WorldWideScience

Sample records for caribbean predatory fish

  1. Global patterns in marine predatory fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Denderen, Pieter Daniël; Lindegren, Martin; MacKenzie, Brian

    2017-01-01

    known. Here, we show how latitudinal differences in predatory fish can essentially be explained by the inflow of energy at the base of the pelagic and benthic food chain. A low productive benthic energy pathway favours large pelagic species, whereas equal productivities support large demersal......Large teleost (bony) fish are a dominant group of predators in the oceans and constitute a major source of food and livelihood for humans. These species differ markedly in morphology and feeding habits across oceanic regions; large pelagic species such as tunas and billfish typically occur...

  2. Declines in predatory fish promote bloom-forming macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Ljunggren, Lars; Sandstrom, Alfred; Johansson, Gustav; Mattila, Johanna; Rubach, Anja; Raberg, Sonja; Snickars, Martin; Sandström, Alfred; Råberg, Sonja; Stokesbury, K.

    2009-01-01

    In the Baltic Sea, increased dominance of ephemeral and bloom-forming algae is presently attributed to increased nutrient loads. Simultaneously, coastal predatory fish are in strong decline. Using field data from nine areas covering a 700-km coastline, we examined whether formation of macroalgal

  3. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  4. SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1202, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2012 SEAMAP Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate...

  5. The distribution and abundance of reef-associated predatory fishes on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Michael J.; Cheal, Alistair J.; Logan, Murray

    2017-09-01

    Predatory fishes are important components of coral-reef ecosystems of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) through both the ecological functions they perform and their high value to recreational and commercial fisheries, estimated at 30 million in 2014. However, management of GBR predatory fish populations is hampered by a lack of knowledge of their distribution and abundance, aside from that of the highly targeted coral trout ( Plectropomus spp. and Variola spp.). Furthermore, there is little information on how these fishes respond to environmental stressors such as coral bleaching, outbreaks of coral-feeding starfishes ( Acanthaster planci) and storms, which limits adaptive management of their populations as the frequency or severity of such natural disturbances increases under climate change. Here, we document the distribution and abundance of 48 species of reef-associated predatory fishes and assess their vulnerability to a range of natural disturbances. There were clear differences in predatory fish assemblages across the continental shelf, but many species were widespread, with few species restricted to either inshore or offshore waters. There was weak latitudinal structure with only a few species restricted to either the northern or southern GBR. On the whole, predatory fishes were surprisingly resistant to the effects of disturbance, with few clear changes in abundance or species richness following 66 documented disturbances of varying magnitudes.

  6. Predatory pelagic fishes of the Bijagós Archipelago (Guinea-Bissau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the feeding ecology of the Crevalle jack Caranx hippos, West African Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus tritor and Guinean barracuda Sphyraena afra in the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea-Bissau. These are the most abundant pelagic predatory teleost fishes in the area, but little is known about their ecology ...

  7. High rate of prey consumption in a small predatory fish on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, W. E.; Lönnstedt, O. M.; Bosiger, Y.; Martin, J.; Jones, G. P.; Rowe, R. J.; McCormick, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    Small piscivores are regarded as important regulators of the composition of coral reef fish communities, but few studies have investigated their predatory ecology or impact on assemblages of juvenile fishes. This study investigated the foraging ecology of a common coral reef predator, the dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, using underwater focal animal observations. Observations were conducted at two times of year: the summer, when recruit fishes were an available food item and winter, when remaining juveniles had outgrown vulnerability to P. fuscus. During the summer, P. fuscus directed 76% of its strikes at invertebrates and 24% at recruiting juvenile fishes. When striking at fishes, P. fuscus exhibited two distinct feeding modes: an ambush (26% successful) and a pursuit mode (5% successful). Predator activity in the field peaked at midday, averaging 2.5 captures h-1 of juvenile fishes. Monitoring of activity and foraging in the laboratory over 24-h periods found that P. fuscus was a diurnal predator and was active for 13 h d-1 during the summer. The number of hours during which foraging was recorded differed greatly among individuals ( n = 10), ranging from 4 to 13 h. The number of predatory strikes did not increase with standard length, but the success rate and consumption rate of juvenile fishes did increase with size. Estimated hourly mortality on juvenile fish ranged from 0.49 fish h-1 in small P. fuscus individuals (30-39 mm standard length, SL; equating to 6.3 per 13 h day) to 2.4 fish h-1 in large P. fuscus individuals (55-65 mm SL; 30.6 per 13 h day). During the winter, P. fuscus struck at invertebrates with a similar rate to the summer period. These observations of the predatory ecology of P. fuscus support the hypothesis that in coral reef systems, small piscivores, because of their high metabolism and activity, are probably important regulators of coral reef fish community composition.

  8. Hypoxia, blackwater and fish kills: experimental lethal oxygen thresholds in juvenile predatory lowland river fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kade Small

    Full Text Available Hypoxia represents a growing threat to biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Here, aquatic surface respiration (ASR and oxygen thresholds required for survival in freshwater and simulated blackwater are evaluated for four lowland river fishes native to the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB, Australia. Juvenile stages of predatory species including golden perch Macquaria ambigua, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, Murray cod Maccullochella peelii, and eel-tailed catfish Tandanus tandanus were exposed to experimental conditions of nitrogen-induced hypoxia in freshwater and hypoxic blackwater simulations using dried river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litter. Australia's largest freshwater fish, M. peelii, was the most sensitive to hypoxia but given that we evaluated tolerances of juveniles (0.99 ± 0.04 g; mean mass ±SE, the low tolerance of this species could not be attributed to its large maximum attainable body mass (>100,000 g. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen causing 50% mortality (LC50 in freshwater ranged from 0.25 ± 0.06 mg l(-1 in T. tandanus to 1.58 ± 0.01 mg l(-1 in M. peelii over 48 h at 25-26 °C. Logistic models predicted that first mortalities may start at oxygen concentrations ranging from 2.4 mg l(-1 to 3.1 mg l(-1 in T. tandanus and M. peelii respectively within blackwater simulations. Aquatic surface respiration preceded mortality and this behaviour is documented here for the first time in juveniles of all four species. Despite the natural occurrence of hypoxia and blackwater events in lowland rivers of the MDB, juvenile stages of these large-bodied predators are vulnerable to mortality induced by low oxygen concentration and water chemistry changes associated with the decomposition of organic material. Given the extent of natural flow regime alteration and climate change predictions of rising temperatures and more severe drought and flooding, acute episodes of hypoxia may represent an underappreciated risk to riverine fish

  9. Hypoxia, blackwater and fish kills: experimental lethal oxygen thresholds in juvenile predatory lowland river fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Kade; Kopf, R Keller; Watts, Robyn J; Howitt, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia represents a growing threat to biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Here, aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and oxygen thresholds required for survival in freshwater and simulated blackwater are evaluated for four lowland river fishes native to the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. Juvenile stages of predatory species including golden perch Macquaria ambigua, silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus, Murray cod Maccullochella peelii, and eel-tailed catfish Tandanus tandanus were exposed to experimental conditions of nitrogen-induced hypoxia in freshwater and hypoxic blackwater simulations using dried river red gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf litter. Australia's largest freshwater fish, M. peelii, was the most sensitive to hypoxia but given that we evaluated tolerances of juveniles (0.99 ± 0.04 g; mean mass ±SE), the low tolerance of this species could not be attributed to its large maximum attainable body mass (>100,000 g). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen causing 50% mortality (LC50) in freshwater ranged from 0.25 ± 0.06 mg l(-1) in T. tandanus to 1.58 ± 0.01 mg l(-1) in M. peelii over 48 h at 25-26 °C. Logistic models predicted that first mortalities may start at oxygen concentrations ranging from 2.4 mg l(-1) to 3.1 mg l(-1) in T. tandanus and M. peelii respectively within blackwater simulations. Aquatic surface respiration preceded mortality and this behaviour is documented here for the first time in juveniles of all four species. Despite the natural occurrence of hypoxia and blackwater events in lowland rivers of the MDB, juvenile stages of these large-bodied predators are vulnerable to mortality induced by low oxygen concentration and water chemistry changes associated with the decomposition of organic material. Given the extent of natural flow regime alteration and climate change predictions of rising temperatures and more severe drought and flooding, acute episodes of hypoxia may represent an underappreciated risk to riverine fish communities.

  10. A Devonian predatory fish provides insights into the early evolution of modern sarcopterygians

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jing; Zhu, Min; Ahlberg, Per Erik; Qiao, Tuo; Zhu, You-an; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao

    2016-01-01

    Crown or modern sarcopterygians (coelacanths, lungfishes, and tetrapods) differ substantially from stem sarcopterygians, such as Guiyu and Psarolepis, and a lack of transitional fossil taxa limits our understanding of the origin of the crown group. The Onychodontiformes, an enigmatic Devonian predatory fish group, seems to have characteristics of both stem and crown sarcopterygians but is difficult to place because of insufficient anatomical information. We describe the new skull material of ...

  11. Ocean acidification affects prey detection by a predatory reef fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L Cripps

    Full Text Available Changes in olfactory-mediated behaviour caused by elevated CO(2 levels in the ocean could affect recruitment to reef fish populations because larval fish become more vulnerable to predation. However, it is currently unclear how elevated CO(2 will impact the other key part of the predator-prey interaction--the predators. We investigated the effects of elevated CO(2 and reduced pH on olfactory preferences, activity levels and feeding behaviour of a common coral reef meso-predator, the brown dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus. Predators were exposed to either current-day CO(2 levels or one of two elevated CO(2 levels (∼600 µatm or ∼950 µatm that may occur by 2100 according to climate change predictions. Exposure to elevated CO(2 and reduced pH caused a shift from preference to avoidance of the smell of injured prey, with CO(2 treated predators spending approximately 20% less time in a water stream containing prey odour compared with controls. Furthermore, activity levels of fish was higher in the high CO(2 treatment and feeding activity was lower for fish in the mid CO(2 treatment; indicating that future conditions may potentially reduce the ability of the fish to respond rapidly to fluctuations in food availability. Elevated activity levels of predators in the high CO(2 treatment, however, may compensate for reduced olfactory ability, as greater movement facilitated visual detection of food. Our findings show that, at least for the species tested to date, both parties in the predator-prey relationship may be affected by ocean acidification. Although impairment of olfactory-mediated behaviour of predators might reduce the risk of predation for larval fishes, the magnitude of the observed effects of elevated CO(2 acidification appear to be more dramatic for prey compared to predators. Thus, it is unlikely that the altered behaviour of predators is sufficient to fully compensate for the effects of ocean acidification on prey mortality.

  12. The utility of predatory fish in biomanipulation of deep reservoirs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Mojmír; Prchalová, Marie; Peterka, Jiří; Ketelaars, H. A. M.; Wagenvoort, A. J.; Čech, Martin; Draštík, Vladislav; Říha, Milan; Jůza, Tomáš; Kratochvíl, Michal; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Blabolil, Petr; Boukal S., David; Duras, J.; Kubečka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, March (2013), s. 104-111 ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QH81046; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biomanipulation * eutrophication * top-down control * water quality * piscivores * recreational fishing Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.041, year: 2013

  13. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafy, Joseph E.; Shideler, Geoffrey S.; Araújo, Rafael J.; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as “mangrove-dependent”. Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  14. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafy, Joseph E; Shideler, Geoffrey S; Araújo, Rafael J; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  15. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Serafy

    Full Text Available Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1 Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2 Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1 focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2 consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3 quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i

  16. Distribution of Po-210 in two species of predatory marine fish from the Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mársico, E.T.; Ferreira, M.S.; São Clemente, S.C.; Gouvea, R.C.S.; Jesus, E.F.O.; Conti, C.C.; Conte Junior, C.A.; Kelecom, A.G.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) concentration was quantified in the muscle tissue and organs of two predatory marine fishes (Genypterus brasiliensis and Cynoscion microlepidotus) from Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species C. microlepidotus, a benthic carnivore, registered higher 210 Po in its tissue. The organs associated with digestion displayed the maximum radionuclide compared with other organs. The average activity was 2 mBq kg −1 for G. brasiliensis and it was 6 mBq kg −1 for C. microlepidotus. The activity concentrations varied significantly between the species and among organs. -- Highlights: • We analyzed the distribution of 210 Po in two species of predator marine fish. • 210 Po tends to accumulate in some organs, which make this radionuclide radiotoxic. • The consumption of small quantities of fish can represent high potential of 210 Po exposure. • Data about 210 Po bioaccumulation in tropical predator marine fish are limited

  17. Feeding strategies and ecological roles of three predatory pelagic fish in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Joan; Sáez-Liante, Raquel; Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Coll, Marta; Palomera, Isabel

    2017-06-01

    Knowing the feeding ecology of marine predators is pivotal to developing an understanding of their ecological role in the ecosystem and determining the trophic relationships between them. Despite the ecological importance of predatory pelagic fish species, research on these species in the Mediterranean Sea is limited. Here, by combining analyses of stomach contents and stable isotope values, we examined the feeding strategies of swordfish, Xiphias gladius, little tunny, Euthynnus alletteratus and Atlantic bonito, Sarda sarda, in the western Mediterranean Sea. We also compared the trophic niche and trophic level of these species with published information of other sympatric pelagic predators present in the ecosystem. Results indicated that, although the diet of the three species was composed mainly by fin-fish species, a clear segregation in their main feeding strategies was found. Swordfish showed a generalist diet including demersal species such as blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou, and European hake, Merluccius merluccius, and pelagic fin-fish such as barracudina species (Arctozenus risso and Lestidiops jayakari) or small pelagic fish species. Little tunny and Atlantic bonito were segregated isotopically between them and showed a diet basically composed of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, and round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, and sardines, Sardina pilchardus, respectively. This trophic segregation, in addition to potential segregation by depth, is likely a mechanism that allows their potential coexistence within the same pelagic habitat. When the trophic position of these three predatory pelagic fish species is compared with other pelagic predators such as bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, and dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, present in the western Mediterranean Sea, we found that they show similar intermediate trophic position in the ecosystem. In conclusion, the combined stomach and isotopic results highlight, especially for little tunny and Atlantic

  18. Visual Detection of Speckles in the Fish Xenotoca variata by the Predatory Snake Thamnophis melanogaster in Water of Different Turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjarrez, Javier; Rivas-González, Eric; Venegas-Barrera, Crystian S; Moyaho, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Semi-aquatic snakes integrate visual and chemical stimuli, and prey detection and capture success are therefore linked to the display of visual predatory behavior. The snake Thamnophis melanogaster responds preferentially to individuals of the fish Xenotoca variata with a greater number of bright, colorful spots (lateral speckles) compared with those with a smaller number; however, water turbidity can reduce underwater visibility and effect the vulnerability of fish. In this study, we tested whether the presence of iridescent speckles on the flanks of male X. variata interacted with water turbidity to modify the predatory behavior displayed by the snake T. melanogaster. We predicted that in an experimental laboratory test, the snakes would increase the frequency of their predatory behavior to the extent that the water turbidity decreases. The snakes were tested at six different levels of water turbidity, in combination with three categories of male fish (with few, a median number of, or many speckles). The results showed that in a pool with high or zero turbidity, the number of speckles is not a determining factor in the deployment of the predatory behavior of the snake T. melanogaster toward X. variata. Our findings suggest that snakes can view the fish at intermediate percentages of turbidity, but the number of speckles in male X. variata is irrelevant as an interspecific visual signal in environments with insufficient luminosity. The successful capture of aquatic prey is influenced by integration between chemical and visual signals, according to environmental factors that may influence the recognition of individual traits.

  19. Visual Detection of Speckles in the Fish Xenotoca variata by the Predatory Snake Thamnophis melanogaster in Water of Different Turbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Manjarrez

    Full Text Available Semi-aquatic snakes integrate visual and chemical stimuli, and prey detection and capture success are therefore linked to the display of visual predatory behavior. The snake Thamnophis melanogaster responds preferentially to individuals of the fish Xenotoca variata with a greater number of bright, colorful spots (lateral speckles compared with those with a smaller number; however, water turbidity can reduce underwater visibility and effect the vulnerability of fish. In this study, we tested whether the presence of iridescent speckles on the flanks of male X. variata interacted with water turbidity to modify the predatory behavior displayed by the snake T. melanogaster. We predicted that in an experimental laboratory test, the snakes would increase the frequency of their predatory behavior to the extent that the water turbidity decreases. The snakes were tested at six different levels of water turbidity, in combination with three categories of male fish (with few, a median number of, or many speckles. The results showed that in a pool with high or zero turbidity, the number of speckles is not a determining factor in the deployment of the predatory behavior of the snake T. melanogaster toward X. variata. Our findings suggest that snakes can view the fish at intermediate percentages of turbidity, but the number of speckles in male X. variata is irrelevant as an interspecific visual signal in environments with insufficient luminosity. The successful capture of aquatic prey is influenced by integration between chemical and visual signals, according to environmental factors that may influence the recognition of individual traits.

  20. Visual Detection of Speckles in the Fish Xenotoca variata by the Predatory Snake Thamnophis melanogaster in Water of Different Turbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Manjarrez, Javier; Rivas-Gonz?lez, Eric; Venegas-Barrera, Crystian S.; Moyaho, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Semi-aquatic snakes integrate visual and chemical stimuli, and prey detection and capture success are therefore linked to the display of visual predatory behavior. The snake Thamnophis melanogaster responds preferentially to individuals of the fish Xenotoca variata with a greater number of bright, colorful spots (lateral speckles) compared with those with a smaller number; however, water turbidity can reduce underwater visibility and effect the vulnerability of fish. In this study, we tested ...

  1. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea - A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Håkan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-09-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been shown to induce trophic cascades with resulting eutrophication symptoms through regulation of invertebrate grazers. Despite its potential significance for the coastal food web, little is known about its life history and population ecology. This paper provides a description of life history traits, migration patterns and spatiotemporal development of the species in the Baltic Sea during the past decades, and tests the hypothesis that stickleback may have a negative impact on populations of coastal predatory fish. Offshore and coastal data during the last 30 years show that stickleback has increased fourfold in the Bothnian Sea, 45-fold in the Central Baltic Sea and sevenfold in the Southern Baltic Sea. The abundances are similar in the two northern basins, and two orders of magnitude lower in the Southern Baltic Sea. The coastward spawning migration of sticklebacks from offshore areas peaks in early May, with most spawners being two years of age at a mean length of 65 mm. The early juvenile stage is spent at the coast, whereafter sticklebacks perform a seaward feeding migration in early autumn at a size of around 35 mm. A negative spatial relation between the abundance of stickleback and early life stages of perch and pike at coastal spawning areas was observed in spatial survey data, indicating strong interactions between the species. A negative temporal relationship was observed also between adult perch and stickleback in coastal fish monitoring programmes supporting the hypothesis that stickleback may have negative population level effects on coastal fish predators. The recent increase in stickleback populations in different basins of the Baltic Sea in combination with

  2. Parrotfish size: a simple yet useful alternative indicator of fishing effects on Caribbean reefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Henri; Oxenford, Hazel A

    2014-01-01

    There is great need to identify simple yet reliable indicators of fishing effects within the multi-species, multi-gear, data-poor fisheries of the Caribbean. Here, we investigate links between fishing pressure and three simple fish metrics, i.e. average fish weight (an estimate of average individual fish size), fish density and fish biomass, derived from (1) the parrotfish family, a ubiquitous herbivore family across the Caribbean, and (2) three fish groups of "commercial" carnivores including snappers and groupers, which are widely-used as indicators of fishing effects. We hypothesize that, because most Caribbean reefs are being heavily fished, fish metrics derived from the less vulnerable parrotfish group would exhibit stronger relationships with fishing pressure on today's Caribbean reefs than those derived from the highly vulnerable commercial fish groups. We used data from 348 Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) reef-surveys across the Caribbean to assess relationships between two independent indices of fishing pressure (one derived from human population density data, the other from open to fishing versus protected status) and the three fish metrics derived from the four aforementioned fish groups. We found that, although two fish metrics, average parrotfish weight and combined biomass of selected commercial species, were consistently negatively linked to the indices of fishing pressure across the Caribbean, the parrotfish metric consistently outranked the latter in the strength of the relationship, thus supporting our hypothesis. Overall, our study highlights that (assemblage-level) average parrotfish size might be a useful alternative indicator of fishing effects over the typical conditions of most Caribbean shallow reefs: moderate-to-heavy levels of fishing and low abundance of highly valued commercial species.

  3. 78 FR 15338 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... cultural component of the U.S. Caribbean diet, particularly in St. Croix, where they are a targeted species... fishing boats in the U.S. Caribbean tend to target pelagic species and other sport fish, not parrotfish...

  4. Behavioural and developmental responses of predatory coral reef fish to variation in the abundance of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukers-Stewart, B. D.; Beukers-Stewart, J. S.; Jones, G. P.

    2011-09-01

    Ecological theory suggests that the behaviour, growth and abundance of predators will be strongly influenced by the abundance of prey. Predators may in turn play an important role in structuring prey populations and communities. Responses of predators to variation in prey abundance have most commonly been demonstrated in low-diversity communities where food webs are relatively simple. How predators respond in highly diverse assemblages such as in coral reef habitats is largely unknown. This study describes an experiment that examined how the movement, diet and growth of the coral reef piscivore, Cephalopholis boenak (Serranidae) responded to variation in the abundance of its prey. Predator densities were standardised on small patch reefs made from the lagoonal reef-building coral, Porites cylindrica. These patch reefs exhibited natural variation in the abundance and community structure of multiple species of prey. However, our experiment generated a relatively simple predator-prey relationship, with C. boenak primarily responding to the most abundant species of prey. Three responses of predators were observed: aggregative, functional and developmental. Thirty-one per cent of individuals moved between patch reefs during the experiment, all from areas of relatively low to high prey density. Feeding rates were higher on patch reefs of high prey density, while growth rates of fish that remained on low prey density reefs throughout the experiment were lower. Growth rates of C. boenak on the experimental reefs were also much higher than for those living on natural patch reefs over the same time period, corresponding with overall differences in prey abundance. These results suggest that local abundance, feeding rate and growth of C. boenak were closely linked to the abundance of their main prey. This combination of predatory responses is a potential mechanism behind recent observations of density-dependent mortality and population regulation of prey in coral reef fish

  5. A non-digging zoobenthivorous fish attracts two opportunistic predatory fish associates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sazima

    Full Text Available Following behaviour among reef fishes involves mostly a digging nuclear species while foraging, which attracts opportunistic followers preying on the exposed organisms. The flying gurnard Dactylopterus volitans preys on benthic animals, mostly crustaceans and small fishes, scratching and probing the bottom with the inner rays of its pectoral fins. We recorded the flying gurnard being followed by two opportunistic predators, the yellow jack Caranx bartholomaei and the coney Cephalopholis fulva at Fernando de Noronha, off northeast Brazil. Albeit not actually digging the substrate, the flying gurnard acts as a nuclear species by exploring algae tufts and by its wandering near the boulders and ledges, disturbing and flushing out hidden animals which thus become available to predation.

  6. Comparative larval growth and mortality of mesopelagic fishes and their predatory impact on zooplankton in the Kuroshio region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Takahashi, Motomitsu

    2018-01-01

    Larvae of mesopelagic fishes usually dominate in oceanic larval fish assemblages, but detailed investigations of their ecology are limited and thus preclude full assessment of the ecosystem structure and dynamics in oceanic waters. Here, we examined the growth and mortality of six taxa of numerically dominant mesopelagic fish larvae and their predatory impact on zooplankton in the Kuroshio region off southern Japan during late winter. The weight-specific growth coefficient (Gw) ranged from 0.077 (Sigmops gracilis) to 0.156 d-1 (Vinciguerria nimbaria), and the instantaneous daily mortality coefficient (M) from 0.067 (S. gracilis) to 0.143 d-1 (Myctophum asperum). The ratio Gw/M, an index of stage-specific survival of the larvae, was from 0.90 (Notoscopelus japonicus) to 1.24 (V. nimbaria), without a significant difference from a value of 1 in all species. Based on the reported relationship between Gw and ingestion rate of the larval fishes, the daily ration of each species was calculated to be 32-57% of body dry weight d-1. Mean and 95% confidence interval of food requirements of the six taxa of larvae was 1.41 ± 0.55 mg C m-2 d-1. Predatory impact of the mesopelagic fish larvae on the production rate of the available prey was estimated to be approximately 3.5-5.2%, implying that the larvae have a low level but consistent effect on zooplankton production in the oligotrophic Kuroshio region.

  7. Microplastic does not magnify the acute effect of PAH pyrene on predatory performance of a tropical fish (Lates calcarifer)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guven, Olgac; Bach, Lis; Munk, Peter

    2018-01-01

    effects of microplastic and pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, on the swimming behaviour and predatory performance of juvenile barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Juveniles (18+ days post hatch) were exposed to MPs, or pyrene (100nM), or combination of both and feeding rate and foraging activity...... no effect on feeding while swimming speed showed a significant decrease. Thus, our results confirm that short-time exposure to pyrene impacts performance of fish juveniles, while additional exposure to microplastic influenced their activity but not their feeding rate at the given conditions. Further studies...

  8. Comparative Use of a Caribbean Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem and Association with Fish Spawning Aggregations by Three Species of Shark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria E Pickard

    Full Text Available Understanding of species interactions within mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; ~ 30-150 m lags well behind that for shallow coral reefs. MCEs are often sites of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs for a variety of species, including many groupers. Such reproductive fish aggregations represent temporal concentrations of potential prey that may be drivers of habitat use by predatory species, including sharks. We investigated movements of three species of sharks within a MCE and in relation to FSAs located on the shelf edge south of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands. Movements of 17 tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, seven lemon (Negaprion brevirostris, and six Caribbean reef (Carcharhinus perezi sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored within the MCE using an array of acoustic receivers spanning an area of 1,060 km2 over a five year period. Receivers were concentrated around prominent grouper FSAs to monitor movements of sharks in relation to these temporally transient aggregations. Over 130,000 detections of telemetered sharks were recorded, with four sharks tracked in excess of 3 years. All three shark species were present within the MCE over long periods of time and detected frequently at FSAs, but patterns of MCE use and orientation towards FSAs varied both spatially and temporally among species. Lemon sharks moved over a large expanse of the MCE, but concentrated their activities around FSAs during grouper spawning and were present within the MCE significantly more during grouper spawning season. Caribbean reef sharks were present within a restricted portion of the MCE for prolonged periods of time, but were also absent for long periods. Tiger sharks were detected throughout the extent of the acoustic array, with the MCE representing only portion of their habitat use, although a high degree of individual variation was observed. Our findings indicate that although patterns of use varied, all three species of sharks repeatedly

  9. Comparative Use of a Caribbean Mesophotic Coral Ecosystem and Association with Fish Spawning Aggregations by Three Species of Shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Alexandria E; Vaudo, Jeremy J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Nemeth, Richard S; Blondeau, Jeremiah B; Kadison, Elizabeth A; Shivji, Mahmood S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of species interactions within mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; ~ 30-150 m) lags well behind that for shallow coral reefs. MCEs are often sites of fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) for a variety of species, including many groupers. Such reproductive fish aggregations represent temporal concentrations of potential prey that may be drivers of habitat use by predatory species, including sharks. We investigated movements of three species of sharks within a MCE and in relation to FSAs located on the shelf edge south of St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands. Movements of 17 tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier), seven lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), and six Caribbean reef (Carcharhinus perezi) sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters were monitored within the MCE using an array of acoustic receivers spanning an area of 1,060 km2 over a five year period. Receivers were concentrated around prominent grouper FSAs to monitor movements of sharks in relation to these temporally transient aggregations. Over 130,000 detections of telemetered sharks were recorded, with four sharks tracked in excess of 3 years. All three shark species were present within the MCE over long periods of time and detected frequently at FSAs, but patterns of MCE use and orientation towards FSAs varied both spatially and temporally among species. Lemon sharks moved over a large expanse of the MCE, but concentrated their activities around FSAs during grouper spawning and were present within the MCE significantly more during grouper spawning season. Caribbean reef sharks were present within a restricted portion of the MCE for prolonged periods of time, but were also absent for long periods. Tiger sharks were detected throughout the extent of the acoustic array, with the MCE representing only portion of their habitat use, although a high degree of individual variation was observed. Our findings indicate that although patterns of use varied, all three species of sharks repeatedly utilized the MCE and

  10. Fish with Chips: Tracking Reef Fish Movements to Evaluate Size and Connectivity of Caribbean Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Simon J.; Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Legare, Bryan; Nemeth, Richard S.; Kendall, Matthew S.; Poti, Matthew; Clark, Randall D.; Wedding, Lisa M.; Caldow, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs) have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves) for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families) moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40–64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness. PMID:24797815

  11. Fish with chips: tracking reef fish movements to evaluate size and connectivity of Caribbean marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Pittman

    Full Text Available Coral reefs and associated fish populations have experienced rapid decline in the Caribbean region and marine protected areas (MPAs have been widely implemented to address this decline. The performance of no-take MPAs (i.e., marine reserves for protecting and rebuilding fish populations is influenced by the movement of animals within and across their boundaries. Very little is known about Caribbean reef fish movements creating a critical knowledge gap that can impede effective MPA design, performance and evaluation. Using miniature implanted acoustic transmitters and a fixed acoustic receiver array, we address three key questions: How far can reef fish move? Does connectivity exist between adjacent MPAs? Does existing MPA size match the spatial scale of reef fish movements? We show that many reef fishes are capable of traveling far greater distances and in shorter duration than was previously known. Across the Puerto Rican Shelf, more than half of our 163 tagged fish (18 species of 10 families moved distances greater than 1 km with three fish moving more than 10 km in a single day and a quarter spending time outside of MPAs. We provide direct evidence of ecological connectivity across a network of MPAs, including estimated movements of more than 40 km connecting a nearshore MPA with a shelf-edge spawning aggregation. Most tagged fish showed high fidelity to MPAs, but also spent time outside MPAs, potentially contributing to spillover. Three-quarters of our fish were capable of traveling distances that would take them beyond the protection offered by at least 40-64% of the existing eastern Caribbean MPAs. We recommend that key species movement patterns be used to inform and evaluate MPA functionality and design, particularly size and shape. A re-scaling of our perception of Caribbean reef fish mobility and habitat use is imperative, with important implications for ecology and management effectiveness.

  12. The abiotic and biotic factors limiting establishment of predatory fishes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alofs, Karen M; Jackson, Donald A

    2015-06-01

    There is a poor understanding of the importance of biotic interactions in determining species distributions with climate change. Theory from invasion biology suggests that the success of species introductions outside of their historical ranges may be either positively (biotic acceptance) or negatively (biotic resistance) related to native biodiversity. Using data on fish community composition from two survey periods separated by approximately 28 years during which climate was warming, we examined the factors influencing the establishment of three predatory centrarchids: Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), Largemouth Bass (M. salmoides), and Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in lakes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario. Variance partitioning demonstrated that, at a regional scale, abiotic factors play a stronger role in determining the establishment of these species than biotic factors. Pairing lakes within watersheds where each species had established with lakes sharing similar abiotic conditions where the species had not established revealed both positive and negative relationships between the establishment of centrarchids and the historical presence of other predatory species. The establishment of these species near their northern range boundaries is primarily determined by abiotic factors at a regional scale; however, biotic factors become important at the lake-to-lake scale. Studies of exotic species invasions have previously highlighted how spatial scale mediates the importance of abiotic vs. biotic factors on species establishment. Our study demonstrates how concepts from invasion biology can inform our understanding of the factors controlling species distributions with changing climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 77 FR 6988 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... allocation allows commercial fishermen more flexibility in how they can fish, including fishing year-round if.... 100217095-2081-04] RIN 0648-AY56 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish... (FMP) for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (Amendment 32) prepared by the Gulf of Mexico...

  14. 76 FR 31874 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... limited where longline vessels can fish. The commercial sector is managed under an IFQ program where... flexibility in how they can fish, including fishing year round as long as they still have allocation remaining.... 110321211-1289-02] RIN 0648-BA94 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish...

  15. Trophic levels of fish species of commercial importance in the Colombian Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Camilo B; Contreras, Cristian Camilo

    2011-09-01

    Ecological studies on commercial important fish species are of great value to support resource management issues. This study calculated trophic levels of those Colombian Caribbean fish species whose diet has been locally described. Usable diet data of 119 species resulted in 164 trophic level estimates. An ordinary regression model relating trophic level and fish size was formulated. The regression slope was positive and significantly different from zero (p fish size. Both the list of trophic levels and the regression model should be of help in the formulation of trophic indicators and models of neotropical ecosystems.

  16. The feeding biology of four predatory reef fishes off the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding of three sparid reef fish, Cheimerius nufar, Petrvs rupestris, Polysteganus praeorbitalis and one serranid, Epinephelus guaza, is described. Examination of stomach contents revealed that C. nufar takes both demersal and pelagic prey. Although reef fish dominate the diets of small C. nufar, larger individuals take ...

  17. Hypoxic environments as refuge against predatory fish in the Amazonian floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB. Anjos

    Full Text Available Several groups of Amazonian fishes exhibit behavioral, morphological and physiological characteristics that allow occupying hypoxic environments, despite the energetic costs of living in such harsh conditions. One of the supposed advantages of occupying hypoxic habitats would be a lower predation pressure resulting from a lower number of piscivorous fishes in those environments. We tested this hypothesis in an area of the Amazon River floodplain through gill net fishing in normoxic and hypoxic habitats. From the 103 species caught, 38 were classified as piscivores. We found no difference in the number of piscivorous species captured in hypoxic and normoxic habitats (chi2 = 0.23; p = 0.63; df = 1 but piscivorous individuals were more numerous in normoxic than in hypoxic sampling stations (chi2 = 104.4; p < 0.001; df = 1. This indicates that environments submitted to low oxygen conditions may in fact function as refuges against piscivorous fishes in the Amazonian floodplains.

  18. Methylmercury in a predatory fish (Cichla spp.) inhabiting the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrig, Helena do A [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: kehrig@biof.ufrj.br; Howard, Bruce M. [T.H. Huxley School, Imperial College, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    This research tested whether limnological conditions, biological characteristics of fish and anthropogenic impacts influenced the assimilation of methylmercury into the muscle of a sedentary piscivorous fish, Cichla spp., from three rivers (Negro, Madeira, Tapajos) and two hydroelectric reservoirs (Balbina, Tucurui) within the Brazilian Amazon. Methylmercury in this fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.43 {mu}g g{sup -1} w.w. across sites. No significant differences were observed in the methylmercury concentrations between males and females, or for different morphotypes of this species. Positive correlations were found between methylmercury and fish body weight. No differences were found between the weight normalized methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations or its percent of total mercury in fish from the three rivers; weight normalized MeHg was highest in one of the two reservoirs. In Rio Tapajos, where gold mining and deforestation cause high water turbidity, fish showed the highest MeHg and concentrations were different across the four sites examined. In all sampling areas, the %MeHg was found to be higher than 70. - Cichla spp. may be considered good bioindicators of methylmercury contamination in the Amazonian ecosystem because of their integration of this pollutant over time.

