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Sample records for caridean shrimp decapoda

  1. Caridean shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda) from seagrass habitats in Hansa Bay, Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grave, de Sammy

    1999-01-01

    Five species of caridean shrimps collected from seagrass habitats at Hansa Bay, on the northern coastline of Papua New Guinea are reported. Four species are new to the fauna of Papua New Guinea. Morphological details of Nikoides danae, Latreutes pymoeus and L. porcinus are discussed and compared to

  2. Carideorum catalogus: the recent species of the dendrobranchiate, stenopodidean, procarididean and caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Grave, S.; Fransen, C.H.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A checklist of recent species of dendrobranchiate, stenopodidean, procarididean and caridean shrimps including synonyms and type localities. Also listed are unavailable names, larval names, nomina dubia and nomina nuda. A complete list of references to original descriptions of taxa listed is

  3. New records of caridean shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea from shallow water along the northern Yucatan peninsula coasts of México

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    Luis Daniel Santana-Moreno

    Full Text Available The northern coast of the Mexican state of Yucatán has only been cursorily sampled in the past, with most of this effort concentrated on the largest coral reef in the Gulf of México, Arrecife Alacranes. The present study reports on recent collections (June 2008 - September 2013 of caridean shrimp in Yucatán, including Arrecife Alacranes and other reefs, as well as coastal lagoons and beaches. Additionally, a number of species are reported based on older, unidentified museum material. Six species represent new records for the Gulf of México [Janicea antiguensis (Chace, 1972, Gnathophyllum modestum Hay, 1917, Lysmata jundalini Rhyne, Calado and dos Santos, 2012, Periclimenes sandyi De Grave, 2009, Rapipontonia platalea (Holthuis, 1951a, Typton tortugae, McClendon, 1911], and 11 species are confirmed new records for México [Lysmata ankeri Rhyne and Lin, 2006, L. pederseni Rhyne and Lin, 2006, L. rafa Rhyne and Anker, 2007, Ascidonia miserabilis (Holthuis, 1951b, A. quasipusilla (Chace, 1972, Neopontonides chacei Heard, 1986, Periclimenaeus maxillulidens (Schmitt, 1936, P. pearsei (Schmitt, 1932, P. schmitti Holthuis, 1951b, Typton prionurus Holthuis, 1951b, Processa manningi De Grave and Felder, 2012], adding up to a total of 17 newly reported species for the East coast of México. Further, the colour pattern of several species is documented for the first time.

  4. Heterochrony in mandible development of larval shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea)--a comparative morphological SEM study of two carideans.

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    Batel, Annika; Melzer, Roland R; Anger, Klaus; Geiselbrecht, Hannes

    2014-11-01

    Mandible development in the larval stages I-V of two palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon elegans and Macrobrachium amazonicum, was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In contrast to the zoea I of P. elegans, first-stage larvae of M. amazonicum are nonfeeding. At hatching, the morphology of the mandibles is fully expressed in P. elegans, while it appears underdeveloped in M. amazonicum, presenting only small precursors of typical caridean features. In successive zoeal stages, both species show similar developmental changes, but the mandibular characters of the larvae in M. amazonicum were delayed compared to the equivalent stages in P. elegans, especially in the development of submarginal setae and mandible size. In conclusion, our results indicate heterochrony (postdisplacement) of mandible development in M. amazonicum compared to that in P. elegans, which is related to initial lack of mandible functionality or planktivorous feeding at hatching, respectively. This conclusion is supported by comparison with other palaemonid zoeae exhibiting different feeding modes. Our data suggest that an evolutionary ground pattern of mandible morphology is present even in species with nonfeeding first-stage larvae. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reproductive aspects of the caridean shrimp Atya scabra (Leach, 1815 (Decapoda: Atyidae in São Sebastião Island, southwestern Atlantic, Brazil

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    Juliana Herrera-Correal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The caridean freshwater shrimp Atya scabra is a common resident of stream systems of tropical rainforests in America, including Brazilian drainages. This shrimp has an amphidromous life cycle, which increases its vulnerability when facing habitat fragmentation. Since information on the reproduction of this species is still limited, we present here data on egg production, egg loss, and energy investment, to achieve a better understanding of reproductive features of A. scabra. Specimens were collected between 2006 and 2007 in São Sebastião Island, southeastern Brazil, in 13 locations. The fecundity of 21 ovigerous females analyzed ranged between 414 and 19,250 eggs, which were higher than previously reported. However, the larger size of females analyzed may explain the observed intraspecific difference in egg production. During embryogenesis, egg volume and water content increased by 103 and 22.6%, respectively. The initial egg volume of A. scabra in the present study (0.027 mm³ was slightly lower, but comparable to the values reported previously from the same study area. During incubation, females of A. scabra lost 15% of their initially produced eggs. The reproductive output (average RO of 3.6% is the first report for any atyid species. Its value is fairly low compared to other freshwater shrimps, and it is hypothesized that this might be related to a high energy investment in morphological adaptations, which allows the shrimp to cling on to the substrate in the fast flowing environment they inhabit. Additionally, the long life span, a well-known phenomenon in atyid shrimp, may allow the species to invest a relatively low amount of energy per brood in egg production, but over a longer time span.

  6. Mating systems in caridean shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea and their evolutionary consequences for sexual dimorphism and reproductive biology Sistemas de apareamiento en camarones carideos (Decapoda: Caridea y sus consecuencias evolutivas en el dimorfismo sexual y biología reproductiva

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    CRISTIÁN CORREA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review functional and evolutionary relationships among mating systems of caridean shrimp and specific traits such as general biology/ecology, sexual systems, behavior and morphology. Four mating systems are described based on reports from available literature, and a fifth system is recognized but published information is insufficient to describe it in detail. `Monogamy' occurs in many species inhabiting monopolizable refuges or hosts, especially when environmental conditions restrict the probability of intraspecific interactions. In contrast, free-living species experience higher encounter rates and males can dominate or search. In `neighborhoods of dominance' mating systems, large males have higher reproductive success since they perform better in fights for receptive females. In `pure searching' mating systems, small and agile males do better because they search more efficiently for mates within the population. The fourth mating system is `search & attend' occurring in solitary symbionts, which experience variable ecological and demographic environments: depending on environmental conditions and ontogenetic stages it may either be profitable for males to search or to attend hosts with sexually attractive females. Sexual systems of caridean shrimp are characterized by their high diversity and intraspecific plasticity, including gonochorism and different forms of protandric or simultaneous hermaphroditism. The identified mating systems partially explained this diversity: In monogamous species, low encounter rates and lack of sexual dimorphism favors simultaneous hermaphroditism but gonochory usually occurs among these species probably because mates are not strictly faithful. Species with neighborhoods of dominance mating are gonochoristic because both sexes benefit from being large. Pure searching species have a wide opportunity for the evolution of protandry since small males benefit while the opposite is true for females. In

  7. Phytophilous caridean shrimps (Atyidae and Palaemonidae in Salsa river (Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

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    Lucas Rezende Penido Paschoal

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the role of three species of macrophytes in the population of caridean shrimps in the Salsa river (Northeastern of Brazil. Results revealed that macrophytes have important functions and directly responsible for modulating the spatial distribution of these shrimp species.

  8. Faunistic analysis of the caridean shrimps inhabiting seagrasses along the NW coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

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    Everardo Barba Macías

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows are highly productive and ecologically important habitats in estuaries and coastal lagoons, and contain a variety of faunal communities, from which the caridean shrimps are a dominant component. The purpose of this work was to analyze the environmental parameters of water and sediments, with the biological components in seagrass epifaunal communities, from the Western Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. For this, density and diversity of caridean shrimps were analyzed and correlated with environmental parameters and seagrass biomass, and zoogeographic affinities were determined. The spatial distribution of caridean shrimps was recorded for 12 localities with Halodule wrightii and Thalassia testudinum monospecific seagrass meadows. A total of 72 158 individuals of 16 taxa were collected. Among results, the Hippolytidae resulted the most abundant group (92.3% with eight species, and was followed by Palaemonidae with 7.6% of the abundance and seven species, and the Alpheidae with only one genus. From the total of collected carideans, a 37.3% was found in H. wrightii and 62.7% in T. testudinum. The dominant species were Hippolyte zostericola (12.39ind./m2, Tozeuma carolinense (9.5ind./m2, Thor dobkini (4.84ind./m2 and Palaemonetes vulgaris (4.87ind./m2. The zoogeographic distribution of the carideans presented two groups: species of the Virginian-Carolinean province representing its Southern limit (43.75% and species of the Brazilian-Caribbean province representing its Northern limit (56.25%. The species H. zostericola, T. carolinense, P. vulgaris, P. pugio and P. intermedius are widely distributed along the Western Atlantic coast. This study has base line information for seagrass habitats, the community of epifaunal carideans and their ecological affinities, previous to the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Observations on the symbiotic relationship between the caridean shrimp Odontonia sibogae (Bruce, 1972 and its ascidian host Herdmania momus (Savigny, 1816.

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    Ya'arit Levitt-Barmats

    Full Text Available Symbiotic relationships between shrimps and other invertebrates are a very common phenomenon in tropical environments. Although the caridean shrimp-ascidian association has been known for many years, the nature of this relationship is still unclear. The current study investigated the association between the caridean shrimp Odontonia sibogae (Bruce, 1972 and solitary ascidians. A combination of field work conducted along the Red Sea coast of Israel and laboratory experiments, conducted during 2015-2016, revealed a clear preference of the shrimps for the ascidian species Herdmania momus (Savigny, 1816, with a low survival ability of the shrimp outside their host's body. The shrimps usually inhabit their host as pairs of male and female or pair of females, but never as pairs of males. Out of the 53 studied females, 51% were observed to bear between 156-1,146 embryos, throughout the course of the year. As these ascidian hosts are known to create large aggregates, we suggest that males may possibly wander among the ascidians occupied by females in order to increase their reproductive success. To date, this is the first study to record the shrimp Dactylonia ascidicola (Borradaile, 1898 inhabiting the ascidian H. momus; and the first study to investigate in depth the ascidian-shrimp association in the Red Sea. It thus provides a platform for future research into the physiological and behavioral adaptations required for such a unique association.

  10. Observations on the symbiotic relationship between the caridean shrimp Odontonia sibogae (Bruce, 1972) and its ascidian host Herdmania momus (Savigny, 1816).

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    Levitt-Barmats, Ya'arit; Shenkar, Noa

    2018-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships between shrimps and other invertebrates are a very common phenomenon in tropical environments. Although the caridean shrimp-ascidian association has been known for many years, the nature of this relationship is still unclear. The current study investigated the association between the caridean shrimp Odontonia sibogae (Bruce, 1972) and solitary ascidians. A combination of field work conducted along the Red Sea coast of Israel and laboratory experiments, conducted during 2015-2016, revealed a clear preference of the shrimps for the ascidian species Herdmania momus (Savigny, 1816), with a low survival ability of the shrimp outside their host's body. The shrimps usually inhabit their host as pairs of male and female or pair of females, but never as pairs of males. Out of the 53 studied females, 51% were observed to bear between 156-1,146 embryos, throughout the course of the year. As these ascidian hosts are known to create large aggregates, we suggest that males may possibly wander among the ascidians occupied by females in order to increase their reproductive success. To date, this is the first study to record the shrimp Dactylonia ascidicola (Borradaile, 1898) inhabiting the ascidian H. momus; and the first study to investigate in depth the ascidian-shrimp association in the Red Sea. It thus provides a platform for future research into the physiological and behavioral adaptations required for such a unique association.

  11. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea.

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    Sammy De Grave

    Full Text Available We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT. Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats.

  12. Caridean Shrimps found in Land-Locked Saltwater Pools at four Indo-West Pacific Localities (Sinai Peninsula, Funafuti Atoll, Maui and Hawaii Islands), with the description of one new genus and four new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1973-01-01

    At several occasions red coloured caridean shrimps have been reported from tropical land-locked saltwater pools. These pools are situated at some distance from the sea, but, because the level of the water rises and falls with the tides, must have subterranean connections with the sea. The shrimps

  13. Effects of late-cenozoic glaciation on habitat availability in Antarctic benthic shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea.

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    Johannes Dambach

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates inhabiting the high Antarctic continental shelves are challenged by disturbance of the seafloor by grounded ice, low but stable water temperatures and variable food availability in response to seasonal sea-ice cover. Though a high diversity of life has successfully adapted to such conditions, it is generally agreed that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM the large-scale cover of the Southern Ocean by multi-annual sea ice and the advance of the continental ice sheets across the shelf faced life with conditions, exceeding those seen today by an order of magnitude. Conditions prevailing at the LGM may have therefore acted as a bottleneck event to both the ecology as well as genetic diversity of today's fauna. Here, we use for the first time specific Species Distribution Models (SDMs for marine arthropods of the Southern Ocean to assess effects of habitat contraction during the LGM on the three most common benthic caridean shrimp species that exhibit a strong depth zonation on the Antarctic continental shelf. While the shallow-water species Chorismus antarcticus and Notocrangon antarcticus were limited to a drastically reduced habitat during the LGM, the deep-water shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes found refuge in the Southern Ocean deep sea. The modeling results are in accordance with genetic diversity patterns available for C. antarcticus and N. lanceopes and support the hypothesis that habitat contraction at the LGM resulted in a loss of genetic diversity in shallow water benthos.

  14. The recent genera of the Caridean and Stenopodidean shrimps (class Crustacea, order Decapoda, supersection Natantia) with keys for their determination

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    Holthuis, L.B.

    1955-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction.......... 1 Supersection Natantia ...... 2 Section Caridea....... . 7 Superfamily Oplophoroida ... 12 Family Oplophoridae .... 12 Family Nematocarcinidae . . 17 Family Atyidae ..... 18 Superfamily Stylodactyloida . . 31 Family Stylodactylidae ... 31 Superfamily Pasiphaeoida . .

  15. Palaemon vicinus spec. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae), a new species of caridean shrimp from the tropical eastern Atlantic

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    Ashelby, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of Palaemon, P. vicinus spec. nov., is described from the tropical eastern Atlantic. The new species is very close to P. elegans Rathke, 1837, under which name it was previously recorded from West Africa. Palaemon vicinus spec. nov. is easily separated from P. elegans by possessing a

  16. Biodiversity, distribution and abundance of shrimps Penaeoidea and Caridea communities in a region the vicinity of upwelling in Southeastern of Brazil

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    Evelyn Raposo da Silva

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the spatial-temporal distribution of the abundance of Caridean and Penaeid shrimps during the period of two years in the coastal region of Macaé, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, using ecological indices (Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou's equitability. Monthly samples were carried out from March 2008 to February 2010 distributed in six stations located Inner Area (5, 10 and 15 m depth and Outer Area (25, 35 and 45 m depth using a commercial fishery boat equipped with an otter-trawl net. Water samples were taken for determination of temperature and salinity, and sediment samples for determination of texture and organic matter content. Ten species of Decapoda, including Penaeids and Carideans, have been identified, from a total of 49.941 collected individuals. There was a strong correlation between Penaeid and Caridean shrimps abundance and the bottom temperature and sediment. It could be inferred that Artemesia longinaris acted as a keystone species regulating the shrimps community in the coast of Macaé, given that both species diversity and equitability were controlled by the migratory events of A. longinaris following the variations in temperature caused by the SACW. These results provide as a basis for management actions to prevent significant losses of population stocks since it is an important marine area considering of its peculiar relevance to the fishery.

  17. Digging deeper: new gene order rearrangements and distinct patterns of codons usage in mitochondrial genomes among shrimps from the Axiidea, Gebiidea and Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda

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    Mun Hua Tan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Whole mitochondrial DNA is being increasingly utilized for comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies at deep and shallow evolutionary levels for a range of taxonomic groups. Although mitogenome sequences are deposited at an increasing rate into public databases, their taxonomic representation is unequal across major taxonomic groups. In the case of decapod crustaceans, several infraorders, including Axiidea (ghost shrimps, sponge shrimps, and mud lobsters and Caridea (true shrimps are still under-represented, limiting comprehensive phylogenetic studies that utilize mitogenomic information. Methods Sequence reads from partial genome scans were generated using the Illumina MiSeq platform and mitogenome sequences were assembled from these low coverage reads. In addition to examining phylogenetic relationships within the three infraorders, Axiidea, Gebiidea, and Caridea, we also investigated the diversity and frequency of codon usage bias and mitogenome gene order rearrangements. Results We present new mitogenome sequences for five shrimp species from Australia that includes two ghost shrimps, Callianassa ceramica and Trypaea australiensis, along with three caridean shrimps, Macrobrachium bullatum, Alpheus lobidens, and Caridina cf. nilotica. Strong differences in codon usage were discovered among the three infraorders and significant gene order rearrangements were observed. While the gene order rearrangements are congruent with the inferred phylogenetic relationships and consistent with taxonomic classification, they are unevenly distributed within and among the three infraorders. Discussion Our findings suggest potential for mitogenome rearrangements to be useful phylogenetic markers for decapod crustaceans and at the same time raise important questions concerning the drivers of mitogenome evolution in different decapod crustacean lineages.

  18. Embryo production in the sponge-dwelling snapping shrimp Synalpheus apioceros (Decapoda, Alpheidae from Bocas del Toro, Panama

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    Adriana Rebolledo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Caridean shrimps of the genus Synalpheus are abundant and widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, but knowledge of their reproductive biology remains scarce. We report reproductive traits of Synalpheus apioceros from Bocas del Toro, Panama, based on collections in August 2011. The 46 ovigerous females that were analyzed ranged in size from 3.8 to 7.4 mm in carapace length. Fecundity varied between 8 and 310 embryos and increased with female size. Females invested 18.6 ± 10.3% of their body weight in Embryo production. Embryo volume increased considerably (77.2% during embryogenesis, likely representing water uptake near the end of incubation period. Compared to Synalpheus species with abbreviated or direct development, S. apioceros produced substantially smaller embryos; however, S. apioceros seems to have a prolonged larval phase with at least five zoeal stages, which may explain the combination of relatively small and numerous embryos. We did not find nonviable, minute, chalky embryos, previously reported for S. apioceros specimens obtained from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, which supports the hypothesis that the production of this type of embryos may be a physiological response of this warm-water species to the temperature decrease near to its latitudinal range limit.

  19. Seamount influences on mid-water shrimps (Decapoda) and gnathophausiids (Lophogastridea) of the South-West Indian Ridge

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    Letessier, Tom B.; De Grave, Sammy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Kemp, Kirsty M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Rogers, Alex D.

    2017-02-01

    Maintenance of often-observed elevated levels of pelagic diversity and biomass on seamounts, of relevance to conservation and fishery management, involves complex interactions between physical and biological variables that remain poorly understood. To untangle these biophysical processes we explore factors influencing the distribution of epi- and meso-pelagic (0-1000 m) micronektonic crustaceans (>15 mm; order Lophogastridea, family Gnathophausiidea; and order Decapoda) on and off seamounts along the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR, 27° to 42°S) and on a seamount off the Madagascar Ridge (31.6°S, 42.8°E). Thirty-one species of micronektic crustaceans were caught using mid-water trawls within the study area but there was no apparent latitude-related patterns in species richness or abundance. Species richness predicted by rarefraction curves and numerical abundance was highest in the vicinity (seamounts (species richness: 15 to 21; abundance: 10±2 to 20±1 ind.10-3 m-1) compared with over the abyssal plains and ridge slopes (species richness: 9.2-9.9; abundance: 24±2 to 79±8 ind.10-3 m-1). Multivariate analysis of assemblage composition revealed significant groupings of individual trawl samples with respect to whether the sample was on or off a seamount and hydrographic region, but not with time of sampling relative to diel cycle (day/night or dawn) or depth of sampling (0-500, 500-800, >800 m). The dominant species assemblage comprised the shrimps Systellaspis debilis (37%) and Sergia prehensilis (34%), and was restricted to seamounts on the subtropical SWIR. Our observations suggest that the 'oasis effect' of seamounts conventionally associated with higher trophic levels is also applicable to pelagic micronektic crustaceans at lower trophic levels. We suggest that the enhanced biomass and species richness attributed is due to 'habitat enrichment', whereby seamounts provide favourable habitats for both pelagic and bentho-pelagic mid-water crustaceans.

  20. Systematics, phylogeny, and taphonomy of ghost shrimps (Decapoda): a perspective from the fossil record

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    Klompmaker, Adiël A.

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps of Callianassidae and Ctenochelidae are soft-bodied, usually heterochelous decapods representing major bioturbators of muddy and sandy (sub)marine substrates. Ghost shrimps have a robust fossil record spanning from the Early Cretaceous (~ 133 Ma) to the Holocene and their remains are present in most assemblages of Cenozoic decapod crustaceans. Their taxonomic interpretation is in flux, mainly because the generic assignment is hindered by their insufficient preservation and disagreement in the biological classification. Furthermore, numerous taxa are incorrectly classified within the catch-all taxon Callianassa. To show the historical patterns in describing fossil ghost shrimps and to evaluate taphonomic aspects influencing the attribution of ghost shrimp remains to higher level taxa, a database of all fossil species treated at some time as belonging to the group has been compiled: 250 / 274 species are considered valid ghost shrimp taxa herein. More than half of these taxa (160 species, 58.4%) are known only from distal cheliped elements, i.e., dactylus and / or propodus, due to the more calcified cuticle locally. Rarely, ghost shrimps are preserved in situ in burrows or in direct association with them, and several previously unpublished occurrences are reported herein. For generic assignment, fossil material should be compared to living species because many of them have modern relatives. Heterochely, intraspecific variation, ontogenetic changes and sexual dimorphism are all factors that have to be taken into account when working with fossil ghost shrimps. Distal elements are usually more variable than proximal ones. Preliminary results suggest that the ghost shrimp clade emerged not before the Hauterivian (~ 133 Ma). The divergence of Ctenochelidae and Paracalliacinae is estimated to occur within the interval of Hauterivian to Albian (133–100 Ma). Callichirinae and Eucalliacinae likely diverged later during the Late Cretaceous (100–66 Ma

  1. Shoaling of sergestid shrimp Acetes johni (Crustacea Decapoda: Sergestidae) associated with swarming of gammarid amphipods

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    Goswami, S.C.

    zooplankton standing stock (5.81 ml.m/3). The sergestid shrimps and gammarid amphipods formed 94.7% of the zooplankton population, the former constituting more than half of the biomass of the sample. Their numerical abundance decreased with depth. The adaptive...

  2. Behaviour and time allocation of the burrowing shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Decapoda, Thalassinidea)

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    Stamhuis, E.J; Reede-Dekker, T; van Etten, Y; de Wiljes, J.J.; Videler, J.J

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour and allocation of time of the endobenthic shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea was studied in the laboratory. Animals were allowed to construct a two-dimensional burrow in large transparent sediment filled cuvettes tailored to their body width. The behaviour of the

  3. Isolation and characterization of infectious Vibrio sinaloensis strainsfrom the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

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    Ma. del Carmen Flores-Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases especially those caused by bacterial and viral pathogens are serious loss factors in shrimp farming. In this study, bacteria were isolated from the gut and hepatopancreas of stressed shrimps obtained from a commercial farm. The isolates were screened on Thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS agar plates for the selection of Vibrio species. Presumptive vibrios were characterized through tests for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth and molecular identification. Three experimental infections were conducted in order to confirm the pathogenicity of selected bacterial strains VHPC18, VHPC23, VHPC24 and VIC30. In the third experimental challenge the LD50 was obtained, it lasted 10 days with 10 shrimp, weighing 6.9±1.1g, per tank. The treatments in triplicate were: (1 saline solution (control group; (2 2×10(5CFU/shrimp; (3 4×10(5CFU/shrimp; (4 2×10(6CFU/shrimp; (5 4×10(6CFU/shrimp, and (6 8×10(6CFU/shrimp. In all challenges, water parameters measured during the experimental period remained within optimum ranges. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the mixture of four vibrio isolates, identified as Vibrio sinaloensis, was virulent for L. vannamei. The LD50 value was 1.178×10(5CFU/g body weight. V. sinaloensis may act as opportunistic pathogens for cultured L. vannamei. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 567-576. Epub 2012 June 01.Las enfermedades de etiología infecciosa, especialmente las causadas por patógenos bacterianos y virales ocasionan graves pérdidas en el cultivo de camarón blanco Litopenaeus vannamei. En este estudio se caracterizo: la actividad enzimática y hemolítica; hidrofobicidad; crecimiento e identificación molecular de vibrios aislados del intestino y hepatopancreas de camarones estresados, obtenidos de una granja comercial, en medio Agar Tiosulfato Citrato Bilis Sacarosa. Además, se realizaron tres infecciones experimentales para confirmar la patogenicidad de las cepas bacterianas

  4. Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda in a brazilian Amazon estuary

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    HEBERT A. SAMPAIO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature and measured the area (m2 and volume (m3 of every pool through bathymetry. The average pH, salinity, temperature, area and volume of tide pools were 8.75 (± 0.8 standard deviation, 35.45 (± 3, 29.49 °C (± 2.32, 27.41 m2 (± 41.18, and 5.19 m3 (± 8.01, respectively. We caught a total of 4,871 shrimps, distributed in three families and four species: Farfantepenaeus subtilis (98.36% (marine followed by Alpheus pontederiae (0.76% (estuarine, Macrobrachium surinamicum (0.45% and Macrobrachium amazonicum (0.43% predominantly freshwater. The species F. subtilis and A. pontederiae occurred in the three habitats, whereas M. surinamicum occurred in salt marsh and rocky outcrop and M. amazonicum only in marisma. Temperature and pH were the most important environmental descriptors that significantly affected the density and biomass of shrimps.

  5. Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda) in a Brazilian Amazon estuary.

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    Sampaio, Hebert A; Martinelli-Lemos, Jussara M

    2014-03-01

    The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops) in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature) and measured the area (m2) and volume (m3) of every pool through bathymetry. The average pH, salinity, temperature, area and volume of tide pools were 8.75 (± 0.8 standard deviation), 35.45 (± 3), 29.49 °C (± 2.32), 27.41 m2 (± 41.18), and 5.19 m3 (± 8.01), respectively. We caught a total of 4,871 shrimps, distributed in three families and four species: Farfantepenaeus subtilis (98.36%) (marine) followed by Alpheus pontederiae (0.76%) (estuarine), Macrobrachium surinamicum (0.45%) and Macrobrachium amazonicum (0.43%) predominantly freshwater. The species F. subtilis and A. pontederiae occurred in the three habitats, whereas M. surinamicum occurred in salt marsh and rocky outcrop and M. amazonicum only in marisma. Temperature and pH were the most important environmental descriptors that significantly affected the density and biomass of shrimps.

  6. DNA barcoding of twelve shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda from Turkish seas reveals cryptic diversity

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    R. BILGIN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding is a useful tool for the identification and potential discovery of new species. In this study, DNA barcoding was employed by sequencing the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI to characterize the genetic diversity of 12 shrimp species inhabiting Turkish coastal waters and, when possible, to compare with the genetic data available from different parts of the Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic. This study also comprises the first DNA barcoding study performed in the Turkish Seas using COI. A total of 40 shrimp specimens were collected and analyzed from 9 sites. Generally, the barcoding gap criterion was successful at identifying species; hence COI appeared to be a good marker of choice for DNA barcoding in this group. Out of the 12 species investigated, five were barcoded for the first time. In six species two intraspecific clades were retrieved after the analyses. The results suggest the presence of cryptic diversity in a genetically understudied marine area, Turkish coastal waters, and further investigation in these species using population genetics, taxonomic approaches and nuclear markers is likely to result in designation of new species.

  7. A new genus and species of axiid shrimp (Crustacea, Decapoda from a southwestern Indian Ocean seamount

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    Peter C. Dworschak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species of axiid shrimp, Montanaxius mediumquod gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on three specimens collected from hexactinellid sponges from a seamount in the southwest Indian Ocean. The new genus is characterized by a laterally denticulate rostrum, short lateral carina, absence of submedian carina, a prominent toothed median carina, round pleomere pleura 2–5, pleurobranchs on second to fourth pereopods, and the presence of a male first pleopod and appendix interna on pleopods 3–5. It most closely resembles Levantocaris Galil & Clark, 1993 and Planaxius Komai & Tachikawa, 2008, but differs from the former by being gonochoristic, having a strongly elevated gastric region and well-developed eyes, and from the latter by its toothed median carina and the presence of a median telson spine.

  8. Effects of ammonia stress in the Amazon river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcelo R; Lucena, Malson N; Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Almeida, Eduardo Alves; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of total ammonia nitrogen-N (TAN) exposure for 72h on (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities and on their subunit expressions in gills of the diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum. Specific (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities increased roughly 1.5- to 2-fold, respectively, after exposure to 2.0mmolL(-1) TAN. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed a 2.5-fold increase in V(H(+))-ATPase B subunit mRNA expression while (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase α-subunit expression was unchanged. Immunohistochemical analyses of the gill lamellae located the (Na(+),K(+))-ATPase throughout the intralamellar septal cells, independently of TAN concentration, while the V(H(+))-ATPase was located in both the apical pillar cell flanges and pillar cell bodies. Systemic stress parameters like total hemocyte count decreased by 30% after exposure to 2.0mmolL(-1) TAN, accompanied by increased activities of the oxidative stress enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the gills. The stress responses of M. amazonicum to elevated TAN include increases in gill (Na(+),K(+))- and V(H(+))-ATPase activities that are accompanied by changes in oxidative stress enzyme activities, immune system effects and an increase in gill V(H(+))-ATPase gene expression. These findings likely underpin physiological effects in a crustacean like M. amazonicum that exploits multiple ecosystems during its life cycle, as well as under culture conditions that may significantly impact shrimp production by the aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogeographic patterning among two codistributed shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae reveals high levels of connectivity across biogeographic regions along the South African coast.

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    Louisa E Wood

    Full Text Available We compare the genetic structuring and demographic history of two sympatric caridean shrimp species with distinct life history traits, one amphidromous species Palaemon capensis and one marine/estuarine species Palaemon peringueyi, in the historical biogeographical context of South Africa. A total of 103 specimens of P. capensis collected from 12 localities and 217 specimens of P. peringueyi collected from 24 localities were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase one (CO1 locus. Results from analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA, pairwise ΦST comparisons and haplotype networks demonstrate weak to moderate genetic differentiation in P. capensis and P. peringueyi respectively. P. peringueyi exhibits partial isolation between populations associated with distinct biogeographic regions, likely driven by the region's oceanography. However, there is minimal evidence for the occurrence of discrete regional evolutionary lineages. This demonstrated lack of genetic differentiation is consistent with a marine, highly dispersive planktonic phase in both the amphidromous P. capensis and the marine/estuarine P. peringueyi. Bayesian skyline plots, mismatch expansions and time since expansion indicate that both species maintained stable populations during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, unlike other southern African aquatic species.

  10. Aquacultural importance of the integumental pore pattern in postlarval whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

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    Jorge Alberto Cabrera-Jiménez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of integumental pore pattern has identified two intraspecific groups of postlarval shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931, a species of which three to five natural populations or groups are expected to be found from Mexico to Peru. Natural distribution and man-made redistributions have not been typified on a population basis in any penaeid, but it is important to do so in this commercially significant group. Important factors to be defined on a geographic population or group basis include differences in domesticity (eg resistance to pathological agents; food conversion indexes and food preferences; growth indices; tolerance to stress of various origins and other attributes useful in aquaculture. This consideration is valid not only for L. vannamei but also for any other shrimp species that has been the object of artificial redistribution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 707-709. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Mediante el análisis del patrón de poros tegumentarios ha sido posible caracterizar a dos grupos intraespecíficos en dos estadios postlarvales del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei. Se estima que se podrán encontrar entre tres y cinco grupos o poblaciones naturales en el área de distribución natural desde México hasta Perú. En ningún peneido se ha tipificado a los grupos o poblaciones naturales, lo cual es muy importante no solamente en relación con las poblaciones en su medio natural, sino también en relación a las redistribuciones hechas por el ser humano. Esto se debe a las implicaciones acuiculturales y a las diferencias en domesticidad, como la resistencia o sensibilidad a enfermedades virales y a otros agentes patógenos, el factor de conversión y las preferencias alimenticias, el índice de crecimiento, la tolerancia al estrés de diversos orígenes y otros atributos útiles en la acuicultura, todos los cuales no están definidos aún sobre la base de grupos o poblaciones geográficas. Esta consideración es válida no solamente

  11. Feeding of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faroni Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda in the laboratory

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    Luz Amelia Vega-Pérez

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of juveniles of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faxoni Borradaile was studied in the laboratory under light and dark conditions. Newly-hatched nauplii and metanauplii of Artemio were used as prey organisms. The fecding raie of L. foxoni was dependent on prey size and prey density, but was not obviously affected by light or dark conditions. The capture of the prey tended to increase with longer exposure time to prey. The maximum ingestion rate was 17.28 and 13.40 nauplii.L. faxoni .d- , in the light and in the dark conditions, respectively.O comportamento alimentar de espécimens jovens de Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, em laboratório, sob condições de luz e escuro, foi estudado utilizando-se como alimento náuplios recém-eclodidos e metanáuplios de Artemio. Neste estudo a taxa de alimentação de L. faxoni foi influenciada pelo tamanho e concentração da presa, bem como pelo tempo de contato com a mesma. A atividade alimentar de L. faxoni foi maior em condições de luz, quando comparado com as condições de escuro. f- taxa máxima de ingestão calculada foi de 17,28 e 13,40 náuplios.L. faxoni .d- para as condições de luz e escuro, respectivamente.

  12. Linking eye design with host symbiont relationships in pontoniine shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae.

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    Nicola C Dobson

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is prevalent in the marine environment with many studies examining the effects of such interactions between host and symbiont. Pontoniine shrimps are a group whose ecology is characterised by symbiotic interactions. This investigation examines the gross morphology of Pontoniinae compound eyes and superficial optical parameters with reference to their symbiotic relationship or lifestyle category; free-living, ectosymbiont, endosymbiont (bivalves or endosymbiont (non-bivalves. The eye morphologies of free-living and ectosymbiotic species are very similar, yet differ from both forms of endosymbiotic species. Endosymbionts have significantly smaller and simpler eyes with larger facets and bigger interommatidial angles and eye parameters for increased sensitivity levels. However bivalve endosymbionts form an intermediary group between non-bivalve endosymbionts and ectosymbionts as a result of their more active lifestyle. The accessory eye or "nebenauge", although of uncertain function, commonly occurs in free-living Pontoniinae species but rarely in endosymbionts apart from in more primitive species. The variation in morphology reflects tensions between functional requirements and ecological pressures that have strongly influenced eye design in Pontoniinae.

  13. Molecular phylogenetics of American snapping shrimps allied to Alpheus floridanus Kingsley, 1878 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Robles, Rafael; Felder, Darryl L

    2014-12-17

    Widely distributed populations of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus floridanus Kinglsey, 1878, from the eastern Pacific and western and eastern Atlantic Ocean have long been suspected to represent different species due to extreme morphological variation among conspecifics. A companion study (Bracken-Grissom & Felder 2014) contains redescriptions of two western Atlantic species (A. floridanus Kingsley 1878 sensu stricto and A. platycheirus Boone, 1927), assignments of the original syntypes for A. floridanus, descriptions of three new species from the Atlantic and eastern Pacific (A. hephaestus Bracken-Grissom & Felder, 2014; A. roblesi Bracken-Grissom & Felder, 2014; A. ulalae Bracken-Grissom & Felder, 2014), and discussion of the relationship of the eastern Atlantic A. floridanus africanus Balss, 1916. The present study underpins all these findings by application of molecular phylogenetic techniques. Analysis of partial sequences of the 16S, 12S, and COI mitochondrial genes separate species throughout the eastern Pacific and the eastern and western Atlantic. Morphological comparisons suggested that the two syntypes of A. floridanus belong to different species, and molecular results in this study confirm this separation. Genetic data suggest a strong affinity between the western Atlantic A. platycheirus and the eastern Pacific A. hephaestus. Close relationships are evident between trans-Atlantic species, A. floridanus africanus and A. floridanus, a pattern also seen for other cryptic and pseudocryptic species of Alpheus. Alpheus roblesi and A. ulalae represent early-branching lineages within the complex. In some cases, molecular phylogenetic relationships between members of the A. floridanus complex can be reconciled with postulated biogeographic history.

  14. Structural changes of oviduct of freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), during spawning*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Yu, Xiao-yun

    2006-01-01

    The structural change of the oviduct of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) during spawning was examined by electron microscopy. The oviduct wall structural characteristics seem to be influenced significantly by the spawning process. Before the parturition and ovulation, two types of epithelial cells (types I and II) are found in the epithelium. The free surfaces of type I and type II cells have very dense long microvilli. Under the type I and type II cells, are a relatively thick layer of secreting material and a layer of mostly dead cells. After ovulation, two other types of epithelial cells (types III and IV) are found in the oviduct wall epithelium. The free surface of type III cells only has short microvilli scattered on the surface. The thick layer with secreting material and the dead cell layer disappeared at this stage. In some type III cells, the leaking out of cytoplasm from broken cell membrane led to the death of these type III cells. The transformation of all four types of epithelial cells was in the order: IV→I→II→III. PMID:16365928

  15. [Growth and reproduction of the shrimp Atya margaritacea (Decapoda: Atyidae) in Rio Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Palacios, Jesús; Alvarez, Rigoberto Beltrán; Ramírez Lozano, Juan Pedro

    2008-06-01

    Some growth and reproduction parameters of the population of the shrimp Atya margaritacea in Presidio River (Sinaloa, NW Mexico) were studied using 542 organisms collected with a Surber net in five sampling locations distributed from mid- to low river. Total lengths and gross weights ranged from 15 to 96 mm and 0.1 to 25.2 g. The male:female ratio was 1.96:1 and males had larger sizes and weights. The relations of total length (Lt) to gross weight (Pt) were Pt = 1.02 x 10(-5) (Lt)32089 for males and Pt = 2.29 x 10(-5) (Lt)3.0159 for females. Growth in males was positively allometric whereas in females it was isometric. The regressions between total lengths and cephalothorax (Lc) were Log Lc = 1.1118 (Log Lt)- 0.6087 for males and Log Lc = 0.9945 (Log Lt)- 0.4321 for females. The relative growth between these body parts was allometrically positive in males and isometric in females; this result indicates a clear sexual dimorphism. Ovigerous females appeared in the rainy season (July to November). The absolute fecundity ranged from 1860 to 22400 eggs in females of 43 to 59 mm in length and 1.9 to 6.0 g in weight. The equations relating the number of eggs to length and weight were Fec = 8.3 x 10(-7) (Lt)5.8053 and Fec = 732 (Pt)1.836 respectively.

  16. Comparison of some reproductive characteristics of farmed and wild white shrimp males Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

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    Sergio Rendón Rodríguez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We rated some reproductive characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 males using 46 farmed individuals (weighing 21.42±0.56 g and 40 wild individuals (weighing 36.10±0.72 g. In farmed shrimps, spermatophore mean weight was 8.94±0.51 mg; total mean sperm count was 3.90±0.27 x 10(6 in each spermatophore; and mean percentage of normal sperm was 86.9±0.37 %. In wild individuals, the respective values were 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; and 62.1±3.56 %. In both groups, the differences between right and left spermatophore were not significant (pResumen Se evaluaron características reproductivas como peso del espermatóforo, número de espermatozoides y porcentaje de espermatozoides normales en 86 organismos de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. de éstos, 46 individuos provinieron de estanques de cultivo con un peso de 21.42±0.56 g y el resto, 40, silvestres con un peso de 36.10±0.72 g. En los camarones cultivados, el peso de los espermatóforos fue de 8.94±0.51 mg; el número total de espermatozoides en cada espermatóforo fue de 3.90±0.27 x 10(6; y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales fue de 86.9±0.37 %. En los silvestres, los valores respectivos fueron de 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; y 62.1±3.56 %. En ambos grupos, las diferencias entre los espermatóforos derecho e izquierdo no fueron estadísticamente diferentes (p<0.01. Las diferencias en el peso de los espermatóforos y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales, entre los camarones cultivados y silvestres, fueron significativas (p<0.01; sin embargo, en el número de espermatozoides tales diferencias no fueron significativas (p<0.01. La relación entre el peso del espermatóforo (Ws y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue Ws (mg=1.23(Wo-17.34 (r²=0.89, en camarones cultivados; y Ws (mg=2.57(Wo-60.04 (r²=0.64, en los silvestres. En organismos cultivados, la relación entre el número de espermatozoides (Cs y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue

  17. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

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    Lauren VanMaurik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  18. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  19. Feeding dynamics of Palaemon peringueyi (Decapoda, Caridea) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding ecology of the caridean shrimp Palaemon peringueyi in the temporarily open/closed Kasouga Estuary, Eastern Cape, was examined during summer and winter employing stomach fullness index (SFI) analysis. Mean SFI values for male and female shrimp during summer ranged from 0.85% to 2.36% and from ...

  20. Inferences on mating and sexual systems of two Pacific Cinetorhynchus shrimps (Decapoda, Rhynchocinetidae based on sexual dimorphism in body size and cheliped weaponry

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    Raymond Bauer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in body size and weaponry was examined in two Cinetorhynchus shrimp species in order to formulate hypotheses on their sexual and mating systems. Collections of C. sp. A and C. sp. B were made in March, 2011 on Coconut Island, Hawaii, by hand dipnetting and minnow traps in coral rubble bottom in shallow water. Although there is overlap in male and female size, some males are much larger than females. The major (pereopod 1 chelipeds of males are significantly larger and longer than those of females. In these two Cinetorhynchus species, males and females have third maxillipeds of similar relative size, i.e., those of males are not hypertrophied and probably not used as spear-like weapons as in some other rhynchocinetid (Rhynchocinetes species. Major chelae of males vary with size, changing from typical female-like chelae tipped with black corneous stout setae to subchelate or prehensile appendages in larger males. Puncture wounds or regenerating major chelipeds were observed in 26.1 % of males examined (N = 38 including both species. We interpret this evidence on sexual dimorphism as an indication of a temporary male mate guarding or “neighborhoods of dominance” mating system, in which larger dominant robustus males defend females and have greater mating success than smaller males. Fecundity of females increased with female size, as in most caridean species (500–800 in C. sp. A; 300–3800 in C. sp. B. Based on the sample examined, we conclude that these two species have a gonochoric sexual system (separate sexes like most but not all other rhynchocinetid species in which the sexual system has been investigated.

  1. A note on the correct spelling of the name of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natália; Grave, Sammy De; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2016-05-26

    Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836), popularly known as Pitu, Bristled River Shrimp and Buchura River Prawn, is a freshwater shrimp species widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. The species can be found from the southeastern United States, where the prawns were introduced (Holthuis & Provenzano, 1970), southwards to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), including numerous records in Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname (Holthuis, 1952; Williams, 1984; Melo, 2003; Valencia & Campos, 2007).

