatures. PMID:27555725

  11. Analysis of dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures for forensic applications: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh Shekhawat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to observe and record the macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic findings obtained after subjecting the teeth to high temperatures. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was conducted to observe macroscopic, radiographic, and microscopic changes in dental hard tissues in 60 unrestored non carious extracted human teeth. The teeth were grouped based on age: Below 30 years, 30–40 years, and above 40 years The teeth from each age group were further divided into five subgroups, and each subgroup was subjected to a particular temperature: 200$#176;C, 400$#176;C, 600°C, 800°C, and 1000°C. [C = Celsius]. Results: Various degrees of changes in relation to temperature were observed macroscopically, radiographically, and microscopically. The histological examination was limited for teeth exposed to 200°C. Conclusion: This investigation was carried out to study the gross changes, radiographic changes and histological changes in dental hard tissues exposed to high temperatures, which is an important part of forensic science. The aforementioned alterations caused by heat may provide useful information about temperature ranges and duration of exposure to high temperatures.

  12. Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wrist Extensor Stretch Additional Content Medical News Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries By Daniel F. Danzl, MD NOTE: This ... Cold Injuries Overview of Cold Injuries Hypothermia Nonfreezing Tissue Injuries Frostbite In nonfreezing tissue injuries, parts of ...

  13. 氟保护漆Duraphat治疗前牙初期龋损的临床效果%Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of fluoride varnish Duraphat for incipient carious lesions in permanent anterior teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛蔚妮; 许青峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the therapeutic effect of fluoride varnish Duraphat on the performance of incipient carious lesions white spot lesions (WSL) in anterior teeth in vivo. Methods The sample included 120 children aged 7 to 13 years old , with a total of 146 active WSL in permanent anterior teeth. The children were randomly divided into 3 groups, according to the treatment received:Group A (fluoride varnish Duraphat+oral health instrument, n=52), Group B (oral health instrument, n=47) and Group C (control, n=47). Maximum WSL dimensions (mesiodistal and incisogingival) were measured in millimeters by a previously calibrated single examiner using a periodontal probe . The oral hygiene was assessed by the plaque index . Results Wilcoxon test revealed a statistically significant difference (χ2=29.1,P<0.001) between the initial size and final size in A group (1.53 vs. 0.88) and B group (1.56 vs. 1.47). Pearson′s chi-square test revealed statistically significant differences (χ2=42.5, P<0.001) in the caries activity of the WSL among three groups. Conclusions The fluoride varnish Duraphat is effective to the incipient carious lesions in permanent anterior teeth .%目的:探讨氟保护漆Duraphat对前牙初期龋损白垩色斑块的治疗效果。方法共纳入并分析120例患者146个前牙唇侧白垩斑病损,分为三组:A组(涂氟保护漆Duraphat+口腔健康教育组,n=52),B组(口腔健康教育组,n=47)和C组(对照组,n=47)。由同一位已经过培训的医生采用牙周探针对白垩斑的直径及龋活动性进行评估,同时对研究对象的口腔卫生采用改良菌斑指数进行评估。结果 A组在接受2年的涂氟治疗后其白垩斑直径明显缩小,与另外两组差异有统计学意义(χ2=29.1,P<0.001),初期龋损白垩色斑块活动性龋的比例明显下降(χ2=42.5,P<0.001)。结论氟保护漆Duraphat能有效治疗光滑面的初期龋损。

  14. Adipose Tissue Engineering for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jennifer H.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Kyongbum; Marra, Kacey G.; Rubin, J. Peter; Yoo, James J; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Current treatment modalities for soft tissue defects caused by various pathologies and trauma include autologous grafting and commercially available fillers. However, these treatment methods present a number of challenges and limitations, such as donor-site morbidity and volume loss over time. As such, improved therapeutic modalities need to be developed. Tissue engineering techniques offer novel solutions to these problems through development of bioactive tissue constructs that can regenerat...

  15. Tissue bionics: examples in biomimetic tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many important lessons can be learnt from the study of biological form and the functional design of organisms as design criteria for the development of tissue engineering products. This merging of biomimetics and regenerative medicine is termed 'tissue bionics'. Clinically useful analogues can be generated by appropriating, modifying and mimicking structures from a diversity of natural biomatrices ranging from marine plankton shells to sea urchin spines. Methods in biomimetic materials chemistry can also be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds with added functional utility that promise human tissues fit for the clinic

  16. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  17. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  18. Investigation to improve the resolution and range of a light imaging system for very thick tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wist, Abund O.; Moon, Peter; Herr, Steven L.; Fatouros, Panos P.

    1995-05-01

    A high resolution light imaging system has been developed utilizing an HeNe (628 nm, 32 mW) and a receiver with post collimation mounted on an x, y table to scan the object. The image can be either recorded on a film or stored in a computer for display on a terminal. Tests show that the system in the regular mode is capable of detecting the spine and soft tissues in anesthetized mice, and of transilluminating fully an adult skull bone with a resolution for details better than one third mm. In teeth, all regular carious lesions, including incipient lesions larger than one third of a mm, can be seen in front or in the back of the tooth, none of which could be detected by dental x-ray systems. Applying a new high resolution mode, the resolution can be increased in teeth to less than 0.1 mm. Some difficulty still exists in detecting small lesions on occlusal or approximal surfaces.

  19. Adult soft tissue sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007654.htm Adult soft tissue sarcoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Soft tissue sarcoma is cancer that forms in the soft ...

  20. Plant tissue culture techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus) or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  1. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  2. FRD tissue archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fishery genetics tissue collection has over 80,000 tissues stored in 95% ethanol representing fishes and invertebrates collected globally but with a focus on...

  3. Tissue-level cytoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Hightower, L E; Brown, M A; Renfro, J L; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Guidon, P.T.; Mistry, T.; House, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprote...

  4. Adipose tissue fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Buechler, Christa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity causes a major interest in white adipose tissue biology. Adipose tissue cells are surrounded by extracellular matrix proteins whose composition and remodeling is of crucial importance for cell function. The expansion of adipose tissue in obesity is linked to an inappropriate supply with oxygen and hypoxia development. Subsequent activation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) inhibits preadipocyte differentiation and initiates adipose tissue fibrosis. The...

  5. Engineering Complex Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikos, Antonios G.; Herring, Susan W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; Elisseeff, Jennifer; Lu, Helen H.; Kandel, Rita; Schoen, Frederick J.; Toner, Mehmet; Mooney, David; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and ...

  6. Development of tissue bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, R P

    2012-05-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  7. Development of tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  8. Cell and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    “Cell and Tissue Engineering” introduces the principles and new approaches in cell and tissue engineering. It includes both the fundamentals and the current trends in cell and tissue engineering, in a way useful both to a novice and an expert in the field. The book is composed of 13 chapters all of which are written by the leading experts. It is organized to gradually assemble an insight in cell and tissue function starting form a molecular nano-level, extending to a cellular micro-level and finishing at the tissue macro-level. In specific, biological, physiological, biophysical, biochemical, medical, and engineering aspects are covered from the standpoint of the development of functional substitutes of biological tissues for potential clinical use. Topics in the area of cell engineering include cell membrane biophysics, structure and function of the cytoskeleton, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and mechanotransduction. In the area of tissue engineering the focus is on the in vitro cultivation of ...

  9. Color stability of carious incipient lesions in the enamel treated with resin infiltration%渗透树脂在早期釉质龋修复中的应用:颜色稳定性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李歆; 高平; 代晓华

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The resin infiltration technique for masking white spot lesions has obtained a result superior to the conventional remineralization. Up to now, few studies have evaluated the color of carious incipient lesions treated with the resin infiltration. OBJECTIVE:To assess the color change of caries incipient lesions in the enamel treated with resin infiltration. METHODS: Forty-eight extracted teeth were exposed to demineralizing solution for 4 weeks to establish artificial caries models. Then artificial caries models were treated with resin infiltration and randomized into four groups: these specimens were immersed in red wine, coffee, tea and artificial saliva for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The base line color was evaluated by spectrophotometer. The variation in color (ΔE) was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s tests. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Al specimens underwent color and lightness changes, irrespective of immersion media. After 2 weeks of immersion, ΔE values were ranked as folows: red wine > coffee > tea > artificial saliva, and there were significant differences between four groups (P tea > artificial saliva, and there were significant differences between four groups (P 0.05). Significant changes in the color were found in the red wine and coffee groups at different time after immersion (P 3.7, which is not acceptable in clinic. These findings indicate that the color stability of carious incipient lesions located in the enamel treated with resin infiltration is associated with the soak solution and soak time. In addition, immersion in red wine and coffee results in significantly increased color alteration (ΔE) compared with the artificial saliva.%背景:采用渗透树脂微创技术治疗釉质脱矿的修复效果优于传统的再矿化治疗,但目前研究渗透树脂修复非实质性缺损龋病后颜色变化的文献很少。  目的:通过体外研究评估渗透树脂修复早期釉质龋的颜色稳定性

  10. Effects of holmium laser on dental structure in vivo: thermal evaluation and histological analysis on pulpal tissue; Efeitos in vivo do laser de holmio em estrutura dental: monitoracao termica e analise histologica do tecido pulpar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strefezza, Claudia

    2001-07-01

    Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that Ho:YLF laser is capable of inducing physical and chemical changes on dental surfaces treated for caries prevention. The temperature in the pulp chamber was in vitro evaluated to as a function of the power and frequency of the laser irradiation. The purpose of this work is to verify the occurrence of pulp inflammation after Ho:YLF laser irradiation using different parameters in rabbits' teeth. The premolars and molars of ten rabbits (NZB) were divided in two groups according to the irradiation energy values of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at 2.065{mu}m wave length, frequency of O,5Hz and pulse length of 250{mu}s. An group A teeth were irradiated with using ten pulses of 334mJ/pulse of a Ho:YLF laser prototype operating at O.5Hz, and group B, with 512mJ/pulse. Animals were killed by transcardiac perfusion and the samples were prepared for histopathological analysis. The in vitro temperature monitoring revealed an increase of 1 deg C for the 334mJ/pulse energy and 4.5 deg C for the 512mJ/pulse energy. SEM observations showed the occurrence of melting and resolidification in dental surface. From the in vivo analysis it can be concluded that both employed laser parameters did not induce to any inflammatory response from the pulp. (author)

  11. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla Friis; Olsen, Maia E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted;

    2012-01-01

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle - although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  12. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Camilla F.; Olsen, Maja E.; Brandt, Luise Ørsted;

    2011-01-01

    Keratinous tissues such as nail, hair, horn, scales and feather have been used as a source of DNA for over 20 years. Particular benefits of such tissues include the ease with which they can be sampled, the relative stability of DNA in such tissues once sampled, and, in the context of ancient...... genetic analyses, the fact that sampling generally causes minimal visual damage to valuable specimens. Even when freshly sampled, however, the DNA quantity and quality in the fully keratinized parts of such tissues is extremely poor in comparison to other tissues such as blood and muscle – although little...... systematic research has been undertaken to characterize how such degradation may relate to sample source. In this review paper we present the current understanding of the quality and limitations of DNA in two key keratinous tissues, nail and hair. The findings indicate that although some fragments of nuclear...

  13. Pediatric Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, David M.; Thornton, Katherine; Shokek, Ori

    2008-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas in children are relatively rare. Approximately 850 to 900 children and adolescents are diagnosed each year with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) or one of the non-RMS soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS). Of these, 350 are cases of RMS. RMS is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children 14 years old and younger, and NRSTS is more common in adolescents and young adults. Infants also get NRSTS, but their tumors constitute a distinctive set of histologies, including infantile fibrosarcoma...

  14. Soft tissue elastometer

    OpenAIRE

    Egorov, V.; Tsyuryupa, S.; Kanilo, S.; Kogit, M.; Sarvazyan, A.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a device entitled the ‘Tissue Elastometer’ (TE) for evaluating the Young’s modulus of soft tissues. Soft tissue specimens are compressed between the object plate of an electronic balance and a linearly actuated indenter with a small rounded tip. The hardware of the device was designed such that a deformation model for semi-infinite media is applicable for calculating the Young’s modulus of test specimens from their collected force–displacement data.

  15. Tissue- or neurostimulator

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dongen, M.N.; Serdijn, W. A.; De Ridder, D.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue- or neurostimulator, comprising a power supply (Vdd) and an implantable pulse generator (IPG) powered by said power supply (Vdd) to which an electrode or electrodes are connected or connectable for delivery of pulses from the pulse generator to a patient's region of interest or tissue so as to provide said region of interest or tissue with electrical stimulation, which pulse generator comprises a switching cir- cuit providing an intermittent connection with the electrode or electrodes,...

  16. Tissue Engineering in Dentistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Neel, E. A.; W. Chrzanowski; Salih, V. M.; Kim, H. W.; Knowles, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of this review is to inform practitioners with the most updated information on tissue engineering and its potential applications in dentistry. Data The authors used “PUBMED” to find relevant literature written in English and published from the beginning of tissue engineering until today. A combination of keywords was used as the search terms e.g., “tissue engineering”, “approaches”, “strategies” “dentistry”, “dental stem cells”, “dentino-pulp complex”, “guided tissue rege...

  17. One-year clinical evaluation of tooth-colored materials in non-carious cervical lesions Avaliação clínica de restaurações de lesões cervicais não cariosas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Lima Santiago

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical performance of bonded composite (Excite/Tetric Ceram - Vivadent versus a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer - 3M for restoring non-carious cervical lesions. A total of 70 restorations (thirty-five per material were placed in 30 patients, 18-50 aged, by one operator. Rubber dam was employed in all cases, lesions were pumiced, enamel margins were not beveled, and no mechanical retention was placed. The restorations were directly assessed by two independent evaluators using modified-USPHS criteria for six clinical categories. The ratings for clinical acceptability restorations (alfa plus bravo were as follows (Tetric Ceram/Vitremer: retention (86%/100%, marginal integrity (100%/100%, marginal discoloration (100%/100%, wear (97%/100%, postoperative sensitivity (100%/100% and recurrent caries (100%/100%. Statistical analysis was completed with Fisher's exact or Pearson Chi-square tests at a significance level of 5% (PAvaliou-se o desempenho clínico de um sistema restaurador adesivo (Excite - Tetric Ceram/ Vivadent e do cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina (Vitremer/ 3M na restauração de lesões cervicais não cariosas por meio do sistema de avaliação do USPHS modificado. Um total de setenta restaurações, trinta e cinco por material, foi realizado por um único operador em trinta pacientes voluntários com idades de 18 a 50 anos. Previamente à execução das restaurações, foi realizada uma profilaxia com pedra-pomes e água a fim de remover quaisquer resíduos. As lesões cervicais não foram submetidas a qualquer tipo de preparo cavitário, sendo restauradas sob isolamento absoluto e de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Todas as restaurações foram avaliadas pelo método direto por dois examinadores usando os critérios de retenção (R, integridade marginal (IM, descoloração marginal (DM, desgaste (D, sensibilidade pós-operatória (S e incidência de

  18. The superficial soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the soft parts of the body are much less radiopaque than the bones, they may be overlooked when a reoentgenogram, obtained primarily to bring out bone detail, is being examined. Nevertheless, the soft tissues, even in a heavily exposed film, exert a distinct influence on the appearance of the bones that they cover. One has only to compare the difference in density of a part of a bone over which there is a loss of soft tissue because of ulceration, traumatic avulsion, or surgical removal with that of the adjacent uninvolved part to appreciate how much radiation is absorbed by the soft tissues. The soft tissues can be seen in practically every roentgenogram, even those that have been heavily exposed, by viewing the film with a strong beam of light (in addition to the usual illuminators). Some type of spotlight should always be available for the scrutiny of overexposed roentgenograms and particularly for the study of the soft tissues

  19. Comparative analisys of three different diagnostic methods to evaluate carious activity in a community basis Análise comparativa de três métodos de diagnóstico de atividade cariosa em âmbito coletivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cardoso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research has made a comparison between three distinct methods to evaluate carious activity in a community basis. The studied method was based in a modified DMFS/dmfs index including non-cavitated lesions. Two factors were analyzed: the possible reproduction of the inclusion of carious activity criteria and the presence of bacterial plaque. Thus, the three study groups presented with plaque, after supervised self-performed plaque removal with dental toothbrush and without plaque after professional prophylaxis, which corresponded to three diagnostic methods. The three exams took place one week apart from each other. For this analysis, a modified DMFS/dmfs index was proposed with alterations in diagnostic criteria due to the inclusion of carious activity parameters. The study was performed in a group of 30 children aged 11 years old. According to the results, the diagnostic method for carious activity in the three situations was reproducible and can be considered a proper approach to perform caries diagnosis in a community basis.Este trabalho realizou uma comparação entre três métodos distintos para avaliação da atividade cariosa em âmbito coletivo. Os métodos estudados foram baseados em um CPOS/ceos modificado, com inclusão de lesões não cavitadas. Os fatores estudados foram a possibilidade de reprodutibilidade da inclusão de critérios de atividade cariosa, bem como a presença de placa bacteriana. Portanto, os três grupos avaliados apresentavam-se com placa bacteriana; com remoção de placa bacteriana pelo próprio paciente (sob supervisão com escova dental e sem placa bacteriana, após profilaxia profissional, que correspondiam aos três métodos de diagnóstico. Os três exames foram realizados com intervalo de uma semana entre cada um. Para esta análise, propõe-se um índice CPOS/ceos modificado com alterações nos critérios de diagnóstico através da inclusão de parâmetros de atividade de doença. O estudo

  20. Tissue engineered periodontal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartold, P M; Gronthos, S; Ivanovski, S; Fisher, A; Hutmacher, D W

    2016-02-01

    Attainment of periodontal regeneration is a significant clinical goal in the management of advanced periodontal defects arising from periodontitis. Over the past 30 years numerous techniques and materials have been introduced and evaluated clinically and have included guided tissue regeneration, bone grafting materials, growth and other biological factors and gene therapy. With the exception of gene therapy, all have undergone evaluation in humans. All of the products have shown efficacy in promoting periodontal regeneration in animal models but the results in humans remain variable and equivocal concerning attaining complete biological regeneration of damaged periodontal structures. In the early 2000s, the concept of tissue engineering was proposed as a new paradigm for periodontal regeneration based on molecular and cell biology. At this time, tissue engineering was a new and emerging field. Now, 14 years later we revisit the concept of tissue engineering for the periodontium and assess how far we have come, where we are currently situated and what needs to be done in the future to make this concept a reality. In this review, we cover some of the precursor products, which led to our current position in periodontal tissue engineering. The basic concepts of tissue engineering with special emphasis on periodontal tissue engineering products is discussed including the use of mesenchymal stem cells in bioscaffolds and the emerging field of cell sheet technology. Finally, we look into the future to consider what CAD/CAM technology and nanotechnology will have to offer. PMID:25900048

  1. Regulating tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Lloyd-Evans

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a radical new approach to the repair and replacement of damaged or diseased body tissues. Cells, often seeded into or shaped around a biomaterial matrix, are used to replace damaged or diseased tissue or stimulate repair by the body. Because it is an area of tremendous focus and achievement, there is a risk that technical developments will outstrip the capacity of existing regulatory frameworks to cope with these novel products. Australia, the USA, and Canada are somewhat ahead of Japan in establishing a feasible regulatory approach. All four are currently ahead of the European Union (EU, but individual European countries and the EU as a whole are catching up. However, for the foreseeable future, it may still be possible in certain European countries to use autologous cell therapies in hospitals and market allogeneic tissue-engineered products, especially skin replacements, without regulatory control.

  2. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries.

  3. Soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Stojšić Zorica; Brašanac Dimitrije; Bacetić Dragoljub; Janković Radmila; Drndarević Neda

    2006-01-01

    Background. Myoepitheliomas are tumors composed predominantly or exclusively of myoepithelial cells, usually arising in salivary glands. Cutaneous/soft tissue localization is very rare, especially for the malignant myoepitheliomas. Case report. We presented a case of myoepithelial carcinoma involving subcutaneous adipose tissue of the left forearm in a woman aged 62 years. The tumor was composed of epithelioid and hyaline cell types, arranged in diffuse sheets, nests and loose clusters within...

  4. Soft tissue tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A J; Thomas, J M

    1997-01-01

    Any soft tissue swelling beneath the deep fascia should be considered a sarcoma until proven otherwise. As the most important factor in the primary treatment of these cancers is the adequacy of the primary surgical resection, it is vital to diagnose these malignant tumours pre-operatively. The modern treatment of soft tissue sarcomas may involve all modalities, but the most important aspect of treatment of a primary localised sarcoma is wide excisional surgery preserving limb function. Radiot...

  5. Tissue Culture in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

  6. Update on Tissue Tightening

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    A variety of medical devices are described under the heading of tissue tightening devices. This article reviews the tissue tightening devices currently available in the United States and some that may receive clearance in the upcoming year. These include the various radiofrequency devices as well as the pulsed light devices that achieve similar end results. The one noticeable factor seen with this group of devices is the paucity of large, clinical, controlled trials that appear in the medical...

  7. Bypassing damaged nervous tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Shneider, M N

    2016-01-01

    We show the principal ability of bypassing damaged demyelinated portions of nervous tissue, thereby restoring its normal function for the passage of action potentials. We carry out a theoretical analysis on the basis of the synchronization mechanism of action potential propagation along a bundle of neurons, proposed recently in [1]. And we discuss the feasibility of implement a bypass to restore damaged nervous tissue and creating an artificial neuron network.

  8. Enamel Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Masaki J.; Hata, Ken-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    For a long time metal and resin have been investigated as potential sources to replace enamel. In our laboratory, we are focusing on producing enamel by tissue engineering methods as these techniques are believed to be an extremely powerful approach to replacing enamel. This goal has remained elusive until recently when we finally identified a new tissue engineering method to generate enamel using a specialized enamel organ culture technique and transplantation system. However, two problems s...

  9. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L.; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2011-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promisin...

  10. Biomaterials in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, J A

    1995-06-01

    Biomaterials play a pivotal role in field of tissue engineering. Biomimetic synthetic polymers have been created to elicit specific cellular functions and to direct cell-cell interactions both in implants that are initially cell-free, which may serve as matrices to conduct tissue regeneration, and in implants to support cell transplantation. Biomimetic approaches have been based on polymers endowed with bioadhesive receptor-binding peptides and mono- and oligosaccharides. These materials have been patterned in two- and three-dimensions to generate model multicellular tissue architectures, and this approach may be useful in future efforts to generate complex organizations of multiple cell types. Natural polymers have also played an important role in these efforts, and recombinant polymers that combine the beneficial aspects of natural polymers with many of the desirable features of synthetic polymers have been designed and produced. Biomaterials have been employed to conduct and accelerate otherwise naturally occurring phenomena, such as tissue regeneration in wound healing in the otherwise healthy subject; to induce cellular responses that might not be normally present, such as healing in a diseased subject or the generation of a new vascular bed to receive a subsequent cell transplant; and to block natural phenomena, such as the immune rejection of cell transplants from other species or the transmission of growth factor signals that stimulate scar formation. This review introduces the biomaterials and describes their application in the engineering of new tissues and the manipulation of tissue responses. PMID:9634795

  11. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis; Analise de esmalte e dentina de humanos pelo metodo de ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marco A.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: vankfire@gmail.com; Adachi, Eduardo M.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the {mu}g g{sup -1} levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  12. The tissue diagnostic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection. PMID:19485522

  13. Autopsy Tissue Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Autopsy Tissue Program was begun in 1960. To date, tissues on 900 or more persons in 7 geographic regions have been collected and analyzed for plutonium content. The tissues generally consist of lung, liver, kidney, lymph, bone, and gonadal tissue for each individual. The original objective of the program was to determine the level of plutonium in human tissues due solely to fall-out from weapons testing. The baseline thus established was to be used to evaluate future changes. From the first, this program was beset with chemical and statistical difficulties. Many factors whose effects were not recognized and not planned for were found later to be important. Privacy and ethical considerations hindered the gathering of adequate data. Since the chemists were looking for amounts of plutonium very close to background, possible contamination was a very real problem. Widely used chemical techniques introduced a host of statistical problems. The difficulties encountered touch on areas common to large data sets, unusual outlier detection methods, minimum detection limits, problems with Aliquot sizes, and time-trends in the data. The conclusions point out areas to which the biologists will have to devote much more careful attention than was believed

  14. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  15. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  16. Tissue adhesives in otorhinolaryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider, Gerlind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of medical tissue adhesives has a long history without finding an all-purpose tissue adhesive for clinical daily routine. This is caused by the specific demands which are made on a tissue adhesive, and the different areas of application. In otorhinolaryngology, on the one hand, this is the mucosal environment as well as the application on bones, cartilage and periphery nerves. On the other hand, there are stressed regions (skin, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, trachea and unstressed regions (middle ear, nose and paranasal sinuses, cranial bones. But due to the facts that adhesives can have considerable advantages in assuring surgery results, prevention of complications and so reduction of medical costs/treatment expenses, the search for new adhesives for use in otorhinolaryngology will be continued intensively. In parallel, appropriate application systems have to be developed for microscopic and endoscopic use.

  17. Tissue-like phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V.; De Grand, Alec M.

    2007-10-30

    The invention is based, in part, on the discovery that by combining certain components one can generate a tissue-like phantom that mimics any desired tissue, is simple and inexpensive to prepare, and is stable over many weeks or months. In addition, new multi-modal imaging objects (e.g., beads) can be inserted into the phantoms to mimic tissue pathologies, such as cancer, or merely to serve as calibration standards. These objects can be imaged using one, two, or more (e.g., four) different imaging modalities (e.g., x-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence) simultaneously.