  19. Methylmercury in a predatory fish (Cichla spp.) inhabiting the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrig, Helena do A; Howard, Bruce M.; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    This research tested whether limnological conditions, biological characteristics of fish and anthropogenic impacts influenced the assimilation of methylmercury into the muscle of a sedentary piscivorous fish, Cichla spp., from three rivers (Negro, Madeira, Tapajos) and two hydroelectric reservoirs (Balbina, Tucurui) within the Brazilian Amazon. Methylmercury in this fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.43 μg g -1 w.w. across sites. No significant differences were observed in the methylmercury concentrations between males and females, or for different morphotypes of this species. Positive correlations were found between methylmercury and fish body weight. No differences were found between the weight normalized methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations or its percent of total mercury in fish from the three rivers; weight normalized MeHg was highest in one of the two reservoirs. In Rio Tapajos, where gold mining and deforestation cause high water turbidity, fish showed the highest MeHg and concentrations were different across the four sites examined. In all sampling areas, the %MeHg was found to be higher than 70. - Cichla spp. may be considered good bioindicators of methylmercury contamination in the Amazonian ecosystem because of their integration of this pollutant over time

  20. 75 FR 74650 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... fishery and further limited where they can fish. Comment 7: Several commenters indicated regionalized gag.... 100806332-0573-02] RIN 0648-BA02 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The reef fish fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under...

  1. 75 FR 74656 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... where they can fish. A ban on longline gear is outside the scope of this action because a gear ban is.... 100803319-0565-02] RIN 0648-BA04 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish... the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP) prepared by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management...

  2. 78 FR 46820 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... venting tool can reduce the discard mortality rate of reef fish brought to the surface when used correctly for certain types of fish. However, requiring the use of venting tools can contribute to discard.... 120907427-3652-02] RIN 0648-BC51 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish...

  3. Demersal fish assemblages on seamounts and other rugged features in the northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrini, Andrea M.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Singer, Randal; Roa-Varon, Adela; Chaytor, Jason D.

    2017-05-01

    Recent investigations of demersal fish communities in deepwater (>50 m) habitats have considerably increased our knowledge of the factors that influence the assemblage structure of fishes across mesophotic to deep-sea depths. While different habitat types influence deepwater fish distribution, whether different types of rugged seafloor features provide functionally equivalent habitat for fishes is poorly understood. In the northeastern Caribbean, different types of rugged features (e.g., seamounts, banks, canyons) punctuate insular margins, and thus create a remarkable setting in which to compare demersal fish communities across various features. Concurrently, several water masses are vertically layered in the water column, creating strong stratification layers corresponding to specific abiotic conditions. In this study, we examined differences among fish assemblages across different features (e.g., seamount, canyon, bank/ridge) and water masses at depths ranging from 98 to 4060 m in the northeastern Caribbean. We conducted 26 remotely operated vehicle dives across 18 sites, identifying 156 species of which 42% of had not been previously recorded from particular depths or localities in the region. While rarefaction curves indicated fewer species at seamounts than at other features in the NE Caribbean, assemblage structure was similar among the different types of features. Thus, similar to seamount studies in other regions, seamounts in the Anegada Passage do not harbor distinct communities from other types of rugged features. Species assemblages, however, differed among depths, with zonation generally corresponding to water mass boundaries in the region. High species turnover occurred at depths influencing community structure of benthic fauna, while considerably adding to the knowledge of mesophotic and deep-sea fish biogeography.

  4. Long-term recovery patterns and limited spillover of large predatory fish in a Mediterranean MPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni García-Rubies

    Full Text Available Based on 19 y of visual census data from the Medes Islands MPA (NW Mediterranean, this study analyzes the carrying capacity (K and population recovery time of six species of fish strongly affected by harvesting pressure along the Mediterranean coast. Three of these species (Epinephelus marginatus, Diplodus cervinus and Dicentrachus labrax have practically reached carrying capacity in the Medes Islands MPA, while others are still approaching population stabilization (Sciaena umbra or are still increasing in biomass (Dentex dentex. The one exception to these trends is S. aurata, which tended to decrease inside the MPA, probably due to fishing just outside its borders. These results confirm that fish populations may require decadal time scales to recover from exploitation, both in terms of total abundance (21 to 29 y to exceed 95% K as well as total biomass (25 to 35 y, and that rates of recovery differ between species (13 to 31 y. The recovery and saturation observed within the no-take zone contrasts with results obtained in the partially protected buffer area and the peripheral area open for fishing, which show much lower biomass values. In general, the spillover from the MPA is very moderate, and its effects extend only to the partially protected area.

  5. The feediIlg biology of four predatory reef fishes off the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 5 July 1985; accepted 30 October 1985. Trophic relationships and behaviour of tropical reef fIshes ... eastern PacifIc Ocean; Petrus rupestris (red steenbras), which is endemic to the south and east coast of ...... Virgin Islands of the United States. (Eds) Huntsman, G.R., Nicholson, W.R. & Fox, W.W. Jr. pp. 167 -178.

  6. Stickleback increase in the Baltic Sea : A thorny issue for coastal predatory fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstrom, Ulf; Olsson, Jens; Casini, Michele; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksson, Ronny; Wennhage, Hakan; Appelberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In the Baltic Sea, the mesopredator three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) spends a large part of its life cycle in the open sea, but reproduces in shallow coastal habitats. In coastal waters, it may occur in high abundances, is a potent predator on eggs and larvae of fish, and has been

  7. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Gardner, Luke D; Linbo, Tiffany L; Brown, Tanya L; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; French, Barbara L; Labenia, Jana S; Laetz, Cathy A; Tagal, Mark; Sloan, Catherine A; Elizur, Abigail; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2014-04-15

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster released more than 636 million L of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico. The spill oiled upper surface water spawning habitats for many commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species. Consequently, the developing spawn (embryos and larvae) of tunas, swordfish, and other large predators were potentially exposed to crude oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fish embryos are generally very sensitive to PAH-induced cardiotoxicity, and adverse changes in heart physiology and morphology can cause both acute and delayed mortality. Cardiac function is particularly important for fast-swimming pelagic predators with high aerobic demand. Offspring for these species develop rapidly at relatively high temperatures, and their vulnerability to crude oil toxicity is unknown. We assessed the impacts of field-collected Deepwater Horizon (MC252) oil samples on embryos of three pelagic fish: bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna, and an amberjack. We show that environmentally realistic exposures (1-15 µg/L total PAH) cause specific dose-dependent defects in cardiac function in all three species, with circulatory disruption culminating in pericardial edema and other secondary malformations. Each species displayed an irregular atrial arrhythmia following oil exposure, indicating a highly conserved response to oil toxicity. A considerable portion of Gulf water samples collected during the spill had PAH concentrations exceeding toxicity thresholds observed here, indicating the potential for losses of pelagic fish larvae. Vulnerability assessments in other ocean habitats, including the Arctic, should focus on the developing heart of resident fish species as an exceptionally sensitive and consistent indicator of crude oil impacts.

  8. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Messmer, Vanessa

    2016-11-03

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems.

  9. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Tobin, Andrew J; Coker, Darren J; Cooke, Steven J; Clark, Timothy D

    2017-06-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Trophic levels of fish species of commercial importance in the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo B García

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies on commercial important fish species are of great value to support resource management issues. This study calculated trophic levels of those Colombian Caribbean fish species whose diet has been locally described. Usable diet data of 119 species resulted in 164 trophic level estimates. An ordinary regression model relating trophic level and fish size was formulated. The regression slope was positive and significantly different from zero (p<0.05 suggesting a scaling of trophic level with fish size. Both the list of trophic levels and the regression model should be of help in the formulation of trophic indicators and models of neotropical ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1195-1203. Epub 2011 September 01.

  11. Simplification of Caribbean reef-fish assemblages over decades of coral reef degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Paddack, Michelle J; Collen, Ben; Robertson, D Ross; Côté, Isabelle M

    2015-01-01

    Caribbean coral reefs are becoming structurally simpler, largely due to human impacts. The consequences of this trend for reef-associated communities are currently unclear, but expected to be profound. Here, we assess whether changes in fish assemblages have been non-random over several decades of declining reef structure. More specifically, we predicted that species that depend exclusively on coral reef habitat (i.e., habitat specialists) should be at a disadvantage compared to those that use a broader array of habitats (i.e., habitat generalists). Analysing 3727 abundance trends of 161 Caribbean reef-fishes, surveyed between 1980 and 2006, we found that the trends of habitat-generalists and habitat-specialists differed markedly. The abundance of specialists started to decline in the mid-1980s, reaching a low of ~60% of the 1980 baseline by the mid-1990s. Both the average and the variation in abundance of specialists have increased since the early 2000s, although the average is still well below the baseline level of 1980. This modest recovery occurred despite no clear evidence of a regional recovery in coral reef habitat quality in the Caribbean during the 2000s. In contrast, the abundance of generalist fishes remained relatively stable over the same three decades. Few specialist species are fished, thus their population declines are most likely linked to habitat degradation. These results mirror the observed trends of replacement of specialists by generalists, observed in terrestrial taxa across the globe. A significant challenge that arises from our findings is now to investigate if, and how, such community-level changes in fish populations affect ecosystem function.

  12. Simplification of Caribbean reef-fish assemblages over decades of coral reef degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Alvarez-Filip

    Full Text Available Caribbean coral reefs are becoming structurally simpler, largely due to human impacts. The consequences of this trend for reef-associated communities are currently unclear, but expected to be profound. Here, we assess whether changes in fish assemblages have been non-random over several decades of declining reef structure. More specifically, we predicted that species that depend exclusively on coral reef habitat (i.e., habitat specialists should be at a disadvantage compared to those that use a broader array of habitats (i.e., habitat generalists. Analysing 3727 abundance trends of 161 Caribbean reef-fishes, surveyed between 1980 and 2006, we found that the trends of habitat-generalists and habitat-specialists differed markedly. The abundance of specialists started to decline in the mid-1980s, reaching a low of ~60% of the 1980 baseline by the mid-1990s. Both the average and the variation in abundance of specialists have increased since the early 2000s, although the average is still well below the baseline level of 1980. This modest recovery occurred despite no clear evidence of a regional recovery in coral reef habitat quality in the Caribbean during the 2000s. In contrast, the abundance of generalist fishes remained relatively stable over the same three decades. Few specialist species are fished, thus their population declines are most likely linked to habitat degradation. These results mirror the observed trends of replacement of specialists by generalists, observed in terrestrial taxa across the globe. A significant challenge that arises from our findings is now to investigate if, and how, such community-level changes in fish populations affect ecosystem function.

  13. Abiotic and biotic controls of cryptobenthic fish assemblages across a Caribbean seascape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A. R.; Jelks, H. L.; Smith-Vaniz, W. F.; Rocha, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    The majority of fish studies on coral reefs consider only non-cryptic species and, despite their functional importance, data on cryptic species are scarce. This study investigates inter-habitat variation in Caribbean cryptobenthic fishes by re-analysing a comprehensive data set from 58 rotenone stations around Buck Island, U.S. Virgin Islands. Boosted regression trees were used to associate the density and diversity of non-piscivorous cryptobenthic fishes, both in the entire data set and on reef habitats alone, with 14 abiotic and biotic variables. The study also models the habitat requirements of the three commonest species. Dead coral cover was the first or second most important variable in six of the eight models constructed. For example, within the entire data set, the number of species and total fish density increased approximately linearly with increasing dead coral cover. Dead coral was also important in multivariate analyses that discriminated 10 assemblages within the entire data set. On reef habitats, the number of species and total fish density increased dramatically when dead coral exceeded ~55 %. Live coral cover was typically less important for explaining variance in fish assemblages than dead coral, but live corals were important for maintaining high fish diversity. Coral species favoured by cryptobenthic species may be particularly susceptible to mortality, but dead coral may also provide abundant food and shelter for many fishes. Piscivore density was a key variable in the final models, but typically increased with increasing cryptobenthic fish diversity and abundance, suggesting both groups of fishes are responding to the same habitat variables. The density of territorial damselfishes reduced the number of cryptobenthic fish species on reef habitats. Finally, habitats delineated by standard remote sensing techniques supported distinct cryptobenthic fish assemblages, suggesting that such maps can be used as surrogates of general patterns of cryptic

  14. 78 FR 76758 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    .... 130212129-3474-02] RIN 0648-XC967 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Closure of the 2014 Gulf of Mexico Recreational Season for Red Snapper... INFORMATION: The Gulf reef fish fishery, which includes red snapper, is managed under the Fishery Management...

  15. 78 FR 14225 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    .... 120417412-2412-01] RIN 0648-XC510 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery; 2013 Accountability Measure for Gulf of Mexico Commercial Gray Triggerfish... measure (AM) for commercial gray triggerfish in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) reef fish fishery for the 2013...

  16. NCCOS Caribbean Fishery Acoustic Assessment: Fish Density Data Collection from NOAA Ship Nancy Foster, from 2008-03-26 to 2014-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0156395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets show acoustically detected fish densities throughout the Caribbean ocean. NOAA/NCCOS collected these data sets to help characterize broad-scale fish...

  17. Persistence and extirpation in invaded landscapes: patch characteristics and connectivity determine effects of non-native predatory fish on native salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert S.; Maxell, Bryce A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated negative effects of non-native, predatory fishes on native amphibians, yet it is still unclear why some amphibian populations persist, while others are extirpated, following fish invasion. We examined this question by developing habitat-based occupancy models for the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) and nonnative fish using survey data from 1,749 water bodies across 470 catchments in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA. We first modeled the habitat associations of salamanders at 468 fishless water bodies in 154 catchments where non-native fish were historically, and are currently, absent from the entire catchment. Wethen applied this habitat model to the complete data set to predict the probability of salamander occupancy in each water body, removing any effect of fish presence. Finally, we compared field-observed occurrences of salamanders and fish to modeled probability of salamander occupancy. Suitability models indicated that fish and salamanders had similar habitat preferences, possibly resulting in extirpations of salamander populations from entire catchments where suitable habitats were limiting. Salamanders coexisted with non-native fish in some catchments by using marginal quality, isolated (no inlet or outlet) habitats that remained fishless. They rarely coexisted with fish within individual water bodies and only where habitat quality was highest. Connectivity of water bodies via streams resulted in increased probability of fish invasion and consequently reduced probability of salamander occupancy.These results could be used to identify and prioritize catchments and water bodies where control measures would be most effective at restoring amphibian populations. Our approach could be useful as a framework for improved investigations into questions of persistence and extirpation of native species when non-native species have already become established.

  18. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A W

    2005-05-01

    The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.

  19. Ongoing removals of invasive lionfish in Honduras and their effect on native Caribbean prey fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Friederike; Bejarano, Sonia; Palavicini de Witte, Giacomo; Wild, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish is one of the most pressing concerns in the context of coral reef conservation throughout the Caribbean. Invasive lionfish threaten Caribbean fish communities by feeding on a wide range of native prey species, some of which have high ecological and economic value. In Roatan (Honduras) a local non-governmental organisation (i.e. Roatan Marine Park) trains residents and tourists in the use of spears to remove invasive lionfish. Here, we assess the effectiveness of local removal efforts in reducing lionfish populations. We ask whether reefs subject to relatively frequent removals support more diverse and abundant native fish assemblages compared to sites were no removals take place. Lionfish biomass, as well as density and diversity of native prey species were quantified on reefs subject to regular and no removal efforts. Reefs subject to regular lionfish removals (two to three removals month -1 ) with a mean catch per unit effort of 2.76 ± 1.72 lionfish fisher -1 h -1 had 95% lower lionfish biomass compared to non-removal sites. Sites subject to lionfish removals supported 30% higher densities of native prey-sized fishes compared to sites subject to no removal efforts. We found no evidence that species richness and diversity of native fish communities differ between removal and non-removal sites. We conclude that opportunistic voluntary removals are an effective management intervention to reduce lionfish populations locally and might alleviate negative impacts of lionfish predation. We recommend that local management and the diving industry cooperate to cost-effectively extend the spatial scale at which removal regimes are currently sustained.

  20. Ongoing removals of invasive lionfish in Honduras and their effect on native Caribbean prey fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Peiffer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish is one of the most pressing concerns in the context of coral reef conservation throughout the Caribbean. Invasive lionfish threaten Caribbean fish communities by feeding on a wide range of native prey species, some of which have high ecological and economic value. In Roatan (Honduras a local non-governmental organisation (i.e. Roatan Marine Park trains residents and tourists in the use of spears to remove invasive lionfish. Here, we assess the effectiveness of local removal efforts in reducing lionfish populations. We ask whether reefs subject to relatively frequent removals support more diverse and abundant native fish assemblages compared to sites were no removals take place. Lionfish biomass, as well as density and diversity of native prey species were quantified on reefs subject to regular and no removal efforts. Reefs subject to regular lionfish removals (two to three removals month−1 with a mean catch per unit effort of 2.76 ± 1.72 lionfish fisher−1 h−1 had 95% lower lionfish biomass compared to non-removal sites. Sites subject to lionfish removals supported 30% higher densities of native prey-sized fishes compared to sites subject to no removal efforts. We found no evidence that species richness and diversity of native fish communities differ between removal and non-removal sites. We conclude that opportunistic voluntary removals are an effective management intervention to reduce lionfish populations locally and might alleviate negative impacts of lionfish predation. We recommend that local management and the diving industry cooperate to cost-effectively extend the spatial scale at which removal regimes are currently sustained.

  1. Development of standard weight equations for Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico amphidromous fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Patrick B.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We collected and compiled length and weight information from four countries and one commonwealth to develop standard weight (Ws) equations for three amphidromous fish species native to the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico regions: mountain mullet Agonostomus monticola (N = 9,768 individuals, 52 populations), river goby Awaous banana (N = 1,847 individuals, 62 populations), and bigmouth sleeper Gobiomorus dormitor (N = 2,983 individuals, 53 populations). Linear and quadratic Ws equations for three quartiles (25%, median, 75%) are presented for these three species. The length-weight relationship from eight lentic bigmouth sleeper populations was significantly different from that of lotic populations, reflecting higher weights of juvenile fish (equations were developed for lotic populations of bigmouth sleepers. W(s) equations were not developed from lentic bigmouth sleeper populations alone due to the low number of applicable populations caused by life history constraints; the equation from combined lentic and lotic populations is suggested for application to lentic bigmouth sleeper populations. These morphometric relationships for amphidromous fishes may improve the ability to assess existing and potential sport fisheries and allow ecological assessment based on fish condition.

  2. Relative importance of interlinked mangroves and seagrass beds as feeding habitats for juvenile reef fish on a Caribbean island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, I.A.; Velde, G. van der

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds are important daytime shelter habitats for juvenile Caribbean reef fish species, but little is known about their relative importance as feeding grounds. In the present study, we tested the degree to which these 2 habitats are used as a feeding ground for 4 nocturnally

  3. Color as related to Size, Sex, and Behavior in seven Caribbean Labrid Fish Species (genera Thalassoma, Halichoeres and Hemipteronotus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roede, Machteld J.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 5500 Caribbean labrid fishes belonging to seven species were caught, transported, partly on ice, to the laboratory and subsequently studied. The major portion was examined immediately; some 20 per cent were stored briefly (less than three days) at minus 20°C. Color pattern (and shape

  4. Additive diversity partitioning of fish in a Caribbean coral reef undergoing shift transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Acosta-González

    Full Text Available Shift transitions in dominance on coral reefs from hard coral cover to fleshy macroalgae are having negative effects on Caribbean coral reef communities. Data on spatiotemporal changes in biodiversity during these modifications are important for decision support for coral reef biodiversity protection. The main objective of this study is to detect the spatiotemporal patterns of coral reef fish diversity during this transition using additive diversity-partitioning analysis. We examined α, β and γ fish diversity from 2000 to 2010, during which time a shift transition occurred at Mahahual Reef, located in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Data on coral reef fish and benthic communities were obtained from 12 transects per geomorphological unit (GU in two GUs (reef slope and terrace over six years (2000, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010. Spatial analysis within and between the GUs indicated that the γ-diversity was primarily related to higher β-diversity. Throughout the six study years, there were losses of α, β and γ-diversity associated spatially with the shallow (reef slope and deeper (reef terrace GUs and temporally with the transition in cover from mound corals to fleshy macroalgae and boulder corals. Despite a drastic reduction in the number of species over time, β-diversity continues to be the highest component of γ-diversity. The shift transition had a negative effect on α, β and γ-diversity, primarily by impacting rare species, leading a group of small and less vulnerable fish species to become common and an important group of rare species to become locally extinct. The maintenance of fish heterogeneity (β-diversity over time may imply the abetment of vulnerability in the face of local and global changes.

  5. Additive diversity partitioning of fish in a Caribbean coral reef undergoing shift transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-González, Gilberto; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián A; Hernández-Landa, Roberto C; Arias-González, Jesús E

    2013-01-01

    Shift transitions in dominance on coral reefs from hard coral cover to fleshy macroalgae are having negative effects on Caribbean coral reef communities. Data on spatiotemporal changes in biodiversity during these modifications are important for decision support for coral reef biodiversity protection. The main objective of this study is to detect the spatiotemporal patterns of coral reef fish diversity during this transition using additive diversity-partitioning analysis. We examined α, β and γ fish diversity from 2000 to 2010, during which time a shift transition occurred at Mahahual Reef, located in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Data on coral reef fish and benthic communities were obtained from 12 transects per geomorphological unit (GU) in two GUs (reef slope and terrace) over six years (2000, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010). Spatial analysis within and between the GUs indicated that the γ-diversity was primarily related to higher β-diversity. Throughout the six study years, there were losses of α, β and γ-diversity associated spatially with the shallow (reef slope) and deeper (reef terrace) GUs and temporally with the transition in cover from mound corals to fleshy macroalgae and boulder corals. Despite a drastic reduction in the number of species over time, β-diversity continues to be the highest component of γ-diversity. The shift transition had a negative effect on α, β and γ-diversity, primarily by impacting rare species, leading a group of small and less vulnerable fish species to become common and an important group of rare species to become locally extinct. The maintenance of fish heterogeneity (β-diversity) over time may imply the abetment of vulnerability in the face of local and global changes.

  6. Maximum swimming speeds of sailfish and three other large marine predatory fish species based on muscle contraction time and stride length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Domenici, Paolo; Marras, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Billfishes are considered to be among the fastest swimmers in the oceans. Previous studies have estimated maximum speed of sailfish and black marlin at around 35 m s(-1) but theoretical work on cavitation predicts that such extreme speed is unlikely. Here we investigated maximum speed of sailfish......, and three other large marine pelagic predatory fish species, by measuring the twitch contraction time of anaerobic swimming muscle. The highest estimated maximum swimming speeds were found in sailfish (8.3±1.4 m s(-1)), followed by barracuda (6.2±1.0 m s(-1)), little tunny (5.6±0.2 m s(-1)) and dorado (4...

  7. Predatory peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The end of the civil war in Aceh brought peace, but it has been of a predatory nature. As a moment of rupture, the peace revealed interests, powers and dynamics, and it offered an opportunity for their reconfiguration. When unrest ceased, old agrarian conflicts between smallholders and planters...... resumed. Peace held promise of land reform. Yet old patterns of smallholder dispossession were entrenched as the former insurgency leadership aligned with the old elite of plantation companies. Oil palm contract-farming schemes effectively alienated smallholders from their land, and violence precluded...

  8. Predatory peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The end of the civil war in Aceh brought peace, but it has been of a predatory nature. As a moment of rupture, the peace revealed interests, powers and dynamics, and it offered an opportunity for their reconfiguration. When unrest ceased, old agrarian conflicts between smallholders and planters...... resumed. Peace held promise of land reform. Yet old patterns of smallholder dispossession were entrenched as the former insurgency leadership aligned with the old elite of plantation companies. Oil palm contract-farming schemes effectively alienated smallholders from their land, and violence precluded...

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among Streptococcus iniae isolates recovered from cultured and wild fish in North America, Central America and the Caribbean Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae, the etiological agent of streptococcosis in fish, is an important pathogen of cultured and wild fish worldwide. During the last decade outbreaks of streptococcosis have occurred in a wide range of cultured and wild fish in the Americas and Caribbean islands. To gain a better und...

  10. Predicting ingestion times of individual prey from information about stomach contents of predatory fishes in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Beyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to previous approaches, and incorporating interactions between individual prey in the stomach, the cylinder model of gastric evacuation predicted accurately the ingestion times of individual prey recovered from stomachs of predatory gadoids sampled in laboratory experiments....... For application to field situations, estimates of the variance sigma(2)(tau) = (sigma(2)(tau,e) + sigma(2)(tau,m)) of the predicted time interval tau between prey ingestion and stomach sampling were obtained from generalised considerations about the errors of estimated gastric evacuation rate (sigma......(tau,e) congruent to 0.1 tau) and prey size at ingestion (sigma(tau,m) increased from 1 h to 2.5 h with increasing number and body size of other prey in the stomach). The bias originating from non-observable prey (that were completely evacuated from the stomach prior to sampling) may amount to more than 20...

  11. Zooplankton diversity and the predatory impact by larval and small juvenile fish at the Fisher Banks in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Munk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The biomass and diversity of the mesozooplankton and fish larvae community were investigated across a frontal zone in the central North Sea in the early summer, to investigate whether larval fish predation is a regulator of mesozooplankton production. Pronounced changes in the mesozooplankton com...... by whiting, while in the offshore region the larger oceanic copepods are predated by cod larvae. However, the predation pressure by the fish larvae was in general low (...

  12. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-P?rez, Leopoldo; Rodr?guez-Zaragoza, Fabi?n Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Maga?a, Am?lcar Lev?; Carriquiry, Jose D.; R?os-Jara, Eduardo; Rodr?guez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; Garc?a-Rivas, Mar?a del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity...

  13. Ink from longfin inshore squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, as a chemical and visual defense against two predatory fishes, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and sea catfish, Ariopsis felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Charles D; Tottempudi, Mihika; Love-Chezem, Tiffany; Wolfe, Lanna S

    2013-12-01

    Chemical and visual defenses are used by many organisms to avoid being approached or eaten by predators. An example is inking molluscs-including gastropods such as sea hares and cephalopods such as squid, cuttlefish, and octopus-which release a colored ink upon approach or attack. Previous work showed that ink can protect molluscs through a combination of chemical, visual, and other effects. In this study, we examined the effects of ink from longfin inshore squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, on the behavior of two species of predatory fishes, summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, and sea catfish, Ariopsis felis. Using a cloud assay, we found that ink from longfin inshore squid affected the approach phase of predation by summer flounder, primarily through its visual effects. Using a food assay, we found that the ink affected the consummatory and ingestive phase of predation of both sea catfish and summer flounder, through the ink's chemical properties. Fractionation of ink showed that most of its deterrent chemical activity is associated with melanin granules, suggesting that either compounds adhering to these granules or melanin itself are the most biologically active. This work provides the basis for a comparative approach to identify deterrent molecules from inking cephalopods and to examine neural mechanisms whereby these chemicals affect behavior of fish, using the sea catfish as a chemosensory model.

  14. Zooplankton diversity and the predatory impact by larval and small juvenile fish at the Fisher Banks in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Munk, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The biomass and diversity of the mesozooplankton and fish larvae community were investigated across a frontal zone in the central North Sea in the early summer, to investigate whether larval fish predation is a regulator of mesozooplankton production. Pronounced changes in the mesozooplankton...

  15. [Trophic structure of river fish from Corral de San Luis, Magdalena river basin, Colombia Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jenny; García-Alzate, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Ecological studies of species, such as the stomach content analysis, allow us to recognize different trophic groups, the importance of trophic levels and the interrelationships among species and other members of the community. In this investigation, we studied food habits, feeding variation and trophic relationships of the fishes present in streams of the Corral de San Luis drainage, Tubará, Atlántico Department, a part of the lower Magdalena River Basin in Colombian Caribbean. Fish samples of Awaous banana, Agonostomus monticola, Andinoacara latifrons, Hyphessobrycon proteus, Poecilia gillii, Gobiomorus dormitor and Synbranchus marmoratus were obtained using a seine (2x5 m, mesh 0.5 cm), from November 2012 to October 2013. To analyze their stomach contents, we used numeric (% N), volumetric (% V) and frequency of occurrence (% FO) methods, an emptiness coefficient (C.V), index of food item importance (I.A). Besides, physical and chemical habitat parameters were recorded on site. Information obtained was processed using multivariate statistical analysis, ecological indices, and null models: canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), principal component analysis (PCA), trophic niche amplitude (Shannon-Weaver H´) and trophic overlap (Morisita-Horn). We observed significant differences on food resources consumption (K-W= 20.86; ptrophic axis, with respect to shared food items, and that the segregation was not influenced or generated by competition. The Morisita-Horn index showed false trophic overlap (similarity of about 80 %) between A. banana and P. gillii. The first component of the PCA analysis was explained mainly by phytoplankton, and component two was correlated with items of animal origin. The fishes associated with PC1 were P. gillii and A. banana, with high ingestion values of microalgae. PC2 was explained by A. monticola with high numbers of food items of animal origin. The group of fishes studied behaved as an assemblage; given that the trophic

  16. Repeated invasions into the twilight zone: evolutionary origins of a novel assemblage of fishes from deep Caribbean reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Luke; Van Tassell, James L; Robertson, D Ross; Baldwin, Carole C

    2016-08-01

    Mesophotic and deeper reefs of the tropics are poorly known and underexplored ecosystems worldwide. Collectively referred to as the 'twilight zone', depths below ~30-50 m are home to many species of reef fishes that are absent from shallower depths, including many undescribed and endemic species. We currently lack even a basic understanding of the diversity and evolutionary origins of fishes on tropical mesophotic reefs. Recent submersible collections in the Caribbean have provided new specimens that are enabling phylogenetic reconstructions that incorporate deep-reef representatives of tropical fish genera. Here, we investigate evolutionary depth transitions in the family Gobiidae (gobies), the most diverse group of tropical marine fishes. Using divergence-time estimation coupled with stochastic character mapping to infer the timing of shallow-to-deep habitat transitions in gobies, we demonstrate at least four transitions from shallow to mesophotic depths. Habitat transitions occurred in two broad time periods (Miocene, Pliocene-Pleistocene), and may have been linked to the availability of underutilized niches, as well as the evolution of morphological/behavioural adaptations for life on deep reefs. Further, our analysis shows that at least three evolutionary lineages that invaded deep habitats subsequently underwent speciation, reflecting another unique mode of radiation within the Gobiidae. Lastly, we synthesize depth distributions for 95 species of Caribbean gobies, which reveal major bathymetric faunal breaks at the boundary between euphotic and mesophotic reefs. Ultimately, our study is the first rigorous investigation into the origin of Caribbean deep-reef fishes and provides a framework for future studies that utilize rare, deep-reef specimens. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of predatory fish on survival and behavior of larval gopher frogs (Rana capito) and Southern Leopard Frogs (Rana sphenocephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, D.R.; Gunzburger, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Southern Leopard Frogs, Rana sphenocephala, are habitat generalists occurring in virtually all freshwater habitats within their geographic range, whereas Gopher Frogs, Rana capito, typically breed in ponds that do not normally contain fish. To evaluate the potential for predation by fish to influence the distribution of these species, we conducted a randomized factorial experiment. We examined the survival rate and behavior of tadpoles when exposed to Warmouth Sunfish, Lepomis gulosus, Banded Sunfish, Enneacanthus obesus, and Eastern Mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We also conducted a choice experiment to examine the survival rate of the two species of tadpoles when a predator is given a choice of both species simultaneously. Lepomis gulosus consumed the most tadpoles and ate significantly more tadpoles of R. capito than R. sphenocephala. Gambusia holbrooki injured the most tadpoles, especially R. capito. Enneacanthus obesus did not have an effect on behavior or survival of either anuran species. Tadpoles of both anurans increased hiding when in the presence of L. gulosus and G. holbrooki, but a greater proportion of R. capito hid than did R. sphenocephala. Our results suggest that R. capito are more vulnerable to predation by fish than are R. sphenocephala. The introduction of fish may play a role in population declines of certain anurans breeding in normally fish-free wetlands, and even small fish, such as mosquitofish, may have significant negative effects on the tadpoles of R. capito. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study or Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Facilitation in Caribbean coral reefs: high densities of staghorn coral foster greater coral condition and reef fish composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Brittany E; Miller, Margaret W; Pausch, Rachel; Richter, Lee

    2017-05-01

    Recovery of the threatened staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) is posited to play a key role in Caribbean reef resilience. At four Caribbean locations (including one restored and three extant populations), we quantified characteristics of contemporary staghorn coral across increasing conspecific densities, and investigated a hypothesis of facilitation between staghorn coral and reef fishes. High staghorn densities in the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly less partial mortality, higher branch growth, and supported greater fish abundances compared to lower densities within the same population. In contrast, partial mortality, branch growth, and fish community composition did not vary with staghorn density at the three other study locations where staghorn densities were lower overall. This suggests that density-dependent effects between the coral and fish community may only manifest at high staghorn densities. We then evaluated one facilitative mechanism for such density-dependence, whereby abundant fishes sheltering in dense staghorn aggregations deliver nutrients back to the coral, fueling faster coral growth, thereby creating more fish habitat. Indeed, dense staghorn aggregations within the Dry Tortugas exhibited significantly higher growth rates, tissue nitrogen, and zooxanthellae densities than sparse aggregations. Similarly, higher tissue nitrogen was induced in a macroalgae bioassay outplanted into the same dense and sparse aggregations, confirming greater bioavailability of nutrients at high staghorn densities. Our findings inform staghorn restoration efforts, suggesting that the most effective targets may be higher coral densities than previously thought. These coral-dense aggregations may reap the benefits of positive facilitation between the staghorn and fish community, favoring the growth and survivorship of this threatened species.

  19. Maximum swimming speeds of sailfish and three other large marine predatory fish species based on muscle contraction time and stride length: a myth revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten B. S. Svendsen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Billfishes are considered to be among the fastest swimmers in the oceans. Previous studies have estimated maximum speed of sailfish and black marlin at around 35 m s−1 but theoretical work on cavitation predicts that such extreme speed is unlikely. Here we investigated maximum speed of sailfish, and three other large marine pelagic predatory fish species, by measuring the twitch contraction time of anaerobic swimming muscle. The highest estimated maximum swimming speeds were found in sailfish (8.3±1.4 m s−1, followed by barracuda (6.2±1.0 m s−1, little tunny (5.6±0.2 m s−1 and dorado (4.0±0.9 m s−1; although size-corrected performance was highest in little tunny and lowest in sailfish. Contrary to previously reported estimates, our results suggest that sailfish are incapable of exceeding swimming speeds of 10-15 m s−1, which corresponds to the speed at which cavitation is predicted to occur, with destructive consequences for fin tissues.