  2. Response and recovery of acetylcholinesterase activity in freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis (Decapoda: Atyidae) exposed to selected anti-cholinesterase insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Doan, H; Barnes, Mary; Chapman, J C; Kookana, R S

    2010-10-01

    The toxicity of carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and profenofos to the freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis was assessed by measuring acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition after 96h exposures. Shrimp exposed to these pesticides exhibited significant AChE inhibition, with mortality in shrimp corresponding to 70-90% AChE inhibition. The sensitivity of P. australiensis to the four pesticides based on AChE inhibition can be given as chlorpyrifos > profenofos > carbaryl > dimethoate. Recovery of AChE activity was followed in shrimp after 96 h exposures to carbaryl, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate. Recovery after exposure to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl was more rapid than for the two organophosphorus pesticides, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate. The slow recovery of depressed AChE activity may mean that affected organisms in the natural system are unable to sustain physical activities such as searching for food or eluding predators. To investigate the ecological significance of AChE inhibition, chemotaxis behaviour was assessed in shrimp exposed to profenofos for 24h. Abnormal chemotaxis behaviour in the exposed shrimp was observed at concentrations representing 30-50% AChE inhibition. A clear relationship existed between the depression of AChE activity and observed chemotaxis responses, such as approaching and grasping the chemoattractant source. These results suggest that in vivo toxicity tests based on this specific biomarker are sensitive and present advantages over conventional acute tests based on mortality. Behavioural studies of test organisms conducted in conjunction with measurement of AChE inhibition will provide data to clarify the toxic effects caused by sublethal chemical concentrations of anti-cholinesterase compounds. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Composition of shrimp populations (Crustacea: Decapoda in non-vegetated areas of two river islands in a Brazilian Amazon estuary

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    Priscila Sousa Vilela da Nóbrega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the shrimp found in non-vegetated areas of an estuary of the Amazon River. We ascertained the input of juveniles, species' biometrics and the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of species. The samples were collected monthly, from August 2006 to July 2007, in two places in the estuary, each next to an island. For collecting, we used a manual trawl to perform three hauls per month, totaling 36 samples per site. The abundance of shrimps was estimated as a function of the density of specimens per unit area. We used the Spearman's correlation to test the hypothesis that there is significant correlation between the average of the environmental variables measured and variations in shrimp density. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests showed that there were significant differences in environment factors (temperature and salinity among the months and sites. We obtained 6,091 shrimps, from which 5,231 (85.88% were caught off the Arapiranga Island and 860 (14.12% off the Mosqueiro Island, Palaemonidae and Penaeidae were the only families recorded. Five species were collected: Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862, Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879, and Farfantepenaeus subtilis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967. The latter (pink shrimp was found for the first time in oligohaline environments (0-8. Macrobrachium amazonicum was the most abundant species. The recruitment of M. amazonicum juveniles was continuous throughout the year. The population of M. surinamicum was composed by juveniles and adults and that of F. subtilis exclusively by juveniles. The environmental factors analyzed were variable throughout the year and seem to explain the patterns of shrimp species occurrence in the region, the variation in their abundance and juvenile recruitment.

  4. Pontonides sympathes, a new species of commensal shrimp (Crustacea, Decapoda, Pontoniinae) from Antipatharia in the Galapagos Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    During a stay at the Galapagos Islands (1975-1976), one of us (Ch. de Ridder) made a study of Gorgonaria and Antipatharia, paying special attention to commensals found with these corals. On Antipathes galapagensis Deichmann, 1941, a species of the pontoniine shrimp genus Pontonides was observed,

  5. A new species of palaemonid shrimp, Chacella tricornuta spec. nov (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the southeastern Gulf of California, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Chacella Bruce is described from the Gulf of California, Mexico, in the eastern Pacific, and represents the second known species of this genus. The type-species, Chacella kerstitchi (Wicksten, 1983), was described from a single female captured off the

  6. Pontoniine shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) inhabiting boring sponges (Porifera: Demospongia) from Nhatrang Bay, Vietnam, with description of three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, I.

    2007-01-01

    Some further investigations on symbiotic fauna of shallow-water boring demosponges in Nhatrang Bay, Vietnam are given. Three species of pontoniine shrimps are described as new: Onycocaridella antokha spec. nov., Periclimenaeus pachyspinosus spec. nov., and Poripontonia cornuta spec. nov. Four

  7. Apparent carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of feeds for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae, cultivated at different salinities

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    Milena Gucic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially farmed species worldwide because of its fast growth, good survival rate at high farming densities, and osmoregulatory capacity, which makes it an excellent candidate for cultures at different salinities. The knowledge of shrimp nutritional requirements is critical in the formulation of diets to allow optimal growth at different environmental conditions and development stages. The effect of salinity on apparent digestibility of shrimp feed is not well known, and this information is required in shrimp diet formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of carbohydrates (ACD and lipids (ALD were determined for juvenile whiteleg shrimps under controlled culture conditions. We evaluated the apparent digestibility of six commercial (D1:37CP, D2:38CP, D3:39CP, D4:34CP, D5:35CP, and D6:37CP and two experimental (E1:33CP and E2:33CP diets for juvenile whiteleg shrimp cultivated at three salinities (5, 35 and 50psu in 60L aquariums. ACD and ALD were determined in vivo using chromic oxide as an inert marker. Our results showed that ALD in most cases was over 80%, independent of salinity, except the E1:33CPdiet which had 74.0% at 50psu. Diet D3:39CP showed the highest ALD coefficient (90.1 and 90.6% at 5 and 35psu, respectively. For ACD, differences were detected between commercial and experimental diets at every salinity level, although salinity effect on ACD was not significant. Diet D4:34CP had the highest coefficient (92.4% at 5psu, and E2:33CP at 35 and 50psu (97.3 and 94.7%. This study demonstrated that there is no significant effect of saline variations on carbohydrate and lipid digestibility by juvenile whiteleg shrimp, under the experimental conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 61 (3: 1201-1213. Epub 2013 September 01.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Decapoda, Caridea): Insight into the mitochondrial genetic basis of deep-sea hydrothermal vent adaptation in the shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao'e; Hui, Ming; Wang, Minxiao; Sha, Zhongli

    2018-03-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent is one of the most extreme environments on Earth with low oxygen and high levels of toxins. Decapod species from the family Alvinocarididae have colonized and successfully adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Mitochondria plays a vital role in oxygen usage and energy metabolism, thus it may be under selection in the adaptive evolution of the hydrothermal vent shrimps. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of alvinocaridid shrimp Shinkaicaris leurokolos (Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000) was determined through Illumina sequencing. The mitogenome of S. leurokolos was 15,903bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. The gene order and orientation were identical to those of sequenced alvinocaridids. It has the longest concatenated sequences of protein-coding genes, tRNAs and shortest pooled rRNAs among the alvinocaridids. The control regions (CRs) of alvinocaridid were significantly longer (penergy metabolism to adapt to the hydrothermal environment. Phylogenetic analysis supported that the deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps may have originated from those living in shallow area. Positive selection analysis reveals the evidence of adaptive change in the mitogenome of Alvinocarididae. Thirty potentially important adaptive residues were identified, which were located in atp6, cox1, cox3, cytb and nad1-5. This study explores the mitochondrial genetic basis of hydrothermal vent adaptation in alvinocaridid for the first time, and provides valuable clues regarding the adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of salinity on the metabolism and osmoregulation of selected ontogenetic stages of an Amazon population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarelli, C C M; Santos, M R; Amorim, R V; Augusto, A

    2015-05-01

    diminished and oxygen consumption elevated, probably due to greater energy expenditure with the active transportation of salts through epithelial membranes. Osmotic challenges also seem to alter throughout development, given that in zoeae II oxygen consumption is elevated on brackish water of 18, but in zoeae V it happens in fresh water. After M. amazonicum metamorphosis, free amino acids begin to play an important role as intracellular osmolytes, because we verified an increase of up to 40% in post-larvae exposed to brackish water of 18. The main free amino acids involved in cell volume regulation of ontogenetic stages evaluated were the non essential ones: glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, arginine, and proline. Interestingly, larvae from estuarine population studied here survived until the zoeae V stage in fresh water, but in some populations far from the sea, zoeae die right after eclosion in fresh water or they do not reach zoeae III stage. In addition, given that in favorable conditions caridean shrimp larvae shorten their development, we may infer that the cultivation environment, in which larvae developed in the present work, was appropriate, because almost all zoeae VIII kept on brackish water underwent metamorphosis directly to post-larvae and did not go through zoeae IX stage.

  10. Effect of salinity on the metabolism and osmoregulation of selected ontogenetic stages of an amazon population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

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    CCM. Mazzarelli

    acids gets diminished and oxygen consumption elevated, probably due to greater energy expenditure with the active transportation of salts through epithelial membranes. Osmotic challenges also seem to alter throughout development, given that in zoeae II oxygen consumption is elevated on brackish water of 18, but in zoeae V it happens in fresh water. After M. amazonicum metamorphosis, free amino acids begin to play an important role as intracellular osmolytes, because we verified an increase of up to 40% in post-larvae exposed to brackish water of 18. The main free amino acids involved in cell volume regulation of ontogenetic stages evaluated were the non essential ones: glutamic acid, glycine, alanine, arginine, and proline. Interestingly, larvae from estuarine population studied here survived until the zoeae V stage in fresh water, but in some populations far from the sea, zoeae die right after eclosion in fresh water or they do not reach zoeae III stage. In addition, given that in favorable conditions caridean shrimp larvae shorten their development, we may infer that the cultivation environment, in which larvae developed in the present work, was appropriate, because almost all zoeae VIII kept on brackish water underwent metamorphosis directly to post-larvae and did not go through zoeae IX stage.

  11. New Report on Two Species of Hippolytid Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea Collected at Sea Cucumber Farm, East Sea, Korea

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    Lee, Chu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of hippolytid shrimps, Eualus kuratai Miyake and Hayashi, 1967 and Heptacarpus igarashii Hayashi and Chiba, 1989, were collected at a sea cucumber farm from the East Sea. These species are described and illustrated for the first time in Korea. Eualus kuratai is closely related to E. middendorffi; however, it lacks a dorsomedian spine on the fourth and fifth abdominal somites. Heptacarpus igarashii can be easily distinguished from other Korean Heptacarpus species due to its short rostrum that lacks ventral teeth on margin. This report extends the previously known ranges from Japan and Korea. In Korea, both genera, Eualus and Heptacarpus, have seven species according to the present report, respectively; moreover, hippolytid shrimps now consist of 31 species of nine genera.

  12. Effect of Temperature on Biochemical Composition, Growth and Reproduction of the Ornamental Red Cherry Shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda heteropoda (Decapoda, Caridea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Carolina; Stumpf, Liane; López Greco, Laura Susana

    2015-01-01

    The effect of water temperature on biochemical composition, growth and reproduction of the ornamental shrimp, Neocaridina heteropoda heteropoda, was investigated to determine the optimum temperature for its culture. The effect of embryo incubation temperature on the subsequent performance of juveniles was also evaluated. Ovigerous females and recently hatched juveniles (JI) were maintained during egg incubation and for a 90-day period, respectively, at three temperatures (24, 28 and 32°C). Incubation period increased with decreasing water temperature, but the number and size of JI were similar among treatments. At day 30 of the 90-day period, body weight and growth increment (GI) at 24°C were lower than those at 28 and 32°C. On subsequent days, GI at 24°C exceeded that at 28 and 32°C, leading to a similar body weight among treatments. These results suggest growth was delayed at 24°C, but only for 30 days after hatching. The lipid concentration tended to be lowest, intermediate and highest at 28, 32 and 24°C, respectively, possibly as a consequence of the metabolic processes involved in growth and ovarian maturation. Protein and glycogen concentrations were similar among treatments. Both the growth trajectory and biochemical composition of shrimps were affected by the temperature experienced during the 90-day growth period independently of the embryo incubation temperature. During the growth period, shrimps reached sexual maturity and mated, with the highest proportion of ovigerous females occurring at 28°C. All the females that matured and mated at 32°C lost their eggs, indicating a potentially stressful effect of high temperature on ovarian maturation. Based on high survival and good growth performance of shrimps at the three temperatures tested over the 90-day period it is concluded that N. heteropoda heteropoda is tolerant to a wide range of water temperatures, with 28°C being the optimum temperature for its culture. PMID:25768918

  13. Abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda: Penaeidae: an exploited species in southeast Brazil

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    E. R. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in the coastal region of Macaé, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Monthly samples were obtained from March 2008 to February 2010 in six stations located in Inner (5, 10 and 15m depth and Outer (25, 35 and 45m depth areas. It was used a commercial fishery boat equipped with an otter-trawl net (3.5 m mouth width, mesh size 20mm and 15mm in the cod end. Water samples were taken for determination of temperature and salinity, and sediment samples for determination of texture and organic matter content. A total of 7146 shrimps were sampled. About 95% of all shrimps were caught in the shallow area, i.e., depths <20m. Greatest abundances were recorded in winter and spring. No significant correlation was observed between sediment (phi and abundance. The distribution of X. kroyeri in the studied area was closely related to seasonal cold waterfront of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and temperature was the main factor affecting the species abundance.

  14. Acute toxicity of Roundup® herbicide to three life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica (Decapoda: Atyidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, P. K.; Muller, W. J.; Palmer, C. G.

    Glyphosate based herbicides, including Roundup®, are frequently used in the chemical control of weeds and invading alien plant species in South Africa. These herbicides ultimately get into water courses directly or indirectly through processes such as drifting, leaching, surface runoff and foliar spray of aquatic nuisance plants. Despite their widespread use, no water quality guideline exists to protect indigenous South African freshwater organisms from the toxic effects of these herbicides. The toxicity of the herbicide Roundup® was assessed using three different life stages of the freshwater shrimp Caridina nilotica, a prevalent species in South African freshwater ecosystems. Neonate (7 dph and 40 dph) shrimps were exposed to varying concentrations (1.5-50 mg/L acid equivalence (a.e.)) of the herbicide in 48 and 96 h acute toxicity tests in order to determine the most sensitive life-stage. The results showed neonates to be more sensitive to Roundup® than both juveniles and adults with mean 96 h LC 50 values of 2.5, 7.0 and 25.3 mg/L a.e. respectively. The estimated 96 h LC 50 of neonates is much lower than the application rate (20-30 mg/L a.e.), although the application’s impact will depend on the dilution rate of the applied concentration in the environment. All three life-stages of unexposed animals exhibited active and coordinated movement but exposed shrimps were erratic and slow in their movements, with neonates showing most of these behavioral irregularities. This study shows that low levels of the herbicide Roundup® may adversely affect C. nilotica health and survival. Thus, the herbicide should be carefully managed to minimize any negative impact on non-target freshwater organisms.

  15. New Records of Hippolytid Shrimps, Lebbeus speciosus and Lebbeus comanthi (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the East Sea, Korea

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    Chu Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the hippolytid shrimps, Lebbeus speciosus and Lebbeus comanthi, are described and illustrated for the first time in Korea. They were collected from the East Sea. Lebbeus speciosus was found in a scallop farm of Jumunjin, Gangneung, and L. comanthi associated with crinoids, was found in Gampo, Gyeongju. The difference between these two related species is in the number of dorsal teeth of the rostrum, five teeth in L. speciosus and a single tooth in L. comanthi. The Korean Lebbeus species has increased to 6 species by the present report. They are L. grandimana, L. polaris, L. unalaskensis, L. groenlandicus, L. speciosus, and L. comanthi.

  16. Na,K-ATPase activity and epithelial interfaces in gills of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, N M; Faleiros, R O; Firmino, K C S; Masui, D C; Leone, F A; McNamara, J C; Furriel, R P M

    2009-03-01

    Diadromous freshwater shrimps are exposed to brackish water both as an obligatory part of their larval life cycle and during adult reproductive migration; their well-developed osmoregulatory ability is crucial to survival in such habitats. This study examines gill microsomal Na,K-ATPase (K-phosphatase activity) kinetics and protein profiles in the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum when in fresh water and after 10-days of acclimation to brackish water (21 per thousand salinity), as well as potential routes of Na+ uptake across the gill epithelium in fresh water. On acclimation, K-phosphatase activity decreases 2.5-fold, Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit expression declines, total protein expression pattern is markedly altered, and enzyme activity becomes redistributed into different density membrane fractions, possibly reflecting altered vesicle trafficking between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Ultrastructural analysis reveals an intimately coupled pillar cell-septal cell architecture and shows that the cell membrane interfaces between the external medium and the hemolymph are greatly augmented by apical pillar cell evaginations and septal cell invaginations, respectively. These findings are discussed regarding the putative movement of Na+ across the pillar cell interfaces and into the hemolymph via the septal cells, powered by the Na,K-ATPase located in their invaginations.

  17. A new record of the Axiid shrimp Balssaxius habereri (Balss, 1913 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea in Korean waters

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    Jung Nyun Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Balssaxius habereri (Balss, 1903 has been newly reported in Korean waters. This species was previously known from the Pacific coast of northern Japan, Korea Strait, Yellow Sea, and Japanese coast of the East Sea. Specimens were collected from western Jeju Island using otter trawls at depths of 65–85 m. Regarding Korean axiid shrimps, a single species, Boasaxius princeps (Boas, 1880, previously known as Axiopsis princeps in Korea, has been recorded. B. habereri is easily distinguished from B. princeps as it does not have tufts of setae on its body and males do not have the first pleopod. Morphological descriptions and color photos of the specimens are provided.

  18. NEW AND ADDITIONAL RECORDS OF THE SPONGE SHRIMP GENUS TYPTON COSTA, 1844 (DECAPODA: PALAEMONIDAE FROM THE BRAZILIAN COAST

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    PAULO P.G. PACHELLE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with Brazilian material of four sponge-dwelling species of the pontoniine shrimp genus Typton Costa, 1844: T. distinctus Chace, 1972, T. fapespae Almeida, Anker & Mantelatto, 2014, T. prionurus Holthuis, 1951, and T. vulcanus Holthuis, 1951. Typton distinctus and T. fapespae are recorded for the first time from Rio de Janeiro, representing a significant southward range extension for the former species (previously known only from Pernambuco and a slight northward extension for the latter species (previously known only from São Paulo. Typton prionurus and T. vulcanus are recorded for the first time from Bahia. The former species was previously known from Brazil based on a single questionable record from the coast of Pará, whereas the latter species is recorded from Brazil and the southwestern Atlantic for the first time. Illustrations are provided for T. prionurus and T. vulcanus.

  19. Growth and reproductive biology of the amphidromous shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis (Decapoda: Caridea in a Neotropical river from northeastern Brazil

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    Lucas R.P. Paschoal

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Population biology, growth and reproductive aspects of the amphidromous shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871 were investigated in a Neotropical river of northeastern Brazil. The specimens were collected every month from September 2009 to August 2010. Total and monthly sex ratios deviated in favour of males. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters indicated that the females grew more rapidly, reached larger sizes, and had a longer life span than males. We also observed continuous reproductive activity and juvenile recruitment throughout the year. Relations between the number of eggs (fecundity and body size indicated that fecundity in females increase with size. Compared with previous results, some population biology parameters of the freshwater population of P. pandaliformis differ from estuarine populations. The reproductive aspects analyzed here and their comparison with other marine species were consistent with the hypothesis that Palaemonidae species are undergoing an adaptation process and colonizing fresh water environments.

  20. MEDITS-based information on the deep water red shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aristeidae

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    Angelo Cau

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of statistical models on a time series of data arising from the MEDITS International Trawl Survey, an experimental demersal resources survey carried out during six years (1994-1999 in the same season of the year (late spring - early summer using the same fishing gear in a large part of the Mediterranean, has allowed for a study to compare, for the first time, the space-time distribution, abundance, and size structure of the two Aristeids Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus throughout most of the Mediterranean Sea. This research has shown a large variability among the six reference areas, that were arbitrarily defined within the basin. In particular the two shrimps do not seem to present any correlation or yield continuity in the years. The same lack of homogeneity was also observed in the time trend of the abundances and frequencies of each of the two species. These data seem to confirm the intrinsic variability of the species, the cause of which is still unknown and undocumented. Nevertheless, a longitudinal gradient of catches has been observed where A. antennatus is more abundant in the west and A. foliacea in the east of the basin.

  1. Daily cycle and body characteristics of mating Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the wild off southern Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Pérez, J A; Rendón-Rodríguez, S; Solís-Ibarra, R

    2007-03-01

    Mating behavior has been described for very few species of penaeoid shrimps. We describe some of the environmental conditions under which mating of Litopenaeus vannamei took place in the ocean, as inferred by the presence of attached spermatophores on the thelycum of females, combined with the presence of mature males with empty ampulla terminalis, both evidence of recent copulation. Out of a total of twelve 24 hr samplings on board the research vessel B/O "EL PUMA", one was selected to examine mating. There were four periods of observation. The highest frequency of females with attached spermatophores were found during the daytime whilst the lowest was registered during the night. Females with attached spermatophore were mostly at stages IV and V of ovarian maturity and fell within the 30-50 mm of C.L. range. Copulating male size ranged between 30 and 40 mm of C.L. and there was a close relation between the percentage of mating females and males. Male to female ratio varied throughout the sampling period but it was never 1:1. The female mean size was, in all cases, bigger than the male mean size. Among the environmental factors, salinity and oxygen varied very slightly throughout the sampling period; temperature variation was more pronounced and those changes were attributed to the tidal oscillation.

  2. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

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    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  3. Daily cycle and body characteristics of mating Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (Decapoda: Penaeidae in the wild off southern Sinaloa, Mexico

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    J.A Calderón-Pérez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior has been described for very few species of penaeoid shrimps. We describe some of the environmental conditions under which mating of Litopenaeus vannamei took place in the ocean, as inferred by the presence of attached spermatophores on the thelycum of females, combined with the presence of mature males with empty ampulla terminalis, both evidence of recent copulation. Out of a total of twelve 24 hr samplings on board the research vessel B/O "EL PUMA", one was selected to examine mating. There were four periods of observation. The highest frequency of females with attached spermatophores were found during the daytime whilst the lowest was registered during the night. Females with attached spermatophore were mostly at stages IV and V of ovarian maturity and fell within the 30 - 50 mm of C.L. range. Copulating male size ranged between 30 and 40 mm of C.L. and there was a close relation between the percentage of mating females and males. Male to female ratio varied throughout the sampling period but it was never 1:1. The female mean size was, in all cases, bigger than the male mean size. Among the environmental factors, salinity and oxygen varied very slightly throughout the sampling period; temperature variation was more pronounced and those changes were attributed to the tidal oscillation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 189-198. Epub 2007 March. 31.Estudiamos el apareamiento del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei . La mayoría de las hembras con espermatóforos fueron capturadas durante el día y estaban en las etapas IV y V de desarrollo ovárico (longitud 30 - 50 mm. Los machos apareados midieron entre 30 y 40 mm. La proporción sexual varió pero nunca fue 1:1. Las hembras siempre fueron más grandes que los machos. Durante el muestreo, la salinidad y el oxígeno variaron poco. La temperatura varió más y atribuimos estos cambios a las mareas.

  4. Notes on some alpheid shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea) of Thalassia testudinum meadows, from the Central-Southern Mexican Caribbean Notas sobre algunos alfeidos (Decapoda: Caridea) de praderas de Thalassia testudinum, del Caribe Centro-Sur Mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro Román-Contreras; Mario Martínez-Mayén

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an account of some shrimps of the family Alpheidae collected on Thalassia testudinum meadows in Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo and Mahahual reef lagoon, Quintana Roo, on the Caribbean coast of Mexico. A total of 657 specimens of alpheid shrimps were collected; they represent two genera and seven species. Alpheus was the most diverse genus with five species. An updated geographic distribution is provided for all the seven species recorded; four of them repr...

  5. Occurence of the Asian shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus in the Southern bight of the North Sea, with a key to the Palaemonidae of North-western Europe (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Udekem d'Azoc, C.; Faasse, M.; Dumoulin, E.; Blauwe, de H.

    2005-01-01

    Het voorkomen van de rugstreepsteurgarnaal Palaemon macrodactylus in de zuidelijke bocht van de Noordzee, met een determinatiesleutel tot de Palaemonidae van Noordwest-Europa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) In 1999 werd de rugstreepsteurgarnaal Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902, een soort

  6. Aspectos reprodutivos de Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae no Rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Giovana Valverde Lima

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive aspects of the freshwater shrimp Palaemon pandaliformis (Stimpson, 1871 were studied from March, 1998 to February, 1999. Monthly, samples were collected with sives, on the river edge, under the edging vegetation or in small pools. At the laboratory, shrimps were sexed and measured in their total lenght, from the tip of the rostrum to the of telson with precision callipters. The ovigerous shrimps were separated and counted for fecundity determination. The eggs diameter was measured with calibrated stereomicroscope. A total of 872 were collected among which, 46% female, 29% male and 25% juvenil. The sex ratio was 1:1.57. Ovigerous females were present during all seasons, but the reproductive peak accurred in Spring. The ovigerous female showed total lenght from 23.0 to 39.6 mm. The mean fecundity was 137 eggs per female, with a minimum of 40 eggs and a maximum of 270 eggs. The first sexual maturation probably occur at 23.0 mm total lenght. The mean diameter os the eggs size was 0.51 mm (minor and 0.73 mm (major.

  7. ABUNDANCE AND MORPHOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS OF AMAZON SHRIMP - Macrobrachium amazonicum (HELLER 1862 (DECAPODA, PALAEMONIDAE - IN AN AMAZON ESTUARY - NORTH COAST OF BRAZIL

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    Bianca Bentes da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae abundance in monthly collections in the Amazon estuary and on Mosqueiro Island (State of Pará, Brazil between April 2006 and August 2007, we verified that the site mentioned is favorable to the development of the species, since there is a significant number of young and adults specimens throughout the year, whose abundance is significantly higher in the dry season. Icoaraci was the site of great contribution in the total of specimens caught, relating this productivity to the large amount of organic matter in suspension. In this study, we found the largest M. amazonicum specimen ever collected, comparing to those mentioned by available scientific literature. The individual was a female caught on Combu Island with 44.72 mm carapace length or 18.45 cm total length. Relations of body mass (g vs. carapace length (mm for males, females and sexes together had negative allometry, which can be associated to the gonadal maturation cycle of the species. All other morphometric relationships showed positive allometry. Keywords. carapace; bio-ecology; population dynamics.

  8. Burrow ventilation in the tube-dwelling shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Decapoda: thalassinidea). III. Hydrodynamic modelling and the energetics of pleopod pumping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, Eize; Videler, Johannes

    1998-01-01

    The process of flow generation with metachronally beating pleopods in a tubiform burrow was studied by designing a hydrodynamic model based on a thrust-drag force balance. The drag of the tube (including the shrimp) comprises components for accelerating the water into the tube entrance, for

  9. Ghost shrimps (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) as producers of an Upper Miocene trace fossil association from sublittoral deposits of Lake Pannon (Vienna Basin, Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, Matúš; Šimo, Vladimír; Starek, Dušan

    2015-05-01

    Numerous trace fossils are described from the Late Miocene sediments of the Bzenec Formation exposed at the Gbely section (the Vienna Basin, Slovakia). During deposition of the sediments the area was part of the large, long-lived brackish to freshwater Lake Pannon. Most of the trace fossils are attributed herein to Egbellichnus jordidegiberti igen et ispec. nov. and are interpreted as burrows produced by decapod crustaceans, specifically by a ghost shrimp of the family Callianassidae. This interpretation is based on two independent lines of evidence: environmental requirements of large bioturbators and the burrow morphology itself. The new ichnotaxon is distinguished from other related ichnotaxa by a combination of typically inclined (roughly at an angle of 45°) cylindrical burrows, absence of lining, and tunnels making loops or bends at approximately right angles. The burrow systems at Gbely document the survival of ghost shrimp long after the closure of all seaways and the origin of Lake Pannon. As today, no ghost shrimp are known from long-lived brackish lakes. Egbellichnus from Gbely is the only, although indirect, record of ghost shrimp from a brackish lake environment reported so far.

  10. Zoological results of the British speleological expedition to Papua new Guinea 1975 : 7. Cavernicolous shrimps (Crustacea Decapoda, Natantia from new Ireland and the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    Through the kindness of Dr. P. Beron, National Natural History Museum, Sofia, Bulgaria, I was allowed to study some cavernicolous shrimps collected by him in New Ireland, while he was a member of the 1975 British Speleological Expedition to Papua New Guinea. The material proved to consist of two

  11. Shallow water hippolytid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from the Mexican Caribbean coast Camarones hipolítidos (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) de aguas someras de la costa del Caribe mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro Román-Contreras; Mario Martínez-Mayén

    2009-01-01

    A checklist of shallow water shrimps of the family Hippolytidae of the central-southern coast of the Mexican Caribbean is presented. A total of 11 species belonging to 6 genera were collected on beds of Thalassia testudinum in Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo, and the Mahahual reef lagoon, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Genera Hippolyte and Thor were the most diverse with three species each. An updated geographic distribution along the western Atlantic and other regions is provided for ...

  12. Immunocytochemical localization of V-H(+) -ATPase, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase in gill lamellae of adult freshwater euryhaline shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraschi, Anieli Cristina; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2015-08-01

    Physiological (organismal), biochemical, and molecular biological contributions to the knowledge of the osmoregulatory plasticity of palaemonid freshwater shrimps has provided a fairly complete model of transporter localization in their branchial epithelium. Direct immunological demonstration of the main enzymes in the gill epithelia of adult palaemonids is, however, still incipient. The diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus was exposed to increased salinity (25‰ for 24 hr), and its responses at the systemic level were evaluated through the assays of hemolymph osmolality and muscle hydration, and at cellular and subcellular levels through the activity and localization of the V-H(+) -ATPase, the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and the carbonic anhydrase. Results showed an increase in hemolymph osmolality (629 ± 5.3 mOsm/kg H2 O) and a decrease in muscle hydration (73.8 ± 0.5%), comparing values after 24 hr in 25‰ with control shrimps in freshwater (respectively 409.5 ± 15.8 mOsm/kg H2 O and 77.5 ± 0.4%). V-H(+) -ATPase was localized in pillar cells, whereas Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the septal cells. The main novelty of this study was that carbonic anhydrase was localized in the whole branchial tissue, in pillar and septal cells. Exposure to high salinity for 24 hr led to no detectable changes in their localization or in vitro activity. Immunolocalization data corroborated the literature and current models of palaemonid gill ion transport. The absence of changes reinforces the need for the constant expression of these enzymes to account for the euryhalinity of these shrimps. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Burrow ventilation in the tube-dwelling shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Decapoda: thalassinidea). I. Morphology and motion of the pleopods, uropods and telson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamhuis, E J; Videler, J J

    1998-07-01

    The morphology of the pleopods, uropods and telson of the tube-dwelling shrimp Callianassa subterranea have been studied using dissection microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The kinematics of these appendages were examined by motion analysis of macro-video recordings of ventilating shrimps in transparent artificial burrows. The pleopods show the usual crustacean biramous anatomy, but all segments are rostro-caudally flattened. The protopodite bears a triangular medially oriented endopodite and a scoop-shaped exopodite. The contralateral endopodites are linked by the appendix interna, ensuring a perfect phase relationship between contralateral pleopods. The outer rims of the exopodites are fringed with long fern-leaf-like plumose setae bearing flattened setules. These setae have very mobile joints and can be turned caudally. The slits between contralateral endopodites have rims of leaf-like setae as well. Setae of the same leaf-like type fringe the uropods, but these are non-motile. The telson has a narrow fringe of leaf-like setae, locally interrupted by long mechanoreceptory setae. A shrimp, wandering through the burrow or resting, holds its pleopods against the abdomen with the exopodites and their setal fringes retracted medially. The uropods are folded medially as well, probably to reduce the shrimp's drag. During ventilation, the uropods are extended against the tube wall, leaving only a small opening for flow ventral from the telson, and the pleopods beat at a frequency of approximately 1 Hz (0.9+/-0.2 Hz). Fourier analysis of pleopod kinematics showed that the motion pattern of the first flow-generating pleopod pair (PP1) consisted mainly of the first harmonic (75 %) and to a lesser extent of the third harmonic (20 %), resulting in almost perfect sinusoidal motion. The motion patterns of PP2 and PP3 could be modelled by assigning pure sinusoids with a 120 degrees phase shift and a rostro-caudal ranking to the three pairs of pleopods.

  14. Toxicity of selected pesticides to freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis (Decapoda: Atyidae): use of time series acute toxicity data to predict chronic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Correll, R; Grocke, S; Bajet, C

    2010-03-01

    Toxicity of six pesticides (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, dimethoate, diuron and fenarimol) to the freshwater shrimp, Paratya australiensis was assessed after 96 h exposures. Of the six pesticides tested, alpha cypermethrin was the most toxic to the shrimp followed by chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, dimethoate, fenarimol and diuron. Regression methods for predicting chronic toxicity (lethality) from acute lethality data with shrimp were developed and compared, and it was found that the log-log model gives the most reliable predictions of the probability of death as a function of extended exposure times. Based on this model, chronic toxicity (21 days) to P. australiensis was estimated as 0.0058 microg/L for alpha cypermethrin, 4.9 microg/L for carbaryl, 0.004 microg/L for chlorpyrifos, 89 microg/L for dimethoate, 240 microg/L for diuron and 1500 microg/L for fenarimol. Acute LC(10) values were also useful predictors of the chronic lethality. The log-log model was used to derive extrapolated chronic values that were compared to measured experimental chronic values for two fish species. The predictions of chronic toxicity based on acute toxicity data were found to give credible results for both fish species. These predictions of chronic toxicity can therefore be used in ecological risk assessments to fill in gaps with reasonable confidence where no measured estimates of chronic toxicity are available. (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Population structure and relative growth of the Amazon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae on two islands in the fluvial-estuarine plain of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Priscila Sousa Vilela da Nóbrega

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the population structure of the Amazon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, as well as their relative growth between the length of the cephalothorax and the total length, and between the length of the cephalothorax and the total mass of shrimps of a fluvial-estuarine plain in the State of Pará. Shrimps were sampled monthly from August 2006 to July 2007, using trawl nets, taking three replicates at each site (Arapiranga and Mosqueiro per month, totaling 72 replicates. We caught 5,510 specimens, being 90.90% from Arapiranga Island and 9.1% from Mosqueiro Island. The highest densities occurred in July (1.33 individuals/m², at the beginning of the dry season and in December (1.66 individuals/m², at the beginning of the rainy season. The morphometric analysis for separate and grouped sexes resulted in negative and positive allometric growth. Ovigerous females were observed in all months, indicating continuous reproduction and the majority (67.81% was caught during the less rainy season. The abundance and continuous reproduction of M. amazonicum show that this estuary offers conditions for the proper development of this population.

  16. Burrow ventilation in the tube-dwelling shrimp callianassa subterranea (Decapoda: thalassinidea). II. The flow in the vicinity of the shrimp and the energetic advantages of a laminar non-pulsating ventilation current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamhuis, E J; Videler, J J

    1998-07-01

    The ventilation flow in the vicinity of the pleopod-pumping thalassinid shrimp Callianassa subterranea in an artificial transparent burrow has been mapped using particle image velocimetry. The flow in the tube in front of the shrimp was unidirectional, laminar and steady, with a parabolic cross-sectional velocity profile. The mean flow velocity was 2.0+/-0.1 mm s-1. The flow passed the thorax of the shrimp along the lateral and ventral sides. Ventral to the abdomen, the flow was dominated by the metachronally oscillating pleopods. The water around a pleopod is accelerated caudally and ventrally during the power stroke, and decelerated to a much lesser extent during the recovery stroke owing to a reduction in pleopod area. On average, the flow ventral to the abdomen converged towards the small opening underneath the telson, simultaneously increasing in velocity. A jet with a core velocity of 18-20 mm s-1 entered the area behind the shrimp from underneath the telson. This caused a separation zone with backflow caudal to the telson. Owing to the high rates of shear, the jet diverged and re-adjusted to a parabolic cross-sectional profile within 1-2 body lengths behind the shrimp, showing no traces of pulsation. The metachronal pleopod movements in combination with the increase in flow velocity at the constriction in the tube caused by the uropods and the telson probably prevented pulsation. The energetic consequences of pulsating and steady flows in combination with several tube configurations were evaluated. The results suggested that, by constricting the tube and keeping the flow steady, C. subterranea saves on ventilation costs by a factor of up to six compared with oscillatory flow in a tube without the tail-fan constriction.

  17. Molecular and morphological phylogeny of hooded shrimps, genera Betaeus and Betaeopsis (Decapoda, Alpheidae): testing the center of origin biogeographic model and evolution of life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur; Baeza, J Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the alpheid shrimp genera Betaeus (Dana, 1852) (15 species) and Betaeopsis (Yaldwyn, 1971) (three species), collectively known as hooded shrimps, are analyzed with morphological, molecular (16S and H3) and combined "total evidence" (morphology+DNA) datasets. The tree topology resulting from morphological and combined analyses places Betaeus jucundus as sister to all the remaining species of Betaeus and Betaeopsis, rendering Betaeus paraphyletic. On the other hand, Betaeopsis is recovered as monophyletic. Betaeus australis is positioned as sister to the remaining species of Betaeus s. str. (excluding B. jucundus), which is composed of three well-supported and resolved clades. Mapping of biogeographic traits on the combined tree suggests at least two possible historic scenarios. In the first scenario, the North-East Pacific harboring the highest diversity of hooded shrimps (seven species of Betaeus), acted as the "center of origin", where species appeared, matured and eventually migrated toward peripheral regions. In the second scenario, Betaeus+Betaeopsis originated in the southern Indo-West Pacific and subsequently colonized the North-East Pacific, where a major radiation involving dispersal/vicariance events took place. The mapping of life history traits (symbiosis vs. free living and gregariousness vs. single/pair living) in the combined tree suggests (1) that different types of symbioses with dissimilar host organisms (sea urchins, abalones, other decapods, spoon worms) evolved independently more than once in the group (in B. jucundus and in various lineages of Betaeus s. str.), and (2) that gregariousness was ancestral in the Betaeus s. str. -Betaeopsis clade and later shifted toward single/pair living in several lineages. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas, Martín; Civera, Roberto; Ibarra, Lilia; Goytortúa, Ernesto

    2010-12-01

    Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA) profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19 g), using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean paste, sorghum meal, and wheat meal. The experiment consisted of a single-factor, completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment. Samples of ingredients, diets and feces were analyzed for nitrogen and amino acids. For amino acid assay, we used reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. To avoid partial loss of methionine and cystine, samples of ingredients, diets, and feces were oxidized with performic acid to methionine sulfone and cysteic acid prior to acid hydrolysis. The apparent dry matter and protein digestive utilization coefficients varied from 68% to 109% and from 70% to 103%, respectively. Apparent digestibility of protein for casein, soy paste, wheat meal and wheat gluten were very high (over 90%), corn gluten and poultry byproducts meal showed high protein digestibility (over 80%), but porcine byproducts meal and sorghum meal had low digestibility (76% and 70%, respectively). There was a reasonable, but not total, correspondence between apparent protein digestibility and average essential amino acid digestibility coefficients, except for arginine in corn gluten, phenylalanine and leucine in sorghum meal, phenylalanine in soy

  19. Notes on two rare and little-known Indo-Pacific snapping shrimps, Alpheus percyi Coutière, 1908 and A. pseudopugnax (Banner, 1953) (Decapoda, Alpheidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Two uncommon, morphologically similar snapping shrimps, Alpheus percyi Coutière, 1908 and A. pseudopugnax (Banner, 1953), are reported from various localities across the Indo-West and Central Pacific. Both species are re-diagnosed based on type specimens and recently collected material; a lectotype is designated for A. percyi. The range of A. pseudopugnax, previously known only from the type locality in Hawaii, is extended considerably to French Polynesia and Reunion Island in the western Indian Ocean. Both A. percyi and A. pseudopugnax present a significant variation in the post-rostral region of the carapace, making identification of specimens based solely on morphology rather difficult. In the field, however, the two species can be easily separated by their diagnostic and very striking colour patterns. Colour patterns also suggest that A. percyi may be more closely related to the species of the A. gracilipes Stimpson, 1860 complex than to A. pseudopugnax.

  20. Comparative Reproduction Aspects of the Deep-water Shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus (Decapoda, Aristeidae in the Greek Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kapiris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the eastern Ionian Sea, the deep-water shrimps Aristaeomorpha foliacea and Aristeus antennatus constitute a virgin fishing resource, since their maximum abundance depth exceeds commercial exploitation depths. The two sympatric species share a number of common reproductive features, such as summer reproduction. A slight temporal shift in mating activity, ovarian maturation, and spawning period was observed between species. The most notable difference was the more pronounced seasonality in reproductive activity of Aristeus antennatus compared to that of A. foliacea as evidenced by the frequency of inseminated females and functionally mature males, as well as by the shorter ovarian maturation period. Nevertheless, regarding the whole life span, both sexes of Aristeus antennatus exhibit a more extended reproductive activity in comparison to A. foliacea. No notable differentiation of both species existed in comparison to other Mediterranean regions.

  1. Genetic diversity within and between broodstocks of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Decapoda, Penaeidae and its implication for the gene pool conservation

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    PD. Freitas

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within and between fifteen closed broodstock lines of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, reared at different hatcheries in the Brazilian coast, was assessed by RAPD analysis. Fifty two polymorphic loci were identified when a set of five decamer primers was used in PCR. The genetic diversity analysis within lines evidenced genetic variation loss probably related to bottleneck effects and inbreeding. In addition, the genetic divergence values between the different samples appear to reflect the initial founder composition of such stocks, in some cases, sharing a common origin, suggesting a putative importance of interbreeding for the establishment of genetic improvement programs for these broodstocks. The genetic variation monitoring appears to be helpful to the gene pool conservation of this aquaculture species, mainly if considered its exotic status in Brazil and the current impossibility of new introduction of wild individuals.

  2. Overlap of dietary niche and electivity of three shrimp species (Crustacea, Decapoda in a tropical coastal lagoon (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Edélti Faria Albertoni

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three species of shrimp, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817, F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 (Penaeidae and Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 (Palaemonidae were sampled at the Imboassica lagoon (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in order to estimate the overlap of dietary niches and electivity of their prey, through the analysis of the fauna associated with the macroalgae Chara and of the benthic fauna on the sediment. The overlap of dietary niches was estimated using five indexes. A total of 495 F. brasiliensis, 131 F. paulensis and 102 M. acanthurus stomachs were examined. The results of the different indexes of niche overlap exhibited the same general trend in the three species, indicating a high degree of homogeneity in the diet of the two species of Penaeidae (between 75 and 100% and a smaller overlap between each Penaeidae species and M. acanthurus (between 23 and 68%. The species presented selective predation, with differences in the two studied habitats. The results show that the three species are omnivorous, with a varied diet including components of benthic macrofauna and those associated with the macroalgae Chara, plant fragments and detritus, and that there are good conditions in the Imboassica lagoon for the development of these species.

  3. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-15

    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows.

  4. Modulation By K+ Plus NH4+ of Microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase Activity in Selected Ontogenetic Stages of the Diadromous River Shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Francisco A.; Bezerra, Thais M. S.; Garçon, Daniela P.; Lucena, Malson N.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; Fontes, Carlos F. L.; McNamara, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K+ plus NH4+ of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K+ and NH4+ binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na+, K+)-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K+ and NH4+ of gill (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4+ during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum. PMID:24586919

  5. Modulation by K+ Plus NH4+ of microsomal (Na+, K+-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the diadromous river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae.

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    Francisco A Leone

    Full Text Available We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K(+ plus NH4 (+ of (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K(+ and NH4 (+ binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈ 50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na(+, K(+-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K(+ and NH4 (+ of gill (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4 (+ during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum.

  6. Modulation by K+ Plus NH4+ of microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the diadromous river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Francisco A; Bezerra, Thais M S; Garçon, Daniela P; Lucena, Malson N; Pinto, Marcelo R; Fontes, Carlos F L; McNamara, John C

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K(+) plus NH4 (+) of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K(+) and NH4 (+) binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈ 50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K(+) and NH4 (+) of gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4 (+) during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum.

  7. Molecular and morphological differentiation between two Miocene-divergent lineages of Amazonian shrimps, with the description of a new species (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Palaemon

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    Fabrício Carvalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Palaemon carteri (Gordon, 1935 and P. ivonicus (Holthuis, 1950 are morphologically similar species of South American freshwater shrimps. Past studies have questioned the taxonomic status of both species, which are supposed to have partially sympatric geographic distributions in the Amazon basin. We analyzed a 550 bp fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from these Amazonian Palaemon species as well as from 11 palaemonids as the outgroup. Additionally, we checked diagnostic characters of the genus and family as well as other morphological characters that have been little explored before. Palaemon carteri and P. ivonicus are allocated in two sister lineages, with wide genetic divergence and little morphological differentiation. The divergence time between these lineages was estimated as approximately 10 million years ago. Both molecular and morphological data support the taxonomic validity of both Palaemon carteri and P. ivonicus, refuting the hypothesis of synonymy. In addition, a new species, Palaemon yuna sp. n., closely related to P. ivonicus, is described. Our findings indicate that these species can be differentiated using the projection of the anterolateral margin and anterolateral spine of the first antennular segment, shape of the rostrum, and relative size of the appendix masculina.