  18. Plant tissue culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant tissue culture refers to growing and multiplication of cells, tissues and organs of plants on defined solid or liquid media under aseptic and controlled environment. The commercial technology is primarily based on micropropagation, in which rapid proliferation is achieved from tiny stem cuttings, axillary buds, and to a limited extent from somatic embryos, cell clumps in suspension cultures and bioreactors. The cultured cells and tissue can take several pathways. The pathways that lead to the production of true-to-type plants in large numbers are the preferred ones for commercial multiplication. The process of micropropagation is usually divided into several stages i.e., pre-propagation, initiation of explants, subculture of explants for proliferation, shooting and rooting, and hardening. These stages are universally applicable in large-scale multiplication of plants. The delivery of hardened small micropropagated plants to growers and market also requires extra care. (author)

  19. Application of short irradiation in the neutron activation analysis on mussel samples; Aplicacao da irradiacao curta na analise por ativacao com neutrons de amostras de mexilhao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.br; Saiki, Mitiko Saiki; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mitiko@ipen.br; mgcatharino@ipen.br; emoreira@ipen.br; mbvascon@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of determination of elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na obtained in the samples of mussels Perna perna by using short irradiation wit neutron activation analysis (NAA). Powder of the samples and elements synthetic standards were irradiated at the IEA R1 nuclear reactor, under 10 min irradiation and 9.6 x 10{sup 9} n cm{sub -2} s{sub -1} thermal neutron flux. Concentration of the elements Br and Mn were obtained at the levels of mg kg{sub 1} and the percentages of Cl, K, Mg and Na were determined on the mussels. The results presented a good agreement with the reference material NIST 1566b Oyster Tissue. (author)

  20. Soft tissue mixed tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Eiichi Hiraishi; Hiroshi Sakihara; Michiro Susa; Takayuki Honma; Hiroshi Shimosawa

    2009-01-01

    Mixed tumors are relatively common in the skin and salivary glands, but extremely rare in soft tissues, often resulting in diagnostic problems. The occurrence of these tumors in the hand is especially limited. In this article we report the clinical, radiological, and histological features of a mixed tumor of the hypothenar region of the right hand.

  1. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago; Manuel Tello Moreno; Aurelio Martín Castro; Luis Guzmán Álvarez; Pedro Navarrete González

    2010-01-01

    We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  2. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  3. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  5. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  6. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis; Estudo da determinacao de elementos traco em cabelos humanos pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-07-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and

  7. Critical analysis of the positioning of monitoring system of the cyclotron accelerator; Analise critica do posicionamento de um sistema de monitoramento de acelerador Ciclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Julia A.; Passaro, Bruno M.; Guimaraes, Maria Ines C.C.; Buchpigue, Carlos A. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear (CMN) do InRad HCFMUSP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Videira, Heber S., E-mail: heber@cyclopet.com [CYCLOPET Radiofarmacos LTDA., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Ever since the first concerns arose about the possibility that the ionizing radiation induced detriment to human health, were created the methods of production, characterization and measurement of radiation, as well as definition of quantities that realistically express its interaction with human tissue. From this point, the monitoring program of the installation of a cyclotron must be continuously performed and contain the critical points of contamination according to the CNEN standard N.E. 3.02 - Radioprotection Service to avoid contamination and maintain radioactive exposure rates as low as reasonably achievable. The results obtained during the analysis showed that the positioning of monitors is suitable, except for the physico-chemical control laboratory monitors, which were installed next to the chapel of manipulation and below the dose calibrator. The answer obtained from the monitoring system in the position that the ionization chamber is in the door of the bunker should be taken into account, because the intensity of radiation emitted by the activation of the targets is slightly attenuated by the cyclotron. (author)

  8. Compartmental analysis and dosimetric aspects applied to cholesterol with {sup 3}H labeled; Analise compartimental e aspectos dosimetricos aplicados ao colesterol marcado com {sup 3}H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major reasons of death around the world according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It is well known that changes in levels of plasma lipoproteins, which are responsible for the transport of cholesterol into the bloodstream, are associated with cardiovascular diseases. For this reason to know the biokinetic parameters of plasma lipoproteins and quantifies them is important to correct and deep understanding about the diseases associated with these disorders. The main aim of this study is to provide a biokinetic model and estimate the radiometric doses for {sup 3}H-Cholesterol, a radioactive tracer widely used in physiological and metabolic studies. The model was based on [Schwartz et al. 2004] about the distribution of cholesterol by the lipoprotein and gastrointestinal model [ICRP 30, 1979]. The doses distribution in compartments of the model and other organs and tissues of a standard adult described in [ICRP 106, 2008] was calculated using MIRD method (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) and compartmental analysis using the computer program Matlab®. The dose coefficients were estimated for a standard phantom man (73 kg) described in [ICRP 60, 1991]. The estimated doses for both model and for other organs were low and did not exceed the highest dose obtained that was in the upper large intestine, as 44,8 μGy these parameters will assist in ethics committee's opinions on the use of works that use the {sup 3}H-cholesterol which radioactive tracer. (author)

  9. Tissue regeneration with photobiomodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Elieza G.; Arany, Praveen R.

    2013-03-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) has been widely reported to reduce pain and inflammation and enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration in various settings. LLLT has been noted to have both stimulatory and inhibitory biological effects and these effects have been termed Photobiomodulation (PBM). Several elegant studies have shown the key role of Cytochrome C oxidase and ROS in initiating this process. The downstream biological responses remain to be clearly elucidated. Our work has demonstrated activation of an endogenous latent growth factor complex, TGF-β1, as one of the major biological events in PBM. TGF-β1 has critical roles in various biological processes especially in inflammation, immune responses, wound healing and stem cell biology. This paper overviews some of the studies demonstrating the efficacy of PBM in promoting tissue regeneration.

  10. Amostragem em cana-de-açúcar, para fins de analise foliar Sampling leaves for leaf analysis studies in sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Êste trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar, a partir da experimentação local, um sistema adequado de amostragem de fôlhas, como base para posteriores estudos que visem estabelecer os níveis de nutrição para a cana-de-açúcar, através da análise foliar. A amostragem foi efetuada na cana planta, variedade CB. 41/76, num experimento fatorial reduzido a NPK 2³ e obedeceu ao seguinte critério: foram colhidas fôlhas de quatro posições, definidas pelo sistema de Kuijper (fôlha +1, + 2, +3, e +4; para as fôlhas de uma mesma posição foram separadas três partes (lâmina com nervura, lâmina sem nervura, e bainha; as amostras foram retiradas em seis idades da planta (4, 5, 6, 7, 8 e 9 meses. A variação dos teores dos principais constituintes minerais nos tecidos colhidos, em cada época, foi examinada estatísticamente, em função da adubação química usada, considerados seus efeitos na produção de cana. Pelos resultados obtidos e levando em conta o trabalho analítico no laboratório e simplificação de amostragem, é indicada a seleção da fôlha de posição +3, aos 4 e 8-9 meses de idade da planta, para determinar nos 20 cm centrais da lâmina, excluída a nervura principal, os elementos nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio e magnésio.A group of 576 leaf samples of cane, variety CB.41/76. was collected form a 2³ NPK factorial experiment in order to determine the most raliable sampling technique as a basis for the local conditions of the State of São Paulo. The selection of tissues for analysis was carried out on the plantation with respect to the age at sampling time (4, 5. 6, 7, 8 and 9 months in age, leaf part (blades, blades with midribs removed, and sheaths, and leaf position (leaves +1, +2, +3 and +4. This included the four youngest visible-dewlap leaves on the cane top, numbered according to the system of Kuijper. After each tissue was analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, the data were examined

  11. Facial soft tissue segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed, Tahir

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the face for socio-ecological interaction is the cause for a high demand on any surgical intervention on the facial musculo-skeletal system. Bones and soft-tissues are of major importance for any facial surgical treatment to guarantee an optimal, functional and aesthetical result. For this reason, surgeons want to pre-operatively plan, simulate and predict the outcome of the surgery allowing for shorter operation times and improved quality. Accurate simulation requires exact...

  12. Neonatal soft tissue tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, R D

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five different soft tissue tumours occurring in the first month of life are described and classified into five Clinical Groups. A. Excellent prognosis with no treatment or simple surgical excision. B. Good prognosis. Treatment depends upon anatomical site. C. Good prognosis. Treatment usually surgical but chemotherapy may be indicated in certain situations. D. Intermediate prognosis. Treatment as for older child, usually surgery or chemotherapy. E. Poor prognosis. Treatment palliative ...

  13. Myoepithelioma of soft tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Pai Mukhta; Naik Ramadas; Kamath Ramachandra; Magar Dilasma

    2009-01-01

    Myoepitheliomas and mixed tumors involving deep subcutaneous and subfascial soft tissues of limb or limb girdle are rare lesions as against salivary lesions that are well established conditions. Here, we report a 22-year-old female who presented with painful hard swelling in the left gluteal region of 1½ year duration. MRI showed a large ill-defined heterogeneous mass lesion measuring about 7-8 cm. in the left sacral region eroding the left sacroiliac region and left sacroiliac joint. ...

  14. Necrotizing soft tissue infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holtom, P D

    1999-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a group of highly lethal infections that typically occur after trauma or surgery. Many individual infectious entities have been described, but they all have similar pathophysiologies, clinical features, and treatment approaches. The essentials of successful treatment include early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics, and supportive intensive treatment unit care. The two commonest pitfalls in management are failure of early diagnosis a...

  15. Soft tissue injections

    OpenAIRE

    Inês, Luís P. B. S.; Silva, José António P. da

    2005-01-01

    Soft tissue rheumatism includes a wide spectrum of common lesions of the tendons, enthesis, tendon sheaths, bursae, ligaments and fasciae as well as nerve compression syndromes. Studies on the pathogenesis of these lesions do not support a major role for inflammation, thus questioning the rationale for glucocorticoid injections. This chapter reviews current indications for local glucocorticoid injections and available evidence on its efficacy, as well as contraindications and potential risks....

  16. Neovaskularisation und Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen The, Hoang

    2010-01-01

    Präfabrikation von axial neovaskularisierten Hautlappen, die einen weiteren Entwicklungsschritt in der rekonstruktiven Chirurgie darstellen und durch deren Anwendung auf den Bereich des “Tissue Engineerings“ sich vitale, dreidimensionale Strukturen originalgetreu züchten lassen. In experimentellen Studien am Kaninchen wurde die Neovaskularisation bei 156 Bauchhautlappen mit unterschiedlichen Modellvarianten des implantierten Gefäßstiels nach 4, 8, 12, 16 und 20 Tagen der Präfabrikation unters...

  17. Subcutaneous adipose tissue classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sbarbati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The developments in the technologies based on the use of autologous adipose tissue attracted attention to minor depots as possible sampling areas. Some of those depots have never been studied in detail. The present study was performed on subcutaneous adipose depots sampled in different areas with the aim of explaining their morphology, particularly as far as regards stem niches. The results demonstrated that three different types of white adipose tissue (WAT can be differentiated on the basis of structural and ultrastructural features: deposit WAT (dWAT, structural WAT (sWAT and fibrous WAT (fWAT. dWAT can be found essentially in large fatty depots in the abdominal area (periumbilical. In the dWAT, cells are tightly packed and linked by a weak net of isolated collagen fibers. Collagenic components are very poor, cells are large and few blood vessels are present. The deep portion appears more fibrous then the superficial one. The microcirculation is formed by thin walled capillaries with rare stem niches. Reinforcement pericyte elements are rarely evident. The sWAT is more stromal; it is located in some areas in the limbs and in the hips. The stroma is fairly well represented, with a good vascularity and adequate staminality. Cells are wrapped by a basket of collagen fibers. The fatty depots of the knees and of the trochanteric areas have quite loose meshes. The fWAT has a noteworthy fibrous component and can be found in areas where a severe mechanic stress occurs. Adipocytes have an individual thick fibrous shell. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates evident differences among subcutaneous WAT deposits, thus suggesting that in regenerative procedures based on autologous adipose tissues the sampling area should not be randomly chosen, but it should be oriented by evidence based evaluations. The structural peculiarities of the sWAT, and particularly of its microcirculation, suggest that it could represent a privileged source for

  18. Bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Cameron R. M.; Goriainov, Vitali; Gibbs, David; Kanczler, Janos; Tare, Rahul S; Richard O. C. Oreffo

    2015-01-01

    Medical advances have led to a welcome increase in life expectancy. However, accompanying longevity introduces new challenges: increases in age-related diseases and associated reductions in quality of life. The loss of skeletal tissue that can accompany trauma, injury, disease or advancing years can result in significant morbidity and significant socio-economic cost and emphasise the need for new, more reliable skeletal regeneration strategies. To address the unmet need for bone augmentation,...

  19. Stereolithography in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Shelby A; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J

    2014-03-01

    Several recent research efforts have focused on use of computer-aided additive fabrication technologies, commonly referred to as additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping, solid freeform fabrication, or three-dimensional printing technologies, to create structures for tissue engineering. For example, scaffolds for tissue engineering may be processed using rapid prototyping technologies, which serve as matrices for cell ingrowth, vascularization, as well as transport of nutrients and waste. Stereolithography is a photopolymerization-based rapid prototyping technology that involves computer-driven and spatially controlled irradiation of liquid resin. This technology enables structures with precise microscale features to be prepared directly from a computer model. In this review, use of stereolithography for processing trimethylene carbonate, polycaprolactone, and poly(D,L-lactide) poly(propylene fumarate)-based materials is considered. In addition, incorporation of bioceramic fillers for fabrication of bioceramic scaffolds is reviewed. Use of stereolithography for processing of patient-specific implantable scaffolds is also discussed. In addition, use of photopolymerization-based rapid prototyping technology, known as two-photon polymerization, for production of tissue engineering scaffolds with smaller features than conventional stereolithography technology is considered. PMID:24306145

  20. Cardiac tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILICA RADISIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick,compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3 can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of perfluorocarbons, or with electrical stimulation (continuous application of biphasic pulses, 2 ms, 5 V, 1 Hz. Tissue constructs cultured without perfusion or electrical stimulation served as controls. Medium perfusion and addition of perfluorocarbons resulted in compact, thick constructs containing physiologic density of viable, electromechanically coupled cells, in contrast to control constructs which had only a ~100 mm thick peripheral region with functionally connected cells. Electrical stimulation of cultured constructs resulted in markedly improved contractile properties, increased amounts of cardiac proteins, and remarkably well developed ultrastructure (similar to that of native heart as compared to non-stimulated controls. We discuss here the state of the art of cardiac tissue engineering, in light of the biomimetic approach that reproduces in vitro some of the conditions present during normal tissue development.

  1. Comparsion of the efficacy of chemomechanical and mechanical methods of caries removal in the reduction of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus spp in carious dentine of primary teeth Comparação da eficácia dos métodos químico-mecânico e mecânico de remoção de cárie na redução de streptococcus mutans e lactobacillus spp da dentina criada de dentes decíduos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Quariguasi Tobias Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods of caries removal have been the subject of many studies over the last years. At present, methods involving the least tissue invasion have been outstanding in the field of surgical-restorative treatment. In this context, the Carisolv™ system has appeared as a less traumatic and less invasive approach, particularly in pedodontics. Thus, the objective of the present study was to carry out a comparative analysis of the dentinal structure of primary molars before and after the removal of carious tissue by mechanical (low speed drills and conventional dentinal curettes and chemomechanical (Carisolv™ kit procedures based on quantitative culture for cariogenic bacteria to determine the number of bacteria present in the carious dentine after both treatments. Sixty primary molars from children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years, with active occlusal caries in dentine, were divided into two groups (A and B of 30 teeth each, with group A having been treated by the chemomechanical technique and group B by the mechanical technique. Dentin samples were placed in glass vials containing 1 mL thioglycolate broth and submitted to culture to determine the number of S. mutans and Lactobacillus per mg of decayed dentine. The results did not reveal significant differences between the two methods of caries removal; however, the chemomechanical method was more efficient in completely eliminating S. mutans (p=0.02. In summary, the present results confirm previous studies showing that the two methods are comparable in reducing Lactobacillus, but Carisolv™ is more effective in the elimination of S. mutans.Os métodos de remoção de cárie têm sido objeto de muitos estudos nos últimos anos. Atualmente, aqueles que determinam mínima invasão tecidual têm se sobressaído no campo do tratamento cirúrgico-restaurador. Neste contexto, surgiu o sistema Carisolv™ como uma abordagem menos traumática, com destaque na odontopediatria e menos invasiva. Desta

  2. Biomaterials & scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Every day thousands of surgical procedures are performed to replace or repair tissue that has been damaged through disease or trauma. The developing field of tissue engineering (TE aims to regenerate damaged tissues by combining cells from the body with highly porous scaffold biomaterials, which act as templates for tissue regeneration, to guide the growth of new tissue. This article describes the functional requirements, and types, of materials used in developing state of the art of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, it describes the challenges and where future research and direction is required in this rapidly advancing field.

  3. Soft tissue sparganosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis

  4. 西安市无龋和有龋中青年人群口腔健康行知因素的对比分析%Comparative analysis of the knowledge and behavior relevant factors on oral health between noncarious and carious middle-aged and young people of Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 王胜朝; 程小刚; 倪龙兴; 郭静; 公文

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate carious relevant risk factors in middle-aged and young people of Xincheng town, Xi' an, thus providing theoretical basis for the strategy of caries prevention. METHODS: 585 subjects aged 31~40 years old from Xincheng town, Xi'an, were included in the study. 324 of them were in carious group (DMFT≥ 1) , and 261 in noncarious group (DMFT = 0). The individuals in both groups received oral health examination and questionnaire survey on oral health knowledge and behavior relevant factors. The data obtained were analysed statistically using Single factor x2 test and Logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The caries incidence of all the subjects was 55.4% and the average individual caries was 1. 85 ± 2. 370. Single factor x2 test showed that there were statistical differences (P<0. 05) on the gender distribution, education background constitution, tooth-brushing method, frequency of routine oral examination, awareness of oral health, knowledge of oral health and family income between the carious and noncarious groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that caries occurrence was related to following factors : gender, education background, tooth - brushing method, awareness of oral health, view on the cost for going to a dentist. There was a higher caries incidence in the female and in the subjects with lower education background, wrong application of tooth-brushing and little awareness of oral health. And the carious population tend to accept higher cost for going to a dentist. CONCLUSION: Strengthening oral health education and directing tooth-brushing method may be practical and beneficial for middle-aged and young people in caries prevention. More attention should be palid to the female and the people with low education background.%目的:探讨西安市中青年人群患龋的行知危险因素,为制定有针对性的预防措施提供依据.方法:选择西安市新城区5所小学二、三年级小学生家长,进行口腔健康检查和

  5. Breast Reconstruction with Tissue Expansion

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and go underneath the pectoralis muscle and do tissue expanders and today we are also going to ... and wanted to try the implant, understanding the tissue could be compromised. However, with the Veritas, what ...

  6. Adipose Tissue Metabolism During Hypobaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Chattopadhyay

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible factors affecting the metabolism of adipose tissue under hypobaric conditions have been reviewed. The hormonal changes brought into play under hypoxic stress generally stress generally increase the adipose tissue lipolysis.

  7. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003453.htm Gram stain of tissue biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test ...

  8. Chemotherapy for Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Targeted therapy for soft tissue sarcoma Chemotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs given into ... Depending on the type and stage of sarcoma, chemotherapy may be given as the main treatment or ...

  9. Tissue bank: Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)

  10. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation...... systems of muscle have been visualized in their full complexity, including the ‘neglected' lymphatic capillaries at the level of the endomysium. These findings serve to remind us that muscle contraction is not only about force generation and transmission, but also about nutrient supply and waste removal...

  11. In Vitro Tissue Differentiation using Dynamics of Tissue Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chiang; Phillips, Paul J.

    2002-03-01

    Dynamics of tissue mechanical properties of various human tissue types were studied at macroscopic as well as microscopic level in vitro. This study was conducted to enable the development of a feedback system based on dynamics of tissue mechanical properties for intraoperative guidance for tumor treatment (e.g., RF ablation of liver tumor) and noninvasive tumor localization. Human liver tissues, including normal, cancerous, and cirrhotic tissues, were obtained from patients receiving liver transplant or tumor resection at Vanderbilt University Medical Center with the approval of the Vanderbilt Institutional Review Board. Tissue samples, once resected from the patients, were snap-frozen using liquid nitrogen and stored at -70 oC. Measurements of the mechanical properties of these tissue samples were conducted at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville. Dynamics of tissue mechanical properties were measured from both native and thermally coagulated tissue samples at macroscopic and microscopic level. Preliminary results suggest the dynamics of mechanical properties of normal liver tissues are very different from those of cancerous liver tissues. The correlation between the dynamics of mechanical properties at macroscopic level and those at microscopic level is currently under investigation.

  12. Tissue allograft coding and traceability in USM Tissue Bank, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Ab Hamid, Suzina; Abd Rahman, Muhamad Nor Firdaus

    2010-11-01

    In Malaysia, tissue banking activities began in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Tissue Bank in early 1990s. Since then a few other bone banks have been set up in other government hospitals and institutions. However, these banks are not governed by the national authority. In addition there is no requirement set by the national regulatory authority on coding and traceability for donated human tissues for transplantation. Hence, USM Tissue Bank has taken the initiatives to adopt a system that enables the traceability of tissues between the donor, the processed tissue and the recipient based on other international standards for tissue banks. The traceability trail has been effective and the bank is certified compliance to the international standard ISO 9001:2008. PMID:20582480

  13. Radiation sterilization of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After years of neglect, the value of sterile non-viable (allograft) tissue grafts in transplant surgery is now being recognised. Sterilization using γ-radiation is now becoming the method of choice for a wide range of tissues in a spectrum of Human Tissues banks throughout the world. The radiation treatment can initiate physical and chemical damage in the tissues. Where necessary methods of protection have been developed. Examples are given of the successful utilization of radiation for tissue sterilization and use. (author)

  14. Thorium in human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human tissue contents of natural alpha-emitting isotopes of thorium (228Th, 230Th, and 232Th) were determined in six sets of samples from Colorado and two lung samples from New York. Lung, lymph nodes from lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and bone were obtained at autopsy, and radiochemical analyses were made. Thorium-230 and 232Th are distributed similarly in the body, with major amounts present in bone (60%), followed by lung (20%) and lymph nodes (6%). Concentration decreased in the order lymph nodes > lung > bone > liver, kidney, and spleen. Thorium-228 is found primarily in bone (95%), and concentration decreases in the order lymph nodes > bone > lung > liver, kidney, and spleen. For all isotopes the median ratio of concentration in lymph nodes to lung was about 15. Thorium-230 was significantly increased in lung and skeleton samples from an underground hard-rock miner

  15. Peripheral tissue oximetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Hessel, Trine Witzner; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of regional tissue oxygenation (rStO2) by near infrared spectroscopy enables non-invasive end-organ oxygen balance monitoring and could be a valuable tool in intensive care. However, the diverse absolute values and dynamics of different devices, and overall poor repeatability of...... measurements are a problem. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that INVOS 5100C, FORE-SIGHT and NONIN EQUANOX 7600 have similar properties concerning absolute values, repeatability, and sensitivity to changes in rStO2. To test repeatability the sensors were repositioned 20 times during...... hemodynamic steady state on the adult forearm. Afterwards six vascular occlusions by inflation of an upper arm cuff were done to achieve low oxygenation in the forearm. Absolute values were compared by repeated-measures ANOVA, repeatability was estimated by the within-subject standard deviation, Sw, and...

  16. DNA from keratinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla Friis; Bertelsen, Mads Frost;

    2012-01-01

    Although good quality DNA can be recovered from the base of the calamus of freshly sampled feathers, as from other fully keratinized tissues such as nail or hair shaft, the quality and quantity of DNA in the majority of feather structures is much poorer. Little research has been performed...... to characterize the quality of this DNA is, and thus what a researcher might be able to achieve when using feathers as a source of DNA. In this review, we expand on our companion article detailing the quality of DNA in nail and hair, by synthesizing published, and new preliminary genetic data obtained from...... feathers. As with nail and hair, we demonstrate that although DNA can, in general, be recovered from all parts of the feather, the quality of such DNA varies. As such, although one can expect a priori that genetic analyses are possible on the feather, for PCR based analyses, it is extremely difficult...

  17. Housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in mouse tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Amand Jonny

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to characterize the housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in 15 mouse tissues by using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE strategy which indicates the relative level of expression for each transcript matched to the tag. Results Here, we identified constantly expressed housekeeping genes, such as eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, which is expressed in all tissues without significant difference in expression levels. Moreover, most of these genes were not regulated by experimental conditions such as steroid hormones, adrenalectomy and gonadectomy. In addition, we report previously postulated housekeeping genes such as peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin, which are expressed in all the tissues, but with significant difference in their expression levels. We have also identified genes uniquely detected in each of the 15 tissues and other tissues from public databases. Conclusion These identified housekeeping genes could represent appropriate controls for RT-PCR and northern blot when comparing the expression levels of genes in several tissues. The results reveal several tissue-specific genes highly expressed in testis and pituitary gland. Furthermore, the main function of tissue-specific genes expressed in liver, lung and bone is the cell defence, whereas several keratins involved in cell structure function are exclusively detected in skin and vagina. The results from this study can be used for example to target a tissue for agent delivering by using the promoter of tissue-specific genes. Moreover, this study could be used as basis for further researches on physiology and pathology of these tissues.

  18. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  19. Sustainable Three-Dimensional Tissue Model of Human Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Bellas, Evangelia; Marra, Kacey G.; Kaplan, David L

    2013-01-01

    The need for physiologically relevant sustainable human adipose tissue models is crucial for understanding tissue development, disease progression, in vitro drug development and soft tissue regeneration. The coculture of adipocytes differentiated from human adipose-derived stem cells, with endothelial cells, on porous silk protein matrices for at least 6 months is reported, while maintaining adipose-like outcomes. Cultures were assessed for structure and morphology (Oil Red O content and CD31...

  20. Housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in mouse tissues

    OpenAIRE

    St-Amand Jonny; Yoshioka Mayumi; Cadrin-Girard Jean F; Nishida Yuichiro; Kouadjo Kouame E

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aims to characterize the housekeeping and tissue-specific genes in 15 mouse tissues by using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) strategy which indicates the relative level of expression for each transcript matched to the tag. Results Here, we identified constantly expressed housekeeping genes, such as eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2, which is expressed in all tissues without significant difference in expression levels. Moreover, most of the...