  20. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Leray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus, the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus. One hundred forty-nine (51% of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity while 76 additional OTUs (26% could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators’ diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding

  1. Diet-tissue discrimination factors and turnover of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in tissues of an adult predatory coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matley, J K; Fisk, A T; Tobin, A J; Heupel, M R; Simpfendorfer, C A

    2016-01-15

    Stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N values) provide a unique perspective into the ecology of animals because the isotope ratio values of consumers reflect the values in food. Despite the value of stable isotopes in ecological studies, the lack of species-specific experimentally derived diet-tissue discrimination factors (DTDFs) and turnover rates limits their application at a broad scale. Furthermore, most aquatic feeding experiments use temperate, fast-growing fish species and few have considered medium- to large-sized adults with low growth rates from tropical ecosystems. A controlled-diet stable isotope feeding trial was conducted over a 196-day period for the adult predatory reef fish leopard coralgrouper (Plectropomus leopardus). This study calculated δ(13)C and δ(15)N DTDFs and turnover rates in five tissues (liver, plasma, red blood cells (RBC), fin, and muscle) using a continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer equipped with an elemental analyzer. In addition, the effect of chemical lipid extraction (LE) on stable isotope values was examined for each tissue. Turnover was mainly influenced by metabolism (as opposed to growth) with LE δ(15)N half-life values lowest in fin (37 days) and plasma (66 days), and highest in RBC (88 days) and muscle (126 days). The diet-tissue discrimination factors for δ(15)N values in all tissues (Δ(15)N: -0.15 to 1.84‰) were typically lower than commonly reported literature values. Lipid extraction altered both δ(15) N and δ(13)C values compared with untreated samples; however, for the δ(15)N values, the differences were small (mean δ(15)N(LE-Bulk) stable isotope data for medium- to large-sized fish and demonstrates that DTDFs developed for temperate fish species, particularly for δ(15)N values, may not apply to tropical species. Sampling of muscle and/or RBC is recommended for a relatively long-term representation of feeding habits, while plasma and/or fin should be used for a more recent indication of

  2. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  3. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Díaz-Pérez

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  4. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W Bruckner

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka,spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s,and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific,Indian and Atlantic Oceans.Currently,45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually,with an import value of US$28-44 million.The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines,followed by Brazil,Maldives,Vietnam,Sri Lanka and Hawaii.In the tropical Western Atlantic,16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S.(Florida and Puerto Rico.The U.S.is the world ’s largest buyer,followed by the European Union and Japan.The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes,of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale.Damselfish,anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50%of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses,blennies,gobies,triggerfish,file-fish,hawkfishes,groupers and basselets account for 31%of the trade,and the remaining 16%is represented by 33 families.The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species, seahorses (two species, royal gramma, jawfish,queen triggerfish,redlip blenny,puddingwife,bluehead wrasse,and blue chromis.The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species,but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries.It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced,and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.El comercio de peces marinos ornamentales se inició en la década de 1930 en Sri Lanka y se extendió a Hawai y Las Filipinas en la década de 1950.Posteriormente se convirtió en una industria multimillonaria cuando,en la década de 1970,se

  5. Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2013-11-19

    Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity.

  6. Parasite communities of the predatory fish, Acestrorhynchus falcatus and Acestrorhynchus falcirostris, living in sympatry in Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarães Hoshino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the parasite communities of wild Acestrorhynchus falcatus and Acestrorhynchus falcirostris populations living in sympatry in Brazilian Amazon. In these two hosts, a total of 12 parasite species e 1-9 parasite species were found per fish, and 10 of these species are metazoans. Eight species of parasites were common to both host species and four of them exhibited differences in abundance and/or prevalence. Parasite communities of the hosts were taxonomically similar (83% and composed of both ectoparasites and endoparasites, and characterized by high prevalence and high abundance of endoparasites and an aggregated dispersion pattern. For A. falcirostris, the dominant parasite was Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and for A. falcatus, it was Piscinoodinium pillulare. Shannon diversity and Berger-Parker dominance were similar for both hosts, while the parasites species richness and evenness showed differences influenced by the ectoparasites species. These two populations of hosts that inhabited the same geographical area had different sizes, but were exposed to the same infective stages, and acquired qualitatively and quantitatively similar endoparasites community, thus indicating that the amounts and types of prey congeneric that they were eating were similar. Therefore, the overlap in the same occurrence area play an important role in the parasite communities to these phylogenetically related hosts.

  7. High intake rates of microplastics in a Western Atlantic predatory fish, and insights of a direct fishery effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Guilherme V B; Barletta, Mário; Lima, André R A; Morley, Simon A; Justino, Anne K S; Costa, Monica F

    2018-05-01

    Microplastic contamination was investigated in the gut contents of an economically important estuarine top predator, Cynoscion acoupa, according to spatiotemporal and ontogenetic use of a tropical estuary. Microplastic contamination was found in more than half of the analysed fish. Ingested microplastics were classified by type, colour and length with most of the particles consisting of filaments (gear, which are mainly blue in colour. Overall, 44% of the ingested filaments were blue, 20% purple, 13% black, 10% red and 12% white. The next most common colour, the purple filaments, are most likely blue filaments whose colour has weathered to purple. Red filaments were proportionally more ingested in the lower estuary, indicating a coastal/oceanic source. White and black filaments were more commonly ingested in the inner estuary, suggesting that they have a riverine origin and/or were actively ingested by juveniles and sub-adults, which inhabit the inner estuary and have zooplankton as an important food resource. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Before the flood: Miocene otoliths from eastern Amazon Pirabas Formation reveal a Caribbean-type fish fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Orangel; Schwarzhans, Werner; Moraes-Santos, Heloísa; Nepomuceno, Aguinaldo

    2014-12-01

    The Pirabas Formation of Early Miocene age represents the final stage of the central western Atlantic carbonate platform in northeastern South America, predating the emplacement of the Amazon delta system. The otolith-based fossil fish fauna is represented by 38 species typical of a shallow marine environment. A total of 18 species are described new to science from the families Congridae, Batrachoididae, Bythitidae, Sciaenidae and Paralichthyidae. The fish fauna was associated with high benthic and planktic primary productivity including seagrass meadows, calcareous algae and suspension-feeders. The break of todays shallow marine bioprovince at the Amazonas delta mouth is not evident from the fish fauna of the Pirabas Fm., which shows good correlation with the Gatunian/proto-Caribbean bioprovince known from an only slightly younger time window in Trinidad and Venezuela. Differences observed to those Early Miocene faunal associations are interpreted to be mainly due to stratigraphic and geographic and not environmental differences. We postulate that the emergence of the Amazonas river mouth close to its present day location has terminated the carbonate cycle of the Pirabas Fm. and pushed back northwards a certain proportion of the fish fauna here described.

  9. Nutrient supply from fishes facilitates macroalgae and suppresses corals in a Caribbean coral reef ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkepile, Deron E; Allgeier, Jacob E; Shantz, Andrew A; Pritchard, Catharine E; Lemoine, Nathan P; Bhatti, Laura H; Layman, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    On coral reefs, fishes can facilitate coral growth via nutrient excretion; however, as coral abundance declines, these nutrients may help facilitate increases in macroalgae. By combining surveys of reef communities with bioenergetics modeling, we showed that fish excretion supplied 25 times more nitrogen to forereefs in the Florida Keys, USA, than all other biotic and abiotic sources combined. One apparent result was a positive relationship between fish excretion and macroalgal cover on these reefs. Herbivore biomass also showed a negative relationship with macroalgal cover, suggesting strong interactions of top-down and bottom-up forcing. Nutrient supply by fishes also showed a negative correlation with juvenile coral density, likely mediated by competition between macroalgae and corals, suggesting that fish excretion may hinder coral recovery following large-scale coral loss. Thus, the impact of nutrient supply by fishes may be context-dependent and reinforce either coral-dominant or coral-depauperate reef communities depending on initial community states.

  10. Fatal septicemia caused by the zoonotic bacterium Streptococcus iniae during an outbreak in Caribbean reef fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    An outbreak of Streptococcus iniae occurred in the early months of 2008 among wild reef fish in the waters of the Federation of St.Kitts and Nevis, lasting almost 2 months. Moribund and dead fish were collected for gross, histological, bacteriological, and molecular analysis. Necropsy findings inclu...

  11. Two clusters of ciguatera fish poisoning in Paris, France, related to tropical fish imported from the French Caribbean by travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, Loïc; Pérignon, Alice; Hossen, Virginie; Vincent, Renaud; Krys, Sophie; Caumes, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food-borne illness due to the consumption of reef fish containing pathogenic toxins. CFP is endemic to tropical areas and may be described in travelers in non-endemic areas. We describe two clusters of autochthonous cases of CFP in Paris, France. They were related to two fish caught in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) and consumed in Paris after being air-transported in a cooler. In both cases, fish flesh was analyzed and the presence of ciguatoxins by mouse bioassay (MBA) was confirmed. The first cluster involved eight individuals among whom five presented gastrointestinal symptoms and four presented neurological symptoms after consuming barracuda flesh (Sphyraena barracuda). The second cluster involved a couple who consumed a grey snapper (Lutjanus griseus). Most of them consulted at different emergency departments in the region of Paris. CFP may be seen in non-traveler patients outside endemic countries resulting from imported species of fish. Thus, CFP may be undiagnosed as physicians are not aware of this tropical disease outside endemic countries. The detection of ciguatoxins by MBA in the French National Reference Laboratory is useful in the confirmation of the diagnosis. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. [Cryptobenthic coral reef fishes in Los Roques National Park, Caribbean of Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Quintal, José G

    2010-03-01

    A significant portion of coral reef fish assemblages are composed of small cryptobenthic fishes, but these are poorly represented in regional fish characterization works. We characterized the cryptobenthic reef fish community associated with coral reef in Los Roques National Park during six week surveys. The study included 11 locations in which these fish were registered in transects of 10 x 2 m. Specimens were collected using the suction method and a fine-mesh net. A total of 31 species of six families were collected (four Blenniidae, six Chaenopsidae, one Gobiesocidae, 12 Gobiidae, seven Labrisomidae and one Tripterygiidae). Six represented new records to the park, and Coralliozetus cardonae (Chaenopsidae) was a new record for Venezuela. The most important families were Gobiidae, Chaenopsidae and Labrisomidae. Cryptic fish assemblages changed with the reef environments, with a clear distribution pattern: some species were only observed in shallow areas of less than 5 m depth, while in fringing and barrier reef areas, other species were present and differentially distributed between the reef crest and the seaward slope. These patterns probably are related to the close association that these small fish maintain with the benthos.

  13. Diversity of trophic niches among herbivorous fishes on a Caribbean reef (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles), evidenced by stable isotope and gut content analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromard, Charlotte R.; Bouchon-Navaro, Yolande; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Bouchon, Claude

    2015-01-01

    While herbivorous fishes have been widely studied due to the major ecological role they play on coral reefs, the description of their trophic niche remains challenging. In this study, we asked how 10 species of parrotfishes and surgeonfishes partition trophic resources on a Caribbean reef. The determination of trophic niches was conducted using gut and stomach content and stable isotope analyses (15N:14N and 13C:12C ratios). The contributions of food source to fish diet were calculated with concentration-dependent mixing models. Stomach content analyses distinguished two species of Acanthuridae from other fish species: Acanthurus coeruleus due to its high ingestion of fleshy macroalgae and Acanthurus chirurgus due to its high ingestion of calcified macroalgae. Acanthuridae and Sparisoma aurofrenatum presented similar diets in terms of assimilation of food resources with a high contribution of detritus and invertebrates to their diets. The diets of Sparisoma rubripinne and Sparisoma chrysopterum were more heterogeneous by comparison to the previous species. Scarus iseri, Scarus vetula, Scarus taeniopterus and Sparisoma viride appeared to share a similar trophic niche characterized by the contribution of live coral and fleshy macroalgae to their diet. The resource use among herbivorous fishes was partially related to the nutritional quality of food sources, but also to their physical structure and the capacity of fish to process them efficiently. These results showed that the ten species occupy distinct trophic niches, indicating a high functional diversity among the Caribbean herbivorous fishes.

  14. Reef fish community in presence of the lionfish (Pterois volitans in Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

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    Rocío García-Urueña

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Fish species community structure and benthic organisms coverage were studied in five localities in Santa Marta where the lionfish is present. Materials and methods. Abundance of fish species, including lion fish, was established using 30 m random visual censuses and video transects; trophic guilds were established according to available references. On the other hand benthic coverage was evaluated using the software Coral Point Count (CPCe 4.0. Results. Families with higher species numbers were Serranidae, Labridae, and Pomacentridae. Lionfish abundances were low (2.6±2.1 ind/120 m2, but in any case Pterois volitans was observed as the eleventh more abundant species, surpassing species of commercial value such as Cephalopholis cruentata. Species that were found in larger numbers (>100, Thalassoma bifasciatum, Haemulon aurolineatum, Canthigaster rostrata, Abudefduf saxatilis, Chromis cyanea, and Stegastes partitus were mainly invertebrate eaters, planctivores, and territorial herbivores. Coral coverage showed higher coral percentages in Chengue (69.9% and Cinto (27.4%, larger sponge percentages in Morro (32.7%; Isla Aguja and Remanso showed the larger figures for abiotic substrate (41.6 and 37%, respectively; corals, sponges, and gorgonians were the components best explaining fish community, but not for the lion fish, which inhabit all studied reef formations. Conclusions. Lion fish is ranked between the 20 more abundant species, with none commercially important species larger, hence no species may qualify as a natural control. Lion fish has as well become a relatively abundant species in Santa Marta reefs, independent of benthic coverage.

  15. Importance of shallow-water bay biotopes as nurseries for Caribbean reef fishes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, I.A.

    2000-01-01

    Mangroves and seagrass beds can harbour high densities of mostly juvenile fishes. It has therefore long been assumed that these habitats function as nursery areas. In the present thesis the nursery function of mangroves, seagrass beds and other shallow-water biotopes, located in sheltered inland

  16. Antibiotics from predatory bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Korp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria, which prey on other microorganisms, are commonly found in the environment. While some of these organisms act as solitary hunters, others band together in large consortia before they attack their prey. Anecdotal reports suggest that bacteria practicing such a wolfpack strategy utilize antibiotics as predatory weapons. Consistent with this hypothesis, genome sequencing revealed that these micropredators possess impressive capacities for natural product biosynthesis. Here, we will present the results from recent chemical investigations of this bacterial group, compare the biosynthetic potential with that of non-predatory bacteria and discuss the link between predation and secondary metabolism.

  17. Academic Nightmares: Predatory Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E.; Rogers, Kem A.

    2017-01-01

    Academic researchers who seek to publish their work are confronted daily with a barrage of e-mails from aggressive marketing campaigns that solicit them to publish their research with a specialized, often newly launched, journal. Known as predatory journals, they often promise high editorial and publishing standards, yet their exploitive business…

  18. 78 FR 32179 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ..., weekend fishing, peak season fishing, increases in stock abundance, potentially significant levels of... red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) reef fish fishery for the 2013 fishing year and announces the... recreational fishing season. This final rule is intended to help achieve optimum yield for the Gulf red snapper...

  19. Reef Fish Community Biomass and Trophic Structure Changes across Shallow to Upper-Mesophotic Reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A Andradi-Brown

    Full Text Available Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs; reefs 30-150m depth are of increased research interest because of their potential role as depth refuges from many shallow reef threats. Yet few studies have identified patterns in fish species composition and trophic group structure between MCEs and their shallow counterparts. Here we explore reef fish species and biomass distributions across shallow to upper-MCE Caribbean reef gradients (5-40m around Utila, Honduras, using a diver-operated stereo-video system. Broadly, we found reef fish species richness, abundance and biomass declining with depth. At the trophic group level we identified declines in herbivores (both total and relative community biomass with depth, mostly driven by declines in parrotfish (Scaridae. Piscivores increased as a proportion of the community with increased depth while, in contrast to previous studies, we found no change in relative planktivorous reef fish biomass across the depth gradient. In addition, we also found evidence of ontogenetic migrations in the blue tang (Acanthurus coeruleus, striped parrotfish (Scarus iserti, blue chromis (Chromis cyanea, creole wrasse (Clepticus parrae, bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum and yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus, with a higher proportion of larger individuals at mesophotic and near-mesophotic depths than on shallow reefs. Our results highlight the importance of using biomass measures when considering fish community changes across depth gradients, with biomass generating different results to simple abundance counts.

  20. 78 FR 37208 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... any parrotfish species. The EFP would allow the following estimated number of reef fish to be... conditions; water depth; total number of fish caught per vessel; identification, number, weight, length, and reproductive condition of fish; and substrate type (when possible). After sampling is complete, the fish...

  1. Purification and host specificity of predatory halobacteriovorax isolated from seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halobacteriovorax (formerly Bacteriovorax) are small predatory bacteria found in the marine environment and may serve as biocontrol agents against pathogens in fish and shellfish. Four strains of Halobacteriovorax originally isolated in Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 host cells were separated from t...

  2. 76 FR 23911 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... monetary sale amount per pound of fish before any deductions are made. The revision to the definition of..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Red Snapper Management... amendment to the Fishery Management Plan for the Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico (FMP) prepared by...

  3. 78 FR 19649 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... fishing seasons for their target reef fish species will be open when their fishing trip occurs. This lack... being able to better target their trips to the seasonality of demand specific to red snapper and gag? 3... revenues and costs (e.g., trip pricing, gear, bait, ice, fuel, and maintenance expenditures), and labor...

  4. IDRC in the Caribbean

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the early 1970s, IDRC has supported the efforts of researchers in the English-speaking Caribbean to reduce poverty and inequality, restore degraded coastal ecosystems, and protect communities against disease and natural disasters. Research has helped to improve farming and fishing practices and tackle.

  5. Phylogenetic and morphologic analyses of a coastal fish reveals a marine biogeographic break of terrestrial origin in the southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Betancur-R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world.Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a approximately 2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by approximately 150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated approximately 0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at approximately 0.78 my.Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of additional Southern Caribbean taxa, particularly those with varying life

  6. 77 FR 38585 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ...NMFS announces the receipt of an application for an exempted fishing permit (EFP) from Dr. Chris Koenig (Florida State University) and Dr. Chris Stallings (University of South Florida). If granted, the EFP would authorize the applicants to use trained for-hire fishermen to be able to temporarily possess goliath grouper for non-lethal sampling during the course of their normal fishing activities. This non-lethal sampling would include measuring, tagging, and removing a portion of the goliath grouper dorsal fin rays before releasing the live fish. The intent of this study is to provide regional age structure of recovering goliath grouper populations for fish stock assessments.

  7. 78 FR 37500 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    .... Because passenger capacity is currently based on the USCG COI, this limits the ability of the owner of a... control in the reef fish and CMP fisheries would be maintained, and vessel owners would be allowed to... engaged in fishing. In theory, the restrictions placed on permit renewal or transfer should have, were...

  8. 77 FR 31734 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... economic harm to fishing communities dependent on recreational fishing and associated tourism. Response... process was initiated in 2002 to improve the quality and reliability of fishery stock assessments in the... scientific quality of stock assessments, including attempts to place greater relevance on historical and...

  9. Native predators do not influence invasion success of pacific lionfish on Caribbean reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Hackerott

    Full Text Available Biotic resistance, the process by which new colonists are excluded from a community by predation from and/or competition with resident species, can prevent or limit species invasions. We examined whether biotic resistance by native predators on Caribbean coral reefs has influenced the invasion success of red lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles, piscivores from the Indo-Pacific. Specifically, we surveyed the abundance (density and biomass of lionfish and native predatory fishes that could interact with lionfish (either through predation or competition on 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions of the Caribbean. We recorded protection status of the reefs, and abiotic variables including depth, habitat type, and wind/wave exposure at each site. We found no relationship between the density or biomass of lionfish and that of native predators. However, lionfish densities were significantly lower on windward sites, potentially because of habitat preferences, and in marine protected areas, most likely because of ongoing removal efforts by reserve managers. Our results suggest that interactions with native predators do not influence the colonization or post-establishment population density of invasive lionfish on Caribbean reefs.

  10. 76 FR 51905 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... increased summer tourists that would be purchasing fish in restaurants and retail markets. This should allow.... 1801 et seq. Dated: August 16, 2011. Galen R. Tromble, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries...

  11. 77 FR 42251 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Send comments regarding the burden... eligible for exemption from the bag limits, to fish under a quota, as specified in Sec. 622.42(a)(1), or to...

  12. Predatory Open Access in Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Andrea; Martinez, Gianluca; Cugusi, Lucia; Dragone, Daniele; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Deriu, Franca

    2017-05-01

    Increasingly scholars and researchers are being solicited by predatory open access journals seeking manuscript submissions and abusing the author-pays model by charging authors with publishing fees without any or proper peer review. Such questionable editorial practices are threatening the reputation and credibility of scholarly publishing. To date, no investigation has been conducted on this phenomenon in the field of rehabilitation. This study attempts to identify specific predatory journals operating in this field to quantify the phenomenon and its geographic distribution. Beall's List has been used to this end which, although not perfect, is a comprehensive and up-to-date report of predatory publishers. Of the 1113 publishers on the list, 59 journals were identified, for a total of 5610 published articles. The median number of articles published by each journal was 21, and the median amount of article processing charges was $499. Only 1 out of 59 journals was included in the Directory of Open Access Journals, whereas 7 (12%) were indexed by PubMed. Most of the publishers were based in India (36%) followed by the United States (25%) and Pakistan (5%), and 25% were without a verifiable address. The data indicate that the threat of predatory publishing in rehabilitation is real. Physiatrists, physiotherapists, researchers, and academics operating in this field are advised to use the tools available to recognize predatory practices before considering publishing in open access journals. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 30507 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...NMFS announces the receipt of an application for an exempted fishing permit (EFP) from the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). If granted, the EFP would authorize the applicant to collect and retain red snapper that would otherwise be prohibited from possession and retention. This study, to be conducted in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf), is intended to better document the age structure and life history of fish associated with offshore platforms and artificial reefs in Louisiana coastal waters.

  14. 77 FR 2960 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ...NMFS announces the receipt of an application for an exempted fishing permit (EFP) from the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). If granted, the EFP would authorize the applicant to collect and retain red snapper that would otherwise be prohibited from possession and retention. This study, to be conducted in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) off Louisiana, is intended to better document the age structure and life history of fish associated with offshore platforms and artificial reefs in Louisiana coastal waters.

  15. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Vucetich, J.A.; Mech, L.D.; Stahler, D.R.; Packer, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Predatory senescence in aging wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Vucetich, John A.; Mech, L. David; Stahler, Daniel R.; Packer, Craig

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics.

  17. Functional Diversification within a Predatory Species Flock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Edward D.; Duarte, Alejandro; Serra, Wilson S.; Loueiro, Marcelo; Gangloff, Michael M.; Siefferman, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation is well-known from adaptive radiations in cichlid fishes inhabiting lentic ecosystems throughout the African rift valley and Central America. Here, we investigate the ecological and morphological diversification of a recently discovered lotic predatory Neotropical cichlid species flock in subtropical South America. We document morphological and functional diversification using geometric morphometrics, stable C and N isotopes, stomach contents and character evolution. This species flock displays species-specific diets and skull and pharyngeal jaw morphology. Moreover, this lineage appears to have independently evolved away from piscivory multiple times and derived forms are highly specialized morphologically and functionally relative to ancestral states. Ecological speciation played a fundamental role in this radiation and our data reveal novel conditions of ecological speciation including a species flock that evolved: 1) in a piscivorous lineage, 2) under lotic conditions and 3) with pronounced morphological novelties, including hypertrophied lips that appear to have evolved rapidly. PMID:24278349

  18. 78 FR 26607 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... usefulness of venting tools in preventing discard mortality in fish, particularly those caught in deep waters... generate a net economic benefit to small businesses. The alternatives the Council did not select for the..., would generate smaller potential net economic benefits than the preferred alternative. Another...

  19. 75 FR 58335 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... regulatory flexibility analysis (FRFA), and the regulatory impact review for this rule may be obtained from... benefits to fishermen and the tourism industries of Gulf coastal communities. The timing and duration of a... environment and associated fish stocks. A stock assessment should be conducted before allowing additional...

  20. 76 FR 50979 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... prepared and submitted by the Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council (Council). Amendment 26 established.... citizens or permanent resident aliens to meet current Gulf IFQ program and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery... reef fish fishery of the Gulf of Mexico is managed under the FMP. The FMP was prepared by the Council...

  1. 76 FR 67656 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... bycatch and discards from fishermen targeting red grouper or other fish may be higher than assumed in the.... These 8 entities received a much higher initial allocation of gag in 2010, with an average of 3,139 lb... targeting gag are estimated to be approximately $1.56 million per year while NOR for headboats from trips...

  2. 75 FR 63786 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... proposed temporary rule that would implement interim measures to reduce overfishing of gag in the Gulf of... this proposed rule is to reduce overfishing of the gag resource in the Gulf. DATES: Written comments... prevent overfishing and achieve, on a continuing basis, the optimum yield (OY) from Federally managed fish...

  3. 78 FR 12012 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... to prevent overfishing of gag, and to reduce fishing pressure on other SWG species. The reduction in... to help achieve OY for the Gulf gag and other SWG resources and prevent overfishing from the stocks... requires NMFS and regional fishery management councils to prevent overfishing and achieve, on a continuing...

  4. 75 FR 35335 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Gulf of Mexico Reef Fish Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... greater amberjack sector of the Gulf reef fish fishery. These actions are necessary to reduce overfishing... new requirements that annual catch limits (ACLs) and AMs be established to end overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. AMs are management controls to prevent ACLs from being exceeded, and correct or...

  5. 75 FR 63780 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...). List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part 622 Fisheries, Fishing, Puerto Rico, Reporting and recordkeeping...) program. The intended effect of this proposed rule is to help prevent overfishing of red grouper while... natural causes. The hurricanes that impacted the Gulf region in 2005 are not considered to have...

  6. Vertical distributions of late stage larval fishes in the nearshore waters of the San Bias Archipelago, Caribbean Panama

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, IE; Wilson, DT; Meekan, MG

    Light traps were used to describe the vertical distribution of late larval stages of reef fishes in the San Blas Archipelago during three successive new moon periods. Traps were deployed in the lagoon and at an exposed site on the outer reef edge. At each site, two traps were anchored at the surface

  7. 76 FR 9735 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS issues this proposed rule that would implement a regulatory amendment to... the summer. The direct loss of fishing opportunities due to the closure, plus the reduction in tourism... 2010 TAC has not been exceeded. Based on the current commercial and recreational allocations (51...

  8. 76 FR 23904 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... restaurants will be hurt by this closure. People will start limiting their trips to the Gulf coast because of... shops, hotels, and restaurants. The Council considered several closure options, including spring and... sector, including those identified in the comments. The for-hire fishing industry provided input to the...

  9. Marine Protected Area monitoring in the nearshore waters of Grenada, Eastern Caribbean: benthic cover and fish populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Anderson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Grenada is highly dependent on coral reefs as a source of food and to support tourism. Local and global environmental stressors threaten these reefs. Legislation was created for this MPA in 2001, permanent mooring buoys were deployed in 2009 and enforcement of fishing restrictions began in 2010. Initiatives to address point and nonpoint source pollution from the land have recently begun, aimed at reducing stress on reef area. This study documents benthic cover and fish populations associated with reefs in a Marine Protected Area (MPA along Grenada’s southwest coast from 2008 through 2012. Both Point Line Intercept and Photo Quadrat methods were used to assess benthic cover along permanent 30m transects (8 in and 12 outside the area annually. Fish and Diadema antillarum urchin relative abundance were determined based on 2m wide belt surveys along the same transects. The predominant substrate cover was algae, ranging from 41% in 2009 to 74.2% in 2011. A general trend of increasing algal cover was noted. Combined annual survey results prior (2008-2010 and after controls were implemented (2011-2012 showed a significant increase in algal cover. The predominant algal form was macroalgae comprising 65.4% - 90.8% of total algae. Live hard coral percent cover ranged from 8.7% to 21.1%. Little annual variation was observed in percent live coral cover. Branching corals (34.1% - 52.3% of total living hard coral were the most common. Of the 19 living hard coral species identified, Porites porites (21%-23% and Porites astreoides (20% dominated percentage composition. Madracis mirabilis contributed 21% of total live hard coral outside the MPA but only 8.7% in the MPA. Of the 63 species of fish identified in the study areas Chromis spp. (71.5% - 46% was the dominant group. Wrasse had a significant increase from 6.9% in 2008 to 21.5% in 2010 inside the MPA with a similar increase peaking in 2011 outside the MPA. There was a noticeable (though not statistically

  10. Caribbean | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    speaking Caribbean. Our work has helped reduce poverty and inequality, restore degraded coastal systems, and protect communities against disease and natural disasters. Our research has also helped improve farming and fishing practices, and ...

  11. Benthic and fish population monitoring associated with a marine protected area in the nearshore waters of Grenada, Eastern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Anderson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual benthic and fish population surveys were completed at five locations in the nearshore waters along Grenada´s southwest coast during 2008-2010. Two survey sites are located in a newly launched Marine Protected Area (MPA. Photo Quadrat (PQ and Point Line Intercept (PLI surveys were used to determine substrate cover. Algae was the primary live cover increasing significantly from 45.9% in 2008 to 52.7% in 2010 (PLI. Algae was also predominant (61.0%-59.3% in the PQ surveys although annual variation was not significant. Hard coral cover ranged from 16.5% to 15.4% (PLI and 11.4% to12.0% (PQ with no significant differences between years. Branching and encrusting corals occurred more frequently than massive corals. In the three annual surveys neither algal cover nor hard coral varied significantly between MPA and non-protected areas (PLI. Relative abundance of fishes along 30x2m belt transects did not vary significantly among years however density of fishes decreased significantly across years for most major groups. Chromis spp. dominated the survey sites at 65.2% in 2008 and 49.8% in 2010, followed by territorial damselfish,11.1% and 15.5%, wrasse increased from 7.3% to 15.5%. Both the substrate cover and fish survey data analyses indicated a stable but degraded community. Annual surveys are planned at these sites for the foreseeable future. Existing and future data from this project will be valuable in determining the efficacy of MPA management, guiding resource management decisions and monitoring the health status of Grenada’s valuable reef systemsUn estudio sobre poblaciones bentónicas y de peces fue realizado en cinco localidades en la zona costera en el suroeste de Grenada entre 2008 y 2010. Dos sitios se ubicaron en una Área Marina Portegida (AMP recientemente creada. Para determinar la cobertura se utilizaron foto-cuadrantes (FQ y transectos de intersección de puntos (TIP. Las algas fueron el principal componente del bentos

  12. Searching for speciation genes: molecular evidence for selection associated with colour morphotypes in the Caribbean reef fish genus Hypoplectrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben G Holt

    Full Text Available Closely related species that show clear phenotypic divergence, but without obvious geographic barriers, can provide opportunities to study how diversification can occur when opportunities for allopatric speciation are limited. We examined genetic divergence in the coral reef fish genus Hypoplectrus (family: Serranidae, which comprises of 10-14 morphotypes that are distinguished solely by their distinct colour patterns, but which show little genetic differentiation. Our goal was to detect loci that show clear disequilibrium between morphotypes and across geographical locations. We conducted Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular analysis to quantify genetic differentiation among, and selection between, morphotypes. Three loci were consistently divergent beyond neutral expectations in repeated pair-wise morphotype comparisons using two different methods. These loci provide the first evidence for genes that may be associated with colour morphotype in the genus Hypoplectrus.

  13. Detecting Predatory Behaviour in Online Game Chats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnadottir, Elin Rut; Jensen, Alaina K.; Cheong, Yun-Gyung

    This paper describes a machine learning approach to detect sexually predatory behaviour in the massively multiplayer online game for children, MovieStarPlanet. The goal of this work is to take a chat log as an input and outputs its label as either the predatory category or the non......-predatory category. From the raw in-game chat logs provided by MovieStarPlanet, we first prepared three sub datasets via extensive preprocessing. Then, two machine learning algorithms, naive Bayes and Decision Tree, were employed to model the predatory behaviour using different feature sets. Our evaluation has...

  14. 2015 Carbbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1505, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2015 Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate length-frequency...

  15. 2015 Carbbean Reef Fish Survey (PC1505, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives of the 2015 Caribbean Reef Fish Survey were to assess relative abundance of reef fish species around the US Caribbean Islands, estimate length-frequency...

  16. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  17. Fishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, G.

    1984-09-01

    Two classifications of fishing jobs are discussed: open hole and cased hole. When there is no casing in the area of the fish, it is called open hole fishing. When the fish is inside the casing, it is called cased hole fishing. The article lists various things that can become a fish-stuck drill pipe, including: broken drill pipe, drill collars, bit, bit cones, hand tools dropped in the well, sanded up or mud stuck tubing, packers become stuck, and much more. It is suggested that on a fishing job, all parties involved should cooperate with each other, and that fishing tool people obtain all the information concerning the well. That way they can select the right tools and methods to clean out the well as quickly as possible.

  18. The Philippines: predatory regime, growing authoritarian features

    OpenAIRE

    Quimpo, Nathan Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, and especially over the past few years, political corruption, fraud and violence in the Philippines have reached such alarming levels that many Filipinos have grown despondent, even cynical, about their country's political system. Exploring the suitability of the concepts of 'predatory state' and 'patrimonial oligarchic state' to the Philippines, I find that the regime rather than the state is the more appropriate unit of analysis. I argue that the predatory regime, cont...

  19. Effectiveness of lionfish removal efforts in the Southern Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de León, R.; Vane, K.; Bertuol, P.; Chamberland, V.C.; Simal, F.; Imms, E.; Vermeij, M.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Lionfish Pterois volitans and P. miles have spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea since 1985, where they negatively impact native fish communities and therefore are considered by some as the most damaging invasive species in the Caribbean to date. To combat further population growth and spread

  20. Caribbean Seasonal and/or Area Closures GIS data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents the geographic area described in Title 50 CFR Part 622, Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic, Subpart S - Reef Fish...

  1. Evidence for predatory control of the invasive round goby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Witzel, L.D.; Einhouse, D.W.; Pothoven, S.A.; Whitford, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    We coupled bioenergetics modeling with bottom trawl survey results to evaluate the capacity of piscivorous fish in eastern Lake Erie to exert predatory control of the invading population of round goby Neogobius melanostomus. In the offshore (>20 m deep) waters of eastern Lake Erie, burbot Lota lota is a native top predator, feeding on a suite of prey fishes. The round goby invaded eastern Lake Erie during the late 1990s, and round goby population size increased dramatically during 1999–2004. According to annual bottom trawl survey results, round goby abundance in offshore waters peaked in 2004, but then declined during 2004–2008. Coincidentally, round goby became an important component of burbot diet beginning in 2003. Using bottom trawling and gill netting, we estimated adult burbot abundance and age structure in eastern Lake Erie during 2007. Diet composition and energy density of eastern Lake Erie burbot were also determined during 2007. This information, along with estimates of burbot growth, burbot mortality, burbot water temperature regime, and energy densities of prey fish from the literature, were incorporated into a bioenergetics model application to estimate annual consumption of round goby by the adult burbot population. Results indicated that the adult burbot population in eastern Lake Erie annually consumed 1,361 metric tons of round goby. Based on the results of bottom trawling, we estimated the biomass of yearling and older round goby in offshore waters eastern Lake Erie during 2007–2008 to be 2,232 metric tons. Thus, the adult burbot population was feeding on round goby at an annual rate equal to 61% of the estimated round goby standing stock. We concluded that the burbot population had high potential to exert predatory control on round goby in offshore waters of eastern Lake Erie.

  2. Artists in and out of the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Price

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Art. VEERLE POUPEYE. London: Thames and Hudson, 1998. 224 pp. (Paper US$ 14.95 Transforming the Crown: African, Asian and Caribbean Artists in Britain, 1966-1996. MORA J. BEAUCHAMP-BYRD & M. FRANKLIN SIRMANS (eds.. New York: Caribbean Cultural Center, 1998. 177 pp. (Paper US$ 39.95, £31.95 "Caribbean" (like "Black British" culture is (as a Dutch colleague once said of postmodernism a bit of a slippery fish. One of the books under review here presents the eclectic artistic productions of professional artists with Caribbean identities of varying sorts - some of them lifelong residents of the region (defined broadly to stretch from Belize and the Bahamas to Curacao and Cayenne, some born in the Caribbean but living elsewhere, and others from far-away parts of the world who have lingered or settled in the Caribbean. The other focuses on artists who trace their cultural heritage variously to Lebanon, France, Malaysia, Spain, China, England, Guyana, India, the Caribbean, the Netherlands, the Philippines, and the whole range of societies in West, East, and Central Africa, all of whom meet under a single ethnic label in galleries in New York and London. Clearly, the principles that vertebrate Caribbean Art and Transforming the Crown are built on the backs of ambiguities, misperceptions, ironies, and ethnocentric logics (not to mention their stronger variants, such as racism. Yet far from invalidating the enterprise, they offer an enlightening inroad to the social, cultural, economic, and political workings of artworlds that reflect globally orchestrated pasts of enormous complexity.