  8. Feeding behavior of Harlequin Shrimp Hymenocera picta Dana, 1852 (Hymenoceridae on Sea Star Linckia laevigata (Ophidiasteridae

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    S. Prakash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Caridean shrimps did not display any selective feeding regimes. However, the shrimp belongs the genus Hymenocera (Caridea: Hymenoceridae exclusively feeds on starfish, causes potential crisis to the hobbyists those wish to accommodate them in reef aquaria. The present observation deals with the documentation about the feeding behavior of Harlequin Shrimp Hymenocera picta Dana feeds on its favorite prey Blue Star Linckia laevigata (Ophidiasteridae in captivity. The upliftment continues for 30-60 minutes and feeding was initiated by removing the ambulacral feet and gonadal tissues of the Starfish.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of Pasiphaeidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) reveals systematic incongruence of the current classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunshi; De Grave, Sammy; Ho, Tsz Wai; Ip, Brian H Y; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou

    2017-10-01

    Caridean shrimps constitute one of the most diverse groups of decapod crustaceans, notwithstanding their poorly resolved infraordinal relationships. One of the systematically controversial families in Caridea is the predominantly pelagic Pasiphaeidae, comprises 101 species in seven genera. Pasiphaeidae species exhibit high morphological disparity, as well as ecological niche width, inhabiting shallow to very deep waters (>4000m). The present work presents the first molecular phylogeny of the family, based on a combined dataset of six mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, histone 3, sodium-potassium ATPase α-subunit, enolase and ATP synthase β-subunit) from 33 species belonged to six genera of Pasiphaeidae with 19 species from 12 other caridean families as outgroup taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses conducted on the concatenated dataset of 2265bp suggest the family Pasiphaeidae is not monophyletic, with Psathyrocaris more closely related to other carideans than to the other five pasiphaeid genera included in this analysis. Leptochela occupies a sister position to the remaining genera and is genetically quite distant from them. At the generic level, the analysis supports the monophyly of Pasiphaea, Leptochela and Psathyrocaris, while Eupasiphae is shown to be paraphyletic, closely related to Parapasiphae and Glyphus. The present molecular result strongly implies that certain morphological characters used in the present systematic delineation within Pasiphaeidae may not be synapomorphies and the classification within the family needs to be urgently revised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Viabilidade do cultivo do camarão-rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Crustácea, Decapoda em gaiolas sob diferentes densidades durante o outono no sul do Brasil Viability of culturing the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Crustacea, Decapoda in cages under different stocking densities during autumn in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariano Krummenauer

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi estudada a possibilidade de cultivar o camarão-rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis em gaiolas com diferentes densidades de estocagem durante o outono (abril a junho no estuário da Lagoa dos Patos, RS. Juvenis com peso médio de 4,95g (± 1,69 dp foram estocados em gaiolas nas densidades de 20, 40, 80, 100 e 120 ind/m². Os camarões foram alimentados diariamente ad libitum com pedaços de Corvina (Micropogonias furnieri. As sobrevivências e os pesos foram observados nos tempos 20, 40 e 60 dias de experimento. Durante o período de cultivo a temperatura da água decresceu de 24 para 11°C (média = 17,1°C e a salinidade oscilou entre 3 e 26 (média = 17,5. As taxas de sobrevivência nas densidades de 20, 40, 80, 100 e 120 ind/m² foram 65%, 68%, 46%, 52% e 43,3% respectivamente, sendo significativamente maiores nas densidades de 20 e 40 ind/m². Após 60 dias, os camarões estocados em 20 e 40 ind/m² atingiram peso superior a 8,0g, sendo significativamente maiores (PIn this study, we assessed the feasibility of culturing Farfantepenaeus paulensis in cages at different stocking densities during autumn (from April to June in the Patos Lagoon estuary. Juveniles with mean weight of 4.95g (± 1.69 SD were stocked in cages at densities of 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120 ind/m² of bottom. Shrimp were fed daily by-catch items (Micropogonias furnieri ad libitum. Survival and wet weight were estimated at 20, 40 and 60 days after the beginning of the trial. Water temperature varied from 11 to 24°C (mean = 17.1°C, whiles salinity ranged from 3 to 26 (mean = 17.5. Survival rates at densities of 20, 40, 80, 100 and 120 ind/m² were 65%, 68%, 46%, 52% and 43,3%, respectively, being significantly higher at 20 and 40 ind/m². After 60 days, shrimp stocked at 20 and 40 ind/m² reached over 8.0g, which were significantly higher than those reared at 80, 100 and 120ind/m². The highest biomass (356g/m² was obtained at 120 shrimp per m². Up to 250 to

  11. Differential adjustment in gill Na+/K+- and V-ATPase activities and transporter mRNA expression during osmoregulatory acclimation in the cinnamon shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

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    Faleiros, Rogério Oliveira; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Furriel, Rosa P M; McNamara, John Campbell

    2010-11-15

    We evaluate osmotic and chloride (Cl(-)) regulatory capability in the diadromous shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum, and the accompanying alterations in hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)], gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity, and expression of gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit and V-ATPase B subunit mRNA during salinity (S) acclimation. We also characterize V-ATPase kinetics and the organization of transport-related membrane systems in the gill epithelium. Macrobrachium amazonicum strongly hyper-regulates hemolymph osmolality and [Cl(-)] in freshwater and in salinities up to 25‰ S. During a 10-day acclimation period to 25‰ S, hemolymph became isosmotic and hypo-chloremic after 5 days, [Cl(-)] alone remaining hyporegulated thereafter. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit mRNA expression increased 6.5 times initial values after 1 h, then decreased to 3 to 4 times initial values by 24 h and to 1.5 times initial values after 10 days at 25‰ S. This increased expression was accompanied by a sharp decrease at 5 h then recovery of initial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity within 24 h, declining again after 5 days, which suggests transient Cl(-) secretion. V-ATPase B-subunit mRNA expression increased 1.5-fold within 1 h, then reduced sharply to 0.3 times initial values by 5 h, and remained unchanged for the remainder of the 10-day period. V-ATPase activity dropped sharply and was negligible after a 10-day acclimation period to 21‰ S, revealing a marked downregulation of ion uptake mechanisms. The gill epithelium consists of thick, apical pillar cell flanges, the perikarya of which are coupled to an intralamellar septum. These two cell types respectively exhibit extensive apical evaginations and deep membrane invaginations, both of which are associated with numerous mitochondria, characterizing an ion transporting epithelium. These changes in Na(+)/K(+)- and V-ATPase activities and in mRNA expression during salinity acclimation appear to underpin ion uptake and Cl(-) secretion by the

  12. The reproductive performance of the Red-Algae shrimp Leander paulensis (Ortmann, 1897 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae and the effect of post-spawning female weight gain on weight-dependent parameters

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    Uwe Zimmermann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDecapod species have evolved with a variety of reproductive strategies. In this study reproductive features of the palaemonid shrimp Leander paulensiswere investigated. Individuals were collected in the coastal region of Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. In all, 46 ovigerous females were examined in terms of the following reproductive traits: fecundity, reproductive output, brood loss and egg volume. Leander paulensis produces a large number of small eggs with an average fecundity of 635 ± 246 eggs. Egg volume increased significantly from early (0.034 ± 0.008 mm3 to late development stage (0.05 ± 0.012 mm3. The reproductive output did not correlate with female size. The weight of females bearing stage 2 eggs was significantly higher than that of females carrying stage 1 eggs. We assume that the reason for this weight gain is the recovery of female reserves that have been depleted for egg production. Moreover, we emphasize that this weight gain must be considered when evaluating weight-dependent variables such as reproductive output or brood loss in relation to female weight. Otherwise, an overestimation of these variables might lead to inaccurate results.

  13. Reproductive biology of the sea anemone shrimp Periclimenes rathbunae (Caridea, Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae, from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

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    Juan Carlos Azofeifa-Solano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Caridean shrimps are a highly diverse group and many species form symbiotic relationships with different marine invertebrates. Periclimenes rathbunae is a brightly colored shrimp that lives predominantly in association with sea anemones. Information about the reproductive ecology of the species is scarce. Therefore, we collected 70 ovigerous females inhabiting the sun sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus in coral reefs from the southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Females produced on average 289 ± 120 embryos. The volume of recently-produced embryos was on average 0.038 mm3, and embryo volume increased by 192% during the incubation period. The average embryo mortality during embryogenesis was 24%. The reproductive output was 0.24 ± 0.094, considerably higher than in many other pontoniine shrimps. Females carrying embryos close to hatching showed fully developed ovaries, suggesting consecutive spawning. We assume that the sheltered habitat, living on sea anemones, allows P. rathbunae to allocate more energy in embryo production than most other free-living caridean shrimps. This is the first record of P. rathbunae for Costa Rica.

  14. Diferencias en las historias de vida de dos especies de isópodos bopíridos (Isopoda: Epicaridea que parasitan al nape Neotrypaea uncinata (Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea Different life histories of two species of bopyrid isopods (Isopoda, Epicaridea, parasites of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea

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    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En ambientes costeros de Concepción, Chile, se han registrado dos especies de isópodos, Ione ovata Shiino, 1964 e Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900, parásitos en las cámaras branquiales del nape Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. La prevalencia de parasitismo sin embargo, es mucho menor en Ione ovata quien además presenta menor frecuencia de parejas cohabitando una misma branquia, aunque posee una especificidad comparativamente menor que I. agassizi. Esto sugiere que ambas especies poseen historias de vida contrastantes. Para mejorar el entendimiento de las causas de estas diferencias, en este estudio se analizan y comparan algunos rasgos de la historia de vida de los isópodos (fecundidad, tamaño de los huevos, inversión reproductiva, y capacidad de los machos para colonizar napes no parasitados. Ione agassizi tuvo una menor fecundidad, y huevos de mayor tamaño que I. ovata. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias en la inversión reproductiva entre ambas especies, ni en su relación con el tamaño corporal del isópodo. Los machos de I. ovata poseen mayor habilidad que los de I. agassizi para colonizar nuevos napes no parasitados, ya que pudieron permanecer en nuevos hospedadores y rediferenciarse sexualmente en hembras. Se considera que sería necesario estimar la sobrevivencia durante el tiempo total de vida de estos parásitos para mejorar la interpretación de estos resultadosOn coastal habitats near Concepción city, Chile, there are two isopod species Ione ovata Shiino, 1964, and Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900 both occupying the gill chambers of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. However, in I. ovata, the prevalence is smaller, there is a low frequency of coupled isopods in the same gill chamber, and is less host specific than I. agassizi. These observations suggest that both isopod species have different life histories. To improve the understanding of the causes of these differences some life history

  15. Revisão taxonômica dos camarões de água doce (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae, Sergestidae da Amazônia Peruana Taxonomic revision of the freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae, Sergestidae from the Peruvian Amazonia

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    Carmen Rosa García-Dávila

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão taxonômica das espécies de camarões de água doce da Amazônia peruana que abrangeu oito espécies da família Palaemonidae e uma espécie da família Sergestidae. São descritas duas novas espécies do gênero Pseudopalaemon e feitos os primeiros registros de Euryrhynchus amazoniensis Tiefenbacher, 1978, Macrobrachium jelskii Miers, 1877 e Palaemonetes ivonicus Holthuis, 1950 para o Peru. São fornecidos chave de identificação, dados distribucionais e ilustrações para as espécies estudadas.A taxonomic revision of eight species of freshwater shrimps of the family Palaemonidae and one of the family Sergestidae from the Peruvian Amazonia was made. Two new species of the genus Pseudopalaemon are described, and Euryrhynchus amazoniensis Tiefenbacher, 1978, Macrobrachium jelskii Miers, 1877 e Palaemonetes ivonicus Holthuis, 1950 are recorded from Peru for the first time. Key, distributional data and ilustrations for the species are presented

  16. Spatio-temporal variation of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae associated to the seasonal overture of the sandbar in a subtropical lagoon Variação espaço-temporal do camarão rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae associado à abertura sazonal da barra de conexão com o mar em uma lagoa subtropical

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    Nicolle C Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the southern Brazilian coast, the penaeid pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 is intensively captured by both artisanal and industrial fisheries. In the Ibiraquera Lagoon, artisanal fishing of juvenile stocks has declined sharply over the last 15 years. The traditional management methods used by fishermen are no longer sustainable due to conflicts with the demands of tourism and weak environmental and public agencies. The dynamics of the timing of the artificial opening and natural reformation of a sandbar across the mouth of the lagoon are regarded as a central socio-ecological problem. We evaluated the abundance and biomass variation of F. paulensis throughout the year and along a spatial gradient measured from the sandbar into the lagoon. We also explored the influence of opening the sandbar on the shrimp population. Samples were collected monthly from February 2004 to February 2005, using a 27 mm mesh cast net, in four different areas, with three sites being sampled per area. Small numbers of large shrimps were captured in the upper area, while greater biomass and abundance of small shrimps were observed near the sandbar, suggesting the role of the inner area as a refuge for growing. The highest records for biomass and abundance were recorded during warm months, regardless if the lagoon was open or closed by the sandbar. The Ibiraquera Lagoon could be more productive for fishermen if the sandbar opening was coincident to the period of natural post-larvae influx. Furthermore, coastal stocks could be improved by opening the sandbar again during summer in conjunction with fishing quotas.O camarão rosa Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 é intensivamente capturado, tanto pela frota pesqueira industrial quanto artesanal na costa sul brasileira. Na Lagoa de Ibiraquera (SC, a captura artesanal de camarões tem diminuído gradativamente nos últimos 15 anos. Os métodos de gestão tradicionais utilizados

  17. Kinetic analysis of gill (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the Amazon River shrimp, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): interactions at ATP- and cation-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Francisco Assis; Masui, Douglas Chodi; de Souza Bezerra, Thais Milena; Garçon, Daniela Pereira; Valenti, Wagner Cotroni; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

    2012-04-01

    We investigated modulation by ATP, Mg²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ and NH₄⁺ and inhibition by ouabain of (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase activity in microsomal homogenates of whole zoeae I and decapodid III (formerly zoea IX) and whole-body and gill homogenates of juvenile and adult Amazon River shrimps, Macrobrachium amazonicum. (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase-specific activity was increased twofold in decapodid III compared to zoea I, juveniles and adults, suggesting an important role in this ontogenetic stage. The apparent affinity for ATP (K(M) = 0.09 ± 0.01 mmol L⁻¹) of the decapodid III (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase, about twofold greater than the other stages, further highlights this relevance. Modulation of (Na⁺,K⁺-ATPase activity by K⁺ also revealed a threefold greater affinity for K⁺ (K₀.₅ = 0.91 ± 0.04 mmol L⁻¹) in decapodid III than in other stages; NH₄⁺ had no modulatory effect. The affinity for Na⁺ (K₀.₅ = 13.2 ± 0.6 mmol L⁻¹) of zoea I (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase was fourfold less than other stages. Modulation by Na⁺, Mg²⁺ and NH₄⁺ obeyed cooperative kinetics, while K⁺ modulation exhibited Michaelis-Menten behavior. Rates of maximal Mg²⁺ stimulation of ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity differed in each ontogenetic stage, suggesting that Mg²⁺-stimulated ATPases other than (Na⁺,K⁺)-ATPase are present. Ouabain inhibition suggests that, among the various ATPase activities present in the different stages, Na⁺-ATPase may be involved in the ontogeny of osmoregulation in larval M. amazonicum. The NH₄⁺-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive ATPase activity seen in zoea I and decapodid III may reflect a stage-specific means of ammonia excretion since functional gills are absent in the early larval stages.

  18. Estrutura populacional dos camarões simpátricos Potimirim glabra e Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae no rio Sahy, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Populational structure of the sympatric freshwater shrimps Potimirim glabra and Potimirim potimirim (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae in the Sahy River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Giovana V. Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo obter conhecimento sobre a estrutura populacional de dois camarões de água doce simpátricos, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 e Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 no rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente durante o período de setembro de 1997 a fevereiro de 1999 utilizando-se peneiras, que foram passadas sob a vegetação marginal, superfície de rochas e pequenas poças d'água, num esforço de 15 minutos por coletor. Os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo e mensurados em relação ao comprimento total e do cefalotórax. Um total de 4.889 indivíduos foram coletados no rio Sahy: 3.281 P. glabra e 1.608 P. potimirim. A razão sexual observada foi de 1:1 para P. glabra e 1:2,3 para P. potimirim. Em ambas populações, cinco estágios de maturidade sexual foram determinados, sendo as populações constituídas principalmente por camarões adultos. O recrutamento de juvenis apresentou diferenças em ambas as espécies. O recrutamento de P. glabra ocorreu durante todo o período de estudo, exceto na primavera, enquanto que P. potimirim foi registrado somente no outono. A distribuição sazonal de fêmeas ovígeras de P. glabra é similar ao de P. potimirim, com reprodução na primavera e no verão.The aim of this work was to get some knowledge about the populational structure of the two sympatric freshwater shrimp species, Potimirim glabra (Kingsley, 1878 and Potimirim potimirim (Müller, 1881 in the Sahy River, Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The specimens were sampled monthly from September 1997 to February 1999 by sieving the marginal vegetation, on rocky surface and among litter on river bottom, with 15-minute effort per sampling period. The animals were sorted sexed and their total and cephalothoracic length were measured. A total of 4,889 individuals were collected in Sahy river: 3,281 P. glabra and 1,608 P. potimirim. The sex ratio for all

  19. New primers for amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcode region designed for species of Decapoda (Crustacea

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    Fernando L. Mantelatto

    Full Text Available Abstract We designed 14 new primers for amplification of the COI barcode region of decapod crustacean species. We tested, with high level of success, the generation of ~ 640 ± 49 base-pair sequences in selected groups of decapods (hermit crabs, squat lobsters, marine and freshwater crabs and shrimps, encompassing representatives of 27 genera of 15 families, 11 of Pleocyemata (Anomura, Brachyura, and Caridea and 4 of Dendrobranchiata. Based on the results we expect the applicability of these primers for several studies with different taxa within Decapoda.

  20. Reproductive cycle and population structure of the deep-water shrimp Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae on southeast Brazilian continental slope Ciclo reproductivo y estructura poblacional del camarón de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis A. Milne Edwards & Bouvier, 1909 (Decapoda: Aristeidae en el talud continental del sureste de Brasil

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    Paulo Ricardo Pezzuto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The "alistado shrimp" (Aristeus antillensis is one of the targets of the trawling fleet operating since 2002 along the continental slope of the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone between 700 and 800 m depth. Catches of the species occur mainly in two small fishing grounds located on the east coast of Espirito Santo State (19-22°S. This paper aimed to obtain the first biological data for this species along the Brazilian coast. A total of 13,797 individuals were sampled aboard fishing vessels by observers on almost all fishing hauls, corresponding to 10 to 20% of the total catch recorded in the period. Males and females are sexually mature at 25.4 and 40.2 mm carapace length, respectively, based on an analysis of the proportions of individuals with fused petasma (males and spermatophores in the thelycum (females. The proportion of impregnated females was higher than 80% year round, suggesting a continuous reproductive cycle, although preliminary in-formation on gonadal development points to possible seasonal reproduction. In general, mature females, which attain larger sizes than males, domínate the catches (M:F = 0.12:1. However, populational groups including males and juveniles of both sexes occupy the fishing grounds in different periods of the year, probably reflecting migratory movements whose directions and driving forces are not completely understood yet. A depth-stratified population structure by sex and size is hypothesized.La gamba de aguas profundas Aristeus antillensis es uno de los recursos explotados por la flota de arrastre, que está operando desde el año 2002 en el talud continental de la Zona Econômica Exclusiva de Brasil, entre 700 y 800 m de profundidad. Las capturas de esta especie se realizan básicamente en dos pequeños fondos de pesca que se encuentran en la costa este de la región de Espirito Santo (19-22°S. Este trabajo tiene por objetivo obtener los primeros antecedentes biológicos de esta especie en la costa

  1. Distribución, abundancia y estructura poblacional del langostino rojo de profundidad Haliporoides diomedeae (Crustácea: Decapoda: Solenoceridae frente a la zona norte de Perú (2007-2008 Distribution, abundance, and population structure of deep red shrimp Haliporoides diomedeae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Solenoceridae off northern Peru (2007-2008

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    Edward Barriga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la distribución, abundancia relativa y estructura poblacional de Haliporoides diomedeae frente a la zona norte de Perú (3°30'S-10°00'S, con los resultados de dos cruceros desarrollados en 2007 y 2008 a bordo del B/O Miguel Oliver, que realizó investigaciones de la fauna bentodemersal entre 200 y 1.500 m de profundidad, mediante un muestreo al azar estratificado de arrastre de fondo. En 122 lances realizados en cuatro sectores y tres estratos se capturó un total de 48.056 kg, compuestos por ~347 especies de peces e invertebrados. H. diomedeae fue la especie de langostino más importante en las capturas (411 kg, con los mayores niveles de abundancia entre 600 y 1.600 m al norte de los 7°S, con valores medios de captura por unidad de área (CPUA entre 83,4 y 211 kg km-2 y una biomasa total estimada de 1.139,74 ton (± 245,6 ton. Las hembras presentaron una longitud cefalotorácica media de 40,6 mm, rango de 14,5 y 74,5 mm y grupo modal dominante de 30 mm, mientras que en los machos la media fue de 30,6 mm, rango 16 a 33 mm y grupo modal principal de 27 mm; para ambos sexos se identificaron seis grupos modales, dimorfismo sexual y gradiente batimétrica. La relación talla-peso fue de tipo alométrico. En general, las características de distribución, abundancia y estructura poblacional de H. diomedeae permiten considerarla como una especie potencialmente explotable en el norte del mar peruano.The distribution, relative abundance, and population structure of Haliporoides diomedeae was determined off northern Peru (3°30'S-10°00'S by analyzing data from two cruises carried out in 2007 and 2008 on board the B/O Miguel Oliver to assess the bentho-demersal fauna between 200 and 1,500 m depth, us-ing a stratified random bottom trawl design. The total catch from the 122 hauls (covering four sectors and three strata was 48,056 kg, with ~347 fish and invertebrate species. H. diomedeae was the most important shrimp in the catches (411

  2. Population biology of shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1778 (Decapoda, Palaemonoidea at the Grande River at northwest of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Biologia populacional do camarão Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1778 (Decapoda, Palaemonoidea no Rio Grande no noroeste do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Samara de Paiva Barros-Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The population biology of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii was investigated here emphasizing the length-frequency distribution, sex ratio, reproductive period and juvenile recruitment. In addition, the abundance of individuals was correlated with the abiotic factors. METHODS: Samples were collected on a monthly basis from July 2005 to June 2007 along the river margin in shallow water of Grande River, at Planura region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil (20º 09' S and 48º 40' W, using a trawl net (1.0 mm mesh size, and 2.0 m × 0.5 m wide. The fishing gear was handled by two people along the marginal vegetation of the Grande River in a course of 100 m, covered for one hour. In the laboratory, the specimens were identified, measured and sexed. RESULTS: A total of 2,789 specimens was analyzed, which corresponded to 1,126 males (549 juveniles and 577 adults and 1,663 females (1,093 juveniles, 423 adults non-ovigerous and 147 ovigerous. The sex ratio differed significantly in favor of the females of M. jelskii (1:1.48; χ² = 103.95; p OBJETIVO: A biologia populacional do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium jelskii foi investigada, com ênfase na distribuição de frequência em classes de tamanho, razão sexual, período reprodutivo e recrutamento juvenil. Além disso, a abundância dos indivíduos foi correlacionada com os fatores abióticos. MÉTODOS: Amostras foram coletadas mensalmente de julho de 2005 a junho de 2007, às margens do Rio Grande, região de Planura, estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil (20º 09' S e 48º 40' W, usando uma rede de arrasto (1.0 mm tamanho da malha e 2.0 × 0.5 m de largura. O equipamento foi arrastado por duas pessoas às margens da vegetação do rio por 100 metros de distância, percorridos por uma hora. Em laboratório, os espécimes foram identificados, mensurados e sexados. RESULTADOS: Um total de 2,789 espécimes foi analisado, no qual correspondem a 1,126 machos (549 jovens e 577 adultos e 1,663 f

  3. Feeding ecology of non-native Siberian prawns, Palaemon modestus (Heller, 1862) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), in the lower Snake River, Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Hurst, William

    2016-01-01

    We used both stomach content and stable isotope analyses to describe the feeding ecology of Siberian prawns Palaemon modestus (Heller, 1862), a non-native caridean shrimp that is a relatively recent invader of the lower Snake River. Based on identifiable prey in stomachs, the opossum shrimp Neomysis mercedis Holmes, 1896 comprised up to 34-55% (by weight) of diets of juvenile to adult P. modestus, which showed little seasonal variation. Other predominant items/taxa consumed included detritus, amphipods, dipteran larvae, and oligochaetes. Stable isotope analysis supported diet results and also suggested that much of the food consumed by P. modestus that was not identifiable came from benthic sources — predominantly invertebrates of lower trophic levels and detritus. Palaemon modestus consumption of N. mercedis may pose a competitive threat to juvenile salmon and resident fishes which also rely heavily on that prey.

  4. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical...... and temperate coastal regions(5-7) and build burrows with a species-specific architecture, The deepest reported burrows reach down to 2.5 m sediment depth(8). It is difficult to study the activities of these secretive animals and their effect on sediment biogeochemistry without disturbing the sediment system(9......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  5. Shrimp Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northern Shrimp Survey was initiated in 1983 by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) and monitors the relative abundance (number of shrimp),...

  6. Gulf Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...

  7. South Atlantic Shrimp System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEFSC, in cooperation with the South Atlantic states, collects South Atlantic shrimp data from dealers and fishermen. These data are collected to provide catch,...

  8. Abbreviated larval development of Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae from an Amazon Basin forest stream, Brazil, reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Magalhães

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper brings the description and illustrations of the abbreviated larval development of the Amazonian freshwater palaemonid shrimp, Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982. The study was based on ovigerous females (mean total body length of 27.0 ± 1.64 mm collected in a small forest stream in the Reserva Florestal Ducke, near Manaus, Brazil, of which four released their larvae in the laboratory. The females carried 8 to 19 eliptical (2.39 ± 0.10 X 1.67 ± 0.08 mm, yolk-rich eggs. The larval period consists of three benthic, lecithotrophic larval stages, and lasts 10-11 days. The newly-hatched larvae bear very advanced morphological features such as antenna with several marginal plumose seta on scaphocerite and long, multi-articulated flagellum; fully developed, functional uniramous pereiopods 3-5 (walking legs and biramous pleopods. The morphology of the carapace, all appendages of the cephalothorax and pleon, and the tail fan are described in detail and illustrated. The larval form was considered to be a decapodid because of the benthic behavior and due to the fact that functional walking legs and pleopods are the main structures for displacement and propulsion. The larval development of M. inpa is compared with those of the so-called "continental" group of the caridean shrimps from the Amazon River basin.

  9. Burrowing behavior of penaeid shrimps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...

  10. Do shrimp-allergic individuals tolerate shrimp-derived glucosamine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacis, J; Rice, T R; Bucci, L R; El-Dahr, J M; Wild, L; Demerell, D; Soteres, D; Lehrer, S B

    2006-11-01

    There is concern that shrimp-allergic individuals may react to glucosamine-containing products as shrimp shells are a major source of glucosamine used for human consumption. The purpose of this study was to determine whether shrimp-allergic individuals can tolerate therapeutic doses of glucosamine. Subjects with a history of shrimp allergy were recruited and tested for both shrimp reactivity via a prick skin test and shrimp-specific IgE by an ImmunoCAP assay. Fifteen subjects with positive skin tests to shrimp and an ImmunoCAP class level of two or greater were selected for a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) using glucosamine-chondroitin tablets containing 1,500 mg of synthetically produced (control) or shrimp-derived glucosamine. Immediate reactions, including changes in peak flow and blood pressure, and delayed reactions (up to 24 h post-challenge) via questionnaire were noted and assessed. All subjects tolerated 1,500 mg of both shrimp-derived or synthetic glucosamine without incident of an immediate hypersensitivity response. Peak flows and blood pressures remained constant, and no subject had symptoms of a delayed reaction 24 h later. This study demonstrates that glucosamine supplements from specific manufacturers do not contain clinically relevant levels of shrimp allergen and therefore appear to pose no threat to shrimp-allergic individuals.

  11. Structure and Ultrastructure of the Endodermal Region of the Alimentary Tract in the Freshwater Shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonakowska, Lidia; Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Poprawa, Izabela; Binkowski, Marcin; Śróbka, Joanna; Kamińska, Karolina; Kszuk-Jendrysik, Michalina; Chajec, Łukasz; Zajusz, Bartłomiej; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda) originates from Asia and is one of the species that is widely available all over the world because it is the most popular shrimp that is bred in aquaria. The structure and the ultrastructure of the midgut have been described using X-ray microtomography, transmission electron microscopy, light and fluorescence microscopes. The endodermal region of the alimentary system in N. heteropoda consists of an intestine and a hepatopancreas. No differences were observed in the structure and ultrastructure of males and females of the shrimp that were examined. The intestine is a tube-shaped organ and the hepatopancreas is composed of two large diverticles that are divided into the blind-end tubules. Hepatopancreatic tubules have three distinct zones - proximal, medial and distal. Among the epithelial cells of the intestine, two types of cells were distinguished - D and E-cells, while three types of cells were observed in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas - F, B and E-cells. Our studies showed that the regionalization in the activity of cells occurs along the length of the hepatopancreatic tubules. The role and ultrastructure of all types of epithelial cells are discussed, with the special emphasis on the function of the E-cells, which are the midgut regenerative cells. Additionally, we present the first report on the existence of an intercellular junction that is connected with the E-cells of Crustacea.

  12. Structure and Ultrastructure of the Endodermal Region of the Alimentary Tract in the Freshwater Shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Sonakowska

    Full Text Available The freshwater shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda originates from Asia and is one of the species that is widely available all over the world because it is the most popular shrimp that is bred in aquaria. The structure and the ultrastructure of the midgut have been described using X-ray microtomography, transmission electron microscopy, light and fluorescence microscopes. The endodermal region of the alimentary system in N. heteropoda consists of an intestine and a hepatopancreas. No differences were observed in the structure and ultrastructure of males and females of the shrimp that were examined. The intestine is a tube-shaped organ and the hepatopancreas is composed of two large diverticles that are divided into the blind-end tubules. Hepatopancreatic tubules have three distinct zones - proximal, medial and distal. Among the epithelial cells of the intestine, two types of cells were distinguished - D and E-cells, while three types of cells were observed in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas - F, B and E-cells. Our studies showed that the regionalization in the activity of cells occurs along the length of the hepatopancreatic tubules. The role and ultrastructure of all types of epithelial cells are discussed, with the special emphasis on the function of the E-cells, which are the midgut regenerative cells. Additionally, we present the first report on the existence of an intercellular junction that is connected with the E-cells of Crustacea.

  13. Crescimento relativo de Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cotroni Valenti

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the relative growth of Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, is presented; the cephalothorax length/abdominal length, telson length/abdominal length and abdominal length/total length relashionships were determined. The adjusted equations showed a isometric growth pattern. There are no changes in these relationships during the animals growth that may be significant in the maximization of the meat's profit.

  14. Nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-11-01

    Data available in the literature on the nutritional aspects of irradiated shrimp are reviewed and the indication is that irradiation of shrimp at doses up to about 3.2 kGy does not significantly affect the levels of its protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash. There are no reports on the effect of irradiation of shrimp above 3.2 kGy on these components. Limited information available indicates that there are some minor changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp as a result of irradiation. Irradiation also causes some changes in the amino acid composition of shrimp; similar changes occur due to canning and hot-air drying. Some of the vitamins in shrimp, such as thiamine, are lost as a result of irradiation but the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. Protein quality of shrimp, based on the growth of rats as well as that of Tetrahymena pyriformis, is not affected by irradiation. No adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found either in short-term or long-term animal feeding tests

  15. Role of maxilla 2 and its setae during feeding in the shrimp Palaemon adspersus (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; Hallberg, E; Høeg, J T

    2003-01-01

    water-filled canals, which may serve to improve flexibility. Type 1 and 3 setae have fewer sensory cells (4-9) but probably also have a bimodal sensory function. The function of type 1 setae is probably to protect type 2 setae, while type 3 setae might serve to groom the ventral side of the basis...

  16. The importance of feeding in the larval development of the ghost shrimp Callichirus major (Decapoda: Callianassidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Arruda, Danielle C B; Simith, Darlan J B; Palmeira, Carlos A M

    2008-09-01

    The present study investigated whether the callianassid Callichirus major shows a lecithotrophic behaviour during larval development. Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, larvae were subjected to an initial period of feeding, while in the second they were subjected to an initial period of starvation. In Experiment 1, 80% of C. major larvae succeeded moulting to juvenile stage in treatment with larvae fed every day. In the treatments with larvae fed for 1, 2 and 3 days there was total mortality before they reached the megalopal stage. In Experiment 2, zoea larvae showed more resistance when subjected to an initial period of starvation in which larvae starved for 1, 2 and 3 days and had survival rates of 100, 60 and 80%, respectively. But, a delay in the development duration of the zoeal stages was observed. Total mortality was observed for larvae reared in the treatment with entire starvation. The results suggest that zoeal stages of C. major are not lecithotrophic.

  17. The importance of feeding in the larval development of the ghost shrimp Callichirus major (Decapoda: Callianassidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Abrunhosa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the callianassid Callichirus major shows a lecithotrophic behaviour during larval development. Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, larvae were subjected to an initial period of feeding, while in the second they were subjected to an initial period of starvation. In Experiment 1, 80% of C. major larvae succeeded moulting to juvenile stage in treatment with larvae fed every day. In the treatments with larvae fed for 1, 2 and 3 days there was total mortality before they reached the megalopal stage. In Experiment 2, zoea larvae showed more resistance when subjected to an initial period of starvation in which larvae starved for 1, 2 and 3 days and had survival rates of 100, 60 and 80%, respectively. But, a delay in the development duration of the zoeal stages was observed. Total mortality was observed for larvae reared in the treatment with entire starvation. The results suggest that zoeal stages of C. major are not lecithotrophic.O presente estudo investigou se o callianassid Callichirus major apresenta um comportamento lecitotrófico durante o desenvolvimento larval. Dois experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro experimento, larvas foram submetidas a um período inicial de alimentação, enquanto no segundo elas foram submetidas a um período inicial de inanição. No experimento 1, 80% das larvas de C. major mudaram com sucesso para o estágio de juvenil no tratamento com larvas alimentadas diariamente. Nos tratamentos com larvas alimentadas por 1, 2 e 3 dias, houve uma mortalidade total antes de alcançarem o estágio de megalopa. No experimento 2, as larvas zoés mostraram mais resistência quando submetidas a um período inicial de inanição. Nos tratamentos nos quais as larvas estiveram em inanição por 1, 2 e 3 dias, as taxas de sobrevivência foram100%, 60% e 90%, respectivamente. Porém atrasos na duração do desenvolvimento dos estágios de zoés foram observados. Houve mortalidade total para as larvas cultivadas no tratamento com ausência constante de alimento. Os resultados sugerem não existir um comportamento lecitotrófico nas zoés de C. major.

  18. First occurrence of knight rock shrimp, Sicyonia lancifer (Olivier, 1811 (Decapoda: Sicyoniidae in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PATANIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the non-native species Sicyonia lancifer  (Olivier, 1811 belonging to Sicyoniidae family is reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. In the following  paper  the distinguishing features of the species are provided.

  19. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    prawn larvae in the coastal waters of Goa, Indian J Mar Sci, 15 (1986)45-47. 6 Staples D J, Ecology of juvenile and adolescent banana prawns, Penaeus merguiensis, in a mangrove estuary and adjacent off-shore area of the Gulf of Carpentaria, Aust J Mar...

  20. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.

  1. Impact of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron on biochemical composition of cuticle of the shrimp Penaeus kerathurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, N; Lechekhab, H; Smagghe, G

    2009-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (Dimilin 25WP) is an insecticide of the class of benzoylphenylurea (BPUs) and is widely used in the control of insect pest in agriculture and forestry. Typically, these chemistries prevent the moulting process by inhibiting chitin formation and thereby causing abnormal cuticular deposition and abortive moulting in insect and crustacean species. In a previous study, we have shown that diflubenzuron could cause a modification in the lamellar ultrastructural, particularly in the membranous layers, in the non-target organism, the caramote prawn or triple-grooved shrimp Penaeus kerathurus (Forskal, 1775) (Decapoda, Peneidae). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential side-effects of diflubenzuron on the biochemical composition of the cuticle of treated P. kerathurus. Diflubenzuron was added to the rearing seawater at a final concentration of 1 microg/L) and newly-ecdysed adult shrimps were exposed for 10 days, i.e. until stage C during the molting cycle. The most typical treatment symptoms were a significantly reduced thickness of both the principal and membranous layers, and reduced amounts of chitin in the cuticle. These symptoms help in explaining the structural alterations observed in treated cuticles, and confirm the primary mode of action of diflubenzuron to inhibit chitin biosynthesis.

  2. Brain architecture of the Pacific White Shrimp Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 (Malacostraca, Dendrobranchiata): correspondence of brain structure and sensory input?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meth, Rebecca; Wittfoth, Christin; Harzsch, Steffen

    2017-04-07

    Penaeus vannamei (Dendrobranchiata, Decapoda) is best known as the "Pacific White Shrimp" and is currently the most important crustacean in commercial aquaculture worldwide. Although the neuroanatomy of crustaceans has been well examined in representatives of reptant decapods ("ground-dwelling decapods"), there are only a few studies focusing on shrimps and prawns. In order to obtain insights into the architecture of the brain of P. vannamei, we use neuroanatomical methods including X-ray micro-computed tomography, 3D reconstruction and immunohistochemical staining combined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy and serial sectioning. The brain of P. vannamei exhibits all the prominent neuropils and tracts that characterize the ground pattern of decapod crustaceans. However, the size proportion of some neuropils is salient. The large lateral protocerebrum that comprises the visual neuropils as well as the hemiellipsoid body and medulla terminalis is remarkable. This observation corresponds with the large size of the compound eyes of these animals. In contrast, the remaining median part of the brain is relatively small. It is dominated by the paired antenna 2 neuropils, while the deutocerebral chemosensory lobes play a minor role. Our findings suggest that visual input from the compound eyes and mechanosensory input from the second pair of antennae are major sensory modalities, which this brain processes.

  3. Monodon baculovirus of shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, K V; Makesh, M; Karunasagar, I

    2012-09-01

    Among the viruses infecting penaeid shrimp, monodon-type baculovirus (MBV) otherwise known as Penaeus monodon singly enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (PmSNPV), is one of the widely reported and well described viruses. It is a rod-shaped, enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, and considered till recently, as the type A baculovirus. Besides MBV, two strains of SNPV are reported-plebejus baculovirus and bennettae baculovirus. MBV was reported to be originated from Taiwan and has wide geographic distribution and is reported to be enzootic in wild penaeids of the Indo-pacific coasts of Asia. The virus also has diverse host-range including a variety of cultured and captured shrimp species and freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MBV has been reported in all life stages of P. monodon with late larval, postlarval and young juvenile as the most susceptible stages/ages. However, MBV has not been documented in early larval stages. Although MBV has been reported to be tolerated well by shrimp, the infection has been attributed to decreased productivity. The target organs or tissues of MBV are the hepatopancreatic tubules and duct epithelium of postlarvae, juveniles and adults, and the anterior midgut epithelium of very young postlarvae. The prominent clinical sign of infection is the presence of multiple spherical inclusion bodies in the hepatopancreas and midgut epithelial cells. The major mode of transmission of the virus is horizontal through oral exposure to occlusion bodies, contaminated tissues or fomites. Minor morphometric variation of the virus has been reported among different isolates. The rod-shaped enveloped virus particles range from 265-324 nm in length and 42-77 nm in diameter. Although complete genome sequence of MBV is not available, nucleic acid of MBV is circular, double-stranded DNA with a genome size ranging from 80 to 160 kbp. The virus codes for a 53 kDa major polyhedrin polypeptide and two minor 47 and 49 kDa polypeptides. A variety of

  4. Studies on the planktonic Decapoda and Stomatopoda (Crustacea) from the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Nair, V.R.; Goswami, S.C.

    and Nagapattinam. The maximum number of larvae obtained was 2393/100 m3 in a single haul from a coastal station, north off Madras. The major forms obtained in the present collections were penaeids, sergestids, carideans, thalassinids, pagurids, crab zoeae...

  5. Habitat associations and distribution of the hyperbenthic shrimp, Nauticaris marionis, around the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Craig; von der Meden, Charles; Atkinson, Lara; Reed, Cecile

    2017-09-01

    The association of organisms with particular habitats and habitat-forming organisms, can strongly influence species distributions, interactions and wider ecosystem services. At the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands, the caridean shrimp Nauticaris marionis is a principal part of the benthic ecosystem, occurring between ca. 50 m and 600 m. Its role as a trophic link between the primary productivity and higher predators is established, but little is understood of its in situ habitat usage and associations or of how these structure patterns of abundance. We investigated these aspects directly using a benthic camera sled, sampling 27 stations between 50 m and 500 m. Substratum type was characterised, and estimates of percentage cover of the 13 main groups of habitat-forming epibenthic taxa were made, alongside absolute counts of N. marionis within 'digital quadrats' drawn from 300 m transects. The distribution of N. marionis was influenced by depth, substratum type and overall biogenic cover, being limited to habitats between 50 and 160 m depth on mud or gravel substrata only, and having > 50% biogenic cover. The presence/absence of N. marionis related to significantly different epibenthic assemblages (termed biogenic habitats), but this effect was contingent on depth. Likewise, densities of N. marionis were significantly affected by biogenic habitat type, identifying an association with two biogenic habitat groups, one dominated by red-algae, the other by structurally complex bryozoan species. These associations likely relate to the structural complexity of the two habitat groups, rather than the specific taxa involved. The apparent absence of N. marionis at depths > 160 m contrasts with earlier records and poses questions about the trophic importance of the shrimp in deeper habitats.

  6. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: Landsat bands 4,3 and 2

  7. Microbial Diseases in Shrimp Aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani; Umesha, R.K.

    et al. 1996). Taura syndrome virus (TSV) Taura syndrome was reported as a new disease in 1992 in commercial penaeid shrimp farms located near the mouth of River Taura in the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador (Jimenez 1992). Since its discovery, this lethal...

  8. Characterization of the neuropeptidome of a Southern Ocean decapod, the Antarctic shrimp Chorismus antarcticus: Focusing on a new decapod ITP-like peptide belonging to the CHH peptide family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullec, Jean-Yves; Corre, Erwan; Mandon, Perrine; Gonzalez-Aravena, Marcelo; Ollivaux, Céline; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2017-10-01

    As part of the study of the resilience of Antarctic crustaceans to global warming, the shrimp Chorismus antarcticus was subjected to an analysis of global approach using the Next Generation Sequencing Illumina Hi-Seq platform. With this data a detailed study into the principal neuropeptides and neurohormones of this species have been undertaken. Total RNAs from whole animals were enriched with eyestalk extracts to ensure maximum sequencing depth of the different neurohormones and neuropeptides mainly expressed into the X organ-sinus gland complex, which is a major endocrine organ of their synthesis. Apart from the information that can provide the availability of the transcriptome of a polar crustacean, the study of neuropeptides of a caridean shrimp will partially fill the limited data available for this taxon. Illumina sequencing was used to produce a transcriptome of the polar shrimp. Analysis of the Trinity assembled contigs produced 55 pre-pro-peptides, coding for 111 neuropeptides belonging to the following families: adipokinetic-corazonin-like peptide, Allatostatins (A, B et C), Bursicon (α), CCHamide, Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones (CHH), Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide (CCAP), Corazonin, Crustacean Female Sex Hormone (CSFH), Diuretic Hormones 31 and 45 (DH), Eclosion Hormone (EH), FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, Intocin, Ion Transport Peptide-like (ITP-like), Leucokinin, Molt-inhibiting Hormone, Myosuppresin, Neuroparsin, Neuropeptide F (NPF), Orcokinin, Orcomyotropin, Pigment Dispersing Hormone (PDH), Pyrokinin, Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (RPCH), SIFamide, small Neuropeptide F (sNPF), Sulfakinin and finally Tachykinin Related peptides. Among the new peptides highlighted in this study, the focus was placed on the peptides of the CHH family and more particularly on a new ITP-like in order to confirm its belonging to a new group of peptides of the family. A phylogeny made from more than 200 sequences of peptides, included new sequences from new species

  9. New records and description of two new species of carideans shrimps from Bahía Santa María-La Reforma lagoon, Gulf of California, Mexico (Crustacea, Caridea, Alpheidae and Processidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Barragán, José; Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Zamora-Tavares, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the family Alpheidae: Alpheus margaritae sp. n. and Leptalpheus melendezensis sp. n. are described from Santa María-La Reforma, coastal lagoon, SE Gulf of California. Alpheus margaritae sp. n. is closely related to A. antepaenultimus and A. mazatlanicus from the Eastern Pacific and to A. chacei from the Western Atlantic, but can be differentiated from these by a combination of characters, especially the morphology of the scaphocerite and the first pereopods. Leptalpheus melendezensis sp. n. resembles L. mexicanus but can be easily differentiated because L. melendezensis sp. n. has the anterior margin of the carapace broadly rounded and has only one spine on the mesial margin of ischium in the major cheliped, versus an acute rostrum and an unarmed major cheliped. Additionally, a phylogenetic analysis was used to explore the relationships of these two new taxa. These results show that Alpheus margaritae sp. n. and Leptalpheus melendezensis sp. n. are indeed related to the species against which we are comparing them, and demonstrate that they can be considered as different species. Additional specimens of Leptalpheus cf. mexicanus, Ambidexter panamensis and A. swifti are recorded for the first time in the Santa María-La Reforma coastal lagoon. PMID:28769664

  10. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent...