  1. Bioengineering beige adipose tissue therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eTharp

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of UCP1-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable brown adipose tissues for human therapeutic purposes at this time.Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit WAT derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of beige adipose tissue implants and their potential for the metabolic

  2. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiologically beneficial reductions in circulating glucose and lipids. The recent discovery that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived secreted factors positively alter whole body metabolism further expands potential benefits of brown or beige/brite adipose expansion. Unfortunately, there are no sources of transplantable BATs for human therapeutic purposes at this time. Recent developments in bioengineering, including novel hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels, have enabled non-immunogenic, functional tissue allografts that can be used to generate large quantities of UCP1-positive adipose tissue. These sophisticated tissue-engineering systems have provided the methodology to develop metabolically active brown or beige/brite adipose tissue implants with the potential to be used as a metabolic therapy. Unlike the pharmacological browning of white adipose depots, implantation of bioengineered UCP1-positive adipose tissues offers a spatially controlled therapeutic. Moving forward, new insights into the mechanisms by which extracellular cues govern stem-cell differentiation and progenitor cell recruitment may enable cell-free matrix implant approaches, which generate a niche sufficient to recruit white adipose tissue-derived stem cells and support their differentiation into functional beige/brite adipose tissues. This review summarizes clinically relevant discoveries in tissue-engineering and biology leading toward the recent development of biomaterial supported beige adipose tissue implants and

  3. Computational Modeling in Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in tissue engineering is the translation of biological knowledge on complex cell and tissue behavior into a predictive and robust engineering process. Mastering this complexity is an essential step towards clinical applications of tissue engineering. This volume discusses computational modeling tools that allow studying the biological complexity in a more quantitative way. More specifically, computational tools can help in:  (i) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering product, e.g. by adapting scaffold design to optimize micro-environmental signals or by adapting selection criteria to improve homogeneity of the selected cell population; (ii) quantifying and optimizing the tissue engineering process, e.g. by adapting bioreactor design to improve quality and quantity of the final product; and (iii) assessing the influence of the in vivo environment on the behavior of the tissue engineering product, e.g. by investigating vascular ingrowth. The book presents examples of each...

  4. Trabectedin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Petek, Bradley J.; Loggers, Elizabeth T.; Pollack, Seth M.; Jones, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare tumors derived from mesenchymal tissue, accounting for about 1% of adult cancers. There are over 60 different histological subtypes, each with their own unique biological behavior and response to systemic therapy. The outcome for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is poor with few available systemic treatment options. For decades, the mainstay of management has consisted of doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide. Trabectedin is a synthetic ag...

  5. Integrated Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, Murugan; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Haikel, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    "Integrated Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering" features all aspects from fundamental principles to current technological advances in biomaterials at the macro/micro/nano/molecular scales suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The book is unique as it provides all important aspects dealing with the basic science involved in structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in material processing and characterizations, and applications of biomaterials in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  6. Tissue Engineering of the Penis

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Manish N.; Atala, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, or other conditions of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant organ damage or loss of function, necessitating eventual reconstruction or replacement of the damaged structures. However, current reconstructive techniques are limited by issues of tissue availability and compatibility. Physicians and scientists have begun to explore tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies for repair and reconstruction of the genitourinary tract. Tissu...

  7. Bioengineering Beige Adipose Tissue Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Tharp, Kevin M; Stahl, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Unlocking the therapeutic potential of brown/beige adipose tissue requires technological advancements that enable the controlled expansion of this uniquely thermogenic tissue. Transplantation of brown fat in small animal model systems has confirmed the expectation that brown fat expansion could possibly provide a novel therapeutic to combat obesity and related disorders. Expansion and/or stimulation of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-positive adipose tissues have repeatedly demonstrated physiolog...

  8. Tissue Dissociation for Metastasis Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeer, Farhia; Podsypanina, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    The main requirement for most metastasis-related applications is the conversion of solid tissue into a single-cell suspension. In theory, this suspension represents the diversity of cells present in the tissue, whether malignant or benign. We have found that cell viability, as measured by trypan blue staining or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), is critical for evaluating the success of the tissue-dissociation procedure. The recommended goal is at least 70% cell viability. PMID:26832679

  9. Growing tissues: A simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Podewitz, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Tissues represent an interesting type of matter: active matter. The basic elements of tissues, the cells, divide or die, consume energy on the scale of their constituents, exert forces onto their surrounding and dissipate energy, which results in non-equilibrium systems. Tissue growth is involved in many biological processes and understanding its generic phenomena is, thus, not only important from a physical point of view. In this thesis, we are interested in the mechanics of issue growth...

  10. Oxygen Regulates Tissue Nitrite Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Erin; Hsu, Lewis L.; Noguchi, Audrey C.; Geary, Lisa; Shiva, Sruti

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Once dismissed as an inert byproduct of nitric oxide (NO) auto-oxidation, nitrite (NO2-) is now accepted as an endocrine reservoir of NO that elicits biological responses in major organs. While it is known that tissue nitrite is derived from NO oxidation and the diet, little is known about how nitrite is metabolized by tissue, particularly at intermediate oxygen tensions. We investigated the rates and mechanisms of tissue nitrite metabolism over a range of oxygen concentrations. Results...

  11. Comparison of Routine Fixation of Tissues with Rapid Tissue Fixation

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Meenakshi; Bansal, Rani; Gupta, Mamta; Bharat, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Conventional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue provides superior cellular morphology and long-term storage. Problems with formalin fixation comprise delay of fixation and variations in the duration of fixation. Microwave assisted tissue fixation removes the use of noxious and potentially toxic formalin that decreases the turnaround time and creates a personnel friendly workflow.

  12. Tissue regeneration during tissue expansion and choosing an expander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the various aspects of tissue regeneration during the process of tissue expansion. "Creep" and mechanical and biological "stretch" are responsible for expansion. During expansion, the epidermis thickens, the dermis thins out, vascularity improves, significant angiogenesis occurs, hair telogen phase becomes shorter and the peripheral nerves, vessels and muscle fibres lengthen. Expansion is associated with molecular changes in the tissue. Almost all these biological changes are reversible after the removal of the expander.This study is also aimed at reviewing the difficulty in deciding the volume and dimension of the expander for a defect. Basic mathematical formulae and the computer programmes for calculating the dimension of tissue expanders, although available in the literature, are not popular. A user-friendly computer programme based on the easily available Microsoft Excel spread sheet has been introduced. When we feed the area of defect and base dimension of the donor area or tissue expander, this programme calculates the volume and height of the expander. The shape of the expander is decided clinically based on the availability of the donor area and the designing of the future tissue movement. Today, tissue expansion is better understood biologically and mechanically. Clinical judgement remains indispensable in choosing the size and shape of the tissue expander.

  13. Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.

  14. Analise Termodinamica da aceleracao de uma massa

    CERN Document Server

    De Abreu, R

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the acceleration of a mass with a simple structure taking into account Thermodynamics. Two situations are analysed. The first one for the application of a localized force to a point of the mass. The second one for the application of a force to the entire mass. The two situations are not equivalent. For the first situation we have an increase of temperature of the mass, resulting from an internal damping, during a transient.

  15. Stilistiese analise van nuwe-testamentiese tekste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available All too often literary structures in the New Testament are passed off in scholarly literature as mere literary niceties serving only aesthetic ends. Too little consideration has been given to the possible exegetical signif­ icance of such structures to the interpretation of biblical texts. This article is an attempt to present an apologetic for the value of stylistic analysis of New Testament texts as an aid in interpreting the New Testament. It must be kept in mind that to the biblical authors, artistry in the use of stylistic structures was not an end in itself, but a means towards more effective communication of the message.

  16. Adipose tissue macrophages: amicus adipem?

    OpenAIRE

    Odegaard, Justin I.; Ganeshan, Kirthana; Chawla, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Chronic overnutrition drives complex adaptations within both professional metabolic and bystander tissues that, despite intense investigation, are still poorly understood. Xu et al. (2013) now describe the unexpected ability of adipose tissue macrophages to buffer lipids released from obese adipocytes in a manner independent of inflammatory macrophage activation.

  17. Mechanical device for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Maij, E.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a mechanical device for tissue- regeneration inside a patient, comprising means (2, 3) to place a scaffold for the tissue under mechanical stress. Said means comprise a first device-part (2) and a second device-part (3) which parts are arranged to be movable with respect to

  18. The Stanford Tissue Microarray Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Robert J; Montgomery, Kelli; Liu, Chih Long; Shah, Nigam H; Prapong, Wijan; Nitzberg, Michael; Zachariah, Zachariah K; Sherlock, Gavin J; Natkunam, Yasodha; West, Robert B; van de Rijn, Matt; Brown, Patrick O; Ball, Catherine A

    2008-01-01

    The Stanford Tissue Microarray Database (TMAD; http://tma.stanford.edu) is a public resource for disseminating annotated tissue images and associated expression data. Stanford University pathologists, researchers and their collaborators worldwide use TMAD for designing, viewing, scoring and analyzing their tissue microarrays. The use of tissue microarrays allows hundreds of human tissue cores to be simultaneously probed by antibodies to detect protein abundance (Immunohistochemistry; IHC), or by labeled nucleic acids (in situ hybridization; ISH) to detect transcript abundance. TMAD archives multi-wavelength fluorescence and bright-field images of tissue microarrays for scoring and analysis. As of July 2007, TMAD contained 205 161 images archiving 349 distinct probes on 1488 tissue microarray slides. Of these, 31 306 images for 68 probes on 125 slides have been released to the public. To date, 12 publications have been based on these raw public data. TMAD incorporates the NCI Thesaurus ontology for searching tissues in the cancer domain. Image processing researchers can extract images and scores for training and testing classification algorithms. The production server uses the Apache HTTP Server, Oracle Database and Perl application code. Source code is available to interested researchers under a no-cost license. PMID:17989087

  19. Tissue Engineering of the Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish N. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, or other conditions of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant organ damage or loss of function, necessitating eventual reconstruction or replacement of the damaged structures. However, current reconstructive techniques are limited by issues of tissue availability and compatibility. Physicians and scientists have begun to explore tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies for repair and reconstruction of the genitourinary tract. Tissue engineering allows the development of biological substitutes which could potentially restore normal function. Tissue engineering efforts designed to treat or replace most organs are currently being undertaken. Most of these efforts have occurred within the past decade. However, before these engineering techniques can be applied to humans, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these new materials. Recent progress suggests that engineered urologic tissues and cell therapy may soon have clinical applicability.

  20. Cryobanking of human ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Andersen, Claus Yding; Macklon, Kirsten T

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is one way of preserving fertility in young women with a malignant disease or other disorders that require gonadotoxic treatment. The purpose of the study was to explore how many women remained interested in continued cryostorage of their ovarian tissue beyond an...... was 95%. Sixteen of the patients (17%) stated that they wanted disposal of their tissue; the main reason was completion of family (63%). The mean age of those requesting disposal was 36.6 years, whereas those still wanting their tissue stored were significantly younger, with a mean age of 33.0 years...... (P < 0.008). In conclusion, most women with ovarian tissue cryobanked requested continued cryostorage after an initial period of at least 5 years. The main reason for requesting disposal was successful completion of a family....

  1. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  2. Multimodality instrument for tissue characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Robert W. (Inventor); Andrews, Russell J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system with multimodality instrument for tissue identification includes a computer-controlled motor driven heuristic probe with a multisensory tip. For neurosurgical applications, the instrument is mounted on a stereotactic frame for the probe to penetrate the brain in a precisely controlled fashion. The resistance of the brain tissue being penetrated is continually monitored by a miniaturized strain gauge attached to the probe tip. Other modality sensors may be mounted near the probe tip to provide real-time tissue characterizations and the ability to detect the proximity of blood vessels, thus eliminating errors normally associated with registration of pre-operative scans, tissue swelling, elastic tissue deformation, human judgement, etc., and rendering surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and efficient. A neural network program adaptively learns the information on resistance and other characteristic features of normal brain tissue during the surgery and provides near real-time modeling. A fuzzy logic interface to the neural network program incorporates expert medical knowledge in the learning process. Identification of abnormal brain tissue is determined by the detection of change and comparison with previously learned models of abnormal brain tissues. The operation of the instrument is controlled through a user friendly graphical interface. Patient data is presented in a 3D stereographics display. Acoustic feedback of selected information may optionally be provided. Upon detection of the close proximity to blood vessels or abnormal brain tissue, the computer-controlled motor immediately stops probe penetration. The use of this system will make surgical procedures safer, more accurate, and more efficient. Other applications of this system include the detection, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer, spinal diseases, and use in general exploratory surgery.

  3. Adipose tissue extract promotes adipose tissue regeneration in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zijing; Yuan, Yi; Gao, Jianhua; Lu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    An adipose tissue engineering chamber model of spontaneous adipose tissue generation from an existing fat flap has been described. However, the chamber does not completely fill with adipose tissue in this model. Here, the effect of adipose tissue extract (ATE) on adipose tissue regeneration was investigated. In vitro, the adipogenic and angiogenic capacities of ATE were evaluated using Oil Red O and tube formation assays on adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs), respectively. In vivo, saline or ATE was injected into the adipose tissue engineering chamber 1 week after its implantation. At different time points post-injection, the contents were morphometrically, histologically, and immunohistochemically evaluated, and the expression of growth factors and adipogenic genes was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR. With the exception of the baseline control group, in which fat flaps were not inserted into a chamber, the total volume of fat flap tissue increased significantly in all groups, especially in the ATE group. Better morphology and structure, a thinner capsule, and more vessels were observed in the ATE group than in the control group. Expression of angiogenic growth factors and adipogenic markers were significantly higher in the ATE group. ATE therefore significantly promoted adipose tissue regeneration and reduced capsule formation in an adipose tissue engineering chamber model. These data suggest that ATE provides a more angiogenic and adipogenic microenvironment for adipose tissue formation by releasing various cytokines and growth factors that also inhibit capsule formation. PMID:26678825

  4. In vitro NIR laser tissue welding of porcine ocular tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Richard B.; Savage, Howard E.; Halder, Rabindra K.; Kartazayeu, Uladzimir; McCormick, Steven A.; Katz, Alvin; Perry, Henry D.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2005-04-01

    In this study, 72 different combinations of laser welding parameters were compared for their effectiveness in welding ocular tissue. The laser employed in the welding system was a near infrared (NIR) erbium fiber laser with a wavelength of 1.455 μm . The laser system used a motorized translational stage and shutter to control the laser exposure of the tissue being welded. The emission wavelength of the laser in the NIR range corresponds to one of the lesser absorption bands of water. Parameters of the laser welding system that could be changed to allow a more effective distribution of the laser energy and therefore management of thermal energy included: the number and kinds of intricate offset patterns of light on or around the incision, the number of lines per pattern, the power level, the speed of the laser beam movement over the tissues, the spot size, dwell time and the focus plane of the light beam in the tissue. Histopathology was used as an endpoint indication of the effects that the various sets of welding parameters had on the welded tissues. Standard Hematoxylin and Eosin stain and Sirius Red F3B (Direct Red 80) in combination with polarization microscopy were used to stain and visualize the welded ocular tissue. Paradoxically, the best cornea welds quantified using histopathology occurred with fluence of 4,500 mJ/cm2 or less while the corneal welds exhibiting the strongest tensile strengths, but most tissue damage had a delivered fluence above 7,000 mJ/cm2. The best histological representatives of welded corneas had an average delivered fluence of 2,687 mJ/cm2 and an irradiance of 14 W/cm2. Using the properly determined parameters, the NIR erbium fiber welding system provided full thickness welds without the requirement of extrinsic dyes, chromophores, or solders. The NIR laser system with the appropriately developed parameters can be used effectively to weld ocular tissues.

  5. Evaluation of postmortem tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collection and radiochemical analysis of postmortem tissue samples (lung, liver, bone and tracheobronchial lymph nodes) from individuals formerly residing in the vicinity of the Hanford project continued during the past year. Postmortem tissue samples and blood samples were also analyzed for the U. S. Transuranium Registry (USTR). During the year commencing November 1, 1974, 85 analyses for plutonium-238 and plutonium-239+240 were performed on samples from the Hanford locality, and 41 analyses for plutonium-238 and plutonium-239+240 on samples obtained from the USTR. Plutonium-242 is the tracer of choice for yield determination in the alpha energy analysis of tissues for 238Pu and 239Pu

  6. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.)

  7. Coronal Pulpotomy Technique Analysis as an Alternative to Pulpectomy for Preserving the Tooth Vitality, in the Context of Tissue Regeneration: A Correlated Clinical Study across 4 Adult Permanent Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Viola Solomon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. (1 The aim of the clinical study revolves around the accurate diagnosis, proper case selection, and the management of acute irreversible pulpitis in permanent molars with closed apices using conservative and economical treatment modalities like vital pulpotomies with regenerative approaches over conventional root canal procedures. (2 To evaluate the use of autologous substances such as platelet concentrates and calcium silicate based materials in promoting the healing and regeneration of the inflamed pulp. Summary. Vital pulpotomy was performed on 5 carious involved, permanent molars diagnosed with acute irreversible pulpitis in 17- to 22-year-old patients. Taking into consideration the patient’s age and the condition of the underlying pulp tissue, PRF pulpotomy was planned in view of preserving the vitality of the intact radicular pulps. Regenerative procedures with second generation blood matrices were chosen to encourage the recovery of the inflamed pulps. The systematic follow-up examinations performed at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 22, and 24 months revealed a successful clinical and radiological outcome. Within the limits of the present clinical study and correlating the success across the treated clinical cases, we safely conclude the potential scope of regenerative pulpotomy approaches in acute irreversible pulpitis in adult permanent teeth.

  8. American Association of Tissue Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 38 Stay up-to-date with AATB's SmartBrief, industry-related news, announcements, educational and networking opportunities. Tweets ... Series Standards and Regulatory AATB Standards for Tissue Banking Guidance Documents Other References Regulatory References Standards Updates ...

  9. Breast Reconstruction with Tissue Expansion

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dip our tissue expanders in the triple-antibiotic solution as described by Adams in the paper in ... complication, is infection rates, which we try to reduce with our triple-antibiotic and our sterile technique, ...

  10. Teaching Tips: Plant Tissue Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Plant tissue testing can be done to monitor plant nutrition levels during the growing season and diagnose nutrient deficiency problems. They can provide feedback on crop conditions and fertility needs. (Author)

  11. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the belly Black stools Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material A gastric tissue biopsy and culture can help detect: Cancer Infections, most commonly Helicobacter pylori , the bacteria that can cause stomach ulcers Normal Results A ...

  12. Endoscopic subsurface imaging in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Staggs, M; Radousky, H B

    2001-02-12

    The objective of this work is to develop endoscopic subsurface optical imaging technology that will be able to image different tissue components located underneath the surface of the tissue at an imaging depth of up to 1 centimeter. This effort is based on the utilization of existing technology and components developed for medical endoscopes with the incorporation of the appropriate modifications to implement the spectral and polarization difference imaging technique. This subsurface imaging technique employs polarization and spectral light discrimination in combination with image processing to remove a large portion of the image information from the outer layers of the tissue which leads to enhancement of the contrast and image quality of subsurface tissue structures.

  13. Breast Reconstruction with Tissue Expansion

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... guessing of where the port is with our magnet. If they do have a thicker subcutaneous tissue, ... here and then honing in on where the magnet would be, so that post-operatively, if I ...

  14. Breast Reconstruction with Tissue Expansion

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to dip our tissue expanders in the triple-antibiotic solution as described by Adams in the paper ... which we try to reduce with our triple-antibiotic and our sterile technique, like everyone does. And ...

  15. Breast Reconstruction with Tissue Expansion

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the flaps here and go underneath the pectoralis muscle and do tissue expanders and today we are ... lift the skin flap and the pectoralis major muscle off the chest wall without separating the two. ...

  16. Cytodiagnosis of soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oland, J; Rosen, A; Reif, R; Sayfan, J; Orda, R

    1988-03-01

    The only acceptable definitive diagnosis of a soft tissue mass is histologic or cytologic examination. In recent years, fine-needle aspiration cytology is used in more and more centers for diagnosis of soft tissue masses. We studied 196 aspiration cytologies performed on soft tissue lesions. Out of these, in 48 cases a definitive surgical procedure or open biopsy for histology and further evaluation were performed. There were 25 sarcomas and 23 benign tumors. There was one false negative cytologic result in this group; no false positive cytologies were detected. It seems that cytodiagnosis of soft tissue masses performed by an experienced pathologist is the method of choice, permitting a good diagnostic evaluation, with almost none of the traumatic and oncologic disadvantages of the other methods of biopsy. PMID:3352270

  17. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... harmonic techniques have been made, but none of these methods have so far been applicable for in-vivo imaging. The basis of this project is a synthetic aperture technique known as synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB). The technique utilizes a two step beamforming approach to drastically reduce...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB. The...

  18. Imaging of soft tissue tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Einarsdóttir, Hildur

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this project on soft tissue tumors, was to evaluate existing imaging methods and test new Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences for diagnosis and assessment of cytotoxic therapy and to relate the imaging studies to cytology to explore the limitations of each procedure. Patients and method The studies were based on patients with a soft tissue lesion diagnosed and treated at the Orthopedic Tumor Service at the Karolinska Hospital 1990-2003. In 17...

  19. Challenges in Soft Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Yuksel, Eser; Choo, Joshua; Wettergreen, Matthew; Liebschner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Soft tissue engineering strategies targeting restoration of volume loss have inherent critical challenges as they relate to the problem of restoration of defects with a high volume to surface ratio. We outline the problems associated with the limitations of translational applications regarding soft tissue engineering strategies as follows: cell survival, mechanical challenges: macroenvironment (scaffold collapse and on-the-shelf availability), compositional considerations: microenvironment, i...

  20. Tissue culture: the unrealized potential

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Lack of differentiated functions of the tissue of origin in tissue culture thought to be due to dedifferentiation was shown to be due to selective overgrowth of fibroblasts. Enrichment culture techniques, (alternate animal and culture passage), designed to give the functionally differentiated cells selective advantage over the fibroblasts resulted in a large number of functionally differentiated clonal strains. Thus the dogma of dedifferentiation was destroyed. It is proposed to substitute th...

  1. Pleura: In connective tissue diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Saha

    2016-01-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) (or collagen vascular diseases) represent a heterogeneous group of immunologically mediated disorders that affects many organs of the body including pleura. Frequency, presentation, and prognosis of pleural involvement depend on the underlying CTD. Connective tissue disorders may be heritable such as Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta; and autoimmune such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), syste...

  2. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Jesus eObregon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases. The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. Brite or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2 and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that activate UCP1 in WAT and

  3. Material for bone tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetrík, Miroslav; Pařízek, Martin; Policianová, Olivia; Hlídková, Helena; Přádný, Martin; Hrubý, Martin; Lisá, Věra; Bačáková, Lucie

    Bratislava : Young Scientists Council of Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, 2016. s. 77. ISBN 978-80-970923-8-2. [Bratislava Young Polymer Scientists workshop /6./ - BYPoS 2016. 14.03.2016-18.03.2016, Ždiar] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : black orlon * bone tissue * tissue engineering Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics (FGU-C)

  4. Terpene emission in tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Predieri, S.; Rapparini, F.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue cultured plants' vessel headspace is subject to changes during subculture, and the analysis of its variation offers a non-destructive approach for monitoring plant physiology. Among the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be released by plants and be potentially recovered in the airspace of plant tissue cultures, terpenes are very important since they can offer a snapshot of the physiological status of the plant under in vitro cultivation. Terpenes are synthesized from carbon di...

  5. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Tissue Engineered Bone Tissue Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Eriberto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering strategies are emerging as attractive alternatives to autografts and allografts in bone tissue reconstruction, in particular thanks to their association with nanotechnologies. Nanostructured biomaterials, indeed, mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM of the natural bone, creating an artificial microenvironment that promotes cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. At the same time, the possibility to easily isolate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from different adult tissues together with their multi-lineage differentiation potential makes them an interesting tool in the field of bone tissue engineering. This review gives an overview of the most promising nanostructured biomaterials, used alone or in combination with MSCs, which could in future be employed as bone substitutes. Recent works indicate that composite scaffolds made of ceramics/metals or ceramics/polymers are undoubtedly more effective than the single counterparts in terms of osteoconductivity, osteogenicity and osteoinductivity. A better understanding of the interactions between MSCs and nanostructured biomaterials will surely contribute to the progress of bone tissue engineering.

  6. Material Tissue Interaction-From Toxicity to Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, G; Widbiller, M; Galler, K M

    2016-01-01

    The topic of material tissue interaction has gained increasing interest over recent decades from both the dental profession and the public. The primary goal initially was to avoid adverse reactions after the application of dental materials. New laboratory test methods have been developed, and currently premarket testing programs, which attempt to guarantee a basic level of patient safety, are legally required worldwide. The dentist is responsible for selecting the correct indication as well as the proper handling of any newly emerging risk. Apart from this phenomenon-oriented "inert materials concept," the "analytical concept" focuses primarily on analyzing the reasons for adverse reactions, and identifying their associated modifying factors, in order to prevent them or to develop new and more biocompatible materials. The "concept of bioactivity" involves addressing the possibility of positively influencing tissue by materials application, such as the generation of tertiary dentin or antibacterial effects. Finally, tissue regeneration may be supported and promoted by the use of various suitable materials (matrices/scaffolds) into which stem cells can migrate or be seeded, leading to cell differentiation and the generation of new tissue. These new dental materials must also fulfill additional requirements such as controlled degradability in order to be suitable for clinical use. Clearly, the field of material tissue interaction is complex and comprises a wide range of issues. To be successful as dentists in the future, practitioners should remain informed of these important new developments and have the argumentative competence to both properly advise and treat their patients. PMID:26645359

  7. Radiosensitivity of soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Toru; Iwasaki, Katsuro; Suzuki, Ryohei; Monzen, Yoshio; Hombo, Zenichiro

    1989-05-01

    The correlation between the effectiveness of radiation therapy and the histology of soft tissue sarcomas was investigated. Of 31 cases with a soft tissue sarcoma of an extremity treated by conservative surgery and postoperative radiation of 3,000-6,000 cGy, local recurrence occurred in 12; 5 out of 7 synovial sarcomas, 4 of 9 MFH, one of 8 liposarcomas, none of 4 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 of 3 others. As for the histological subtyping, the 31 soft tissue sarcomas were divided into spindle cell, pleomorphic cell, myxoid and round cell type, and recurrence rates were 75%, 33.3%, 16.7% and 0%, respectively. From the remarkable difference in recurrent rate, it was suggested that round cell and myxoid type of soft tissue sarcomas showed a high radiosensitivity compared to the spindle cell type with low sensitivity. Clarifying the degree of radiosensitivity is helpful in deciding on the management of limb salvage in soft tissue sarcomas of an extremity. (author).