  3. Ethical issues in publishing in predatory journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lorraine E; Winker, Margaret A

    2017-06-15

    Predatory journals, or journals that charge an article processing charge (APC) to authors, yet do not have the hallmarks of legitimate scholarly journals such as peer review and editing, Editorial Boards, editorial offices, and other editorial standards, pose a number of new ethical issues in journal publishing. This paper discusses ethical issues around predatory journals and publishing in them. These issues include misrepresentation; lack of editorial and publishing standards and practices; academic deception; research and funding wasted; lack of archived content; and undermining confidence in research literature. It is important that the scholarly community, including authors, institutions, editors, and publishers, support the legitimate scholarly research enterprise, and avoid supporting predatory journals by not publishing in them, serving as their editors or on the Editorial Boards, or permitting faculty to knowingly publish in them without consequences.

  4. Study of Predatory Open Access Nursing Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, Marilyn H; Conklin, Jamie L; Nicoll, Leslie H; Chinn, Peggy L; Ashton, Kathleen S; Edie, Alison H; Amarasekara, Sathya; Budinger, Susan C

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predatory journals in nursing, describe their characteristics and editorial standards, and document experiences of authors, peer reviewers, and editors affiliated with these journals. Using two sources that list predatory journals, the research team created a list of nursing journals. In Phase One, the team collected data on characteristics of predatory nursing journals such as types of articles published, article processing charge, and peer review process. In Phase Two, the team surveyed a sample of authors, reviewers, and editors to learn more about their experiences with their affiliated journals. Data from the review of predatory nursing journals were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Written comments were summarized and categorized. There were 140 predatory nursing journals from 75 publishers. Most journals were new, having been inaugurated in the past 1 to 2 years. One important finding was that many journals only published one or two volumes and then either ceased publishing or published fewer issues and articles after the first volume. Journal content varied widely, and some journals published content from dentistry and medicine, as well as nursing. Qualitative findings from the surveys confirmed previously published anecdotal evidence, including authors selecting journals based on spam emails and inability to halt publication of a manuscript, despite authors' requests to do so. Predatory journals exist in nursing and bring with them many of the "red flags" that have been noted in the literature, including lack of transparency about editorial processes and misleading information promoted on websites. The number of journals is high enough to warrant concern in the discipline about erosion of our scholarly literature. Nurses rely on the published literature to provide evidence for high-quality, safe care that promotes optimal patient outcomes. Research published in journals that do not adhere to the highest

  5. Presencia de bacterias Gram positivas en músculo de pescado con importancia comercial en la zona del Caribe mexicano Presence of Gram negative bacteria in fish muscle of commercial importance in the Mexican Caribbean zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manuel Romero-Jarero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de microorganismos patógenos en músculo de especies acuáticas de gran demanda para consumo humano es de alto riesgo para la salud pública. El crecimiento urbano en la costa del Caribe mexicano ha incrementado la contaminación de la zona, por acarreo de residuos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la diferencia cualitativa y cuantitativa de la carga bacteriana en especies de pescados de importancia comercial, antes y después de procesarse para su comercialización. Se muestreó entre la isla Contoy y bahía de la Ascensión, Quintana Roo, durante la captura y procesado. Se obtuvieron 160 muestras que fueron aisladas y purificadas en agar para Streptococcus y Staphylococcus. Se identificaron siguiendo los criterios de Mc Faddin, y Cowan y Steel. Se aplicó análisis de panel. La contaminación por diferentes especies de Streptococcus y Staphylococcus saprophyticus se registró desde el ambiente de los peces, El manejo durante su comercialización no la incrementó significativamente. El estar conformada por los mismos grupos bacterianos indica contaminación homogénea desde el ambiente marino. Los resultados de este estudio presentan datos valiosos sobre el riesgo que acarrea para la población el consumo de pescado contaminado con esos patógenos en áreas del Caribe mexicano.The presence of pathogenic microorganisms in muscle of aquatic species with high demand for human consumption can be highly dangerous for public health. Urban growth on the Mexican Caribbean coast zones had increased pollution due to urban residues accumulation. The aim of the present study is to determinate qualitative and quantitative differences in bacterial charge of commercial fish species before and after being processed. Samples of the areas between Contoy Island and Bahía de Ascensión, Quintana Roo, were obtained during commercialization, capture and processing. One hundred and sixty samples were isolated and purified in agar

  6. Predatory Journals, Peer Review, and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    This commentary examines the problem of predatory journals, low-quality open-access journals that seek to earn revenue from scholarly authors without following scholarly publishing best practices. Seeking to accept as many papers as possible, they typically do not perform a standard peer review, leading to the publication of improperly vetted…

  7. Monitoring an alien invasion: DNA barcoding and the identification of lionfish and their prey on coral reefs of the Mexican Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Moreno, Martha; Quintal-Lizama, Carolina; Gómez-Lozano, Ricardo; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In the Mexican Caribbean, the exotic lionfish Pterois volitans has become a species of great concern because of their predatory habits and rapid expansion onto the Mesoamerican coral reef, the second largest continuous reef system in the world. This is the first report of DNA identification of stomach contents of lionfish using the barcode of life reference database (BOLD). We confirm with barcoding that only Pterois volitans is apparently present in the Mexican Caribbean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 157 specimens of P. volitans from various locations in the region. Based on DNA matches in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) and GenBank, we identified fishes from five orders, 14 families, 22 genera and 34 species in the stomach contents. The families with the most species represented were Gobiidae and Apogonidae. Some prey taxa are commercially important species. Seven species were new records for the Mexican Caribbean: Apogon mosavi, Coryphopterus venezuelae, C. thrix, C. tortugae, Lythrypnus minimus, Starksia langi and S. ocellata. DNA matches, as well as the presence of intact lionfish in the stomach contents, indicate some degree of cannibalism, a behavior confirmed in this species by the first time. We obtained 45 distinct crustacean prey sequences, from which only 20 taxa could be identified from the BOLD and GenBank databases. The matches were primarily to Decapoda but only a single taxon could be identified to the species level, Euphausia americana. This technique proved to be an efficient and useful method, especially since prey species could be identified from partially-digested remains. The primary limitation is the lack of comprehensive coverage of potential prey species in the region in the BOLD and GenBank databases, especially among invertebrates.

  8. Monitoring an alien invasion: DNA barcoding and the identification of lionfish and their prey on coral reefs of the Mexican Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Valdez-Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Mexican Caribbean, the exotic lionfish Pterois volitans has become a species of great concern because of their predatory habits and rapid expansion onto the Mesoamerican coral reef, the second largest continuous reef system in the world. This is the first report of DNA identification of stomach contents of lionfish using the barcode of life reference database (BOLD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We confirm with barcoding that only Pterois volitans is apparently present in the Mexican Caribbean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 157 specimens of P. volitans from various locations in the region. Based on DNA matches in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD and GenBank, we identified fishes from five orders, 14 families, 22 genera and 34 species in the stomach contents. The families with the most species represented were Gobiidae and Apogonidae. Some prey taxa are commercially important species. Seven species were new records for the Mexican Caribbean: Apogon mosavi, Coryphopterus venezuelae, C. thrix, C. tortugae, Lythrypnus minimus, Starksia langi and S. ocellata. DNA matches, as well as the presence of intact lionfish in the stomach contents, indicate some degree of cannibalism, a behavior confirmed in this species by the first time. We obtained 45 distinct crustacean prey sequences, from which only 20 taxa could be identified from the BOLD and GenBank databases. The matches were primarily to Decapoda but only a single taxon could be identified to the species level, Euphausia americana. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This technique proved to be an efficient and useful method, especially since prey species could be identified from partially-digested remains. The primary limitation is the lack of comprehensive coverage of potential prey species in the region in the BOLD and GenBank databases, especially among invertebrates.

  9. Lateralization of eye use in cuttlefish: opposite direction for anti-predatory and predatory behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerstin Schnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e. vigilant scanning. To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional

  10. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Alexandra K; Hanlon, Roger T; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  11. Marine reserves reestablish lost predatory interactions and cause community changes in rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Paolo

    2006-06-01

    In the last decades, marine reserves have dramatically increased in number worldwide. Here I examined the potential of no-take marine reserves to reestablish lost predatory interactions and, in turn, cause community-wide changes in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Protected locations supported higher density and size of the most effective fish preying on sea urchins (the sea breams Diplodus sargus and D. vulgaris) than unprotected locations. Density of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula) was lower at protected than at unprotected locations. Size structure of P. lividus was bimodal (a symptom of predation on medium-sized urchins) only at the protected locations. Coralline barrens were less extended at protected than at unprotected locations, whereas turf-forming and erect-branched algae showed an opposite pattern. Erect-unbranched and erect-calcified algae and conspicuous zoobenthic organisms did not show any pattern related to protection. Tethering experiments showed that predation impact on urchins was (1) higher at protected than at unprotected locations, (2) higher on P. lividus than on A. lixula, and (3) higher on medium-sized (2-3.5 cm test diameter) than large-sized (>3.5 cm) urchins. Sea urchins preyed on by fish in natural conditions were smaller at unprotected than at protected locations. The analysis of sea urchin remains found in Diplodus fish stomachs revealed that medium-sized P. lividus were the most frequently preyed upon urchins and that size range of consumed sea urchins expanded with increasing size of Diplodus fish. These results suggest that (1) depletion and size reduction of predatory fish caused by fishing alter patterns of predation on sea urchins, and that (2) fishing bans (e.g., within no-take marine reserves) may reestablish lost interactions among strongly interactive species in temperate rocky reefs with potential community-wide effects.

  12. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  13. Predatory Journals and Perished Articles; a Letter to Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Narimani, Mashallah; Dadkhah, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, academic publishing has been faced with many destructive phenomena. “Predatory publishers” (or journals) are one challenge for  cholarly publishing. This term was introduced to academic societies for the first time by Jeffrey Beall in 2010. This letter to editor is about predatory journals and perished articles in the field of emergency medicine.

  14. Predatory publishing and the dilemma of the Nigerian Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a phenomenon widespread in developing countries. This article summarizes the published literature on predatory open access publishing, discusses its potential impact on scholarship in Nigeria and offers suggestions to address the problem. Keywords: Predatory publishing, Open Access, Nigerian academic, Journals ...

  15. Abundance and tidal behaviour of pelagic fish in the gateway to the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couperus, Bram; Gastauer, Sven; Fässler, Sascha M.M.; Tulp, Ingrid; Veer, van der Henk W.; Poos, Jan Jaap

    2016-01-01

    The shallow coast of The Netherlands is an important habitat for small pelagic fish. They form one of the major links between plankton and the higher trophic levels. Predatory fish, sea mammals and birds rely on small pelagic fish as a major food source. Currently, monitoring of fish in the Dutch

  16. Abundance and tidal behaviour of pelagic fish in the gateway to the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couperus, B.; Gastauer, S.; Fässler, S.M.M.; Tulp, I.; van der Veer, H.W.; Poos, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The shallow coast of The Netherlands is an important habitat for small pelagic fish. They form one of the major links between plankton and the higher trophic levels. Predatory fish, sea mammals and birds rely on small pelagic fish as a major food source. Currently, monitoring of fish in the Dutch

  17. Caribbean mangroves and seagrass beds as diurnal feeding habitats for juvenile French grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, M.C.; Nagelkerken, I.; Wartenbergh, S.L.J.; Pen, I.R.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Caribbean seagrass beds are important feeding habitats for so-called nocturnally active zoobenthivorous fish, but the extent to which these fishes use mangroves and seagrass beds as feeding habitats during daytime remains unclear. We hypothesised three feeding strategies: (1) fishes feed

  18. Caribbean mangroves and seagrass beds as daytime feeding habitats for juvenile French grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.C.; Nagelkerken, I.; Wartenbergh, S.L.J.; Pen, I.R.; Van der Velde, G.

    Caribbean seagrass beds are important feeding habitats for so-called nocturnally active zoobenthivorous fish, but the extent to which these fishes use mangroves and seagrass beds as feeding habitats during daytime remains unclear. We hypothesised three feeding strategies: (1) fishes feed

  19. Predatory Bacteria Attenuate Klebsiella pneumoniae Burden in Rat Lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Shatzkes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus are predatory bacteria that naturally—and obligately—prey on other Gram-negative bacteria, and their use has been proposed as a potential new approach to control microbial infection. The ability of predatory bacteria to prey on Gram-negative human pathogens in vitro is well documented; however, the in vivo safety and efficacy of predatory bacteria have yet to be fully assessed. In this study, we examined whether predatory bacteria can reduce bacterial burden in the lungs in an in vivo mammalian system. Initial safety studies were performed by intranasal inoculation of rats with predatory bacteria. No adverse effects or lung pathology were observed in rats exposed to high concentrations of predatory bacteria at up to 10 days postinoculation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA of the immune response revealed a slight increase in inflammatory cytokine levels at 1 h postinoculation that was not sustained by 48 h. Additionally, dissemination experiments showed that predators were efficiently cleared from the host by 10 days postinoculation. To measure the ability of predatory bacteria to reduce microbial burden in vivo, we introduced sublethal concentrations of Klebsiella pneumoniae into the lungs of rats via intranasal inoculation and followed with multiple doses of predatory bacteria over 24 h. Predatory bacteria were able to reduce K. pneumoniae bacterial burden, on average, by more than 3.0 log10 in the lungs of most rats as measured by CFU plating. The work presented here provides further support for the idea of developing predatory bacteria as a novel biocontrol agent.

  20. Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.C.den

    1980-01-01

    The present paper comprises a review of the Caribbean shallow water Corallimorpharia. Six species, belonging to four genera and three families are treated, including Pseudocorynactis caribbeorum gen. nov. spec. nov., a species with tentacular acrospheres containing the largest spirocysts ever

  1. Caribbean development: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sutton

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews development in the Caribbean, especially since 1990 to the present, and highlights future development prospects. Author discusses 2 reports from 2005 on present developments problems in the Caribbean region: the economics-focussed 'A time to choose: Caribbean development in the 21st century' by the World Bank, and the UN ECLAC report 'The Millennium Development Goals: a Latin American and Caribbean perspective', with a broader, also social and political, development agenda. He relates what both reports recommend for the Caribbean on the basis of their evaluations of past development. The World Bank report advocates a move toward the services sector, including tourism, offshore education, ICT services, and health services as most viable. The ECLAC report notes some social and political advances in comparison to other developing countries, but also remaining problems and inequalities. The author finds that the World Bank report's neoliberal, one-size-fits-all approach is not mindful of specific Caribbean realities, while the ECLAC study is more sensitive to local realities, and espouses a mixed economy. He thus considers the ECLAC approach preferable, but argues that it needs to go further, as it excludes Cuba and Haiti as atypical states.

  2. Arbitral action and preventive methods against predatory journal practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Pil Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As open access model of journal publication increases, predatory journals, which deceive scholars to publish journals in fake database websites and exploit them for publishing fee, is also increasing. There are two types of predatory journals. First, journal hijacking and cybersquatting generally create fake database website by mimicking authentic database website, thereby defrauding scholars for publication fee. Second, journal phishing use scam emails to steal scholars’ personal information. If scholars suffered damage from predatory journals, scholars can take either arbitral or judicial actions. Arbitral action follows arbitrational resolution process termed Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy. Scholars can join Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy proceeding with legal entity that has right to authentic database website, which will result in cancellation or transfer of fake database website. In contrast, scholars can take judicial action under Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act, which may help scholars to recover an actual monetary damage from predatory journals. Nonetheless, taking precaution to avoid predatory journals is the best course of action, rather than going through arduous cure procedures. Scholars may prevent predatory journals by carefully examining fake database website names or email addresses, or observing unreasonable number of published article issues in predatory journal websites.

  3. Petro-States - Predatory or Developmental?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Political attention is increasing on the glaring contradiction in most oil-rich countries between natural abundance and economic and social misery. How can it be that oil is not a blessing, but becomes a curse? Although drawing on economic analysis (Dutch disease), the analytical framework established in this report on Angola and Azerbaijan pays special attention to political and institutional factors and concentrates on the role of the state. Selected variables that are likely to decide whether the petro-states become ''predatory'' or ''developmental'' are studied for both countries. The analysis indicates a danger that oil resources will continue to trickle away instead of trickling down to the benefit of the broader Angolan and Azerbaijani population. Concerted action by international oil companies and the Bretton Woods institutions provides the best hope of moving the present political leadership in Angola and Azerbaijan into a developmental direction. (author)

  4. Petro-States - Predatory or Developmental?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Political attention is increasing on the glaring contradiction in most oil-rich countries between natural abundance and economic and social misery. How can it be that oil is not a blessing, but becomes a curse? Although drawing on economic analysis (Dutch disease), the analytical framework established in this report on Angola and Azerbaijan pays special attention to political and institutional factors and concentrates on the role of the state. Selected variables that are likely to decide whether the petro-states become ''predatory'' or ''developmental'' are studied for both countries. The analysis indicates a danger that oil resources will continue to trickle away instead of trickling down to the benefit of the broader Angolan and Azerbaijani population. Concerted action by international oil companies and the Bretton Woods institutions provides the best hope of moving the present political leadership in Angola and Azerbaijan into a developmental direction. (author)

  5. Manuscript Submission Invitations from 'Predatory Journals': What Should Authors Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Mihiretu; Schmaus-Klughammer, Anna E; Tekle, Brook Tesfaye

    2017-05-01

    Press freedom and worldwide internet access have opened ample opportunity for a staggering number of poor open access journals and junk publishers to emerge. Dubious publishers are abusing and camouflaging the golden open access model. In 2012, Jeffery Beall shed light on the predatory journals (as he preferred to call them) and the threat to open access scientific publication. Publishing in predatory journals is continuing to be a major threat for the development of science in developing countries. The authors of this article proposed solutions and outline a fresh perspective to help authors avoid publishing in predatory journals. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  6. Behind the Spam: A ``Spectral Analysis'' of Predatory Publishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2016-10-01

    Most researchers today are bombarded with spam email solicitations from questionable scholarly publishers. These emails solicit article manuscripts, editorial board service, and even ad hoc peer reviews. These ``predatory'' publishers exploit the scholarly publishing process, patterning themselves after legitimate scholarly publishers yet performing little or no peer review and quickly accepting submitted manuscripts and collecting fees from submitting authors. These counterfeit publishers and journals have published much junk science? especially in the field of cosmology? threatening the integrity of the academic record. This paper examines the current state of predatory publishing and advises researchers how to navigate scholarly publishing to best avoid predatory publishers and other scholarly publishing-related perils.

  7. 75 FR 69054 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... will be held at the Holiday Inn Hotel in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-2577... collection of statistical data for the deep- water fishes in the west coast of Puerto Rico. --Report on the...

  8. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Fish farming is greatly improving food security, incomes, health, and quality of life for families in Bolivia. Women are empowered to become leaders in their communities, promoting gender equality. More fruits and vegetables in children's diets in Caribbean primary schools are helping with child obesity.

  9. Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 avr. 2016 ... Fish farming is greatly improving food security, incomes, health, and quality of life for families in Bolivia. Women are empowered to become leaders in their communities, promoting gender equality. More fruits and vegetables in children's diets in Caribbean primary schools are helping with child obesity.

  10. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  11. Quality of articles published in predatory nursing journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, Marilyn H; Nicoll, Leslie H; Chinn, Peggy L; Ashton, Kathleen S; Conklin, Jamie L; Edie, Alison H; Amarasekara, Sathya; Williams, Brittany L

    Predatory journals exist in nursing and lack the safeguards of traditional publishing practices. To examine the quality of articles published in predatory nursing journals. Randomly selected articles (n = 358) were reviewed for structural content and eight quality indicators. Two-thirds (67.4%) of the articles were published between 2014 and 2016, demonstrating the acceleration of publications in predatory nursing journals. The majority (75.9%) of the articles were research reports. Most followed the IMRAD presentation of a research report but contained errors, or the study was not pertinent to the nursing discipline. Nursing research published in predatory journals may appear legitimate by conforming to an expected structure. However, a lack of quality is apparent, representing inadequate peer review and editorial processes. Poor quality research erodes the scholarly nursing literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predatory behaviour in synthetic protocell communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yan; Li, Mei; Booth, Richard; Mann, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Recent progress in the chemical construction of colloidal objects comprising integrated biomimetic functions is paving the way towards rudimentary forms of artificial cell-like entities (protocells). Although several new types of protocells are currently available, the design of synthetic protocell communities and investigation of their collective behaviour has received little attention. Here we demonstrate an artificial form of predatory behaviour in a community of protease-containing coacervate microdroplets and protein-polymer microcapsules (proteinosomes) that interact via electrostatic binding. The coacervate microdroplets act as killer protocells for the obliteration of the target proteinosome population by protease-induced lysis of the protein-polymer membrane. As a consequence, the proteinosome payload (dextran, single-stranded DNA, platinum nanoparticles) is trafficked into the attached coacervate microdroplets, which are then released as functionally modified killer protocells capable of rekilling. Our results highlight opportunities for the development of interacting artificial protocell communities, and provide a strategy for inducing collective behaviour in soft matter microcompartmentalized systems and synthetic protocell consortia.

  13. Caribbean health Policy Briefing

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Caribbean health. Diversity in local food production to combat obesity. Did you know? • The World Health Organization recommends that children should eat 400 g of fruit and vegetables per day. • Drip irrigation can provide the entire water requirements for vegetable crops using 40-50% less water. • About 60% of the ...

  14. A gastric evacuation model for three predatory gadoids and implications of using pooled field data of stomach contents to estimate food rations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    2001-01-01

    The general applicability of the square root model to describe gastric evacuation in predatory gadoids independently of meal size was verified through experiments on whiting Merlangius Merlangus, saithe Pollachius virens and cod Gadus morhua fed different fish and crustacean prey. Gastric evacuat...... density was established for whiting, saithe and cod. It was demonstrated that estimates of food rations might be severely biased by use of mean values for prey composition and total mass of stomach contents. The Fisheries Society of the British Isles......The general applicability of the square root model to describe gastric evacuation in predatory gadoids independently of meal size was verified through experiments on whiting Merlangius Merlangus, saithe Pollachius virens and cod Gadus morhua fed different fish and crustacean prey. Gastric...

  15. Differentiating predatory scholarship: best practices in scholarly publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jimmy; Bridgeman, Mary Barna; Hermes-DeSantis, Evelyn R

    2018-02-01

    The intent of this article is to define predatory publishing, identify the risks and costs associated with publishing scholarship with these types of organizations and to provide recommendations for best practices how a potential author can protect themselves against predatory organizations. A thorough review of the literature concerning predatory publishing was conducted and gleaned for best practices along with the authors' experiences. Pharmacy scholars and researchers worldwide recognize the virtues of the open access (OA) publication system, which is intended to freely disseminate research electronically, stimulate innovation and improve access to scholarship. Both subscription-based and OA publication systems, however, have potential areas of conflicts, including coordination of the peer-review process and the potential for the publisher to capitalize on selling the commodity in a capitalistic society. The intent of OA is welcomed; however, publishers are still in a business and profits need to be made. It is by the exploitation of the model that has given rise to a small but growing subset known as predatory publishers. Pharmacy researchers and clinicians alike need to be aware of predatory organizations, both publishers and meeting organizers, when seeking a venue to publish their own scholarly research. Additionally, this knowledge is critical when evaluating medical literature in providing direct patient care services to assure the best available evidence is utilized. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: Is bigger better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Mech, L.D.; Eberly, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Large body size hinders locomotor performance in ways that may lead to trade-offs in predator foraging ability that limit the net predatory benefit of larger size. For example, size-related improvements in handling prey may come at the expense of pursuing prey and thus negate any enhancement in overall predatory performance due to increasing size. 2. This hypothesis was tested with longitudinal data from repeated observations of 94 individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Wolf size was estimated from an individually based sex-specific growth model derived from body mass measurements of 304 wolves. 3. Larger size granted individual wolves a net predatory advantage despite substantial variation in its effect on the performance of different predatory tasks; larger size improved performance of a strength-related task (grappling and subduing elk) but failed to improve performance of a locomotor-related task (selecting an elk from a group) for wolves > 39 kg. 4. Sexual dimorphism in wolf size also explained why males outperformed females in each of the three tasks considered (attacking, selecting, and killing). 5. These findings support the generalization that bigger predators are overall better hunters, but they also indicate that increasing size ultimately limits elements of predatory behaviour that require superior locomotor performance. We argue that this could potentially narrow the dietary niche of larger carnivores as well as limit the evolution of larger size if prey are substantially more difficult to pursue than to handle. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

  17. Sexual Violence, Predatory Masculinity, and Medical Testimony in New Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorici, Zeb

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the medical and legal construction of predatory masculinity in New Spain by contrasting criminal cases of rape [estupro] with those of violent or coercive sodomy [sodomía]. In the context of male-female rape, the rulings of most criminal and ecclesiastical courts imply that predatory masculinity was a "natural" manifestation of male sexual desire, whereas in cases of sodomy and nonconsensual sexual acts between men, courts viewed such desire as "against nature." The processes by which the colonial state prosecuted certain sexual crimes simultaneously criminalized and validated predatory masculinity. By analyzing the roles of the medics, surgeons, and midwives who examined the bodies of the male and female victims in these cases, this essay argues for a commonality in the authoritative judgments based on medical evidence, whether conclusive or inconclusive.

  18. Behind the Spam: A "Spectral Analysis" of Predatory Publishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Most researchers today are bombarded with spam email solicitations from questionable scholarly publishers. These emails solicit article manuscripts, editorial board service, and even ad hoc peer reviews. These "predatory" publishers exploit the scholarly publishing process, patterning themselves after legitimate scholarly publishers yet performing little or no peer review and quickly accepting submitted manuscripts and collecting fees from submitting authors. These counterfeit publishers and journals have published much junk science — especially in the field of cosmology — threatening the integrity of the academic record. This presentation examines the current state of predatory publishing and related scams such as fake impact factors and advises researchers how to navigate scholarly publishing to best avoid predatory publishers and other scholarly publishing-related perils.

  19. Predatory behavior of the land flatworm Notogynaphallia abundans (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. T. Prasniski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Land flatworms are carnivorous, mainly predators. However, knowledge on their predatory behavior and prey preference is very scarce. This paucity of data is a limiting factor in the study of their biology and organismal ecology, resulting in a very difficult task to breed them in the laboratory for prolonged periods if prey preference and predation frequency are unknown. We investigated the predatory behavior of Notogynaphallia abundans (Graff, 1899, Geoplaninae, based on laboratory experiments. In order to determine its predatory choices, we offered mollusks, earthworms, arthropods, and other land flatworms. Only land isopods were accepted, with an average consumption of 3.4 individuals per week. Linear regression showed a positive relationship between the number of consumed isopods and the increase/decrease in body mass. Consumption resulting in an increase in body mass was ca. four isopods per week. Predatory behavior, with a mean time-span of 28 min 45 s ± 15 min 47 s, includes encounter and capture of prey, immobilization, handling and feeding. Variation in the duration of this activity in N. abundans is clearly due to variations in the time necessary for transferring the prey from either the anterior or posterior thirds of the body to the mouth, as well as for external digestion and ingestion. In order to capture very active and fast-moving animals such as land isopods, N. abundans employs various strategies, using either the anterior or the posterior body regions to press the prey against the ground or against its own body, thus allowing it to deal with various responses by the prey, and thereby maximizing predatory success. Similar to other flatworms, both physical holding and entrapment in a mucous secretion are of fundamental importance for prey-immobilization. The different strategies employed by land flatworms in their predatory behavior are discussed, and behavioral plasticity in the capture and immobilization of prey in different

  20. Lead exposure potentiates predatory attack behavior in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjie; Han Shenggao; Gregg, T.R.; Kemp, F.W.Francis W.; Davidow, A.L.; Louria, D.B.; Siegel, Allan; Bogden, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that environmental lead exposure is associated with aggressive behavior in children; however, numerous confounding variables limit the ability of these studies to establish a causal relationship. The study of aggressive behavior using a validated animal model was used to test the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggression in the absence of confounding variables. We studied the effects of lead exposure on a feline model of aggression: predatory (quiet biting) attack of an anesthetized rat. Five cats were stimulated with a precisely controlled electrical current via electrodes inserted into the lateral hypothalamus. The response measure was the predatory attack threshold current (i.e., the current required to elicit an attack response on 50% of the trials). Blocks of trials were administered in which predatory attack threshold currents were measured three times a week for a total of 6-10 weeks, including before, during, and after lead exposure. Lead was incorporated into cat food 'treats' at doses of 50-150 mg/kg/day. Two of the five cats received a second period of lead exposure. Blood lead concentrations were measured twice a week and were <1, 21-77, and <20 μg/dL prior to, during, and after lead exposure, respectively. The predatory attack threshold decreased significantly during initial lead exposure in three of five cats and increased after the cessation of lead exposure in four of the five cats (P<0.01). The predatory attack thresholds and blood lead concentrations for each cat were inversely correlated (r=-0.35 to -0.74). A random-effects mixed model demonstrated a significant (P=0.0019) negative association between threshold current and blood lead concentration. The data of this study demonstrate that lead exposure enhances predatory aggression in the cat and provide experimental support for a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behavior in humans

  1. Fish ladders: safe fish passage or hotspot for predation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for

  2. Rodents of the Caribbean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Raghavan, Maanasa

    2014-01-01

    The Capromyidae (hutias) are endemic rodents of the Caribbean and represent a model of dispersal for non-flying mammals in the Greater Antilles. This family has experienced severe extinctions during the Holocene and its phylogenetic affinities with respect to other caviomorph relatives are still ...... (Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica) hutias. Recent divergences among these western hutias suggest Plio-Pleistocene dispersal waves associated with glacial cycles....

  3. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-02-06

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  4. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Plath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre, we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1 that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2 that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  5. Predatory mites avoid ovipositing near counter-attacking prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraji, F.; Janssen, A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    Attacking prey is not without risk; predators may endure counterattackby the prey. Here, we study the oviposition behaviour of a predatory mite(Iphiseius degenerans) in relation to its prey, thewesternflower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). This thrips iscapable of killing the eggs of the

  6. Are predatory journals undermining the credibility of science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber

    2017-01-01

    as potential poor scientific standards journals. Citations to 124 potential predatory journals and poor scientific standards journals are looked up in Scopus and the citing authors analysed in regards to geographic location, publications and citations. The results show that the characteristics of the citing...

  7. Educational Research and Predatory Tabloid Journalism: Authors Beware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the nature of predatory open-access journals. These are journals that do not exist as vehicles to promote research or the efforts of scholarly organizations, but exist simply as a means for profit. As with many efforts in education and the social sciences, when financial incentive is the main driving force, quality and…

  8. Effect of Predatory Bacteria on Human Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Gupta

    Full Text Available Predatory bacteria are Gram-negative bacteria that prey on other Gram-negative bacteria and have been considered as potential therapeutic agents against multi-drug resistant pathogens. In vivo animal models have demonstrated that predatory bacteria are non-toxic and non-immunogenic in rodents. In order to consider the use of predatory bacteria as live antibiotics, it is important to investigate their effect on human cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strains 109J and HD100, and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus strain ARL-13 on cell viability and inflammatory responses of five human cell lines, representative of clinically relevant tissues. We found that the predators were not cytotoxic to any of the human cell lines tested. Microscopic imaging showed no signs of cell detachment, as compared to predator-free cells. In comparison to an E. coli control, exposure to higher concentrations of the predators did not trigger a significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in four of the five human cell lines tested. Our work underlines the non-pathogenic attributes of predatory bacteria on human cells and highlights their potential use as live antibiotics against human pathogens.

  9. Predatory Poiretia (Stylommatophora, Oleacinidae) snails: histology and observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helwerda, Renate A.

    2015-01-01

    The predatory behaviour of Poiretia snails is studied. One aspect of this behaviour is the ability to make holes in the shells of prey snails. The radula and the histology of the mucous glands support the assumption that Poiretia secretes acidic mucus to produce these holes. Observation of a

  10. Sociobiology of biodegradation and the role of predatory protozoa in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    A variety of protozoa are associated with different biodegrading microbial communities. Some of these protozoa have been shown to produce extracellular enzymes and hence play a direct role in biodegradation (Jouany and. Martin 1997). However, a large number of protozoal species play only a predatory role and mainly ...

  11. Youth Unemployment in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Parra-Torrado

    2014-01-01

    Global economic shocks coupled with natural disasters left most Caribbean countries with zero to negative growth and high unemployment rates. The Caribbean region was strongly affected by the last great financial crisis, which resulted in a regional average of zero economic growth in 2010. The purpose of this note is to evaluate the nature of youth unemployment in order to propose policy o...

  12. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  13. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    4. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden CHARLOTTE MOSHØJ1,2 1University of Copenhagen Department of Population Ecology, Zoological Institute Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark cmmoshoj@zi.ku.dk 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Conservation Biology...... (reindeer and roe deer) comprised the greatest part of the diet, while a regional division indicated that while lynxes from northern regions had a narrower diet niche, they were in better condition than lynxes from south of the reindeer husbandry districts. Lynx gender and status also influenced diet......, predation and condition, while temporal variations in prey density and availability affected seasonal predation rates, as well as between year variations and diet composition. Variable prey species and environmental factors, such as snow and the availability of cover, furthermore affected lynx predatory...

  14. Empirical basis and forensic application of affective and predatory violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J Reid

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the empirical basis and forensic application of a bimodal theory of violence. The definitions of affective and predatory violence, the relevant animal and clinical research, and the current empirical evidence in neurochemistry, neuropsychology and psychophysiology are reviewed. Forensic evidence for the relevance of this bimodal theory is investigated. An appropriate methodology for data gathering, and two observational measures along with one self-report measure are explicated. Integration of this bimodal theory into forensic practice is suggested. Affective and predatory modes of violence represent an empirically valid bimodal theory of violence, find application in forensic psychiatry, and scientifically deepen the understanding of discrete violent acts for both retrospective and prospective psychiatric and psychological investigations. This bimodal theory of violence should have a place in forensic psychiatric practice.

  15. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  16. Predatory Journals, Piracy and New Models of Publishing Scientific Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Smutný

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper responds to observed absurd impacts associated with predatory journals, both at the personal and institutional level. There is mentioned the basic procedure to identify predatory journal and how to find it in Beall’s list. Briefly are commented the consequences associated with the first study in the Czech Republic dealing with the number of articles published in predatory journals, which are inserted into the Information register of R&D results (RIV by research institutions. On this basis, a part of the funding for universities and research organizations in the Czech Republic is redistributed. Furthermore, there are commented approaches to financing journals and publishing articles, in particular, a new model of paying membership fees used by the publication platform PeerJ. Finally, the issue of the availability of scientific articles including piracy issues is discussed. Described development, which we are currently witnessing, transforms the current system of science and related publishing of scientific articles or knowledge sharing within the society.

  17. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ross Robertson

    Full Text Available The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1 a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2 a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves, and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the

  18. 78 FR 71530 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    .... 130312235-3658-02] RIN 0648-XC984 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; 2013... Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... commercial annual catch limit (ACL) for the July 1 through December 31, 2013, fishing period on December 2...

  19. Reef flattening effects on total richness and species responses in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Steven P.; Meesters, E.H.; Dryden, Charlie S.; Williams, Stacey M.; Sanchez, Cristina; Mumby, Peter J.; Polunin, Nicholas V.C.