  11. 78 FR 33345 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY: Import Administration... the Countervailing Duty Investigation of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Malaysia,'' dated... frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Malaysia. The period of investigation (POI) is January 1...

  12. A chronic toxicity test protocol using Caridina nilotica (Decapoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinization of freshwater resources is an increasing global problem, yet there is a paucity of chronic salinity tolerance data linked to very few chronic toxicity test protocols. This research aimed to generate a chronic toxicity test protocol and protective salinity tolerance data for the indigenous South African freshwater shrimp ...

  13. Ecomorfologia de caranguejos e siris (Crustacea Decapoda Brachyura) de ecossistemas costeiros

    OpenAIRE

    Marochi, Murilo Zanetti

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Ecomorfologia de caranguejos e siris (CRUSTACEA DECAPODA BRACHYURA) de ecossistemas costeiros. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar se diferentes espécies de Brachyura possuem padrões ecomorfológicos em comum ligados ao habitat em que estão inseridas. Foram analisados 528 exemplares pertencentes a 24 espécies e provenientes dos seguintes ecossistemas costeiros: manguezal, costão rochoso, praia arenosa, bentopelagial e mar aberto. De todos os exemplares foram mensurada...

  14. BIODIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS (DECAPODA: NATANTIA FROM VANUATU, A COMPARISON WITH FIJI AND NEW CALEDONIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUET G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive study of freshwater decapoda crustaceans from Vanuatu. Of the nineteen species collected during this study, eighteen appear to be new records for the archipelago. However none of these species is endemic to Vanuatu, nine having a Pacific distribution and ten an Indo-Pacific distribution. Half of the species recorded were widely distributed in Vanuatu, whereas the others were more restricted. A comparison is made with the freshwater decapoda fauna of the two neighbouring archipelagoes namely, those of Fiji and New Caledonia, which have already been thoroughly surveyed.

  15. Sensory quality of frozen shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Maria Barbosa Nunes Queiroga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory quality of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown and stored in a freezer. A sensory analysis consisted of the Quality Index Method (MIQ to review the raw shrimp and Descriptive Analysis (AD in cooked shrimp in samples stored for a period of 90 days, using eight previously trained panelists. Accommodation comprising shrimp filet (100-120 pieces / kg samples were subjected to freezing in liquid nitrogen (- 86 °C, Freezing Tunnel (- 35 °C and Domestic Freezer (- 18 °C. At 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage in these freezing systems, determination of pH, water holding capacity (WHC, weight loss during cooking (WLC, shearing force, color, total volatile bases (TVB and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS were performed. The attributes manual firmness and softness showed better results in rapid freezing. The color parameters (a *, b * and L *, WHC and WCL were higher at 90 days of storage, no significant losses were observed. Highlighted the strength of greater shear in slowly frozen samples at 90 days, confirming the results reported by the sensory panel. At 90 days of storage, the frozen shrimp showed good sensory quality and physical and chemistry characteristics. The shelf life of this shrimp could be set at about 90 days.

  16. Lecithotrophic behaviour in zoea and megalopa larvae of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder and Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Callianassidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Abrunhosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Food supply is considered critical for a successful culturing of decapod larvae. However, some species may present yolk reserve sufficient to complete their larval development without external food supply (known as lecithotrophic larval development. In the present study, two experiments were carried out in order to verify whether the callianassid Lepidophthalmus siriboia have lecithotrophic behaviour or, if they need external food for their larval development: Experiment 1, larvae submitted to an initial feeding period and Experiment 2, larvae submitted to an initial starvation period. High survival rate was observed in both experiments, in which only 2 megalopae and 1 zoea III died. These results strongly suggest that larvae of L. siriboia are lecithotrophic as they have sufficiently large yolk reserve to complete their larval development, while the megalopa stage shows facultative lecithotrophy. The larval periods of each stage of the treatments were quite similar and, despite some significant differences in some larval periods, these can be related probably to larval rearing conditions, abiotic factors or, individual variability of larval health, as well as stress caused to the ovigerous females during embryogenesis.A alimentação é considerada crítica em cultivo de larvas de decápodes. No entanto, algumas espécies podem apresentar reservas nutritivas suficientes para completar o desenvolvimento larval sem a necessidade de alimentação externa (conhecido como desenvolvimento larval lecitotrófico. No presente estudo, dois experimentos foram realizados para verificar se o callianassídeo Lepidophthalmus siriboia tem comportamento lecitotrófico ou se precisa de alimento externo para completar o desenvolvimento larval: Experimento 1, larvas submetidas a um período inicial de alimentação e, Experimento 2, larvas submetidas a um período inicial de inanição. Em ambos os experimentos, observou-se altas taxas de sobrevivência, com apenas 2 megalopas e 1 zoea III mortos. Estes resultados sugerem fortemente que larvas de L. siriboia são lecitotróficas, tendo reservas suficientes para completar o desenvolvimento larval, enquanto o estágio de megalopa apresenta lecitotrofia facultativa. Os períodos larvais de cada estágio nos tratamentos foram bastante semelhantes. No entanto, foram observadas algumas diferenças significantes entre alguns períodos, os quais podem estar relacionados às condições de cultivo, provavelmente devido a fatores abióticos, à variabilidade individual da condição larval, ou ainda a fatores como estresse causado às fêmeas ovígeras durante embriogênese.

  17. Lecithotrophic behaviour in zoea and megalopa larvae of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder and Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Callianassidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Simith, Darlan J B; Palmeira, Carlos A M; Arruda, Danielle C B

    2008-12-01

    Food supply is considered critical for a successful culturing of decapod larvae. However, some species may present yolk reserve sufficient to complete their larval development without external food supply (known as lecithotrophic larval development). In the present study, two experiments were carried out in order to verify whether the callianassid Lepidophthalmus siriboia have lecithotrophic behaviour or, if they need external food for their larval development: Experiment 1, larvae submitted to an initial feeding period and Experiment 2, larvae submitted to an initial starvation period. High survival rate was observed in both experiments, in which only 2 megalopae and 1 zoea III died. These results strongly suggest that larvae of L. siriboia are lecithotrophic as they have sufficiently large yolk reserve to complete their larval development, while the megalopa stage shows facultative lecithotrophy. The larval periods of each stage of the treatments were quite similar and, despite some significant differences in some larval periods, these can be related probably to larval rearing conditions, abiotic factors or, individual variability of larval health, as well as stress caused to the ovigerous females during embryogenesis.

  18. Lecithotrophic behaviour in zoea and megalopa larvae of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder and Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Callianassidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abrunhosa,Fernando A.; Simith,Darlan J.B.; Palmeira,Carlos A.M.; Arruda,Danielle C.B.

    2008-01-01

    A alimentação é considerada crítica em cultivo de larvas de decápodes. No entanto, algumas espécies podem apresentar reservas nutritivas suficientes para completar o desenvolvimento larval sem a necessidade de alimentação externa (conhecido como desenvolvimento larval lecitotrófico). No presente estudo, dois experimentos foram realizados para verificar se o callianassídeo Lepidophthalmus siriboia tem comportamento lecitotrófico ou se precisa de alimento externo para completar o desenvolviment...

  19. A redescription of Penaeus (Melicertus) Canaliculatus (Olivier, 1811), a wide-ranging Indo-West Pacific Shrimp (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez Farfante, I.

    1976-01-01

    In the original description of Palaemon canaliculatus, from "mer des Indes", Olivier (1811) presented the following observations among other more general ones: carapace with median sulcus extending from near posterior margin to base of rostrum, and two lateral ones beginning at same level as median

  20. Seamount influences on mid-water shrimps (Decapoda) and Gnathophausiids (Lophogastridea) of the South-West Indian ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Letessier, Tom B.; De Grave, Sammy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Kemp, Kirsty M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Rogers, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted under the UNDP/IUCN project, funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The authors thank the School of Biology at the University of St Andrews and the National Environmental Research Council (NERC) for funding toward Tom B Letessier's PhD. Maintenance of often-observed elevated levels of pelagic diversity and biomass on seamounts, that are of relevance to conservation and fishery management, involves complex interactions between physical and biological varia...

  1. Habitat Preferences and Distribution of the Freshwater Shrimps of the Genus Caridina (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae in Lake Lindu, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annawaty Annawaty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to reveal ecological preferences and distribution of all species of Caridina found in Lake Lindu and their catchment area. Specimens from 39 sampling sites were caught using tray net and hand net. There are three species of Caridina found in the lake system, i.e. Caridina linduensis, Caridina kaili and Caridina dali. There is no overlapping distribution among the species. Caridina kaili is a true riverine species and it is never encountered sympatric with C. dali nor C. linduensis. This species is abundant in streams and ditches with moderate flow running water and gravel–cobble substrate. It is mainly spread within streams west to the lake. Both C. dali and C. linduensis can be found in the lake and streams with very slow current to almost stagnant water, muddy sand substrate and associated with roots of water plants and leaf litter. However, C. dali is never occurred together with C. linduensis and they are less abundant compare to C. kaili. Distribution of Caridina spp. in Lake Lindu is probably affected by the temperature of their habitats and the occurrence of introduced fish such as Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and an alien riceland prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri. These introduced and alien species can have the potency to become predators or competitors for the Caridina spp. It is also the first record for M. lanchesteri present in Lake Lindu.

  2. A new species of the ghost shrimp genus Lepidophthalmus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea) from the southwestern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Darryl L

    2015-07-13

    A new species of Lepidophthalmus lacking a ventral median sclerite on the second abdominal somite is described from coastal waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Lepidophthalmus statoni sp. nov., originally recognized only as a unique population in allozyme studies, is sympatric with the ventrally plated species Lepidophthalmus manningi Felder & Staton, 2000, but more closely resembles Lepidophthalmus louisianensis (Schmitt, 1935) from the northern and northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Apparently restricted to intertidal and shallow subtidal tropical waters, the new species is known to range from western Campeche to middle-upper reaches of Veracruz, Mexico. As many members of the genus, it commonly inhabits euryhaline inlets, estuaries, and protected shorelines, including richly organic muddy to clayey sands and sandy muds adjacent to shoreline vegetation. Coloration is documented and discussed as a tool to facilitate field identifications, as are morphological characters.

  3. Life history of the ghost shrimp, Callianassa japonica ortmann (Decapoda: Thalassinidea), on an intertidal sandflat in western Kyushu, Japan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tamaki, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Ikebe, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Taka, M.; Tanaka, M.

    -(1988) Cl 1st O-0989) 2nd O-0989) W 1st O-(1990) III 2nd O-(1990) ??3rd O-(1990) 1200 "E \\ 1000 La m 2 .- 800 .z 7 - 600 % k % 400 1 200 0 0.n0Nln0~r-Gn0~00 -7 -Ned--N &O~Ln~ua~N~NNNcor- __ 1989 1990 1991 Fig. 13. Temporal changes...

  4. Two new species of shrimp of the Indo-West Pacific genus Hamodactylus Holthuis, 1952 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona HORKÁ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new alcyonacean-associated species, Hamodactylus paraqabai sp. nov. from Papua New Guinea and the Great Barrier Reef and H. pseudaqabai sp. nov. from Indonesia and Malaysia, are described and illustrated. To evaluate the status of the new species and their relationship within the genus Hamodactylus Holthuis, 1952, we combined morphology and phylogenetic analyses based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI mitochondrial gene. Both new species are closely related, with their mutual genetic divergence reaching 3-4%. They are further most related to Hamodactylus aqabai Bruce & Svoboda, 1983, originally described from the Red Sea. Both new species are distinguished from all other congeners by the presence of multiple teeth distally on the cutting edges of the fingers of the first pereiopods, and, in the case of H. paraqabai sp. nov., by a full reduction of the fixed finger on the second pereiopod chela. In H. pseudaqabai sp. nov. the finger is greatly reduced to a small but distinct stub, and the telson bears only a single pair of dorsal spines, as in H. aqabai. A key for the identification of all six currently known species is proposed.

  5. Breeding biology of shrimp Parapenaeopsis stylifera (Milne Edwards) (Crustacea: Decapoda) along the Neendakara zone, SW coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sunil, V.; Suryanarayanan, H.

    -West coast of India, F A O Fish Rep, 2 (1968) 285-302. 8 Snedecor G W & Cochran W G, Statistical methods, (Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, Calcutta) 1968, pp. 593. 9 Sukumaran K K & Rajan K N, Studies on the fishery and biology of Parapenaeopsis...

  6. Competitiveness of Indonesian Shrimp Compare with Thailand Shrimp in Export Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Asmara Wati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the water area accounts for 81 percent of the total area, fishery is a major business in Indonesia. As one of the world's largest shrimp exporting countries, Indonesia also relies on the revenues of shrimp exports in the international markets. This research compared the competitiveness of shrimp export from Indonesia and Thailand to Japan and US. The indicator adopted in this research was the RCA index. In this research collected secondary data from 1989 to 2010 for analysis. Results showed RCA values of Indonesia were higher than 1, which indicates advantaged competitiveness of Indonesia shrimp exports in the liberalized markets. Nevertheless, compared with Thailand, Indonesia remained relatively disadvantaged. To reinforce the Indonesian shrimp export, necessary infrastructure, such as networks shipment or delivery, packaging and transportation, must be improved. Further researches to determine the factors affecting competitiveness of export shrimp in liberalized market, make and analyze for the policy strategy formulation of Indonesia shrimp export in liberalized market are also advised.Keywords: Competitiveness; Indonesian Shrimp Export; RCA.

  7. Variation of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (cHH) level in the eyestalk and haemolymph of the shrimp Palaemon elegans following stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzon, Simonetta; Edomi, Paolo; Giulianini, Piero G; Mettulio, Romina; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2004-11-01

    This study investigates (by means of bioassays and ELISA using an antibody against recombinant cHH) the variation of cHH levels in the eyestalks and haemolymph of Palaemon elegans (Decapoda, Caridea) following exposure to various stresses (heavy metals and lipopolysaccharide), and correlates them with the variation in amount and time course of blood glucose. The dose-relationship between exposure to copper and quick release of cHH from the eyestalk into haemolymph was confirmed by variation of blood glucose with a dose-related hyperglycaemia, that peaked 2 h after immersion in contaminated seawater. Animals exposed to a sublethal concentration of mercury showed the same dose relation between toxicant, release of cHH from the eyestalk, increment of circulating hormone level and subsequent hyperglycaemia as observed for copper contamination. It is of note that although the highest lethal mercury concentration induced the release of cHH from the eyestalk into the haemolymph, it was not followed by a significant variation of blood glucose. Step doses of a bacterial contaminant [such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli injected into shrimps] confirmed the dose-relationship and convergent chain of events that bring about hyperglycaemia. These are the first data that relate the release of cHH from the eyestalk, the circulating hormone level and the consequent glycaemic response to stress. Moreover, they confirm the dose-related pathway that leads to variation of blood glucose as a quantitative biomarker of environmental quality, even at sublethal toxicant concentrations.

  8. The complete mitogenome of the hermit crab Clibanarius infraspinatus (Hilgendorf, 1869), (Crustacea; Decapoda; Diogenidae) - a new gene order for the Decapoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the hermit crab Clibanarius infraspinatus was recovered by genome skimming using Next-Gen sequencing. The Clibanarius infraspinatus mitogenome has 16,504 base pairs (67.94% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a putative 1500 bp non-coding AT-rich region. The Clibanarius infraspinatus mitogenome sequence is the first for the family Diogenidae and the second for the superfamily Paguroidea and exhibits a translocation of the ND3 gene not previously reported for the Decapoda.

  9. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  10. 2012 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected economic data on inshore commercial shrimp fishermen who held licenses to commercially harvest shrimp in state waters of the U.S. Gulf of...

  11. Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  12. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-fourths full of water at 70°-80 °F. Suspend the paddle in the container, leaving a clearance of at least 5... to shrimp on balance pan and weigh. (ii) Calculate percent shrimp material: Percent shrimp material... the exact dip time required for “debreading” the composite units in a sample. For these trials only, a...

  13. Adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve eco-friendly and sustainable development of shrimp farming, adoption of improved shrimp farming practices is necessary. An attempt has been made in this study to collect data from shrimp farmers along the south Konkan region of Maharashtra to judge the level of adoption of improved aquaculture practices.

  14. Intestinal bacterial signatures of white feces syndrome in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dongwei; Huang, Zhijian; Zeng, Shenzheng; Liu, Jian; Wei, Dongdong; Deng, Xisha; Weng, Shaoping; Yan, Qingyun; He, Jianguo

    2018-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota is closely correlated with the host's health status. Thus, a serious disturbance that disrupts the stability of the intestinal microecosystem could cause host disease. Shrimps are one of the most important products among fishery trading commodities. However, digestive system diseases, such as white feces syndrome (WFS), frequently occur in shrimp culture and have led to enormous economic losses across the world. The WFS occurrences are unclear. Here, we compared intestinal bacterial communities of WFS shrimp and healthy shrimp. Intestinal bacterial communities of WFS shrimp exhibited less diversity but were more heterogeneous than those of healthy shrimp. The intestinal bacterial communities were significantly different between WFS shrimp and healthy shrimp; compared with healthy shrimp, in WFS shrimp, Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Phascolarctobacterium were overrepresented, whereas Paracoccus and Lactococcus were underrepresented. PICRUSt functional predictions indicated that the relative abundances of genes involved in energy metabolism and genetic information processing were significantly greater in WFS shrimp. Collectively, we found that the composition and predicted functions of the intestinal bacterial community were markedly shifted by WFS. Significant increases in Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Phascolarctobacterium and decreases in Paracoccus and Lactococcus may contribute to WFS in shrimp.

  15. Gamma Irradiation for the Inhibition of Shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) Allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jae-Hun; Lee Ju-Woon

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation technology was conducted to reduce shrimp allergy. The experiment was designated in 3 portions as follows; A, the irradiation of raw shrimp; B the irradiation of shrimp and then cooking; and C, cooking the shrimp and then irradiation. Gamma irradiation was done with doses of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 kGy. A shrimp sarcoplasmic protein solution (SSPS) and a myofibrillar protein solution (SMPS) were prepared from A portion. Cooked shrimp protein solutions were also prepared from B and C portions. The binding abilities of the shrimp allergic patients' IgE and mouse monoclonal Ab 4.9.5 (mAb 4.9.5), produced to the shrimp heat-stable protein, to each sample solution were determined by ELISA. Binding abilities of patients' IgE and mAb 4.9.5 to irradiated shrimp fractions were dose-dependently reduced. The cooking treatment after irradiation was more effective than the irradiation treatment after cooking in the reduction of the binding abilities of IgE and IgG. SDS-PAGE was performed to compare irradiated shrimp proteins with non-irradiated shrimp proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that no bands were changed by gamma irradiation. The results indicated that food irradiation with an adequate dose can be reduce allergenicity of shrimp

  16. Structure and interactions of calcite spherulites with {alpha}-chitin in the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior C.U. Apdo., Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Physikalisches Institut and Center for Nanotechnology, Universitaet Muenster, Gievenbecker Weg 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Aguilar-Franco, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Depto de Fisicoquimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Apartado Postal 20-364 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Magana, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Depto de Estado Solido, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Apartado Postal 20-364 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Flores, C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Depto de Estado Solido, Laboratorio de Biomateriales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior C.U. S/N CP 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Pina, C. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Depto de Estado Solido, Laboratorio de Biomateriales, UNAM, Circuito Exterior C.U. S/N CP 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Velazquez, R. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Km. 15 Carretera Queretaro-San Luis Potosi, C.P. 76230, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Schaeffer, T.E. [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Nanotechnology, Universitaet Muenster, Gievenbecker Weg 11, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bucio, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Depto de Estado Solido, UNAM, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria Apartado Postal 20-364 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Basiuk, V.A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica de Radiaciones y Radioquimica, UNAM, Circuito Exterior C.U. Apdo., Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    White spots form in the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus, Decapoda) shell during frozen storage. The mineral formed consists of calcite incorporated into an amorphous {alpha}-chitin matrix. We studied mechanisms of interaction of amorphous {alpha}-chitin macromolecules with hkl crystal planes to form highly ordered structures, as well as the role of specific sites in the biopolymer, which can be related to nucleation and spheroidal crystal growth. We used low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and molecular mechanics modeling (MM+ method). AFM images showed fingerprint distances in the biopolymer and a highly layered structure in the crystalline material. The presence of {alpha}-chitin, with a specific spatial distribution of radicals, is thought to be responsible for nucleation and to thermodynamically stabilize ions to form the spherulite crystalline phase, which are usually oval to spherical (0.10 to 200 {mu}m in diameter). Our models of crystal-biopolymer interaction found high affinity of CO{sub 3} {sup 2-} anions in the (104) crystalline plane (the main plane in calcite monocrystals) to NH- groups of the biopolymer, as well as of the C=O in the biopolymer to Ca{sup 2+} cations in the crystalline structure. These interactions explain the spherical growth and inhibition in some planes. The specific physicochemical interactions (docking of groups depending on their geometrical distribution) suggest that the biomineral structure is controlled by the biopolymer on a local scale. This information is useful for further design and improvement of (hybrid) materials for versatile application, from nanotechnology to biomedicine and engineering.

  17. Structure and interactions of calcite spherulites with α-chitin in the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, A.; Aguilar-Franco, M.; Magana, C.; Flores, C.; Pina, C.; Velazquez, R.; Schaeffer, T.E.; Bucio, L.; Basiuk, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    White spots form in the brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus, Decapoda) shell during frozen storage. The mineral formed consists of calcite incorporated into an amorphous α-chitin matrix. We studied mechanisms of interaction of amorphous α-chitin macromolecules with hkl crystal planes to form highly ordered structures, as well as the role of specific sites in the biopolymer, which can be related to nucleation and spheroidal crystal growth. We used low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and molecular mechanics modeling (MM+ method). AFM images showed fingerprint distances in the biopolymer and a highly layered structure in the crystalline material. The presence of α-chitin, with a specific spatial distribution of radicals, is thought to be responsible for nucleation and to thermodynamically stabilize ions to form the spherulite crystalline phase, which are usually oval to spherical (0.10 to 200 μm in diameter). Our models of crystal-biopolymer interaction found high affinity of CO 3 2- anions in the (104) crystalline plane (the main plane in calcite monocrystals) to NH- groups of the biopolymer, as well as of the C=O in the biopolymer to Ca 2+ cations in the crystalline structure. These interactions explain the spherical growth and inhibition in some planes. The specific physicochemical interactions (docking of groups depending on their geometrical distribution) suggest that the biomineral structure is controlled by the biopolymer on a local scale. This information is useful for further design and improvement of (hybrid) materials for versatile application, from nanotechnology to biomedicine and engineering

  18. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Myat Thaw; Oo Aung; Aung Myint; Bisswanger, Hans

    2004-06-01

    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  19. Efecto tóxico de DDT y endosulfan en postlarvas de camarón blanco, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda:Penaeidaede Chiapas,México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Castro-Castro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de conocer la toxicidad del DDT y endosulfan sobre postlarvas de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannaei, se realizaron pruebas de toxicidad aguda en condiciones de laboratorio por 168 h, con temperatura de 29 ± 1 °C, salinidad de 3 ± 1 ‰ y pH en 8 ± 1.Se calculó la concentración letal media (LC50 , la LC50 "incipiente", los tiempos medios de muerte (LT50 , la Máxima Concentración Aceptable del Tóxico (MACT y el "Nivel de Seguridad" (LS; así mismo, en los organismos sobrevivientes se determinó la concentración a la que el crecimiento de los organismos se reduce en un 5 y 50% (CE5 y CE50 . Se evaluaron además las alteraciones en el consumo de oxígeno. El DDT fue 3 veces más tóxico que el endosulfan; sin embargo, los organismos resultaron ser muy sensibles a ambos compuestos. La tasa de crecimiento de las postlarvas disminuyó en un 80 y 50% para el DDT y endosulfan respectivamente. La baja resistencia de las postlarvas al DDT y endosulfan, y las concentraciones de estos compuestos en la laguna, sugieren que si se diera un ingreso adicional de estos plaguicidas al sistema, es muy probable un potencial impacto en la producción de camarón del sistemaToxic efect of DDT and endosulfan in white shrimp postlarvae Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae from Chiapas, Mexico .We analized acute toxicity in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae exposed to two chlorinated pesticides, DDT and endosulfan, under laboratory conditions during 168 hours, with controlled temperature (29 ± 1°C, salinity (3 ± 1 ‰ and pH (8 ± 1. Median lethal concentrations (LC50 , "incipient" LC50, median lethal time (LT50 the "maximum acceptable concentration of the toxic compound" (MACT and "the safety level" (SL were determined. The concentration of the compounds at which organism growth was reduced by 5 and 50% (EC5 and EC50 , as well as changes in oxygen consumption patterns were determined in the surviving postlarvae.They were very

  20. Enzyme-assisted peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Tem Thi; Gringer, Nina; Jessen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    L and 0.25% Exocut-A0 for 20 h resulted in the best peeling of shrimps (100% completely peeled shrimps, 3 mJ/g work and 89% meat yield). Reuse of the enzyme solution was possible due to a 95% retention rate of proteolytic activity after two 20-h cycles of maturation. The studied enzymatic maturation......An enzymatic method to facilitate the peeling of cold water shrimps (Pandalus borealis) was developed. The protease solutions were used to mature the shrimps to promote shell-loosening prior to peeling. The efficiency of peeling enzyme-treated shrimps was evaluated by a new quantitative measurement...... based on the tensile force, presented as a peelability profile. It was found that enzymatic maturation efficiently improved the peelability of shrimps. The factors affecting the peelability of the enzyme-matured shrimps were the type of enzyme, enzyme concentration and maturation duration, while changes...

  1. Improvement in Shrimp Hatchery Procedures for Toxicity Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizah Marsiddi; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Anee Suryani Sued

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity testing of brine shrimp Artemia salina Brine shrimp lethality assay is a screening test to determine half the dose mortality (LC50) for its shrimp given certain herbal extract at a concentration tested. The shrimp child mortality half a dose indicator to determine level of toxicity before further testing done on animal cell culture and animal experiments also on the mouse. The use of new hardware, namely Artemio 1 has increased its shrimp production at a rate that more and faster than the use of the black box hatching previously taken from the method by Solis, 1993. brine shrimp eggs from Artemio mix also easier to use because it contains egg and sea salt have been ready mixed for use in experiments. In conclusion, this method improvements help increase the number of offspring produced shrimp and produce experimental method easier than previous methods. (author)

  2. Fecundidade em Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 do Rio Ribeira de Iguape (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cotroni Valenti

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fecundity in Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 of the Ribeira de Iguape river (Southern Brazil (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, is presented. The mean individual fecundity of the population was estimated. Fecundity was related to either length and/or weight. Our data showed that this species presents high fecundity and is thus suitable for comercial culture. The fecundity/length and fecundity/weight relationships obtained are: F = - 14 712 + 2 311,8 L and F = -1493,9 + 798,76 W

  3. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  4. Neoliberalism and shrimp industry in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Romero Salgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the effects of the shrimp industry development in the mangrove ecosystem, the socio-environmental conflicts generated and its relationship with neoliberalism and the financial crisis of 1999 in Ecuador. After a review of the importance of the mangrove ecosystem, the stages of the shrimp expansion, its promoters, the mangrove deforestation and the socio-environmental effects caused, I will analyze the shrimp crisis, its parallels with the financial crisis of 1999 and its subsequent recovery. I will show that the shrimp industry expanded in mangrove areas in order to reduce costs, even breaking the law and creating environmental degradation, vulnerability of the costs and loss of natural resources, based on the exploitation and privatization of a public good. This created unemployment, migration and impoverishment to local populations and costs that the State will have to assume. Therefore, it is a process of “accumulation by dispossession” characteristic of neoliberalism.

  5. Quantal Response Of Freshwater Shrimp ( Desmocaris trispinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quantal-response of freshwater shrimp (Desmocaris trispinosa) to the toxicity of five azo dyes was studied. Generally, increase in percentage mortality of the organisms was obtained with increases in concentration of the toxicants and exposure time. The median lethal concentration50 (LC50) and median lethal ...

  6. Is the Dutch shrimp fishery sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, H.C.; Daan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The fishery of the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon LINNEAUS 1758) is a widespread human activity in the coastal zone. Yet management of this fishery has never been implemented. The question is raised whether an uncontrolled fishery is sustainable or the conceivable ecological stress results in

  7. Ecological distribution of the shrimp Nematopalaemon schmitti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between the spatial and temporal variations in the abundance of the shrimp Nematopalaemon schmitti and water temperature, salinity, and texture and organic-matter content of the sediment, were analysed in Ubatumirim, Ubatuba and Mar Virado bays on the northern coast of São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling ...

  8. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Sidik

    Full Text Available The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂ efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  9. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  10. Spoilage evaluation, shelf-life prediction, and potential spoilage organisms of tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus notialis) at different storage temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the freshness of shrimp is a concern to shrimp stakeholders. To improve shrimp quality management, it is of importance to evaluate shrimp spoilage characteristics. Therefore, microbiological, sensory, and chemical changes of naturally contaminated tropical brackish water shrimp (Penaeus

  11. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  12. 78 FR 50389 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY: Import Administration... warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Ecuador. For information on the estimated subsidy rates, see the... covers seven government programs. The respondents in this investigation are the Government of Ecuador...

  13. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  14. The impact of shrimp farming on mangrove ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Elizabeth Clare

    2008-01-01

    . Policy to position shrimp farms behind mangroves can be effective but also requires good institutional capacity and coordination, effective enforcement, incentives, land tenure and participation of all stakeholders for success. Better management practices have been identified which reduce impacts......Farmed shrimp production and value continue to increase with Asia producing the global majority of shrimp and the USA, Japan and Europe being the main importers. Shrimp farming systems are very diverse in their management, size and impacts. There are many causes for mangrove loss but the conversion...... of mangroves to shrimp farms has caused considerable attention. The major issues of shrimp farming include the loss of important ecological and socio-economic functions of mangrove ecosystems, changes in hydrology, salinization, introduction of non-native species and diseases, pollution from effluents...

  15. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez; Gerardo Rodríguez-Quiroz; Héctor Manuel Esparza Leal; Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1) and 20% (APL2) worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six we...

  16. A review of the chemical aspects of irradiated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.

    1989-09-01

    The literature was reviewed for information on the chemical aspects of irradiated shrimp. Low-dose irradiation can effectively control spoilage and pathogenic organisms and extend the refrigerated shelf life of shrimp. Radiation-induced increases in black discoloration occur in some species during storage, but can be minimized by proper blanching. Some loss of the characteristic pink color occurs at doses above 2.5 kGy, and irradiation off-odors occur above 1.5 kGy. These changes can be minimized by irradiating the shrimp when they are frozen. No significant change in protein, fat, carbohydrate, and ash content occurs as a result of low-dose irradiation. Low-dose irradiation does not produce any detectable change in the levels of volatile carbonyl compounds; irradiation at 8 kGy results in a transient increase in the total volatile compounds during subsequent storage in ice, but the increase is higher in the unirradiated shrimp. Radiation-induced changes in the fatty acid composition of shrimp are small. Some minor changes in the amino acid composition occur in irradiated shrimp; similar changes occur due to other processes such as canning and drying in hot air. Some vitamins in shrimp such as thiamine are affected by irradiation. But the loss is less extensive than in thermally processed shrimp. The protein efficiency ratio is not affected by irradiation of shrimp, and no adverse effects attributed to irradiation were found in animal feeding studies

  17. Fatty acids, cholesterol, oxidative rancidity, and color of irradiated shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves Abreu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 4, and 6 kGy doses applied to frozen and packed headed shrimp on the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, and lipid and color stability was evaluated. Myristic acid was higher in shrimp irradiated with 4 and 6 kGy and palmitic acid was higher in samples irradiated with 2 and 6 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. Stearic and behenic acids were lower in shrimp irradiated with 6 kGy compared to non-irradiated shrimp. With regard to non-irradiated shrimp, palmitoleic, oleic, and linoleic acids and total monounsaturated fatty acids were higher in shrimp irradiated with 6 kGy. Saturated fatty acid and cholesterol contents in irradiated samples were not different from those in non-irradiated shrimp. Lipid oxidation was higher in samples irradiated with 2, 4, and 6 kGy. Redness and yellowness of cooked shrimp were higher in samples irradiated with 6 kGy than in those in non-irradiated samples. The application of irradiation in doses up to 6 kGy on frozen and packed headed shrimp does not affect negatively the fatty acid profile, cholesterol content, and lipid and color stability.

  18. Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

  19. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  20. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  1. First record of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) from south of Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters.

  2. Comparative study of cadmium and lead accumulations in Cambarus bartoni (Fab. ) (Decapoda, Crustacea) from an acidic and a neutral lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, S.; Alikhan, M.A. (Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to compare concentrations of lead and cadmium in the sediment and water, as well as in the crayfish, Cambarus Bartoni (Fab.) (Decapoda - Crustacea) trapped from an acidic and a neutral lake in the Sudbury district of Northeastern Ontario. Hepatopancreatic, alimentary canal, tail muscles and exoskeletal concentrations in the crayfish are also examined to determine specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  3. A new species of portunid crab of the genus Charybdis (De Haan, 1833) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    within the sub-family Thalamitinae Paulson, 1875, with 63 species (Thalamita Latreille, 1829 comprises 89 species) (Ng et al., 2008) distributed among four sub-genera (Charybdis De Haan, 1833; Goniohellenus Alcock, 1899; Gonioneptunus Ortmann, 1893.... Biol. Res., vol.6(6); 2010; 579-590 A new species of portunid crab of the genus Charybdis (De Haan, 1833) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Goa, India. VINAY P. PADATE Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Goa 403 206, India...

  4. Crecimiento y reproducción del camarón Atya margaritacea (Decapoda: Atyidae en el Río Presidio, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Palacios

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron el crecimiento y reproducción de de Atya margaritacea, con base en 542 organismos capturados en cinco sitios distribuidos desde la parte media de la cuenca hasta la desembocadura del río Presidio (Sinaloa, NW de México. La recolecta se realizó mediante el empleo de una red Surber, recolectándose organismos cuya longitud total y peso total variaron de 15 a 96 mm y 0.1 a 25.2 g respectivamente. La proporción macho:hembra fue 1.96:1 y los machos alcanzaron las mayores tallas y pesos. La relación entre la longitud total (Lt y el peso total (Pt se estableció mediante el modelo Pt = 1.02x10-5 (Lt3.2089 para los machos y por Pt = 2.29x10-5 (Lt3.0159 para las hembras. El crecimiento en machos resultó alométricamente positivo mientras que en hembras fue isométrico. La regresión entre la longitud total y longitud cefalotórax (Lc fue Log Lc = 1.1118 (Log Lt- 0.6087 en machos y Log Lc = 0.9945 (Log Lt- 0.4321 en hembras. El crecimiento relativo entre estas partes del cuerpo resultó alométrico positivo en machos e isométrico en hembras, indicando un claro dimorfismo sexual de estos organismos. Hembras ovígeras se presentaron en la época de lluvias (julio a noviembre. La fecundidad absoluta varió de 1 860 a 22 400 huevos en hembras de 43 y 59 mm de longitud y de 1.9 a 6.0 g de peso. La ecuación que relacionó el número de huevos con la longitud y peso, fue Fec = 8.3x10-7 (Lt5.8053 y Fec = 732 (Pt1.836 respectivamente.Growth and reproduction of the shrimp Atya margaritacea (Decapoda: Atyidae in Río Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico. Some growth and reproduction parameters of the population of the shrimp Atya margaritacea in Presidio River (Sinaloa, NW Mexico were studied using 542 organisms collected with a Surber net in five sampling locations distributed from mid- to low river. Total lengths and gross weights ranged from 15 to 96 mm and 0.1 to 25.2 g. The male:female ratio was 1.96:1 and males had larger sizes and weights. The

  5. Coeficientes de utilización digestiva aparente de materia seca, proteína y aminoácidos esenciales de ingredientes terrestres para el camarón del Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Terrazas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aminoácidos esenciales y su disponibilidad son importantes en la formulación de alimentos. La digestibilidad de materia seca (DAMS, proteína (DAP y aminoácidos esenciales (DAAA fueron determinados (triplicado para el camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, usando una dieta de referencia con 30% (de cada ingrediente. Los ingredientes evaluados fueron: caseína (CAS, harinas de subproductos avícolas (HSPA y porcícolas (HSPP, gluten de maíz (GLM y trigo (GLT, pasta de soya (PS, harinas de sorgo (HS y trigo (HT. La DAMS y DAP variaron entre 68%-109% y 70%-103%, respectivamente. La DAP en CAS, PS, HT y GLT fue mayor al 90%, en GLM y HSPA superior a 80%; HSPP (76% y HS (70% tuvieron menor digestibilidad. Hubo concordancia entre DAP y DAAA, excepto para Arg en GLM, Fen y Leu en HS, Fen en PS y Lis en HT y HSPA. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la DAMS, DAP y DAAA en los ingredientes, lo que debe ser tomado en cuenta al formular alimentos para camarón.Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae. Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean

  6. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  7. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  8. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  9. Lunar Cycles, Catchability of Penaeid Shrimps and Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lunar Cycles, Catchability of Penaeid Shrimps and Implications for the Management of the Shrimp Fishery on Sofala Bank in Mozambique. ... However, profitability of the fishing companies would improve by 3% and 7%, respectively, as a result of more efficient trawling. Keywords: Penaeidae, fishing effort, lunar phases, ...

  10. Market integration of cold and warmwater shrimp in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Ståhl, Lisa; Nielsen, Max

    2017-01-01

    This study examines market integration between the cold and warmwater shrimp value chain in the UK, Denmark, Italy, Sweden, and Norway using cointegration methods. For all countries, market integration exists between cold and warmwater unprocessed shrimp imports, where the law of one price (LOP) ...

  11. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  12. When and How to Worry about OA: Greenland Shrimp Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We use a bio-economic model of the Greenland shrimp fishery to study potential ocean acidification (OA) impacts in arctic resources. Predicted changes in pH in Baffin Bay describe an anticipated though uncertain drop. Efforts to understand changes in shrimp quantity/ quality from OA reflect...

  13. Defensive enrolment in mantis shrimp larvae (Malacostraca: Stomatopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haug, C.; Haug, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon

  14. Carriage of vibrio species by shrimps harvested from the coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp in unprocessed shrimps and their susceptibility to antibiotics. Design: A prospective study of Vibrio spp associated with shrimps harvested from the coastal waters of South West Cameroon. Setting: A laboratory based study at the Department of Life Sciences, University ...

  15. Population structure and recruitment of penaeid shrimps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study characterizes the population structure and identifies nursery areas and recruitment seasons of penaeid shrimps in the Pungué river estuary of Mozambique. Shrimp samples were obtained from 12 trawl stations at monthly intervals during 2004. Six species were found, two of which (Fenneropenaeus indicus and ...

  16. Mouse model in food allergy: dynamic determination of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food allergy is now an important health issue, and there is urgent need for a developmental approach to identify allergenic potential of food. We present an approach that shows some promise for assessment of shrimp allergenicity using BALB/c strain mice. The mice were immunized by intraperitoneal injection of shrimp ...

  17. The rediscovery of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium crenulatum in Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunte, Waine

    1979-01-01

    A record of the freshwater shrimps of Jamaica has been provided by Hart (1961b). His study includes taxonomical comments and notes on the locations at which the various species were caught. Since then Holthuis (1963a) has described a new subterranean freshwater shrimp, Troglocubanus jamaicensis,

  18. Population dynamics of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population dynamics, including the sex ratio, reproductive period, individual growth and longevity, and population structure of the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, are described. The shrimps were collected monthly from July 2005 to June 2007 at four sites in Ubatuba Bay, Brazil. The salinity, temperature, depth, organic ...

  19. Study on irradiation preservation of frozen shelled shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunquan; Zhu Jiating; Zhao Yongfu; Yu Gang; Zhang Weidong; Jin Yudong; Ji Ping

    2004-01-01

    The effect of irradiaiton preservation of frozen shelled shrimps for export was studied. The microbial indexd, nutritional ingredient, physico-chemical index for irradiation frozen shelled shrimps were detected. The results showed that 3-5 kGy irradiation dose could kill more than 99% of all kinds of microorganisms in frozen shelled shrimps, the content of most amino acids in shelled shrimps increased, after being irradiated by 1-9 kGy dose, the total amino acids had been obvisouly higher than CK, the increased range was 0.33%-24.6%, the content of the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) decreased. Compared with the CK, the content of the heavy metal elements etc had no obvious change, the presrvation duration of irradiated shelled shrimp was twelve months longer than that of CK when storage temperature was under -7 degree C soft frozen, Compared with -18 degree C the effect of irradiation preservation had no obvious change. (authors)

  20. A Bioeconomic model of ocean acidification in the Baffin Bay/ Davis Strait Shrimp Fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    We examine the case of the shrimp fishery in Baffin Bay/Davis Straight for potential effects of Ocean Acidification (OA), including: 1. the overall productivity of the shrimp fishery, 2. the spatial spread of the shrimp fishery, 3. the quality of the shrimp brought to market, and hence price...

  1. 77 FR 13082 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... broken shrimp in the home market made in the ordinary course of trade to compare to U.S. sales, we..., we disregarded TRF's home market sales of broken shrimp for purposes of product comparisons. Export... to 19 CFR 351.414(e)(2), we compared U.S. sales of shrimp to sales of shrimp made in the home market...

  2. 76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... NME country may lead the Department to determine that collapsing is either warranted or unwarranted...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp...-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent...

  3. 77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp...-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent... unique to the relationship of business entities within the NME country may lead the Department to...

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the subarctic red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Decapoda, Anomura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghee; Choi, Han-Gu; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik

    2013-08-01

    We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Decapoda, Anomura). P. camtschaticus is one of the largest arthropods and the most expensive commercially available gourmet seafood. The genome sequence of P. camtschaticus is 16,720 bp in size and its gene content, gene order, and transcriptional polarity are almost identical to those of the hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus, which is thought to be derived from a common ancestor. However, P. camtschaticus mtDNA showed tRNA translocation in two blocks compared to that of P. longicarpus. Prior to this study, complete mt genomes of only two species of Anomura have been reported. Thus, our genomic data will provide additional information for constructing the decapod phylogeny.

  5. Zoeal stages of Labidochirus anomalus (Balss, 1913) (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) obtained under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Elena S; Korn, Olga M

    2015-10-08

    Zoeal stages of the hermit crab Labidochirus anomalus (Balss, 1913) (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) are described and illustrated from the larvae reared in the laboratory. The development included four zoeal stages following the typical pattern in the Paguridae. Morphological features of the larvae of L. anomalus are compared with those described for the related species L. splendescens (Owen, 1839). The larvae of both species share numerous zoeal characters and are similar as the species of one genus. At the same time, zoeae of L. anomalus have no dorsal carina on the carapace and long posterolateral carapace spines-key features of the larvae of L. splendescens. These zoeal characters considered as generic are not characteristic of only the genus Labidochirus but sporadically occur among Pagurus species. Main characters of zoeal stages allow assignment of both Labidochirus species to the Group A of Pagurus (the typical representative P. bernhardus).