  8. Radiopathology of organs and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book represents an attempt to describe the clinical radiobiology of complications arising in different organs after radiotherapy of cancer patients. Since malignant tumors infiltrate the organ in which they have arisen and the neighboring tissues, curative radiotherapy requires the planned irradiation of considerable amounts of healthy but potentially or microscopically involved normal tissues and organs with the full target dose. This may lead to early or late normal tissue radiation injury. This book does not only attempt to summarize our present knowledge on the pathogenesis, the pathology, and the radiobiology of normal tissue radiation damage. The authors of the different chapters on the different organs and organ systems also place major emphasis on the clinical features of the various normal tissue responses, on observations in patients, and on data on dose-incidence and time-fractionation relationships derived from clinical information. Most authors in this book are practising radiotherapists but with a longstanding interest in clinical radiobiology; the radiobiologists who have made contributions have a long record of close cooperation with clinical radiotherapists. (orig./MG) With 156 figs

  9. Bone tissue engineering in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Franz; Ebert, Regina; Ignatius, Anita; Matsushita, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Groll, Juergen; Walles, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenetic, environmentally modifiable disease, which precipitates into fragility fractures of vertebrae, hip and radius and also confers a high risk of fractures in accidents and trauma. Aging and the genetic molecular background of osteoporosis cause delayed healing and impair regeneration. The worldwide burden of disease is huge and steadily increasing while the average life expectancy is also on the rise. The clinical need for bone regeneration applications, systemic or in situ guided bone regeneration and bone tissue engineering, will increase and become a challenge for health care systems. Apart from in situ guided tissue regeneration classical ex vivo tissue engineering of bone has not yet reached the level of routine clinical application although a wealth of scaffolds and growth factors has been developed. Engineering of complex bone constructs in vitro requires scaffolds, growth and differentiation factors, precursor cells for angiogenesis and osteogenesis and suitable bioreactors in various combinations. The development of applications for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone faces technical challenges concerning rapid vascularization for the survival of constructs in vivo. Recent new ideas and developments in the fields of bone biology, materials science and bioreactor technology will enable us to develop standard operating procedures for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone in the near future. Once prototyped such applications will rapidly be tailored for compromised conditions like vitamin D and sex hormone deficiencies, cellular deficits and high production of regeneration inhibitors, as they are prevalent in osteoporosis and in higher age. PMID:23562167

  10. Ectopic mammary tissue in vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ectopic mammary gland tissue is a residual tissue that persists during the embryologic development along ectodermal primitive milk streaks. Incomplete involution anywhere along the primitive milk streak can result in accessory or ectopic mammary tissue. Case report. A woman, 27-year old, admitted to Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic Kragujevac for surgery, of goose-egg size, vulva tumor, of elastic consistency. Menarche started in 12 years of age, with the regular menstrual cycle, without previous gynecological diseases. The woman had one pregnancy terminated by cesarean section because of the multiple (twin pregnancy. Excision of the tumor was completely done in the total endotracheal anesthesia. Pathohistologic (PH findings was: Dysplasia fibrosa cystica simplex mammae, with focuses of sclerosing adenosis. Expression of estrogen (ER and progesterone receptors (PR were positive. Conclusion. Ectopic mammary tissue in vulva in adult period is very rarely seen, and can be changed pathologically as well as normally positioned breast tissue into benign cystic changes, benign tumors, adenomas and fibroadenomas and tumors. Cells with low ER/PR receptor level grow independently of estrogene stimulation and they could be resistant to hormonal therapy effects.

  11. Analysis of dose in heterogeneity adjuvant radiotherapy after surgical treatment of cases of breast cancer; Analise da heterogeneidade de dose em radioterapia adjuvante apos tratamento cirurgico de casos de cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grechi, Bruna E.; Schwarz, Ana Paula, E-mail: anapaulaschwarz@yahoo.com.br [Centro Universitario Franciscano (UNIFRA), Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Teston, Adriano; Rodrigues, Joanilso S. [Clinica de Radioterapia Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Assuming the systems planning radiotherapy recognize all body structures of the same density (d=1 g/cm³), variations in electron density within the irradiated area, as is the case of patients who undergo reconstruction mammary processes and use tissue expanders, may influence the dose distribution in the treatment and may produce heterogeneities which are not measured by changing its actual distribution into healthy tissues or in the target volume to be irradiated. Through the calculation of the algorithms' dose distribution of the XiO® planning system (Fast Fourier Transform, Convolution, Superposition, Fast Superposition e Clarkson), when using correction of heterogeneity between tissues of different densities, there was obtained a percentage ratio of dose increase in the structures of interest, and of the amount of absorbed dose by healthy organs adjacent to the target volume. (author)

  12. [Functional morphology of pulp tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, H; Schaeg, G; Türk, R

    1989-01-01

    As compared with mesenchyme no genuine defense cells are developed in the tissue of the dental pulp and the nervous tissue. This is a further hint for the common development from ectoderm. The three dimensional meshwork of pulpa fibroblasts ("mesectoderm") is structured by elongated cell processes connected with each other by a variety of special cell junctions ("electronic cell coupling"). Metabolites from the microcirculation and neuropeptides from vegetative axons influence the activity of fibroblasts synthetizing groundsubstance. The meshwork of the groundsubstance has exclusion effects concerning molecules with a distinct molecular weight and charge. Thus a primitive defense system is established. With this the role of a newly described cell type of the dental pulp, the "lymphocytic pericyte" is discussed. Because of the poor capacity of the pulpa tissue for immunological reactions pathologically disorders may easily become chronically spreading their antigenic components throughout the body. PMID:2800671

  13. Pleura: In connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Connective tissue diseases (CTDs (or collagen vascular diseases represent a heterogeneous group of immunologically mediated disorders that affects many organs of the body including pleura. Frequency, presentation, and prognosis of pleural involvement depend on the underlying CTD. Connective tissue disorders may be heritable such as Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta; and autoimmune such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic sclerosis, mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD, Sjögren's syndrome (SS, dermatomyositis (DM, and polymyositis (PM. The subject of this review is to describe the variety of pleural disorders observed in the most frequent types of CTD: SLE, RA, scleroderma, SS, DM, PM, and MCTD.

  14. Pediatric free-tissue transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Joseph; Guo, Lifei; Labow, Brian I

    2009-12-01

    Free-tissue transfer has facilitated and refined the reconstructive surgeon's ability to repair or reconstruct acquired or congenital defects in children. Although parallels exist between indications for free-tissue transfer in adults and children, the technical challenges and surgical skill required in pediatric patients are much greater and the level of complexity can escalate tremendously. Although this operation is difficult, the success rate is high and the results are often outstanding, with the benefit of growth and functional adaptation of the transferred tissue. Experience in this field is cumulative and creative thinking is often required. This article outlines the specific features unique to children, the most commonly used flaps, the expected results in specific regions, and the potential pitfalls to be avoided. PMID:19952700

  15. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  16. Perspectives of studying fluorescence of dental solid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, M. T.; Taubinsky, Ilia M.; Kozma, S. J.; Romanov, A. M.

    1999-07-01

    As an object of study extracted human teeth were used. The whole was explored 30 teeth; measurements were conducted in intact regions of tooth: enamel, dentine, cement, root canal and in pathologically changed areas: caries of teeth and a solid teeth plaque. From present fluorescent spectrums of intact: enamel, dentine, cement; and of pathological: caries and teeth stone is seen that curves are likely shaped for each of the groups, but their amplitudes are not the same. Fluorescence maximum of all tooth areas falls on 700 nm, herewith possible to say that, spectrum shapes are specific for each tooth area, that can be used in diagnostic purposes, for example when processing a carious cavity. As to florescence intensity that teeth stone possesses the maximum of fluorescence, then an area submitted to caries, intact areas possess a weak fluorescence.

  17. Exercise regulation of adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training results in adaptations to numerous organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders including obesity and type 2 diabetes, and recent reports suggest that adipose tissue may play a role in these beneficial effects of exercise on overall health. Multiple studies have investigated the effects of exercise training on both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as the induction of beige adipocytes. Studies from both rodents and humans show that there are exercise training-induced changes in WAT including decreased cell size and lipid content, and increased mitochondrial activity. In rodents, exercise training causes an increased beiging of WAT. Whether exercise training causes a beiging of human scWAT, as well as which factors contribute to the exercise-induced beiging of WAT are areas of current investigation. Studies investigating the effects of exercise training on BAT mass and function have yielded conflicting data, and hence, is another area of intensive investigation. This review will focus on studies aimed at elucidating the mechanisms regulating exercise training induced-adaptations to adipose tissue. PMID:27386159

  18. Pediatric soft tissue oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andres; Haberland, Christel M; Baker, Suher

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of common color changes and soft tissue oral nodular abnormalities in children and adolescents. The clinical presentation and treatment options to address these conditions are presented in a concise approach, highlighting key features relevant to the oral health care professional. PMID:24655531

  19. [Serpins in hyperplastic colon tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, O I; Frantsiiants, E M; Kozlova, L S; Terpugov, A L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define α-2-macroglobulin (α-2M) and α-1-proteinase inhibitor (α-1PI) in tissues of malignant tumors and polyps of the lower parts of the colon. 28 patients had malignant tumors of the sigmoid colon or rectum (T3N0-1M0-2), 29 had polyps of the same location. Content of α-2M and α-1PI was studied in cytosols of the central, peripheral and conditionally healthy tissues (of resection line) of the mentioned hyperplasias by the ELISA method using standard test kits. Suppression of a-2M and increase of α-1PI (perifocal zone) were found in malignant tumor tissue, as well as α-1PI maintenance in tumorous focus. Increase of α-2M and decrease of α-1PI were detected in polyp tissue. Changes in physiological balance of serpins were assessed by α-1PI/α-2M ratio in comparison with the resection line. The risk of distortion of proliferation and differentiation processes increases in polyps in ineffective inhibition of proteolysis under the influence of released factors of malignancy. Endogenous or medicamentous restoration of balance of interaction of trypsin-like proteases and kallikrein with inhibitors will probably play the crucial role. PMID:25911925

  20. Vibratome sections of difficult tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zelander, T; Kirkeby, S

    1978-01-01

    After 1 hours of aldehyde fixation, 4 to 20 hours of soaking in 2% BSA (bovine serum albumin) solution and another 17 hours in the same fixative, the vibratome will produce smooth, even sections from agar embedded guinea pig thyroid, skeletal muscle or larynx with the same ease as it will from soft......, homogeneous tissues such as liver or spleen....

  1. Cycling Rho for tissue contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jessica L; Yap, Alpha S

    2016-08-29

    Cell contractility, driven by the RhoA GTPase, is a fundamental determinant of tissue morphogenesis. In this issue, Mason et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201603077) reveal that cyclic inactivation of RhoA, mediated by its antagonist, C-GAP, is essential for effective contractility to occur. PMID:27551059

  2. Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Xu; T.J.Lu; K.A.Seffen

    2008-01-01

    Advances in laser,microwave and similar tech nologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue.The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal,mechanical,biological and neural responses of the affected tissue:a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects.Currently,even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood,none exists to date in the interdisciplinarv area.A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin,involving bioheat transfer.biomechanics and physiology.A comprehensive literature review penrtinent to the subject is presented in this paper,covering four subject areas:(a)skin structure,(b)skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage,(c)skin biomechanics,and(d)skin biothermomechanics.The major problems,issues,and topics for further studies are also outlined.This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years.Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue,the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

  3. Application of Tissue Culture in Ornamental Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant tissue culture can be broadly defined as the culture of plant cells, tissues, or organs under sterile or aseptic conditions. To most growers, micropropagation is the term that perhaps best describes plant tissue culture. However, plant tissue culture plays an important role through its many ap...

  4. A Team Approach to Improving Tissue Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sions, Jacqueline A; Cheuvront, Kimberly A; Grove, Georgiana L; Beach, Myra J; Bowers, Jay W; Cendaña, Cinthia R; Hixson, Jesse R; Wilson, Mary C

    2016-04-01

    Tissue implant management can be labor intensive because of multiple storage locations and cumbersome tracking systems. The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project was to enhance patient safety and nursing satisfaction by upgrading our tissue-management facility and processes. We created a centralized storage room for tissue implants and staffed this room during all shifts. Tissue management was executed using tracking software and transportation devices that supported tissue receipt, storage, disposition, documentation, and reporting. Our project resulted in our full compliance with tissue implant requirements from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission. We also reduced our documentation error rate from 3% to less than 1%, and decreased the tissue-expiration rate by 1.1%. Tissues are now delivered to ORs, which allows RNs to focus on patient care rather than retrieval of implants. Monitoring of the tissue inventory has improved, resulting in the reduction of tissue wastage. PMID:27004501

  5. A tissue in the tissue: models of microvascular plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Hornbech, Morten Sonne; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The microcirculation is a dense space-filling network that, with few exceptions, invests every tissue in the body. To maintain an optimal function, any lasting change in volume or physiological activity level of a tissue is met with a corresponding structural change in the supplying microvascular...... detailed models of microvascular rarefaction, remodeling and growth. In the present paper we review some of the models of microvascular adaptation that have appeared in the literature within the last two decades. We focus on models in which local vessel structure and/or network structure is allowed to...... structural and mechanical properties of the vascular wall itself. This has allowed the emerging concept of tone as a pervasive factor in remodeling to enter microvascular models and this concept may become a cornerstone in future modeling work. The main goal in the present paper is briefly to review and...

  6. Dental Tissue Engineering: a New Approach to Dental Tissue Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Battistella, Elisa; Mele, Silvia; Rimondini, Lia

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of enamel represents a useful tool to counteract the loss of mineral tissue due to bacteria metabolism and foods and drinks ingestion. The technologies now available are based on the substitution of hydroxyapatite with fluor-hydroxyapatite in order to reduce solubility. The use of nanotechnology as well as the crystallization of hydroxypaptite starting from amorphous compound are effective strategies to gain mineralization even if they fail to reconstruct the histological and...

  7. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Rúben

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of n...

  8. Vibrational and structural investigations on adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Giarola, Marco; Guella, G.; Mariotto, G.; Monti, Francesca; Rossi, Barbara; Sanson, Andrea; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Two types of adipose tissue are found in mammals, including humans: the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brown adipose tissue (BAT). The WAT has a major role in lipid storage and body thermal insulation, while the BAT is a thermogenic tissue that produces heat by oxidizing fatty acids. Both structural characterization and spectroscopic discrimination of these different adipose tissues are matter of current interest, also in view of possible medical and ...

  9. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host ...

  10. Engineering Complex Orthopaedic Tissues via Strategic Biomimicry

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Dovina; Mosher, Christopher Z.; Boushell, Margaret K.; Lu, Helen H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary current challenge in regenerative engineering resides in the simultaneous formation of more than one type of tissue, as well as their functional assembly into complex tissues or organ systems. Tissue-tissue synchrony is especially important in the musculoskeletal system, whereby overall organ function is enabled by the seamless integration of bone with soft tissues such as ligament, tendon, or cartilage, as well as the integration of muscle with tendon. Therefore, in lieu of a tra...

  11. Tissue engineering and its implications in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Parimala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a novel and highly exciting field of research. With tissue engineering techniques it may be possible to repair damaged tissues or even create replacement organs. This article reviews the principles underlying key tissue engineering strategies and the typical components used. Examples of tissue engineering include passive approaches, such as dental implants, and inductive approaches, in which specific molecular signals are used to activate cells.

  12. Injectable Silk Foams for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Bellas, E.; Lo, T.J.; Fournier, E. P.; Brown, J E; Abbott, R.D.; Gil, E.S.; Marra, K.G.; Rubin, J.P.; Leisk, G.G.; Kaplan, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow for the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an injectable silk ...

  13. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization). In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal o...

  14. Membrane supported scaffold : architectures for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Bettahalli, Narasimha Murthy Srivatsa

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at restoring or regenerating a damaged tissue. Often the tissue recreation occurs by combining cells, derived from a patient biopsy, onto a 3D porous matrix, functioning as a scaffold. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is the inability to provide sufficient nutrient and oxygen supply in developing 3D in-vitro culture. In human body the vasculature is embedded into almost every tissues and organs. They transport blood, and thus nutrients and waste pro...

  15. Eddy Current Sensor for Tissue Conductivity Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Tanha, Milad

    2013-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of the tissue can be measured via eddy current sensor and it can be used to distinguish cancerous tissue from healthy tissue. The conductivity of healthy and cancerous tissues is different due to the strong correlation between necrosis in tumor and the associated membrane breakdown [10]. Three types of similar electronic set ups with different components based on eddy current technique  were investigated to measure electrical properties of tissue in vitro as well as te...

  16. Mechanical formalism for tissue dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tlili, Sham; Graner, Francois; Marcq, Philippe; MOLINO, François; Saramito, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of morphogenesis in living organisms has been renewed by tremendous progress in experimental techniques that provide access to cell-scale, quantitative information both on the shapes of cells within tissues and on the genes being expressed. This information suggests that our understanding of the respective contributions of gene expression and mechanics, and of their crucial entanglement, will soon leap forward. Biomechanics increasingly benefits from models, which assist the design and interpretation of experiments, point out the main ingredients and assumptions, and can ultimately lead to predictions. The newly accessible local information thus urges for a reflection on how to select suitable classes of mechanical models. We review both mechanical ingredients suggested by the current knowledge of tissue behaviour, and modelling methods that can help generate a constitutive equation. We also recall the mathematical framework developped for continuum materials and how to transform a constitut...

  17. Distribution Principle of Bone Tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu

    2009-01-01

    Using the analytic and experimental techniques we present an exploratory study of the mass distribution features of the high coincidence of centre of mass of heterogeneous bone tissue in vivo and its centroid of geometry position. A geometric concept of the average distribution radius of bone issue is proposed and functional relation of this geometric distribution feature between the partition density and its relative tissue average distribution radius is observed. Based upon the mass distribution feature, our results suggest a relative distance assessment index between the center of mass of cortical bone and the bone center of mass and establish a bone strength equation. Analysing the data of human foot in vivo, we notice that the mass and geometric distribution laws have expanded the connotation of Wolff's law, which implies a leap towards the quantitative description of bone strength. We finally conclude that this will not only make a positive contribution to help assess osteoporosis, but will also provide...

  18. Photoacoustic microscopy in tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic tomography (PAT is an attractive modality for noninvasive, volumetric imaging of scattering media such as biological tissues. By choosing the ultrasonic detection frequency, PAT enables scalable spatial resolution with an imaging depth of up to ∼7 cm while maintaining a high depth-to-resolution ratio of ∼200 and consistent optical absorption contrasts. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM, the microscopic embodiment of PAT, aims to image at millimeter depth and micrometer-scale resolution. PAM is well-suited for characterizing three-dimensional scaffold-based samples, including scaffolds themselves, cells, and blood vessels, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we review our previous work on applications of PAM in tissue engineering and then discuss its future developments.

  19. Radiation sterilization of tissue grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tissue Bank at the Tata Memorial Hospital was started in 1989 in collaboration with the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, as part of an IAEA project to promote the use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. The Bank produces freeze dried, gamma irradiated allografts such as skin, amniotic membrane, dura mater, fascia lata, bone blocks/chips/dust, iliac crest, femoral heads and ribs. Tissues are harvested from cadavers or obtained secondary to surgical procedures. After processing, the grafts are exposed to 25 kGy of gamma radiation. The grafts have found use in a variety of clinical conditions like burns, non-union fractures, periodontal osseous defects and surgical reconstructions. (author)

  20. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Joseph M Stavas

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft...

  1. Biomedical advances from tissue culture

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Tetsuji; Sato, J. Denry; Barnes, David W.; Sato, Gordon H.

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration that the “dedifferentiation” of cells commonly observed in the early days of tissue culture was due to selective overgrowth of fibroblasts led to enrichment culture techniques (alternate animal and culture passage) designed to give a selective advantage to functionally differentiated tumor cells. These experiments resulted in the derivation of a large number of functionally differentiated clonal strains of a range of cell types. These results gave rise to the hypothesis that...

  2. Quality assurance in tissue banking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today the different kinds of human allografts have the full acceptance for the clinical application for the treatment of a very wide range of indications in many medical disciplines. An essential aspect of this acceptance of these allografts is the complete biological safety, first of all the exclusion of virus contaminations. The German Institute for Cell and Tissue Replacement (DIZG) is functioning as a national tissue bank cooperating with more than 300 hospitals in Germany and Austria. Its profile is determined by the processing of tissue allografts like cortical and cancellous bone, fascia lata, tendon as well as skin, skin substitutes and cultured autologous and allogenic kerytinocytes. DIZG is licensed by the German Federal Institute for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Products and the country health authorities. To ensure that the allografts fulfill the highest quality requirements a controlled and certified quality management system has been established. In accordance with the Good Manufacturing Practice all procedures are perform-ned on the basis of validated methods. All non-vital allografts are sterilized by a chemical sterilisation method with peracetic acid (PAA) that is validated by the Robert Koch Institute, an independent governmental institution, for the inactivation of bacteria, fungi and viruses. The used test viruses are Pseudorabies V, Polio V, Bovine Virusdiarrhoe V, Parvo V, Hepatitis A V, HIV). The DIZG quality management system (QMS) is based on ISO 9001 which is required for institutions that are involved in processing, research and education and is certified by an international auditing body. With this presentation the validation design shall be introduced and the responsibility of regional and national tissue banks for internal and external quality control and quality assurance shall be discussed

  3. Endoscopic tissue diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harewood, Gavin C

    2008-09-01

    The extremely poor outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, in large part, reflects the late presentation of these tumors and the challenging nature of establishing a tissue diagnosis. Establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma requires obtaining evidence of malignancy from sampling of the epithelium of the biliary tract, which has proven to be challenging. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration performs slightly better than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, both endoscopic approaches demonstrate disappointing performance characteristics.

  4. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B.

    2012-01-01

    Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commerc...

  5. Polyelectrolyte Multilayers in Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Larkin, Adam L.; Rajagopalan, Padmavathy

    2011-01-01

    The layer-by-layer assembly of sequentially adsorbed, alternating polyelectrolytes has become increasingly important over the past two decades. The ease and versatility in assembling polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) has resulted in numerous wide ranging applications of these materials. More recently, PEMs are being used in biological applications ranging from biomaterials, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery. The ability to manipulate the chemical, physical, surface...

  6. Tissue engineering the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal

  7. Radiation effects on human tissues and their use in tissue banking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and physical effects of ionising radiation on animal tissues and tissue components are reviewed. Various aspects of the use of radiation sterilization for human tissues intended for tissue banks are discussed. Reference is made to the IAEA initiative to develop a Human Tissue Bank at the Orthopaedic Hospital, Kemmedine, Burma to train local technical staff. (U.K.)

  8. Elasticity of developing cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkut, Stephanie; Swift, Joe; Krieger, Christine; Discher, Dennis

    2011-03-01

    Proper development and function of the heart from the tissue to cellular scale depends on a compliant ECM. Here we study the maturation of embryonic cardiac tissue mechanics in parallel with the effects of extracellular mechanics on individual cardiomyocyte function throughout early development. We used micropipette aspiration to measure local and bulk elastic moduli (E) of embryonic avian heart tissue from days 2-12. We observe stiffening of the early heart tube from E = 1 kPa at day 1 to E = 2 kPa at day 4, reaching neonatal values by day 12. Treating heart tubes with blebbistatin led to 30% decrease in E, indicating a significant but partial actomyosin contribution to mechanics at these stages. We performed a proteomic analysis of intact and decellularized 2-4 day heart tubes by mass spectrometry to quantify the ECM present at these stages. Isolated cardiomyocytes from 2-4 day chick embryos were cultured on collagen-coated PA gels of various stiffnesses. Beating magnitude was modulated by substrates with E = 1-2 kPa, similar to physiological E at those stages.

  9. Optoacoustic detection of tissue glycation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, Ara; Omar, Murad; Tserevelakis, George J; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-09-01

    Oxidative-based diseases including diabetes, chronic renal failure, cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders are accompanied by accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). Therefore, AGE-associated changes in tissue optical properties could yield a viable pathological indicator for disease diagnostics and monitoring. We investigated whether skin glycation could be detected based on absorption changes associated with AGE accumulation using spectral optoacoustic measurements and interrogated the optimal spectral band for skin glycation determination. Glycated and non-glycated skin was optoacoustically measured at multiple wavelengths in the visible region. The detected signals were spectrally processed and compared to measurements of skin auto-fluorescence and to second harmonic generation multiphoton microscopy images. Optoacoustic measurements are shown to be capable of detecting skin glycolysis based on AGE detection. A linear dependence was observed between optoacoustic intensity and the progression of skin glycation. The findings where corroborated by autofluorescence observations. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by observing normalised tissue spectra. This result points to a ratiometric method for skin glycation detection, specifically at 540 nm and 620 nm. We demonstrate that optoacoustic spectroscopy could be employed to detect AGE accumulation, and possibly can be employed as a non-invasive quick method for monitoring tissue glycation. PMID:26417487

  10. Differentiating tissue by fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Stefan; Huen, Julien; Malthan, Dirk

    2004-03-01

    A common problem in several surgical applications is the lack of navigational information. Most often, the only source of information about the location of crucial structures, in relation to the surgical instrument, is the visible and tactile sensory input of the surgeon. In some cases, this leads to time-consuming procedures and a high risk for the patient. Therefore, we developed a spectroscopic sensor system for automatic differentiation between several tissue types. For example in milling processes, a sensor that is able to detect bone in contrast to nerve or vein tissue can be used to control the milling process. We showed exemplarily for the cochlea implant, a typical ENT-surgery, that with the help of our sensor system, the milling of bone can be accelerated without increasing the risk for the patient. It is also possible to use this type of sensor system in the area of medical robotics in soft-tissue applications. With real-time information, a continuous registration can take place, in contrast to a registration that is done using static preoperatively acquired images. We showed that our sensor system can be used to dynamically update the location of the patient in relation to CT or MR-images. In conclusion, we have been able to show that well-known spectroscopy sensors can be used to open new possibilities in medical treatment with and without the use of robotics.