    2015-01-01

    There has been ongoing flattening of Caribbean coral reefs with the loss of habitat having severe implications for these systems. Complexity and its structural components are important to fish species richness and community composition, but little is known about its role for other taxa or

  20. Allozymes and RAPDs detect little genetic population substructuring in the Caribbean stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertjes, GJ.; Postema, Jeroen; Kamping, Albert; Delden, Wilke van; Videler, John J.; van de Zande, Louis

    2004-01-01

    The genetic population structure of the Caribbean stoplight parrotfish Sparisoma viride was analysed by means of allozyme electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) using blood samples from adult fish that were collected on the reefs of 5 islands (3 sites at Bonaire, 1 each at

  1. Size structure of a heavily fished benthic/demersal community by shrimp trawling in the Colombian Caribbean Sea Estructura de tamaños de una comunidad bentónica/demersal fuertemente impactada por la pesca de arrastre camaronero en el Mar Caribe de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gómez-Canchong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The benthic and demersal communities in the Colombian Caribbean Sea (CCS are heavily fished by the shrimp trawling fishery, which presents very high discard levels. Here, we conducted an analysis of the size structure of these benthic and demersal communities in the northern and southern zones of the CCS. Sampling was conducted onboard shrimp trawlers throughout an entire year. No significant differences were found in the size distributions of the two zones, among sites within southern ecoregions, or among the analyzed cruises. This homogeneity in size structure is remarkable since the zones analyzed possess very different species compositions and environmental conditions. The observed size structures were adequately described by non-linear distributions rather than the traditionally employed linear normalized biomass size spectra. It is hypothesized that the non-linearity is due to the effect of fishing and particularly, of discarding. This study emphasizes the need for a greater understanding of the impacts that trawl fishing has on community size structure and the applicability of this knowledge towards fishery resource management in ecosystems with high diversity.Las comunidades bentónico-demersales en el Mar Caribe de Colombia (MCC son fuertemente explotadas por la pesca de arrastre camaronero, presentando niveles de descarte muy altos. Se efectuó un análisis de la estructura de tamaños de estas comunidades bentónico-demersales en las zonas norte y sur del MCC. Se realizaron muéstreos a bordo de las embarcaciones de arrastre de camarón a lo largo de un año. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las distribuciones de tamaños de las diferentes zonas, ecorregiones de la zona sur y cruceros analizados. Esta homogeneidad en la estructura de tamaños es destacable ya que las areas analizadas difieren en composición de especies y condiciones medioambientales. Las estructuras de tamaño observadas, fueron descritas

  2. Meandrina meandrites and Emblemariopsis diaphana, first record of an association between a stony coral and a fish, similar to anemone/fish relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, Maureen E.; Wapstra, Marlies; Dijk, van Eric

    1980-01-01

    An association is described between a Caribbean stony coral, Meandrina meandrites, and a chaenopsid fish, Emblemariopsis diaphana. Like in anemone/fish associations the coral tentacles provide shelter for the fish. Some observations were made, both in the field and in the laboratory, of the

  3. Caribbean Crucible: History, Culture, and Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelvington, Kevin A.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the Caribbean as an origin-point of the modern global system. Discusses the conquests and colonization of the Caribbean; the slavery system and racial distinctions; the post-emancipation society; and culture, Creolization, and the concept of movement as features of Caribbean society. Provides a bibliography. (CMK)

  4. Predatory interactions between prey affect patch selection by predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choh, Yasuyuki; Sabelis, Maurice W; Janssen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    When predators can use several prey species as food sources, they are known to select prey according to foraging efficiency and food quality. However, interactions between the prey species may also affect prey choice, and this has received limited attention. The effect of one such interaction, intraguild predation between prey, on patch selection by predators was studied here. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus preys on young larvae of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and on all stages of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae . The two prey species co-occur on several plant species, on which they compete for resources, and western flower thrips feed on eggs of the spider mites. A further complicating factor is that the thrips can also feed on the eggs of the predator. We found that performance of the predatory mite was highest on patches with spider mites, intermediate on patches with spider mites plus thrips larvae and lowest on patches with thrips larvae alone. Patch selection and oviposition preference of predators matched performance: predators preferred patches with spider mites over patches with spider mites plus thrips. Patches with thrips only were not significantly more attractive than empty patches. We also investigated the cues involved in patch selection and found that the attractiveness of patches with spider mites was significantly reduced by the presence of cues associated with killed spider mite eggs. This explains the reduced attractiveness of patches with both prey. Our results point at the importance of predatory interactions among prey species for patch selection by predators. Patch selection by predators is known to be affected by factors such as prey quality, the presence of competitors and predators, but little is known on the effects of interactions among prey species present on patch selection. In this paper, we show that patch selection by a predator is affected by such interactions, specifically by

  5. Initiation of chromosomal replication in predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Makowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small Gram-negative predatory bacterium that attacks other Gram-negative bacteria, including many animal, human, and plant pathogens. This bacterium exhibits a peculiar biphasic life cycle during which two different types of cells are produced: non-replicating highly motile cells (the free-living phase and replicating cells (the intracellular-growth phase. The process of chromosomal replication in B. bacteriovorus must therefore be temporally and spatially regulated to ensure that it is coordinated with cell differentiation and cell cycle progression. Recently, B. bacteriovorus has received considerable research interest due to its intriguing life cycle and great potential as a prospective antimicrobial agent. Although we know that chromosomal replication in bacteria is mainly regulated at the initiation step, no data exists about this process in B. bacteriovorus. We report the first characterization of key elements of initiation of chromosomal replication – DnaA protein and oriC region from the predatory bacterium, B. bacteriovorus. In vitro studies using different approaches demonstrate that the B. bacteriovorus oriC (BdoriC is specifically bound and unwound by the DnaA protein. Sequence comparison of the DnaA-binding sites enabled us to propose a consensus sequence for the B. bacteriovorus DnaA box (5’-NN(A/TTCCACA-3’. Surprisingly, in vitro analysis revealed that BdoriC is also bound and unwound by the host DnaA proteins (relatively distantly related from B. bacteriovorus. We compared the architecture of the DnaA–oriC complexes (orisomes in homologous (oriC and DnaA from B. bacteriovorus and heterologous (BdoriC and DnaA from prey, E. coli or P. aeruginosa systems. This work provides important new entry points toward improving our understanding of the initiation of chromosomal replication in this predatory bacterium.

  6. 50 CFR 622.38 - Landing fish intact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with head and carapace intact. (c) Shark, swordfish, and tuna species are...), “bait” means-- (A) Packaged, headless fish fillets that have the skin attached and are frozen or refrigerated; (B) Headless fish fillets that have the skin attached and are held in brine; or (C) Small pieces...

  7. False gold: Safely navigating open access publishing to avoid predatory publishers and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Polacsek, Meg

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss predatory open access publishing in the context of nursing and midwifery and develop a set of guidelines that serve as a framework to help clinicians, educators and researchers avoid predatory publishers. Open access publishing is increasingly common across all academic disciplines. However, this publishing model is vulnerable to exploitation by predatory publishers, posing a threat to nursing and midwifery scholarship and practice. Guidelines are needed to help researchers recognize predatory journals and publishers and understand the negative consequences of publishing in them. Discussion paper. A literature search of BioMed Central, CINAHL, MEDLINE with Full Text and PubMed for terms related to predatory publishing, published in the period 2007-2017. Lack of awareness of the risks and pressure to publish in international journals, may result in nursing and midwifery researchers publishing their work in dubious open access journals. Caution should be taken prior to writing and submitting a paper, to avoid predatory publishers. The advantage of open access publishing is that it provides readers with access to peer-reviewed research as soon as it is published online. However, predatory publishers use deceptive methods to exploit open access publishing for their own profit. Clear guidelines are needed to help researchers navigate safely open access publishing. A deeper understanding of the risks of predatory publishing is needed. Clear guidelines should be followed by nursing and midwifery researchers seeking to publish their work in open access journals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Snake (Colubridae: Thamnophis) predatory responses to chemical cues from native and introduced prey species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, S.J.; Imbert, H.; Fish, J.M.; Ervin, E.L.; Fisher, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Several aquatic vertebrates have been introduced into freshwater systems in California over the past 100 years. Some populations of the two-striped garter snake (Thamnophis hammondii) have lived in sympatry with these species since their introduction; other populations have never encountered them. To assess the possible adaptation to a novel prey, we tested the predatory responses of T. hammondii from different populations to different chemosensory cues from native and introduced prey species. We presented chemical extracts from potential prey types and 2 control odors to individual snakes on cotton swabs and recorded the number of tongue flicks and attacks directed at each swab. Subject response was higher for prey odors than control substances. Odors from introduced centrarchid fish (Lepomis) elicited higher response levels than other prey types, including native anuran larvae (Pseudacris regilla). The pattern of response was similar for both populations of snakes (experienced and nai??ve, with respect to the introduced prey). We suggest that the generalist aquatic lifestyle of T. hammondii has allowed it to take advantage of increasing populations of introduced prey. Decisions on the management strategies for some of these introduced prey species should include consideration of how T. hammondii populations might respond in areas of sympatry.

  9. Behavior of prey links midwater and demersal piscivorous reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Auster

    Full Text Available Pelagic and demersal guilds of piscivorous fishes are linked by a variety of biological and physical processes that mediate interactions with common prey species. Understanding the behaviors of predators and prey can provide insight into the conditions that make such linkages possible. Here we report on the behaviors of mid-water piscivorous fishes and the responses of prey that produce feeding opportunities for demersal piscivorous fishes associated with "live bottom" ledge habitats off the coast of Georgia (northwest Atlantic Ocean. Prey taxa reduced nearest neighbor distances and retreated towards the seafloor during predatory attacks by mid-water fishes. Demersal fishes subsequently attacked and consumed prey in these ephemeral high density patches. No predation by demersal fishes was observed when prey species were at background densities. If the predator-prey interactions of demersal piscivorous fishes are commonly mediated by the predatory behavior of midwater piscivorous fishes and their prey, such indirect facilitative behaviors may be important in terms of the population processes (e.g., prey consumption and growth rates of these demersal fishes.

  10. Comparison of thread-cutting behaviour in three specialist predatory mites to cope with complex webs of Tetranychus spider mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimoda, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Takabayashi, J.; Amano, H.; Dicke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Anti-predator defenses provided by complex webs of Tetranychus mites can severely impede the performance of generalist predatory mites, whereas this may not be true for specialist predatory mites. Although some specialist predatory mites have developed morphological protection to reduce the adverse

  11. The predatory impact of invasive alien smallmouth bass, Micropterus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teleostei: Centrarchidae), on indigenous fishes in a Cape Floristic Region ... The Rondegat River is home to five species of indigenous fish and is partially invaded by M. dolomieu, which has penetrated the lower river up to a waterfall barrier.

  12. Prehistoric settlements in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Drewett

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoamerican archaeology has focused mainly on the ancient civilizations of the mainland, but knowledge of early settlement, society and economy in the Caribbean islands is essential for our understanding of the prehistory of the region as a whole. Institute staff and students are currently working in three islands: Puerto Rico, Tortola and Barbados.

  13. Sidney Mintz and Caribbean Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Empirical Futures: Anthropologists and Historians Engage the Work of Sidney W. Mintz. George Baca, A isha Khan & Stephan Palmié (eds.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. v + 232 pp. (Paper US$ 24.95 Three Ancient Colonies: Caribbean Themes and Variations. Sidney W. Mintz. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 2010. xiv + 257 pp. (Cloth US$ 27.95 [First paragraph] There can be no doubt about the importance of U.S. anthropologist Sidney Mintz in the development of Caribbean Studies. His work has influenced both the historiography and anthropology of Caribbean slavery and the emergence of Caribbean peasant societies. Now two books have been published that interrogate the significance of his work. The first is an anthology that tries to build on Mintz’s ideas – as I will argue below, in a circumspect and not fully convincing way. In the second Mintz describes and compares the societies of Jamaica, Haiti, and Puerto Rico, and looks back on his work that started in the 1940s.

  14. Characteristics of fatty acid composition of Gammarus lacustris inhabiting lakes with and without fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhutova, O N; Sharapova, T A; Kalachova, G S; Shulepina, S P; Gladyshev, M I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a biotic factor--the presence of predatory fish in water--on the composition and content of fatty acids in crustaceans was studied in the populations of the lake amphipod Gammarus lacustris from two lakes with fish and three lakes without fish. It was found that, at an overall increase in the quantity and quality of food resources (namely, increase in the content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the biomass), the relative rate of DHA accumulation in gammarids in the lakes without fish is higher than in the lake with fish.

  15. Format Aside: Applying Beall's Criteria to Assess the Predatory Nature of Both OA and Non-OA Library and Information Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivarez, Joseph D.; Bales, Stephen; Sare, Laura; vanDuinkerken, Wyoma

    2018-01-01

    Jeffrey Beall's blog listing of potential predatory journals and publishers, as well as his "Criteria for Determining Predatory Open-Access (OA) Publishers" are often looked at as tools to help researchers avoid publishing in predatory journals. While these "Criteria" have brought a greater awareness of OA predatory journals,…

  16. Caribbean PR Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in Puerto Rico. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  17. Productivity and recovery of forage fish under climate change and fishing: North Sea sandeel as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; van Deurs, Mikael; MacKenzie, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Forage fish occupy a central position in marine food-webs worldwide by mediating the transfer of energy and organic matter from lower to higher trophic levels. The lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) is one of the ecologically and economically most important forage fish species in the North......-east Atlantic, acting as a key prey for predatory fish and sea birds, as well as supporting a large commercial fishery. In this case study, we investigate the underlying factors affecting recruitment and how these in turn affect productivity of the North Sea sandeel using long-term data and modelling. Our...

  18. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummelin, Matti; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Hirvonen, Heikki; Alanko, Timo

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective.

  19. Susceptibility of Select Agents to Predation by Predatory Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Russo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Select Agents are microorganisms and toxins considered to be exploitable as biological weapons. Although infections by many Select Agents can be treated by conventional antibiotics, the risk of an emerging or engineered drug resistant strain is of great concern. One group of microorganisms that is showing potential to control drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria are the predatory bacteria from the genera Bdellovibrio spp. and Micavibrio spp. In this study, we have examined the ability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (B. bacteriovorus strain 109J, HD100 and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus (M. aeruginosavorus ARL-13 to prey on a variety of Select Agents. Our findings demonstrate that B. bacteriovorus and M. aeruginosavorus are able to prey efficiently on Yersinia pestis and Burkholderia mallei. Modest predation was also measured in co-cultures of B. bacteriovorus and Francisella tularensis. However, neither of the predators showed predation when Burkholderia pseudomallei and Brucella melitensis were used as prey.

  20. Constitutive and Operational Variation of Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael; Schausberger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Learning is widely documented across animal taxa but studies stringently scrutinizing the causes of constitutive or operational variation of learning among populations and individuals are scarce. The ability to learn is genetically determined and subject to constitutive variation while the performance in learning depends on the immediate circumstances and is subject to operational variation. We assessed variation in learning ability and performance of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, caused by population origin, rearing diet, and type of experience. Using an early learning foraging paradigm, we determined that homogeneous single prey environments did not select for reduced learning ability, as compared to natural prey-diverse environments, whereas a multi-generational pollen diet resulted in loss of learning, as compared to a diet of live prey. Associative learning produced stronger effects than non-associative learning but both types of experience produced persistent memory. Our study represents a key example of environmentally caused variation in learning ability and performance.

  1. Physical evidence of predatory behavior in Tyrannosaurus rex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Robert A., II; Burnham, David A.; Martin, Larry D.; Rothschild, Bruce M.; Larson, Peter L.

    2013-07-01

    Feeding strategies of the large theropod, Tyrannosaurus rex, either as a predator or a scavenger, have been a topic of debate previously compromised by lack of definitive physical evidence. Tooth drag and bone puncture marks have been documented on suggested prey items, but are often difficult to attribute to a specific theropod. Further, postmortem damage cannot be distinguished from intravital occurrences, unless evidence of healing is present. Here we report definitive evidence of predation by T. rex: a tooth crown embedded in a hadrosaurid caudal centrum, surrounded by healed bone growth. This indicates that the prey escaped and lived for some time after the injury, providing direct evidence of predatory behavior by T. rex. The two traumatically fused hadrosaur vertebrae partially enclosing a T. rex tooth were discovered in the Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota.

  2. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nummelin, Matti; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Hirvonen, Heikki; Alanko, Timo

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators

  3. Predatory insects as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nummelin, Matti [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)]. E-mail: matti.nummelin@helsinki.fi; Lodenius, Martin [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Tulisalo, Esa [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Hirvonen, Heikki [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Alanko, Timo [Statistics Finland, FIN-00022 (Finland)

    2007-01-15

    Heavy metal concentrations of different predatory insects were studied near by a steel factory and from control sites. Waterstriders (Gerridae), dragon fly larvae (Odonata), antlion larvae (Myrmeleontidae) and ants (Formicidae) were analyzed by AAS. In most cases the metal concentrations were higher near the factory, but e.g. waterstriders had higher cadmium concentrations in control area. Discriminant analysis clearly reveals that all these insect groups can be used as heavy metal indicators. However, the commonly used ants were the least effective in indicating the differences between the factory and control sites. Waterstriders are good in detecting differences in iron and manganese, but seem to be poor in accumulating nickel and lead. Antlions are efficient in detecting differences in iron. Antlions and ants are effective in accumulating manganese; as well antlions are efficient in accumulating cadmium. Waterstriders are poor in accumulating lead, but antlions and ants are effective. - Waterstriders, dragon fly larvae, antlion larvae, and ants can be used as heavy metal indicators.

  4. Constitutive and Operational Variation of Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Learning is widely documented across animal taxa but studies stringently scrutinizing the causes of constitutive or operational variation of learning among populations and individuals are scarce. The ability to learn is genetically determined and subject to constitutive variation while the performance in learning depends on the immediate circumstances and is subject to operational variation. We assessed variation in learning ability and performance of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, caused by population origin, rearing diet, and type of experience. Using an early learning foraging paradigm, we determined that homogeneous single prey environments did not select for reduced learning ability, as compared to natural prey-diverse environments, whereas a multi-generational pollen diet resulted in loss of learning, as compared to a diet of live prey. Associative learning produced stronger effects than non-associative learning but both types of experience produced persistent memory. Our study represents a key example of environmentally caused variation in learning ability and performance. PMID:27814380

  5. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  6. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Afzal, Daniel C.; Andrews, Mark J. [Coral Cay Conservation, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an over

  7. The European Union – Caribbean Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    EU diplomats consider the Caribbean countries to be allies and therefore expect these countries to support the EU in international affairs – but they find that this support has been waning in recent years. Caribbean diplomats and politicians do not share the European viewpoint. Rather, they take ...... the view that the EU has forgotten its Caribbean allies and instead channels its attention and funding towards Sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines to what extent this asserted ‘rift’ really signals a profound change in the EU-Caribbean relations....

  8. Brian Meeks, Envisioning Caribbean Futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this feature we highlight a recently launched book. We invite specialists in the field to comment on the book, and we invite the author to respond to their comments. In this issue we focus on Brian Meeks's, Envisioning Caribbean Futures. Those invited to comment on the book are Jay Mandle and Rivke Jaffe. [First paragraph] In Envisioning Caribbean Futures: Jamaican Perspectives (2007, Brian Meeks writes “in sympathy with the new social movements that have evolved in the past decade which assert boldly that ‘another world is possible’” (p. 2. His effort is “to explore the horizons for different approaches to social living in Jamaica and the Caribbean in the twenty-first century” (p. 2. In this, he “seeks to move beyond a statement of general principles to propose specific alternatives” in order to “stimulate a conversation that looks beyond the horizon of policy confines, yet is not so far removed as to appear hopelessly utopian” (p. 3. My hope with this essay is to advance that conversation, in the first place by reviewing and assessing Meeks’s contribution and then by extending the discussion to the role that Jamaica’s diaspora (and by extension that of the region’s generally might play in moving the country, as Meeks puts it, from its current “state of crime and murder, and the broad undermining of the rule of law that pervades the society” (p. 71.

  9. Predatory Publishing: How to Safely Navigate the Waters of Open Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Helen

    2018-03-01

    Open access publishing enables scholarship to be openly accessible to everyone, which has countless benefits. However, the open access movement has opened the door for "predatory publishers" to take advantage of researchers surviving in this publish or perish academic landscape. Predatory journals are becoming increasingly common. Nursing researchers, instructors, and students need to be made aware of the dangers of predatory journals, and they need to know how to identify them. While there are blacklists and whitelists that can be used to aid in decision-making, it is critical to note that these lists can never be entirely up to date. This article incorporates a literature review which provides insights into newer trends in predatory and unethical publishing, including "journal hijacking" and "bogus impact factors". Extensive criteria for assessing emerging or unknown journals is compiled to aid researchers, students, educators, and the public in evaluating open access publications.

  10. Invitation to Speak at a Conference: The Tempting Technique Adopted by Predatory Conferences' Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Amin

    2018-03-08

    In recent years, predatory journals, conferences, and publishers have turned to an inevitable threat in scientific publishing. Researchers, regardless of their disciplines, should be aware of these predators and have to be able to recognize them. The main aim of the present paper is to raise awareness about the growing menace of fake invitations to speak at a scientific conference organized by predatory organizers and publishers. Some subtle signs to identify the fake invitations from the authentic ones have been introduced and discussed.

  11. Contrasting structures of plant-mite networks compounded by phytophagous and predatory mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Walter Santos; Daud, Rodrigo Damasco

    2018-04-01

    Differences in the feeding habits between phytophagous and predatory species can determine distinct ecological interactions between mites and their host plants. Herein, plant-mite networks were constructed using available literature on plant-dwelling mites from Brazilian natural vegetation in order to contrast phytophagous and predatory mite networks. The structural patterns of plant-mite networks were described through network specialization (connectance) and modularity. A total of 187 mite species, 65 host plant species and 646 interactions were recorded in 14 plant-mite networks. Phytophagous networks included 96 mite species, 61 host plants and 277 interactions, whereas predatory networks contained 91 mite species, 54 host plants and 369 interactions. No differences in the species richness of mites and host plants were observed between phytophagous and predatory networks. However, plant-mite networks composed of phytophagous mites showed lower connectance and higher modularity when compared to the predatory mite networks. The present results corroborate the hypothesis that trophic networks are more specialized than commensalistic networks, given that the phytophagous species must deal with plant defenses, in contrast to predatory mites which only inhabit and forage for resources on plants.

  12. Ranking predatory journals in dermatology: distinguishing the bad from the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Antonella; Maddy, Austin J

    2017-07-01

    The scientific community depends on high-quality peer-reviewed research, which is being polluted with pseudoscience published in fake journals that have exploited the open-access model. This "predatory publishing" has made its way into the field of dermatology. In a recent study, we identified and listed these journals. The "predatory rate" was calculated for 76 journals in order to rank the journals based on specific criteria associated with unethical publishing. Of the 76 journals, 89.5% were classified as predatory journals and the remaining as journals involved in predatory practices. The field of dermatology is not immune to predatory publishers. This study validates Beall's list as well as other previous studies. Strategies to a solution include spreading awareness throughout academic institutions and dermatology departments as well as avoiding publishers that are involved in predatory practices. However, some journals may be able to make necessary adjustments and become legitimate contributors to the field. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Invasive Ponto-Caspian gobies in the diet of piscivorous fish in a European lowland river

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikl, Libor; Adámek, Zdeněk; Roche, Kevin Francis; Všetičková, Lucie; Šlapanský, Luděk; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 2 (2017), s. 157-171 ISSN 1863-9135 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : invasive gobiids * fish prey * predatory fish diet * food web structure * invasive species impacts Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2016

  14. Teaching and Learning with Caribbean Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Clement B. G.

    Presently, the most frequent point of contact between the United States and many Caribbean island states is the immigrant population. Incentives for immigration are provided by a tradition of colonialism, economies dependent upon agriculture, and problems resulting from rapidly increasing populations. The continuing influx of Caribbeans to the…

  15. A cross-scale trophic cascade from large predatory fish to algae in coastal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donadi, S.; Austin, A. N.; Bergstrom, U.; Eriksson, B. K.; Hansen, J. P.; Jacobson, P.; Sundblad, G.; van Regteren, M.; Eklof, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Trophic cascades occur in many ecosystems, but the factors regulating them are still elusive. We suggest that an overlooked factor is that trophic interactions (TIs) are often scale-dependent and possibly interact across spatial scales. To explore the role of spatial scale for trophic cascades, and

  16. Aquaculture disturbance impacts the diet but not ecological linkages of a ubiquitous predatory fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeek, Kathleen C.; McDonald, P. Sean; VanBlaricom, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture operations are a frequent and prominent cause of anthropogenic disturbance to marine and estuarine communities and may alter species composition and abundance. However, little is known about how such disturbances affect trophic linkages or ecosystem functions. In Puget Sound, Washington, aquaculture of the Pacific geoduck clam (Panopea generosa) is increasing and involves placing nets and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes in intertidal areas to protect juvenile geoducks from predators. Initial studies of the structured phase of the farming cycle have documented limited impacts on the abundance of some species. To examine the effect of geoduck aquaculture on ecological linkages, the trophic relationships of a local ubiquitous consumer, Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), to its invertebrate prey were compared between geoduck aquaculture sites and nearby reference areas with no aquaculture. Mark-recapture data indicated that sculpin exhibit local site fidelity to cultured and reference areas. The stomach contents of sculpin and stable isotope signatures of sculpin and their prey were examined to study the trophic ecology of cultured and reference areas. Results showed that the structured phase of geoduck aquaculture initiated some changes to staghorn sculpin ecology, as reflected in sculpin diet through stomach content analysis. However, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes revealed that the general food web function of sculpin remained unchanged. The source of carbon at the base of the food web and the trophic position of sculpin were not impacted by geoduck aquaculture. The study has important implications for geoduck aquaculture management and will inform regulatory decisions related to shellfish aquaculture policy.

  17. Potential predatory and legitimate biomedical journals: can you tell the difference? A cross-sectional comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseer, Larissa; Moher, David; Maduekwe, Onyi; Turner, Lucy; Barbour, Virginia; Burch, Rebecca; Clark, Jocalyn; Galipeau, James; Roberts, Jason; Shea, Beverley J

    2017-03-16

    The Internet has transformed scholarly publishing, most notably, by the introduction of open access publishing. Recently, there has been a rise of online journals characterized as 'predatory', which actively solicit manuscripts and charge publications fees without providing robust peer review and editorial services. We carried out a cross-sectional comparison of characteristics of potential predatory, legitimate open access, and legitimate subscription-based biomedical journals. On July 10, 2014, scholarly journals from each of the following groups were identified - potential predatory journals (source: Beall's List), presumed legitimate, fully open access journals (source: PubMed Central), and presumed legitimate subscription-based (including hybrid) journals (source: Abridged Index Medicus). MEDLINE journal inclusion criteria were used to screen and identify biomedical journals from within the potential predatory journals group. One hundred journals from each group were randomly selected. Journal characteristics (e.g., website integrity, look and feel, editors and staff, editorial/peer review process, instructions to authors, publication model, copyright and licensing, journal location, and contact) were collected by one assessor and verified by a second. Summary statistics were calculated. Ninety-three predatory journals, 99 open access, and 100 subscription-based journals were analyzed; exclusions were due to website unavailability. Many more predatory journals' homepages contained spelling errors (61/93, 66%) and distorted or potentially unauthorized images (59/93, 63%) compared to open access journals (6/99, 6% and 5/99, 5%, respectively) and subscription-based journals (3/100, 3% and 1/100, 1%, respectively). Thirty-one (33%) predatory journals promoted a bogus impact metric - the Index Copernicus Value - versus three (3%) open access journals and no subscription-based journals. Nearly three quarters (n = 66, 73%) of predatory journals had editors or

  18. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E; Henkel, Timothy P; Vicente, Jan; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and reef-building corals from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with coral colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of corals by sponges, and mean coral contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with corals by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean reefs, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened reef-building corals. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs.

  19. The Potential Application and Risks Associated With the Use of Predatory Bacteria as a Biocontrol Agent Against Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    temperature of 39oC. Aim II. Determining the effect of predatory bacteria on eukaryotic cells . Although the effect of predation on prokaryotic Gram...negative cells is documented, limited data is available regarding predation on eukaryotic cells . As the goal of our research is to utilize predatory...bio-control agent. The goal of this aim is to determine if predatory bacteria have an adverse affect on eukaryotic cells . The aim is divided into

  20. Constitutive and Operational Variation of Learning in Foraging Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seiter

    Full Text Available Learning is widely documented across animal taxa but studies stringently scrutinizing the causes of constitutive or operational variation of learning among populations and individuals are scarce. The ability to learn is genetically determined and subject to constitutive variation while the performance in learning depends on the immediate circumstances and is subject to operational variation. We assessed variation in learning ability and performance of plant-inhabiting predatory mites, Amblyseius swirskii, caused by population origin, rearing diet, and type of experience. Using an early learning foraging paradigm, we determined that homogeneous single prey environments did not select for reduced learning ability, as compared to natural prey-diverse environments, whereas a multi-generational pollen diet resulted in loss of learning, as compared to a diet of live prey. Associative learning produced stronger effects than non-associative learning but both types of experience produced persistent memory. Our study represents a key example of environmentally caused variation in learning ability and performance.

  1. Versatile aggressive mimicry of cicadas by an Australian predatory katydid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species.

  2. Economic assessment of hatchery production of Argopecten nucleus spat to support the development of scallop aquaculture in the wider Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Valderrama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many communities of fishermen throughout the Caribbean are facing economic difficulties due to the decline of marine resources following decades of overexploitation and poor governance of fish stocks. The farming of native species of scallops could provide an alternative path for a more sustainable utilization of marine resources in the region. This paper presents a cost–benefit analysis of a public scallop hatchery in the fishing village of Taganga, Colombian Caribbean, which has been producing spat of nucleus scallop (Argopecten nucleus since the early 2000s, and actively promoting scallop aquaculture among the community of local fishermen since 2010. Based on a projected annual output of 3.78 million spat, financial indicators were rather positive: the 20-year Internal Rate of Return (IRR was 25.5 percent and total production cost was USD 0.026 per 10-mm spat. Recent innovations in hatchery protocols during the settling stage have led to marked improvements in spat recovery rates, substantially lowering production costs and reducing the hatchery's initial reliance on subsidies. Because the hatchery seems able to produce spat at a much lower cost than other outfits that have operated in the Caribbean, it could potentially emerge as a regional supplier of high quality seed for the wider Caribbean. A major factor affecting competitiveness is the high electricity prices normally found in the Colombian Caribbean and elsewhere in the region. Further research on the economics of ocean growout technologies is warranted to better understand the potential of scallop aquaculture as a livelihood alternative for Caribbean fishing communities.

  3. Habitat degradation and fishing effects on the size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S K; Fisher, R; Pratchett, M S; Graham, N A J; Dulvy, N K; Turner, R A; Cakacaka, A; Polunin, N V C

    2010-03-01

    Overfishing and habitat degradation through climate change pose the greatest threats to sustainability of marine resources on coral reefs. We examined how changes in fishing pressure and benthic habitat composition influenced the size spectra of island-scale reef fish communities in Lau, Fiji. Between 2000 and 2006 fishing pressure declined in the Lau Islands due to declining human populations and reduced demand for fresh fish. At the same time, coral cover declined and fine-scale architectural complexity eroded due to coral bleaching and outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci. We examined the size distribution of reef fish communities using size spectra analysis, the linearized relationship between abundance and body size class. Spatial variation in fishing pressure accounted for 31% of the variation in the slope of the size spectra in 2000, higher fishing pressure being associated with a steeper slope, which is indicative of fewer large-bodied fish and/or more small-bodied fish. Conversely, in 2006 spatial variation in habitat explained 53% of the variation in the size spectra slopes, and the relationship with fishing pressure was much weaker (approximately 12% of variation) than in 2000. Reduced cover of corals and lower structural complexity was associated with less steep size spectra slopes, primarily due to reduced abundance of fish fishing on coral reefs as increased fishing reduces large-bodied target species, while habitat loss results in fewer small-bodied juveniles and prey that replenish stocks and provide dietary resources for predatory target species. Effective management of reef resources therefore depends on both reducing fishing pressure and maintaining processes that encourage rapid recovery of coral habitat.

  4. Concentrations of Metals in Tissues of Fish from the Věstonice Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Kenšová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the distribution of selected metals in tissues of several fish species caught in the Věstonice reservoir. The hygienic quality of fish meat was assessed with respect to the mercury concentration. A total of 35 fish of the following species were caught: carp (Cyprinus carpio, bream (Abramis brama, asp (Aspius aspius, pikeperch (Sander lucioperca and pike (Esox lucius. Samples of muscle, liver (hepatopancreas, kidney, gonads and gills were analyzed. Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Cr concentrations in fish tissues were determined by the AAS. The results showed that different metals differ in their affinity to different fish tissues (e.g. Cu - liver, Cd - kidney. Mercury concentrations along the food chain increase, i.e. higher mercury concentrations are found in predatory fish. Contrary to mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations do not show any increases along the fish part of food chain in surface water ecosystems. In predatory fish, lower concentrations of these metals were found than in nonpredatory fish species. Differences in concentrations between ovaria and testes were found only in Cu and Zn. To evaluate possible health risks of mercury concentrations for consumers, the risk index was calculated and maximum admissible amounts of muscle meat for consumption were determined. The results confirmed good hygienic quality of market-ready fish from the Věstonice reservoir.

  5. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  6. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people often mistakenly eat fish. This happens in kitchens when fish gets into a food product because the staff use the same surfaces, utensils (like knives, cutting boards, or pans), or oil to prepare both fish and other foods. This ...

  7. Predation on parasitic gnathiid isopods on coral reefs: a comparison of Caribbean cleaning gobies with non-cleaning microcarnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artim, John M.; Hook, Alexandra; Grippo, Richard S.; Sikkel, Paul C.

    2017-12-01

    On coral reefs, gnathiid isopods are a common blood-feeding ectoparasite of reef fishes that can have significant impacts on reef-fish health and fitness. Cleaner fishes and shrimps are the only major documented predators of gnathiids, removing them from the bodies of host fishes. However, gnathiids spend most of their lifecycle free living and thus may be eaten by other microcarnivorous fishes that collectively could have larger impacts on gnathiid populations. This study examined gut contents from Caribbean nocturnal reef microcarnivorous fish and from the Caribbean cleaning goby Elacatinus evelynae for the presence of gnathiid isopods. Among nocturnal microcarnivores, gnathiids were found in only a small proportion of the gut contents of grunts (5%) and cardinalfish (4%), but in a higher proportion of the gut contents of squirrelfish and soldierfish (26%). In comparison, most cleaning gobies collected in the morning had gnathiids (93%), with an average of 6.3 gnathiids per fish. While microcarnivorous fishes ate far fewer gnathiids, they were present in much greater numbers than cleaning gobies. These results support previous studies on cleaning gobies suggesting that individually, they consume high numbers of gnathiids. However, they also suggest that collectively, other predators could have an equal or greater impact on gnathiid populations.

  8. Mercury levels in fish, invertebrates and sediment in a recently recorded polluted area (Nissum Broad, western Limfjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Ulrik Riisgård, Hans

    1983-01-01

    .9 ppm and predatory fish between 0.3 and 0.8 ppm. Outside the ‘hot spot’ area, the mercury concentration in sediment and mussels (Mytilus edulis) rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the former factory. Mercury concentration in flounders (Platichthys flesus) also decreased with distance from...

  9. Tsunami Risk for the Caribbean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelkov, A. S.; Kurkin, A. A.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Zahibo, N.

    2004-12-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsunami low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no tsunami in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the tsunami source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned warning system for the Caribbean Sea.