  6. Towards a sustainable human use of freshwater crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherardi F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available To face the severe loss in biodiversity recorded in freshwater crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacidea, there is an increasing awareness that the CBD’s concept of the sustainable use of natural resources should be applied also to this large assemblage of species. This review paper will synthesize the several uses we make or have made of crayfish with the purpose of pinpointing where sustainability is desirable and feasible. Uses are here classified as direct (i.e. consumption and production and indirect. The latter uses refer to the recreational, cultural, ethical, aesthetic, scientific and education values of crayfish. An additional indirect use regards the environmental key role this taxon plays. Several examples, mostly related to Europe, will be provided to illustrate the importance of crayfish to human societies, culture and history. The potential of assigning a non-use value to them will be finally discussed.

  7. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon in Intensive Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Tarsim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield affected by addition of this species. Final  affected by white legged shrimp addition. No adding effects were found on the water quality parameters. The results indicate that, at densities tested, white legged shrimp addition to the intensive farming of tiger shrimp polyculture is viable as species increase crop production Key words: Penaeus vannamei, P. monodon, growth, survival, polyculture

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PRODUCED BY SHRIMP PRODUCTION IN NORTHERN SINALOA, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Abelardo González-Ocampo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp production in México has provided a rapid growth in the last 20 years. In Sinaloa shrimp culture presented an accelerated rise from 1984 to 1996; the production averaged was 16,000 tons since 1998 to 2002. This development has been caused negative effects on the environment, such as reduction of natural areas caused the pond construction and significant contributions of organic matter. However, economic benefits have also occurred in local and regional scale. In Sinaloa is shrimp culture faced growth could generate negative environmental effects present in this paper.

  9. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ f...

  10. Interaction between Penaeid Shrimp and Fish Populations in the Gulf of Mexico: Importance of Shrimp as Forage Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masami; Zhou, Can; Acres, Chelsea; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of shrimp stocks in supporting the production of valuable predator species. Fishery-independent data on white shrimp, brown shrimp, and selected fish species (spotted seatrout, red drum, and southern flounder) were collected from 1986 to 2014 by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and converted to catch-per-unit effort (CPUE). Here, the associations between the CPUEs of fish species as predators and those of shrimp species as prey in each sampled bay and sampling season were analyzed using co-integration analysis and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Co-integration analysis revealed significant associations between 31 of 70 possible fish/shrimp pairings. The analysis also revealed discernible seasonal and spatial patterns. White shrimp in August and brown shrimp in May were associated with fish CPUEs in bays located along the lower coast of Texas, whereas white shrimp in November was more strongly associated with fish CPUEs in bays located on the upper coast. This suggests the possible influence of latitudinal environmental gradient. The results of the PLSR, on the other hand, were not conclusive. This may reflect the high statistical error rates inherent to the analysis of short non-stationary time series. Co-integration is a robust method when analyzing non-stationary time series, and a majority of time series in this study was non-stationary. Based on our co-integration results, we conclude that the CPUE data show significant associations between shrimp abundance and the three predator fish species in the tested regions.

  11. Development of shrimp in small ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Adolfo Ortega Salas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in small ponds ( 6 m3 in fresh water (2-3‰ and seawater; ponds 3.66 x 1.65 x 1.0 m; availability of fresh water, sea water, aeration and drainage. Two cycles of three months each were made. The postlarvae were acclimated to seawater fresh water in four days. Four hundred postlarvas/m3 were seeded in freshwater pond and 500 in the pool of seawater. First, a culture of Daphnia magna in the freshwater pond, also appeared chyronomid larvae; Artemia cysts were seeded in sea water as a dietary supplement. The shrimp were fed Camaronina (25% protein at libitum, daily; is offered on a tray of food; the temperature ranged between 27 and 30° C, oxygen 4.26 ± 1.43 mg / L , pH between 7 and 8 . Detritus siphoned every third day. Water changes between 10 and 20% are often performed. The feed conversion rate (FCR was 1:1.3 . The shrimp were measured in length and weight to calculate weekly growth by Bertalanffy model. Survival in the first cycle was 95.8 , and 97.9% for the second cycle. In seawater parameters of the population of the first cycle were k = 0.0301, L ∞ = 322.16 and t0 = -0.8852, the second cycle of k = 0.0203, L ∞ = 294.42 and t0 = -5.3771. The biomass of 27 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. Freshwater population parameters of the first cycle were k = 0.0957, L ∞ = 146.98 and t0 = - 0.93; in the second cycle of k = 0.0172 , L ∞ = 367.82 and t0 = - 4.60. The biomass of 26 kg was obtained for the first cycle and 16 kg for the second cycle. The results indicate a rapid growth during the first 10 weeks. In small ponds can be handled well aseptic conditions without disease problems, good crop was obtained.

  12. Physicochemical changes in minimal ozone-treated fresh shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh shrimp were evaluated tandem with microbiological efficacy of treatment during iced storage of up to 10 days. Safely discharged from commercially available domestic-type ozone facility, a previously defined minimal ozone treatment ...

  13. Sustainable shrimp farming in India - Prospects and challenges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Shrimp farming has grown into a multi-crore industry in India. It has vast potential for further expansion. However, this growing industry needs to develop appropriate indigenous technologies in specific areas to make it a sustainable and profitable...

  14. 2008 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected data on the economic performance of active commercial shrimp harvesters who primarily operated in inshore waters of western Florida,...

  15. Forecasting of Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Harvests (NCEI Accession 0157225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information important to annual forecasting of the shrimp catch from the western Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-13 to 2016-06-20

  16. Les Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda) des Herbiers de Phanérogames Marines de Nouvelle-Caledonie (Région de Nouméa) (Systématiquee, écologie, variations Nycthémèrales et vicariance)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledoyer, M.

    1984-01-01

    This study deals with Caridean fauna living between the leaves of New-Caledonian seagrassmeadows (Cymodocea sp. principally) from zero to about eight meters and sampled during day and night. Twenty species (all figured) were caught (excluding Alpheidae). All are known. Nevertheless, in some cases,

  17. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good indication of reduction of these pathogens because of the wide natural color variation.

  18. Experimental contamination of pink shrimps by caesium 137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancellin, J.; Michon, G.; Vilquin, A.

    1965-01-01

    The authors describe first of all the technique used for the determination of cesium 137 concentration factors in the pink shrimp (Leander Serratus Pennant). Experiments over three months have shown that the specific activity of the shrimps becomes stable between the thirtieth and the fortieth day. The concentration factors then have values between 30 and 40. These results are similar to those obtained by other authors. (authors) [fr

  19. Job satisfaction in the shrimp trawl fisheries of Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bavinck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N = 137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However...

  20. Integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation: Potential for blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nesar; Thompson, Shirley; Glaser, Marion

    2018-05-01

    Globally, shrimp farming has had devastating effects on mangrove forests. However, mangroves are the most carbon-rich forests, with blue carbon (i.e., carbon in coastal and marine ecosystems) emissions seriously augmented due to devastating effects on mangrove forests. Nevertheless, integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation has emerged as a part of the potential solution to blue carbon emissions. Integrated mangrove-shrimp farming is also known as organic aquaculture if deforested mangrove area does not exceed 50% of the total farm area. Mangrove destruction is not permitted in organic aquaculture and the former mangrove area in parts of the shrimp farm shall be reforested to at least 50% during a period of maximum 5 years according to Naturland organic aquaculture standards. This article reviews integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation that can help to sequester blue carbon through mangrove restoration, which can be an option for climate change mitigation. However, the adoption of integrated mangrove-shrimp cultivation could face several challenges that need to be addressed in order to realize substantial benefits from blue carbon sequestration.

  1. STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE AND COMPETITIVE CLUSTER FOR SHRIMP INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas M. Fauzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kampung Vannamei as shrimp cluster is being developed since 2004 by PT CP Prima, tbk Surabaya through Shrimp Culture Health Management transformation technology to several traditional farmers in Gresik, Lamongan, Tuban, and Madura areas. The research objectives aims to identify and mapping of stakeholder, to analyze interaction of stakeholders, to formulate strategy from internal and external environment factors and to set priority on strategy to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster in the Kampung vannamei. Primary data was collected through stakeholders’ discussion forums, questionnaires, and interviews with relevant actors. Observations to the business unit also performed to determine the production and business conditions, particularly in capturing information about the threat and challenges. While the secondary data is used in policy documents national and local area statistics, and relevant literature. Analyses were performed by using the SRI International cluster pyramid, diamond porter’s analysis, SWOT and Matrix TOWS analysis, and analytical hierarchy process. Analyses were performed by the methods discussed in qualitative and descriptive. There are 7 strategies could be implemented to develop sustainable and competitive shrimp cluster. However, it is recommended to implement the strategy base on priority, which the first priority is strategy to improve linkages between businesses in the upstream and downstream industries into multi stakeholders’ platform in shrimp industry.Keywords: Shrimp, Cluster, Competitiveness, Diamond Porter, SWOT Analysis, AHP

  2. The Caridean Crustacea of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1949-01-01

    The present paper is based mainly on material collected at the Canary Islands during the spring of 1947 by Dr. G. Thorson of Universitetets Zoologiske Museum at Copenhagen and Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. Most of the specimens were collected by

  3. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  4. Stomach content analyses of the threadfin anglerfish Lophiodes spilurus (Lophiiformes: Lophiidae associated with deepwater shrimp fisheries from the central Pacific of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espinoza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of deepwater ecosystems along the Pacific of Central America is extremely limited. We analyzed the diet composition of 200 adult specimens of Lophiodes spilurus ranging in size from 7.8 to 17.8 cm total length (TL. Samples were obtained from deep bottom trawls (depth: 105-238 m along the central Pacific of Costa Rica. We calculated the percentage of number (% N, weight (% W, and occurrence (% O of each food item encountered in the stomachs; based on this information, the Index of Relative Importance (IR was calculated. Moreover, we estimated diet overlap for three different size classes (15.1 cm TL. The results revealed exclusively two groups of benthic prey items: crustaceans (30% and teleost fish (70% in their diet. The most frequent preys were pandalid shrimps Plesionika trispinus (% O = 17 and the fathom mora Physiculus rastrelliger (% O = 12. The greatest diversity and frequency of abundance of food items was observed in intermediate-sized individuals (10.1-15.0 cm TL. Small-sized L. spilurus ( 15.0 cm TL preyed on large-sized stomatopods and teleost fish. There was a clear diet overlap between small and intermediate-sized L. spilurus (p 0.05. Our results suggest that L. spilurus feeds exclusively on crustaceans (Decapoda and Stomatopoda and benthic teleost fish along the Pacific of Costa Rica. While small and large-sized individuals showed a more pronounced selectivity for certain prey items, the high diversity of benthic prey items observed in intermediate-sized specimens suggest a more opportunistic foraging behavior. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1959-1970. Epub 2008 December 12.Nuestro conocimiento de los ecosistemas marinos de profundidad a lo largo de la costa centroamericana es muy limitado. En el presente estudio se analizó la composición alimenticia de 200 especimenes adultos de Lophiodes spilurus que medían entre 7.8 y 17.8 cm longitud total (LT. Las muestras fueron obtenidas de arrastres camaroneros (profundidad: 105

  5. Simulating environmental effects on brown shrimp production in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) are a commercially important fishery species of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Young shrimp settle in estuarine salt marsh...

  6. Economic Data Collection for Gulf of Mexico South Atlantic Shrimp Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Economic Survey of Federal Gulf and Atlantic Shrimp Permit Holders collects data about operating expenses and costs of owning and maintaining shrimp...

  7. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp... shrimp product is also coated with a wet viscous layer containing egg and/or milk, and par-fried. The...

  8. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ..., spices or sauce are included in the scope. In addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp... shrimp product is also coated with a wet viscous layer containing egg and/or milk, and par-fried. The...

  9. Production of giant freshwater prawn postlarvae in penaeid prawn (shrimp) hatchery: An experience

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Chatterji, A.; Sripada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.

    -intensive Penaeid Prawn (shrimp) Aquaculture, funded by the Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi. The hatchery facilities were designed and developed for production of PL of penaeid prawns (shrimp) and for conducting research for improving larval rearing...

  10. Use of slaughter house waste as a feed for shrimps and prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Feeding experiments with some shrimps and fishes (Metapenaeus monoceros, Metapenaeus dobsoni, Sarotherodon mossambicus and Etroplus suratensis) using slaughter house waste as food, showed that the shrimps and arotherodon were able to utilize...

  11. A new species of Mirocaris (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae associated with hydrothermal vents on the Central Indian Ridge, Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Komai

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mirocaris indica, a new species of the caridean family Alvinocarididae, is described based on 17 specimens from hydrothermal vent fields on the Central Indian Ridge near the Rodriguez Triple Junction. The new species closely resembles the only known representative of Mirocaris, the Atlantic species M. fortunata (Martin and Christiansen. Shared major characters include the dorsoventrally flattened, unarmed rostrum, the presence of epipods on the third maxilliped through to the fourth pereopod with corresponding setobranchs on the first to fifth pereopods, and the lack of appendices internae on the third and fourth pleopods. However, the lack of submarginal rows of short to long stiff setae on the external surfaces of the fingers of the first chela distinguishes M. indica from M. fortunata, and may reflect a difference in feeding habit between the two species. Further, M. indica may attain a larger adult size than M. fortunata does.

  12. Occurrence and activity of microorganisms in shrimp waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elzbieta; Donderski, Wojciech; Walczak, Maciej

    2008-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence and respiration activity of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in shrimp shell waste and to evaluate the role of chitinolytic bacteria and fungi in its decomposition. The highest levels of bacteria were found in shrimp heads sections and the lowest in exoskeletons. The level of fungi was much lower, with the highest proportion present in heads sections and the lowest in exoskeletons. Chitinolytic bacteria constituted a small percentage of the total heterotrophic bacteria in fresh shrimp waste, averaging 4% in exoskeletons, 2.4% in all parts, and 2% in heads. No chitinolytic bacteria were detected in stored waste. In contrast, the percentage of chitinolytic fungi in shrimp waste was much higher than that of bacteria. Chitinolytic fungi constituted 25-60% of the total fungi in fresh waste and 15-40% in stored waste. Chitinolytic bacteria isolated from heads sections were characterized by the highest chitinolytic activity, averaging 11.2 nmol of methylumbelliferyl x mg(-1) protein x h(-1), whereas the lowest activity was in strains from exoskeletons, averaging 3.2 nmol of methylumbelliferyl x mg(-1) protein x h(-1). The chitinolytic activity of fungi isolated from all parts waste, head sections, and exoskeletons was similar. The respiration activity of microorganisms in fresh and stored waste was similar. Oxygen consumption activity increased during incubation and approached a saturation value between days 4 and 5. No correlation between the end value of respiratory activity in the analyzed section of shrimp discard after 5 days and the level of bacteria and fungi was observed. The only significant correlation observed was between the respiratory activity of the shrimp and the level of fungi. The respiration activity significantly depended on the analyzed section of shrimp discard (p<0.000).

  13. Effect of Chitin Extraction Processes on Residual Antimicrobials in Shrimp Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Kazuaki; Higashioto, Yoshifumi; Chaweepack, Tidaporn; Ruangpan, Lila

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influences of industrial chitin extraction processes on the residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) in shrimp carapaces and shells. The drugs were orally administered by catheter to the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) and vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The shrimps were sampled at 6-h post-dosing and their carapaces and shells were collected and used as raw material in the chitin extraction. Residua...

  14. Shrimps of the crangonid genus Paracrangon Dana (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the northwestern Pacific: taxonomic review and description of a new species from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Komai

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The northwestern Pacific species of the crangonid genus Paracrangon Dana, 1852 are reviewed. Five species, including one new species, are recognised from the region: P. echinata Dana, 1852 (type species of the genus, P. abei Kubo, 1937, P. furcata Kubo, 1937, P. okutanii Ohé and Takeda, 1986, and P. ostlingos sp. nov. The geographical range of P. okutanii is extended to the northern South China Sea off southwestern Taiwan, representing the first discovery of species of the genus from tropical waters in the western Pacific. These species are diagnosed and illustrated. They are classified into two informal species groups, the P. echinata species group (including P. echinata, P. abei and P. okutanii, and two species from other regions, P. areolata Faxon, 1893 and P. australis Hanamura, Wadley and Taylor, 1999 and the P. furcata species group (P. furcata and P. ostlingos sp. nov.. New findings on the morphology of the genus are presented. The monophyly of Paracrangon is highly corroborated by a number of autapomorphic characters, but its relationship to other crangonid genera remains obscure. A revised key to aid in the identification of the species of Paracrangon is presented.

  15. Does damming of the Colorado River affect the nursery area of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris (Decapoda: Penaeidae in the Upper Gulf of California?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Alberto Aragón-Noriega

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available After damming the Colorado River the freshwater flow was reduced to 1 % of its virgin flow to the Upper Gulf of California (UGC. The ecological effects need to be properly documented. The UGC is the nursery area for Litopenaeus stylirostris, the most profitable fishery in the zone. In order to know the relative abundance of L. stylirostris postlarval stage we conducted a sampled survey every 14 days in 1993, 1994 and 1997, plus an intensive sampling during a complete tide cycle in July 1995 and 1996. We did 10 min trawls each hour during the flood tide. Relative abundance of postlarvae was higher (pEl represamiento del Río Colorado ha ocasionado que el flujo de agua dulce sobre el Alto Golfo de California (AGC se haya reducido hasta el 1 % del flujo original. Se ha documentado el efecto de la reducción de agua dulce sobre las condiciones hidrográficas del AGC, pero las repercusiones ecológicas no se han descrito apropiadamente. El AGC ha sido área de crianza para especies comerciales como el camarón Litopenaeus stylirostris. Se hicieron recolectas de postlarvas de L. stylirostris en el AGC durante cinco años consecutivos. Los muestreos fueron catorcenalmente en los años de 1993, 1994 y 1997 y se realizó una recolecta diaria durante 15 días consecutivos en los años 1995 y 1996. Para ello se arrastró una red de plancton de 505 µ durante 10 min cada hora durante el flujo de marea. La abundancia relativa de las postlarvas de camarón en esta zona viaria considerablemente en años cuando el flujo de agua dulce incrementa. La abundancia es mayor hasta en un 200 % (p < 0.05 cuando existe descarga de agua dulce al AGC.

  16. A new species of the sponge-associated pontoniine shrimp genus Nippontonia Bruce & Bauer, 1997 (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae) from Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Charles H J M

    2013-01-01

    A sponge-associated species of the genus Nippontonia new to science is described from Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia. The only other species in the genus is also known to be a sponge-dweller. The new species can be distinguished from its con- gener by a suite of characters mainly of the anterior appendages.

  17. The contribution of the mud shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Decapoda: Thallassinidea) to sediment metabolism during oxygen deficiency in southern North Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powilleit, Martin; Graf, Gerhard

    1996-12-01

    Long-term experiments with single isolated specimens of C. subterranea (Montagu) in closed systems under anoxic conditions were conducted to measure CO 2 release and heat production as parameters for anaerobic metabolism. For small C. subterranea (48.3 - 97.6 mg dw) the rate of CO 2 release was estimated to be 1.69 to 3.63 μmol CO 2·g dw -1·h -1 and for large specimens (330.9 - 543.0 mg dw) 0.28 to 1.52 μmol CO 2·g dw -1·h -1 during the incubation period of 5 days (6°C). The rate of CO 2 release increased by a factor of up to 2 during the first three days and increased more rapidly later in this incubation period. Direct calorimetry revealed a decrease in the rate of heat production from 0.39 to 0.25 J·g dw -1·h -1 ( i.e. 64% of initial value) during long-term anoxia (110 h). Compared to normoxic values recalculated from literature data our results indicate a decrease in the heat production rate to 33% under prolonged anoxia. For a natural Callianassa population on station 'Schlicksandgrund' in the German Bight the rate of CO 2 release was calculated to be 8.0 μmol·m -2·h -1 under anoxic conditions. ∑CO 2 pore-water profiles on station 'Schlicksandgrund' were used to calculate a CO 2 flux from the sediment to the near-bottom water of 110 μmol CO 2·m -2·h -1 under normoxic and 338 μmol CO 2·m -2·h -1 under hypoxic conditions. The anaerobic metabolic activity of the Callianassa population could account for about 7.3 (oxic conditions) to 2.4% (hypoxic conditions) of the above CO 2 fluxes.

  18. Shrimp quality and safety management along the supply chain in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis focuses on quality and safety management of tropical shrimp (Penaeus spp.) using Benin (West Africa) as an example of a shrimp exporting country. The entire supply chain, from fishing areas (brackish waters) to shrimp processing plants, was investigated. The

  19. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher levels

  20. 77 FR 1053 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... Economy Country Status In every case conducted by the Department involving Vietnam, Vietnam has been... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

  1. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  2. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...-893, A-549-822, A-552-802] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's... certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and... Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (Ecuador Final...

  3. Global and local governance of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Mekong Delta is one of seven ecological regions in Vietnam where aquaculture and shrimp products are internationally traded and the shrimp farmers are firmly embedded in a global system of production and trade. The growth of shrimp aquaculture, in addition to population growth and higher

  4. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  5. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  6. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  7. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  8. IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon THROUGH PROBIOTICS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyaphiani Insan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Brebes District, the North coast of Java. Tiger shrimp farming in Indonesia, particularly in this area faced some problems which caused by improper pond preparation, disease, and low seed quality. Probiotic was applied in pond to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of tiger shrimp in ponds with probiotic applications. Six experimental ponds (each measuring 0.5 ha were selected of which three were probiotic ponds and three were controlled. Tiger shrimp postlarvae (PL-30 were stocked at density of four shrimps/m2. Tiger shrimps were reared for three months. Shrimps were fed by commercial pellet. In the first month, shrimp were fed about 7%-5% of the total biomass; in the second months, 3.5%-3% of the total biomass; and in the third month, 2.5%-2% of the total biomass. The treatments in this study were the application of probiotics with concentration of 3 mg/L that were given every five days and control (without probiotics. The results showed the rearing period was 92 ± 6 days in probiotic ponds and 76 ± 16 days in controlled pond. The shrimp in controlled pond should be harvest earlier caused by the high mortality. The average final weight was 16.2 ± 0.7 g in probiotic pond and 15.6 ± 1.9 g in controlled pond. The survival rate was 64.13 ± 12.63% in probiotic pond and 44.17 ± 14.15% in controlled pond. Production was 208 ± 46 kg/pond/cycle in probiotic pond and 123 ± 6 kg/pond/cycle in controlled pond. The result showed that probiotic plays an important role in maintaining water quality parameters and health management as well as increases the survival of shrimp.

  9. Magnetically tunable oil droplet lens of deep-sea shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaka, M.; Hirota, N.; Oba, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the tunable properties of a bio-lens from a deep-sea shrimp were investigated for the first time using magnetic fields. The skin of the shrimp exhibited a brilliantly colored reflection of incident white light. The light reflecting parts and the oil droplets in the shrimp's skin were observed in a glass slide sample cell using a digital microscope that operated in the bore of two superconducting magnets (maximum strengths of 5 and 13 T). In the ventral skin of the shrimp, which contained many oil droplets, some comparatively large oil droplets (50 to 150 μm in diameter) were present. A distinct response to magnetic fields was found in these large oil droplets. Further, the application of the magnetic fields to the sample cell caused a change in the size of the oil droplets. The phenomena observed in this work indicate that the oil droplets of deep sea shrimp can act as lenses in which the optical focusing can be modified via the application of external magnetic fields. The results of this study will make it possible to fabricate bio-inspired soft optical devices in future.

  10. Current status of viral diseases in Indian shrimp aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, G M; John, K Riji; Rosalind George, M; Prince Jeyaseelan, M J

    The intensification of aquaculture has been unique in showing the overwhelming changes in global food production in the last 100 years. Presently, it is playing a vital role in the economies of several countries. Conversely, it is also to be noted that the progression of aquaculture has been the foundation of anthropogenic alteration of a gigantic hierarchy and hence not astonishingly, it resulted in spread and emergence of an increasing group of new unknown diseases. In India, Penaeus monodon, black tiger shrimp was previously the foremost-cultivated shrimp species. Subsequently in 2008, the American white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has effectively replaced it. The change in dominant species has affected disease concerns in India as well as in world shrimp aquaculture. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most deleterious for both species. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), Monodon baculovirus (MBV) and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) are the other significant infectious agents of P. monodon and L. vannamei. An emerging disease of loose shell syndrome (LSS) was already reported from India during late 1998. A more recent disease of L. vannamei in India is monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS), a component of which seems to be Laem-Singh virus (LSNV). Thus, most of the information in this review relates to new emerging pathogens that threaten the cultivation shrimp industry in India.

  11. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL. Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  12. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B. Luz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100 Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Effects of copper on the physiological responses of the commercial crab Lithodes santolla (Decapoda: Anomura larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Antonio Amin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of copper toxicity on zoea I of Lithodes santolla (Decapoda: Anomura were analysed. The 96-h LC50 was estimated, resulting in 298.5 µg L-1. Groups of larvae were exposed to sublethal concentrations (40, 80 and 160 µg L-1 for 96 h. Oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, O:N atomic ratio, lipid peroxidation (LPO and body water content were measured. Oxygen consumption of treated groups (mean 46.92 ± 8.03 µg-atom O2 h-1 mg-1 did not differ significantly with control. Ammonia excretion decreased by 60% at higher Cu concentration (1.61 ± 0.65 µg-atom N-NH3 h-1 mg-1, leading to a 117% increase in the O:N ratio. LPO values during the exposure time were higher in all treatments than in the controls. The water content was significantly higher in treatments than in controls. The highest concentration assayed, which represents about 50% of 96-h LC50, had evident effects on the parameters analysed. The values of copper in water reported for the coastal zone of Ushuaia bay exceed the value established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA for ambient water quality criteria. Therefore, the results obtained in the present study are a contribution to the study of potential effects of copper as a common stressor in the first larval stage of this commercial species of the Beagle Channel.

  14. Natural Diet of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Itapocoroy Inlet, Penha, SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter groups.Alimentação natural de Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, SC - Brasil. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1995, foram coletados 332 indivíduos de Callinectes ornatus, procedentes da Armação do Itapocoroy (Penha, SC. Foi estudada a alimentação natural da espécie e as variações sazonais da dieta. Os resultados mostram um espectro trófico diversificado, com estratégia alimentar generalista, sendo Algas, Macrófitas, Foraminiferida, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Osteichthyes e matéria orgânica não identificada, os grupos que compõem sua dieta.

  15. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05). The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets. (author) [es

  16. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  17. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  18. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Antonio Baeza

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males.

  19. Identification of burrowing shrimp food sources along an estuarine gradient using fatty acid analysis and stable isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of burrowing shrimps occur in high densities in U.S. West Coast estuaries, the ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) and the blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis). Both species of shrimp are considered ecosystem engineers as they bioturbate and irrigate extensive galleries in the sed...

  20. Detection of irradiation in cuticles of commercial shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, K.; Stachowicz, W.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory for Detection of Irradiated Food has more and more orders for detection of irradiation in shrimps. A method adapted to achieve detection of irradiation in this material is a thermoluminescence measure. However, the procedure is time-consuming - needs several days to receive the result. The aim of presented study was to elaborate the EPR examination of the possible irradiation in this product. As a result od the performed studies it can be concluded, that the EPR measurement of cuticles of shrimps can be adapted as the preliminary, screening test proving the irradiation of shrimp. It has to be stressed, however, that the lack of a specific, hydroxyapatite born EPR signal in the spectrum cannot suggest that sample was not irradiated

  1. Molecular phylogeny of penaeid shrimps inferred from two mitochondrial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloch, Carolina M; Freire, Pablo R; Russo, Claudia A M

    2005-12-30

    Penaeid shrimps are an important resource in crustacean fisheries, representing more than the half of the gross production of shrimp worldwide. In the present study, we used a sample of wide-ranging diversity (41 shrimp species) and two mitochondrial markers (758 bp) to clarify the evolutionary relationships among Penaeidae genera. Three different methodologies of tree reconstruction were employed in the study: maximum likelihood, neighbor joining and Bayesian analysis. Our results suggest that the old Penaeus genus is monophyletic and that the inclusion of the Solenocera genus within the Penaeidae family remains uncertain. With respect to Metapenaeopsis monophyly, species of this genus appeared clustered, but with a nonsignificant bootstrap value. These results elucidate some features of the unclear evolution of Penaeidae and may contribute to the taxonomic characterization of this family.

  2. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  3. Ozone Disinfection of Vibrio vulnificus in Shrimp Pond Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Cahya Julyta Putri, Echa; Wulansarie, Ria; Suryanto, Agus

    2018-03-01

    One variety of shrimp, L.Vanamei, often uses brackish water during the operation in the shrimp pond. Chlorination and ultraviolet are usually used for disinfection of brackish water. However, it is ineffective and forms sediment in the water distribution. It can be a negative impact on the water quality cause a contamination on the shrimp, so the farmers might have loss of profit because Vibrio vulnificus causes infection and dead on the shrimp. It affects the safety of consumers and should be minimized. The purpose of this study is to reduce the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the pond water. The water was put in the storage tanks then pumped to filter out the impurities of the water. Furthermore, the water set the flow rate in 1 LPM, 2 LPM, and 3 LPM. After that, the ozone was injected to the water flow to sterilize the V. vulnificus bacteria. Finally, the water was returned to the original tank. The water from the tank was taken through a valve and analyzed in 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24, 30 minutes. The sample was analyzed immediately using a Total Plate Count method to determine the number of V. vulnificus bacteria in the shrimp pond water. The flow rate shows that the longer time of ozone made a lower amount of Vibrio v. bacteria. In 2 LPM water, it shows the optimum results of V. vulnificus. bacteria reduction for 88.1% compared to the flow rate of 1 LPM and 3 LPM with the bacteria reduction of 68,8% and 70.6%. This study shows that the ozone with a flow rate of 2 LPM circulation is the most effective method to help reducing the number of V. vulnificus in brackish water distribution system in the shrimp environment and potentially as a disinfectant.

  4. PERFORMANCES OF TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE IN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem plays an obvious role in maintaining the biological balance in the coastal environment where shrimp ponds are usually constructed. The removal of mangroves around shrimp ponds has frequently brought about harvest failure. The study evaluated the performance of tiger shrimp culture in ponds provided with water from a water body where there was mangrove vegetation (hereafter mangrove reservoir. Twelve ponds, each measuring 2,500 m2, were filled with seawater from the mangrove reservoir until the water depth of 100 cm and then stocked with 20-40 PL/m2. In the first six ponds, the bottom water was released into the reservoir when the water depth reached 140 cm and then the water depth was maintained at 100 cm. In the second six ponds, the water was released from the ponds until the water depth reached 60 cm and then refilled with reservoir water until a depth of 100 cm. Both treatment ponds received water from the reservoir which also received the wastewater. The feeds for the shrimps were broadcast into the ponds twice a day to meet the 3% shrimp biomass requirement, which adjusted every other week through sampling. The result showed that mangrove  vegetation is capable of removing excessive nutrients, up to 70% for NO3- N and NH4 +-N, reducing PO4 =-P fluctuation, and producing bioactive  compounds. In the second treatment ponds, shrimp mortality started to occur in day 28 and most died by day 54 after stocking due to white spot disease outbreak. Mass mortality took place 54 days after stocking in two out of six of the first treatment ponds.

  5. Analysis of the sulphite content in shrimps and prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are redefined in European legislation (EC Regulation No. 1333/2008. Sulphur dioxide (E220 and sulphite (E221- E228 are widely used in food processing as preservatives because they slow down bacterial growth on foods and prevent oxidation or browning developing on shrimp and lobster. Shellfish processors, farmers and fishermen have long used sulfiting agents in a variety of species of warm and coldwater crustaceans as a treatment to prevent prawns and shrimps melanosis (blackspot, which is a natural process that makes the shell black after harvesting caused by Polyphenoloxidase enzyme systems which remain active during refrigeration or ice storage. Sulfite-induced hypersensitivity is the most well-established adverse response in humans to this food additive. In the present study the presence of sulfites in different frozen and thawed shrimp and prawn species belonging to Penaeoidea superfamily has been evaluated by the Monier-Williams procedure, in order to carry out a risk assessment and evaluate the levels of consumer exposure to this class of additives from these fish products. In addition to assessing and monitoring the correct use of the additive, according to the limits imposed by the European regulations, the correct consumer information on labels was also evaluated. Analysis were performed on both whole shrimp (shell on and inedible parts (head and peeled shell. Sulphites concentration in frozen samples (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 214±17.43 for head on shell on shrimps; 170.73±14.99 for shell on headless shrimps; 112.90±27.55 for peeled and deveined shrimps. Thawed shrimps were purchased at mass retailers channel and local fish markets and local seafood retailers and purveyors: for these samples, all head on shell on, the sulphites concentration (expressed as SO2 mg/kg mean value±S.D. was 160.05±26.15 and 292.54±146.04, respectively. Non-edible parts showed, in all samples, much higher concentrations.

  6. SHRIMP MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN ECUADOR: SOME RESOURCE POLICY ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    During the past 15 years, Ecuador has become the Western Hemisphere's leading producer and exporter of shrimp. Growth has come about largely through mariculture development. About 8,000 metric tons (MT) of shrimp have been captured off the Ecuadorian coast each year since the late 1970s. Meanwhile, pond output has increased several-fold, from less than 5,000 MT in 1979 to over 100,000 MT 12 years later (Table 1). Mariculture has expanded largely at the expense of renewable natural resources. ...

  7. Effect of irradiation on biochemistry properties of shrimp allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Kefei; Gao Meixu; Li Chunhong; Li Shurong; Pan Jiarong

    2007-01-01

    Study on the effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation at the dose of 0,3,5,7,10 kGy on shrimp allergen biochemistry properties was conducted. The results indicated that the allergen protein molecule can be broken down to smaller molecules or coagulated to larger molecules by irradiation. The hydrophobicity and turbidity of irradiated allergen increased with the increase of absorbed dose. The results also show that allergen solution is more sensitive to irradiation than allergen in solid state or in the whole shrimp. (authors)

  8. Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, J.L.W.

    1983-01-01

    White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

  9. Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from the shallow waters from Quintana Roo, Mexican Caribbean coast Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) de las aguas someras de Quintana Roo, Caribe mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro Román-Contreras; Mario Martínez-Mayén

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the palaemonid fauna of the Mexican Caribbean. This study provides a list of shallow water free-living and symbiont shrimps of the family Palaemonidae collected on turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) in Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo and Mahahual reef lagoon, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Ten species in 8 genera are reported, of which the genus Periclimenes is the most diverse with 3 species. An updated geographic distribution along the western Atlantic an...

  10. IMPACT OF PARASITISM BY GREGARINES (Nematopsis sp IN FARMING SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Guzmán-Sáenz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of gregarines from genus Nematopsis in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is commonly associated with a decrease in production and low weight, as well as a possible predisposition to viral infections. The goal of our past research was to evaluate the effect of the Nematopsis sp. gregarine parasitosis on the growth of farm-grown Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp. Four cages were built with PVC pipes and plastic screens with a 6mm light diameter, 1,7m in height, and 1,5m in width and length (2,23 m3, and were installed in a farm-growing area in La Pesca, Tamaulipas. Twenty-nine previously weighed shrimp, L. vannamei, were placed in each cage. These had a “2” (6 to 10 parasites per shrimp degree of infestation severity by Nematopsis sp. The shrimp in 2 cages were fed for 5 days with the farm feed and 6g/kg of sodium monensin. The shrimp in the remaining cages were fed with commercial feed. After 5 days, the shrimp in the 4 cages were fed with a balanced feed for 38 days. After this, the biomass of each cage was recorded. The shrimp in the control cages weighed an average of 7,12g at the beginning of research and 9,27g at the end, and the treated shrimp weighed 7,09g and 9,88g, respectively. The non-treated shrimp gained 2,5g and the treated shrimp gained 2,79g. This present research shows that the negative effect on the shrimp growth caused by Nematopsis sp. infestation can be reversed if the infected shrimp are treated against infestation with sodium monensin, which possesses a therapeutic effect that eliminated the infestation without affecting the shrimp growth.

  11. Impact of teflubenzuron on the rockpool shrimp (Palaemon elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, Pål A; Lunestad, Bjørn T; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth; Samuelsen, Ole B

    2017-10-01

    Concerns have been raised over the environmental impacts of antiparasitic drugs used to delouse farmed salmon. Released into the marine environment, some of these drugs can have negative impact on non-targeted crustaceans in the vicinity of farming facilities. In this study, we examined the molecular effect of the insecticide teflubenzuron on a shrimp species inhabiting the littoral zone, the rockpool shrimp (Palaemon elegans). Rockpool shrimp was exposed for 98days to a dose representing 2% of a regular teflubenzuron medication applied to Atlantic salmon. Accumulation of teflubenzuron was studied in whole body samples, except abdominal segments 5 and 6, which were used for gene expression analysis. Insight into sublethal mode of action was sought by examining the transcriptional responses of 38 genes encoding proteins linked to molting and exoskeleton change, stress and detoxification. The accumulated levels of teflubenzuron in exposed animals varied between 1.7 and 33.0ng/g. Significant transcriptional effects of exposure were seen for markers linked to molting and exoskeleton change (chh, ctbs, gap65), stress and apoptosis (hsp40, hsp70, casp3), as well for detoxification (cyp6a18). In conclusion, this study shows that teflubenzuron can bioaccumulate in shrimps living in the littoral zone and at sublethal concentrations affects molecular mechanisms in non-hepatopancreatic tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Levels of PAHs in shrimps, Penaeus monodon from Jones Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High concentrations were recorded during the rainy season and during the first quarter of the year. The investigated samples were classified as minimally contaminated when compared with FDA levels of PAHs in shrimp samples. Distribution patterns showed that PAHs with 3 and 4 rings dominated confirming the pyrogenic ...

  13. Fishing methods for sustainable shrimp fisheries in the Canary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past 20 years, experimental cruises have been conducted around the Canary Islands (North-West Africa) to investigate the biodiversity of the deep-sea ecosystem and to explore new fisheries resources. Although pandalid shrimps were shown to be very abundant in this region, information is lacking regarding ...

  14. Multilevel analysis of elastic morphology: The mantis shrimp's spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, M V; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey. We quantified the shape of cross-sections of the merus segment of the raptorial appendage. We also examined specific regions of the merus that are hypothesized to either store elastic energy or provide structural support to permit energy storage in other regions of the system. We found that while all mantis shrimp contain thicker ventral bars in distal cross-sections, differences in thickness are more pronounced in high-impact "smasher" mantis shrimp than in the slower-striking "spearer" mantis shrimp. We also found that spearer cross-sections are more circular while those of smashers are more eccentric with elongation along the dorso-ventral axis. The results suggest that the regional thickening of ventral bars provides structural support for resisting spring compression and also reduces flexural stiffness along the system's long axis. This multilevel morphological analysis offers a foundation for understanding the evolution and mechanics of monolithic systems in biology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Insecticidal, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, antifungal and nitric oxide free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude methanolic extract and various fractions derived from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana were screened in vitro for possible insecticidal, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities. Low insecticidal activity (20 %) was shown by chloroform (CHCl3) and aqueous fractions ...

  16. Job satisfaction in the shrimp trawl fisheries of Chennai, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavinck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members

  17. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) in Malaysia using six microsatellite markers (CSCUPmo1, CSCUPmo2, CSCUPmo3, CSCUPmo4, CSCUPmo6 and CSCUPmo7). The mean numbers of allele, observed heterozygosis, ...

  18. Brine Shrimp Toxicity Evaluation Of Some Tanzanian Plants Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants which are used by traditional healers in Tanzania have been evaluated to obtain preliminary data of their toxicity using the brine shrimps test. The results indicate that 9 out of 44 plant species whose extracts were tested exhibited high toxicity with LC50 values below 20μg/ml. These include Aloe lateritia Engl.

  19. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2014. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method.Results: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  20. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in Shrimps in Tehran during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background During fishing and transport, preservation and quality of fish products are importantas well as storage to prevent the growth of pathogenic and toxin producing bacteria.Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of sea food-borne diseases worldwidedue to contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to compare theprevalence and contamination of S. aureus in marine and farmed shrimps in Tehran fishery center.Methods: A total of 300 samples, including 150 marine, 150 farmed shrimps were selected duringSeptember 2013 to December 2013. Isolation and identification of S. aureus from isolated sampleswere carried out according to conventional methods, and antibiotic susceptibility test wasperformed by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methodResults: The results of this study showed that 30% of marine and 20% off armed shrimps werecontaminated with S. aureus. The highest resistance was observed with penicillin and ampicillin,whereas 100% were sensitive to vancomycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin.Conclusions: Due to relatively high contamination of shrimp by S. aureus more attention shouldbe given during processing and manufacturing.

  1. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaja, R; Arun, P C; Prashanth, D; Deepak, M; Amit, A; Anjana, M

    2002-10-01

    Ethanolic extracts of six Indian medicinal plants, piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z were tested for cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test. Piper longum showed most potent cytotoxic activity. Piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z showed potent activity with LC(50) 2.4, 8.9 and 4.9, respectively. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Haemocytic defence in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, van de K.

    2002-01-01

    Tropical shrimp culture is one of the fastest growing aquaculture sectors in the world. Since this production sector is highly affected by infectious pathogens, disease control is nowadays a priority. Effective prevention methods can be developed more efficiently when quantitative assays

  3. adoption of improved aquaculture practices by shrimp farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Adesope

    Even though India is having such a huge potential ... (2003). Adoption studies on shrimp farming practices were not studied by any researcher in south Konkan region of. India hitherto. Thus the present study is an attempt to ..... this business because of high returns on investment of this industry despite heavy investment.

  4. A Circo-Like Virus Isolated from Penaeus monodon Shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hanh T; Yu, Qian; Boisvert, Maude; Van, Hanh T; Bergoin, Max; Tijssen, Peter

    2014-01-16

    A virus with a circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genome (PmCV-1) was isolated from Penaeus monodon shrimps in Vietnam. The gene structure of the 1,777-nucleotide (nt) genome was similar to that of circoviruses and cycloviruses, but the nucleic acid and protein sequence identities to these viruses were very low.

  5. Optimization of carotenoids extraction from Penaeus semisulcatus shrimp wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza jahed Khaniki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find effective method for carotenoids extraction from shrimp waste which is one of the important sources of natural carotenoids and produced in large quantities in Iran. Methods: Two methods of carotenoids extraction, enzymatic and alkaline (NaOH 1 normal treatment, were assayed. About 5 g of gritted shrimp wastes were used at each stage. For alkaline treatment, sodium hydroxide were added to shrimp waste. After 48 h, the mixture was filtered and centrifuged. Results: Alcalase extraction produced (234.00±2.00 mg/L carotenoid and NaOH extraction produced (170.00±1.53 mg/L carotenoid. Based on the samples analyzed, alcalase enzyme showed more efficiency than NaOH extraction to achieve carotenoids from shrimp waste. Conclusions: It can be concluded that using alcalase enzyme for carotenoids extraction can produce higher carotenoids concentration than NaOH extraction method. So alcalase enzyme method can be used for achieving this kind of antioxidant.

  6. Antimicrobial and brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial and brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used in traditional medicine in Bukoba District, north-western Tanzania. MJ Moshi, E Innocent, PJ Masimba, DF Otieno, A Weisheit, P Mbabazi, M Lynes, K Meachem, A Hamilton, I Urassa ...

  7. Brine shrimp lethality and antimicrobial studies on the seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Garcinia kola (Family, Guttiferae) is employed in a variety of therapies ranging from skin, gastrointestinal, chest to tumour problems. Preparations of the stem and roots are used as antitumour in traditional medicine but the potential of the seeds as antitumour had not yet been investigated hence the brine-shrimp lethality and ...

  8. Brine Shrimp Lethality of Alkaloids from Croton sylvaticus Hoechst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbiaceae) and evaluated for their brine shrimp lethality. Julocrotine, a glutarimide alkaloid, was very toxic in vitro with a LC50 (95% confidence interval) value of 0.074 (0.052-0.105) μg/ml. Lupeol and penduliflaworosin were not toxic. The structures ...