  11. A clinical analysis of the incidences of non-carious cervical lesions and occlusal wear in the middle-aged and elderly%中老年人群牙颈部非龋性缺损与(牙合)面磨损的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨焰; 金铁虎; 王芬芬; 但娇阳; 李明

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the incidences of non-carious cervical lesions and occlusal wear in the middle-aged and elderly, their correlations, and the possible risk factors associated with the formation of each. Method: A total of 568 office staff aged 45 years and above were involved. All the patients were examined for the presence and severity of NCCL and occlusal wear using the Tooth Wear Index (TWI). Result: The prevalence rates of NCCL and occlusal wear were observed 73.24 % and 87.50 % respectively in this population. Both the occurrence rates and tooth wear degrees were significantly related to the gender and the age. The prevalence of teeth with NCCL was significantly higher when the occlusal wear presented, and teeth with occlusal wear were more frequently observed the presence of NCCL (P <0.05). This study did not find significant associations between these two lesions and bruxism, dietary habits, and toothbrushing methods. Conclusion: NCCL and occlusal wear were common phenomena in the middle-aged and elderly. A relationship between the the incidences of each lesion was found. Occlusal force, mechanical friction and age were the common risk factors for NCCL and occlusal wear, but aggravating factors were different.%目的:调查中老年人群牙颈部非龋性缺损(NCCL)与(牙合)面磨损发生情况,并对两者的发病因素和相互关系进行探讨.方法:对568名45岁及以上机关干部,使用Smith和Knight牙齿磨损指数(TWI)进行牙颈部非龋性缺损与(牙合)面磨损的患病情况调查.结果:该研究人群NCCL的患病率为73.24%,(牙合)面磨损患病率为87.50%.NCCL和(牙合)面磨损的患病率和严重程度与性别和年龄相关,发生(牙合)面磨损的患牙更易发生NCCL,反之亦然(P<0.05).该人群的磨牙症史、饮食习惯及刷牙方法与NCCL和(牙合)面磨损的发生没有明显相关性.结论:牙颈部非龋性缺损与(牙合)面磨损在中老年人中较

  12. Hounsfield unit dynamics of adipose tissue and non-adipose soft tissue in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcevoy, Fintan; Madsen, Mads T.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring;

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs.......Changes in the Hounsfield Unit value of adipose tissue and of no-adipose soft tissue during growth are poorly documented. This study examines the HU of these tissues in growing pigs....

  13. Assessment of tissue ingrowth rates in polyurethane scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramrattan, N.N.; Heijkants, R.G.J.C.; Tienen, T.G. van; Schouten, A.J.; Veth, R. P. H.; Buma, P

    2005-01-01

    The continuous development of new biomaterials for tissue engineering and the enhancement of tissue ingrowth into existing scaffolds, using growth factors, create the necessity for developing adequate tools to assess tissue ingrowth rates into porous biomaterials. Current histomorphometric techniques evaluating rates of tissue ingrowth tend either to measure the overall tissue content in an entire sample or to depend on the user to indicate a front of tissue ingrowth. Neither method is partic...

  14. Assessment of tissue ingrowth rates in polyurethane scaffolds for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Ramrattan, Navin N.; Heijkants, Ralf G.J.C.; van Tienen, Tony G.; Schouten, Arend Jan; Veth, Rene P.H.; Buma, Pieter; Ramrattan, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    The continuous development of new biomaterials for tissue engineering and the enhancement of tissue ingrowth into existing scaffolds, using growth factors, create the necessity for developing adequate tools to assess tissue ingrowth rates into porous biomaterials. Current histomorphometric techniques evaluating rates of tissue ingrowth tend either to measure the overall tissue content in an entire sample or to depend on the user to indicate a front of tissue ingrowth. Neither method is partic...

  15. Photoacoustic characterization of ovarian tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Andres; Gamelin, John; Guo, Puyun; Yan, Shikui; Sanders, Mary; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers with a five-year survival rate of only 30%. Because current imaging techniques (ultrasound, CT, MRI, PET) are not capable of detecting ovarian cancer early, most diagnoses occur in later stages (III/IV). Thus many women are not correctly diagnosed until the cancer becomes widely metastatic. On the other hand, while the majority of women with a detectable ultrasound abnormality do not harbor a cancer, they all undergo unnecessary oophorectomy. Hence, new imaging techniques that can provide functional and molecular contrasts are needed for improving the specificity of ovarian cancer detection and characterization. One such technique is photoacoustic imaging, which has great potential to reveal early tumor angiogenesis through intrinsic optical absorption contrast from hemoglobin or extrinsic contrast from conjugated agents binding to appropriate molecular receptors. To better understand the cancer disease process of ovarian tissue using photoacoustic imaging, it is necessary to first characterize the properties of normal ovarian tissue. We have imaged ex-vivo ovarian tissue using a 3D co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system. The system is capable of volumetric imaging by means of electronic focusing. Detecting and visualizing small features from multiple viewing angles is possible without the need for any mechanical movement. The results show strong optical absorption from vasculature, especially highly vascularized corpora lutea, and low absorption from follicles. We will present correlation of photoacoustic images from animals with histology. Potential application of this technology would be the noninvasive imaging of the ovaries for screening or diagnostic purposes.

  16. Tissue culture of ornamental cacti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pérez-Molphe-Balch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacti species are plants that are well adapted to growing in arid and semiarid regions where the main problem is water availability. Cacti have developed a series of adaptations to cope with water scarcity, such as reduced leaf surface via morphological modifications including spines, cereous cuticles, extended root systems and stem tissue modifications to increase water storage, and crassulacean acid metabolism to reduce transpiration and water loss. Furthermore, seeds of these plants very often exhibit dormancy, a phenomenon that helps to prevent germination when the availability of water is reduced. In general, cactus species exhibit a low growth rate that makes their rapid propagation difficult. Cacti are much appreciated as ornamental plants due to their great variety and diversity of forms and their beautiful short-life flowers; however, due to difficulties in propagating them rapidly to meet market demand, they are very often over-collected in their natural habitats, which leads to numerous species being threatened, endangered or becoming extinct. Therefore, plant tissue culture techniques may facilitate their propagation over a shorter time period than conventional techniques used for commercial purposes; or may help to recover populations of endangered or threatened species for their re-introduction in the wild; or may also be of value to the preservation and conservation of the genetic resources of this important family. Herein we present the state-of-the-art of tissue culture techniques used for ornamental cacti and selected suggestions for solving a number of the problems faced by members of the Cactaceae family.

  17. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  18. Biomimetic strategies for engineering composite tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy; Robinson, Jennifer; Lu, Helen

    2016-08-01

    The formation of multiple tissue types and their integration into composite tissue units presents a frontier challenge in regenerative engineering. Tissue-tissue synchrony is crucial in providing structural support for internal organs and enabling daily activities. This review highlights the state-of-the-art in composite tissue scaffold design, and explores how biomimicry can be strategically applied to avoid over-engineering the scaffold. Given the complexity of biological tissues, determining the most relevant parameters for recapitulating native structure-function relationships through strategic biomimicry will reduce the burden for clinical translation. It is anticipated that these exciting efforts in composite tissue engineering will enable integrative and functional repair of common soft tissue injuries and lay the foundation for total joint or limb regeneration. PMID:27010653

  19. Hydrodynamic theory of tissue shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Popović, Marko; Merkel, Matthias; Etournay, Raphaël; Eaton, Suzanne; Jülicher, Frank; Salbreux, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hydrodynamic theory to describe shear flows in developing epithelial tissues. We introduce hydrodynamic fields corresponding to state properties of constituent cells as well as a contribution to overall tissue shear flow due to rearrangements in cell network topology. We then construct a constitutive equation for the shear rate due to topological rearrangements. We identify a novel rheological behaviour resulting from memory effects in the tissue. We show that anisotropic deformation of tissue and cells can arise from two distinct active cellular processes: generation of active stress in the tissue, and actively driven cellular rearrangements. These two active processes result in distinct cellular and tissue shape changes, depending on boundary conditions applied on the tissue. Our findings have consequences for the understanding of tissue morphogenesis during development.

  20. Soft tissue differentiation by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zam, Azhar; Stelzle, Florian; Nkenke, Emeka; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Schmidt, Michael; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre

    2009-07-01

    Laser surgery gives the possibility to work remotely which leads to high precision, little trauma and high level sterility. However these advantages are coming with the lack of haptic feedback during the laser ablation of tissue. Therefore additional means are required to control tissue-specific ablation during laser surgery supporting the surgeon regardless of experience and skills. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy provides a straightforward and simple approach for optical tissue differentiation. We measured diffuse reflectance from four various tissue types ex vivo. We applied Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to differentiate the four tissue types and computed the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Special emphasis was taken on the identification of nerve as the most crucial tissue for maxillofacial surgery. The results show a promise for differentiating soft tissues as guidance for tissue-specific laser surgery by means of the diffuse reflectance.

  1. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute...... to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible...... quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and...

  2. Quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Esben; Jensen, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    In metabolically healthy humans, adipose tissue is exquisitely sensitive to insulin. Similar to muscle and liver, adipose tissue lipolysis is insulin resistant in adults with central obesity and type 2 diabetes. Perhaps uniquely, however, insulin resistance in adipose tissue may directly contribute to development of insulin resistance in muscle and liver because of the increased delivery of free fatty acids to those tissues. It has been hypothesized that insulin adipose tissue resistance may precede other metabolic defects in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, precise and reproducible quantification of adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, in vivo, in humans, is an important measure. Unfortunately, no consensus exists on how to determine adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. We review the methods available to quantitate adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and will discuss their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:27073214

  3. Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ZIP code here Soft Tissue Sarcomas and Agent Orange VA presumes some soft tissue sarcomas in Veterans are related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during military service. The soft ...

  4. Lipolysis in human adipose tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik;

    2002-01-01

    adipose tissue venous glycerol concentration. Despite several methodological limitations inherent to both techniques, the results strongly suggest that microdialysis and catheterization provide similar estimates of subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis in steady-state experimental settings like rest and...

  5. Capillary permeability in adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, W P; Nielsen, S L

    1976-01-01

    A method for measurement of capillary permeability using external registration of gamma emitting isotopes after close arterial bolus injection was applied to the isolated inguinal fat pad in slightly fasting rabbits. An average extraction of 26 per cent for 51Cr-EDTA was found at a plasma flow of...... about 7 ml/100 g-min. This corresponds to a capillary diffusion capacity of 2.0 ml/100 g-min which is half the value reported for vasodilated skeletal muscle having approximately twice as great capillary surface area. Thus, adipose tissue has about the same capillary permeability during slight metabolic...

  6. Engineering vascular development for tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Rivron, Nicolas Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine aim at restoring a damaged tissue by recreating in vitro or promoting its regeneratin in vovo. The vasculature is central to these therapies for the irrigation of the defective tissue (oxygen, nutrients or circulating regenerative cells) and as an inductive, trophic embedded organ. This thesis describes the in vitro formation of biological vascular networks for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In a first part, we show the ...

  7. Nonmuscle Tissues Contribution to Cancer Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Argilés, Josep M.; Britta Stemmler; López-Soriano, Francisco J.; Silvia Busquets

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a syndrome associated with cancer, characterized by body weight loss, muscle and adipose tissue wasting, and inflammation, being often associated with anorexia. In spite of the fact that muscle tissue represents more than 40% of body weight and seems to be the main tissue involved in the wasting that occurs during cachexia, recent developments suggest that tissues/organs such as adipose (both brown and white), brain, liver, gut, and heart are directly involved in the cachectic pro...

  8. Laser Ablatin of Dental Hard Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seka, W.; Rechmann, P.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Fried, D.

    2007-07-31

    This paper discusses ablation of dental hard tissue using pulsed lasers. It focuses particularly on the relevant tissue and laser parameters and some of the basic ablation processes that are likely to occur. The importance of interstitial water and its phase transitions is discussed in some detail along with the ablation processes that may or may not directly involve water. The interplay between tissue parameters and laser parameters in the outcome of the removal of dental hard tissue is discussed in detail.

  9. Computed tomography in the analysis of calcification patterns in pediatric bone tumors of the hip: a new approach; Tomografia computadorizada na analise dos padroes de calcificacoes nos tumores osseos da bacia em pediatria: nova abordagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio de; Werlang, Henrique Zambenedetti; Bergoli, Pedro Martins [Hospital Universitario Cassiano Antonio de Morais/Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Gloria, Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: hzwerlang@gmail.com; Frechiani, Madalena; Oliveira, Fernao [Hospital Infantil Nossa Senhora da Gloria, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    Objective: In the pediatric group, the radiological diagnosis of bone tumors of the hip is difficult and presents some peculiarities, but reviewed literature does not approach this specific problem. The objective of the present study was to investigate the existence of reliable radiological patterns for the differential diagnosis of these tumors. Materials And Methods: Radiological findings of bone tumors of the hip in ten patients in the age range between 8 and 19 years have been reviewed. Results: Bone reaction (sclerosis or lysis), periosteal reaction (lamellar with single or multiple layers, or radial), tumor extent in the bone and level of soft tissues invasion have presented low specificity. Soft tissue calcifications, when considered as a whole, were non-specific. However, when those calcifications with varied shapes and sizes, nearby the affected bone (pattern I) were separated from those, thin and amorphous, away from the bone (pattern II), we have observed that the pattern I was totally non-specific, and the pattern II was found in the three cases of osteosarcoma (100%) and in only one case of Ewing's sarcoma (16.6%). Conclusion: In the present study, pattern II calcifications have shown a 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity for osteosarcoma. However, their importance may be not limited to the radiological diagnosis. Pattern II calcifications indicate probably ideal sites for biopsy. (author)

  10. Mechanics of needle-tissue interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesthuis, Roy J.; Veen, van Youri R.J.; Jahya, Alex; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    When a needle is inserted into soft tissue, interac- tion forces are developed at the needle tip and along the needle shaft. The needle tip force is due to cutting of the tissue, and the force along the needle shaft is due to friction between needle and tissue. In this study, the friction force is d

  11. An elemental microanalysis of mouse ileum tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scanning proton microprobe has been used for a preliminary investigation of the cellular distribution of heavy metals and other elements in mouse ileum tissue. In order to study the cellular and elemental morphology of a villus the spatial distributions of the yields of characteristic X-rays are compared to a photomicrograph of the irradiated tissue and to a stained adjacent tissue section

  12. Optical properties of biological tissues: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of reported tissue optical properties summarizes the wavelength-dependent behavior of scattering and absorption. Formulae are presented for generating the optical properties of a generic tissue with variable amounts of absorbing chromophores (blood, water, melanin, fat, yellow pigments) and a variable balance between small-scale scatterers and large-scale scatterers in the ultrastructures of cells and tissues. (topical review)

  13. Hydrophobicity of peritoneal tissues in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; Bruinsma, GM; Rakhorst, G; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2002-01-01

    In this study, an inventory of the hydrophobicity of peritoneal tissues in the living rat was made. Peritoneal tissues were divided into mesentery (i.e., omentum) and parietal and visceral peritoneum and their hydrophobicity was determined by the sessile drop method. All peritoneal tissues were hydr

  14. Multimodal phantom of liver tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena K Chmarra

    Full Text Available Medical imaging plays an important role in patients' care and is continuously being used in managing health and disease. To obtain the maximum benefit from this rapidly developing technology, further research is needed. Ideally, this research should be done in a patient-safe and environment-friendly manner; for example, on phantoms. The goal of this work was to develop a protocol and manufacture a multimodal liver phantom that is suitable for ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging modalities. The proposed phantom consists of three types of mimicked soft tissues: liver parenchyma, tumors, and portal veins, that are made of six ingredients: candle gel, sephadex®, agarose, glycerol, distilled water, and silicone string. The entire procedure is advantageous, since preparation of the phantom is simple, rather cost-effective, and reasonably quick - it takes around 2 days. Besides, most of the phantom's parts can be reused to manufacture a new phantom. Comparison of ultrasound images of real patient's liver and the developed phantom shows that the phantom's liver tissue and its structures are well simulated.

  15. Infrared Microspectroscopy Of Pathologic Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Timothy J.; Engler, Walter F.; Ventre, Kathleen M.

    1989-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful technique by which to characterize the conformations of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (1). Previously we have demonstrated that infrared spectroscopy can be used to characterize the secondary structure of abnormal protein accumulation products, known as amyloid, which are often found in association with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (2). The utility of the technique was highly limited by the fact that essentially the entire specimen had to consist of this abnormal protein for infrared spectroscopic analysis to be useful. The development of high quality microscopes capable of both light microscopic and infrared characterization of materials has enabled us to extend our earlier use of infrared spectroscopy to diseases and tissues in which the abnormal region of interest is only a few hundred square micrometers in area. Tissue for spectroscopic examination is mounted on microscope slides which have been prepared by acid washing, plating with gold or gold-palladium alloy (3) and coating with high molecular weight poly-L-lysine. Sections of tissue which have been previously embedded in paraffin are cut with a microtome at 4 to 5 micrometers thickness, floated onto a bath of distilled water, picked up on the microscope slide, and allowed to dry overnight. Paraffin is removed by soaking the slides in two changes of xylene, and then the sections are rehydrated by placing them in absolute alcohol, then in fifty percent alcohol, and finally in water. Sections may then be stained using standard histologic stains, such as hematoxylin and eosin, then once again dehydrated with alcohol. After drying, the sections are covered with an index-matching fluid, such as Fluorolube, which allows a relatively good visual microscopic examination of the tissue when the microscope is used in reflectance mode. High quality reflectance infrared spectra may be easily obtained when the tissue is prepared and mounted in this way (Figure 1

  16. Tissue engineering of cartilages using biomatrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melrose, J.; Chuang, C.; Whitelock, J.

    2008-01-01

    cartilage engineering approaches and many of these are discussed and their in vitro and in vivo applications covered in this review. Tissue engineering is entering an exciting era; significant advances have been made; however, many technical challenges remain to be solved before this technology becomes......Tissue engineering is an exciting new cross-disciplinary methodology which applies the principles of engineering and structure-function relationships between normal and pathological tissues to develop biological substitute to restore, maintain or improve tissue function. Tissue engineering...

  17. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  18. TISSUE PREPARATION FOR IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Josiah N. Wilcox 1. Harvest tissue and rinse in PBS or saline. - Immerse tissue in 4% paraformaldehyde/0.1M sodium phosphate buffer pH7.4 (recipe follows) at 4°C for 1-3hrs. Try to avoid overnight fixation if possible as this causes problems with tissue adherence on slides during the hybridization procedure. - Immerse tissue in sterile 15% sucrose/1xPBS (recipe follows) 3 hrs. to overnight at 4°C. - Embed tissue in O.C.T. (Baxter No. M7148-4), M1 (Lipshaw) or any other c...

  19. Photoacoustic tomography of water in biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhun; Li, Changhui; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    As an emerging imaging technique that combines high optical contrast and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has been widely used to image optically absorptive objects in both human and animal tissues. PAT overcomes the depth limitation of other high-resolution optical imaging methods, and it is also free from speckle artifacts. To our knowledge, water has never been imaged by PAT in biological tissue. Here, for the first time, we experimentally imaged water in both tissue phantoms and biological tissues using a near infrared (NIR) light source. The differences among photoacoustic images of water with different concentrations indicate that laser-based PAT can usefully detect and image water content in tissue.

  20. Quality system in Malaysian National Tissue Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality System in Malaysian National Tissue Bank is based on the Quality Manual which has been drawn up by the chairman, who is the Dean, School of Medical Sciences. The Quality Manual include general standard for Tissue Banking in University Science of Malaysia which describe and explain a set of general standard similar to the EATB standard. The primary aim of the quality system is to produce a safe and effective tissue graft for successful clinical use and to ensure the safety of tissue bank operators. The Quality Manual also related the role of a Technical Manual, which explain the standard of technical aspect of tissue bank in a Quality Assurance. The safe working environment and Good Laboratory Practice is highlight in Quality System. Documentation of tissue bank activities is the key to the administration to tissue bank. Finally Quality System in tissue banking will never be complete without a Tissue Bank Auditing System which allow the tissue bank coordinator and staff to look into the problem and further enhance the progress of the tissue bank

  1. Calculation of neutron kerma in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron kerma of normal and tumor tissues has been calculated using the tissues elemental concentration. A program developed in Math cad contains the kerma factors of C, H, O, N, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, etc. that are in normal and tumor human tissues. Having the elemental composition of any human tissue the neutron kerma can be calculated. The program was tested using the elemental composition of tumor tissues such as sarcoma, melanoma, carcinoma and adenoid cystic, also neutron kerma for adipose and muscle tissue for normal adult was calculated. The results are in agreement with those published in literature. The neutron kerma for water was also calculated because in some dosimetric calculations water is used to describe normal and tumor tissues. From this comparison was found that at larger energies kerma factors are approximately the same, but energies less than 100 eV the differences are large. (Author)

  2. Calculation of neutron kerma in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Ing. Electrica y Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: rvega@cantera.reduaz.mx

    2004-07-01

    Neutron kerma of normal and tumor tissues has been calculated using the tissues elemental concentration. A program developed in Math cad contains the kerma factors of C, H, O, N, Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, etc. that are in normal and tumor human tissues. Having the elemental composition of any human tissue the neutron kerma can be calculated. The program was tested using the elemental composition of tumor tissues such as sarcoma, melanoma, carcinoma and adenoid cystic, also neutron kerma for adipose and muscle tissue for normal adult was calculated. The results are in agreement with those published in literature. The neutron kerma for water was also calculated because in some dosimetric calculations water is used to describe normal and tumor tissues. From this comparison was found that at larger energies kerma factors are approximately the same, but energies less than 100 eV the differences are large. (Author)

  3. Tissue Biopsies in Diabetes Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Gaster, Michael; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    resistance of glucose disposal and glycogen synthesis in this tissue are hallmark features of type 2 diabetes in humans (2,3). During the past two decades, we have carried out more than 1200 needle biopsies of skeletal muscle to study the cellular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes....... Together with morphological studies, measurement of energy stores and metabolites, enzyme activity and phosphorylation, gene and protein expression in skeletal muscle biopsies have revealed a variety of cellular abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. The possibility to establish...... human muscle cell cultures from muscle biopsies of diabetic subjects has further extended our possibilities to study cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance and potentially distinguish between primary and secondary defects (3). More recently, the application of global approaches such as proteomics and...

  4. Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells are the building blocks for all other cells in an organism. The human body has about 200 different types of cells and any of those cells can be produced by a stem cell. This fact emphasizes the significance of stem cells in transplantational medicine, regenerative therapy and bioengineering. Whether embryonic or adult, these cells can be used for the successful treatment of a wide range of diseases that were not treatable before, such as osteogenesis imperfecta in children, different forms of leukemias, acute myocardial infarction, some neural damages and diseases, etc. Bioengineering, e.g. successful manipulation of these cells with multipotential capacity of differentiation toward appropriate patterns and precise quantity, are the prerequisites for successful outcome and treatment. By combining in vivo and in vitro techniques, it is now possible to manage the wide spectrum of tissue damages and organ diseases. Although the stem-cell therapy is not a response to all the questions, it provides more...

  5. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  6. Dynamic simulations of tissue welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitland, D.J.; Eder, D.C.; London, R.A.; Glinsky, M.E. [and others

    1996-02-01

    The exposure of human skin to near-infrared radiation is numerically simulated using coupled laser, thermal transport and mass transport numerical models. The computer model LATIS is applied in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional geometries. Zones within the skin model are comprised of a topical solder, epidermis, dermis, and fatty tissue. Each skin zone is assigned initial optical, thermal and water density properties consistent with values listed in the literature. The optical properties of each zone (i.e. scattering, absorption and anisotropy coefficients) are modeled as a kinetic function of the temperature. Finally, the water content in each zone is computed from water diffusion where water losses are accounted for by evaporative losses at the air-solder interface. The simulation results show that the inclusion of water transport and evaporative losses in the model are necessary to match experimental observations. Dynamic temperature and damage distributions are presented for the skin simulations.

  7. Radioprotection of normal tissue cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Patrick; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten [Heidelberg University, Department of Radiation Oncology Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Improvements of radiotherapy in combination with surgery and systemic therapy have resulted in increased survival rates of tumor patients. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is still dose limiting. Several strategies have been pursued with the goal to develop substances which may prevent or reduce damage to normal tissue. Drugs applied before radiotherapy are called radioprotectors; those given after radiotherapy to reduce long-term effects are radiomitigators. Despite more than 50 years of research, until now only two substances, amifostine and palifermin, have overcome all obstacles of clinical approval and are applied during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer or total body irradiation, respectively. However, better understanding of the cellular pathways involved in radiation response has allowed the development of several highly promising drugs functioning as scavengers of reactive oxygen species or targeting specific molecules involved in regulation of cell death pathways or cell cycle arrest. The present review describes the major targets for radioprotectors or radiomitigators currently tested in clinical trials. (orig.) [German] Verbesserungen in der Radiotherapie in Kombination mit Chirurgie und Chemotherapie fuehrten zu erhoehten Ueberlebensraten von Tumorpatienten. Trotzdem sind Strahlenfolgen am Normalgewebe weiterhin dosislimitierend. Verschiedene Ansaetze wurden verfolgt, um Substanzen zu entwickeln, die Normalgewebstoxizitaeten verhindern oder verringern. Medikamente, die vor der Radiotherapie verabreicht werden, heissen Radioprotektoren, solche die danach gegeben werden, um langfristige Effekte zu reduzieren, Radiomitigatoren. Trotz mehr als 50 Jahre Forschung ueberwanden nur zwei Substanzen, Amifostin und Palifermin, alle Huerden der klinischen Pruefung und sind fuer die Anwendung waehrend der Radiotherapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren bzw. bei Ganzkoerperbestrahlung zugelassen. Jedoch erlaubte das bessere Verstaendnis der Signalwege

  8. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  9. An instructive role for the interstitial matrix in tissue patterning: tissue segregation and intercellular invasion

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Intercellular invasion is the intrusion of the cells of one tissue into space occupied by a second tissue. The alternative situation to invasion, one characteristic of most coherent tissues, is segregation, with identifiable boundaries existing between contiguous tissues. The interfaces between mesenchymal and myocardial tissues in the developing avian heart show a profoundly different character in different regions of the heart: the interface between epicardial mesenchyme and heart wall myoc...

  10. Orthopaedic Interface Tissue Engineering for the Biological Fixation of Soft Tissue Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Moffat, Kristen L.; Wang, I-Ning Elaine; Rodeo, Scott A.; Lu, Helen H.

    2009-01-01

    Interface tissue engineering is a promising new strategy aimed at the regeneration of tissue interfaces and ultimately enabling the biological fixation of soft tissue grafts utilized in orthopaedic repair and sports medicine. Many ligaments and tendons with direct insertions into subchondral bone exhibit a complex enthesis consisting of several distinct yet continuous regions of soft tissue, noncalcified fibrocartilage, calcified fibrocartilage and bone. Regeneration of this multi-tissue inte...

  11. Raman tomography of tissue phantoms and bone tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Kreider, Jaclynn; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Dooley, Kathryn A.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Morris, Michael D.