  10. Caribbean contributions to contemporary psychiatric psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, F W; Hutchinson, G

    2012-07-01

    The intellectual exploration of phenomenological and psychiatric discovery that has flowered in the Caribbean in the period of political independence from British colonization is a reflection of the scholarship that has emerged from the academic nurturance by The University of the West Indies. Burgeoning migration of Caribbean people to England in the twentieth century has resulted in high reported rates of psychosis for this migrant population. Caribbean research into this condition has revealed that there exist hostile racial and environmental challenges in Britain that have had a profound pathological effect on the mental health of African Caribbean migrants. These findings have significantly shifted the pendulum of understanding of the aetiology of this condition from a genetic to a biopsychosocial position. Research has also revealed longstanding psychopathological effects of slavery and colonialism in the Caribbean that have had significantly negative long term effects on the mental health of many within the Caribbean population. Current research suggests that there is a need to nurture protective strategies to enhance resilience and social capital, which would ensure the wellness and continued survival of Caribbean people in spite of the many challenges they face.

  11. The impact of coffee and pasture agriculture on predatory and omnivorous leaf-litter ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nivia da Silva; Zanetti, Ronald; Santos, Mônica Silva; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Broglio, Sônia Maria Forti; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles

    2013-01-01

    Ants are known to function as reliable biological indicators for habitat impact assessment. They play a wide range of ecological roles depending on their feeding and nesting habits. By clustering ants in guilds, it is possible both to assess how agriculture and forest fragmentation can disturb ant communities and to predict the ecological impacts due to losses of a specific guild. This study aimed at determining the impact of non-shaded coffee and pasture agriculture on predatory and omnivorous guilds of leaf-litter ants of Atlantic Forest fragments in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Both coffee and pasture agriculture influenced leaf-litter ant community, although coffee was more disruptive than pasture. Coffee agriculture not only disturbed the diversity of predatory ants, but also negatively affected the number of predatory and omnivorous ants when compared to forest fragments. In contrast, pasture agriculture only disrupted the abundance of predatory ants. Fragment edges skirting crops were negatively affected in terms of leaf-litter ant abundance, but not diversity. Cluster analysis showed that forest fragments were similar irrespective of the cultivation, but the borders were similar to the crop. The study assessed agriculture impact by surveying ant guilds, and revealed that the predatory guild is more susceptible than omnivorous ants.

  12. Beware of the predatory science journal: A potential threat to the integrity of medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Jaspreet; Ward, Robert; Gielecki, Jerzy; Walocha, Jerzy; Natsis, Kostantinos; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2017-09-01

    The issue of predatory journals has become increasingly more prevalent over the past decade, as the open-access model of publishing has gained prominence. Although the open-access model is well intentioned to increase accessibility of biomedical research, it is vulnerable to exploitation by those looking to corrupt medical academia and circumvent ethics and research standards. Predatory journals will achieve publication by either soliciting unsuspecting researchers who have legitimate research but fall victim to these predators or researchers looking to quickly publish their research without a thorough review process. Some features of predatory journals are a quick non-peer-review process, falsely listing or exaggerating the credibility of editorial board members, and either lack of or falsification of institutional affiliations and database listings. These predatory journals are a serious threat to the integrity of medical research, as they will infect the available literature with unsubstantiated articles, and allow low-quality research. A number of steps can be taken to prevent the spread and increase awareness of predatory publishers, and these must be done to maintain the integrity of medical academia. Clin. Anat. 30:767-773, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Metazoan parasite species richness in Neotropical fishes: hotspots and the geography of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, J L; Poulin, R

    2007-06-01

    Although research on parasite biodiversity has intensified recently, there are signs that parasites remain an underestimated component of total biodiversity in many regions of the planet. To identify geographical hotspots of parasite diversity, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parasite-host associations in fishes from Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that includes known hotspots of plant and animal biodiversity. The database included 10,904 metazoan parasite-host associations involving 1660 fish species. The number of host species with at least 1 parasite record was less than 10% of the total known fish species in the majority of countries. Associations involving adult endoparasites in actinopterygian fish hosts dominated the database. Across the whole region, no significant difference in parasite species richness was detected between marine and freshwater fishes. As a rule, host body size and study effort (number of studies per fish species) were good predictors of parasite species richness. Some interesting patterns emerged when we included only the regions with highest fish species biodiversity and study effort (Brazil, Mexico and the Caribbean Islands). Independently of differences in study effort or host body sizes, Mexico stands out as a hotspot of parasite diversity for freshwater fishes, as does Brasil for marine fishes. However, among 57 marine fish species common to all 3 regions, populations from the Caribbean consistently harboured more parasite species. These differences may reflect true biological patterns, or regional discrepancies in study effort and local priorities for fish parasitology research.

  14. Sargassum-associated mobile fauna communities in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L.; Schell, J. M.; Goodwin, D.; Biggs, D.; Siuda, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Sargassum natans and S. fluitans are entirely pelagic, offering a pseudo-benthic structural habitat for an associated community of mobile fauna. In turn, the mobile fauna community supports foraging seabirds, fish, and turtles. Recent satellite observations suggest Sargassum in the Sargasso Sea is seeded annually from the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, the Caribbean is in the midst of a Sargassum inundation that appears disconnected in origin from the Sargasso Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Sargassum and fauna were collected via dip net during spring and summer 2015 from the Gulf of Mexico, Sargasso Sea and Eastern Caribbean to study the impacts that region, aggregation pattern (isolated clump, windrow, mat), and Sargassum variety morphology have on mobile fauna community composition. Sargassum from all three regions shared five common (frequency >10%) species: flatworm spp., Portunus sayi, Litiopa melanostoma, Leander tenuicornis, and Latreutes fucorum). The Gulf presented the most unique species (9 unique / 16 total) followed by the Sargasso Sea (5 unique / 12 total) and the Caribbean (1 unique / 6 total). The majority of species unique to the Gulf of Mexico were juvenile fish while those in the Caribbean and Sargasso Sea were benthic-like species residing on the Sargassum itself. Differences in the morphological forms of Sargassum had a marked effect on fauna diversity and abundance. In all three regions, fewer individuals and species were found on the broad-leafed, less compact S. natans VIII than on the denser S. natans I and S. fluitans III. This study identifies the differences in macrofauna abundance and diversity between varieties of Sargassum and highlights the potential for dramatic community changes that could result from largescale Sargassum blooms and species shifts. Any shift in these keystone communities could result in negative cascading effects on seabirds, economically important fish populations, and juvenile turtles which use the seaweed as a nursery

  15. Radioactivity of surface water and freshwater fish in Finland in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxen, R.

    1990-05-01

    Changes over time in the activity concentrations of radionuclides in surface water were monitored as in the previous year. Monitoring of the radioactivity transported by the largest rivers to the Baltic Sea was also continued. All samples were analysed gammaspectrometrically and for 90 Sr. Some water samples were analysed for tritium. The dominant gamma-emitting radionuclides were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The uneven distribution of Chernobyl deposition is still seen in the results. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs have decreased significantly: In the drainage area where the activity concentrations were highest after the Chernobyl accident the concentrations in October 1987 were only about 7% of the values in May 1986. The decrease in the activity concentrations of 90 Sr was much slighter. The study on areal and temporal changes in the activity concentrations of 137 Cs in fish was expanded in 1987. In all about 1550 samples were analysed gammaspectrometrically and a few samples were also analysed radiochemically for 90 Sr. Fifteen different fish species were included in the study. The highest activity concentrations of 137 Cs were detected in small oligotrophic lakes in the area of highest deposition. The level of 137 Cs in non-predatory fish had clearly decreased, while that in predatory fish was almost double what it had been in 1986. The average intake of 137 Cs via freshwater fish countrywide was about 4200 Bq a -1 in 1987. The average intakes in the various drainage basins ranged from about 500 Bq to 6600 Bq in 1987. The mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs in the three fish groups (predatory, non-predatory and intermediate groups) countrywide were 1300, 600 and 1300 Bq kg -1 in 1987, respectively

  16. Predatory bacteria: a potential ally against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Kadouri

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant (MDR Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a serious threat to human and animal health. Bdellovibrio spp. and Micavibrio spp. are Gram-negative bacteria that prey on other Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the ability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus to prey on MDR Gram-negative clinical strains was examined. Although the potential use of predatory bacteria to attack MDR pathogens has been suggested, the data supporting these claims is lacking. By conducting predation experiments we have established that predatory bacteria have the capacity to attack clinical strains of a variety of ß-lactamase-producing, MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Our observations indicate that predatory bacteria maintained their ability to prey on MDR bacteria regardless of their antimicrobial resistance, hence, might be used as therapeutic agents where other antimicrobial drugs fail.

  17. 75 FR 28814 - Owner of Record and Re-Sale Data To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-43] Owner of Record and Re-Sale Data To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on FHA Insured Mortgages AGENCY... To Preclude Predatory Lending Practices (Property Flipping) on FHA Insured Mortgages. OMB Approval...

  18. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  19. Impacts of 2 species of predatory Reduviidae on bagworms in oil palm plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamian, Syari; Norhisham, Ahmad; Ghazali, Amal; Zakaria, Azlina; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-04-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is widely practiced in commercial oil palm agriculture. This management system is intended to minimize the number of attacks by pest insects such as bagworms on crops, as well as curb economic loss with less dependency on chemical pesticides. One practice in IPM is the use of biological control agents such as predatory insects. In this study, we assessed the response of predatory natural enemies to pest outbreak and water stress, and document the habitat associations of potential pest predators. The abundances of 2 predatory insect species, namely Sycanus dichotomus and Cosmolestes picticeps (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), were compared bagworm outbreak sites and nonoutbreak sites within oil palm plantations. We also examined habitat characteristics that influence the abundances of both predatory species. We found that the abundance of C. picticeps was significantly higher in bagworm outbreak sites than in nonoutbreak sites. There were no significant differences in the abundance of S. dichotomus among outbreak and non-outbreak sites. Both species responded negatively to water stress in oil palm plantations. Concerning the relationship between predatory insect abundance and in situ habitat quality characteristics, our models explained 46.36% of variation for C. picticeps and 23.17% of variation for S. dichotomus. Both species of predatory insects thrived from the planting of multiple beneficial plants in oil palm plantations. The results suggest that C. picticeps can be used as a biological agent to control bagworm populations in oil palm plantations, but S. dichotomus has no or little potential for such ecosystem service. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. The surge of predatory open-access in neurosciences and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Andrea; Martinez, Gianluca; Cugusi, Lucia; Dragone, Daniele; Dvir, Zeevi; Deriu, Franca

    2017-06-14

    Predatory open access is a controversial publishing business model that exploits the open-access system by charging publication fees in the absence of transparent editorial services. The credibility of academic publishing is now seriously threatened by predatory journals, whose articles are accorded real citations and thus contaminate the genuine scientific records of legitimate journals. This is of particular concern for public health since clinical practice relies on the findings generated by scholarly articles. Aim of this study was to compile a list of predatory journals targeting the neurosciences and neurology disciplines and to analyze the magnitude and geographical distribution of the phenomenon in these fields. Eighty-seven predatory journals operate in neurosciences and 101 in neurology, for a total of 2404 and 3134 articles issued, respectively. Publication fees range 521-637 USD, much less than those charged by genuine open-access journals. The country of origin of 26.0-37.0% of the publishers was impossible to determine due to poor websites or provision of vague or non-credible locations. Of the rest 35.3-42.0% reported their headquarters in the USA, 19.0-39.2% in India, 3.0-9.8% in other countries. Although calling themselves "open-access", none of the journals retrieved was listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals. However, 14.9-24.7% of them were found to be indexed in PubMed and PubMed Central, which raises concerns on the criteria for inclusion of journals and publishers imposed by these popular databases. Scholars in the neurosciences are advised to use all the available tools to recognize predatory practices and avoid the downsides of predatory journals. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  2. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Alberto; Tirello, Paola; Moret, Renzo; Pederiva, Marco; Duso, Carlo

    2015-10-09

    Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  3. Invitation to Speak at a Conference: The Tempting Technique Adopted by Predatory Conferences’ Organizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, predatory journals, conferences, and publishers have turned to an inevitable threat in scientific publishing. Researchers, regardless of their disciplines, should be aware of these predators and have to be able to recognize them. The main aim of the present paper is to raise awar...... awareness about the growing menace of fake invitations to speak at a scientific conference organized by predatory organizers and publishers. Some subtle signs to identify the fake invitations from the authentic ones have been introduced and discussed....

  4. Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. While attention has focused on self-caught fish, most of the fish eaten by the American public comes from commercial sources. We sampled 11 types of fish and shellfish obtained from supermarkets and specialty fish markets in New Jersey and analyzed them for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium. We test the null hypothesis that metal levels do not vary among fish types, and we consider whether the levels of any metals could harm the fish themselves or their predators or pose a health risk for human consumers. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and no fish types had the highest levels of more than two metals. There were few significant correlations (Kendall tau) among metals for the three most numerous fish (yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and flounder), the correlations were generally low (below 0.40), and many correlations were negative. Only manganese and lead positively were correlated for tuna, bluefish, and flounder. The levels of most metals were below those known to cause adverse effects in the fish themselves. However, the levels of arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium in some fish were in the range known to cause some sublethal effects in sensitive predatory birds and mammals and in some fish exceeded health-based standards. The greatest risk from different metals resided in different fish; the species of fish with the highest levels of a given metal sometimes exceeded the human health guidance or standards for that metal. Thus, the risk information given to the public (mainly about mercury) does not present a complete picture. The potential of harm from other metals suggests that people not only should eat smaller quantities of fish known to accumulate mercury but also should eat a diversity of fish to avoid consuming unhealthy quantities of other heavy metals. However, consumers should

  5. The Tectonic Evolution of Caribbean Ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, G.

    2001-12-01

    Ophiolitic rocks (associated basalts, gabbros and ultramafic rocks) occur in many areas in the circum-Caribbean and Central America. These ophiolites are derived principally from two oceanic provinces: (1) the Atlantic realm, proto-Caribbean sea that formed when North America separated from South America during the opening of the North Atlantic during Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. These ophiolites were emplaced during a series of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary arc-continent collisions as the east facing Antilles arc migrated into the Caribbean realm. These occurrences include Guatamala, northern Cuba, northern Hispaniola, and northern Venezuela. (2) the Pacific realm, late Cretaceous Caribbean-Colombian plateau that now occupies the central Caribbean, but outcrops on land in Costa Rica, SW Hispaniola, the Netherlands Antilles and western Colombia. Accretion, emplacement and uplift was aided by their buoyancy and took place at various times during the Caribbean plateau's insertion into the middle American continental gap. A third set of occurrences are more uncertain in origin. The central Hispaniola and SE Puerto Rico ophiolites seem to be Jurassic age oceanic plateau rocks that were emplaced in mid-Cretaceous time during an, subduction polarity reversal episode. The emplacement of the metamorphosed ophiolitic rocks of eastern Jamaica may also be associated with this event, but the adjacent, upper Cretaceous, Bath-Dunrobin complex seems to be more related to the Campanian Yucatan-Antillean arc collision. The ultramafic rocks of Tobago are not oceanic, but represent Alaksan-type, assemblages.

  6. Geophysical features influence the accumulation of beach debris on Caribbean islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Alexandra M; Lavers, Jennifer L; Stuckenbrock, Silke; Sharp, Paul B; Bond, Alexander L

    2017-08-15

    Anthropogenic beach debris was recorded during beach surveys of 24 Caribbean islands during April 2014-April 2016. Beach debris was classified according to material type (e.g., polystyrene) and item use (e.g., fishing). Geophysical features (substrate type, beach direction, and human accessibility) of sample sites were recorded in order to investigate their relationship with debris density. Results suggest the density of macro debris (items >5mm) is highest on uninhabited, sandy beaches facing a leeward direction. Higher debris quantities on inaccessible beaches may be due to less frequent beach clean ups. Frequently accessed beaches exhibited lower macro, but higher micro debris (items 1-5mm) densities, possibly due to removal of macro debris during frequent beach clean ups. This suggests that while geophysical features have some influence on anthropogenic debris densities, high debris densities are occurring on all islands within the Caribbean region regardless of substrate, beach direction, or human accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia M. Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New record of predatory ladybird beetle (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae feeding on extrafloral nectaries. Feeding by Exoplectra miniata (Germar on extrafloral nectaries of Inga edulis Mart. was observed in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first record of this behavior for Exoplectrini.

  8. Exploring and exploiting natural variation in the wings of a predatory ladybird beetle for biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this PhD thesis is natural variation in the wing length of the predatory two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata. ‘Wingless’ individuals of this species occur occasionally. They possess truncated wing covers and flight wings and cannot fly, but the extent of the reduction is

  9. The Role of Militia, Predatory State Authorities, and Rogue Capital in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Role of Militia, Predatory State Authorities, and Rogue Capital in the Horn of Africa. The nature of the relationship between militias, rogue capital, and the state in the Horn of Africa is largely unknown. New research will map militia presence in the region, and generate knowledge that could be used to develop national ...

  10. Plant diversity and identity effects on predatory nematodes and their prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostenko, O.; Duyts, H.; Grootemaat, S.; Deyn, de G.B.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that both plant diversity and plant identity can influence the level of predation and predator abundance aboveground. However, how the level of predation in the soil and the abundance of predatory soil fauna are related to plant diversity and identity remains largely

  11. Elevating the predatory effect: Sensory-scanning foraging strategy by the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colin, Sean P.; MacPherson, Roshena; Gemmell, Brad

    2015-01-01

    The influential predatory role of the lobate comb jellyfish Mnemiopsis leidyi has largely been attributed to the generation of a hydrodynamically silent feeding current to entrain and initiate high encounter rates with prey. However, for high encounter rates to translate to high ingestion rates, ...

  12. Acaricides and predatory mites against the begonia mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae), on Hedera helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light).

  13. Engineering a predatory bacterium as a proficient killer agent for intracellular bio-products recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Virginia; Herencias, Cristina; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the potential of the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, an obligate predator of other Gram-negative bacteria, as an external cell-lytic agent for recovering valuable intracellular bio-products produced by prey cultures. The bio-product targets to be recovered...

  14. The Role of Militia, Predatory State Authorities, and Rogue Capital in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research aims to document how militias contribute to insecurity, form alliances with rogue capital and predatory state authorities, and carry out illegal transactions that jeopardize community livelihoods and challenge the legitimacy and accountability of state authorities. It will document the connection between militia, the ...

  15. Acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukall, R.; Schumann, P.; Schütte, C.; Gols, R.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain CSCT, was isolated from diseased, surface-sterilized specimens of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed

  16. Serotonin Drives Predatory Feeding Behavior via Synchronous Feeding Rhythms in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Misako; Wilecki, Martin; Sommer, Ralf J

    2017-11-06

    Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey; however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation and other behaviors in P. pacificus remained completely unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of serotonin by generating mutations in Ppa-tph-1 and Ppa-bas-1 , two key serotonin biosynthesis enzymes, and by genetic ablation of pharynx-associated serotonergic neurons. Mutations in Ppa-tph-1 reduced the pharyngeal pumping rate during bacterial feeding compared with wild-type. Moreover, the loss of serotonin or a subset of serotonergic neurons decreased the success of predation, but did not abolish the predatory feeding behavior completely. Detailed analysis using a high-speed camera revealed that the elimination of serotonin or the serotonergic neurons disrupted the timing and coordination of predatory tooth movement and pharyngeal pumping. This loss of synchrony significantly reduced the efficiency of successful predation events. These results suggest that serotonin has a conserved role in bacterial feeding and in addition drives the feeding rhythm of predatory behavior in Pristionchus . Copyright © 2017 Okumura et al.

  17. Serotonin Drives Predatory Feeding Behavior via Synchronous Feeding Rhythms in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Okumura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey; however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation and other behaviors in P. pacificus remained completely unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of serotonin by generating mutations in Ppa-tph-1 and Ppa-bas-1, two key serotonin biosynthesis enzymes, and by genetic ablation of pharynx-associated serotonergic neurons. Mutations in Ppa-tph-1 reduced the pharyngeal pumping rate during bacterial feeding compared with wild-type. Moreover, the loss of serotonin or a subset of serotonergic neurons decreased the success of predation, but did not abolish the predatory feeding behavior completely. Detailed analysis using a high-speed camera revealed that the elimination of serotonin or the serotonergic neurons disrupted the timing and coordination of predatory tooth movement and pharyngeal pumping. This loss of synchrony significantly reduced the efficiency of successful predation events. These results suggest that serotonin has a conserved role in bacterial feeding and in addition drives the feeding rhythm of predatory behavior in Pristionchus.

  18. Characteristics of Hijacked Journals and Predatory Publishers: Our Observations in the Academic World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadkhah, Mehdi; Maliszewski, Tomasz; Jazi, Mohammad Davarpanah

    2016-06-01

    The academic world today includes hijacked journals and predatory publishers that operate based on a 'pay and publish' model and function for financial reasons only. Here we present lesser known aspects and practices of these journals to researchers, showing the core of the problem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Note on Targeting by Predatory Leaders : Evidence from Rural Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, Gonne; Bulte, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    We consider the impact of rice-thieving chiefs on investments by smallholder farmers in Liberia. In an earlier study, we found that chiefs who steal reduce aggregate investment levels by villagers. In this paper, we refine this result, and establish that predatory leadership only matters for

  20. Predatory bacteria as natural modulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seawater and oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study shows that naturally occurring Vibrio predatory bacteria (VPB) exert a major role in controlling pathogenic vibrios in seawater and shellfish. The growth and persistence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) were assessed in natural seawater and in the Eastern oyster...

  1. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...... review gives an overview on the clinical characteristics of fish allergy and the molecular properties of relevant fish allergens. The advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis using a panel of well-defined fish allergens from different species is in the focus of the discussion. © 2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl...

  2. 78 FR 14078 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC531 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council's...

  3. 78 FR 32623 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC706 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council's...

  4. 76 FR 10562 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold a... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera Avenue...

  5. 75 FR 6178 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's (CFMC) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold a meeting... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Munoz Rivera Avenue, Suite...

  6. 77 FR 7136 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) and the Advisory Panel (AP... Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... St., Carolina, Puerto Rico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council...

  7. 78 FR 64200 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's (Council) Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold... Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... held at the Caribbean Fishery Management Council Headquarters, located at 270 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera...

  8. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations.

  9. Single and mixture impacts of two pyrethroids on damselfly predatory behavior and physiological biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunce, Warren; Stoks, Robby; Johansson, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Direct mortality due to toxicity of single pesticide exposure along a concentration gradient, while the most common, is only one important parameter for assessing the effects of pesticide contamination on aquatic ecosystems. Sub-lethal toxicity can induce changes in an organism's behavior and physiology that may have population-level ramifications and consequences for ecosystem health. Additionally, the simultaneous detection of multiple contaminants in monitored watersheds stresses the importance of gaining a greater understanding of the toxicities of combined exposures, particularly at low, environmentally relevant concentrations. Using larvae of the Azure Damselfly (Coenagrion puella), we conducted a combined exposure investigation of two widely-used pyrethroid insecticides presumed to share the same neurotoxic mechanism of action, and estimated their effect on predatory ability, mobility and three physiological biomarkers (Glutathione S-transferase; GST, respiratory electron transport system; ETS, and malondialdehyde; MDA). Deltamethrin exposure (0.065μg/L and 0.13μg/L) was found to reduce the predatory ability, but it did not affect the larvae's mobility. Esfenvalerate exposure (0.069μg/L and 0.13μg/L), on the other hand, induced no significant changes in predatory ability or mobility. The decrease in predatory ability after the combination exposure (0.067μg/L deltamethrin and 0.12μg/L esfenvalerate) did not significantly differ from the impact of the single deltamethrin exposures. Glutathione-S-transferase was induced after single esfenvalerate exposure and the lower deltamethrin concentration exposure, but seemingly inhibited after exposure to the higher concentration of deltamethrin as well as the combination of both pyrethroids. Our data indicate that sub-lethal exposure to deltamethrin reduces predatory ability and suggest that sub-lethal combined exposure to deltamethrin and esfenvalerate inhibits the GST detoxification pathway. These effects can

  10. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Predatory feeding behaviour in Pristionchus nematodes is dependent on phenotypic plasticity and induced by serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilecki, Martin; Lightfoot, James W; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J

    2015-05-01

    Behavioural innovation and morphological adaptation are intrinsically linked but their relationship is often poorly understood. In nematodes, a huge diversity of feeding morphologies and behaviours can be observed to meet their distinctive dietary and environmental demands. Pristionchus and their relatives show varied feeding activities, both consuming bacteria and also predating other nematodes. In addition, Pristionchus nematodes display dimorphic mouth structures triggered by an irreversible developmental switch, which generates a narrower mouthed form with a single tooth and a wider mouthed form with an additional tooth. However, little is known about the specific predatory adaptations of these mouth forms or the associated mechanisms and behaviours. Through a mechanistic analysis of predation behaviours, in particular in the model organism Pristionchus pacificus, we reveal multifaceted feeding modes characterised by dynamic rhythmic switching and tooth stimulation. This complex feeding mode switch is regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin in a previously uncharacterised role, a process that appears conserved across several predatory nematode species. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of starvation, prey size and prey preference on P. pacificus predatory feeding kinetics, revealing predation to be a fundamental component of the P. pacificus feeding repertoire, thus providing an additional rich source of nutrition in addition to bacteria. Finally, we found that mouth form morphology also has a striking impact on predation, suppressing predatory behaviour in the narrow mouthed form. Our results therefore hint at the regulatory networks involved in controlling predatory feeding and underscore P. pacificus as a model for understanding the evolution of complex behaviours. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Awareness of "predatory" open-access journals among prospective veterinary and medical authors attending scientific writing workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authors face many choices when selecting a journal for publication. Prospective authors, especially trainees, may be unaware of predatory online journals or how to differentiate them from legitimate journals. In this study we assessed awareness of open-access and predatory journals among prospective authors attending scientific writing workshops; our long-term goal was to inform educational goals for the workshops. We surveyed participants of writing workshops at veterinary and medical schools and an international conference over a 1-year period. The survey included 14 statements for respondents to indicate agreement level on a Likert-like scale and four questions on awareness of resources about predatory journals; respondents also defined predatory journal. A total of 145 participants completed the survey: 106 (73.1% from veterinary schools and 86 (59.3% graduate students or residents. Fewer faculty (vs trainees agreed that open access was an important factor in deciding where to publish; faculty and postdoctoral researchers were more likely to expect to pay more to publish in an open-access journal. Most respondents (120/145, 82.7% agreed/strongly agreed that the decision to accept a manuscript should not be influenced by publication charges, but 50% (56/112 indicated they didn’t know how publishing costs were supported. Of the 142 respondents who answered, 33 (23.0% indicated awareness of the term predatory journal; 34 (23.9% were aware of the Directory of Open Access Journals; 24 (16.9% were aware of the Science sting article about predatory journals; and 7 (4.8% were aware of Beall’s list. Most (93/144, 64.5% definitions of predatory journals described poor but not predatory journal practices, and some respondents misunderstood the term completely. Mentors should help novice authors to be aware of predatory journals and to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate open-access journals, thus selecting the best journal for their

  13. Awareness of "Predatory" Open-Access Journals among Prospective Veterinary and Medical Authors Attending Scientific Writing Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M; Young, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Authors face many choices when selecting a journal for publication. Prospective authors, especially trainees, may be unaware of "predatory" online journals or how to differentiate them from legitimate journals. In this study, we assessed awareness of open-access and predatory journals among prospective authors attending scientific writing workshops; our long-term goal was to inform educational goals for the workshops. We surveyed participants of writing workshops at veterinary and medical schools and an international conference over a 1-year period. The survey included 14 statements for respondents to indicate agreement level on a Likert-like scale and four questions on awareness of resources about predatory journals; respondents also defined "predatory journal." A total of 145 participants completed the survey: 106 (73.1%) from veterinary schools and 86 (59.3%) graduate students or residents. Fewer faculty (vs trainees) agreed that open access was an important factor in deciding where to publish; faculty and postdoctoral researchers were more likely to expect to pay more to publish in an open-access journal. Most respondents (120/145, 82.7%) agreed/strongly agreed that the decision to accept a manuscript should not be influenced by publication charges, but 50% (56/112) indicated that they "didn't know" how publishing costs were supported. Of the 142 respondents who answered, 33 (23.0%) indicated awareness of the term "predatory journal"; 34 (23.9%) were aware of the Directory of Open Access Journals; 24 (16.9%) were aware of the Science "sting" article about predatory journals; and 7 (4.8%) were aware of Beall's list. Most (93/144, 64.5%) definitions of predatory journals described poor but not predatory journal practices, and some respondents misunderstood the term completely. Mentors should help novice authors to be aware of predatory journals and to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate open-access journals, thus selecting the best journal for their

  14. fish feed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    with fishing nets. Fish were identified and authenticated at the Fishery section,. Department of Biological Sciences,. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria ..... salmon.Aquaculture, 89: 301-314. GABRIEL, U. U., AKINROTIMI, O. A.,. BEKIBELE, D. O., ONUNKWO, D. N. and ANYANWU, P. E. (2007). Locally produced fish feed ...

  15. Fish Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  16. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that, for...

  17. Caribbean Life in New York City: Sociocultural Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Constance R., Ed.; Chaney, Elsa M., Ed.

    This book comprises the following papers discussing Caribbean life in New York City: (1) The Context of Caribbean Migration (Elsa M. Chaney); (2) The Caribbeanization of New York City and the Emergence of a Transnational Socio-Cultural System (Constance R. Sutton); (3) New York City and Its People: An Historical Perspective Up to World War II…

  18. Regulating private security companies in the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Diversity in local food production combats obesity in the Caribbean. In the Caribbean region, the combination of increased imports of processed foods and limited consumption of healthy foods, such as fresh fruit and. View moreDiversity in local food production combats obesity in the Caribbean ...

  19. From the past to the globalized future for Caribbean birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Wunderle Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Extinctions of Caribbean animals were well underway during the period of Amerindian occupation and have continued since the arrival of Columbus. Despite high extinction rates, the Caribbean still retains high levels of terrestrial biodiversity and, for some taxa, exceptionally high levels of endemism relative to other parts of the world. The fate of the Caribbean’s...

  20. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) of the Mexican Caribbean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Solis-Marín, Francisco A; Durán-González, Alicia; Ahearn, Cynthia Gust; Buitrón Sánchez, Blanca Estela; Torres-Vega, Juan

    2005-12-01

    A systematic list of the echinoderms of the Mexican Caribbean based on museum specimens of the Colección Nacional de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. is presented. This list reveals an important echinoderm biodiversity in the Mexican Caribbean, where five of the six echinoderm classes are represented. A total of 178 echinoderm species is recorded, distributed in 113 genera, 51 families and 22 orders. 30 new records for the Mexican Caribbean are presents: Crínoidea (three), Asteroidea (two), Ophiuroidea (eleven), Echinoidea (one), Holothuroidea (thirteen).

  1. Towards indigenous feminist theorizing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, P

    1998-01-01

    This theoretical study of feminism in the Caribbean opens by presenting the contemporary image of the Caribbean and then pointing to the continuing influence of the colonial past in the creation of contemporary community and the establishment of identity. The paper continues with a focus on three aspects of identity, or difference, that have influenced the daily articulation of feminism and academic debates. The first concerns the positions taken by women in the region's political struggles. The second is an exploration of the linguistic meanings of the gender discourse within the region. Finally, the essay examines the idea of linguistic difference in light of contemporary Western feminist views of "sexual difference" versus equality. The discussion of each of these issues is grounded in historical analysis and illustrated with specific examples. The study concludes that, in this region, feminism offers a new way to investigate the past while creating challenges and opportunities in the struggle to establish a Caribbean identity.

  2. Caribbean literary theory: modernist and postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Arnold

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Repeating Mand: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective. ANTONIO BENITEZ-ROJO. Durham NC: Duke University Press, 1992. xi + 303 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 15.95 Myth and History in Caribbean Fiction: Alejo Carpentier, Wilson Harris, and Edouard Glissant. BARBARA J. WEBB. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992. x + 185 pp. (Cloth US$ 25.00 Caribbean literature has been overtaken of late by the quarrels that have pitted postmodernists against modernists in Europe and North America for the past twenty years. The modernists, faced with the fragmentation of the region that hard-nosed pragmatists and empiricists could only see as hostile to the emergence of any common culture, had sought in myth and its literary derivatives the collective impulse to transcend the divisions wrought by colonial history. Fifteen years ago I wrote a book that combined in its lead title the terms Modernism and Negritude in an effort to account for the efforts by mid-century Caribbean writers to come to grips with this problem. A decade later I demonstrated that one of the principal Caribbean modernists, Aimé Césaire, late in his career adopted stylistic characteristics that we associate with the postmodern (Arnold 1990. The example of Césaire should not be taken to suggest that we are dealing with some sort of natural evolution of modernism toward the postmodern. In fact the two terms represent competing paradigms that organize concepts and data so differently as to offer quite divergent maps of the literary Caribbean.

  3. Unusual “Knob-Like Chimney” Growth Forms on Acropora Species in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rivera-Sosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript provides new insights on an unusual morphological plasticity growth form on Acropora spp. in the Caribbean. This abnormal knob-shaped growth is thought to be a progression from the damselfish “chimneys” that are commonly seen in coral-algal farms. However, the diameters of the observed knobs tend to be much larger on Acropora palmata, where they range from 1.37 to 5.44 cm in diameter, and they tend to be slightly smaller on A. prolifera, where they range from 1.1 to 2.72 cm in diameter. These knob-like chimney growths can affect entire colonies. The knobs are mostly covered with live tissue, while some knobs compete with turf algae. We hypothesize that these growths may be linked to stress from multiple predation and environmental conditions. Local stressors could synergistically influence the regeneration of scarred tissue and skeleton that result from predatory lesions, possibly leading to the formation of the knobs. Therefore, we provide preliminary data from a shallow reef site in coastal Honduras located within the Mesoamerican region where we found the knobs. To the best of our knowledge, the conditions that drive the occurrence of these unusual “knob-like chimneys” on Acropora spp. have not been previously assessed. Thus, we propose a series of guidelines to research the coral morphological plasticity that may be linked to this knob-like chimney phenomenon.

  4. Phytoplankton response to fish-induced environmental changes in a temperate shallow pond-type lake

    OpenAIRE

    Napiórkowska-Krzebietke Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Since 1967, the temperate, shallow, pond-type Lake Warniak has been subjected to different biomanipulation methods including the introduction of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.), silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.), and bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson) and then their removal in an effort to control macrophytes and phytoplankton. Recently, pilot stocking with predatory fish, particularly pike, Esox lucius L., has also ...