  9. Brine Shrimp Lethality of a Glutarimide Alkaloid from Croton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Euphorbiaceae) against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were investigated. A glutarimide alkaloid, julocrotine (1) showed'very high cytotoxic activity with a LCs0. (95 % CI) value of 0.074 (0.052-0.105) pglml when tested in vitro while lupeol (2).

  10. 78 FR 9024 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... (TEDs) in their nets is not warranted at this time. Thus, we are discontinuing our Environmental Review... populations. During this past summer, we shifted observer effort from the offshore otter shrimp trawl fishery..., assuming that roughly one-third to one-half of the small turtles would not be excluded by the TED but would...

  11. Histological characterization of peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata wurdemanni) androgenic gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    The androgenic gland (AG) is an important endocrine gland for male reproductive function in crustaceans. In the present study, we investigated the histological characteristics of the androgenic gland of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni. The peppermint shrimp matures as male first, then some individuals may become euhermaphrodite after several moltings (transitional phase). Euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp acts as male at intermolts. However, it can be fertilized as a female immediately after molting. Considering the male reproductive function acts in its lifespan except for at larval stages, and female reproductive system starts to develop at transitional phase, we hypothesized that AG activity might be reduced to allow and promote vitellogenesis onset in early transitional phase and the following euhermaphrodite phase. So AG cell structure might be different in three phases in L. wurdemanni. The results showed that AG exists in the male in transitional and euhermaphrodite phases. The gland cell clusters surrounding the ejaculatory ducts locate at the roots of the fifth pereopods. The nucleus diameters are similar in the three phases while the nucleus- to-cell ratio is the lowest in euhermaphrodite phase. Our results indicated that for the individuals that will become euhermaphrodite, the cellular structure of AG changes since transitional phase. Male reproductive function which is still available in euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp should be due to the existence of the gland.

  12. Absorption and retention of selenium from shrimps in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, S. H.; Sandstrom, B.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2001-01-01

    and 3M) received 100 g of shrimps each day for six weeks in addition to their habitual diet. In the third week of the study a balance period was inserted in which the subjects received all food from the department and collected faeces and urine over 5 days. Blood sam ples were collected at commencement...

  13. Juvenile Penaeid Shrimp Density, Spatial Distribution and Size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of habitat characteristics (mangrove creek, sandflat, mudflat and seagrass meadow) water salinity, temperature, and depth on the density, spatial distribution and size distribution of juveniles of five commercially important penaied shrimp species (Metapenaus monoceros, M. stebbingi, Fenneropenaeus indicus, ...

  14. Primary carbon sources for juvenile penaeid shrimps in a mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in a variety of primary producers (mangroves, epiphytes, phytoplankton and seagrasses), sediments and in five penaeid shrimp species (Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) indicus, P. japonicus, P. semisulcatus, Metapenaeus monoceros and M. stebbingi), collected ...

  15. Shrimp Waste Meal Supplementation Of Cassava Products Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the objective of investigating shrimp waste (SWM) and cassava leaf (CLM) meals as cheap alternatives and protein source mixtures that would best complement cassava root-soybean ration in total replacement for maize in broiler diets, six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets were evaluated using two weeks old ...

  16. Shrimp farming in India - Roof without a strong foundation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Although shrimp farming in India has grown into a multi-crore industry in recent years, it has carried with it some of the inherent problems and a few generated out of indiscriminate action on the part of over-enthusiastic entrepreneurs Some...

  17. Genetic diversity of intensive cultured and wild tiger shrimp Penaeus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahdi

    2011-02-25

    Feb 25, 2011 ... monodon brood stock in 2006 (Subramaniam et al.,. 2006). The program in Malaysia started with wild collected shrimp, which passed through a primary quarantine and were screened for multiple viral pathogens. The culture of this species has shown rapid development during the last decade (Suraswadi, ...

  18. Physicochemical Characterization of Biopolymer Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamaddin Mengelizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin, which is a naturally abundant mucopolysaccharide, supporting the matter of crustaceans, insects, and fungi. Because of its unique properties, such as non-toxicity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, chitosan has a wide range of applications in various fields. The objective of the present work is to extract the polymer chitosan from Persian Gulf shrimp shells. In order to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the extracted chitosan, degree of deacetylation, molecular weight, water and fat binding capacities extraction rate, and apparent viscosity were measured using a variety of techniques including viscometry, weight measurement method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results of the study of the physicochemical properties, molecular weight (6.7×105 Da, degree of deacetylation (57%, ash content as well as yield (0.5% of the prepared chitosan indicated that shrimp processing wastes (shrimp shells are a good source of chitosan. The water binding capacity (521% and fat binding capacity (327% of the prepared chitosan are in good agreement with the other studies. The elemental analysis showed the C, H and N contents of 35.92%, 7.02%, and 8.66%, respectively. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of chitosan was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated the high potential of chitosan as an antibacterial agent. Moreover, the results of the study indicated that shrimp shells are a rich source of chitin as 25.21% of the shell’s dry weight.

  19. Chitosan from shrimp shell ( Crangon crangon ) and fish scales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chitosan is a naturally available biopolymer. It has been prepared by alkaline N deacetylation process of shrimp (Crangon crangon) chitin and fish (Labeorohita) chitin. The physico-chemical properties such as the degree of deacetylation (DD), solubility, water binding capacity, fat binding capacity and chitosan yield have ...

  20. Authenticating the Origin of Different Shrimp Products on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes a polymerase chain reaction using restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene to identify commercial food products of wide range of Penaeidae and Pandalidae shrimp species commercialised in the Tunisian market. Phylogenetic analyses ...

  1. Population Structure and Recruitment of Penaeid Shrimps from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eds.). Relatorio Anual. 2004, Maputo, Mozambique. pp 7-9. Palha de Sousa, L., Brito, A., Abdula, S., & Caputi, N. (2006) Research assessment for the management of the industrial shallow-water multi-species shrimp fishery in Sofala Bank in ...

  2. Genetic diversity and historical demography of kuruma shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two varieties (I and II) of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) were found in the north of South China Sea (SCS) and Taiwan Strait (TS). To estimate the demographic history and genetic diversity of this species complex off China, 141 individuals were collected from the East China Sea (ECS), TS and SCS and 27 variety 2 ...

  3. Population structure and expansion of kuruma shrimp ( Penaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence analyses on the specific intron from the elongation factor-1α gene were conducted to examine the population genetic structure and expansion of kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) off Taiwan. Five populations including 119 individuals were separately sampled from the north of East China Sea (ECS), west of ...

  4. Mouse model in food allergy: dynamic determination of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Food allergy is now an important health issue, and there is urgent need for a developmental approach to identify allergenic potential of food. We present an approach that shows some promise for assessment of shrimp allergenicity using BALB/c strain mice. The mice were immunized by intraperitoneal ...

  5. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  6. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  7. Quantitative prediction of shrimp disease incidence via the profiles of gut eukaryotic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Yu, Weina; Dai, Wenfang; Zhang, Jinjie; Qiu, Qiongfen; Ou, Changrong

    2018-04-01

    One common notion is emerging that gut eukaryotes are commensal or beneficial, rather than detrimental. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have been taken to discern the factors that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes, despite growing interest in the dysbiosis of gut microbiota-disease relationship. Herein, we firstly explored how the gut eukaryotic microbiotas were assembled over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. The gut eukaryotic communities changed markedly as healthy shrimp aged, and converged toward an adult-microbiota configuration. However, the adult-like stability was distorted by disease exacerbation. A null model untangled that the deterministic processes that governed the gut eukaryotic assembly tended to be more important over healthy shrimp development, whereas this trend was inverted as the disease progressed. After ruling out the baseline of gut eukaryotes over shrimp ages, we identified disease-discriminatory taxa (species level afforded the highest accuracy of prediction) that characteristic of shrimp health status. The profiles of these taxa contributed an overall 92.4% accuracy in predicting shrimp health status. Notably, this model can accurately diagnose the onset of shrimp disease. Interspecies interaction analysis depicted how the disease-discriminatory taxa interacted with one another in sustaining shrimp health. Taken together, our findings offer novel insights into the underlying ecological processes that govern the assembly of gut eukaryotes over shrimp postlarval to adult stages and a disease progression. Intriguingly, the established model can quantitatively and accurately predict the incidences of shrimp disease.

  8. Detection of shrimp-derived components in food by real-time fluorescent PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jijuan; Yu, Bing; Ma, Lidan; Zheng, Qiuyue; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Junyi

    2011-10-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a more sensitive and specific method for detecting the composition of foods containing shrimp. In the present study, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR to identify the specific shrimp-derived components in food. The primers and TaqMan probes for real-time fluorescent PCR were designed based on 16S rRNA genes through comparing a large number of nucleic acid sequences from different species of shrimp that have been published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In total, 56 kinds of samples, including different kinds of shrimp, crab, fish, shellfish, and octopus, were subjected to detection by real-time PCR. The results indicated that real-time fluorescent PCR could successfully identify the shrimp-derived components. In order to explore the effect of food processing on detection sensitivity, fish powder containing shrimp powder was treated by heating at 133°C for 30 min. The limit of detection of shrimp-derived components in fish powder was 0.05% (wt/wt).

  9. Accumulation of pesticide residues by shrimp, fish and brine shrimp during pond culture at Ghorabari (District Thatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, R.; Wajeeha, F.A.; Ameer, F.; Munshi, A.B.; Nasir, M.

    2012-01-01

    Residual level of persistent organo chlorines (OC) such as sigma-HCH (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, sigma-DDT (o,p'-DDD, op-DDE, p,p-DDE pp-DDD, pp'-DDT, o,p'-DDT), dieldrin and endrin were measured in a number of water samples from Ambro creek and their accumulation in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis and P. penicillatus), fish (Otolithes ruber) and brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) reared in ponds for a period of four months. Samples were extracted with organic solvents, and quantified using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC/ECD). It has been found that results of animal tissue and water are not same however OCs, (mainly sigma DT and beta-HCH 4,4-DDT, Dieldrin + 2,4-DDT, and Methoxychlor were detected in all samples ). Heptachlor exo-epoxide were found in fish and Artemia sp. and absent in all shrimp samples. Heptachlor endo-epoxide was detected only in Artemia sp. and average residual concentration of OCs in Artemia sp. was 0.004-0.09 ppm. Methoxychlor was found in the highest quantity in all the samples whether it was fish, shrimp or Artemia. In fish average residual concentration of all (OCs) in individual sample was 0.03 - 0.180 ppm. (author)

  10. The Diversity of Vibrios Associated with Vibriosis in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from Extensive Shrimp Pond in Kendal District, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjito; Harjuno Condro Haditomo, Alfabetian; Desrina; Djunaedi, Ali; Budi Prayitno, Slamet

    2018-02-01

    Vibriosis out breaks frequently occur in extensive shrimps farming. The study were commenced to find out the clinical signs of white shrimp that was infected by the Vibrio and to identify the bacterial associated with vibriosis in the pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Bacterial isolates were gained from hepatopancreas and telson of moribund shrimps that were collected from extensive shrimp ponds of Kendal District, Indonesia and cultured on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salts Sucrose Agar (TCBSA). Isolates were clustered and identified using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). Three representative isolates (SJV 03, SJV 05 and SJV 19) were amplified with PCR using primers for 16S rRNA, and sequence for further identification. The clinical signs of shrimps affected by vibrio were pale hepatopancreas, weak of telson, dark and reddish coloration of smouth, patches of red colour in part of the body on the carapace, periopods, pleuopods, and telson. A total of 19 isolates were obtained and belong to three groups of genus Vibrios. Result of the 16S DNA sequence analysis, the vibrio found in this study related to vibriosis in white shrimps from extensive shrimp ponds of Kendal were closely related to Vibrio harveyi (SJV 03); V. parahaemolyticus (SJV 05) and V. alginolyticus (SJV 19).

  11. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

    Coastal shrimp aquaculture is one of the major economic activities of the people of developing countries especially in Southeast Asia and Latin America. Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. Various types of risks are associated in shrimp...... farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for diseases) is the major concern of the shrimp producers of Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. Poor water quality and high stocking...

  12. Effects of Shrimp Meal Fermented with Aspergillus niger On Physical Quality of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research materials were 75 broiler chickens of 1 day old and feeds. The research employed five treatments, namely (P0: feed without addition of fermented shrimp meal, P1: feed with 5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P2: feed with 7.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P3: feed with 10 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P4: feed with 12.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal. Every treatment was repeated 3 times, with 5 chickens respectively. Variables of this research were Water Holding Capacity (WHC, cooking loss and tenderness of broiler meat. Data were analyzed by completely randomized design, if there was a significant effect, it was followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result of this research showed that the use of fermented shrimp meal in broiler feed can improve WHC, degrading cooking loss and improving tenderness of broiler meat.   Keywords : Water holding capacity, cooking loss, tenderness

  13. Recent Studies Toward the Development of Practical Diets for Shrimp and Their Nutritional Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Larbi Ayisi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is a very important source of protein which is patronized by almost half of the world's population, and hence a very important specie in aquaculture. There is the need for increase in shrimp production worldwide to meet consumer demands. However, shrimp production is hampered by high cost of commercial feeds. Increase in prices of fish oil and fish meal has led to calls for their substitute. This calls for substitute has resulted in researchers studying the nutritional requirement of shrimp. The rationale for this article is to review the literature available on recent studies toward the development of practical diets for shrimps focusing on the nutrients required by different species qualitatively as well as quantitatively. This review highlights on nutrient requirements with respect to growth and feed utilization. Digestibility of nutrients used in shrimp diets is also accounted for in this article.

  14. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  15. Sub-tropical coastal lagoon salinization associated to shrimp ponds effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Mohedano, José-Gilberto; Lima-Rego, Joao; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Canales-Delgadillo, Julio; Sánchez-Flores, Eric-Ivan; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2018-04-01

    Anthropogenic salinization impacts the health of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. In tropical and subtropical areas, shrimp farm aquaculture uses water from adjacent ecosystems to fill the culture ponds, where enhanced evaporation cause salinization of discharged water. In this study, we studied water salinity before and after shrimp farm harvest and implemented a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to assess the impact on a subtropical coastal lagoon that receives water releases from shrimp ponds. The shrimp pond discharge significantly increased the salinity of receiving waters, at least 3 psu over the local variation. In the worst-case salinization scenario, when harvest occurs after a long dry season, salinity could increase by up to 6 psu. The induced salinization due to shrimp pond effluents remained up to 2 tidal cycles after harvest, and could affect biota. The methodology and results of this study can be used to assess the impacts of shrimp aquaculture worldwide.

  16. Resilience and livelihood dynamics of shrimp farmers and fishers in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran Thi Phung, H.

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp aquaculture and fishery, the two important economic sectors in Vietnam, have been promoted by the government to reduce poverty, provide job opportunities, and to increase exports to support economic development. However, this expansion of fishery and aquaculture has also had negative effects. Hundreds of thousands of hectares of mangrove forest have been replaced by shrimp ponds and, as a result, have brought ecological risks like water pollution, causing shrimp disease outbreaks. The...

  17. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  18. Laboratory cohabitation challenge model for shrimp hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salachan, Paul Vinu; Jaroenlak, Pattana; Thitamadee, Siripong; Itsathitphaisarn, Ornchuma; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2017-01-05

    Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) causes hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) in shrimp. It is probably endemic in Australasia and was first characterized and named from the giant or black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon from Thailand in 2009. Later, it was also found to infect exotic Penaeus vannamei imported for cultivation in Asia. HPM is not normally associated with shrimp mortality, but information from shrimp farmers indicates that it is associated with significant growth retardation that is not clearly noticeable until 2-3 months of cultivation. In order to study modes of HPM transmission and to test possible control measures, a laboratory challenge model was needed that would mimic the mode of infection in shrimp ponds. We describe successful transmission in a cohabitation model with natural E. hepatopenaei (EHP)-infected shrimp in closed, perforated plastic containers placed in aquaria together with free-swimming, uninfected shrimp. After a period of 14 days all the free-swimming shrimp tested positive by PCR (approximately 60% with heavy infections evident by 1-step PCR positive test results) and gave positive histological and in situ hybridization results for E. hepatopenaei (EHP) in the hepatopancreas. A laboratory cohabitation model for studying E. hepatopenaei (EHP) has been developed and used to confirm that E. hepatopenaei (EHP) can be directly transmitted horizontally among shrimp via water. The model will facilitate studies on methods to prevent the E. hepatopenaei (EHP) transmission.

  19. The Gulf of Guinea goby-shrimp symbiosis and a review of goby-thalassinidean associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirtz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An undescribed species of the family Gobiidae shares the burrows of the axiid shrimp Axiopsis serratifrons at São Tomé and Príncipe (central eastern Atlantic. In contrast to similar associations of gobiid fishes with alpheid shrimps in the Indo-Pacific and the western Atlantic (where the goby serves as a sentinel for the crustacean and the shrimp leaves the burrow only if the goby remains at the burrow entrance, the axiid appears to completely ignore the goby, which rests near the opening of the burrow. Facultative and obligatory associations of gobies with thalassinidean shrimps are reviewed.

  20. Contrasting Ecological Processes and Functional Compositions Between Intestinal Bacterial Community in Healthy and Diseased Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinyong; Dai, Wenfang; Qiu, Qiongfen; Dong, Chunming; Zhang, Jinjie; Xiong, Jinbo

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities play a pivotal role in promoting host health; therefore, the disruption of intestinal bacterial homeostasis could result in disease. However, the effect of the occurrences of disease on intestinal bacterial community assembly remains unclear. To address this gap, we compared the multifaceted ecological differences in maintaining intestinal bacterial community assembly between healthy and diseased shrimps. The neutral model analysis shows that the relative importance of neutral processes decreases when disease occurs. This pattern is further corroborated by the ecosphere null model, revealing that the bacterial community assembly of diseased samples is dominated by stochastic processes. In addition, the occurrence of shrimp disease reduces the complexity and cooperative activities of species-to-species interactions. The keystone taxa affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria in healthy shrimp gut shift to Gammaproteobacteria species in diseased shrimp. Changes in intestinal bacterial communities significantly alter biological functions in shrimp. Within a given metabolic pathway, the pattern of enrichment or decrease between healthy and deceased shrimp is correlated with its functional effects. We propose that stressed shrimp are more prone to invasion by alien strains (evidenced by more stochastic assembly and higher migration rate in diseased shrimp), which, in turn, disrupts the cooperative activity among resident species. These findings greatly aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern shrimp intestinal community assembly between health statuses.

  1. Bacterial clearance rate and a new differential hemocyte staining method to assess immunostimulant activity in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Archakunakorn, Somwit; Fegan, Daniel; Flegel, Timothy W

    2005-01-25

    New methods were developed to assess immunostimulant efficacy in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Test shrimp were fed with 2 or 4 % yeast extract (YE)-coated feed while controls were fed non-coated feed. After 4 wk of feeding, individual shrimp were assessed for total hemocyte counts (THC), the number of granular hemocytes (GH) and rate of bacterial clearance. For hemocyte counts, formalin-fixed hemolymph was stained with 1.2 % Rose Bengal in 50 % ethanol for 20 min at room temperature. Some of this mixture was used for THC with a hemocytometer while some was smeared on a microscope slide and left to dry before counterstaining with hematoxylin for GH counts. By this technique, high quality smears were obtained for accurate differential counts. Bacterial clearance assays were used to assess the sum effect of humoral and cellular defense mechanisms. Vibrio harveyi was injected intramuscularly at 1 x 10(8) cells per shrimp and hemolymph was collected in anticoagulant at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-injection for quadruplicate drop counts (20 microl) on TCBS agar. Total hemocyte counts for shrimp fed with 4 % YE were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those for shrimp fed with non-coated feed. The percentage of granular cells and the rates of bacterial clearance for the YE-fed shrimp were higher than those for shrimp fed the control diet. These 2 methods provide a simple and rapid comparison of shrimp groups for differences in anti-bacterial defense capacity.

  2. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    .... Case History The events that have occurred since the Department published the Preliminary Determination... Import Administration, ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People...

  3. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production.

  4. Decapoda: Potamonautidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-02-09

    Feb 9, 1999 ... Zoology Department, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535 South Africa. Barbara A. Stewart. Zoology Department, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X 1, Matieland, 7602 South Africa. Received 21 ... Introduction. The classification of aquatic inland invertebrates has received.

  5. Decapoda, Brachyura

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-10-02

    Oct 2, 1992 ... larvae of Sesarma catenata were found in all sampling sessions, with highest abundance during nocturnal ebb tides. Two seasonal peaks of abundance were detected in November and February-March. These coincided with recorded peaks of percentage abundance of gravid females in the adull ...

  6. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  7. Mangrove mapping in Ecuador: The impact of shrimp pond construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terchunian, Aram; Klemas, Victor; Segovia, Alberto; Alvarez, Agustin; Vasconez, Bryon; Guerrero, Luis

    1986-05-01

    A cooperative mangrove mapping project between the Ecuadorian Center for Remote Sensing (CLIRSEN) and the University of Delaware was begun in August 1982. The objectives of the project were to create historical maps of mangrove ecosystem extent and change, while transferring aerial photographic interpretation techniques to Ecuadorian personnel. The result of this cooperation was a series of three 1∶25,000 scale maps of historical mangrove extent and change from 1966 to 1982 in the southern Gulf of Guayaquil. This multitemporal study showed a 16% decrease in mangrove extent and a 27% increase in shrimp pond development. If these rates of change prevail into the future, mangroves in Ecuador will reach parity with shrimp ponds in 1984 and completely disappear by mid-1990. Recognizing the significance of this loss to shellfish and fish production along the coast, Ecuadorian scientists at CLIRSEN have subsequently initiated a nationwide mangrove mapping program to create a historical base for future mangrove management strategies.

  8. Green Approaches to Extract Astaxanthin from Shrimp Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2016-01-01

    Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of comme......Sunflower oil and its methyl ester have recently been shown as potential green solvents which could substitute traditional organic solvents. This study investigates the economic feasibility of using these green solvents to extract astaxanthin from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility......, according to the economic analysis, the green solvents showed lower capital and operating costs. Extraction with methyl ester of sunflower oil was found to be the more efficient green solvent process investigated with respect to production rate and unit cost of concentrated astaxanthin (155 ppm)....

  9. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Burgos-Hernández

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp.

  10. Emerging and potential technologies for facilitating shrimp peeling: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Tem Thi; Gringer, Nina; Jessen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    and discontinuous process due to a long time soaking in maturing tanks. Therefore the need for seeking alternative methods to replace the traditional long maturations has grown, that address the future trends in sustainable processing of ready-to-eat shrimps. Emerging technologies e.g. high pressure, enzyme......Ready-to-eat shrimp processing is challenging due to the complex biological design with the shell tightly connected to the meat. Several techniques have been developed to weaken or loosen this connection, thus facilitating the subsequent peeling. The loosening process is typically undertaken......, ultrasound and microwave can potentially become the alternatives since they have strong peeling effects on lobsters, crabs, bivalve mollusks, eggshells, human skin, fruits and vegetables. Also these technologies offer benefits such as short process time, retained nutritional and sensorial characteristics...

  11. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaćković P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ether extracts of 15 Centaurea L. species (Asteraceae methanol extracts of 12species, and cnicin isolated from C. derventana were tested for general bioactivity using the brine shrimp lethality test. Cnicin showed the most potent activity with LC50 0.2. Also, ether extract of C. splendens showed significant activity with LC50 7.3, as did methanol extract of C. arenaria with LC50 12.4.

  12. Agro fertilizer from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee Yee Nwe; Myint Khine; Nyunt Wynn

    2001-01-01

    The new growth agro fertilizer (npi) compost prepared from Myanmar traditional shrimp sauce and paste waste mixed with other ingredients [agricultural waste and animal waste (night soil)] was found to promote and enhance the growth as well as the rice crop to produce in higher percentage yield per acre as compare to the use of normal rice crops fertilizer and even to that of the current used EM compost fertilizer. (author)

  13. Comparative Brine Shrimp Toxicity of Withenia somnifera and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lethality test at serial dilutions of 1000 μg/ml, 100 μg/ ml and 10 μg/ml. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for each extract was determined. Both plant extracts were found to be toxic to brine shrimp with LC50 of 110.3 μg/ml and 106.6 μg/ml for W. somnifera and C. cinerarieafolium respectively. Kenya Veterinarian Vol.

  14. Unveiling the physical mechanism behind pistol shrimp cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Koukouvinis, Phoevos; Bruecker, Christoph; Gavaises, Manolis

    2017-01-01

    Snapping shrimps use a special shaped claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet. Cavitation formed in this way, may be used for hunting/stunning prey and communication. The present work is a novel computational effort to provide insight on the mechanisms of cavitation formation during the claw closure. The geometry of the claw used here is a simplified claw model, based on prior experimental work. Techniques, such as Immersed Boundary and Homogenous Equilibrium Model (HEM), are emplo...

  15. Experiences on importance of diet for shrimp postlarval quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lavens, P.; Sorgeloos, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of own experiences with respect to the impact of dietary conditions on the quality of postlarval penaeid shirmp. Direct nutrient-specific effects are documented for highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA), phosphatidyl choline (PC) and ascorbic acid (AA). Specific immunostimulants may also contribute to an improved stress resistance of the shrimp fry. Last, but not least, some emphasis is placed on the role of the microflora during the hatchery rearing, the possible ...

  16. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  17. Shrimp pond wastewater treatment using pyrolyzed chicken feather as adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Wei Chek; Jbara, Mohamad Hasan; Palaniandy, Puganeshwary; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian

    2017-10-01

    In this study, chicken feather fiber was used as a raw material to prepare a non-expensive adsorbent by pyrolysis without chemical activation. The main pollutants treated in this study were chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) from shrimp pond wastewater containing high concentrations of nutrients, which caused the eutrophication phenomenon in adjacent water. Batch adsorption studies were performed to investigate the effect of pH (5-8), mass of adsorbent (0.5-3 g), and shaking time (0.5-2 h) on the removal efficiency of COD and NH3- N. Experimental results showed that the optimum conditions were as follows: pH 5, 0.5 g of adsorbent, and 0.5 h of shaking. Under these conditions, 34.01% and 40.47% of COD and NH3-N were removed, respectively, from shrimp pond wastewater. The adsorption processes were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model for COD and NH3-N removal, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 36.9 and 7.24 mg/g for COD and NH3-N, respectively. The results proved that chicken feather could remove COD and NH3-N from shrimp pond wastewater. However, further studies on thermal treatment should be carried out to increase the removal efficiency of pyrolyzed chicken feather fiber.

  18. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas, E-mail: tomar@purdue.edu

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 80 °C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26 ± 0.89 GPa at 25 °C that reduces to 7.61 ± 0.65 GPa at 80 °C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38 ± 2.3 GPa at 25 °C to 24.58 ± 1.71 GPa at 80 °C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. - Highlights: • Shrimp species Pandalus platyceros and Rimicaris exoculata exoskeletons are analyzed. • Temperature dependent properties of shrimp exoskeleton are compared. • Mechanical properties are correlated with structure and composition of exoskeleton. • Mechanical properties reduce with increase in temperature. • Presence of biominerals gives better thermal stability to structure.

  19. Influencia de la temperatura en el comportamiento y color de Palaemon elegans (Rathke, 1837) (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Morán Ramírez, Olaia

    2012-01-01

    [ES] El camarón de charco (Palaemon elegans) soporta altos rangos de temperatura, pero a medida que ésta baja (hasta 5 ºC) comienza a reducir sus movimientos hasta quedar completamente inmóvil, casi en letargo. A este cambio de comportamiento va unido un cambio en la coloración del cuerpo del animal, que pasa de ser completamente transparente con tonos vivos azules y amarillos a ser translúcido, con azules y amarillos mucho más pálidos [EN] Rockpool shrimp (Palaemon elegans) supports high ...

  20. Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, Sao Sebastiao Island, state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantelatto, F. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium is distributed globally in most biogeographical regions, and contains species with interestingmechanisms of evolution. We conducted an exhaustive survey on São Sebastião Island, the largest coastal island of the stateof São Paulo. Here we provide a list of species (M. acanthurus, M. carcinus, M. heterochirus, M. olfersi, M. potiuna togetherwith the diagnosis, distribution, and remarks on each species, and a key for their identification. We compare our findingswith available information on the genus. The high diversity of freshwater shrimps on the island is interesting in terms ofbiogeographical and evolutionary processes.

  1. New records of Decapod Crustaceans (Decapoda: Pontoniinae and Inachidae associated with sea anemones in Turkish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. DURIS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three anemone-associated decapod crustaceans, two shrimp species, Periclimenes amethysteus and P. aegylios (Caridea: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, and the crab Inachus phalangium (Brachyura: Inachidae, all collected from the Dardanelles, are reported for the first time from Turkish coasts. Another inachid crab, Macropodia czernjawskii is also reported for the first time to occur in association with the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. Periclimenes scriptus was the fifth decapod species recorded associated with sea anemones within the present study, and while this species has already been reported from Turkish waters, this is the first time it is recorded from the Dardanelles (the Turkish Straits System.

  2. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). WHITE SHRIMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    detritus, chitin, parts of annelids September 1979. and gastropods, fish parts, bryozoans, sponges , corals, filaments )f algae, The hait shrimp fishery...foods. , and newly hatched brine shrimp to feed the mysis stages. Christmas and White shrimp are an important Etzold (1977) reported that early food for...effort and and marine organisms. Wiley- price-cost trends in the Gulf of Interscience, New York. 868 pp. Mexico shrimp fishery: implications on Mexico’s

  3. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

    farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for diseases) is the major concern of the shrimp producers of Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. Poor water quality and high stocking...

  4. 76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Vietnam, in which it found that revocation of these orders would likely lead to a continuation or...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp... of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of...

  5. Confirmation of the presence of Janicea antiguensis (Chace, 1972 (Decapoda: Barbouriidae in northeastern and eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno W. Giraldes

    Full Text Available The barbouriid shrimp Janicea antiguesis (Chace, 1972 is reported from Porto de Galinhas and Tamandaré in Pernambuco and Guarapari in Espírito Santo, Brazil. These records confirm the presence of J. antiguensis in northeastern and eastern Brazil, considerably extending its Brazilian range from Fernando de Noronha to southern Espírito Santo and also representing the first record of this species from mainland coastal reefs. In Brazil, J. antiguensis occurs in or near marine reef caves, typically at depths between 5 and 15 m, and can be most easily observed while scuba diving at night. Colour photographs of J. antiguensis from various Atlantic localities are provided and its colour pattern is compared to that of the closely related Indo-West Pacific barbouriid shrimp, Parhippolyte misticia (Clark, 1989. Some in situ observations are provided for the Porto de Galinhas population of J. antiguensis. Multiple observations of pairs with both individuals brooding embryos at different developmental stages suggest protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism in J. antiguensis.

  6. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggie, Bernadietta; Subiyanto, Arief, Ulfah Mediaty; Djuniadi

    2018-03-01

    Improved shrimp farming affects the groundwater quality conditions. Assessment of shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality conventionally has less accuracy. This paper presents the implementation of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method for assessing shrimp farming impact on groundwater quality. The data used is the impact data of shrimp farming in one of the regions in Indonesia from 2006-2016. Criteria used in this study were 8 criteria and divided into 49 sub-criteria. The weighting by AHP performed to determine the importance level of criteria and sub-criteria. Final priority class of shrimp farming impact were obtained from the calculation of criteria's and sub-criteria's weights. The validation was done by comparing priority class of shrimp farming impact and water quality conditions. The result show that 50% of the total area was moderate priority class, 37% was low priority class and 13% was high priority class. From the validation result impact assessment for shrimp farming has been high accuracy to the groundwater quality conditions. This study shows that assessment based on AHP has a higher accuracy to shrimp farming impact and can be used as the basic fisheries planning to deal with impacts that have been generated.

  7. Prediction of spoilage of tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) under dynamic temperature regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dabade, D.S.; Azokpota, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Zwietering, M.H.; Besten, den H.M.W.

    2015-01-01

    The spoilage activity of Pseudomonas psychrophila and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, two tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) spoilage organisms, was assessed in cooked shrimps stored at 0 to 28 °C. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed during storage. P. psychrophila had a

  8. Shrimp-based livelihoods in mangrove silvo-aquaculture farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Nguyen, T.H.; Siahainenia, A.J.; Tran, H.T.P.; Tran, H.N.

    2016-01-01

    The paper reviews the following three types of mangrove-shrimp systems: (i) integrated with canals between platforms planted with mangrove; (ii) associated having larger areas of water and a large mangrove area; and (iii) separated, with a dyke separating ponds from forest. The variations in shrimp

  9. Price transmission in the trans-atlantic northern shrimp value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Staahl, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    affect northern shrimp fisheries. In this paper, price transmission in the trans-Atlantic northern shrimp value chain is analysed using a Vector Auto Regressive model in Error Correction form. Cointegration, the Law of One Price (LOP) and weak exogeneity are tested. The results reveal linkages from...

  10. Clonal occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in cultured shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Gazi Md Noor; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm...

  11. Towards stable access to EU markets for the Beninese shrimp chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adékambi, S.A.; Dabade, D.S.; Kindji, K.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Faure, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sogbossi, B.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, the economy of Benin has strongly depended on a single crop, namely cotton. Since 2006, the Beninese government has aimed to diversify exports, in particular focussing on high-value export products such as shrimp. Stable market access for shrimps is, however, hindered by their

  12. The cluster panacea?: Questioning the role of cooperative shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Thu Ha, Ha; Bush, S.R.; Dijk, van H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of ‘clustering’ as a form of cooperative production to improve the environmental performance of shrimp farmers and facilitating them to upgrade their position in the global value chain. Comparing intensive and extensive shrimp farmer clusters in Ca Mau province, Vietnam,

  13. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  14. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the...

  15. Comparison of quality characteristics between belacan from Brunei Darussalam and Korean shrimp paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Boong Kim

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The protein content, pH, water activity Ca, Fe, K, P, Zn, total amino acids, essential amino acids, saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol content tended to be higher in the Korean dried shrimp paste than in Bruneian belacan and Korean fermented Saewoojeot shrimp paste.

  16. 77 FR 31062 - Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... United Kingdom, and Uruguay. Ten nations and one economy only harvest shrimp using small boats with crews... other countries and one economy do not pose a threat of the incidental taking of sea turtles protected... fishery. The Department also certified 26 shrimp harvesting nations and one economy as having fishing...

  17. Burrow architecture and turbative activity of the thalassinid shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, EJ; Schreurs, CE; Videler, JJ

    1997-01-01

    The architecture and development of the burrows of the endobenthic shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea were studied in sediment-filled containers and thin cuvettes in the laboratory. Three-dimensional burrows of 81 shrimps were used to describe the 3-dimensional burrow

  18. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  19. Discards in the Mauritanian shrimp fisheries : an evaluation of lost value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, P.C.; Meissa, B.O.

    2006-01-01

    The discards of the shrimp fishery in Mauritania are calculated on basis of direct observations on board of commercial vessels from 2004-2006. Data were collected from 175 hauls in 12 trips. The fisheries for the three different shrimp fisheries take place at different depths and so have a different

  20. Priming the immune system of Penaeid shrimp by bacterial HSP70 (DnaK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, L H; Hu, B; Wille, M; Hien, N T; Phuong, V H; Tinh, N T N; Loc, N H; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the effect of DnaK on priming immune responses in Penaeid shrimp. Juvenile-specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei shrimp were injected with 0.05 μg recombinant DnaK. One hour post-DnaK priming, a non-lethal dose of Vibrio campbellii (10(5) CFU shrimp(-1)) was injected. Other treatments include only DnaK or V. campbellii injection or control with blank inocula. The haemolymph of three shrimp from each treatment was collected at 1.5, 6, 9 and 12 h post-DnaK priming (hpp). It was verified that injection with DnaK and V. campbellii challenge affected the transcription of 3 immune genes, transglutaminase-1 (TGase-1), prophenoloxidase-2 (proPO-2) and endogenous HSP70 (lvHSP70). In P. monodon, shrimp were first injected with DnaK at a dose of 10 μg shrimp(-1) and one hour later with 10(6) CFU of V. harveyi (BB120) shrimp(-1). Shrimp injected with DnaK showed a significant increase in proPO expression compared to the control (P immune responses in P. vannamei and P. monodon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Antiviral property of marine actinomycetes against white spot syndrome virus in penaeid shrimps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.S.; Philip, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    tested for their ability to reduce infection due to WSSV among cultured shrimps. When these actinomycetes were made available as feed additives to the post-larvae of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon for two weeks and challenged with WSSV, the post...

  2. Effect of eyestalk ablation on moulting and growth in the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balasubramanian, T.

    control shrimps whereas bilateral eyestalk ablated (BEA) shrimps consumed 18.7% and 31.8% less than the control group in the two size ranges respectively. Growth was estimated as length and weight increments and significant variation (p<0.05) was observed...

  3. The Radioactivity α and β Evaluation in Fish, Lobster and Shrimps from Donan's River Cilacap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Zainul Kamal

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity α and β total evaluation in fish, lobster and shrimps from Donan's river Cilacap have been done The determination of α and β total using α and β spectrometry. The result of experimentation showed that radioactivity α and β in fish, lobster and shrimps. Could not use as shore quality because unprepared of the threshold value. (author)

  4. Linking shrimp assemblages with rates of detrital processing along an elevational gradient in a tropical stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. March; Jonathan P. Benstead; Catherine M. Pringle; Mark W. Ruebel

    2001-01-01

    We experimentally excluded freshwater shrimp assemblages (Atyidae, Xiphocarididae, and Palaemonidae) to examine their effects on detrital processing and benthic insect biomass at three sites along an elevational gradient in a tropical stream in Puerto Rico. We also determined which shrimp taxon was responsible for leaf decay in a subsequent laboratory experiment. At...

  5. Optimal foraging in the thalassinidean shrimp Callianassa subterranea - Improving food quality by grain size selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, EJ; Videler, JJ; de Wilde, PAWJ

    1998-01-01

    The grain size distributions and organic content of habitat sediment, stomach content and faecal pellets of the endobenthic shrimp C. subterranea were analyzed to study food selection and its nutritional yield. Sub-samples of sediment from the shrimps' habitat and the stomach content were fractioned

  6. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  7. Length-weight relationships of the pink shrimp penaeus notialis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred indigenous pink shrimps, Penaeus notialis and 19 exotic giant tiger Shrimps, P. monodon from Buguma Creek were caught in brackish water tidal ponds of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Buguma in April, May and June 2005. The length-weight relationship of both species ...

  8. Comparison live adult Artemia and squid meat on the growth of Penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Royan, J.P.

    An experiment lasting 14 weeks was conducted to compare the efficiency of live adult Artemia with fresh squid meat on growth of penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus dobsoni. The shrimps were found actively feeding on live Artemia and grew 84% more than those...

  9. Efectos del rizocéfalo Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura en Chile Effects of the rhizocephalan Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala on the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversas asociaciones biológicas de amplia distribución y alta especificidad en el ambiente marino han pasado casi desapercibidas para los estudiosos en Chile. Aquí se describe cuantitativamente la infección por Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura y se evalúa si el parásito produce efectos semejantes a los descritos para asociaciones similares. Para ello, 513 ejemplares del cangrejo fueron recolectados manualmente desde el submareal somero, entre septiembre y octubre de 2003, en Lenga, Octava Región de Chile. La prevalencia de rizocéfalos alcanzó valores máximos cercanos al 60 % en hospedadores de pequeño tamaño corporal, provocando castración, inhibiendo el desarrollo gonadal de las hembras y modificando el tamaño de los caracteres sexuales secundarios en ambos sexos, lo que sugiere que impone una gran demanda sobre su hospedador. Estos resultados muestran una gran similitud con otros estudios que involucran a rizocéfalos, y podrían, al incorporar a las simbiosis en el estudio de las comunidades bentónicas en Chile, conducir a que se reinterprete, por ejemplo, la abundancia y patrones de reproducción de P. barbiger, una especie de depredador prominente de esas comunidades bentónicasIn the marine realm, several biological associations are distributed worldwide and are highly specific, but remain poorly studied in Chile. Here, we describe quantitatively the infection by the barnacle Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala in the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura, and assess if the parasite effects are similar to rhizocephalan-decapod associations elsewhere. To do this, 513 crabs were collected by hand while scuba diving between September and October, 2003 in the shallow subtidal zone of Lenga (37° S, Chile. Maximum prevalence reached ca. 60 % in small body size hosts, producing total

  10. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When

  11. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Hayd

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4 000km across living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size, were studied in M. amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2 270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1 667 females, 157 of these ovigerous. Sex ratio (males:females was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha. A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal

  12. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  13. Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from Indonesian shrimp paste (terasi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, U.; Sumardianto; Agustini, T. W.

    2018-02-01

    Shrimp paste was one of fermented products, popular as a taste enhancer in many dishes. The processing of shrimp paste was natural fermentation, depends on shrimp it self and the presence of salt. The salt inhibits the growth of undesirable microorganism and allows the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to ferment the protein source to lactic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize LAB isolated from Indonesian shrimp paste or "Terasi" with different times of fermentation (30, 60 and 90 days). Vitech analysis showed that there were four strains of the microorganism referred to as lactic acid bacteria (named: LABS1, LABS2, LABS3 and LABS4) with 95% sequence similarity. On the basis of biochemical, four isolates represented Lactobacillus, which the name Lactobacillus plantarum is proposed. L.plantarum was play role in resulting secondary metabolites, which gave umami flavor in shrimp paste.

  14. The larval development of Pinnixa gracilipes Coelho (Decapoda, Pinnotheridae reared in the laboratory O desenvolvimento larval de Pinnixa gracilipes Coelho (Decapoda, Pinnotheridae cultivado em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jô de F. Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinnixa gracilipes Coelho, 1997 is a small pinnotherid crab living in association with ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 in the northeastern region of Pará State, Brazil. Larvae of P. gracilipes were reared in the laboratory from hatching to the megalopa stage. The complete zoeal period averaged 24 days. Mean duration for each larval stage was 5, 4, 4, 5 and 6 days, respectively. In the present study, five zoeal and megalopal stages are described and illustrated in detail. Morphological comparisons with previous reported works on Pinnotheridae larvae are briefly discussed.Pinnixa gracilipes Coelho, 1997 é um pequeno caranguejo pinoterídeo que vive em associação com Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 no nordeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil. Larvas de P. gracilipes foram cultivadas em laboratório desde o nascimento ao estágio megalopa. O desenvolvimento completo durou cerca de 24 dias. O per��odo médio de cada estágio foi 5, 4, 4, 5 e 6 dias, respectivamente. No presente trabalho, os cinco estágios zoeae e megalopa são descritos e ilustrados em detalhes. Comparações morfológicas com estudos anteriores sobre larvas da família Pinnotheridae são brevemente discutidas.

  15. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S deVries

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively. Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days. In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively. We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals.

  16. Combined electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying of shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yucai; Huang, Qiang; Bai, Yaxiang

    2013-01-01

    To improve the drying qualities of shrimp, a combination of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying (FD) is examined. The drying rate, the shrinkage, the rehydration ratio, and the sensory properties including the color and trimness of the dried products under different drying methods (including combination drying of EHD and FD, EHD drying and FD drying) are measured. Compared with FD and EHD drying alone, the combined process consumes less drying time, and the product processed by combined drying displays lower shrinkage, higher rehydration rate and better sensory qualities.

  17. USE OF SPONGE, Callyspongia basilana EXTRACT AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL ON TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blue shrimp disease is one of the main problems in tiger shrimp culture. It reduces shrimp quality which eventually will decrease its market price. Blue shrimp is caused by deficiency of nutrition and additive materials such as carotene and other nutrient which function as vitamin source for important metabolic processes and formation of color profile in shrimp and fish. The aims of this study were to study the application effect of carotenoid extract of sponge Callyspongia basilana, as an additive material on the ability of shrimp to get back to normal state after suffering blue shrimp disease and survival rate of shrimp and to find out the optimal concentration of sponge carotenoid extract to cure the diseased shrimp. This study was consisted of two steps namely; (1. Extraction of sponge carotenoid by maseration and fractionation using acetone and petroleum ether solvents and (2, the application of carotenoid extract on the diseased shrimp. The research was arranged in a complete randomized design with four experiments consisted of (A. Control (without carotenoid extract; (B,(C, and (D carotetoid extract addition of 3 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 9 mg/L respectively with three replication each. The test animal used were blue diseased tiger shrimp with the density of 15 ind./container having 7.5–9.5 cm in size and the average weight of 5.5–10.0 g. The study showed that Callyspongia basilana carotenoid extract was able to change blue diseased shrimp to be normal within six days at the concentration of 9 mg/L. The highest survival rate was found in the experiment D (93.3%. Meanwhile, the lowest was obtained by the control population (13.3% and the other two treatments were 80.0%(C and 73.3% (B. The average of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrite, and ammonia were in the suitable range for the growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp.