    2008-02-01

    We report tomographic reconstruction of objects located several millimeters below the surface of highly scattering media. For this purpose we adapted proven software developed for fluorescence tomography with and without the use of spatial priors1. For this first demonstration we acquired Raman spectra using an existing ring/disk fiber optic probe with fifty collection fibers2. Several illumination ring diameters were employed to generate multiple angles of incidence. Tomographic reconstruction from Raman scatter was tested using a 9.5 mm diameter Teflon® sphere embedded in a gel of agarose and 1% Intralipid. Blind reconstruction of the sphere using the 732 cm -1 C-F stretch yielded an accurate shape but an inaccurate depth. Using the known shape and position of the object as spatial priors, a more accurate reconstruction was obtained. We also demonstrated a reconstruction of the tibial diaphysis of an intact canine hind limb using spatial priors generated from micro-computed tomography. In this first demonstration of Raman tomography in animal tissue, the P-O stretch of the bone mineral at 958 cm -1 was used for the reconstruction. An accurate shape and depth were recovered.

  12. Multiscale mechanical modeling of soft biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos

    2008-10-01

    Soft biological tissues include both native and artificial tissues. In the human body, tissues like the articular cartilage, arterial wall, and heart valve leaflets are examples of structures composed of an underlying network of collagen fibers, cells, proteins and molecules. Artificial tissues are less complex than native tissues and mainly consist of a fiber polymer network with the intent of replacing lost or damaged tissue. Understanding of the mechanical function of these materials is essential for many clinical treatments (e.g. arterial clamping, angioplasty), diseases (e.g. arteriosclerosis) and tissue engineering applications (e.g. engineered blood vessels or heart valves). This thesis presents the derivation and application of a multiscale methodology to describe the macroscopic mechanical function of soft biological tissues incorporating directly their structural architecture. The model, which is based on volume averaging theory, accounts for structural parameters such as the network volume fraction and orientation, the realignment of the fibers in response to strain, the interactions among the fibers and the interactions between the fibers and the interstitial fluid in order to predict the overall tissue behavior. Therefore, instead of using a constitutive equation to relate strain to stress, the tissue microstructure is modeled within a representative volume element (RVE) and the macroscopic response at any point in the tissue is determined by solving a micromechanics problem in the RVE. The model was applied successfully to acellular collagen gels, native blood vessels, and electrospun polyurethane scaffolds and provided accurate predictions for permeability calculations in isotropic and oriented fiber networks. The agreement of model predictions with experimentally determined mechanical properties provided insights into the mechanics of tissues and tissue constructs, while discrepancies revealed limitations of the model framework.

  13. Optical imaging of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza Dominguez, Jorge

    In this thesis, a new time-dependent model for describing light propagation in biological media is proposed. The model is based on the simplified spherical harmonics approximation and is represented by a set of coupled parabolic partial differential equations (TD-pSPN equations). In addition, the model is extended for modeling the time-dependent response of fluorescent agents in biological tissues and the ensuing time-domain propagation of light therein. In a comparison with Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the TD-pSPN equations present unique features in its derivation that makes it a more accurate alternative to the diffusion equation (DE). The TD-pSPN model (for orders N > 1) outperforms the DE in the description of the propagation of light in near-nondiffusive media and in all the physical situations where DE fails. Often, only small orders of the SP N approximation are needed to obtain accurate results. A diffuse optical tomography (DOT) algorithm is also implemented based on the TD-pSPN equations as the forward model using constrained optimization methods. The algorithm uses time-dependent (TD) data directly. Such an approach is benefited from both the accuracy of the SPN models and the richness of TD data. In the calculation of the gradient of the objective function, a time-dependent adjoint differentiation method is introduced that reduces computation time. Several numerical experiments are performed for small geometry media with embedded inclusions that mimic small animal imaging. In these experiments, the values of the optical coefficients are varied within realistic bounds that are representative of those found in the range of the near-infrared spectrum, including high absorption values. Single and multi-parameter reconstructions (absorption and diffusion coefficients) are performed. The reconstructed images based on the TD-pSPN equations (N > 1) give better estimates of the optical properties of the media than the DE. On the other hand

  14. Photon dynamics in tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Britton; Haselgrove, John C.; Wang, NaiGuang; Maris, Michael B.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    1991-11-01

    The emerging need for a fast, safe economical approach to global and localized measures of desaturation of hemoglobin with oxygen (HbO2) in the human brain motivates further research on time-resolved spectroscopy in four areas of study. (1) To afford quantization of hemoglobin saturation through time-resolved spectroscopy in the time domain (TD) and in the frequency domain (FD). Evaluation of dual-wavelength TD and FD spectrometers for determining quantitatively hemoglobin desaturation and blood-volume changes by calculations that are insensitive to mutual interference is proposed. The diffusion equation, as it applies especially to TD studies, and the absorption ((mu) a) and scattering ((mu) s) coefficients provide their independent determination from the late and early respective portions of the kinetics of the emergent photons in response to a short input pulse (50-100 psec). (2) The identification of the photon-pathlength change due to the arterial pulse in the brain tissue by FD methods with Fourier transformation affords an opportunity to employ principles of pulse oximetry to vessels localized deep within the brain tissue. (3) Localization of desaturation of hemoglobin in portions of the brain can be achieved through dual-wavelength scanning of the input/output optical fibers across the head for an X-Y coordinate and varying the distance between input and output ((rho) ) or the time delay in data acquisition to afford an in-depth Z scan. Localizations of shed blood, which have an effective concentration of over 10 times that of capillary-bed blood, are identified by X, Y, Z scans using only a single wavelength. (4) Independent measurements of absorption ((mu) a) and scattering ((mu) s) coefficients, particularly by TD techniques, affords structural mapping of the brain, which can be used to diagnose brain tumor and neuronal degeneration. Two experimental systems are used to critically evaluate these studies; the first, a hemoglobin/lipid/yeast model in which

  15. Engineering complex orthopaedic tissues via strategic biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dovina; Mosher, Christopher Z; Boushell, Margaret K; Lu, Helen H

    2015-03-01

    The primary current challenge in regenerative engineering resides in the simultaneous formation of more than one type of tissue, as well as their functional assembly into complex tissues or organ systems. Tissue-tissue synchrony is especially important in the musculoskeletal system, wherein overall organ function is enabled by the seamless integration of bone with soft tissues such as ligament, tendon, or cartilage, as well as the integration of muscle with tendon. Therefore, in lieu of a traditional single-tissue system (e.g., bone, ligament), composite tissue scaffold designs for the regeneration of functional connective tissue units (e.g., bone-ligament-bone) are being actively investigated. Closely related is the effort to re-establish tissue-tissue interfaces, which is essential for joining these tissue building blocks and facilitating host integration. Much of the research at the forefront of the field has centered on bioinspired stratified or gradient scaffold designs which aim to recapitulate the structural and compositional inhomogeneity inherent across distinct tissue regions. As such, given the complexity of these musculoskeletal tissue units, the key question is how to identify the most relevant parameters for recapitulating the native structure-function relationships in the scaffold design. Therefore, the focus of this review, in addition to presenting the state-of-the-art in complex scaffold design, is to explore how strategic biomimicry can be applied in engineering tissue connectivity. The objective of strategic biomimicry is to avoid over-engineering by establishing what needs to be learned from nature and defining the essential matrix characteristics that must be reproduced in scaffold design. Application of this engineering strategy for the regeneration of the most common musculoskeletal tissue units (e.g., bone-ligament-bone, muscle-tendon-bone, cartilage-bone) will be discussed in this review. It is anticipated that these exciting efforts will

  16. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma and macrodystrofia lipomatosa: imaging and clinical data analysis of four cases and review of the literature; Hamartoma fibrolipomatoso e macrodistrofia lipomatosa: analise dos achados clinicos e de imagem em quatro casos, com revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Rafael Darahem de Souza; Simao, Marcelo Novelino; Trad, Clovis Simao [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas]. E-mail: rdarahem@terra.com.br

    2002-10-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve and macrodystrophia lipomatosa are rare conditions that present characteristic imaging findings. The plain films, magnetic resonance imaging studies and medical records of four patients were reviewed. The lesion was resected in one patient allowing histological confirmation of the diagnosis. Diagnosis was based on imaging and clinical findings in three patients who had unavailable biopsy data. We describe two cases of isolated macrodystrophia lipomatosa, one case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma and one case where both conditions were found. In the macrodystrophia lipomatosa cases plain films demonstrated enlargement of osseous and soft tissue structures in the affected limbs, with fatty streaks interspersed along the muscle fibers. The median nerve was affected in the cases of fibrolipomatous hamartoma. Magnetic resonance imaging findings included nerve fascicle thickening characterized by low signal on both T1 and T2-weighted sequences, and surrounding fat, which appears as high signal on T1 and low signal on T2-weighted sequences with fat saturation. Both nerves had a coaxial cable appearance on axial images. The fibrolipomatous hamartoma extended to the nerve branches, which is a typical finding. The typical imaging findings of macrodystrophia lipomatosa and fibrolipomatous hamartoma of nerve, particularly at magnetic resonance imaging examination, allowed a reliable diagnosis of these frequently coexistent conditions. (author)

  17. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method; Estabelecimento de procedimento para determinacao de vanadio em mexilhoes pelo metodo de analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele, E-mail: danyseo@uol.com.b [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: mgcatharino@uol.com.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S., E-mail: edvinett@usp.b, E-mail: camilo.pereira@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha

    2009-07-01

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the {sup 52}V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  18. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  19. Transmission dose estimation algorithm for tissue deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of transmission dose is useful for in vivo dosimetry. In this study, previous algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of tissue deficit. New algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. The algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within ± 1.0% in most situations and within ± 3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithm could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit and irregularly shaped body contour on transmission dosimetry

  20. Attenuation of the gamma rays in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass and lineal attenuation coefficient and of hepatic tissue, muscular, osseous and of brain before gamma rays of 10-3 to 105 MeV were calculated. For the case of the osseous tissue the calculation was made for the cartilage, the cortical tissue and the bone marrow. During the calculations the elementary composition of the tissues of human origin was used. The calculations include by separate the Photoelectric effect, the Compton scattering and the Pair production, as well as the total. For to establish a comparison with the attenuation capacities, the coefficients of the water, the aluminum and the lead also were calculated. The study was complemented measuring the attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue of bovine before gamma rays of 0.662 MeV of a source of 137 Cs. The measurement was made through of an experiment of photons transmission through samples frozen of hepatic tissue and with a Geiger-Mueller detector. (Author)

  1. Construction of metastatic spinal cancer tissue microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xinghai; Chen Huajiang; Xiao Jianru; Yuan Wen; Jia Lianshun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the construction of metastatic spinal cancer (MSC) tissue microarrays and validate its value in immunohistochemical study of MSC. Methods: Paraffin-embedded specimens from 71 MSC cases and 6 primary tumor cases were selected as donor blocks and prepared into MSC tissue microarrays by tissue array arrangement, the steps of which included location, punching, sampling, sample seeding, and re-diagnosis by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) as well as MMP-9 and MMP-14 immunohistochemical staining. Results: The MSC tissue microarrays thus constructed were intact and crackless, containing 154 complete and well arranged microarray points. None of the sectioned tissue microarrays was lost, and the results of HE staining was consistent with the primary pathologic diagnoses. Immunohistochemical staining was also good without non-specific or marginal effect. Conclusion: The MSC tissue microarrays have a high value in the immunohistochemical study of MSC.

  2. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration. PMID:27527229

  3. Metabolomic profiling of plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla, José L; López-Gresa, M P; Bellés, J M; Granell, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics is a powerful discipline aimed at a comprehensive and global analysis of the metabolites present in a cell, tissue, or organism, and to which increasing attention has been paid in the last few years. Given the high diversity in physical and chemical properties of plant metabolites, not a single method is able to analyze them all.Here we describe two techniques for the profiling of two quite different groups of metabolites: polar and semi-polar secondary metabolites, including many of those involved in plant response to biotic and abiotic stress, and volatile compounds, which include those responsible of most of our perception of food flavor. According to these techniques, polar and semi-polar metabolites are extracted in methanol, separated by liquid chromatography (UPLC), and detected by a UV-VIS detector (PDA) and a time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer. Volatile compounds, on the other hand, are extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and separated and detected by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:25757775

  4. Radiosterilization in practice of tissue banking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiosterilization for preparing tissues for banking has been described. The legal aspects of tissue banking in Poland have been presented as well as institutions being responsible for collecting, preparing and banking the main tissues for medical use. The influence of ionizing on bio-static transplants during their sterilization as well as methods for their investigation have been discussed. Results of 1014 patients attendance after transplantation of bio-static bones have been also presented

  5. Decellularized musculofascial extracellular matrix for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lina; Johnson, Joshua A; Chang, David W.; Zhang, Qixu

    2013-01-01

    Ideal scaffolds that represent native extracellular matrix (ECM) properties of musculofascial tissues have great importance in musculofascial tissue engineering. However, detailed characterization of musculofascial tissues’ ECM (particularly, of fascia) from large animals is still lacking. In this study, we developed a decellularization protocol for processing pig composite musculofascial tissues. Decellularized muscle (D-muscle) and decellularized fascia (D-fascia), which are two important c...

  6. Penetration of minocycline into lung tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Naline, E.; Sanceaume, M; Toty, L; Bakdach, H; Pays, M; Advenier, C

    1991-01-01

    The penetration of minocycline into different lung tissues and bronchial mucus was studied in 17 patients undergoing pulmonary surgery for cancer. The patients received oral minocycline 100 mg at night for 3 days preceding surgery. Minocycline concentrations were measured in plasma samples collected before the operation and in tissues and mucus taken from in and around the part of the lung that was surgically removed. Mean tissue or mucus concentration to plasma concentration ratios were 3.78...

  7. Composite Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Moutos, Franklin T.; Guilak, Farshid

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering remains a promising therapeutic strategy for the repair or regeneration of diseased or damaged tissues. Previous approaches have typically focused on combining cells and bioactive molecules (e.g., growth factors, cytokines, and DNA fragments) with a biomaterial scaffold that function as a template to control the geometry of the newly formed tissue, while facilitating the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of embedded cells. Biomaterial scaffolds also play a cruc...

  8. Cryosectioning of undecalcified tissues for immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijntjes, N V; Van de Putte, L B; Van der Pol, M; Guelen, P J

    1979-01-01

    The present report describes a procedure for preparing 4--6 micrometers cryostat sections of undecalcified fresh frozen tissue which contain hard tissue, for immunofluorescence. The apparatus used is a cryomicrotome originally designed for cutting sections for whole body autoradiography. To obtain cryostat sections suitable for tissue immunofluorescence the standard procedure was modified with respect to the hardness and edges of the microtome knife, the temperature of the cryostat and the carboxymethyl cellulose concentration of the embedding material. PMID:387879

  9. Absolute Photoacoustic Thermometry in Deep Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Junjie; Ke, Haixin; Tai, Stephen; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) thermography is a promising tool for temperature measurement in deep tissue. Here, we propose an absolute temperature measurement method based on the dual temperature dependences of the Grüneisen parameter and the speed of sound in tissue. By taking ratiometric measurements at two adjacent temperatures, we can eliminate the factors that are temperature irrelevant but difficult to correct for in deep tissue. To validate our method, absolute temperatures of blood-filled tubes...

  10. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia M Kassab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Moawia M KassabDivision of Periodontics, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.Keywords: case report, connective tissue, dental implants, allograft, coronally positioned flap

  11. Nanomaterials for Cardiac Myocyte Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Amezcua; Ajay Shirolkar; Carolyn Fraze; David A. Stout

    2016-01-01

    Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possib...

  12. Methadone Recycling Sustains Drug Reservoir in Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Oscar A; Fudin, Jeffrey; Daly, Annemarie; Schiesser, William E; Boston, Raymond C

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesize that there is a tissue store of methadone content in humans that is not directly accessible, but is quantifiable. Further, we hypothesize the mechanism by which methadone content is sustained in tissue stores involves methadone uptake, storage, and release from tissue depots in the body (recycling). Accordingly, we hypothesize that such tissue stores, in part, determine plasma methadone levels. We studied a random sample of six opioid-naïve healthy subjects. We performed a clinical trial simulation in silico using pharmacokinetic modeling. We found a large tissue store of methadone content whose size was much larger than methadone's size in plasma in response to a single oral dose of methadone 10 mg. The tissue store measured 13-17 mg. This finding could only be explained by the contemporaneous storage of methadone in tissue with dose recycling. We found that methadone recycles 2-5 times through an inaccessible extravascular compartment (IAC), from an accessible plasma-containing compartment (AC), before exiting irreversibly. We estimate the rate of accumulation (or storage) of methadone in tissue was 0.029-7.29 mg/h. We predict 39 ± 13% to 83 ± 6% of methadone's tissue stores "spillover" into the circulation. Our results indicate that there exists a large quantifiable tissue store of methadone in humans. Our results support the notion that methadone in humans undergoes tissue uptake, storage, release into the circulation, reuptake from the circulation, and re-release into the circulation, and that spillover of methadone from tissue stores, in part, maintain plasma methadone levels in humans. PMID:26368295

  13. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, Rogério; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  14. Cell interactions in bone tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Pirraco, R. P.; Marques, A. P.; Reis, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bone fractures, where the innate regenerative bone response is compromised, represent between 4 and 8 hundred thousands of the total fracture cases, just in the United States. Bone tissue engineering (TE) brought the notion that, in cases such as those, it was preferable to boost the healing process of bone tissue instead of just adding artificial parts that could never properly replace the native tissue. However, despite the hype, bone TE so far could not live up to its promises and...

  15. Tissue banking training courses: Polish experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Artur; Gut, Grzegorz; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela; Olender, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Personnel directly involved in the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells should be appropriately qualified and provided with timely and relevant training according to EU directives. In the time of new tissue and cells regulations implementation such a training system existed in Poland only at a local level. The first training programme outlines for various groups of health professionals engaged in tissue banking practice ...

  16. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    OpenAIRE

    Svedman Paul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by str...

  17. Tissue mimicking materials for dental ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Brown, Elliott R.; White, Shane N

    2008-01-01

    While acoustic tissue mimicking materials have been explored for a variety of soft and hard biological tissues, no dental hard tissue mimicking materials have been characterized. Tooth phantoms are necessary to better understand acoustic phenomenology within the tooth environment and to accelerate the advancement of dental ultrasound imaging systems. In this study, soda lime glass and dental composite were explored as surrogates for human enamel and dentin, respectively, in terms of compressi...

  18. Lymphatic Tissue Engineering Progress and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchcock, Thomas; Niklason, Laura

    2008-01-01

    In the last 5 years major advances have been made in the field of tissue engineering. However, while engineering of tissues from nearly every major system in the body have been studied and improved, little has been done with the engineering of viable lymphatic tissues. Recent advances in understanding of lymphatic biology have allowed the easy isolation of pure lymphatic cell cultures, increasing, in turn, the ability to study lymphatic biology in greater detail. This has allowed the elucidat...

  19. Development and differentiation of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković-Lazar Tatjana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For years adipose tissue has been considered inert, serving only as a depot of energy surplus. However, there have been recent changes, undoubtedly due to advancement of methods for studying the morphology and metabolic activities of adipose tissue (microdialysis and adipose tissue catheterization. In normal-weight subjects, adipose tissue makes 10-12% with males and 15-20% with females. About 80 % of adipose tissue is located under the skin, and the rest envelops the internal organs. With humans there are white and brown adipose tissues, which is predominant with infants and small children. Histologic characteristics From a histological point of view, it is a special form of reticular connective tissue, which contains adipocytes with netlike structure. Human adipose tissue has four types of adrenergic receptors with different topographic dispositions, which manifest different metabolic activity of adipocytes of particular body organs. Changes in adipose tissue are associated with the process of adipocyte differentiation. Critical moments for this process are last months of pregnancy, the first six months of infancy and then puberty. However, the differentiation process may also begin during maturity. Namely, as size of adipocytes can increase to a certain limit, this process can be activated after reaching a 'critical' adipocyte volume. The differentiation process is affected by a number of hormones (insulin, glucagon, corticosteroids, somatotropin (STH, thyroid gland hormones, prolactin, testosterone, but also by some other substances (fatty acids, prostaglandins, liposoluble vitamins, butyrate, aspirin, indomethacin, metylxanthine, etc..

  20. Design of spectral filtering for tissue classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ajay; Shah, Pratik; Das, Bipul

    2012-02-01

    Tissue characterization from imaging studies is an integral part of clinical practice. We describe a spectral filter design for tissue separation in dual energy CT scans obtained from Gemstone Spectral Imaging scanner. It enables to have better 2D/3D visualization and tissue characterization in normal and pathological conditions. The major challenge to classify tissues in conventional computed tomography (CT) is the x-ray attenuation proximity of multiple tissues at any given energy. The proposed method analyzes the monochromatic images at different energy levels, which are derived from the two scans obtained at low and high KVp through fast switching. Although materials have a distinct attenuation profile across different energies, tissue separation is not trivial as tissues are a mixture of different materials with range of densities that vary across subjects. To address this problem, we define spectral filtering, that generates probability maps for each tissue in multi-energy space. The filter design incorporates variations in the tissue due to composition, density of individual constituents and their mixing proportions. In addition, it also provides a framework to incorporate zero mean Gaussian noise. We demonstrate the application of spectral filtering for bone-free vascular visualization and calcification characterization.

  1. Measuring tissue oxygen saturation using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircan-Kucuksayan, Aslinur; Uyuklu, Mehmet; Canpolat, Murat

    2014-05-01

    Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) is known quite useful parameter for medical applications. A spectroscopic method has been developed to diagnose pathologic tissues due to lack of normal blood circulation by measuring tissue oxygen saturation. In the study, human blood samples with different level of oxygen saturations have been prepared and spectra were taken using an optical fiber probe to investigate correlation between the oxygen saturations and the spectra. The experimental set up for the spectroscopic measurements was consists of a miniature NIR light spectrometer, an optical fiber probe, a halogen-tungsten light source and a laptop. A linear correlation between the oxygen saturation of the blood samples and the ratio of the light of wavelengths 660 nm to 790 nm has been found from the spectra. Then, oxygen saturations of the blood samples were estimated from the spectroscopic measurements within an error of 2.9%. Furthermore, it has been shown that the linear dependence between the ratio and the oxygen saturation of the blood samples was valid for the blood samples with different hematocrits. Tissue oxygen saturation has been estimated from the spectroscopic measurements were taken from the fingers of healthy volunteers using the correlation between the spectra and blood oxygen saturation. The tissue StO2 measured was 80% as expected. The technique developed to measure tissue oxygen saturation has potential to diagnose premalignant tissues, follow up prognosis of cancerous tissues, and evaluation of ischemia reperfusion tissues.

  2. Scalable robotic biofabrication of tissue spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehesz, A Nagy; Hajdu, Z; Visconti, R P; Markwald, R R; Mironov, V [Advanced Tissue Biofabrication Center, Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Brown, J [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Beaver, W [York Technical College, Rock Hill, SC (United States); Da Silva, J V L, E-mail: mironovv@musc.edu [Renato Archer Information Technology Center-CTI, Campinas (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Development of methods for scalable biofabrication of uniformly sized tissue spheroids is essential for tissue spheroid-based bioprinting of large size tissue and organ constructs. The most recent scalable technique for tissue spheroid fabrication employs a micromolded recessed template prepared in a non-adhesive hydrogel, wherein the cells loaded into the template self-assemble into tissue spheroids due to gravitational force. In this study, we present an improved version of this technique. A new mold was designed to enable generation of 61 microrecessions in each well of a 96-well plate. The microrecessions were seeded with cells using an EpMotion 5070 automated pipetting machine. After 48 h of incubation, tissue spheroids formed at the bottom of each microrecession. To assess the quality of constructs generated using this technology, 600 tissue spheroids made by this method were compared with 600 spheroids generated by the conventional hanging drop method. These analyses showed that tissue spheroids fabricated by the micromolded method are more uniform in diameter. Thus, use of micromolded recessions in a non-adhesive hydrogel, combined with automated cell seeding, is a reliable method for scalable robotic fabrication of uniform-sized tissue spheroids.

  3. Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Brian

    2012-11-01

    New manufacturing technologies under the banner of rapid prototyping enable the fabrication of structures close in architecture to biological tissue. In their simplest form, these technologies allow the manufacture of scaffolds upon which cells can grow for later implantation into the body. A more exciting prospect is the printing and patterning in three dimensions of all the components that make up a tissue (cells and matrix materials) to generate structures analogous to tissues; this has been termed bioprinting. Such techniques have opened new areas of research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  4. The role of radiation in tissue banking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of safe and effective tissue allografts for the treatment of various bone defects has been the primary concern of orthopedic surgeons in the Philippine over the past few decades. With the growing industrialization of the country and the improvement of medical facilities over the past few years, the problems related to limb preservation or limb salvage procedures have been increasing. Related to this is the need for tissue allografts for biologic dressings and soft tissue reconstruction like tendons, fascia and ligaments. Thus the Department of Orthopedics at the University of the Philippines - Philippine General Hospital stated the project of tissue preservation - tissue banking in 1984 as a study funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This initial study became the basis of the establishment of the first and only existing tissue bank in the country today. Aside from the proper donor selection, procurement and processing, a most important aspect in this project is the sterilization of these allografts. Various methods of tissue sterilization have been established but so far the most popular, practical and safest has been the use of ionizing radiation. The paper will highlight the history, the practice and current status of tissue and bone banking and the important role of radiation as the primary method of sterilization of the tissue allografts for the safe use in reconstruction of various orthopedic conditions in the Philippines. The recent experience of the author on bone transplantation and limb salvage procedures will be presented. (author)

  5. Tissue banking training courses: Polish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Artur; Gut, Grzegorz; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela; Olender, Ewa

    2013-03-01

    Personnel directly involved in the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells should be appropriately qualified and provided with timely and relevant training according to EU directives. In the time of new tissue and cells regulations implementation such a training system existed in Poland only at a local level. The first training programme outlines for various groups of health professionals engaged in tissue banking practice was created in co-operation with the Institute for LifeLong Learning at University of Barcelona in 2006. This initial training courses were financially supported by EU Transition Facility Programme 2004. Then, starting from 2006, based on previous experience, system of advanced training courses was created. This training programme was financially supported by the National Programme for the Development of Transplantation Medicine 2006-2009-POLGRAFT financed by Polish Ministry of Health. During 2006 and 2007 first set of tissue banking initial training courses were provided according to TF 2004 project. Over 200 pathologists, forensic medicine specialists and other medical doctors responsible for donor screening and classification, medical directors of tissue establishments, technical staff; tissue graft users: orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, cardiosurgeons and ophthalmologists were trained. Between 2006 and 2009 there were organized 8 advanced tissue banking training courses according to POLGRAFT programme. There were organized both theoretical and practical courses on various aspects of tissue for over 350 persons. We present our experience in organisation of international and national tissue banking training courses. PMID:22318653

  6. Medical image of the week: granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year old woman presented with a tickling sensation in the back of throat and intermittent bleeding from the healing stoma one month after decannulation of her tracheostomy tube. On bronchoscopy a granuloma with surrounding granulation tissue was present in the subglottic space (Figure 1. Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed to cauterize the granulation tissue (Figure 2. Formation of granulation tissue after tracheostomy is a common complication which can result in tracheal stenosis. APC and electrocautery using flexible bronchoscopy has been shown to safely and effectively remove the granulation tissue.