  5. Toxicity reference values for polybrominated diphenyl ethers: risk assessment for predatory birds and mammals from two Chinese lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqing; Guo, Jianyang; Wu, Fengchang; Mu, Yunsong; Giesy, John P; Chang, Hong; Zhao, Xiaoli; Feng, Chenglian

    2014-01-01

    PBDEs are persistent organic pollutants, and have the capability to produce adverse effects on organisms. Aquatic piscivorous species at higher trophic levels have the greatest exposure risk. Information on the toxic potency of a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71, to mink and American kestrel was reviewed, and dietary- and tissue-based TRVs were derived and evaluated for ecological risk assessment of aquatic piscivorous species inhabiting wetland areas in China. The effect on mink thyroid function was identified as the most appropriate and protective endpoint for deriving the TRV s for mammals. The TRV was based on dietary exposure, and wa s0.1 mg DE-71/kg (wm) or 0.01 mg DE-71/kg (bm)/day (ADI); for liver of mammals,the TRV was 1.2 mg LPBDEslkg (lm). For birds, reproductive effects on American kestrels were used to derive the TRVs, in which an overall UF of 3.0 was used. The TRV was based on dietary exposure, and was 0.1 mg DE-71/kg (wm) or 0.018 mg DE-71/kg (bm)/day (ADI); for eggs of birds, the TRV was 2.35 jlgLPBDEs/g (lm). Reported concentrations of PBDEs in livers of aquatic mammals found dead, and in fish and bird eggs from Chinese wetland areas were compiled and compared to the corresponding criteria values. Results indicated that TRV values reported in this study can be used as indicators for screening-level risk assessment of piscivorous species in Chinese aquatic systems. Furthermore, based on monitoring concentrations of PBDEs in fishes from two lakes (DCL and TL) in China and the dietary-based TRV of 0.1 mg DE-71/kg (wm), a screening-level risk assessment of PBDEs was performed for predatory birds and mammals. The results suggest that concentrations of PBDEs in these two areas would not be expected to cause any adverse effects on the local fish-eating wild birds and mammals.

  6. Military Personnel: DOD's Predatory Lending Report Addressed Mandated Issues, but Support Is Limited for Some Findings and Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Brenda S

    2007-01-01

    ... (see the list of related GAO products at the end of this report). In conducting our review, we limited the scope of our work to the types of loans that DOD identified as being predatory in its mandated 2006 report...

  7. Individual movements and population density estimates for moray eels on a Caribbean coral reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, R. W.; Schein, M. W.

    1986-12-01

    Observations of moray eel (Muraenidae) distribution made on a Caribbean coral reef are discussed in the context of long term population trends. Observations of eel distribution made using SCUBA during 1978, 1979 1980, and 1984 are compared and related to the occurrence of a hurricane in 1979. An estimate of the mean standing stock of moray eels is presented. The degree of site attachment is discussed for spotted morays ( Gymnothorax moringa) and goldentail morays ( Muraena miliaris). The repeated non-aggressive association of moray eels with large aggregations of potential prey fishes is detailed.

  8. Psychological stress on female mice diminishes the developmental potential of oocytes: a study using the predatory stress model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr(2+ activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation.

  9. Emerging viruses in Florida and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple thrips-, whitefly- and aphid-transmitted viruses have recently emerged or re-emerged in vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida and the Caribbean. Tomato spotted wilt virus (a thrips-transmitted tospovirus) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (a whitefly-transmitted begomovirus) have histor...

  10. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... A farm to fork approach to nutritious school meals: Tackling childhood obesity in the Caribbean. In St Kitts-Nevis and Trinidad and Tobago, partnerships between the agriculture, health, and education sectors have united in a "Farm to Fork" effo. View moreA farm to fork approach to nutritious school meals: ...

  11. Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Long-term sustainability of development in Latin America and the Caribbean through economic growth, equitable access to health and social services, sustainable natural resources, and civil security. And we are ... Honduras. With our partners, IDRC-funded research in Honduras is building robust local leadership capacity.

  12. Caribbean health: Healthy children, healthy nation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Caribbean food groups, balanced diets and portion sizes, healthy snacking, nutrition label reading, physical activity, home gardening, food safety and hygiene as well as cooking methods. Two schools revived school gardens, providing an opportunity to consume their own produce and learn how to grow vegetables and ...

  13. Networks for Development : Caribbean Information and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second component, Rethinking ICT Policy and Regulation, will examine policymaking and regulation formulation and their implementation across four jurisdictions: Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. All these jurisdictions have implemented ICT reforms with ...

  14. Electronic Government : Caribbean Pilot Project | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Caribbean countries are increasingly adopting information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the process of modernizing their public sectors. In 2003, the Jamaican Customs Authority successfully deployed its Customs Automated Services (CASE) solution, attracting the attention of neighboring countries and the ...

  15. Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American and Caribbean Environmental Economics Program Phase III. A grant to improve a new generation of Latin American leaders' understanding of how to better manage natural resources will contribute to the region's economic and social development. Earlier IDRC grants helped the Latin American and ...

  16. Predatory functional morphology in raptors: interdigital variation in talon size is related to prey restraint and immobilisation technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver W Fowler

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity of raptors in terrestrial ecosystems, many aspects of their predatory behaviour remain poorly understood. Surprisingly little is known about the morphology of raptor talons and how they are employed during feeding behaviour. Talon size variation among digits can be used to distinguish families of raptors and is related to different techniques of prey restraint and immobilisation. The hypertrophied talons on digits (D I and II in Accipitridae have evolved primarily to restrain large struggling prey while they are immobilised by dismemberment. Falconidae have only modest talons on each digit and only slightly enlarged D-I and II. For immobilisation, Falconini rely more strongly on strike impact and breaking the necks of their prey, having evolved a 'tooth' on the beak to aid in doing so. Pandionidae have enlarged, highly recurved talons on each digit, an adaptation for piscivory, convergently seen to a lesser extent in fishing eagles. Strigiformes bear enlarged talons with comparatively low curvature on each digit, part of a suite of adaptations to increase constriction efficiency by maximising grip strength, indicative of specialisation on small prey. Restraint and immobilisation strategy change as prey increase in size. Small prey are restrained by containment within the foot and immobilised by constriction and beak attacks. Large prey are restrained by pinning under the bodyweight of the raptor, maintaining grip with the talons, and immobilised by dismemberment (Accipitridae, or severing the spinal cord (Falconini. Within all raptors, physical attributes of the feet trade off against each other to attain great strength, but it is the variable means by which this is achieved that distinguishes them ecologically. Our findings show that interdigital talon morphology varies consistently among raptor families, and that this is directly correlative with variation in their typical prey capture and restraint strategy.

  17. Suppression of Aedes aegypti by predatory Toxorhynchites moctezuma in an island habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikasingh, E S; Eustace, A

    1992-07-01

    Larval populations of the mosquito Aedes aegypti were suppressed by predatory Toxorhynchites moctezuma mosquito larvae released systematically in a village on Union Island (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines) during March-December 1988. Eggs and larvae of Tx.moctezuma were transported from Trinidad and introduced into all semi-permanent and permanent water-holding containers in the experimental village at Clifton. The semi-isolated village of Ashton served as control. Base-line Ae.aegypti indices (house, ovitrap, Breteau, cistern/tank, drum/barrel, small containers) were obtained for the two villages over a 4-month period prior to the introduction of the predatory Tx.moctezuma mosquito larvae. After sustained releases of predators for 5 months, all indices of Ae.aegypti were lower in the treated village than in the untreated village during the last 3 months of the year.

  18. Predatory journals: una amenaza emergente para autores y editores de publicaciones biomédicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, Pedro David; Corrales-García, Eva María

    So-called predatory publishing is a new and rising phenomenon presenting as an intellectual fraud that jeopardises the quality of scientific contribution, compromises the activity of authors, reviewers and editors of legitimate journals, damages the image of open access publications and is a very profitable business. In this paper, we review the concept and relevance of predatory journals and the characteristics that differentiate them from legitimate publications. Neurosurgical and general neuroscience journals are not immune to this problem. Academic institutions and ethics committees have a duty to raise awareness of this phenomenon and provide information and support to authors and the whole scientific community to avoid its propagation and potential control of biomedical publishing. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bächtold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.

  20. Mucus trail tracking in a predatory snail: olfactory processing retooled to serve a novel sensory modality

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Kinjal; Shaheen, Nagma; Witherspoon, Jessica; Robinson, Natallia; Harrington, Melissa A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea), a predatory land snail, finds prey snails and potential mates by following their mucus trails. Euglandina have evolved unique, mobile lip extensions that detect mucus and aid in following trails. Currently, little is known of the neural substrates of the trail-following behavior. Methods To investigate the neural correlates of trail following we used tract-tracing experiments in which nerves were backfilled with either nickel-lysine or Lucif...

  1. Serotonin Drives Predatory Feeding Behavior via Synchronous Feeding Rhythms in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Misako; Wilecki, Martin; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey; however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation an...

  2. Diet of three large pelagic fishes associated with drifting fish aggregating devices (DFADs in the western equatorial Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species of fish, aggregate around DFADs in marine tropical waters. We captured three predatory species: yellow fin tuna (Thunnus albacares, wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri and dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus from aggregations under DFADs in the Western Indian Ocean to characterize their diet and determine whether they fed on other DFAD associated organisms. Yellowfin tuna did not feed on DFAD–associated prey, while wahoo and dolphinfish did exploit resources aggregated by the DFADs, though they predominantly fed on other non–associated organisms. Opportunistic feeding on surface swarming stomatopod crustaceans was observed in yellowfin tuna and dolphinfish associated with FADs, but was not observed in wahoo.

  3. Fin-tail coordination during escape and predatory behavior in larval zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil McClenahan

    Full Text Available Larval zebrafish innately perform a suite of behaviors that are tightly linked to their evolutionary past, notably escape from threatening stimuli and pursuit and capture of prey. These behaviors have been carefully examined in the past, but mostly with regard to the movements of the trunk and tail of the larvae. Here, we employ kinematics analyses to describe the movements of the pectoral fins during escape and predatory behavior. In accord with previous studies, we find roles for the pectoral fins in slow swimming and immediately after striking prey. We find novel roles for the pectoral fins in long-latency, but not in short-latency C-bends. We also observe fin movements that occur during orienting J-turns and S-starts that drive high-velocity predatory strikes. Finally, we find that the use of pectoral fins following a predatory strike is scaled to the velocity of the strike, supporting a role for the fins in braking. The implications of these results for central control of coordinated movements are discussed, and we hope that these results will provide baselines for future analyses of cross-body coordination using mutants, morphants, and transgenic approaches.

  4. Predatory Capacity in vitro of Native Nematophagous Fungi from Cundinamarca on Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dildo Márquez Lara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dependence and indiscriminate use of chemical anthelmintics as the sole method for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN of cattle causes problems in the environment, public health, and the productivity of cattle. It is important to develop non-chemical control strategies. Nematophagous fungi can be a viable and promising alternative for the control of these endoparasites. This study aimed to isolate, identify and evaluate in vitro the potential of nematophagous fungi from Cundinamarca on L3 larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. 60 soil samples from cattle ranches were sown in Petri boxes containing agar-water for trapping fungi, and three strains of the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (L1, XVIII, and XXI and one of Arthrobotrys musiformis (XXIV were identified by morphometric keys. 1 x 106 conidia or chlamydospores of each fungi were used, which faced 100 nematode larvae. Isolate XXIV (A. musiformis showed greater predatory capacity (96.8% than isolates (A. oligospora XVIII, L1, and XXI (69.68, 71.1, and 87.62%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05 among the strains with more predatory capacity. This is the first record of in vitro identification and evaluation of the predatory capacity of A. oligospora and A. musiformis, native fungi from Cundinamarca. The results suggest that these fungi could be used as biocontrol agents of nematodes in cattle.

  5. Biology and predatory potential of coccinella septempunctata linn. on schizaphis graminum aphid under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.; Gillani, W.A.; Haq, E.U.; Khan, J.; Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    The biology and predatory potential of Coccinella septempunctata (Linn.) were studied on aphid, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) at three constant temperatures 20+-1 degree C, 25+-1 degree C and 30+-1 degree C in Insectary-Bio Control Laboratories, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad. The results revealed that incubation period of C. septempunctata was 5.12, 3.62 and 3.20 days with 75.6%, 82.0% and 71.2% hatchability, respectively. The larval durations were 29.5, 15.9 and 8.1 days with predatory potential of 573.7, 575.0 and 667.8 aphids per larvae. The results indicated that with increasing temperature, develop-mental duration decreases significantly. The pupal developmental duration was 14.0, 9.2 and 5.2 days, respectively which are significantly different from each other. The adult male and female longevity were 44.7, 37.7, 30.0 and 60.3, 58.9 and 43.7 days. Fecundity rate of females were 123.5, 251.5 and 293.2 eggs per female, respectively. This indicates that adult male and female developmental duration, female fecundity rate were significantly different from each other at three constant temperatures. Maximum female and male predatory potential was 3262.8 and 2571.7 aphids at 25 +-1 degree C while minimum was 2276.8 and 1890.6 aphids, respectively. (author)

  6. Who eats whom in a pool? A comparative study of prey selectivity by predatory aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Jan; Boukal, David S

    2012-01-01

    Predatory aquatic insects are a diverse group comprising top predators in small fishless water bodies. Knowledge of their diet composition is fragmentary, which hinders the understanding of mechanisms maintaining their high local diversity and of their impacts on local food web structure and dynamics. We conducted multiple-choice predation experiments using nine common species of predatory aquatic insects, including adult and larval Coleoptera, adult Heteroptera and larval Odonata, and complemented them with literature survey of similar experiments. All predators in our experiments fed selectively on the seven prey species offered, and vulnerability to predation varied strongly between the prey. The predators most often preferred dipteran larvae; previous studies further reported preferences for cladocerans. Diet overlaps between all predator pairs and predator overlaps between all prey pairs were non-zero. Modularity analysis separated all primarily nectonic predator and prey species from two groups of large and small benthic predators and their prey. These results, together with limited evidence from the literature, suggest a highly interconnected food web with several modules, in which similarly sized predators from the same microhabitat are likely to compete strongly for resources in the field (observed Pianka's diet overlap indices >0.85). Our experiments further imply that ontogenetic diet shifts are common in predatory aquatic insects, although we observed higher diet overlaps than previously reported. Hence, individuals may or may not shift between food web modules during ontogeny.

  7. Predatory Personalities as Behavioral Mimics and Parasites: Mimicry-Deception Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel N

    2014-07-01

    Humans use a variety of deceptive tactics to extract resources from unsuspecting others. In this article, I suggest that much can be learned about patterns of human deception from predatory nonhuman animal behavior and parasitic infections. Nonhuman animals and parasitic infections utilize deceptive tactics to extract resources through two overarching strategies: (a) complex deception, slow resource extraction, heavy integration into a host or community, and low risk of detection, or (b) superficial deception, immediate resource extraction, little host or community specificity, and increased risk of detection. Predatory and parasitic human personalities may operate in analogous ways. Guided by analogies derived from nonhuman animal mimicry (such as color or behavioral deception) and micro-organismic infections, I have developed a theoretical framework to better understand deceptive and parasitic human behaviors as well as the characteristics defining them. Although applicable to areas of predatory and parasitic human behavior, two specific traits (psychopathy and Machiavellianism) are highlighted that have dire consequences for financial fraud, interpersonal harm, and organizational misbehavior. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Predatory activity of Butlerius nematodes and nematophagous fungi against Haemonchus contortus infective larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the nematode Butlerius spp. and fungal isolates of Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Arthrobotrys musiformis and Trichoderma esau against H. contortus infective larvae (L3 in grass pots. Forty-eight plastic gardening pots containing 140 g of sterile soil were used. Panicum spp. grass seeds (200 mg were sown into each pot and individually watered with 10 mL of tap water. Twelve days after seeding, the pots were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=8. Two thousand H. contortus infective larvae (L3 were added to each group. Additionally, the following treatments were established: Group 1 – 2000 Butlerius spp. larvae; group 2 – A. musiformis (1x107 conidia; group 3 – T. esau (1x107 conidia; group 4 – C. rosea (1x107 conidia, group 5 – D. flagrans (1x107conidia and Group 6 – no biological controller (control group. The larval population of H. contortus exposed to Butlerius spp. was reduced by 61.9%. Population reductions of 90.4, 66.7, 61.9 and 85.7% were recorded in the pots containing A. musiformis, T. esau, C. rosea and D. flagrans, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the predatory nematode Butlerius spp. and the assessed fungi display an important predatory activity can be considered suitable potential biological control agents.

  9. Indirect effect of neem oil on Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae: biology and predatory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniele Pianoscki de Campos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects on the development and predatory capacity of Podisus nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda that have ingested different concentrations of neem oil. The predatory capacity of Podisus nigrispinus was assessed, separating nymphs (fourth instar and adults (males and females. The treatments consisted of S. frugiperda larvae reared in neem oil aqueous solutions (0.077, 0.359 and 0.599%, deltamethrin EC 25 (0.100% and control arranged in a completely randomized design, with ten replicates. Insects were offered three larval densities (one, three and six, in the third or fourth instars. The predated larvae were examined at 24 and 48 hours after the beginning of the experiment. Biological parameters of Podisus nigrispinus were evaluated in groups of ten second-instar nymphs transferred to pots, in five replicates. Insects were offered 2-6 third and/or fourth-instar larvae reared in the same neem oil concentrations in a completely randomized design. The following parameters were evaluated: duration of each nymph stage (days, nymph mortality (%, weight of fifth-instar nymphs (mg, sex ratio, weight of males and females (mg and longevity of unfed adults (days. The predatory capacity of nymphs and adults of Podisus nigrispinus was influenced by the neem oil at the concentrations of 0.359% and 0.599% in the highest density. The concentration of 0.359% lengthened the nymphal stage and the concentration of 0.599% reduced the weight of males.

  10. Bioethics and Public Health Collaborate to Reveal Impacts of Climate Change on Caribbean Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C.; Akpinar-Elci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Interdisciplinary dialog and collaboration aimed at protecting health against climate change is impeded by the small number of scientists and health professionals skilled in interdisciplinary work, and by the view held by many that "climate change won't affect me personally". These challenges may be surmounted by discussions about the lived experience of climate change and how this threatens things we value. Dialog between bioethics and public health generated an innovative collaboration using the focus group method. The main limitation of focus groups is the small number of participants however the data obtained is generalizable to wider groups and is used regularly in business to enhance marketing strategies. Caribbean academicians from varied disciplines discussed how climate change affects them and life in the Caribbean. Caribbean states are particularly vulnerable to climate change because their large coastal areas are directly exposed to rising sea levels and their development relies heavily on foreign aid. The Caribbean comprises about half of the 39 members of the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS), and small island states comprise about 5% of global population [1]. Participants described socioeconomic and environmental changes in the Caribbean that they attribute to climate change. These include extreme weather, unusual rain and drought, drying rivers, beach erosion, declining fish catches, and others. The session exposed impacts on individuals, businesses, agriculture, and disaster preparedness. This data helps to reframe climate change as a personal reality rather than a vague future concern. It is relevant to the design, implementation, and sustainability of climate policies in the Caribbean and perhaps other small island states. The method and interdisciplinary approach can be used in other settings to elicit dialog about experiences and values across sectors, and to inform policies. Those who have experienced extreme weather are more concerned

  11. Eastern Caribbean Circulation and Island Mass Effect on St. Croix, US Virgin Islands: A Mechanism for Relatively Consistent Recruitment Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Marcel Chérubin

    Full Text Available The northeastern Caribbean Sea is under the seasonal influence of the Trade Winds but also of the Orinoco/Amazon freshwater plume. The latter is responsible for intensification of the Caribbean Current in general and of its eddy activity in the northern part of the Caribbean Sea. More importantly, we show in this study that the front of the freshwater plume drives a northward flow that impinges directly on the island of St. Croix in the United States Virgin Islands. The angle of incidence of the incoming flow controls the nature of the wake on both sides and ends of the island, which changes from cyclonic to anticylonic wake flow, with either attached or shed eddies. Using an off-line bio-physical model, we simulated the dispersal and recruitment of an abundant Caribbean coral reef fish, the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum in the context of the wake flow variability around St. Croix. Our results revealed the role played by the consistent seasonal forcing of the wake flow on the recruitment patterns around the island at the interannual scale. The interannual variability of the timing of arrival and northward penetration of the plume instead controls the nature of the wake, hence the regional spatial recruitment patterns.

  12. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  13. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  14. Dietary Safety Assessment of Flk1-Transgenic Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yalan; Huang, Ling; Cao, Jinghui; Wang, Chenghui; Yan, Jizhou

    2018-01-01

    Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is facing with growing demands of aquaculture and aquatic products. Although various genetically modified (GM) aquatics have been generated, it is important to evaluate biosafety of GM organisms on the human health before entering into our food chain. For this purpose, we establish a zebrafish wild adult feeding Flk1-transgenic larvae model to examine the predatory fish's histology in multiple tissues, and the global gene expression profile in the liver. 180 days of feeding trial show that there are no significantly morphological changes in intestine, liver, kidney, and sex gonads between fish fed with Flk1 transgenic fish diet (TFD) and fish fed with regular food meal (RFM). However, a characteristic skin spot and autofluorescence increase in the theca of follicle are observed in F1 generation of TFD fish. Liver RNA-sequencing analyses demonstrate that 53 out of 56712 genes or isoforms are differentially transcribed, and mostly involved in proteolysis in extracellular region. According to GO enrichment terms these deregulated genes function in catalytic activity, steroid storing, lipid metabolic process and N-Glycan biosynthesis. These results suggest that a long term of Flk1-transgenic fish diet could alter certain metabolic pathways and possibly cause related tissue deformation. Compared to the previous reports, our feasible transgenic dietary assess system could evaluate subchronic and potential health impact of transgenic fish diet by combining multi-tissue histology and liver transcriptome analyses.

  15. Management options to reduce exposure to methyl mercury through the consumption of fish and fishery products by the French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépet, A; Tressou, J; Verger, P; Leblanc, J Ch

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an updated assessment of exposure in France to methyl mercury through the consumption of fish and fishery products, and proposes several management scenarios which could reduce this exposure through changes to fish contamination levels or fish consumption patterns. The exposure model was applied in line with previous methodological results [Tressou, J., Crépet, A., Bertail, P., Feinberg, M.H., Leblanc J.Ch., 2004a. Probabilistic exposure assessment to food chemicals based on extreme value theory: application to heavy metals from fish and sea products. Food Chem. Toxicol. 42, 1349-1358; Tressou, J., Leblanc, J.Ch., Feinberg, M., Bertail, P., 2004b. Statistical methodology to evaluate food exposure to a contaminant and influence of sanitary limits: application to ochratoxin A. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 40, 252-263] so as to obtain a realistic estimate of probability and confidence intervals (95% CI) concerning French consumers exposed to levels exceeding the revised fixed provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for methyl mercury of 1.6 microg/week/kg of body weight, established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2003. The results showed that young children aged between 3 and 6 years old or 7 and 10 years old, and women of childbearing age were at the risk groups. With respect to these groups and according to the fish consumers patterns (consumers of predatory fish only or consumers of predatory and nonpredatory fish), the results suggested that strategies to diminish MeHg exposure by reducing the amount of predatory fish consumed would be more efficient in significantly decreasing the probability of exceeding the PTWI than the implementation of international standards.

  16. Fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Daniel J.; Falke, Jeffrey A.; Li, Hiram W.; Li, Judith; Hauer, F. Richard; Lamberti, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    Methods to sample fishes in stream ecosystems and to analyze the raw data, focusing primarily on assemblage-level (all fish species combined) analyses, are presented in this chapter. We begin with guidance on sample site selection, permitting for fish collection, and information-gathering steps to be completed prior to conducting fieldwork. Basic sampling methods (visual surveying, electrofishing, and seining) are presented with specific instructions for estimating population sizes via visual, capture-recapture, and depletion surveys, in addition to new guidance on environmental DNA (eDNA) methods. Steps to process fish specimens in the field including the use of anesthesia and preservation of whole specimens or tissue samples (for genetic or stable isotope analysis) are also presented. Data analysis methods include characterization of size-structure within populations, estimation of species richness and diversity, and application of fish functional traits. We conclude with three advanced topics in assemblage-level analysis: multidimensional scaling (MDS), ecological networks, and loop analysis.

  17. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Valdivia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion.

  18. Arsenic bioaccumulation in a marine juvenile fish Terapon jarbua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Huang Liangmin; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: Radiotracer technique was used to quantify the biokinetics of As(V) in a marine fish. As(V) had a low bioavailability to Terapon jarbua. Dietary assimilation of As was only 3.1–7.4% for fish fed with different preys. Dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish. - Abstract: Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous toxic metalloid that is causing widespread public concern. Recent measurements have indicated that some marine fish in China might be seriously contaminated with As. Yet the biokinetics and bioaccumulation pathway of As in fish remain little understood. In this study, we employed a radiotracer technique to quantify the dissolved uptake, dietary assimilation and subsequent efflux of As(V) in a marine predatory fish, Terapon jarbua. The dissolved uptake of As showed a linear pattern over a range of dissolved concentrations from 0.5 to 50 μg L −1 , with a corresponding uptake rate constant of 0.0015 L g −1 d −1 . The assimilation efficiencies (AEs) of dietary As were only 3.1–7.4% for fish fed with copepods, clams, prey fish, or artificial diets, and were much lower than the As that entered the trophically available metal fraction in the prey. The dietary AEs were independent of the As(V) concentrations in the artificial diets. The efflux rate constant of As in fish following the dietary exposure was 0.03 d −1 . Modeling calculations showed that dietary uptake could be the primary route for As bioaccumulation in fish, and the corresponding contributions of waterborne and dietary uptakes were related to the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and the ingestion rate of fish. This study demonstrates that As(V) has a low bioavailability to T. jarbua.

  19. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  20. Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Noh, Mohd Fairulnizal Mohd; Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita Wan; Jaafar, Hamdan; Ishak, Ismail; Azmi, Wan Nurul Farah Wan; Veloo, Yuvaneswary; Hairi, Mohd Hairulhisam

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of total mercury in the edible portion of 46 species of marine fish (n = 297) collected from selected major fish landing ports and wholesale markets throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Samples were collected in June to December 2009. Prior to analysis, the fish samples were processed which consisted of drying at 65 °C until a constant weight was attained; then, it was grounded and digested by a microwave digestion system. The analytical determination was carried out by using a mercury analysis system. Total mercury concentration among fish species was examined. The results showed that mercury concentrations were found significantly higher (p mercury concentrations were also higher in carnivorous fish especially in the species with more predatory feeding habits. Besides, the family group of Latidae (0.537 ± 0.267 mg/kg in dried weight), Dasyatidae (0.492 ± 0.740 mg/kg in dried weight), and Lutjanidae (0.465 ± 0.566 mg/kg in dried weight) showed significantly (p mercury levels compared to other groups. Fish collected from Port Klang (0.563 ± 0.509 mg/kg in dry weight), Kuala Besar (0.521 ± 0.415 mg/kg in dry weight), and Pandan (0.380 ± 0.481 mg/kg in dry weight) were significantly higher (p = 0.014) in mercury concentrations when compared to fish from other sampling locations. Total mercury levels were significantly higher (p 20 cm) and were positively related with fish size (length and weight) in all fish samples. Despite the results, the level of mercury in marine fish did not exceed the permitted levels of Malaysian and JECFA guideline values at 0.5 mg/kg methylmercury in fish.

  1. Coral identity underpins architectural complexity on Caribbean reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Côte, Isabelle M; Watkinson, Andrew R; Gill, Jennifer A

    2011-09-01

    The architectural complexity of ecosystems can greatly influence their capacity to support biodiversity and deliver ecosystem services. Understanding the components underlying this complexity can aid the development of effective strategies for ecosystem conservation. Caribbean coral reefs support and protect millions of livelihoods, but recent anthropogenic change is shifting communities toward reefs dominated by stress-resistant coral species, which are often less architecturally complex. With the regionwide decline in reef fish abundance, it is becoming increasingly important to understand changes in coral reef community structure and function. We quantify the influence of coral composition, diversity, and morpho-functional traits on the architectural complexity of reefs across 91 sites at Cozumel, Mexico. Although reef architectural complexity increases with coral cover and species richness, it is highest on sites that are low in taxonomic evenness and dominated by morpho-functionally important, reef-building coral genera, particularly Montastraea. Sites with similar coral community composition also tend to occur on reefs with very similar architectural complexity, suggesting that reef structure tends to be determined by the same key species across sites. Our findings provide support for prioritizing and protecting particular reef types, especially those dominated by key reef-building corals, in order to enhance reef complexity.

  2. New strategic directions for Caribbean CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Recent changes in the strategy of the Caribbean Contraceptive Social Marketing Project emphasize the condom, under the brand name, Panther. Since 1984, CCSMP began marketing their Perle rand of oral contraceptive, since dropped, in Barbados, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. Now wider commercial connections are envisioned, with support by CCSMP to promote generic brands. The Panther condom campaign will include an array of mass media, point-of-purchase and sporting event advertising. Pharmacies report that Panther is selling as well as the leading commercial brand. CCSMP is looking to introduce an ultra-thin condom and a vaginal foaming tablet. Market research, involving physicians and users as well as retail audits, indicates that although population in numbers alone is not a serious problem in the Caribbean, early pregnancy is a concern in the area.

  3. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  4. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  5. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    LeGrand, Cathleen; Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011).

  6. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeGrand, Cathleen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Haïti has by far the longest history of independence of any of its Caribbean neighbors, having gained independence from France in 1804. Haïti's tradition of classical music takes root in its colonial heritage. Haïtian classical music, "mizik savant ayisyen," is derived from that "desire to retain European standards while including local features" of indigenous musical traditions (Grenier & Averill, 2007-2011.

  7. The Caribbean--reflecting global contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouda, T

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the dilemma facing the Caribbean in the establishment of policies that would lead to HIV prevention. The Caribbean are a collection of numerous cultures, languages, politics, and economies. It has a high number of AIDS cases relative to it's population size. At the onset of the AIDS epidemic, a series of bad studies led to the conclusion that Haitians were a "risk group" for HIV infection, consequences of which are irreparable. The AIDS epidemic has been characterized by attitudes of fear, and resentment of HIV infected persons. For instance, AIDS victims are totally excluded from controversial AIDS related discussions. Whereas in Trinidad and Tobago, widespread promotion of condoms is ongoing to control the spread of HIV infection. Cuba on the other hand, has tested most of it's population for HIV infection, and those who are infected have been isolated into medically equipped buildings. This approach, though effective, cannot be sustained by any other island in the Caribbean. In fact, issues of routine hospital blood screening tend to be problematic given the very low seroprevalence rates relative to the resources needed for testing. In all islands however, there is a drive to keep the blood supply free of HIV infection, and health workers well educated on AIDS related facts. However, education is not enough; there needs to be a change in feelings and attitudes that facilitate high risk behavior.

  8. Movement of the Caribbean plate and its importance for biogeography in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, J. Wyatt

    1985-02-01

    Sykes et al. have demonstrated that the Caribbean plate has moved east-northeast about 1400 km since late Eocene time (38 Ma). This movement changes or affects the interpretation of many biogeographic problems of that region. For example, Woodring's 1965 “Middle Miocene Caribbean Province,” although slightly larger peripherally, includes the same area as the Caribbean plate; the migration route by which the North American terrestrial mammals reached the Panamanian area in the early Miocene may have been via the Nicaraguan Rise rather than through present-day Guatemala; Petuch's “relict Neogene gastropod fauna” from northern Colombia and Venezuela may have been carried along with the plate as it moved; the otherwise Pacific keyhole echinoid genus Mellitella's anomalous fossil occurrences in Venezuela and Colombia are explained by the plate movement.

  9. Discriminating Between Legitimate and Predatory Open Access Journals: Report from the International Federation for Emergency Medicine Research Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Hansoti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Open access (OA medical publishing is growing rapidly. While subscription-based publishing does not charge the author, OA does. This opens the door for “predatory” publishers who take authors’ money but provide no substantial peer review or indexing to truly disseminate research findings. Discriminating between predatory and legitimate OA publishers is difficult. Methods: We searched a number of library indexing databases that were available to us through the University of California, Irvine Libraries for journals in the field of emergency medicine (EM. Using criteria from Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado librarian and an expert on predatory publishing, and the Research Committee of the International Federation for EM, we categorized EM journals as legitimate or likely predatory. Results: We identified 150 journal titles related to EM from all sources, 55 of which met our criteria for OA (37%, the rest subscription based. Of these 55, 25 (45% were likely to be predatory. We present lists of clearly legitimate OA journals, and, conversely, likely predatory ones. We present criteria a researcher can use to discriminate between the two. We present the indexing profiles of legitimate EM OA journals, to inform the researcher about degree of dissemination of research findings by journal. Conclusion: OA journals are proliferating rapidly. About half in EM are legitimate. The rest take substantial money from unsuspecting, usually junior, researchers and provide no value for true dissemination of findings. Researchers should be educated and aware of scam journals.

  10. Does small equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of small scientific communities and small journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. We analysed 444 Croatian open access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from "predatory" journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal's origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from small research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies.

  11. An Eye to a Kill: Using Predatory Bacteria to Control Gram-Negative Pathogens Associated with Ocular Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Q Shanks

    Full Text Available Ocular infections are a leading cause of vision loss. It has been previously suggested that predatory prokaryotes might be used as live antibiotics to control infections. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens ocular isolates were exposed to the predatory bacteria Micavibrio aeruginosavorus and Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus. All tested S. marcescens isolates were susceptible to predation by B. bacteriovorus strains 109J and HD100. Seven of the 10 P. aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to predation by B. bacteriovorus 109J with 80% being attacked by M. aeruginosavorus. All of the 19 tested isolates were found to be sensitive to at least one predator. To further investigate the effect of the predators on eukaryotic cells, human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE cells were exposed to high concentrations of the predators. Cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that predatory bacteria do not damage ocular surface cells in vitro whereas the P. aeruginosa used as a positive control was highly toxic. Furthermore, no increase in the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-alpha was measured in HCLE cells after exposure to the predators. Finally, injection of high concentration of predatory bacteria into the hemocoel of Galleria mellonella, an established model system used to study microbial pathogenesis, did not result in any measurable negative effect to the host. Our results suggest that predatory bacteria could be considered in the near future as a safe topical bio-control agent to treat ocular infections.

  12. Fish pelleting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    lion tonnes (Punch 2014). The increasing growth in .... CAS = critical stress (Pa) particulate density ..... Design and fabrication of fish meal pellet processing machine ... 59. T a b le 1. : W eig h t, efficien cy a n d d ry n ess o. f p ro cessed fish m ea. l p ellets. S a m p le. Tested. W eig h. t o f. In g red ien ts. (K g. ) W eig h. t o.

  13. CARICOF - The Caribbean Regional Climate Outlook Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) are viewed as a critical building block in the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The GFCS seeks to extend RCOFs to all vulnerable regions of the world such as the Caribbean, of which the entire population is exposed to water- and heat-related natural hazards. An RCOF is initially intended to identify gaps in information and technical capability; facilitate research cooperation and data exchange within and between regions, and improve coordination within the climate forecasting community. A focus is given on variations in climate conditions on a seasonal timescale. In this view, the relevance of a Caribbean RCOF (CARICOF) is the following: while the seasonality of the climate in the Caribbean has been well documented, major gaps in knowledge exist in terms of the drivers in the shifts of amplitude and phase of seasons (as evidenced from the worst region-wide drought period in recent history during 2009-2010). To address those gaps, CARICOF has brought together National Weather Services (NWSs) from 18 territories under the coordination of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), to produce region-wide, consensus, seasonal climate outlooks since March 2012. These outlooks include tercile rainfall forecasts, sea and air surface temperature forecasts as well as the likely evolution of the drivers of seasonal climate variability in the region, being amongst others the El Niño Southern Oscillation or tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea temperatures. Forecasts for both the national-scale forecasts made by the NWSs and CIMH's regional-scale forecast amalgamate output from several forecasting tools. These currently include: (1) statistical models such as Canonical Correlation Analysis run with the Climate Predictability Tool, providing tercile rainfall forecasts at weather station scale; (2) a global outlooks published by the WMO appointed Global Producing

  14. [Reevaluation of the biological control of vector mosquitoes using predatory larvae of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, M; Horio, M

    1985-09-01

    Attempts to control mosquito-borne disease using predatory mosquitoes such as Toxorhynchites larvae have led to indefinite results for many years, mainly because of the lack of adequate species or strains of Toxorhynchites. Recent improvements of natural and artificial matings of adults in the laboratory and of mass breeding of larvae, however, have made it possible to establish laboratory colonies of most Toxorhynchites species whenever and wherever necessary. Effects of biological control by releasing large numbers of Toxorhynchites mosquitoes should be reevaluated from a new concept of comparing the usual chemical insecticides with the living and flying "insecticides" which cause no environmental pollution.