  18. Light and vision in the deep-sea benthos: I. Bioluminescence at 500-1000 m depth in the Bahamian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Sönke; Frank, Tamara M; Haddock, Steven H D; Widder, Edith A; Messing, Charles G

    2012-10-01

    Bioluminescence is common and well studied in mesopelagic species. However, the extent of bioluminescence in benthic sites of similar depths is far less studied, although the relatively large eyes of benthic fish, crustaceans and cephalopods at bathyal depths suggest the presence of significant biogenic light. Using the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible, we collected numerous species of cnidarians, echinoderms, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges, as well as one annelid from three sites in the northern Bahamas (500-1000 m depth). Using mechanical and chemical stimulation, we tested the collected species for light emission, and photographed and measured the spectra of the emitted light. In addition, in situ intensified video and still photos were taken of different benthic habitats. Surprisingly, bioluminescence in benthic animals at these sites was far less common than in mesopelagic animals from similar depths, with less than 20% of the collected species emitting light. Bioluminescent taxa comprised two species of anemone (Actinaria), a new genus and species of flabellate Parazoanthidae (formerly Gerardia sp.) (Zoanthidea), three sea pens (Pennatulacea), three bamboo corals (Alcyonacea), the chrysogorgiid coral Chrysogorgia desbonni (Alcyonacea), the caridean shrimp Parapandalus sp. and Heterocarpus ensifer (Decapoda), two holothuroids (Elasipodida and Aspidochirota) and the ophiuroid Ophiochiton ternispinus (Ophiurida). Except for the ophiuroid and the two shrimp, which emitted blue light (peak wavelengths 470 and 455 nm), all the species produced greener light than that measured in most mesopelagic taxa, with the emissions of the pennatulaceans being strongly shifted towards longer wavelengths. In situ observations suggested that bioluminescence associated with these sites was due primarily to light emitted by bioluminescent planktonic species as they struck filter feeders that extended into the water column.

  19. Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the shallow waters from Quintana Roo, Mexican Caribbean coast Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea de las aguas someras de Quintana Roo, Caribe mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Román-Contreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused on the palaemonid fauna of the Mexican Caribbean. This study provides a list of shallow water free-living and symbiont shrimps of the family Palaemonidae collected on turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum in Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo and Mahahual reef lagoon, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Ten species in 8 genera are reported, of which the genus Periclimenes is the most diverse with 3 species. An updated geographic distribution along the western Atlantic and other regions is provided for all the species. The greatest affinity of the palaemonid fauna studied, besides that with the Caribbean province, is with the Brazilian, Argentinian, and Texan zoogeographic provinces. Of the 10 species reported in this paper, 8 represent new local records in the studied area.Los crustáceos de la familia Palaemonidae del Caribe mexicano han sido poco estudiados. En este trabajo se presenta un listado de palemónidos de vida libre y simbiontes recolectados en el pasto marino Thalassia testudiuim de Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo y la laguna arrecifal de Mahahual, Quintana Roo, México. Se registran 10 especies pertenecientes a 8 géneros, siendo el género Periclimenes el más diverso con 3 especies. Para todas las especies se proporciona su distribución geográfica en la costa del Atlántico americano así como en otras regiones. Además de la provincia Caribeña, los palemónidos recolectados también muestran alta afinidad con otras provincias zoogeográficas como la Brasileña, Argentina y Texana; de las 10 especies registradas en este estudio, 8 representan nuevo registro local en el área estudiada.

  20. Let’s be pals again: major systematic changes in Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy De Grave

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the systematic position of genera in the shrimp families Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae has been under debate, with phylogenetic studies suggesting the families are not real family level units. Here, we review the molecular evidence as well as the morphological characters used to distinguish both families, leading to the conclusion that neither family is valid. Further, we studied the structural details of the single morphological character which distinguishes the two subfamilies (Palaemoninae, Pontoniinae in Palaemonidae, as well as their phylogenetic relationship. As the supposed character distinction plainly does not hold true and supported by the phylogenetic results, the recognition of subfamilies in Palaemonidae is not warranted. As a consequence, all three supra-generic taxa (Gnathophyllidae, Hymenoceridae, Pontoniinae are thus herein formally synonymised with Palaemonidae.

  1. A phylogeny-based revision of the family Luciferidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jørgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    Luciferidae is a family of peculiar and widely distributed shrimps with an unclear systematic position and uncertain internal phylogeny. We undertook a phylogenetic analysis of Luciferidae based on 169 morphological characters (147 binary, 22 multistate). Several characters were based on scanning...... electron microscopy studies of the reproductive organs (e.g. petasma). All seven recognized species of Luciferidae were included as well as 17 additional species representing all other genera of Sergestoidea. Characters were polarized using three outgroups of the superfamily Penaeoidea, occurring in three...... different types of oceanic habitat. The phylogenetic analysis revealed monophyly of Luciferidae and the presence of two terminal robust clades within the family, which we treat as separate genera, Lucifer and Belzebub gen. nov. Morphological trends within Luciferidae are discussed, and diagnoses and keys...

  2. A new species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Lysmatidae) from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sanjeevi; Baeza, J Antonio

    2017-12-12

    A new species of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata baueri n. sp., is described based on a single specimen from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from other morphologically similar species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 by the number of teeth, length and shape of the rostrum, the length of the antennular peduncle relative to the scaphocerite, the number of meral and ischial articles in the second pereiopods, and the number of spines on the flexor margin of the dactyli from the third to fifth pereiopods. Morphological characters demonstrate that L. baueri n. sp., is most closely related to the eastern Pacific L. californica (Stimpson, 1866), L. nayaritensis Wicksten, 2000 and L. porteri (Rathbun, 1907).

  3. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost Shrimp and Blue Mud Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    liters (1) 0.2642 gallons cubic meters (m3 ) 35.31 cubic feet cubic meters (m3) 0.0008110 acre-feet milligrams (mg) 0.00003527 ounces grams ( g ) 0.03527...the fifth pair finding specimens as far south as El somewhat pincerlike as in the ghost Estuario de Punto Banda, Baja Cali- shrimp (Schmitt 1921). The...Project/Task/Work Unit No. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Fishery Research Center 11. conct(c) or Grnt( G )No. Building 204, Naval Station

  4. Effects of the insecticide permethrin on three life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, M E; Serrano, L; Chung, K W; Hoguet, J; Key, P B

    2006-06-01

    Toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin was assessed using three life stages of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Adult and larval shrimp were tested with and without sediment. An aqueous embryo test was also conducted. Cellular stress biomarkers, glutathione, and lipid peroxidation, were assessed. Larval shrimp were the most sensitive life stage with a 96-h lethal concentration (LC(50)) value of 0.05 microg/L, compared to 0.25 microg/L for adults, and 6.4 microg/L for embryos. The presence of sediment significantly decreased toxicity of permethrin to both adult and larval shrimp. Permethrin exposure increased time to hatch in embryos and decreased swimming behavior of larvae. Lipid peroxidation levels were significantly decreased in the adult shrimp, but increased in larval shrimp exposed to permethrin. Low levels of permethrin may negatively affect grass shrimp health and survival. Permethrin use in the coastal zone should be carefully managed to avoid adverse impacts on nontarget estuarine organisms.

  5. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-03-01

    Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince.

  7. Do omnivorous shrimp influence mayfly nymph life history traits in a tropical island stream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, Nicholas A; Colón-Gaud, Checo; Duggins, Jonathan W; Ramírez, Alonso

    2014-04-01

    Interspecific interactions can play an important role in determining habitat selection and resource use between competing species. We examined interactions between an omnivorous shrimp and a grazing mayfly, two co-dominant taxa found in Puerto Rican headwater streams, to assess how predator presence may influence mayfly resource use and instantaneous growth in a tropical rainforest ecosystem. We conducted a series of behavioral and growth experiments to determine the effects of the freshwater shrimp, Xiphocaris elongata, on the growth rate and resource selection of mayfly nymphs in the family Leptophlebiidae. For resource choice assessments, we conducted a series of five day laboratory experiments where mayflies were given access to two resource substrate choices (cobble vs. leaves) in the presence or absence of shrimp. To assess for the effects of shrimp on mayfly fitness, we measured mayfly growth in laboratory aquaria after five days using four treatments (cobble, leaves, cobble + leaves, no resource) in the presence or absence of shrimp. In resource choice experiments, mayflies showed preference for cobble over leaf substrata (p cobble was significantly greater when shrimp were present in the leaf habitat. In growth experiments, there were no statistical differences in mayfly growth in the presence or absence of shrimp (p = 0.07). However, we measured increased mayfly nymph growth in the absence of predators and when both cobble and leaves were available. Our results suggest that interspecific interactions between these taxa could potentially influence organic matter resource dynamics (e.g., leaf litter processing and export) in Puerto Rican streams.

  8. Standardization of sodium metabisulfite solution concentrations and immersion time for farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Trigueiro de Andrade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium metabisulfite is the main additive used in the prevention of melanosis in shrimp; however, it has currently been employed with great variation in concentration by producers. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between the concentration of the sodium metabisulfite solution and immersion time of the whole shrimp to obtain the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in accordance with the limit established by law. For this, solutions of sodium metabisulfite at different concentrations (1%, 2 %, 3 %, 4% and 5% were prepared and samples of L. vannamei shrimp (100g were immersed during 10, 20 or 30 minutes at temperature of 7°C. For all treatment assayed the concentration of SO2 was determined in the edible muscle of farmed shrimp (L. vannamei. The results show that for the conditions used in this study, the correlations were linear, with significant increase (P<0.05 in the SO2 concentration in the edible muscle of shrimps both increasing sodium metabisulfite concentration as increasing immersion times, suggesting the immersion of shrimps in a 3% solution for a time of 13 minutes in order to obtain SO2 concentration of 100ppm in its edible muscle in accordance with Brazilian legislation

  9. Oldest record of Mathildellidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Goneplacoidea) associated with Retroplumidae from the Upper Cretaceous of NE Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Francisco J.; Ahyong, Shane T.; Espinosa, Belinda; Flores-Ventura, José; Luna, Laura; González-González, Arturo H.

    2018-03-01

    A new genus and species of the Mathildellidae Prebranchioplax cretacica (Crustacea: Decapoda: Goneplacoidea) is reported from shallow marine sediments of the upper Campanian Parras Shale and Cerro del Pueblo Formation (Parras Basin), Coahuila, NE Mexico. Prebranchioplax cretacica was collected from siliceous concretions associated with more abundant specimens of the retroplumid Costacopluma mexicana Vega and Perrilliat, 1989. P. cretacica bears similarities to Eocene species of Branchioplax from Japan, USA (Alaska and Washington), England, Hungary and Tajikistan as well as with Eogeryonidae (Portunoidea) species from the Upper Cretaceous of Spain and Marocarcinidae (Styracocarcinus) from Morocco. However, clear differences in the carapace frontal shape places P. cretacica in the Mathildellidae. This record represents the oldest known Mathildellidae, and along with the Retroplumidae, appear to have originated during the Late Cretaceous in ancient seas of Mexico, with a wide distribution during Paleogene times becoming restricted today to deep waters of the Indo-Pacific region and Atlantic Ocean. Comments on preservation and morphology of Costacopluma mexicana are also included. Crab specimens preserved in siliceous concretions from one locality (Entronque) show peculiar desiccation marks, and a possible model of taphonomy.

  10. The biogeography of the yeti crabs (Kiwaidae) with notes on the phylogeny of the Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roterman, C N; Copley, J T; Linse, K T; Tyler, P A; Rogers, A D

    2013-08-07

    The phylogeny of the superfamily Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) has been poorly understood owing to limited taxon sampling and discordance between different genes. We present a nine-gene dataset across 15 chirostyloids, including all known yeti crabs (Kiwaidae), to improve the resolution of phylogenetic affinities within and between the different families, and to date key divergences using fossil calibrations. This study supports the monophyly of Chirostyloidea and, within this, a basal split between Eumunididae and a Kiwaidae-Chirostylidae clade. All three families originated in the Mid-Cretaceous, but extant kiwaids and most chirostylids radiated from the Eocene onwards. Within Kiwaidae, the basal split between the seep-endemic Kiwa puravida and a vent clade comprising Kiwa hirsuta and Kiwa spp. found on the East Scotia and Southwest Indian ridges is compatible with a hypothesized seep-to-vent evolutionary trajectory. A divergence date estimate of 13.4-25.9 Ma between the Pacific and non-Pacific lineages is consistent with Kiwaidae spreading into the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean via the newly opened Drake Passage. The recent radiation of Kiwaidae adds to the list of chemosynthetic fauna that appear to have diversified after the Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum, a period of possibly widespread anoxia/dysoxia in deep-sea basins.

  11. Larval Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Santos, Cláudia P

    2009-06-01

    Previously undescribed infective larvae of the cystidicolid nematode Pseudoproleptus sp. (probably conspecific with the nematode originally described as Heliconema izecksohni Fabio, 1982, a parasite of freshwater fish in Brazil), were found encapsulated in the hemocel of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the natural canals on the Mexiana Island (Amazon River Delta), Pardá State, Brazil. The prevalence in prawns (body length 48-110 mm) examined in January and March 2008 (n = 44) was 32%, with an intensity of 1-6 (mean 2) larvae per crustacean. The nematode larvae (body length 19.7-25.7 mm), characterized by the cephalic end provided with a helmet-like cuticular structure having a thickened free posterior margin, are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Apparently prawns play a role as intermediate hosts for this nematode species. This is the first record of a larval representative of Cystidicolidae in South America and the first record of a species of Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955, in the Neotropics. Heliconema izecksohni is transferred to Pseudoproleptus as Pseudoproleptus izecksohni (Fabio, 1982) n. comb.

  12. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  13. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  14. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G. (INRS); (Purdue)

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  16. Lactic acid demineralization of shrimp shell and chitosan synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of lactic acid was compared to hydrochloric acid for shrimp shell demineralization in chitosan synthesis. Five different acid concentrations were considered for the study: 1.5M, 3.0M, 4.5M, 6.0M and 7.5M. After demineralization, the shrimp shell were deproteinized and subsequently deacetylated to produce chitosan using sodium hydroxide solution. The synthesized chitosan samples were characterized using solubility, FTIR, SEM, XRD and viscosity. The SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis indicated that chitosan was synthesized with a high degree of deacetylation (83.18±2.11 when lactic acid was used and 84.2±5.00 when HCl was used. The degree of deacetylation and the molecular weight of the chitosan samples were also estimated. ANOVA analysis (at 95% confidence interval indicated that acid type and concentration did not significantly affect the solubility, degree of deacetylation, viscosity and molecular weight of the chitosan within the range considered.

  17. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  18. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  19. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( Pprobiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  20. USE OF BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA IN THE FEEDING OF STURGEON JUVENILES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the technological and biological characteristics of the use of brine shrimp (Artemia in the feeding of sturgeon juvenilse (Acipenseridae. To highlight the common biotechnological bases of the enrichment of brine shrimp with biologically active substances necessary for the full development of sturgeon juveniles. Findings. The review of scientific papers showed that the technology is the use of brine shrimp in the feeding of sturgeon speices not only had not lost its relevance in aquaculture, but also continued to evolve in response to new challenges. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the biological structure of brine shrimp eggs and methods of their quality assessment in the field. It describes the nutritional characteristics of Artemia. It is shown that brine shrimp is the best food organism for the use in the feeding of sturgeon fingerlings. The calculation scheme for Artemia decapsulation and incubation is provided. The main technological stages of of the preparation of shrimps before their use in feeding – activation, hydration, decapsulation, incubation, dehydration were described. The effect of brine shrimp nauplia enriched with biologically active substances enriched brine shrimp on sturgeon juveniles was highlighted. Practical value. Fish farm owners search for cost-effective, easy to use, and available food that is preferred by sturgeon juveniles (Acipenseridae. Brine shrimp nauplii obtained from cysts can be readil used to feed fish just after one-day incubation. Instar I (the nauplii that just hatched and contain large yolk reserves in their body and instar II nauplii (the nauplii after first moult and with functional digestive tracts are more widely used in aquaculture, because they are easy for operation, rich in nutrients, and small, which makes them suitable for feeding fish larvae as live feed or after drying. The generalized information will be important for

  1. Antimicrobial effect of dietary oregano essential oil against Vibrio bacteria in shrimps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia-Valenzuela M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary oregano essential oils on the growth of Vibrio bacteria in shrimps was evaluated. Shrimps were fed: (i food with oregano oil with a high level of thymol; (ii food with oregano oil with a high level of carvacrol, and (iii food without oregano oil (the control. The animals were infected by three species of Vibrio (vulnificus, parahaemolyticus and cholerae. The microbial counts of Vibrio species were significantly lower (p <0.05 in tissues from animals whose food was supplemented with oregano oil. We concluded that dietary supplementation of shrimps with oregano oil provides antimicrobial activity into the body of the penaeids.

  2. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  3. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Md Noor Uddin

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars.

  4. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... addition, food preparations (including dusted shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more... coated with a wet viscous layer containing egg and/or milk, and par- fried. The products covered by this...

  5. 77 FR 20358 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ..., food preparations (including dusted shrimp), which are not ``prepared meals,'' that contain more than... milk, and par-fried. The products covered by the order are currently classified under the following HTS...

  6. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Countervailing Duty Investigations and Scheduling of Preliminary Phase Investigations AGENCY: United States... of investigations and commencement of preliminary phase countervailing duty investigations Nos. 701...

  7. Brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity of extracts from the bark of Schleichera oleosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Pokhrel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antibacterial efficacy and brine shrimp toxicity of extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water obtained from the bark of Schleichera oleosa. Methods: The powdered bark sample was Soxhlet extracted sequentially in hexanes, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antibacterial evaluation was carried out by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a reference. Slightly modified Meyer’s method was used to determine the toxicity of the extracts in brine shrimps. Results: Among the nine bacterial strains tested, the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed promising antibacterial efficacy against Serratia marcescens, Escherarichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus. None of the extracts were found significantly toxic to brine shrimps. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial activity and low brine shrimp toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts can provide new antibacterial compounds.

  8. Penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; Menon, N.G.

    Results of a preliminary study on the occurrence and distribution of seventeen species of Penaeoid and Sergestoid shrimps from the deep scattering layer (DSL) of the Indian EEZ of Arabian Sea are presented here based on the IKMT samples collected...

  9. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp ( Pandalus borealis )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, J.; Modberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    conditions. Shrimp in brine with benzoic. citric and sorbic acids prevented growth of L monocytogenes during more than 40 days at 7 degrees C when the preserving parameters resembled those of commercial products. However, small changes in the preserving parameters and, particularly, reduced concentrations......Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced...... and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric...

  10. Analysis of production and environmental effects of Nile tilapia and white shrimp culture in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, J.G.; Falconer, L.; Kittiwanich, J.

    2015-01-01

    calculated emissions of 2,105,118 and 34,904 Population Equivalents (PEQ) respectively. Only part is a negative externality, because rural agro-aqua systems in Thailand reuse discharges in holding ponds, rice culture, etc. Commercial tilapia and shrimp aquaculture have a value added share of total GDP of 0......Two case studies from Southeast Asia are used to analyse production, environmental effects, and economic optimisation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) pond culture. A projection of these data is made for the whole of Thailand. The results are analysed...... on a regional scale based on site selection using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE). Farm-scale culture was simulated for (i) tilapia monoculture in Chiang Rai; (ii) shrimp monoculture in Chanthaburi; and (iii) Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) of tilapia and shrimp in Chon Buri. Together...

  11. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars. PMID:26222547

  12. Deproteination of shrimp shell wastes using immobilized marine associated pseudomonad Amet1776

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhagat, J.; Venkatramani, M.; Hussain, A. J.; Jayaprakashvel, M.

    Chitin is a naturally abundant amino polysaccharide found in the shell of crustaceans, insects etc. It has become of great interest because of their biological, industrial and biomedical applications. Shrimp by product has become available...

  13. Diseases and treatment reported by shrimp and tilapia farmers in Guangdong Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    Guangdong province is the most important region for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) culture in China that meet demands from both national consumers and export markets. However, the intensified production has brought increased disease problems, antibiotics and other...

  14. Information Seeking Behaviour of Shrimp Farmers and their Perception towards Technology Dissemination through Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand PR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted among the shrimp farmers to ascertain their information seeking behaviour and perception concerning extension service through mobile phones. The findings indicate that the farmer respondents were of the perception that mobile phone-aided extension service is a viable, expedient, prompt, cost-effective and novel approach. Further they expressed that a dedicated mobile app on shrimp farming with dynamic content modules on ‘disease diagnosis, calculations for water quality corrections, feed management, pond risk management and post your query ’would be very useful for farmers and extension workers to update their capacity and sharing of field experiences. Therefore, developing a mobile app on shrimp farming, incorporating the above features would enhance the access to quality information and minimise the information gap among the shrimp farmers.

  15. Conversion efficiency in the shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius), fed on decomposed mangrove leaves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Ramadhas, V.

    Feeding experiments were carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using mangrove leaves at different stages of decomposition, in combination with rice bran. Maximum conversion efficiency was found in shrimps fed completely decomposed mangrove leaves...

  16. Flour production from shrimp by-products and sensory evaluation of flour-based products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mendes Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production of flour using by-products (cephalothorax obtained from the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei industry, and to perform a sensory analysis of shrimp flour-based products. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses on fresh cephalothorax and on manufactured flour were performed, as well as the determination of cholesterol content of this flour, and the sensorial evaluation of soup and pastry made with this flour. By the microbiological analyses, no pathogenic microorganism was detected in the samples. Physicochemical analyses of flour showed high levels of protein (50.05% and minerals (20.97%. Shrimp cephalothorax flour showed high levels of cholesterol. The sensory evaluation indicated a good acceptance of the products, with satisfactory acceptability index (81% for soup, and 83% for pastry, which indicates that shrimp cephalothorax in the form of flour has a potential for developing new products.

  17. EFFECT OF CHITOSAN COATING ON SHELF LIFE OF BLACK TIGER SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhadra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan coating serve as an antioxidant and micro-diffusion barrier and prevents the loss of water, texture, odour, color or overall accessibility in seafood. The preservation of shrimps using chitosan dips seems promising and effective, as demonstrated in this study. The antimicrobial property of chitosan is infhenod by slightly acidic pH. This work also showed that the shelf life of Penaeus monodon coated with chitosan dips extends the shelf life of shrimp.

  18. Impact of value chain governance on the development of small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. H. Ho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper is to identify the tendency of shrimp value chain development and impact of its governance on the small scale shrimp farmers in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach - Data from the shrimp farmers surveys in Mekong delta, Vietnam from 2008-2010 with the update information in 2014 were taken to analyse by the value chain analysis method. Findings – Traditional governance type of the shrimp value chain in the early state (before 2004 showed the different levels of coordination of farmers with collectors, among collectors, and collectors with processing plants. In this type of governance, trust and linkages are inextricably linked. However, they are not strong. The processing plants determine shrimp prices and quality requirement in the market while many collectors do not seem to be highly responsible for the quality of their products. To avoid this limitation, with the governmental support policy to improve farmers’ income, the processing plants set up a direct buying from farmers under contracts. These contracts led to a new governance type with an expectation of improving farmers' position. However, this model was broken due to several reasons including un-controlled shrimp raw material from small scale and individual farmers. Consequently, processors now tend to establish their own raw material zone to comply shrimp quality assurance, and eject the existence of farmers. This will lead small scale farmers to very difficult problems in finding the market. Poverty and social problems of small scale farmers might appear. The result recommends a greater strengthening and tightening of the value chain. Re-organizing shrimp farmers into legal teams or groups that help farmers to re-participate in the game with others actor in the chain is crucial. Research limitations/implications - The research mainly follows inductive approach in w

  19. Do omnivorous shrimp influence mayfly nymph life history traits in a tropical island stream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Macías

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific interactions can play an important role in determining habitat selection and resource use between competing species. We examined interactions between an omnivorous shrimp and a grazing mayfly, two co-dominant taxa found in Puerto Rican headwater streams, to assess how predator presence may influence mayfly resource use and instantaneous growth in a tropical rainforest ecosystem. We conducted a series of behavioral and growth experiments to determine the effects of the freshwater shrimp, Xiphocaris elongata, on the growth rate and resource selection of mayfly nymphs in the family Leptophlebiidae. For resource choice assessments, we conducted a series of five day laboratory experiments where mayflies were given access to two resource substrate choices (cobble vs. leaves in the presence or absence of shrimp. To assess for the effects of shrimp on mayfly fitness, we measured mayfly growth in laboratory aquaria after five days using four treatments (cobble, leaves, cobble + leaves, no resource in the presence or absence of shrimp. In resource choice experiments, mayflies showed preference for cobble over leaf substrata (p<0.05 regardless of the presence of shrimps, however, the preference for cobble was significantly greater when shrimp were present in the leaf habitat. In growth experiments, there were no statistical differences in mayfly growth in the presence or absence of shrimp (p=0.07. However, we measured increased mayfly nymph growth in the absence of predators and when both cobble and leaves were available. Our results suggest that interspecific interactions between these taxa could potentially influence organic matter resource dynamics (e.g., leaf litter processing and export in Puerto Rican streams. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2: 41-51. Epub 2014 April 01.

  20. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  1. Application of risk perception and communication strategies to manage disease outbreaks of coastal shrimp farming in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan

    2008-01-01

      Risk and uncertainty are very common issues in coastal shrimp industry like in any other business. A variety of risks are associated in shrimp farming like, production risks, technical risks, economical risks and disease of shrimp. However, risk of economic losses due to shrimp mortality (for...... diseases) is the major concern of shrimp producers of developing countries like Bangladesh, India, Thailand, China and many other countries. The risk of disease outbreaks in shrimp farms could be effectively prevented and managed by early identification of disease occurrence and by rapid communication...

  2. Production and characterization of chitosan obtained from shrimp exoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Leticia P.; Aguiar, Nayara V.; Rodrigues, Willias da L.; Silva, Rafael S. da; Moreira, Carly K.P.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer, biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic. It's derived from the deacetylation of chitin, which constitutes the most part of the exoskeleton of insects, crustaceans and fungal cell wall. After cellulose, chitin is more organic compound found in nature. The Chitin was separated from others components of shrimp waste (Macrobrachium amazonicum) by a chemical process that involves three steps: demineralization, deproteination and depigmentation. The chitosan produced was characterized by potentiometric titration, to find the degree of deacetylation (85,32 %), determining the intrinsic viscosity to define its molecular weight (503.223 g/mol), and X-ray diffraction to determine its crystallinity index (58,4 %). (author)

  3. Brine Shrimp test Triterpenes from root bark of Sandoricum emarginatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratiwi Pratiwi

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The root of Sondoricum emargiatum , Meliaceae was collected in North Tapanuli, North Sumatera. Local people use this timber plany for construction and the fruit bark for cooking (Naito, 1986. In the previous investigation, 1,3,4 cuparatrien-15-ol, 4.15-cubebene and secobryononic acid were isolated from stem bark of Sondoricum emargiatum (Pratiwi. Further fractionation of n-hexane extract of root bark of Sondoricum emargiatum in the isolation of two triterpenes resulted byononic (1 and 3,4-seco-olean-4 (23, 12-dien-3,29-dionic acids (3 and their structures were elucidated by IR, MS, and NMR-spectroscopy. Compound (1 and (3 were forund more active than methyl bryononic derivate (2 with Brine Shrimp as bioindicator.

  4. Shelf-life extension of Pacific white shrimp using algae extracts during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchang; Yang, Zhongyan; Li, Jianrong

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp is a low-fat, high-protein aquatic product, and is susceptible to spoilage during storage. To establish an effective method for the quality control of Pacific white shrimp, the effects of polyphenols (PP) and polysaccharides (PS) from Porphyra yezoensis on the quality of Pacific white shrimp were assessed during refrigerated storage. Pacific white shrimp samples were treated with 5 g L -1 polyphenols, and 8 g L -1 polysaccharides, then stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 8 days. All samples were subjected to measurement of total viable count (TVC), pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), K-value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and were also assessed by sensory evaluation. The results showed that PP, PS, and the mixture of polyphenols and polysaccharides (PP+PS) could inhibit the increase of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and K-value, and reduce total viable count (TVC) compared with the control group. PP could also inhibit polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. Sensory evaluation proved the efficacy of PP and PS by maintaining the overall quality of Pacific white shrimp during refrigerated storage. Moreover, PP+PS could extend the shelf-life of shrimp by 3-4 days compared with the control group. PP+PS could more effectively maintain quality and extend shelf-life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. BIOLOGY AND POPULATION DYNAMICS OF BANANA SHRIMP (Penaeus merguiensis IN THE TARAKAN WATERS, EAST BORNEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duranta D. Kembaren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of biology and population dynamic of banana shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis in Tarakan waters, East Borneo was carried out from January to November 2012. The aim of this research was to identify the biological aspects and population dynamics of banana shrimp. For estimating dynamic population, data were analysed using FiSAT II. The result showed that length at first capture (Lc of banana shrimp by mini trawl (pukat hela was 35 mm and the size at first maturity (Lm was 33,86 mm in carapace length. Spawning occured all year around and reached it’s peak in March. The growth coefficient (K of banana shrimp was 1,45/year with carapace asymptotic length (CL” of 80 mm. Total mortality rate (Z and natural mortality rate (M were 4,85/year and 1,76/year. While fishing mortality rate (F and exploitation rate (E were 3,09/year and 0,64, respectively. The exploitation rate of banana shrimp in Tarakan waters tended to be overexploited so that it needed to be managed wisely and carefully by reducing the fishing effort and fishing season especially on spawning season. The recruitment peak of banana shrimp occured in May.

  6. Protection of yellow head virus infection in shrimp by feeding of bacteria expressing dsRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitt, Poohrawind; Attasart, Pongsopee; Panyim, Sakol

    2014-06-10

    Although prevention of shrimp mortality from yellow head virus (YHV) infection via dsRNA injection has been well demonstrated for many years, it has not yet been applied in a farm culture because of its impracticality. Hence, oral administration of dsRNA becomes an alternative and desirable approach. This study is the first to demonstrate that oral feeding of Escherichia coli expressing shrimp Rab7 gene (dsRab7) or YHV protease gene (dsYHV) could inhibit YHV replication and lowered shrimp mortality. E. coli HT115 expressing dsRab7 or dsYHV or a combination of these dsRNAs were embedded in agar and used to feed vannamei shrimp at early juvenile stage before YHV challenge. After 4 days of continuous feeding of dsRNAs, strong inhibitory effect on shrimp mortality was observed in which dsRab7 gave the highest effect (70% reduction from the control) whereas dsYHV showed a 40% reduction. Our results reveal the potential of anti-YHV strategy via orally delivered dsRNA for application in the shrimp farm industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robalino, Javier; Wilkins, Blake; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Chan, Tin-Yam; O'Leary, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya) previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade's ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently.

  8. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Robalino

    Full Text Available Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade's ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently.

  9. Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D. [Kentucky State Univ., Frankfort, KY (United States). Aquaculture Research Center; Grey, B. [Peabody Coal Co., Rockport, KY (United States); McGuire, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

  10. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Eamkamon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  11. An update on mechanism of entry of white spot syndrome virus into shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arunima Kumar; Gupta, Shipra; Singh, Shivesh Pratap; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao

    2017-08-01

    Host-parasite relationships can be best understood at the level of protein-protein interaction between host and pathogen. Such interactions are instrumental in understanding the important stages of life cycle of pathogen such as adsorption of the pathogen on host surface followed by effective entry of pathogen into the host body, movement of the pathogen across the host cytoplasm to reach the host nucleus and replication of the pathogen within the host. White Spot Disease (WSD) is a havoc for shrimps and till date no effective treatment is available against the disease. Moreover information regarding the mechanism of entry of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) into shrimps, as well as knowledge about the protein interactions occurring between WSSV and shrimp during viral entry are still at very meagre stage. A cumulative and critically assessed information on various viral-shrimp interactions occurring during viral entry can help to understand the exact pathway of entry of WSSV into the shrimp which in turn can be used to device drugs that can stop the entry of virus into the host. In this context, we highlight various WSSV and shrimp proteins that play role in the entry mechanism along with the description of the interaction between host and pathogen proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  13. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  14. Use of cDNA microarray to isolate differentially expressed genes in White Spot Virus infected shrimp (penaeus stylirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Arun K.; Klimpel, Kurt R.; Bullis, Robert A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the etiologic agent of white spot disease, is currently the most important viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial report, white spot disease has caused losses of catastrophic proportion to shrimp aquaculture globally. Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing the WSSV and developing detection methods, information on the host genes involved in the immune response in shrimp due to WSSV infection is not availabl...

  15. Source identification and entry pathways of banned antibiotics nitrofuran and chloramphenicol in shrimp value chain of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jakiul Islam; Afroza Akter Liza; A.H.M. Mohsinul Reza; M. Shaheed Reza; Mohammed Nurul Absar Khan; Md. Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Contamination with residues of banned carcinogenic antibiotic drugs like nitrofuran metabolites and chloramphenicol (CAP) in frozen shrimp products has become a major concern of food safety for exporting countries. In the present study an approach was taken to identify the sources of such harmful antibiotics in the shrimp value chain of Bangladesh, one of the major shrimp countries. Materials and Methods: Inputs of farms and hatchery systems including feed, feed additives, fee...

  16. Crecimiento del cangrejo Callinectes danae (Decapoda: Portunidae de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesylén Castillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del género Callinectes sostienen pesquerías importantes en varias partes del mundo. En el occidente de Venezuela, Callinectes sapidus es capturado con palangre y sostiene una pesquería artesanal importante en el Lago de Maracaibo; mientras que en la Isla de Margarita, Callinectes danae es capturado con nasa en zonas cercanas a lagunas costeras y su pesca está limitada por la oferta y la demanda. Estos recursos son de considerable importancia económica entre los crustáceos comestibles; sin embargo, pocos estudios han sido reportados sobre la dinámica poblacional y potencialidad pesquera en ambientes costeros de Venezuela que contribuyan a la toma de decisiones en la administración pesquera. En este documento se presenta información de los parámetros de crecimiento del cangrejo Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, con el fin de obtener un conocimiento detallado del patrón de crecimiento y lograr estimaciones más precisas sobre el tamaño de la población y su disponibilidad para la explotación. Se analizó una muestra constituida por 3 623 ejemplares capturados con nasa cangrejera por la flota artesanal, entre octubre 2007 y septiembre 2008. Se estableció la relación longitud-peso y se estimaron los parámetros de crecimiento de las curvas en longitud y peso del modelo de von Bertalanffy. La proporción sexual global mostró que no existe diferencia significativa entre machos y hembras (χ2=0.04, p>0.05. Los valores de las pendientes b entre machos y hembras presentaron diferencias significativas (ts=2.75, pDana Swimming crab growth Callinectes danae (Decapoda: Portunidae from Margarita Island, Venezuela. Callinectes danae is a common species captured with crab traps in nearby areas of coastal lagoons in Margarita Island. Although its considerable economic importance as a fishery resource, few studies have been done on population dynamics and its fishery potential in local coastal environments to support decision making in

  17. A new species of Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), M. pantanalense, from the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Antonina; Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical species Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) is considered a particularly successful species, showing an extremely wide range of distribution (ca 4.000 km across). Populations assigned to this species live in estuaries along the northern and northeastern coasts of South America as well as in fresh water habitats in the Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná-Paraguay river basins. Following recent comparative studies that showed differential ecological, reproductive, developmental and physiological traits in geographically separated populations from the Amazon delta and the Pantanal region, Brazil, we examined the morphology of adult shrimps from these two regions. Based on significant differences, we conclude that the Pantanal population constitutes a new species, which is described here as Macrobrachium pantanalense. The main differences between M. amazonicum and the new species have been found in the morphology of the second pereiopod, the telson, and in the color patterns of both males and females. A modification on the key of American species of Macrobrachium is provided to accommodate the new species.

  18. Structural alterations in the male reproductive system of the freshwater crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda, Parastacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnot, Ana B; López Greco, Laura S

    2009-10-01

    No diseases affecting reproductive performance have been previously reported in freshwater crayfishes. This study aims to characterise one reproductive system abnormality found in males of Cherax quadricarinatus reared in captivity. Fifteen adult males of C. quadricarinatus (70-110 g) were purchased from San Mateo S.A. farm (Entre Ríos, Argentina) each season during 2007. Macroscopic analysis showed that 26.6% of the animals sacrificed in winter presented brownish distal vasa deferentia. Histological analysis showed different levels of structural abnormality in the epithelium of the vasa deferentia and spermatophore. Granular and hyaline haemocytes were identified within the vasa deferentia but no significant differences were found in the sperm count between normal and brownish vas deferens. Histological analysis of the crayfishes sacrificed in autumn also showed these modifications in 22% of the animals, however, they did not show the brownish colour under macroscopic analysis. The similarities between the male reproductive system syndrome in shrimps and the abnormalities found in C. quadricarinatus are notable. An unspecific response to thermic stress is a possible explanation of these structural alterations.

  19. Measurement of pollution levels of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in water, soil, sediment, and shrimp to identify possible impacts on shrimp production at Jiquilisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomen, Rosa; Sempere, Julià; Chávez, Francisco; de López, Nelly Amaya; Rovira, Ma Dolores

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to identify levels of several organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds in shrimp-raising areas of coastal El Salvador, to assess potential impacts on shrimp growth and survival that hamper the sustainability of aquaculture in the region. The paper reports the current levels of γ-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, parathion, methyl parathion, and etoprophos in soils (depth 20 cm), sediments (depth 5 cm), shrimp (Penaeus sp.), and water of three rearing ponds and also in the sediment (depth 5 cm) and water surrounding those ponds in Jiquilisco Bay. Sampling was carried out during the dry (January-March) and rainy (June-August) seasons of 2008. The presence of pesticides in the samples of water, shrimp, and sediment at shrimp ponds was not detected in either season; however, in soil samples (depth 20 cm) taken from these ponds, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, 4,4'-DDD, and 4,4'-DDT were identified at concentrations below the method limit of quantification (LOQ), and 4,4'-DDE was found in a concentration falling in the range from 3.85 to 19.61 ng/g. In samples of water taken at the bay water intakes to the rearing ponds, we observed dieldrin concentrations in the range between 0.085 ng/mL and 0.182 ng/mL during the dry season. In the samples of sediments taken in the surrounding areas of shrimp ponds, we found-for both seasons-that in 60 % of the samples, 4,4'-DDE was present in concentrations ranging from 3.75 ng/g to 30.97 ng/g. Additionally, in the rainy season, we observed heptachlor in sediment at concentrations below the method quantification limit. It was concluded that organochlorine compounds from pesticides are still present in Jiquilisco Bay, trapped in deep sediment, even though they have been banned since the 1980s. These were not detected in shrimp tissue, surface water, and shallow sediment in rearing ponds, and hence, we do not believe their presence has any major impact on shrimp production in sampled

  20. A new species of the genus Typton Costa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) from the eastern tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E; Galvan-Villa, Cristian Moises

    2015-03-06

    A new species of commensal shrimp of the genus Typton from holothurians is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected from a single specimen of Holothuria (Halodeima) inornata Semper, 1868 at a depth of 7 m. This is the first record of an association between a shrimp of the genus Typton and echinoderms. With this record, five species of Typton are now known from the eastern Pacific region and four of them are found in the Mexican Pacific. In Typton granulosus sp. nov., the distal part of the outer margin of the uropodal exopod is serrated, a feature shared with T. fapespae Almeida et al., 2014, T. holthuisi De Grave, 2010, T. prionurus Holthuis, 1951, T. serratus Holthuis, 1951, and T. spongicola Costa, 1844. However, the new species can be separated from the other five species of the genus by several morphological characters.

  1. Using Brine Shrimps as Food and Premix for Domestic Birds, and Issues of the Prophylactics of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Volf

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The brine shrimps of the genus Artemia (Crustacea: Anostraca: Artemiidae is widely used in the poultry farming as the food and premix of domestic birds. In salt lakes many wild bird species are vectors of infectious and parasitic diseases, and the feeding of farming birds with brine shrimp species of Artemia has potential danger of certain diseases. Using the brine shrimps of the genus Artemia in the poultry farming requires measures of disinfection of the raw materials and equipment. The brine shrimps, Artemia may be serving as potential intermediate hosts of the tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum , and one of the sources of the infectious diseases of game birds.

  2. Effects of dietary replacement of fishmeal by mealworm meal on muscle quality of farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roseane L; Pinto, Stephanie S; Nóbrega, Renata O; Vieira, Felipe N; Fracalossi, Débora M; Samuels, Richard I; Prudêncio, Elane S; Silva, Carlos P; Amboni, Renata D M C

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the muscle quality of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed on a diet containing different proportions of mealworm meal (MW) (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) as a substitute for fishmeal, which is the normal diet used in shrimp commercial production. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile, colour and texture of the shrimps were evaluated. Moisture, protein, and ash content of shrimp muscle were not significantly altered when fishmeal was replaced by MW (p>0.05). However, the replacement resulted in a linear increase in lipid content (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition of the experimental diets directly mirrored the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle. The absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in MW composition resulted in a linear decrease in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids in shrimp muscle with increasing levels of MW in the diet. The n-3/n-6 ratio ranged from 0.50 to 0.67. Colour and firmness were unchanged between the treatments. Although the use of MW as a fishmeal substitute in L. vannamei diets has affected the lipid and fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle, from a human nutritional perspective, the lipid content of the shrimps is considered low and the n-3/n-6 ratio remained within the human dietary requirements. Therefore the use of a mealworm diet for shrimp production is a viable alternative to increasingly expensive fishmeal based diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  4. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Hayd

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4 000km across living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size, were studied in M. amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2 270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1 667 females, 157 of these ovigerous. Sex ratio (males:females was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha. A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal

  5. The impacts of modern-use pesticides on shrimp aquaculture: An assessment for north eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Sharon E; Doan, Hai; Gonzago, Debra; Musson, Dean; Du, Jun; Kookana, Rai; Sellars, Melony J; Kumar, Anu

    2018-02-01

    The use of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides has increased in Australia over the last decade, and as a consequence, increased concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid have been measured in Australian rivers. Previous studies have shown that non-target crustaceans, including commercially important species, can be extremely sensitive to these pesticides. Most shrimp farms in Australia are predominantly located adjacent to estuaries so they can obtain their required saline water, which support multiple land uses upstream (e.g. sugar-cane farming, banana farming, beef cattle and urbanisation). Larval and post-larval shrimp may be most susceptible to the impacts of these pesticides because of their high surface area to volume ratio and rapid growth requirements. However, given the uncertainties in the levels of insecticides in farm intake water and regarding the impacts of insecticide exposure on shrimp larvae, the risks that the increased use of new classes of pesticide pose towards survival of post-larval phase shrimp cannot be adequately predicted. To assess the potential for risk, toxicity in 20day past hatch post-larval Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) to modern use insecticides, imidacloprid, bifenthin, and fipronil was measured as decreased survival and feeding inhibition. Post-larval phase shrimp were sensitive to fipronil, bifenthrin, and imidacloprid, in that order, at concentrations that were comparable to those that cause mortality other crustaceans. Bifenthrin and imidacloprid exposure reduced the ability of post-larval shrimp to capture live prey at environmentally realistic concentrations. Concentrations of a broad suite of pesticides were also measured in shrimp farm intake waters. Some pesticides were detected in every sample. Most of the pesticides detected were measured below concentrations that are toxic to post-larval shrimp as used in this study, although pesticides exceed guideline values, suggesting the possibility

  6. Toxicity of the mosquito control pesticide Scourge to adult and larval grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter; DeLorenzo, Marie; Gross, Kristen; Chung, Katy; Clum, Allan

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of various concentrations of technical resmethrin and Scourge on adult and larval Palaemonetes pugio, a common grass shrimp species. Two types of tests were conducted for each of the resmethrin formulations using adult and larval grass shrimp life stages, a 96-h static renewal aqueous test without sediment, and a 24-h static nonrenewal aqueous test with sediment. For resmethrin, the 96-h aqueous LC50 value for adult shrimp was 0.53 microg/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46-0.60 microg/L), and for larval shrimp was 0.35 microg/L (95% CI: 0.28-0.42 microg/L). In the presence of sediment, technical resmethrin produced a 24-h LC50 value for adult shrimp of 5.44 microg/L (95% CI: 4.52-6.55 microg/L), and for larval shrimp of 2.15 microg/L (95% CI: 1.35-3.43 microg/L). For Scourge, the 96-h aqueous LC50 for adult shrimp was 2.08 microg/L (95% CI: 1.70-2.54 microg/L), and for larval shrimp was 0.36 microg/L (95% CI: 0.24-0.55 microg/L). The 24-h sediment test yielded an LC50 value of 16.12 microg/L (95% CI: 14.79-17.57 microg/L) for adult shrimp, and 14.16 microg/L (95% CI: 12.21-16.43 microg/L) for larvae. Adjusted LC50 values to reflect the 18% resmethrin concentration in Scourge are 0.37 microg/L (adult), 0.07 microg/L (larvae) for the 96-h aqueous test, and 2.90 microg/L (adult), 2.6 microg/L (larvae) for the 24-h sediment test. Larval grass shrimp were more sensitive to technical resmethrin and Scourge than the adult life stage. The results also demonstrate that synergized resmethrin is more toxic to P. pugio than the nonsynergized form, and that the presence of sediment decreases the toxicity of both resmethrin and Scourge.