  7. Scalable robotic biofabrication of tissue spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of methods for scalable biofabrication of uniformly sized tissue spheroids is essential for tissue spheroid-based bioprinting of large size tissue and organ constructs. The most recent scalable technique for tissue spheroid fabrication employs a micromolded recessed template prepared in a non-adhesive hydrogel, wherein the cells loaded into the template self-assemble into tissue spheroids due to gravitational force. In this study, we present an improved version of this technique. A new mold was designed to enable generation of 61 microrecessions in each well of a 96-well plate. The microrecessions were seeded with cells using an EpMotion 5070 automated pipetting machine. After 48 h of incubation, tissue spheroids formed at the bottom of each microrecession. To assess the quality of constructs generated using this technology, 600 tissue spheroids made by this method were compared with 600 spheroids generated by the conventional hanging drop method. These analyses showed that tissue spheroids fabricated by the micromolded method are more uniform in diameter. Thus, use of micromolded recessions in a non-adhesive hydrogel, combined with automated cell seeding, is a reliable method for scalable robotic fabrication of uniform-sized tissue spheroids.

  8. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  9. Effects of tissue mechanical properties on susceptibility to histotripsy-induced tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive tissue ablation method capable of fractionating tissue by controlling acoustic cavitation. To determine the fractionation susceptibility of various tissues, we investigated histotripsy-induced damage on tissue phantoms and ex vivo tissues with different mechanical strengths. A histotripsy bubble cloud was formed at tissue phantom surfaces using 5-cycle long ultrasound pulses with peak negative pressure of 18 MPa and PRFs of 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. Results showed significantly smaller lesions were generated in tissue phantoms of higher mechanical strength. Histotripsy was also applied to 43 different ex vivo porcine tissues with a wide range of mechanical properties. Gross morphology demonstrated stronger tissues with higher ultimate stress, higher density, and lower water content were more resistant to histotripsy damage in comparison to weaker tissues. Based on these results, a self-limiting vessel-sparing treatment strategy was developed in an attempt to preserve major vessels while fractionating the surrounding target tissue. This strategy was tested in porcine liver in vivo. After treatment, major hepatic blood vessels and bile ducts remained intact within a completely fractionated liver volume. These results identify varying susceptibilities of tissues to histotripsy therapy and provide a rational basis to optimize histotripsy parameters for treatment of specific tissues. (paper)

  10. A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

    2014-07-01

    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

  11. Tissue banking for management of nuclear casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of nuclear material and technology has made the acquisition and adversarial use more probable than ever. Devastating medical consequences would follow a nuclear detonation due to the thermal, blast and radiation effects of the weapon. Atomic explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki demonstrated the human agonies on vast scale. A full range of medical modalities are required to decrease the morbidity and mortality as a result of the use of nuclear weapons. Biological tissues from human donor like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Processed tissues can be provided by the tissue banks and can be of great assistance in the treatment of injuries due to the nuclear weapon. The use of allograft tissue avoids the donor site morbidity and reduces the operating time, expense and trauma associated with the acquisition of autografts. Further, allografts have the added advantage of being available in large quantities. This has led to a global increase in allogeneic transplantation and development of tissue banking. The aim of the tissue bank is to provide a wide range of processed biological tissues free from any transmissible disease, that help to restore the growth and function of the damaged tissues. Skin dressings or skin substitutes like allograft skin, xenograft skin and amniotic membrane can be used for the treatment of thermal burns and radiation induced skin injuries. Bone allografts can be used for reconstructive approaches to the skeletal system. Tissue banking would thus ensure health care to the military personnel and population following a nuclear detonation. (author)

  12. Mechanical homeostasis regulating adipose tissue volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svedman Paul

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The total body adipose tissue volume is regulated by hormonal, nutritional, paracrine, neuronal and genetic control signals, as well as components of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. There are no known locally acting homeostatic mechanisms by which growing adipose tissue might adapt its volume. Presentation of the hypothesis Mechanosensitivity has been demonstrated by mesenchymal cells in tissue culture. Adipocyte differentiation has been shown to be inhibited by stretching in vitro, and a pathway for the response has been elucidated. In humans, intermittent stretching of skin for reconstructional purposes leads to thinning of adipose tissue and thickening of epidermis – findings matching those observed in vitro in response to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, protracted suspension of one leg increases the intermuscular adipose tissue volume of the limb. These findings may indicate a local homeostatic adipose tissue volume-regulating mechanism based on movement-induced reduction of adipocyte differentiation. This function might, during evolution, have been of importance in confined spaces, where overgrowth of adipose tissue could lead to functional disturbance, as for instance in the turtle. In humans, adipose tissue near muscle might in particular be affected, for instance intermuscularly, extraperitoneally and epicardially. Mechanical homeostasis might also contribute to protracted maintainment of soft tissue shape in the face and neck region. Testing of the hypothesis Assessment of messenger RNA-expression of human adipocytes following activity in adjacent muscle is planned, and study of biochemical and volumetric adipose tissue changes in man are proposed. Implications of the hypothesis The interpretation of metabolic disturbances by means of adipose tissue might be influenced. Possible applications in the head and neck were discussed.

  13. Radiobiological models of normal tissue reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The present review summarizes radiobiological models of normal tissue responses to radiation and their consequences for potential therapeutic interventions. Material and Methods: Common radiobiological principles and pathogenetic models can be established for classes of tissues. These models may support the development of general modalities, both therapeutic and supportive, for the modulation of these responses. Results: The stem cell concept, based on studies in standard tissue culture, describes the clonogenic survival after radiation treatment. The factors affecting cell survival are summarized as the 4 Rs of radiotherapy. Based on the stem cell concept, the reactions of normal tissue to ionising radiation were considered a consequence exclusively of the proliferative sterilisation of cells of a given target cell population. Once stem cells are inactivated, responses develop in a passive manner. However, recent studies into the pathogenesis of radiation tissue injury have clearly shown that numerous postirradiation events occur during the symptom-free latent time in irradiated cells and tissues, which modulate the manifestation of damage. These are summarized by models of tissue radiation pathology. Conclusions: Cellular radiobiology and the tissue models based on the stem cell concept assume that exclusively the sterilisation of target cells is the radiation effect which results in both acute and late tissue responses. As a consequence, the radiation sensitivity can only be modulated by modification of radiobiological parameters at the time of irradiation, while at later time points only symptomatic treatment can be applied. Tissue radiation pathology, in contrast, allows for post-irradiation modification of the manifestation of radiation sequelae in tissues. (orig.)

  14. Métodos de analise dos danos da lagarta da espiga¹, em médias de gerações envolvendo IAC Maya e Zapalote Chico Method for analysis of damage of the corn earworm heliothis zea in generation means from IAC Maya and Zapalote Chico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende

    1982-01-01

    utilizing the revised scale described by WIDSTROM (27. The data obtained was analised by two different ways. The grades were distributed at first in two different classes: grades 0 and 1 and grades > 2. The grades were afterwards distributed in the following two classes: grades 0 and grades > 1. The chi-square test was applied to verify which of the two types of classes adjusts better with their respective expected ratios. The results showed that when the grades were divided in the classes 0+1 and > 2 the data were more uniform within each treatment. The analysis of variance for each damage class separately, presented F values highly significant for the classes zero and zero plus one, whereas for the classes > 1 and > 2 the damage averages were very similar and the F values were not significant. The class zero plus one had F value higher and the coefficient of variation smaller than the class zero. The ZC 2451 corn compared to the variety IAC Maya XII, exibited good resistance to the corn earworm, under the field conditions of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This resistance is of the type non preference and or antibiosis, because there was a higher percentage of ears of ZC 2451 free of earworm damage.

  15. Tissue Expander versus Tissue Expander and Latissimus Flap in Morbidly Obese Breast Reconstruction Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Luce, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The loss rate in immediate postmastectomy reconstruction in morbidly obese patients with latissimus flap plus tissue expander was substantially lower than the loss rate in those with breast reconstructed with tissue expander alone.

  16. Low oxygen concentrations impair tissue development in tissue-engineered cardiovascular constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlimmeren, M.A.A. van; Driessen-Mol, A.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Broek, M. van den; Stoop, R.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering has shown considerable progress, but in vitro tissue conditioning to stimulate the development of a functional extracellular matrix still needs improvement. We investigated the environmental factor oxygen concentration for its potential to increase the amount of col

  17. Plant Tissue Culture in a Bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of an oven bag as a sterile chamber for culture initiation and tissue transfer. Plant tissue culture is an ideal tool for introducing students to plants, cloning, and experimental design. Includes materials, methods, discussion, and conclusion sections. (SAH)

  18. Estrogen receptors in human vaginal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, M.A.H.M.; Poortman, J.; Agema, A.R.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of specific estrogen receptors could be demonstrated in vaginal tissue, obtained during operation from 38 women, age 27–75 yr. In 23 premenopausal women the receptor concentration in the vaginal tissue varied between 12 and 91 fmol/mg protein, no significant difference in the receptor

  19. Adipose Tissue Biology: An Update Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in most countries in the world today. It increases the risk of diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some form of cancer. Adipose tissue biology is currently one of the “hot” areas of biomedical science, as fundamental for the development of novel therapeutics for obesity and its related disorders.CONTENT: Adipose tissue consist predominantly of adipocytes, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast, macrophages, and extracellular matrix. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate increasing fat stores. At the same time, adipocytes signal to other tissue to regulate their energy metabolism in accordance with the body's nutritional state. Ultimately adipocyte fat stores have to match the body's overall surplus or deficit of energy. Obesity causes adipose tissue dysfunction and results in obesity-related disorders. SUMMARY: It is now clear that adipose tissue is a complex and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Undestanding the molecular mechanisms underlying obesity and its associated disease cluster is also of great significance as the need for new and more effective therapeutic strategies is more urgent than ever.  KEYWORDS: obesity, adipocyte, adipose, tissue, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, lipid droplet, lipolysis, plasticity, dysfunction.

  20. Current density imaging during tissue electroporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivery of externally applied electric pulses on the target tissue during electroporation increases membrane permeability and induces electric currents in the tissue. To optimize electroporation parameters, the current density and with it associated electric field distributions can be monitored by means of current density imaging (CDI) and magnetic resonance electric impedance tomography (MREIT). (Author)

  1. Taurine content of tissues of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The taurine content of tissues (liver, stomach, small intestine and spleen) of rats irradiated with doses of 700 and 450 rads has been studied. Phase changes have been found in the taurine content of radiosensitive tissues in the course of radiation injury development

  2. Nonlinear spectral imaging of biological tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palero, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis demonstrates live high resolution 3D imaging of tissue in its native state and environment. The nonlinear interaction between focussed femtosecond light pulses and the biological tissue results in the emission of natural autofluorescence and second-harmonic signal.

  3. Nonlinear spectral imaging of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palero, J. A.

    2007-07-01

    The work presented in this thesis demonstrates live high resolution 3D imaging of tissue in its native state and environment. The nonlinear interaction between focussed femtosecond light pulses and the biological tissue results in the emission of natural autofluorescence and second-harmonic signal. Because biological intrinsic emission is generally very weak and extends from the ultraviolet to the visible spectral range, a broad-spectral range and high sensitivity 3D spectral imaging system is developed. Imaging the spectral characteristics of the biological intrinsic emission reveals the structure and biochemistry of the cells and extra-cellular components. By using different methods in visualizing the spectral images, discrimination between different tissue structures is achieved without the use of any stain or fluorescent label. For instance, RGB real color spectral images of the intrinsic emission of mouse skin tissues show blue cells, green hair follicles, and purple collagen fibers. The color signature of each tissue component is directly related to its characteristic emission spectrum. The results of this study show that skin tissue nonlinear intrinsic emission is mainly due to the autofluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate), flavins, keratin, melanin, phospholipids, elastin and collagen and nonlinear Raman scattering and second-harmonic generation in Type I collagen. In vivo time-lapse spectral imaging is implemented to study metabolic changes in epidermal cells in tissues. Optical scattering in tissues, a key factor in determining the maximum achievable imaging depth, is also investigated in this work.

  4. Contemporary upper lid blepharoplasty--tissue invagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R J

    1993-04-01

    Blepharoplasty is the most commonly performed operation to enhance facial appearance. Controversy arises over the need for tissue invagination as opposed to simple tissue excision. This article focuses on advanced invagination-type blepharoplasty, discussing who, what, where, when, why, and how. PMID:8485932

  5. Optical Properties of Bruised Apple Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the optical properties of apple tissue, especially bruised tissue, can help us prevent or mitigate bruise occurrence during harvest and postharvest operations, and develop an effective method for detecting bruises during sorting and grading. This research was aimed at determining the o...

  6. Collecting and Storing Tissue, Blood, and Bone Marrow Samples From Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma or Other Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    Adult Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Previously Untreated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage I Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage II Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  7. Rapid Genotyping of Mouse Tissue Using Sigma's Extract-N-Amp Tissue PCR Kit

    OpenAIRE

    Doan, Linda; Monuki, Edwin S

    2008-01-01

    Genomic detection of DNA via PCR amplification and detection on an electrophoretic gel is a standard way that the genotype of a tissue sample is determined. Conventional preparation of tissues for PCR-ready DNA often take several hours to days, depending on the tissue sample. The genotype of the sample may thus be delayed for several days, which is not an option for many different types of experiments. Here we demonstrate the complete genotyping of a mouse tail sample, including tissue digest...

  8. Methods in Enzymology (MIE): Methods of Adipose Tissue Biology-: Chapter 7: Imaging of Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher; Gericke, Martin T; Jeffery, Elise; Colman, Laura; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that specializes in lipid metabolism and is distributed throughout the body in distinct white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots. These tissues have opposing roles in lipid metabolism with WAT storing excessive caloric intake in the form of lipid, and BAT burning lipid through non-shivering thermogenesis. As accumulation of lipid in mature adipocytes of WAT leads to obesity and increased risk of comorbidity (Pi-Sunyer et al., 1998),...

  9. Tissue dissolving ability of several endodontic irrigants on bovine pulp tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Khademi, Abbasali; Usefian, Ehsan; Feizianfard, Mahboobe

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: A desirable characteristic of root canal irrigants is the ability of dissolving soft tissues. Sodium hypochlorite, an antibacterial and tissue solvent irrigant used in endodontic treatment is known to be toxic for periapical tissues. Chlorhexidine gluconate, an effective antimicrobial agent, is another irrigant with limited tissue dissolving ability. A mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a detergent (MTAD), has recently been introduced as an alternative irrigant in ro...

  10. ALLOMETRIC GROWTH OF TISSUES IN PIG HAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Baulain

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of MHS genotype on growth and development of muscle and fatty tissue in pig hams. The investigation was performed on 72 barrows divided into 4 groups according to genotype (NN and Nn and feeding regime (standard and intensive. The data for analyses were collected by MRT imaging; the coefficients of allometric growth were calculated using simple allometric function. The allometric growth coefficients of muscle and fatty tissue showed that muscle tissue grow proportionally with the increase of live weight (b≈1, while fatty tissue grow faster compared to the live weight increase (b>1. The differences in allometric growth coefficients calculated for muscle and fatty tissues in the hams of investigated pigs were not statistically significant between the feeding groups and between the genotypeseither (P>0.05.

  11. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P; Troppmann, C

    2004-03-11

    Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.

  12. Grating-based tomography of human tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Mehlin, Andrea; Herzen, Julia; Lang, Sabrina; Holme, Margaret; Zanette, Irene; Hieber, Simone; Deyhle, Hans; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weitkamp, Timm

    2012-07-01

    The development of therapies to improve our health requires a detailed knowledge on the anatomy of soft tissues from the human body down to the cellular level. Grating-based phase contrast micro computed tomography using synchrotron radiation provides a sensitivity, which allows visualizing micrometer size anatomical features in soft tissue without applying any contrast agent. We show phase contrast tomography data of human brain, tumor vessels and constricted arteries from the beamline ID 19 (ESRF) and urethral tissue from the beamline W2 (HASYLAB/DESY) with micrometer resolution. Here, we demonstrate that anatomical features can be identified within brain tissue as well known from histology. Using human urethral tissue, the application of two photon energies is compared. Tumor vessels thicker than 20 μm can be perfectly segmented. The morphology of coronary arteries can be better extracted in formalin than after paraffin embedding.

  13. The Adipose Tissue in Farm Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerwein, Helga; Bendixen, Emoke; Restelli, Laura;

    2014-01-01

    and immune cells. The scientific interest in adipose tissue is largely based on the worldwide increasing prevalence of obesity in humans; in contrast, obesity is hardly an issue for farmed animals that are fed according to their well-defined needs. Adipose tissue is nevertheless of major importance...... in these animals, as the adipose percentage of the bodyweight is a major determinant for the efficiency of transferring nutrients from feed into food products and thus for the economic value from meat producing animals. In dairy animals, the importance of adipose tissue is based on its function as stromal...... and metabolic disorders. We herein provide a general overview of adipose tissue functions and its importance in farm animals. This review will summarize recent achievements in farm animal adipose tissue proteomics, mainly in cattle and pigs, but also in poultry, i.e. chicken and in farmed fish. Proteomics...

  14. Studying Genes in Tissue Samples From Younger and Adolescent Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    Childhood Alveolar Soft-part Sarcoma; Childhood Angiosarcoma; Childhood Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Childhood Epithelioid Sarcoma; Childhood Fibrosarcoma; Childhood Leiomyosarcoma; Childhood Liposarcoma; Childhood Malignant Mesenchymoma; Childhood Neurofibrosarcoma; Childhood Synovial Sarcoma; Chordoma; Desmoid Tumor; Metastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Nonmetastatic Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  15. Investigation of dental caries using laser and light-induced autofluorescence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the intrinsic fluorescence in human teeth in vitro and its correspondence to the stages of the carious lesions using different excitation sources. Fluorescence spectra of teeth illuminated with light with wavelengths of 337, 440 and 488 nm were recorded. The spectra were obtained from the healthy, pre-carious and carious stages of the teeth investigated. Fluorosa dentis and odontolithiasis lesions were also studied to determine the effect of other pathologies on the teeth fluorescence spectra. We observed a significant decrease of the autofluorescence signal intensity related to the carious stage. The carious samples also revealed characteristic emission with fluorescence bands in the red spectral region which relative peak intensity increases depending on the stage. Healthy hard dental tissue exhibited no emission bands in the long-wave region. (authors)

  16. Construction of cardiac tissue rings using a magnetic tissue fabrication technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hirokazu; Ito, Akira; Sato, Masanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2010-01-01

    Here we applied a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique to cardiac tissue fabrication. A mixture of extracellular matrix precursor and cardiomyocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles was added into a well containing a central polycarbonate cylinder. With the use of a magnet, the cells were attracted to the bottom of the well and allowed to form a cell layer. During cultivation, the cell layer shrank towards the cylinder, leading to the formation of a ring-shaped tissue that possessed a multilayered cell structure and contractile properties. These results indicate that magnetic tissue fabrication is a promising approach for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21152282

  17. Construction of Cardiac Tissue Rings Using a Magnetic Tissue Fabrication Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Kamihira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we applied a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique to cardiac tissue fabrication. A mixture of extracellular matrix precursor and cardiomyocytes labeled with magnetic nanoparticles was added into a well containing a central polycarbonate cylinder. With the use of a magnet, the cells were attracted to the bottom of the well and allowed to form a cell layer. During cultivation, the cell layer shrank towards the cylinder, leading to the formation of a ring-shaped tissue that possessed a multilayered cell structure and contractile properties. These results indicate that magnetic tissue fabrication is a promising approach for cardiac tissue engineering.

  18. Photon-tissue interaction model for quantitative assessment of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yup; Lloyd, William R.; Wilson, Robert H.; Chandra, Malavika; McKenna, Barbara; Simeone, Diane; Scheiman, James; Mycek, Mary-Ann

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we describe a direct fit photon-tissue interaction model to quantitatively analyze reflectance spectra of biological tissue samples. The model rapidly extracts biologically-relevant parameters associated with tissue optical scattering and absorption. This model was employed to analyze reflectance spectra acquired from freshly excised human pancreatic pre-cancerous tissues (intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), a common precursor lesion to pancreatic cancer). Compared to previously reported models, the direct fit model improved fit accuracy and speed. Thus, these results suggest that such models could serve as real-time, quantitative tools to characterize biological tissues assessed with reflectance spectroscopy.

  19. Bioimpedance of soft tissue under compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper compression-dependent bioimpedance measurements of porcine spleen tissue are presented. Using a Cole–Cole model, nonlinear compositional changes in extracellular and intracellular makeup; related to a loss of fluid from the tissue, are identified during compression. Bioimpedance measurements were made using a custom tetrapolar probe and bioimpedance circuitry. As the tissue is increasingly compressed up to 50%, both intracellular and extracellular resistances increase while bulk membrane capacitance decreases. Increasing compression to 80% results in an increase in intracellular resistance and bulk membrane capacitance while extracellular resistance decreases. Tissues compressed incrementally to 80% show a decreased extracellular resistance of 32%, an increased intracellular resistance of 107%, and an increased bulk membrane capacitance of 64% compared to their uncompressed values. Intracellular resistance exhibits double asymptotic curves when plotted against the peak tissue pressure during compression, possibly indicating two distinct phases of mechanical change in the tissue during compression. Based on these findings, differing theories as to what is happening at a cellular level during high tissue compression are discussed, including the possibility of cell rupture and mass exudation of cellular material. (paper)

  20. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldon Tunks

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients.

  1. Composite tissue engineering on polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Courtney R; Han, Li; Andrady, Anthony; Caballero, Montserrat; Jack, Megan C; Collins, James B; Saba, Salim C; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Cairns, Bruce A; van Aalst, John A

    2009-05-01

    Tissue engineering has largely focused on single tissue-type reconstruction (such as bone); however, the basic unit of healing in any clinically relevant scenario is a compound tissue type (such as bone, periosteum, and skin). Nanofibers are submicron fibrils that mimic the extracellular matrix, promoting cellular adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Stem cell manipulation on nanofiber scaffolds holds significant promise for future tissue engineering. This work represents our initial efforts to create the building blocks for composite tissue reflecting the basic unit of healing. Polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun using standard techniques. Human foreskin fibroblasts, murine keratinocytes, and periosteal cells (4-mm punch biopsy) harvested from children undergoing palate repair were grown in appropriate media on PCL nanofibers. Human fat-derived mesenchymal stem cells were osteoinduced on PCL nanofibers. Cell growth was assessed with fluorescent viability staining; cocultured cells were differentiated using antibodies to fibroblast- and keratinocyte-specific surface markers. Osteoinduction was assessed with Alizarin red S. PCL nanofiber scaffolds supported robust growth of fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and periosteal cells. Cocultured periosteal cells (with fibroblasts) and keratinocytes showed improved longevity of the keratinocytes, though growth of these cell types was randomly distributed throughout the scaffold. Robust osteoinduction was noted on PCL nanofibers. Composite tissue engineering using PCL nanofiber scaffolds is possible, though the major obstacles to the trilaminar construct are maintaining an appropriate interface between the tissue types and neovascularization of the composite structure. PMID:19387150

  2. On the Compressibility of Arterial Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, D R; McGarry, J P

    2016-04-01

    Arterial tissue is commonly assumed to be incompressible. While this assumption is convenient for both experimentalists and theorists, the compressibility of arterial tissue has not been rigorously investigated. In the current study we present an experimental-computational methodology to determine the compressibility of aortic tissue and we demonstrate that specimens excised from an ovine descending aorta are significantly compressible. Specimens are stretched in the radial direction in order to fully characterise the mechanical behaviour of the tissue ground matrix. Additionally biaxial testing is performed to fully characterise the anisotropic contribution of reinforcing fibres. Due to the complexity of the experimental tests, which entail non-uniform finite deformation of a non-linear anisotropic material, it is necessary to implement an inverse finite element analysis scheme to characterise the mechanical behaviour of the arterial tissue. Results reveal that ovine aortic tissue is highly compressible; an effective Poisson's ratio of 0.44 is determined for the ground matrix component of the tissue. It is also demonstrated that correct characterisation of material compressibility has important implications for the calibration of anisotropic fibre properties using biaxial tests. Finally it is demonstrated that correct treatment of material compressibility has significant implications for the accurate prediction of the stress state in an artery under in vivo type loading. PMID:26297340

  3. [Tissue grafts: an activity concerning many patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loty, B

    1997-11-15

    Tissue allografts mainly include corneas, bone (and cartilage, tendon, ligament, aponevrosis), skin, vessels and cardiac valves. All these grafts have been widely used for many years and were the subject of a large number of experimental and clinical studies. The different steps allowing the obtention of different tissue allografts have in fact a common organization through tissue procurement and banking activities. Tissue banks have a central situation ensuring security, safety, traceability and distribution of tissues. Appropriate organization of the banks, and respect of high level standards are thus mandatory. Tissue transplantation activity in France has been studied through national surveys: they concern more than 600 hospitals and clinics, and grafts procured in France (excluding imported allografts) are around 15,000 a year. Precise regulation implied by the bioethical law published in 1994 and homogeneous organization of the activity allow the use of stringent and regularly updated standards, allowing the distribution to the patients of safe grafts procured in ethical conditions. The actual shortage of tissue allografts in France implies increasing procurement through a better organization of retrieval in hospitals and clinics and donation promotion. PMID:9501596

  4. Adipose Tissue - Adequate, Accessible Regenerative Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaparthy, Lakshmi Kanth; Sanivarapu, Sahitya; Moogla, Srinivas; Kutcham, Rupa Sruthi

    2015-11-01

    The potential use of stem cell based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seen to be an ideal population of stem cells in particular, Adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) which can be obtained in large number and easily harvested from adipose tissue. It is ubiquitously available and has several advantages compared to other sources as easily accessible in large quantities with minimal invasive harvesting procedure, and isolation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells yield a high amount of stem cells which is essential for stem cell based therapies and tissue engineering. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using ASCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because various secreted growth factors from ASCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. This review summarizes the sources, isolation and characteristics of adipose derived stem cells and its potential role in periodontal regeneration is discussed. PMID:26634060

  5. Tissue banking: public awareness in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public awareness and acceptance on the benefit of Tissue Bank (TB) and its products in Indonesia are still very low, however four productive TBs are in operation by using mostly tissues from living donors. Except for medical doctors, nurses and experts who are involved in the establishment of the TB as well as who applied the products, almost nobody else understand what kind of bank this tissue bank is. Ethical in collecting tissues from non- living donors and using of this human tissues for safe medical application has several considerations that should be overcome, such as religious, legal and medical considerations. Legal and medical considerations are not very difficult to be faced. People are reluctant to give up by cutting off the needed tissue of a dead relative to help someone else who is suffering from a life threatening disease. Our duty is to enlighten the public about this bank by means of seminars, exposition, writings and discussions. We can use the electronic mass- media or printed one to explain the necessity of this tissue bank. We also need to involve leaders of religions, government high ranking officials as well as related Government institutions. Otherwise the tissues that are needed can only be obtained from the poor, the homeless whose health condition we do not know and no relatives who can give their permission for the taking of parts of the body. This is a very unethical way. Since January 1998, Batan Research Tissue Bank together with several hospitals in Indonesia have done four seminars, two discussions, two expositions, producing leaflets and carried out training in this matter. But it is not enough. More efforts should be done

  6. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  7. Histopathological evaluation of tissue undergoing thermal insult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Minal; Bonde, Dushyant; Patil, Swati; Gawande, Madhuri; Hande, Alka; Jain, Deepali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Thermal insult is the major cause of thermal injury or death and in case of death due to thermal injury the body often has to be recovered from the site. Histologically, one can predict whether the victim was alive or dead when the fire was on going. However, determination of probable cause of thermal insult to which victim subjected to be difficult when the victim's body is found somewhere else from the crime scene or accident site or found alone. Hence, histopathological evaluation of the tissue which has undergone thermal insult in such conditions could help to place evidence in front of law officials, regarding probable condition, or scenario at time of burn of victim. Aims: Keeping this as a criteria in this study we aim to evaluate burnt tissue histopathologically, that undergone various degree of thermal insult, which simulates various real life scenario for mortality in burn cases. Settings and Design: We evaluate the changes in hematoxylin and eosin staining pattern of tissue which has undergone thermal insult compared to normal tissue and also the progressive changes in staining pattern, architectural, and cellular details. Materials and Methods: Samples were taken from the patients, in various surgical procedures. Each sample was cut into five parts with close margins so that each burnt tissue is evaluated for same field or region. The tissue that obtained was immediately subjected to varying degree of temperature over a specific period so as to simulate the various real-life condition. Then the tissues were fixed, processed, and stained with routine H and E staining. The processed slides of tissue were examined under the microscope, and the staining, and architectural changes were evaluated and described. Results: Results show that there was a progressive changes in the architectural pattern of the epithelium and connective tissue showing cleft formation and vacuolization, staining pattern also shows mixing of stains progressively as the

  8. Proteoglycan modifications by granulation tissue in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintner, M I; Kollar, E J; Rossomando, E F

    1982-01-01

    To study the process of tissue remodeling that occurs during wound healing, radioactive proteoglycan ([35S]-PGS) was used to assay for enzymatic activities present in the extracellular fluid of healing tissue. Mice, wounded by removal of a 2 x 1.5 cm patch of skin from the dorsal surface, were sacrificed after 3 days of healing. Granulation tissue (1 cm2) was removed, spread onto a sterile wire mesh support and placed in the center well of an organ culture dish. To each well was added 1 ml MCDB medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and antibiotics and 5-20 microliters of [35S]-PGS (100,000 cpm/10 microliters). Medium, removed from the well by aspiration after 24 and 48 h of culture, was boiled 5 min at 100 degrees C and stored frozen at -20 degrees C. Alterations of the PGS were assayed with a Sepharose 4B column (1 x 50 cm) which had an excluded and included volume of 17 and 46 ml, respectively. PGS, incubated without cells or with tissues from unwounded animals, eluted at 26 ml. PGS, incubated with granulation tissue and cultured for either 24 or 48 h, eluted from the Sepharose 4B at 29 ml, a 10% increase in elution volume, suggesting that the size or shape of the PGS has been altered by enzymes secreted by the cells of the granulation tissue. In contrast, PGS incubated with tissues from unwounded animals or without granulation tissue showed no changes. These data suggest that enzymatic activities secreted by cells of granulation tissue may be involved in remodeling during healing. PMID:6749574

  9. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...... markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised by...

  10. Interaction of electromagnetic fields and biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darshan Shrivastava, Bhakt; Barde, Ravindra; Mishra, Ashutosh; Phadke, S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with the electromagnetic field interact in biological tissues. It is actually one of the important challenges for the electromagnetic field for the recent years. The experimental techniques are use in Broad-band Dielectric Measurement (BDM) with LCR meters. The authors used Bones and scales of Fish taken from Narmada River (Rajghat Dist. Barwani) as biological tissues. Experimental work carried out done in inter-university consortium (IUC) Indore. The major difficulties that appear are related to the material properties, to the effect of the electromagnetic problem and to the thermal model of the biological tissues.

  11. Handbooks of tissue doses in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two additional Handbooks for determining tissue doses from diagnostic radiology procedures are now available. One permits estimates of glandular tissue doses in mammography, the other is an update of an earlier Handbook which permits estimates of several tissue doses for common projections in diagnostic radiology. Both Handbooks have been derived from calculations using a Monte Carlo computer code and associated anthropomorphic phantoms. Experience with previous Handbooks of this type has demonstrated the practical value and versatility of such a format for medical radiation protection personnel

  12. Progress in planta transformation without tissue culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yun-Hong; YU Zeng-Liang; QIN Guang-Yong; HUO Yu-Ping

    2004-01-01

    With the development of planta genetic engineering, more emphases have been laid on convenient and high efficient genetic transformation methods. And transformation without tissue culture is a prospective direction of it. In this paper, traditional transformation methods and the methods of non-tissue culture were summarized. With the exploration and application of Arabidopsis transformation mechanism, with the use of ion beam-mediated transformation invented by Chinese scientists and the development of other transformation methods, transformation methods without tissue culture and planta genetic engineering could be improved rapidly.

  13. Expression of immunoreactive urocortin in human tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Qing; Vicki L Clifton; CUI Ying; HUI Ning; ZHOU Xiao-ning; HE Qian; HAN Qing-feng; SHA Jin-yan; Roger Smith

    2001-01-01

    To localize where urocortin is expressed in human tissue in an attempt to study its physiological functions. Methods: Expression of immunoreactive urocortin in different human tissue was examined using a specific urocortin antibody and the immunoperoxidase staining method. Results: Immunoreactive urocortin was observed in the anterior pituitary cells, decidual stromal cells, syncytiotrophoblasts, amnion epithelium, the vascular smooth muscles of myometrium, fallopian tube and small intestine. Conclusion: The study indicates that urocortin is expressed in some specific areas of human tissue. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that urocortin is produced locally as an endocrine factor, which may act as a neural regulator and a regulator of local blood flow.

  14. Imaging in cellular and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hanry

    2013-01-01

    Details on specific imaging modalities for different cellular and tissue engineering applications are scattered throughout articles and chapters in the literature. Gathering this information into a single reference, Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering presents both the fundamentals and state of the art in imaging methods, approaches, and applications in regenerative medicine. The book underscores the broadening scope of imaging applications in cellular and tissue engineering. It covers a wide range of optical and biological applications, including the repair or replacement of whole tiss

  15. Computational modeling of laser-tissue interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.A.; Amendt, P.; Bailey, D.S.; Eder, D.C.; Maitland, D.J.; Glinsky, M.E.; Strauss, M.; Zimmerman, G.B.

    1996-05-01

    Computational modeling can play an important role both in designing laser-tissue interaction experiments and in understanding the underlying mechanisms. This can lead to more rapid and less expensive development if new procedures and instruments, and a better understanding of their operation. We have recently directed computer programs and associated expertise developed over many years to model high intensity laser-matter interactions for fusion research towards laser-tissue interaction problem. A program called LATIS is being developed to specifically treat laser-tissue interaction phenomena, such as highly scattering light transport, thermal coagulation, and hydrodynamic motion.

  16. The influence of freezing and tissue porosity on the material properties of vegetable tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue porosity and fluid flow have been shown to be important parameters affecting the mechanical and sensorial behaviour of edible plant tissues. The quantity of fluid and the manner with which it was released on compression of the plant tissue were also important regarding the sensory perception and a good indication of any structural damage resulting from freezing, for example. Potato, carrot and Chinese water chestnut were used to study the effects freezing has on model plant tissues. Mechanical and structural measurements of the plant tissue were correlated with sensory analysis. Conventional freezing was shown to cause severe structural damage predominantly in the form of cavities between or through cells, resulting in decreases in mechanical strength and stiffness, and samples that were perceived in the mouth as 'soft' and 'wet'. The location and size of the cavities formed from ice crystals, depended on the particular plant tissue being frozen, the processing it was subjected to prior to freezing, the size of the sample and the cooling regime employed to freeze the tissue. Cavitation in the tissue resulted in an increase in tissue porosity, which enabled fluid to flow more easily from the tissue on compression, thus affecting the mechanical properties and sensory perception. Freezing damage to plant tissues was shown to be reduced, and sometimes prevented, when active antifreeze proteins (AFPs) were introduced into the tissues by vacuum infiltration or transformation and the tissue was frozen at a suitable cooling rate. Theoretical modelling was applied to the fluid flow and porosity data to test the validity of the models and to subsequently predict the mechanical behaviour of potato from the structural properties of the tissue. (author)

  17. Subepithelial connective tissue graft: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alcarás Saraiva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Marginal tissue recession represents a common condition in Periodontology. Miller’s Classes I and II recessions, in which the etiological factors are well diagnosed and eliminated, show great predictability of total coverage when the technique of subepithelial connective tissue graft is used. This technique success has been mainly attributed to the double blood supply for graft’s nutrition, originating from the connective tissue of both the periosteum and flap. Case report and conclusion: The authors reported a clinical case in which a Miller’s Class I recession was treated by the surgical technique of subepithelial connective tissue graft, obtaining total coverage, eliminating the aesthetic deficiency and the dentin hypersensitivity complained by patient.

  18. Echinococcosis confined only to subcutaneous tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of echinococcosis that involved only the subcutaneous tissue. We strongly stress the rareness of this presentation in a disease so throughtly studied in our geographical region. (Author) 7 refs

  19. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm3 blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  20. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a difference between tissue and organ donation? In general, organ donors must be brain dead, which is defined ... very limited cases (approximately 20,000 per year), organ donation occurs when mechanical support (i.e., ventilators) can ...

  1. Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lose some function as you age during adulthood. Aging changes occur in all of the body's cells, ... and peripheral nerves are made of nerve tissue. AGING CHANGES Cells are the basic building blocks of ...

  2. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt J; Andresen, Erik N; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research into the biological mechanisms behind obesity-related inflammation, knowledge of environmental and genetic factors triggering such mechanisms is limited. In the present narrative review we present potential determinants of adipose tissue inflammation and suggest ways...

  3. Tissue holder for experimental and Demonstration Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, F. J.; Pavlik, J. B.; Vargo, D. J.; Winters, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    Development of device for holding anatomical tissues during operations is discussed. Device consists of plastic dish with hemispherical recess in center to hold excised eyes. Low vacuum applied to underside of recess insures holding of part.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of UMFix tissue fixative

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, T J; Morales, A. R.; Nadji, M.; Nassiri, M.; Vincek, V.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of UMFix, an alcohol based tissue fixative, on various microorganisms. The UMFix solution was compared with 10% neutral buffered formalin.

  5. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds. PMID:27114828

  6. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  7. Sulphation of hydroxybiphenyls in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, G M; Vannucci, L; Bencini, C; Tusini, G; Mosca, F

    1991-09-01

    1. Sulphotransferase is an important detoxication pathway of hydroxybiphenyls and the kinetics of sulphotransferase activity were studied in human liver, ileum and colon mucosae, lung, kidney, urinary bladder mucosa and brain using 0-, m- and p-hydroxybiphenyl as substrates. 2. Sulphotransferase activity was detectable in all tissues studied, although it showed marked tissue-dependence. The rate of sulphation ranged greater than 100-fold in different tissues and the highest and lowest activities of sulphotransferase were found in liver and brain, respectively. 3. The Km of sulphotransferase was not tissue-dependent but was dependent on the isomer of hydroxybiphenyl. The Km varied over a 500-fold range and the highest and lowest values of Km were found with p-hydroxybiphenyl and m-hydroxybiphenyl, respectively. PMID:1788979

  8. Extracting tissue deformation using Gabor filter banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillo, Albert; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for accurate extraction of tissue deformation imaged with tagged MR. Our method, based on banks of Gabor filters, adjusts (1) the aspect and (2) orientation of the filter"s envelope and adjusts (3) the radial frequency and (4) angle of the filter"s sinusoidal grating to extract information about the deformation of tissue. The method accurately extracts tag line spacing, orientation, displacement and effective contrast. Existing, non-adaptive methods often fail to recover useful displacement information in the proximity of tissue boundaries while our method works in the proximity of the boundaries. We also present an interpolation method to recover all tag information at a finer resolution than the filter bank parameters. Results are shown on simulated images of translating and contracting tissue.

  9. Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004012.htm Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells To use the ... lose some function as you age during adulthood. Aging changes occur in all of the body's cells, ...

  10. NCI’s Cooperative Human Tissue Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality biospecimens are a foundational resource for cancer research. One of NCI’s longest running biospecimen programs is the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, a resource mainly for basic discovery and early translational research.

  11. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Treatment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  12. SEM investigation of heart tissue samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, R; Amoroso, M [Physics Department, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    We used the scanning electron microscope to examine the cardiac tissue of a cow (Bos taurus), a pig (Sus scrofa), and a human (Homo sapiens). 1mm{sup 3} blocks of left ventricular tissue were prepared for SEM scanning by fixing in 96% ethanol followed by critical point drying (cryofixation), then sputter-coating with gold. The typical ridged structure of the myofibrils was observed for all the species. In addition crystal like structures were found in one of the samples of the heart tissue of the pig. These structures were investigated further using an EDVAC x-ray analysis attachment to the SEM. Elemental x-ray analysis showed highest peaks occurred for gold, followed by carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium. As the samples were coated with gold for conductivity, this highest peak is expected. Much lower peaks at carbon, oxygen, magnesium and potassium suggest that a cystallized salt such as a carbonate was present in the tissue before sacrifice.

  13. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Andréa F. S.; Argôlo, Adriana C. C.; Paiva, Patrícia M. G.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts ...

  14. Adult stem cells and tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körbling, M; Estrov, Z; Champlin, R

    2003-08-01

    Recently, adult stem cells originating from bone marrow or peripheral blood have been suggested to contribute to repair and genesis of cells specific for liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, gut, and brain tissue. The mechanism involved has been termed transdifferentiation, although other explanations including cell fusion have been postulated. Using adult stem cells to generate or repair solid organ tissue obviates the immunologic, ethical, and teratogenic issues that accompany embryonic stem cells. PMID:12931235

  15. Pulmonary metastasectomy from soft tissue sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Afonso da Silva Sardenberg; Luiz Poli de Figueiredo; Fábio José Haddad; Jefferson Luiz Gross; Riad Naim Younes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Isolated pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcomas occur in 20-50% of these (the issue is about metastases, not lung cancer) patients, and 70% of these patients will present disease limited only to the lungs. Surgical resection is well accepted as a standard approach to treat metastases from soft tissue sarcomas isolated in the lungs, and many studies investigating this technique have reported an overall 5-year survival ranging from 30-40%. The most consistent predictor of ...

  16. Soft tissue sarcomas of the kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Köhle; Dominik Abt; Christian Rothermundt; Christian Öhlschlegel; Christiane Brugnolaro; Hans-Peter Schmid

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors. Amongst others, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the kidney and synovial sarcoma of the kidney belong to the group of soft tissue sarcomas. Synovial sarcomas can occur almost anywhere in the body, most frequently, however, in the lower (62%) or upper extremities (21%). Metastases occur in 50-70% of cases, and thus the prognosis is poor. PNETs are rare, highly aggressive neoplastic lesions which mainly occur in the torso or axial skel...

  17. Cytological studies of lunar treated tissue cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An electron microscopic study was made of botanical materials, particularly pine tissues, treated with lunar materials collected by Apollo 12 quarantine mission. Results show unusual structural changes within several of the treated tissues. The bodies, as yet unidentified, resemble virus particles observed within infected plant cells. Although the size and shape of the structures are comparable to rod shaped virus particles such as Tobacco mosaic, the numerical distribution, affinity for stains, and intercellular location are different.

  18. Drug releasing systems in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Genovese, Jorge A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Heart disease and atherosclerosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of suitable autologous grafts has produced a need for artificial grafts; however, current artificial grafts carry significant limitations, including thrombosis, infection, limited durability and the inability to grow. Tissue engineering of blood vessels, cardiovascular structures and whole organs is a promising approach for creating replacement tissues to repair congenital defects ...

  19. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called “brite” or “beig...

  20. Direct plasma interaction with living tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Gregory

    For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

  1. STUDY OF CULTURING CARDIOVASCULAR TISSUE IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成少飞; 叶清

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of utilizing vascular cells combined with folded and framed culture model to develop completely autologous human tissue without using any scaffold material under the principles of Tissue Engineering. Methods Human vascular cells cultured from ascending aorta (group A) and saphenous vein (group B) were seeded into 15cm-dishes (each n =12 ) and cultured to form cell sheets over a period of four weeks with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with lmmol/L L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Thereafter, cell sheets (6 samples of each group) were four-layer folded and cultured in a newly developed frame device for additional four weeks. Controls remained under standard culture conditions. Tissue development was evaluated by light and electron microscopy, biochemical assays. Results The formation of multi-layered cell sheets and production of extracellular matrix were observed in each group after the initial four weeks. Analysis of the folded and framed neo-tissue revealed a solid structure with increased matrix formation and tissue organization compared to the control groups after additional four weeks. DNA assay indicated significantly lower cell proliferation in folded and framed cell sheets than in that of unframed counterparts. Yet hydroxyproline assay demonstrated significant increase of collagen content in the framed aortic and venous derived tissues, which contained 82 % and 42 % that of human pericardium. Conclusion It is feasible to obtain completely autologous human cardiovascular tissue with the alternative new approach. Numerous issues including improvement of mechanical strength of neo-tissue remain to be investingated.

  2. Dermatological application of tissue-tolerable plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Klebes, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-tolerable plasma (TTP) has recently developed into an interdisciplinary and innovative field of research. Due to its promising properties new perspectives in medicine and promising applications in dermatology are possible. In the first phase of the investigations it was shown that TTP can be applied on human skin without any risk in terms of electrical safety, temperature, UV radiation, or free radicals. Moreover it is effective in tissue disinfection. Subsequently, antibacterial...

  3. Pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas and nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwala Sandeep

    2006-01-01

    Tumors arising from the soft tissues are uncommon in children, accounting for about 6% of all childhood malignancies. More than half (53%) of these originate from the striated muscles and are called rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) the remaining are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS). Almost two-thirds of RMS cases are diagnosed in children < 6 years of age. They can arise at varied locations like the head and neck region, genitourinary tract, extremities, trunk and retrope...

  4. Injectable Biomaterials for Adipose Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D. Adam; Christman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineering has recently gained significant attention from materials scientists as a result of the exponential growth of soft tissue filler procedures being performed within the clinic. While several injectable materials are currently being marketed for filling subcutaneous voids, they often face limited longevity due to rapid resorption. Their inability to encourage natural adipose formation or ingrowth necessitates repeated injections for a prolonged effect, and thus classifi...

  5. Pediatric brain tumors of neuroepithelial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumors of neuroepithelial tissue represent the largest group of pediatric brain tumors by far and has therefore been divided into several discrete tumor subtypes each corresponding to a specific component of the neuropil. The neuropil contains several subtypes of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and modified ependymal cells that form the choroid plexus. This review discusses the imaging aspects of the most common pediatric tumors of neuroepithelial tissue. (orig.)

  6. Multimodal evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Joseph M.; Welter, Jean F.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has promise as a biological solution and a disease modifying treatment for arthritis. Although cartilage can be generated by TE, substantial inter- and intra-donor variability makes it impossible to guarantee optimal, reproducible results. TE cartilage must be able to perform the functions of native tissue, thus mechanical and biological properties approaching those of native cartilage are likely a pre-requisite for successful implantation. A quality-control assessment...

  7. Obesity and adipose tissue endocrine function

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Anuradha Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have profoundly changed the concept of adipose tissue from being an energy depot to an active endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secretes bioactive peptides, termed as ‘adipokines’.They act through autocrine, paracrine and endocrine pathways. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines affects multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, immunity, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism and haemostasis. Increased activity of the tumor n...

  8. Fibrin for tissue engineering of cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Eyrich, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s a plethora of research approaches towards cartilage engineering for plastic and reconstructive surgery have been undertaken. However, a general standard method for generation of cartilage tissue equivalent is still lacking. The goal of this thesis is based on the project �Bavarian Research Cooperation for Tissue Engineering and Rapid Prototyping� (ForTEPro) for development of individually customized implants for facial and reconstructive surgery. The main o...

  9. Tissue Engineering: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Jennifer L.; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2011-01-01

    Novel therapies resulting from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technology may offer new hope for patients with injuries, end-stage organ failure, or other clinical issues. Currently, patients with diseased and injured organs are often treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a shortage of donor organs that is worsening yearly as the population ages and as the number of new cases of organ failure increases. Scientists in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue eng...

  10. Developing 3D microstructures for tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Wolff, Anders; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2016-01-01

    casting process to generate various large scale tissue engineering constructs with single pore geometry with the desired mechanical stiffness and porosity. In addition, a new technique was developed to fa bricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue-engineering applications where 3D printing of the PVA mould was combined with a salt leaching process. In this case, the sacrificial PVA mould, defining a structured network- architecture of micro-channels, was filled with salt crystals to defin...

  11. Mechanostimulation Protocols for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Govoni; Claudio Muscari; Emanuele Giordano; Carlo Guarnieri

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the inability of self-replacement by a damaged myocardium, alternative strategies to heart transplantation have been explored within the last decades and cardiac tissue engineering/regenerative medicine is among the present challenges in biomedical research. Hopefully, several studies witness the constant extension of the toolbox available to engineer a fully functional, contractile, and robust cardiac tissue using different combinations of cells, template bioscaffolds, and biophysic...

  12. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  13. Introduction to tissue engineering applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Birla, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Covering a progressive medical field, Tissue Engineering describes the innovative process of regenerating human cells to restore or establish normal function in defective organs. As pioneering individuals look ahead to the possibility of generating entire organ systems, students may turn to this textbook for a comprehensive understanding and preparation for the future of regenerative medicine. This book explains chemical stimulations, the bioengineering of specific organs, and treatment plans for chronic diseases. It is a must-read for tissue engineering students and practitioners.

  14. Local Recurrence of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Whitney M; Deneve, Jeremiah L

    2016-10-01

    The management of recurrent soft tissue sarcoma is a challenging problem for clinicians and has a significant physical, mental, emotional, and oncologic impact for the patient. Despite excellent limb-preservation therapies, approximately one-quarter of patients may eventually develop recurrence of disease. How to most appropriately manage these patients is a matter of debate. Several treatment options exist, including surgical resection, irradiation, systemic chemotherapy, amputation, and regional therapies. This article highlights the management of recurrent extremity soft tissue sarcoma. PMID:27542648

  15. Cell structural parameters of potato tuber tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Zdunek A.; Pawlak K.; Król A.; Gancarz M.; Czachor H.; Konstankiewicz K.

    2002-01-01

    The present study reviews results of research on the quantitative determination of cell structural parameters such as: surface area, perimeter, Ferret's diameters, elongation, compac- tion, for the parenchyma of potato tuber, taking into consideration inner and outer core tissues. Tissue images were obtained for the samples in their natural state without any preparation using an optic confocal microscope. The quantitative analysis of the microscopic image of the cross-sections of the cell's s...

  16. Bioactive peptide nanofibers for tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Uzunallı, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 155-170). Thesis (Ph. D.): Bilkent University, Materials Science and Nanotechnology Program, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Defects in the tissues or organs caused by trauma or diseases can have detrimental effects on all aspects of patients’ life quality. During the last three decades, considerable developments have been made in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in order to find a...

  17. Processing of Microdissected Tissue for Molecular Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: National Cancer Institute These methods were successful in our lab using prostate tissue and for our specific objectives. Investigators must be aware that they will need to tailor the following protocol for their own research objectives and tissue under study. **More than 10,000 Cells** If the amount of microdissected material is substantial (>10,000 cells) then any of the standard procedures for isolating DNA are acceptable. **Less than 10,000 Cells** If the n...

  18. Latest advances in connective tissue disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Vijay; Bowman, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The connective tissue disorders comprise a number of related conditions that include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome, scleroderma, myositis and Sjögren’s syndrome. They are characterized by autoantibody production and other immune-mediated dysfunction. There are common clinical and serological features with some patients having multiple overlapping connective tissue disorders. The latest advances include new approaches to therapy, including more f...

  19. Tissue engineering and regeneration of lymphatic structures

    OpenAIRE

    Weitman, Evan; Cuzzone, Daniel; Mehrara, Babak J.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering is the process by which biological structures are recreated using a combination of molecular signals, cellular components and scaffolds. Although the perceived potential of this approach to reconstruct damaged or missing tissues is seemingly limitless, application of these ideas in vivo has been more difficult than expected. However, despite these obstacles, important advancements have been reported for a number of organ systems, including recent reports on the lymphatic sy...

  20. Extramedullary Plasmacytoma of Soft Tissues and Gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur Kaler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP is a rare plasma cell neoplasm of soft tissue without bone marrow involvement or other systemic characteristics of multiple myeloma. It accounts for 3% of all plasma cell tumors. Multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma is defined when there is more than one extramedullary tumor of clonal plasma cells and such presentation has not been described earlier. We report such rare case of multiple extramedullary plasmacytoma involving multiple soft tissues in chest, abdomen, mandible, maxilla, and gingiva.