  7. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  8. A review of Epipenaeon ingens Nobili, 1906 (Isopoda: Bopyridae) host species and documentation of a new host, Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Alcock, 1905) (Decapoda: Penaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M.; Manokaran, S.; Sun, Jun; Trilles, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We collected 3 596 Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from the southeast coast of India between January and December 2007. Sixty three specimens (43 females and 18 males) were parasitized by the bopyrid isopod Epipenaeon ingens (Isopoda: Bopyridae). This is the first report of the occurrence of E. ingens in this host; therefore, it was considered as a new host record. The highest level of infestation (3.2%) occurred in October 2007, coincident with observations of gravid females (9). The total prevalence and presence of gravid females were 17.46% and 28%, respectively. Infestation caused a characteristic bulge of the branchial chamber, growth retardation, and degeneration of the sex organs, but had no effect on the host weight.

  9. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production in Galveston Bay and Gulf of Mexico from 1999-01-01 to 2005-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0161218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains marsh construction cost in relation to shrimp yield per year. This modeling approach provides estimates of total annual shrimp production from...

  10. A study on biosorption of copper ions by fungal chitosan: an alternative to shrimp chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Behnam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : One of the main applications of chitosan is for heavy metals removal from waste waters. Industrially, chitosan is produced through deacetylation of chitin present in shellfish waste. Another source of chitosan is the cell wall of zygomycetes fungi with several advantages over shellfish wastes .   Materials and method s: Fungal chitosan purified from biomass of Mucor indicus and shrimp chitosan were applied and compared for removal of copper ions from aqueous solution. The effects of pH (3 to 5.5, copper ion concentration (5 to 52 mg l-1, the amount of chitosan (200 to 3000 mg l-1, adsorption time, temperature, and presence of other metal ions on the biosorption of Cu2+ were investigated .   Results : Maximum adsorption capacities for fungal and shrimp chitosans were 58.5 and 60.7 mg g-1, respectively. T he rate of copper adsorption by the fungal chitosan was significantly higher than that by the shrimp chitosan. Among p seudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intra-particle diffusion, and Elovich models, Ho’s pseudo-second order model was the best model for fitting the kinetic data. The adsorption capacity increased for both types of chitosans by increasing the solution pH. However, temperature and presence of other ions did not show significant effects on the biosorption capacity of copper. The isotherm data were very well described by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson models .   Discussion and conclusion : Both fungal and shrimp chitosans can effectively be used for removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption process for fungal chitosan is fast, while the process is slower for the shrimp chitosan. Therefore, from the kinetics point of view, the fungal chitosan is preferable compared with the shrimp chitosan . Key words: Biosorption, Copper, Fungal chitosan, Shrimp chitosan, Water treatment .

  11. Use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by shrimp and fish farmers in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Kim Chi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production is increasing in Vietnam, but is hampered by frequent disease outbreaks and widespread use of various compounds used to treat the fish and shrimp. The objective of this study was to analyse factors influencing farmer use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by a questionnaire and observational survey conducted with 60 whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei and 25 fish farmers in three coastal provinces in Northern Vietnam. Personnel in 22 shops distributing feed and chemicals for aquaculture were interviewed about their advice on sale to the farmers. Results showed that 20 different antimicrobial products were used for disease prevention and treatment in shrimp and marine fish culture. Banned products used included chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and malachite green. Cage fish farmers said they purchased antimicrobial tablets readily available at a local pharmacy and sold for human use. Chinese traders were the main drug suppliers to the shrimp farmers in Quang Ninh and others provinces. Their products were sold with labels and product information written in Chinese only. Farmers appeared to have little awareness and concern about the disease aetiology when applying specific antimicrobials. Up to 50% of the shrimp farmers used up to 20 different disinfectants, e.g. chlorine-based compounds, to disinfect water in storage ponds, often without knowledge of the type of disinfectants and their mode of action. A variety of probiotics, vitamins, minerals and herbal extracts were routinely used by mainly shrimp farmers to enhance shrimp immunity. There is an urgent need to provide aquaculture farmers access to diagnostic and independent disease control advisory services and quality medicated feed, since the current indiscriminate use of antimicrobials and other compounds are inefficient, costly, and hazardous to the aquatic animal and farmer’s health, the environment and food safety.

  12. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areechon, Nontawith; Purivrojkul, Watchariya; Srisapoome, Prapansak; Piadiang, Nattaya

    2006-09-01

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  13. Integrating molecular and ecological approaches to identify potential polymicrobial pathogens over a shrimp disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenfang; Yu, Weina; Xuan, Lixia; Tao, Zhen; Xiong, Jinbo

    2018-04-01

    It is now recognized that some gut diseases attribute to polymicrobial pathogens infections. Thus, traditional isolation of single pathogen from disease subjects could bias the identification of causal agents. To fill this gap, using Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we explored the dynamics of gut bacterial communities over a shrimp disease progression. The results showed significant differences in the gut bacterial communities between healthy and diseased shrimp. Potential pathogens were inferred by a local pathogens database, of which two OTUs (affiliated with Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio harveyi) exhibited significantly higher abundances in diseased shrimp as compared to healthy subjects. The two OTUs cumulatively contributed 64.5% dissimilarity in the gut microbiotas between shrimp health status. Notably, the random Forest model depicted that profiles of the two OTUs contributed 78.5% predicted accuracy of shrimp health status. Removal of the two OTUs from co-occurrence networks led to network fragmentation, suggesting their gatekeeper features. For these evidences, the two OTUs were inferred as candidate pathogens. Three virulence genes (bca, tlpA, and fdeC) that were coded by the two candidate pathogens were inferred by a virulence factor database, which were enriched significantly (P < 0.05 in the three cases, as validated by qPCR) in diseased shrimp as compared to healthy ones. The two candidate pathogens were repressed by Flavobacteriaceae, Garvieae, and Photobacrerium species in healthy shrimp, while these interactions shifted into synergy in disease cohorts. Collectively, our findings offer a frame to identify potential polymicrobial pathogen infections from an ecological perspective.

  14. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 , 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N, 68%). Phosphate (PO 4 -P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO 3 -N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P≤0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P≤0.05) in BOD 5 , TAN and NO 2 -N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8±1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P≤0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3±1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system

  15. Production of dried shrimp mixed with turmeric and salt by Spouted Bed technique enter the rectangular chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanthong, P.; Mustafa, Y.; Ngamrungroj, D.

    2017-09-01

    Today, dried shrimp in the market were refused food colour and drying until shrimp are colourful and tasty. Meanwhile, Community groups, women’s health trying to produce food products come from herbs. As an alternative to consumers. The production process is also a traditional way to dry. In order to extend the shelf life longer. Sometimes, potential risks, both in quality and quantity of products. As a result, consumers are enormous. Thus, this research aims to study the possibility to produce shrimp dried mixed with turmeric and salt. Then dried shrimp mixed with turmeric and salt to keep up the quality criteria of the Food and Drug Administration-FDA It can reduce the risk of the consumer and can keep up in a kitchen Thailand. When buying shrimp from the fisherman’s boat Will be made clear, clean impurities and shaking the sand to dry. Prepare a mixture of turmeric and salt. The shrimp were dipped into a beef with stirrer for 3 minutes. And scoop up centrifugal shrimp with dried. Measurement of initial moisture content averaging 78%wb. Then drying technique Spouted enter the rectangular chamber a continuous manner. Until average moisture content to 17%wb. The air temperature in the drying chamber at 180 °C and hot air speed 4.5 m/s, a state heat transfer Mass and moisture within the shrimp. In chamber when drying, the shrimp have moved freely behaviour can spit water out faster does not burn. Shaving legs of shrimp shell fragments lightweight is sorting out the top of drying chamber. Private shrimp were dried out to the front of the quad drying chamber. Power consumption 27.5 MJ/kg, divided into electrical energy 12.3 MJ/kg and thermal energy is 15.2 MJ/kg. The hot air comes from burning LPG gas burner with dual automatic. And can adjustable to room temperature drying characteristics modulation setting.

  16. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis captured in ecosystem mangrove of Bagan Asahan, Tanjungbalai, Asahan, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, A.; Riza, N.; Raza'i, T. S.

    2018-02-01

    White Shrimp Penaeus merguiensis was commonly found in Mangrove Ecosystem of Bagan Asahan Village. The purpose of this research are to determine length-weight relationship and condition factor of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis around ecosystem mangrove waters in Bagan Asahan Village. This research was conducted for 3 month in Maret until Mei 2017 with determination of research station used purposive sampling method. The shrimp samples were taken by shrimp trawl. The result showed that 98 shrimp which consists of 58 males and 40 female. The carapace length of female shrimp between 6,05 - 22,125 mm and total weight ranged from 0,12 - 6,95 g. Male shrimp had carapace length between 7.125 - 18.25 mm and total weigth ranged from 0.14 - 3.82 g. Female and male white shrimp had different growth pattern. Female shrimp had b = 2.984 included in negaive allometric and male shrimps with b = 3.187 included in positive allometric. The value of correlation coefficients was more than 90% for both male and female showed very strong relation between length carapace and body weight. The value of shrimp condition factor ranged from 0.570 - 1.773 and included to flat (thin) body shrimp.

  17. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use.

  18. Freshwater shrimps as sensitive test species for the risk assessment of pesticides in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daam, Michiel A; Rico, Andreu

    2016-08-17

    The aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in tropical areas has often been disputed to rely on toxicity data generated from tests performed with temperate species. Given the differences in ecosystem structure between temperate and tropical ecosystems, test species other than those used in temperate regions have been proposed as surrogates for tropical aquatic effect assessments. Freshwater shrimps, for example are important components of tropical freshwater ecosystems, both in terms of their role in ecosystem functioning and their economic value. In the present study, available toxicity data of (tropical and sub-tropical) freshwater shrimps for insecticides and fungicides were compiled and compared with those available for Daphnia magna and other aquatic invertebrates. Freshwater shrimps appeared to be especially sensitive to GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist and sodium channel modulator insecticides. However, shrimp taxa showed a moderate and low sensitivity to acetylcholinesterase inhibiting insecticides and fungicides respectively. Implications for the use of freshwater shrimps in tropical pesticide effect assessments and research needs are discussed.

  19. Toxicity of the insecticide etofenprox to three life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; De Leon, Ryan G

    2010-05-01

    Opportunities for environmental contamination by the insecticide etofenprox are increasing as its uses expand from primarily indoor residential to rice cultivation and mosquito control. To provide toxicity data for sensitive saltwater species, effects of etofenprox were assessed using three life stages of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Adults, larvae, and embryos were tested in aqueous exposures, while adults and larval shrimp were also tested in the presence of sediment. In addition, sublethal cellular stress biomarkers, glutathione and lipid peroxidation, were examined. Larval shrimp was the most sensitive life stage, with 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.89 microg/l, compared with 1.26 microg/l for adults and 100 microg/l for embryos. Presence of sediment significantly decreased toxicity of etofenprox to both adult and larval shrimp. Etofenprox exposure (100 micog/l) increased time to hatch in embryos. Lipid peroxidation levels were reduced in adult and larval shrimp after 96 h exposure to etofenprox, while no effect on glutathione was detected. The results of this study provide new information on the toxicity of etofenprox to estuarine invertebrates. These data may prove beneficial to the regulation of this pesticide and management of its uses in coastal areas.

  20. Soil salinity and sodicity in a shrimp farming coastal area of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tho, Nguyen; Vromant, N.; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Hens, L.

    2008-06-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity are environmental problems in the shrimp farming areas of the Cai Nuoc district, Ca Mau province, Vietnam. In 2000, farmers in the district switched en masse from rice cropping to shrimp culture. Due to recent failure in shrimp farming, many farmers wish to revert to a rotational system with rice in the wet season and shrimps in the dry season. So far, all their attempts to grow rice have failed. To assess soil salinity and sodicity, 25 boreholes in shrimp ponds were analysed in four consecutive seasons from 2002 to 2004. The results showed that soil salinity was quite serious (mean ECe 29.25 dS m-1), particularly in the dry season (mean ECe 33.44 dS m-1). In the wet season, significant amounts of salts still remained in the soil (mean ECe 24.65 dS m-1) and the highest soil salinity levels were found near the sea. Soil sodicity is also a problem in the district (exchangeable sodium percentage range 9.63-72.07%). Sodicity is mainly a phenomenon of topsoils and of soils near the sea. Both soil salinity and sodicity are regulated by seasonal rainfall patterns. They could together result in disastrous soil degradation in the Cai Nuoc district.

  1. Diet supplemented with probiotic for Nile tilapia in polyculture system with marine shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatobá, Adolfo; Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; Buglione-Neto, Celso Carlos; Mouriño', José Luiz Pedreira; Silva, Bruno Corrêa; Seiftter, Walter Quadros; Andreatta, Edemar Roberto

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum) supplemented diet on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a polyculture system with marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as regards culture performance, hematology, and gut bacterial microbiota. Ten 20-m² pens were arranged in one earthen pond and stocked with 2 fish (41.9 g) m(-2) and 10 shrimp (2.3 g) m(-2), in total of 40 Nile tilapias and 200 shrimp per experimental unit. Tilapia groups in five of the experimental units were fed a commercial diet supplemented with L. plantarum and the other five with an unsupplemented commercial diet (control). After 12 weeks of culture, the tilapia groups fed the probiotic-supplemented diet presented values 13.6, 7.5, and 7.1% higher for feed efficiency, yield, and final weight, respectively. Viable culturable heterotrophic bacteria counts were reduced, and the number of lactic acid bacteria was increased in the gut of fish and shrimp fed the probiotic-supplemented diet. Hematological analyses showed higher number of thrombocytes and leukocytes in tilapia fed the supplemented diet. L. plantarum utilized in this study colonized the gut of tilapia and shrimp and resulted in reduced number of total bacteria and increased tilapia final weight and feed efficiency.

  2. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  3. An investigation on the application of ohmic heating of cold water shrimp and brine mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Brøkner Kavli, Sissel Therese

    2016-01-01

    and salt concentrations of 13.75 kg m−3 and 25.75 kg m−3 and 3) evaluating the effect of pretreatment (maturation) of the shrimps before ohmic processing. The maturation experiment was performed with the following maturation pre-treatments: normal tap water, a 21.25 kg m−3 brine solution and without...... shrimps (Pandalus Borelias). The shrimps were heated to a core temperature of 72 °C in a brine solution using a small batch ohmic heater. Three experiments were performed: 1) a comparative analyses of the temperature development between different sizes of shrimps and thickness (head and tail region...... of the shrimp) over varying salt concentrations (10 kg m−3 to 20 kg m−3) and electric field strengths (1150 V m−1 to 1725 V m−1) with the heating time as the response; 2) a 2 level factorial experiment for screening the impact of processing conditions using electric field strengths of 1250 V m−1 and 1580 V m−1...

  4. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use

  5. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments.

  6. Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2011-09-15

    The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 μg(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decoupling the response of an estuarine shrimp to architectural components of habitat structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Jeffrey A; Chang, Andrew L; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore biotic attraction to structure, we examined how the amount and arrangement of artificial biotic stalks affected responses of a shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, absent other proximate factors such as predation or interspecific competition. In aquaria, we tested the effect of differing densities of both un-branched and branched stalks, where the amount of material in the branched stalk equaled four-times that of the un-branched. The results clearly showed that it was the amount of material, not how it was arranged, that elicited responses from shrimp. Also, although stalks were not purposefully designed to mimic structural elements found in nature, they did resemble biogenic structure such as hydroids, algae, or plants. In order to test shrimp attraction to a different, perhaps more unfamiliar habitat type, we examined responses to plastic "army men." These structural elements elicited similar attraction of shrimp, and, in general, shrimp response correlated well with the fractal dimension of both stalks and army men. Overall, these results indicate that attraction to physical structure, regardless of its nature, may be an important driver of high abundances often associated with complex habitats.

  8. Decoupling the response of an estuarine shrimp to architectural components of habitat structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Crooks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore biotic attraction to structure, we examined how the amount and arrangement of artificial biotic stalks affected responses of a shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, absent other proximate factors such as predation or interspecific competition. In aquaria, we tested the effect of differing densities of both un-branched and branched stalks, where the amount of material in the branched stalk equaled four-times that of the un-branched. The results clearly showed that it was the amount of material, not how it was arranged, that elicited responses from shrimp. Also, although stalks were not purposefully designed to mimic structural elements found in nature, they did resemble biogenic structure such as hydroids, algae, or plants. In order to test shrimp attraction to a different, perhaps more unfamiliar habitat type, we examined responses to plastic “army men.” These structural elements elicited similar attraction of shrimp, and, in general, shrimp response correlated well with the fractal dimension of both stalks and army men. Overall, these results indicate that attraction to physical structure, regardless of its nature, may be an important driver of high abundances often associated with complex habitats.

  9. Tropical seascapes as feeding grounds for juvenile penaeid shrimps in southern Mozambique revealed using stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Daniela C.; Paula, José; Macia, Adriano

    2017-11-01

    The feeding grounds for four of the most commercially important penaeid shrimp species (Metapenaeus monoceros, M. stebbingi, Penaeus japonicus and Penaeus indicus) within the mangrove and its adjacent coastal habitats (sand flat, mud flat and seagrass meadows) were investigated at Saco and Sangala bays (Inhaca Island, Mozambique, southern-East Africa). The study used carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios to identify the potential food sources for the different shrimp species within each habitat. Significant differences (p food sources in each habitat in both Saco and Sangala bays (isotopic ratios discriminating habitats), as well as between shrimp species among the different habitats. No ontogenetic dietary shifts were found for the studied penaeid shrimp species. The mangrove habitat did not provide a direct food source for most of the species at Saco and Sangala Bays. The seagrass habitat appeared to be a primary feeding area, mainly through seagrass, sediment, polychaetes and seston. The mud and sand flat habitats contributed with less food items for the shrimp species at Saco Bay, as well as the sand flat habitat at Sangala Bay. The possibility to identify feeding grounds is a fundamental tool to assist conservation of the resources and their habitat and for applying an ecosystem approach to fishery management.

  10. Heavy metals contamination in fish and shrimp from coastal regions of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    in the present study, the heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn) concentration was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) in 5 species of fish and 3 species of shrimp commonly taken by locals at the coastal regions of Karachi, Pakistan Concentrations of Cd and Pb studied in tissues of Mushka (Otolithes ruber; 0.120 and 1.018 micro g/ wet weight) and palaemon longirostris shrimp (2.457 and 0.480 micro g/g wet weight) were found near to safe level for human consumption. Mullet, Tarli, Surmai, Dohtar fishes and Blacktiger shrimp were found contaminated by Cd and Pb but still within the limits fit for and human consumption. the distribution of trace metals detected in all fish and shrimp species followed the order of Zn >Pb> Fe>Cu> Cd and Cd> Fe > Zn> Cu>Ph, respectively. Metal concentration exhibited significant species variation and followed the order In fishes as otolithes ruber> Liza vaigiensis>sardinella albella>Scomberomorus guttatus>pomadasys olivaecum and in shrimp as palaemon longirostris>penaeus monodon> penaeus penicillatu. (author)

  11. Problems related to the foreign exchange earnings of Surinam's shrimp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottier, D.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp grounds of Surinam are actually fully exploited by some 136 trawlers of the Florida type, ranging from 100 to 130 GRT. Through export and import levies and fishing licence fees the country was able to obtain a small piece of the foreign currency cake. The Republic of Surinam has been looking for means to increase the benefits from its shrimp business. The alleged huge profits made by foreign vessels inspired the country to invest in a national shrimp fleet and man it with national crew (SUGAM. For reasons explained in the text Sugam has difficultes to operate with a gain. This paper will review Sugam's attempt to earn hard currency. An analysis is made of the foreign exchange earnings of Sugam and is compared with the results of a Korean company. The main conclusions are as follows : shrimp exploitation in a fully exploited Exclusive Economic Zone can only be brought to success by fishermen of proven ability. Each vessel should make trips lasting from 45 to 60 days and be some 280 days at sea per year. Surinam should also reconsider its present policy of shrimp purchasing.

  12. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ON SURVIVAL RATE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION OF WHITELEG SHRIMP IN TRADITIONAL-PLUS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharijadi Atmomarsono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Instead of culturing tiger shrimp that is frequently burdened by mass mortality, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is then considered as an alternative commodity in Indonesian brackishwater ponds. To prevent the whiteleg shrimp from diseases, different probiotic bacteria were tested in completely randomized design experiment using nine 250 m2 experimental ponds stocked with 10 PLs of whiteleg shrimp fry/m2. Three treatments were applied, namely A alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-1, RICA-2, RICA-3; B alternate use of probiotic bacteria RICA-4, RICA-5, RICA-3, and C control (without probiotic bacteria; each with three replications. After 11-week application, the results showed that the best survival rate of whiteleg shrimp was achieved by treatment B 98.83% and the best production was achieved by treatment A (23.52 kg/250 m2. However, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 among the three treatments tested for the shrimp survival rate. The whiteleg shrimp production in treatment A and B were signicantly better (P<0.05 than that in treatment C (control. These high shrimp production in treatment A and B were mainly caused by the capability of the applied probiotics in controlling some water quality variables and Vibrio numbers.

  13. Discarding in the shrimp fisheries in Skagerrak and the Norwegian Deep (ICES Divs. IIIa and IVa east)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Sten; Ulmestrand, Mats; Søvik, Guldborg

    In the Pandalus fisheries in Skagerrak, shrimp are discarded because of being non-marketable, either due to poor landing quality or too small size. However, smaller shrimp of low market value are also discarded (so called high-grading). This is mainly the case in the fisheries which are constrained...

  14. Carnobacterium species: Effect of metabolic activity and interaction with Brochothrix thermosphacta on sensory characteristics of modified atmosphere packed shrimp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Birgit Groth; Leisner, J.J.; Dalgaard, Paw

    2006-01-01

    of Carnobacterium divergens, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, and Carnobacterium mobile. Metabolic activity was studied in cooked and peeled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) shrimp at 5 degrees C as carnobacteria has been anticipated to contribute to spoilage of shrimp products. C. divergens and C. maltaromaticum...

  15. Antimicrobial effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella contamination of raw shrimp is a food safety concern in the U.S. and other countries. This research evaluated the effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere (MA) and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp. Growth profiles of a Salmonella spp. cocktail (6 strains),...

  16. 76 FR 64307 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Amended Final Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... frozen warmwater shrimp and prawn products included in the scope of this order, regardless of definitions.... When dusted in accordance with the definition of dusting above, the battered shrimp product is also... Animal Fisheries Product Processing Export Enterprise (Cafatex) aka Cafatex aka Cafatex Vietnam aka Xi...

  17. Polyculture Engineering technology of larasati red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) based for protease enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidjan, I.; Rachmawati, D.

    2018-04-01

    The objective is polyculture technology of red tilapia larasati fish and white shrimp with different combinations density. The material is saline red tilapia larasati 3.29 ± 0.018 g and white shrimp with initial weight 1.39 ± 0.025 g. Seeds are density of red tilapia larasati larvae 5 and 10 larvae / m2 fish. And white shrimp 5 larvae / m2 and 10 larvae / m2. An artificial feed used enzyme dose of 2.25 g / kg. The experimental using complete randomized design 4 treatments and 3 replications that is given seeds 5 larvae / m2 larvae red tilapia larasati and given 5 larvae / m2 white shrimp (A), 5 larvae / m2 red tilapia) and 10 m2 / m2 of white shrimp (B), 10 m2 larvae and 5 m2 white shrimp (C), 10 m2 larvae and 10 m2 white shrimp (D)). The data were growth of absolute weight, survival rate, FCR, and water quality data (temperature, salinity, pH, O2, NO2, NH3). Data were analyzed of variance (F test). The results showed significantly effect (P <0.01) on the growth. The highest absolute growth in D treatment were red tilapia larasati (185.75 ± 0.50g) and white shrimp (25.25 ± 0.95 g).

  18. 78 FR 14069 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... overfished and overfishing status determination criteria for pink shrimp. DATES: Written comments must be... closure. Overfished and Overfishing Status Determination Criteria for Pink Shrimp Amendment 9 would update the overfished and overfishing status determination criteria (biomass at maximum sustainable yield (B...

  19. Use of seaweed Ulva lactuca for water bioremediation and as feed additive for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Elizondo-González

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1 for wastewater bioremediation, and (2 using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE. Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR compared to the other treatments (p  0.05. In feeding trial 2, U. lactuca biomass produced by wastewater bioremediation in SWE treatment were dried and ground to formulate diets containing 0, 1, 2, and 3% U. lactuca meal (0UL, 1UL, 2UL, and 3UL. Shrimp fed the 3 UL diet resulted in a significant (p < 0.05 improvement of growth and FCR, and enhanced whole shrimp lipid and carotenoid content by 30 and 60%, respectively, compared to control diet. Seaweed U. lactuca is suggested as a desirable species for wastewater bioremediation in integrated aquaculture systems, and its meal as a good feed additive for farmed shrimp.

  20. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of radiation-processed shrimp chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.co [Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Quayson, E.T. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Quarcoo, E.A.; Asare, D. [Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Serfor-Armah, Y. [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Woode, B.K. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2011-07-15

    The effects of gamma irradiation on chitosan samples were determined in terms of physicochemical and functional properties. Shrimp chitosan was extracted from shell using a chemical process involving demineralization, deproteinization, decolorization and deacetylation. Commercial snow chitosan was also used. Samples (in a solid state) were given irradiation dose of 25 kGy at a dose rate of 1.1013 kGy/h in air and 0 kGy samples were used as controls. Results showed that moisture contents were between 8.690% and 13.645%. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the degree of deacetylation of the chitosan samples. Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed in the viscosity and viscosity-average molecular weight of the chistosan samples. Viscosity and molecular weight decreased when the samples were given the irradiation dose of 25 kGy. Chitosan samples had low antioxidant activity compared with BHT. Water binding capacity ranged from 582.40% to 656.75% and fat binding capacity was between 431.00% and 560.55%. Irradiation had a major effect on the viscosity and the viscosity-average molecular weight of the chitosan samples.

  1. Vibrio vulnificus as a health hazard for shrimp consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NASCIMENTO Susy Margella Melo do

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, a number of Vibrio species found in the aquatic environment have been indicated as cause of disease in human beings. Vibrio vulnificus is an emergent pathogen, an invasive and lethal marine bacterium related to wound infection and held accountable for gastroenteritis and primary septicemia. It occurs quite frequently in marine organisms, mainly in mollusks. This study aimed at isolating and identifying strains of V. vulnificus based upon the analysis of twenty samples of seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, purchased at the Mucuripe fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil. TCBS agar was used to isolate suspect strains. Seven of twenty-nine strains isolated from six different samples were confirmed as such by means of biochemical evidence and thus submitted to biological assays to determine their virulence. The susceptibility of the V. vulnificus strains to a number of antibiotics was tested. None of the V. vulnificus strains showed signs of virulence during a 24-hour observation period, possibly due to the shedding of the capsules by the cells. As to the results of the antimicrobial susceptibility tests, the seven above-mentioned V. vulnificus strains were found to be sensitive to nitrofurantoin (NT, ciprofloxacin (CIP, gentamicin (GN and chloramphenicol (CO and resistant to clindamycin (CI, penicillin (PN and ampicillin (AP.

  2. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected gymnosperm and angiosperm species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaćković Peđa T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extracts of selected species of flowering plants Anthemis cotula, A. ruthenica, Centaurea dubia (Asteraceae, Ajuga genevensis, A. chamaepitys, A. reptans, Micromeria albanica, M. cristata, M. dalmatica, M. juliana, Thymus tosevii (Lamiaceae and conifers - Abies alba, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii (Pinaceae and Taxus baccata (Taxaceae, as well as diethyl ether extracts of ten species Anthemis cotula, A. ruthenica, Centaurea dubia, Ajuga genevensis, A. chamaepitys, A. reptans, Micromeria albanica, M. cristata, M. dalmatica and M. juliana from two flowering plant families (Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were tested for general bioactivity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality test. Lethal concentration (LC50 and 95% confidence intervals were determined by computer program LdP line. Out of fifteen tested methanol extracts, three possessed cytotoxic effect. Taxus baccata methanol extract showed the highest effect (LC50 = 18.60 μg/ml, while Thymus tosevii methanol extract expressed the lowest (LC50 = 842.50 μg/ml. All other analyzed species did not express significant cytotoxicity. Also, diethyl ether extracts of all tested species did not show significant cytotoxicity. The obtained results for methanol extracts which show certain cytotoxic effect could be guide for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173029

  3. Application of a Surimi-Based Coating to Improve the Quality Attributes of Shrimp during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf Eddin, Abdulhakim; Tahergorabi, Reza

    2017-09-05

    Shrimp is a popular seafood throughout the world. However, shrimp is highly perishable due to biochemical, microbiological, or physical changes during postmortem storage. In this study, the effect of a surimi-based coating with and without montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay on shrimp quality was evaluated during eight days of refrigerator storage. Use of a surimi-based coating resulted in reductions of aerobic plate counts (APC) up to 2 log units. The combined effect of the MMT and coating was observed. Surimi-based coating with MMT resulted in lower APC ( p coating with MMT to the shrimp samples improved sensory quality and delayed lipid oxidation and color deterioration during storage time. In general, better texture was observed when coating was applied either with or without MMT. This study suggests that surimi-based coating may improve the quality of shrimp during refrigerated storage.

  4. Effects of pesticides and antibiotics on penaeid shrimp with special emphases on behavioral and biomarker responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the present study is to provide information on the current state of knowledge regarding the effects of pesticides and antibiotics used in aquaculture on penaeid shrimp, one of the most common aquatic products for human consumption, with a special emphasis on the use of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical response. These include behavior; feeding rate changes; respiration rate, oxygen consumption, and osmoregulation alterations; nucleic acids, protein, and glycogen synthesis; cholinesterase activity inhibition; ATPase activity; and oxidative stress responses. This paper also deals with residues of antibiotics and pesticides in penaeid shrimp. Antibiotics and pesticides used in aquaculture may have adverse effects on treated animals and human consumers health if they are not correctly used. As a complement to the measurement of antibiotic and pesticide residues in tissues, the use of behavioral and biomarker responses can provide more relevant biological information on the potential adverse effects of antibiotics and pesticides on penaeid shrimp health. (c) 2009 SETAC.

  5. Effects of pesticides on DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Reyes, J Guillermo; Leyva, Nancy R; Millan, Olivia A; Lazcano, Guadalupe A

    2002-10-01

    Recently, diverse pathologies and massive mortalities have been presented in shrimp hatcheries located along the California Gulf; therefore, toxic responses of shrimp larvae were used as biomarkers of pesticide pollution, because in this region intensive agriculture is practiced. Shrimp larvae were exposed to DDT, azinphosmethyl, permethrine, parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, endosulfan, and carbaryl, in order to determine LC50, DNA adducts and/or breaks, and total protein in larvae. The results indicate reductions in protein and DNA in larvae exposed to these pesticides, and in those exposed to DDT, breaks and/or adducts were registered. It is possible that pesticide pollution is a cause of these problems, because reduction in protein indicates a decrease in larvae growth rate and DNA breaks or adducts have been related to pathologies and carcinogenesis in many aquatic organisms.

  6. Concentrations of selected chlorinated pesticides in shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, H.E.; Beck, J.N. (McNeese State Univ., Lake Charles, LA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    For several decades inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems have been affected by a multitude of synthetic chemical substances. This is a consequence of population growth and increased industrial and agricultural activity. Many of these chemicals, the by-products of their production, and degradation products ultimately find their way into the aquatic environment as pollutants. The extent to which these pollutants affect the environment and its inhabitants depends largely upon the quantity and nature of the particular compounds involved. Halogenated hydrocarbons, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide DDT and its degradation products have received much attention as environmental pollutants. Because of the economic importance of the shrimping industry to southwest Louisiana, the objective of this study was to analyze shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex for the presence of selected chlorinated pesticides. The presence of these compounds within shrimp tissues would serve as an indicator for the extent of pollution throughout this important estuarine system.

  7. Use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds by shrimp and fish farmers in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thi Kim Chi, Tran; Clausen, Jesper H.; Van, Phan Thi

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture production is increasing in Vietnam, but is hampered by frequent disease outbreaks and widespread use of various compounds used to treat the fish and shrimp. The objective of this study was to analyse factors influencing farmer use practices of antimicrobials and other compounds...... by a questionnaire and observational survey conducted with 60 whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and 25 fish farmers in three coastal provinces in Northern Vietnam. Personnel in 22 shops distributing feed and chemicals for aquaculture were interviewed about their advice on sale to the farmers. Results showed...... that 20 different antimicrobial products were used for disease prevention and treatment in shrimp and marine fish culture. Banned products used included chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and malachite green. Cage fish farmers said they purchased antimicrobial tablets readily available at a local pharmacy...

  8. Process design and economic evaluation of green extraction methods for recovery of astaxanthin from shrimp waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2017-01-01

    (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol (Hex:IPA). The process flowsheets describing these processes were modelled by means of SuperPro Designer...... processes with SF or the methyl ester of SF (ME-SF) was 2.5 and 153 ppm with a production cost of 0.06 and 0.16 $/mg of ASX, respectively. In addition, shrimp feed production was considered as a feasible application of the low concentration ASX obtained by SF extraction. A combination of ASX extracted...... with SF and synthetic ASX yielded a shrimp feed production cost comparable to the current market price. The calculated feed price based on the ASX production cost of the other green processes, ME-SF and SCFE, resulted in a significantly higher production cost....

  9. The Use of Crude Shrimp Shell Powder for Chitinase Production by Serratia marcescens WF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. Mejía-Saulés

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available From 102 Serratia marcescens strains screened, 57 strains showed chitinase activity and Serratia marcescens WF showed the highest chitinolytic activity so this strain was selected for further study on the use of crude shrimp waste for chitinase production. The concentration of crude shrimp shell content at 10–70 g/L, incubation temperature of 28–37 °C, pH=6–9, and time 24–96 h on kinetics of chitinase production by S. marcescens WF were evaluated. The maximal chitinase production related to process variables was obtained with the second order polynomial model: dry shrimp shell powder at 6 %, pH=6.5, temperature of 28 °C during fermentation for up to 72 h.

  10. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition...... and food type. Fatty acid compositions were investigated for lipid biomarkers to establish trophic relationships between larval shrimp and potential prey. Phospholipids were the dominant lipid class in all six pelagic development stages of larval P. borealis and P. montagui, accounting for 80 to 92....... Triacylglycerol (TG) content to wet weight ratio was investigated as index of nutritional larval condition and survival potential. Proportions of larvae with TG indices >0.2 were relatively high in May 2000 and June 1999, but generally low in July 2000. The fatty acids 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:1n-7, 20:5n...

  11. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  12. Ultraviolet irradiation and gradient temperature assisted autolysis for protein recovery from shrimp head waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhong; Tan, Caiyun; Zhan, Xiaojian; Li, Huiyi; Zhang, Chaohua

    2014-12-01

    A novel autolysis method using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and gradient temperature was investigated to efficiently recover proteins from the head of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The proteolytic activity of shrimp head subjected to 30W UV irradiation for 20 min was increased by 62%, compared with that of untreated samples. After irradiation, the enzymes remained active across a wide range of temperatures (45-60°C) and pH (7-10). An orthogonal design was used to optimize autolysis condition. After 5h autolysis, protein recovery from the UV-heat treated samples was up to 92.1%. These results indicate the potential of using UV irradiation in combination with gradient temperatures to improve recovery of proteins from shrimp head waste. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp products imported into Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Bjergskov, T.; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 3,555 metric tonnes of warm water shrimp were imported into Denmark from December 1994 to July 1995. V. cholerae O1 was not detected in any of the 748 samples analyzed. Non-Ol V. cholerae was found in a single (0.1%) cooked frozen shrimp product and in five (0.7%) raw frozen products...... contained plasmids or genes encoding cholera toxin (CT) or heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), The absence of V. cholerae O1 and the low number of samples containing CT and NAG-ST negative non-Ol strains in imported shrimp suggest that I! cholerae in such products may not constitute a public health problem....

  14. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  15. Snapping shrimp noise mitigation based on statistical detection in underwater acoustic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonsu; Seo, Jongpil; Ahn, Jongmin; Chung, Jaehak

    2017-07-01

    We propose a mitigation scheme for snapping shrimp noise when it corrupts an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in underwater acoustic communication systems. The OFDM signal distorted by the snapping shrimp noise is filtered by a band-stop filter. The snapping shrimp noises in the filtered signal are detected by a detector with a constant false alarm rate whose threshold is derived theoretically from the statistics of the background noise. The detected signals are reconstructed by a simple reconstruction method. The proposed scheme has a higher detection capability and a lower mean square error of the channel estimation for simulated data and a lower bit error rate for practical ocean OFDM data collected in northern East China Sea than the conventional noise-mitigating methods.

  16. Short-term toxicity of polystryrene microplastics on mysid shrimps Neomysis japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; Wang, Xiao; Luo, Xianxiang; Zheng, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Plastic debris especially microplastics (MPs) have become a global concern for the aggravating pollution in the oceans. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of fluorescently labeled polystyrene (PS) beads and the effects of PS-MPs on the survival of mysid shrimps (Neomysis japonica) were investigated. PS-MPs were identified to have spherical shape, uniform size and stable green fluorescence. The results showed that PS beads had little effects on the mortality of shrimps under a short-term (72 h) exposure with concentrations of 50 μg L-1 and 500 μg L-1. However, PS-MPs had severe short-term toxicity on the survival of mysid shrimps, resulting in 30% mortality especially in a 72 h exposure with the higher concentration of 1000 μg L-1. These findings provide new insights into the toxic effects of MPs on marine invertebrates.

  17. Hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity is dependent on dodecameric structure in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Wang Ke-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemocyanin (Hc is a multifunctional protein in both mollusks and arthropods. Phenoloxidase (PO activities are the most important physiological functions for Hcs after conversion. In shrimp, Hc occurs as two oligomer forms, dodecamers and hexamers. Differences in the transport oxygen capacity and agglutination activity between the two oligomers of shrimp Hc have been found. In the present study, we investigated the differences in the Hc-derived PO activity between the dodecameric and hexameric Hc forms of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The two oligomers were separated by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, converted by trypsin cleavage and their PO activities were determined by oxidation of L-DOPA. The dodecamers exhibited PO activity after enzymatic conversion while the hexamers did not exhibit PO activity. This result provides new insight into the structural/functional relationships of Hcs.

  18. The freshwater grass shrimp Palaemonetes antennarius in the diet of fish in Lake Bracciano (Central Italy

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    Traversetti L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the importance of the freshwater grass shrimp Palaemonetes antennarius as trophic source for the lacustrine fish of the Lake Bracciano (Central Italy analyzing 6120 stomach contents of 10 species. Shrimp was recorded for all size classes of the investigated species with a variation in frequency and abundance depending on seasons. P. antennarius was occasionally preyed by cyprinids, and systematically by small individuals of carnivorous fish. Our findings acquire more importance if we take the shrimps ecological niche into account, as it is potentially acting as detritivorous/generalist and predator of benthic invertebrates as well. This feeding behavior makes P. antennarius an important network ring, being a taxon that ought to receive the same attention recommended for other freshwater decapods as proposed for Austropotamobius pallipes and Potamon fluviatile.

  19. Effects of predation on diel activity and habitat use of the coral-reef shrimp Cinetorhynchus hendersoni (Rhynchocinetidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, Nicolas C.; Dudgeon, David; Duprey, Nicolas; Thiel, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Nonlethal effects of predators on prey behaviour are still poorly understood, although they may have cascading effects through food webs. Underwater observations and experiments were conducted on a shallow fringing coral reef in Malaysia to examine whether predation risks affect diel activity, habitat use, and survival of the rhynchocinetid shrimp Cinetorhynchus hendersoni. The study site was within a protected area where predatory fish were abundant. Visual surveys and tethering experiments were conducted in April-May 2010 to compare the abundance of shrimps and predatory fishes and the relative predation intensity on shrimps during day and night. Shrimps were not seen during the day but came out of refuges at night, when the risk of being eaten was reduced. Shrimp preferences for substrata of different complexities and types were examined at night when they could be seen on the reef; complex substrata were preferred, while simple substrata were avoided. Shrimps were abundant on high-complexity columnar-foliate Porites rus, but tended to make little use of branching Acropora spp. Subsequent tethering experiments, conducted during daytime in June 2013, compared the relative mortality of shrimps on simple (sand-rubble, massive Porites spp.) and complex ( P. rus, branching Acropora spp.) substrata under different predation risk scenarios (i.e., different tether lengths and exposure durations). The mortality of shrimps with short tethers (high risk) was high on all substrata while, under low and intermediate predation risks (long tethers), shrimp mortality was reduced on complex corals relative to that on sand-rubble or massive Porites spp. Overall, mortality was lowest on P. rus. Our study indicates that predation risks constrain shrimp activity and habitat choice, forcing them to hide deep inside complex substrata during the day. Such behavioural responses to predation risks and their consequences for the trophic role of invertebrate mesoconsumers warrant further

  20. A ten-month diseases survey on wild Litopenaeus setiferus (Decapoda: Penaeidae from Southern Gulf of Mexico

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    Rodolfo Enrique del Río-Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of shrimp aquaculture in Mexican coasts of the Gulf of Mexico began to be explored using the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the mid 90´s. Many concerns over the risk of disease transmission to the economically important native penaeids, have been the main deterrent for the aquaculture of L. vannamei in the region. Concurrently, more than 10 years of research experience on the aquaculture suitability of the native Litopenaeus setiferus from the Terminos Lagoon, in the Yucatán Peninsula, have been accumulated. The aim of this study was then to determine the seasonal variations of the naturally acquired diseases and the possible detection of exotic pathogens. For this, random subsamples (n~60 of juveniles L. setiferus were collected from monthly captures. In order to detect the widest range of pathogens, including infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHNv and white spot syndrome (WSSv viruses, both histopathological and molecular methods were employed. Monthly prevalence (% was calculated for every finding. We were able to detect a total of 16 distinct histological anomalies, most of which the presump- tive aetiological agent was readily identified. PCR results for viruses were negative. For some pathogens and symbionts, the prevalence was significantly different between the adult and juvenile populations. Prevalence of diseases tended to be higher in juvenile shrimp than in adults. The results of this study indicated that L. setiferus carry a wide variety of pathogens and symbionts that seem to be endemic to penaeids of the Gulf of Mexico, and those juveniles were more conspicuous to acquire pathogens and symbionts than adults.