  15. 'Predatory' open access: a longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cenyu; Björk, Bo-Christer

    2015-10-01

    A negative consequence of the rapid growth of scholarly open access publishing funded by article processing charges is the emergence of publishers and journals with highly questionable marketing and peer review practices. These so-called predatory publishers are causing unfounded negative publicity for open access publishing in general. Reports about this branch of e-business have so far mainly concentrated on exposing lacking peer review and scandals involving publishers and journals. There is a lack of comprehensive studies about several aspects of this phenomenon, including extent and regional distribution. After an initial scan of all predatory publishers and journals included in the so-called Beall's list, a sample of 613 journals was constructed using a stratified sampling method from the total of over 11,000 journals identified. Information about the subject field, country of publisher, article processing charge and article volumes published between 2010 and 2014 were manually collected from the journal websites. For a subset of journals, individual articles were sampled in order to study the country affiliation of authors and the publication delays. Over the studied period, predatory journals have rapidly increased their publication volumes from 53,000 in 2010 to an estimated 420,000 articles in 2014, published by around 8,000 active journals. Early on, publishers with more than 100 journals dominated the market, but since 2012 publishers in the 10-99 journal size category have captured the largest market share. The regional distribution of both the publisher's country and authorship is highly skewed, in particular Asia and Africa contributed three quarters of authors. Authors paid an average article processing charge of 178 USD per article for articles typically published within 2 to 3 months of submission. Despite a total number of journals and publishing volumes comparable to respectable (indexed by the Directory of Open Access Journals) open access

  16. Interactions of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in genetically engineered cotton with predatory heteropterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jorge B; Ruberson, John R

    2008-06-01

    A number of cotton varieties have been genetically transformed with genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to continuously produce Bt endotoxins, offering whole plant and season-long protection against many lepidopteran larvae. Constant whole-plant toxin expression creates a significant opportunity for non-target herbivores to acquire and bio-accumulate the toxin for higher trophic levels. In the present study we investigated movement of Cry1Ac toxin from the transgenic cotton plant through specific predator-prey pairings, using omnivorous predators with common cotton pests as prey: (1) the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with the predator Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae); (2) the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acarina: Tetranychidae), with the predatory big-eyed bug Geocoris punctipes (Heteroptera: Geocoridae) and (3) with the predatory damsel bug Nabis roseipennis (Heteropera: Nabidae); and (4) the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) with the predatory pirate bug Orius insidiosus (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). We quantified Cry1Ac toxin in the cotton plants, and in the pests and predators, and the effects of continuous feeding on S. exigua larvae fed either Bt or non-Bt cotton on life history traits of P. maculiventris. All three herbivores were able to convey Cry1Ac toxin to their respective predators. Among the herbivores, T. urticae exhibited 16.8 times more toxin in their bodies than that expressed in Bt-cotton plant, followed by S. exigua (1.05 times), and F. occidentalis immatures and adults (0.63 and 0.73 times, respectively). Of the toxin in the respective herbivorous prey, 4, 40, 17 and 14% of that amount was measured in the predators G. punctipes, P. maculiventris, O. insidiosus, and N. roseipennis, respectively. The predator P. maculiventris exhibited similar life history characteristics (developmental time, survival, longevity, and fecundity) regardless of the prey's food

  17. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  18. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  19. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  20. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  1. Relationship between the ability to penetrate complex webs of Tetranychus spider mites and the ability of thread-cutting behavior in phytoseiid predatory mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimoda, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Takabayashi, J.; Amano, H.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Predatory mites, that are important natural enemies of Tetranychus spider mites, are less hindered by complex webs of the spider mites than are other predatory mites that are natural enemies of other pest herbivores. This can be partly explained by their chaetotaxy, a morphological protection

  2. Brain mechanisms involved in predatory aggression are activated in a laboratory model of violent intra-specific aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulogdi, Aron; Toth, Mate; Halasz, Jozsef; Mikics, Eva; Fuzesi, Tamas; Haller, Jozsef

    2010-11-01

    Callous-unemotional violence associated with antisocial personality disorder is often called 'predatory' because it involves restricted intention signaling and low emotional/physiological arousal, including decreased glucocorticoid production. This epithet may be a mere metaphor, but may also cover a structural similarity at the level of the hypothalamus where the control of affective and predatory aggression diverges. We investigated this hypothesis in a laboratory model where glucocorticoid production is chronically limited by adrenalectomy with glucocorticoid replacement (ADXr). This procedure was proposed to model important aspects of antisocial violence. Sham and ADXr rats were submitted to resident/intruder conflicts, and the resulting neuronal activation patterns were investigated by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. In line with earlier findings, the share of attacks aimed at vulnerable targets (head, throat and belly) was dramatically increased by ADXr, while intention signaling by offensive threats was restricted. Aggressive encounters activated the mediobasal hypothalamus, a region involved in intra-specific aggression, but sham and ADXr rats did not differ in this respect. In contrast, the activation of the lateral hypothalamus that is tightly involved in predatory aggression was markedly larger in ADXr rats; moreover, c-Fos counts correlated positively with the share of vulnerable attacks and negatively with social signaling. Glucocorticoid deficiency increased c-Fos activation in the central amygdala, a region also involved in predatory aggression. In addition, activation patterns in the periaqueductal gray - involved in autonomic control - also resembled those seen in predatory aggression. These findings suggest that antisocial and predatory aggression are not only similar but are controlled by overlapping neural mechanisms. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing

  3. Rapid Extraction and Identification of Maitotoxin and Ciguatoxin-Like Toxins from Caribbean and Pacific Gambierdiscus Using a New Functional Bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Richard J.; Inserra, Marco; Vetter, Irina; Holland, William C.; Hardison, D. Ransom; Tester, Patricia A.; Litaker, R. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Background Ciguatera is a circumtropical disease produced by polyether sodium channel toxins (ciguatoxins) that enter the marine food chain and accumulate in otherwise edible fish. Ciguatoxins, as well as potent water-soluble polyethers known as maitotoxins, are produced by certain dinoflagellate species in the genus Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. in the Pacific but little is known of the potential of related Caribbean species to produce these toxins. Methods We established a simplified proce...

  4. Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Analytical Support to African and Caribbean Trade Negotiations - Phase III. International Lawyers and Economists against Poverty (ILEAP) is an initiative that aims to help African and Caribbean countries derive full benefit from integration into the global economy. Its work is premised on the recognition that while significant ...

  5. Another style of Christianity in the Capitalist Ridden Caribbean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two characteristics mark the Caribbean: capitalism and the hegemony of North Atlantic versions of Christianity. The colonization and exploitation of the Caribbean was justified in the name of profit and the dominant North Atlantic renderings of Christ's message. Having been conceived by the joint forces of these worldly and ...

  6. 76 FR 32855 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... pursue and realize the American dream. This month, we also recognize the important friendship between the... Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The... Nation of immigrants is part of what makes America strong, and during National Caribbean-American...

  7. Lessons from CXC for Caribbean Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Stafford Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how higher education institutions in the Caribbean may benefit from the quality assurance measures implemented by the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC). Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses an outcomes model of quality assurance to analyse the measures implemented by the CXC to assure quality…

  8. Highlight: IDRC sponsors Caribbean symposium on impact of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... The Mona ICT Policy Centre, the Caribbean Institute of Media and Communication and the University of the West Indies hosted the meeting, in partnership with the World Bank and IDRC. The symposium provided an opportunity for experts from the Caribbean and elsewhere to examine the impact of ...

  9. Theorising African Caribbean Absences in Multicultural Art Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the learning of African Caribbean pupils in art and design classrooms in the United Kingdom. It proceeds from the proposition that African Caribbean pupils, as the descendants of enslaved peoples whose cultural lineage has been blurred by the skewed relationship with the white majority group, are uniquely disadvantaged in the…

  10. Erythema Migrans–like Illness among Caribbean Islanders

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Anu; Jaimungal, Sarada; Basdeo-Maharaj, Khamedaye; Rao, A.V. Chalapathi; Teelucksingh, Surujpaul

    2010-01-01

    Erythema migrans is the skin manifestation of Lyme disease and southern tick-associated rash illness. Neither disease is found in the Caribbean. We report 4 cases of erythema migrans of a possible emerging clinical entity, Caribbean erythma migrans–like illness.

  11. Erythema migrans-like illness among Caribbean islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Jaimungal, Sarada; Basdeo-Maharaj, Khamedaye; Chalapathi Rao, A V; Teelucksingh, Surujpaul

    2010-10-01

    Erythema migrans is the skin manifestation of Lyme disease and southern tick-associated rash illness. Neither disease is found in the Caribbean. We report 4 cases of erythema migrans of a possible emerging clinical entity, Caribbean erythma migrans-like illness.

  12. Erythema Migrans–like Illness among Caribbean Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimungal, Sarada; Basdeo-Maharaj, Khamedaye; Rao, A.V. Chalapathi; Teelucksingh, Surujpaul

    2010-01-01

    Erythema migrans is the skin manifestation of Lyme disease and southern tick-associated rash illness. Neither disease is found in the Caribbean. We report 4 cases of erythema migrans of a possible emerging clinical entity, Caribbean erythma migrans–like illness. PMID:20875293

  13. 77 FR 60380 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC) will hold meetings. DATES... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu[ntilde]oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan...

  14. Structure and financing of nature management costs in Caribbean Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.; Debrot, A.O.; Rockmann, C.; Jak, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Nature Policy Plan Caribbean Netherlands identifies the need to “Evaluate the financial instruments available for nature conservation in the Caribbean Netherlands and make recommendations aimed at guaranteeing a sustainable financial future” as one of its strategic actions. Three preceding

  15. Language-Planning in the Creole-Speaking Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonish, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    As a result of anticolonial movements in the Caribbean, Creole languages are becoming major languages of communication. Language planning has begun to focus on them. These languages must be taught to non-native speakers who want to participate fully in Caribbean culture. This is clearly demonstrated in the area of cinema. (VM)

  16. Ciguatoxicity of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa species from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, William C.; Hardison, D. Ransom; Pisapia, Francesco; Hess, Philipp; Kibler, Steven R.; Tester, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Dinoflagellate species belonging to the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa produce ciguatoxins (CTXs), potent neurotoxins that concentrate in fish causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans. While the structures and toxicities of ciguatoxins isolated from fish in the Pacific and Caribbean are known, there are few data on the variation in toxicity between and among species of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Quantifying the differences in species-specific toxicity is especially important to developing an effective cell-based risk assessment strategy for CFP. This study analyzed the ciguatoxicity of 33 strains representing seven Gambierdiscus and one Fukuyoa species using a cell based Neuro-2a cytotoxicity assay. All strains were isolated from either the Caribbean or Gulf of Mexico. The average toxicity of each species was inversely proportional to growth rate, suggesting an evolutionary trade-off between an investment in growth versus the production of defensive compounds. While there is 2- to 27-fold variation in toxicity within species, there was a 1740-fold difference between the least and most toxic species. Consequently, production of CTX or CTX-like compounds is more dependent on the species present than on the random occurrence of high or low toxicity strains. Seven of the eight species tested (G. belizeanus, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. carpenteri, Gambierdiscus ribotype 2, G. silvae and F. ruetzleri) exhibited low toxicities, ranging from 0 to 24.5 fg CTX3C equivalents cell-1, relative to G. excentricus, which had a toxicity of 469 fg CTX3C eq. cell-1. Isolates of G. excentricus from other regions have shown similarly high toxicities. If the hypothesis that G. excentricus is the primary source of ciguatoxins in the Atlantic is confirmed, it should be possible to identify areas where CFP risk is greatest by monitoring only G. excentricus abundance using species-specific molecular assays. PMID:29045489

  17. Prevalence of external injuries in small cetaceans in Aruban waters, southern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksenburg, Jolanda A

    2014-01-01

    Aruba, located close to the coasts of Colombia and Venezuela, is one of the most densely populated islands in the Caribbean and supports a wide range of marine-related socio-economic activities. However, little is known about the impacts of human activities on the marine environment. Injuries in marine mammals can be used to examine interactions with human activities and identify potential threats to the survival of populations. The prevalence of external injuries and tooth rake marks were examined in Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) (n = 179), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n = 76) and false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) (n = 71) in Aruban waters using photo identification techniques. Eleven injury categories were defined and linked to either human-related activities or natural causes. All injury categories were observed. In total, 18.7% of all individuals had at least one injury. Almost half (41.7%) of the injuries could be attributed to human interactions, of which fishing gear was the most common cause (53.3%) followed by propeller hits (13.3%). Major disfigurements were observed in all three species and could be attributed to interactions with fishing gear. The results of this study indicate that fishing gear and propeller hits may pose threats to small and medium-sized cetaceans in Aruban waters. Thus, long-term monitoring of population trends is warranted. Shark-inflicted bite wounds were observed in Atlantic spotted dolphin and bottlenose dolphin. Bite wounds of cookie cutter sharks (Isistius sp.) were recorded in all three species, and include the first documented record of a cookie cutter shark bite in Atlantic spotted dolphin. This is one of the few studies which investigates the prevalence of injuries in cetaceans in the Caribbean. Further study is necessary to determine to which extent the injuries observed in Aruba affect the health and survival of local populations.

  18. Prevalence of external injuries in small cetaceans in Aruban waters, southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda A Luksenburg

    Full Text Available Aruba, located close to the coasts of Colombia and Venezuela, is one of the most densely populated islands in the Caribbean and supports a wide range of marine-related socio-economic activities. However, little is known about the impacts of human activities on the marine environment. Injuries in marine mammals can be used to examine interactions with human activities and identify potential threats to the survival of populations. The prevalence of external injuries and tooth rake marks were examined in Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis (n = 179, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus (n = 76 and false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens (n = 71 in Aruban waters using photo identification techniques. Eleven injury categories were defined and linked to either human-related activities or natural causes. All injury categories were observed. In total, 18.7% of all individuals had at least one injury. Almost half (41.7% of the injuries could be attributed to human interactions, of which fishing gear was the most common cause (53.3% followed by propeller hits (13.3%. Major disfigurements were observed in all three species and could be attributed to interactions with fishing gear. The results of this study indicate that fishing gear and propeller hits may pose threats to small and medium-sized cetaceans in Aruban waters. Thus, long-term monitoring of population trends is warranted. Shark-inflicted bite wounds were observed in Atlantic spotted dolphin and bottlenose dolphin. Bite wounds of cookie cutter sharks (Isistius sp. were recorded in all three species, and include the first documented record of a cookie cutter shark bite in Atlantic spotted dolphin. This is one of the few studies which investigates the prevalence of injuries in cetaceans in the Caribbean. Further study is necessary to determine to which extent the injuries observed in Aruba affect the health and survival of local populations.

  19. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  20. True subduction vs. underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath Hispaniola, northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes Estrada, P.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Granja Bruna, J.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Flores, C. H.; Villasenor, A.; Pazos, A.; Martin Davila, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) is bounded by a north-verging accretionary prism on its north side and a south-verging thrust belt (Muertos thrust belt) on its south side. This bivergent geometry has been attributed for the last 30 years to opposing subduction of the North American plate and the Caribbean oceanic interior beneath the island arc at the Muertos margin. Recent observations of seafloor and shallow sub-seafloor deformational features at the Muertos compressive margin together with sandbox kinematic and gravity modeling question the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc. To further test the subduction hypothesis, we carried out in 2009 a wide-angle seismic transect across the widest part of the Muertos compressive margin at longitude 69°W. A 2-D forward ray-tracing model of the wide-angle transect outlines the broad-scale crustal structure across the Muertos margin. The Caribbean oceanic slab is imaged beneath the Muertos margin to about 50 km north of the deformation front and down to 19 km depth. A change in crustal p-wave velocity at ~60 km from the deformation front is interpreted as the boundary between the compressive deformed belt and the arc crust. The Caribbean oceanic crust is not seen extending farther north or penetrating the upper mantle. Modeling of ship's gravity data, acquired along the seismic profile, corroborates the seismic results. Any subduction model imply the existence of a regional mass deficit generated by the subducted Caribbean slab beneath the island arc and that variations in the geometry of the subduction angle and the depth are not able to compensate it. Earthquake hypocenter distribution in the Muertos Margin shows diffuse seismicity beneath the island arc, being very hard to identify different clusters and to assign them to different subducted slabs. The diffuse seismicity may be related to the transition between subduction

  1. African dust and the demise of Caribbean Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Smith, Garriet W.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Betzer, Peter; Hayes, Marshall L.; Garrison, Virginia; Barber, Richard T.

    2000-10-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  2. Publishing Ethics and Predatory Practices: A Dilemma for All Stakeholders of Science Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N; Kitas, George D

    2015-08-01

    Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles.

  3. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus (Acari: Anystidae, in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  4. An evaluation of three predatory mite species for the control of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medd, Nathan C; GreatRex, Richard M

    2014-10-01

    Within integrated pest control programmes, the use of high mite inoculations to control hot spots of whitefly is desirable for many growers. In this experiment, two species of predatory mites established as commercial biological control agents, Typhlodromips montdorensis and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae), were compared with another, more recently introduced species, Amblydromalus limonicus, for their ability to control dense populations of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) on cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus). Mite formulation type had a significant effect on the number of mites found on plants, but this did not correspond to increased whitefly control. Plots treated with A. limonicus or T. montdorensis, applied as loose product, had significantly reduced whitefly populations throughout the trial. Analysis showed that no species was observed more often on leaves with higher whitefly densities than on those with lower densities. No species was clearly identified as a suitable candidate for treatment of high-density whitefly colonies, but results suggest the highest level of predation in A. limonicus. Strategies for the effective use of these predatory mite species in control programmes are discussed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Prevalence of sensitization to the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris as a new occupational allergen in horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, G C M; de Graaf in 't Veld, C; vVan Oorschot-van Nes, A J; de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; van Toorenenbergen, A W; Burdorf, A; de Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2002-07-01

    Protection against thrips, a common pest in bell pepper horticulture is effectively possible without pesticides by using the commercially available predatory mite Amblyzeius cucumeris (Ac). The prevalence of sensitization to Ac among exposed greenhouse employees and its clinical relevance was studied. Four hundred and seventytwo employees were asked to fill in a questionnaire and were tested on location. Next to RAST, skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed with common inhalant allergens, the storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tp) which serves as a temporary food source during the cultivation process and Ac. Furthermore, nasal challenge tests with Ac were carried out in 23 sensitized employees. SPTs positive to Ac were found in 109 employees (23%). Work-related symptoms were reported by 76.1%. Sensitization to Tp was found in 62 employees of whom 48 were also sensitized to Ac. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergy to inhalant allergens appeared to be an important risk factor for sensitization to Ac. Employees with rhinitis symptoms showed a significantly higher response to all Ac doses during the nasal challenge test compared with employees without rhinitis symptoms. The predatory mite Ac is a new occupational allergen in horticulture which can cause an IgE-mediated allergy in exposed employees. It is biologically active on the mucous membranes of the nose and therefore clinically relevant for the development of work-related symptoms.

  6. Horizontal transmission of Paranosema locustae (Microsporidia) in grasshopper populations via predatory natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Peng, Shi; Zheng, Xuan; Jia, Wan-Tong; Li, Ao-Mei; Camara, Ibrahima; Chen, Hong-Xing; Tan, Shu-Qian; Liu, Yi-Qing; Ji, Rong

    2018-04-24

    Paranosema locustae Canning, 1953 (Microsporidia) provides effective control of grasshoppers. While horizontal transmission of P. locustae is known to occur, evidence for the mechanisms of such transmission via predatory natural enemies was found. We conducted a three-year laboratory and field study to assess the potential impact of feces both from grasshoppers Locusta migratoria L. and from their natural enemies on the persistence of P. locustae. We found that P. locustae persisted among grasshopper populations in treated areas and in adjacent untreated areas for up to two years, and the density of grasshoppers decreased in both areas. We showed that healthy grasshoppers could be infected by feeding on food contaminated by feces from their natural enemies. Predators of grasshoppers retained a large number of spores acquired from eating grasshoppers infected with P. locustae. Spores in the feces of the main natural enemy, the beetle Pterostichus gebleri Dejean 1828 in treated area showed clear viability. These results demonstrate that predatory natural enemies are important vectors for this microsporidian disease, and suggest that sustainable transmission and continuing population suppression might be achieved by horizontal transmission through natural enemies, which should be maximized to increase the effectiveness of P. locustae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Diversity and Antimicrobial Potential of Predatory Bacteria from the Peruvian Coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Otoya, Luis; Linares-Otoya, Virginia; Armas-Mantilla, Lizbeth; Blanco-Olano, Cyntia; Crüsemann, Max; Ganoza-Yupanqui, Mayar L; Campos-Florian, Julio; König, Gabriele M; Schäberle, Till F

    2017-10-12

    The microbiome of three different sites at the Peruvian Pacific coast was analyzed, revealing a lower bacterial biodiversity at Isla Foca than at Paracas and Manglares, with 89 bacterial genera identified, as compared to 195 and 173 genera, respectively. Only 47 of the bacterial genera identified were common to all three sites. In order to obtain promising strains for the putative production of novel antimicrobials, predatory bacteria were isolated from these sampling sites, using two different bait organisms. Even though the proportion of predatory bacteria was only around 0.5% in the here investigated environmental microbiomes, by this approach in total 138 bacterial strains were isolated as axenic culture. 25% of strains showed antibacterial activity, thereby nine revealed activity against clinically relevant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and three against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains. Phylogeny and physiological characteristics of the active strains were investigated. First insights into the chemical basis of the antibacterial activity indicated the biosynthetic production of the known compounds ariakemicin, kocurin, naphthyridinomycin, pumilacidins, resistomycin, and surfactin. However, most compounds remained elusive until now. Hence, the obtained results implicate that the microbiome present at the various habitats at the Peruvian coastline is a promising source for heterotrophic bacterial strains showing high potential for the biotechnological production of antibiotics.

  8. Responses of predatory invertebrates to seeding density and plant species richness in experimental tallgrass prairie restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Kristine T.; Allen, Craig R.; Danielson, Stephen D.; Helzer, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, agricultural producers and non-governmental organizations have restored thousands of hectares of former cropland in the central United States with native grasses and forbs. However, the ability of these grassland restorations to attract predatory invertebrates has not been well documented, even though predators provide an important ecosystem service to agricultural producers by naturally regulating herbivores. This study assessed the effects of plant richness and seeding density on the richness and abundance of surface-dwelling (ants, ground beetles, and spiders) and aboveground (ladybird beetles) predatory invertebrates. In the spring of 2006, twenty-four 55 m × 55 m-plots were planted to six replicates in each of four treatments: high richness (97 species typically planted by The Nature Conservancy), at low and high seeding densities, and low richness (15 species representing a typical Natural Resources Conservation Service Conservation Reserve Program mix, CP25), at low and high seeding densities. Ants, ground beetles, and spiders were sampled using pitfall traps and ladybird beetles were sampled using sweep netting in 2007–2009. The abundance of ants, ground beetles, and spiders showed no response to seed mix richness or seeding density but there was a significant positive effect of richness on ladybird beetle abundance. Seeding density had a significant positive effect on ground beetle and spider species richness and Shannon–Weaver diversity. These results may be related to differences in the plant species composition and relative amount of grass basal cover among the treatments rather than richness.

  9. The effect of three different predatory ciliate species on activated sludge microfauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Sobczyk, Mateusz; Fiałkowska, Edyta; Kocerba-Soroka, Wioleta; Fyda, Janusz

    2017-04-01

    Bacterivorous ciliates play important roles in the functioning of activated sludge by reducing dispersed bacteria and enhancing flocculation. There are, however, no data on the resistance of this functional group of microorganisms to predation. Our experiment was conducted with activated sludge subsamples subjected to artificially introduced three predatory ciliates species. The two predator species originating from activated sludge were Oxytricha sp. and Spathidium spathula. Dileptus margaritifer was a "foreign" predator species. The latter was introduced to compare its effect with the influence of predators naturally occurring in activated sludge on the ciliates community potentially adapted to certain predation strategies. Results showed that introduction of predatory ciliates into the activated sludge did not significantly change the total abundance of protozoa but rebuilt bacterivorous ciliate communities. Introduced predators significantly affected the most numerous ciliate species from the genera Epistylis and Cyclidium. In the presence of D. margaritifer, the abundance of sessile, colonial ciliates (Epistylis sp.) was significantly lower compared to the control treatment and to the treatments with the other predators. The activated sludge ciliate community was the most affected by the introduction of the "foreign" predator - D. margaritifer, a large ciliate armed with toxicysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Diversity and Antimicrobial Potential of Predatory Bacteria from the Peruvian Coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Linares-Otoya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The microbiome of three different sites at the Peruvian Pacific coast was analyzed, revealing a lower bacterial biodiversity at Isla Foca than at Paracas and Manglares, with 89 bacterial genera identified, as compared to 195 and 173 genera, respectively. Only 47 of the bacterial genera identified were common to all three sites. In order to obtain promising strains for the putative production of novel antimicrobials, predatory bacteria were isolated from these sampling sites, using two different bait organisms. Even though the proportion of predatory bacteria was only around 0.5% in the here investigated environmental microbiomes, by this approach in total 138 bacterial strains were isolated as axenic culture. 25% of strains showed antibacterial activity, thereby nine revealed activity against clinically relevant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and three against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC strains. Phylogeny and physiological characteristics of the active strains were investigated. First insights into the chemical basis of the antibacterial activity indicated the biosynthetic production of the known compounds ariakemicin, kocurin, naphthyridinomycin, pumilacidins, resistomycin, and surfactin. However, most compounds remained elusive until now. Hence, the obtained results implicate that the microbiome present at the various habitats at the Peruvian coastline is a promising source for heterotrophic bacterial strains showing high potential for the biotechnological production of antibiotics.

  11. Caribbean plate tectonics from seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Villasenor, A.

    2012-12-01

    New seismic tomography in the Caribbean shows close links between the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and the geology of the overriding plate. Unlike most oceanic plates, the Caribbean plate lacks identifiable seafloor magnetic anomalies and fracture zones. The plate's history has therefore been inferred primarily from land geology along the plate boundary, which is complicated by large-scale shear deformation, and from finite rotations of surrounding plates.We used more than 14 million arrival times from 300,000 earthquakes to identify P-wave velocity anomalies. We relate the anomalies to the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and to patterns of earthquake activity, volcanism, topographic relief, and tectonic deformation. For example, we detect two separate slabs belonging to the North and South American plates, respectively, which appear to be responsible for morphologic and tectonic differences between the arcs of the Northern (from Guadeloupe northward) and Southern (from Dominica southward) Lesser Antilles. Variations in earthquake activity between Haiti and the Dominican Republic can be explained by a change in slab geometry from an underplated slab beneath Haiti to a subducting slab under the Dominican Republic. A shallow tear in the slab may explain the anomalously deep Puerto Rico Trench and the frequent earthquake swarms there. The westward shift in volcanic activity in the Northern Lesser Antilles from the Miocene Limestone Caribbees to the present arc can be attributed to the limit on convective flow imposed by the 3-D geometry of the slab at depth. A thinned South America slab under the southern Lesser Antilles may result from traction imposed on the slab by a wide forearc wedge. Variations in tectonic deformation of northern South America could be related to the location of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province north of the Maracaibo Block.

  12. Systems Science for Caribbean Health: the development and piloting of a model for guiding policy on diabetes in the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, L.; Guell, C.; Samuels, T.A.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Woodcock, J.; Hambleton, I.R.; Unwin, N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Diabetes is highly prevalent in the Caribbean, associated with a high morbidity and mortality and is a recognised threat to economic and social development. Heads of Government in the Caribbean Community came together in 2007 and declared their commitment to reducing the burden of

  13. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  14. Large Earthquake Potential in the Southeast Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, D.; Mora-Paez, H.; Bilham, R. G.; Lafemina, P.; Mattioli, G. S.; Molnar, P. H.; Audemard, F. A.; Perez, O. J.

    2015-12-01

    The axis of rotation describing relative motion of the Caribbean plate with respect to South America lies in Canada near Hudson's Bay, such that the Caribbean plate moves nearly due east relative to South America [DeMets et al. 2010]. The plate motion is absorbed largely by pure strike slip motion along the El Pilar Fault in northeastern Venezuela, but in northwestern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia, the relative motion is distributed over a wide zone that extends from offshore to the northeasterly trending Mérida Andes, with the resolved component of convergence between the Caribbean and South American plates estimated at ~10 mm/yr. Recent densification of GPS networks through COLOVEN and COCONet including access to private GPS data maintained by Colombia and Venezuela allowed the development of a new GPS velocity field. The velocity field, processed with JPL's GOA 6.2, JPL non-fiducial final orbit and clock products and VMF tropospheric products, includes over 120 continuous and campaign stations. This new velocity field along with enhanced seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake location analysis strongly suggest the existence of an active oblique subduction zone. We have also been able to use broadband data from Venezuela to search slow-slip events as an indicator of an active subduction zone. There are caveats to this hypothesis, however, including the absence of volcanism that is typically concurrent with active subduction zones and a weak historical record of great earthquakes. A single tsunami deposit dated at 1500 years before present has been identified on the southeast Yucatan peninsula. Our simulations indicate its probable origin is within our study area. We present a new GPS-derived velocity field, which has been used to improve a regional block model [based on Mora and LaFemina, 2009-2012] and discuss the earthquake and tsunami hazards implied by this model. Based on the new geodetic constraints and our updated block model, if part of the

  15. Art Music by Caribbean Composers: Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangelhoff, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Jamaica is among the Caribbean islands that Columbus claimed for Spain. In response to its rich diversity of peoples: Europeans, Asians, Chinese, Indians and Africans, the motto of Jamaica is: Out of Many, One People."Jamaican music is as varied as the people who inhabit the island... [M]uch folk music retains features and functions of black African music, blended with elements of European (primarily British music" (Lewin & Gordon, 2007-2011. Jamaican musical genres, such as ska, rocksteady, reggae, and dancehall, are popular and influential internationally.The classical music tradition in Jamaica dates back to the 18th century.

  16. Status and trends of Caribbean coral reefs: 1970-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeremy; Donovan, Mary; Cramer, Katie; Lam, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    vigorously communicate results in simple and straightforward terms to foster more effective conservation and management.This and subsequent reports will focus on separate biogeographic regions in a stepwise fashion and combine all of the results for a global synthesis in the coming years. We began in the wide Caribbean region because the historical data are so extensive and to refine methods of analysis before moving on to other regions. This report documents quantitative trends for Caribbean reef corals, macroalgae, sea urchins, and fishes based on data from 90 reef locations over the past 43 tears. This is the first report to combine all these disparate kinds of data in a single place to explore how the different major components of coral reef ecosystems interact on a broadly regional oceanic scale.We obtained data from more than 35,000 ecological surveys carried out by 78 principal investigators (PIs) and some 200 colleagues working in 34 countries, states, and territories throughout the wide Caribbean region. We conducted two workshops in Panama and Brisbane, Australia to bring together people who provided the data to assist in data quality control, analysis, and synthesis. The first workshop at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in the Republic of Panama 29 April to 5 May, 2012 included scientists from 18 countries and territories to verify and expand the database and to conduct exploratory analyses of status and trends. Preliminary results based on the Panama workshop were presented to the DC Marine Community and Smithsonian Institution Senate of Scientists in May 2012 and at the International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) and annual ICRI meeting in Cairns, Australia in July 2012. The second workshop in Brisbane, Australia in December 2012 brought together eight coral reef scientists for more detailed data analysis and organization of results for this report and subsequent publications. Subsequent presentations to solicit comments while the report was

  17. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  18. Water Security and Services in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cashman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficient management of water resources and services continues to be a concern in many of the small island states of the Caribbean. There are growing concerns over the ability of governments in the region to ensure the good management and provision of water without jeopardizing economic growth and the maintenance of social well-being. This paper provides an overview of the major factors influencing the water security facing the Caribbean Region and how the emerging concerns are being addressed. The key challenges and vulnerabilities may be summarized as lack of data and barriers to making available what information there is. Forward planning has been largely neglected and is symptomatic of a lack of appreciation of the need for having national water policies. In this respect Jamaica’s development of a national master water plan serves as a good example of what is needed. Water service providers have to be efficient, well managed and allowed to do their job. This means that they have to be on a sound financial footing. The challenge is to find the balance between appropriate political and regulatory oversight and the autonomy of water managers and service providers.

  19. 40 CFR 180.1101 - Parasitic (parasitoid) and predatory insects; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parasitic (parasitoid) and predatory... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR... with good agricultural and pest control practices to control insect pests of stored raw whole grains...

  20. How to Recognize and Avoid Potential, Possible, or Probable Predatory Open-Access Publishers, Standalone, and Hijacked Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danevska, Lenche; Spiroski, Mirko; Donev, Doncho; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Polenakovic, Momir

    2016-11-01

    The Internet has enabled an easy method to search through the vast majority of publications and has improved the impact of scholarly journals. However, it can also pose threats to the quality of published articles. New publishers and journals have emerged so-called open-access potential, possible, or probable predatory publishers and journals, and so-called hijacked journals. It was our aim to increase the awareness and warn scholars, especially young researchers, how to recognize these journals and how to avoid submission of their papers to these journals. Review and critical analysis of the relevant published literature, Internet sources and personal experience, thoughts, and observations of the authors. The web blog of Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado, was greatly consulted. Jeffrey Beall is a Denver academic librarian who regularly maintains two lists: the first one, of potential, possible, or probable predatory publishers and the second one, of potential, possible, or probable predatory standalone journals. Aspects related to this topic presented by other authors have been discussed as well. Academics should bear in mind how to differentiate between trustworthy and reliable journals and predatory ones, considering: publication ethics, peer-review process, international academic standards, indexing and abstracting, preservation in digital repositories, metrics, sustainability, etc.

  1. The influence of intraguild competitors on reproductive decisions by two predatory Heteroptera, Orius insidiosus (Anthocoridae) and Nabis americoferus (Nabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between the oviposition site preferences of predators in the face of intraguild competitors has received little attention, but it likely shapes the reproductive ecology of predatory species. In this study, oviposition intensity and the within-plant distribution of Orius insidiosus (...

  2. Pallidus beetle, Delphastus pallidus LeConte (Insecta: Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a native predatory beetle of whitefly species in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetles in the genus Delphastus Casey are small whitefly-specific predatory ladybird beetles belonging to the coccinellid tribe Serangiini. They feed on all immature stages of whitefly and are reared and sold commercially all over the world for this purpose. They are compatible with the application ...

  3. Estimation of Tsunami Risk for the Caribbean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahibo, N.

    2004-05-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsunami low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no tsunami in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the tsunami source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned warning system for the Caribbean Sea. Specially the problem of tsunami risk for Lesser Antilles including Guadeloupe is discussed.

  4. Late neogene history of the Pacific-Caribbean gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G.; Zenker, C.E.; Stone, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Planktic foraminiferal provinces of Caribbean DSDP Hole 502A and East Pacific DSDP Hole 503A have been analyzed and compared with benthic and planktic isotope records, carbonate, hiatus events, and sea level changes. Four major events are evident in the closure history of the Pacific-Caribbean gateway, at 6.2, 4.2, 2.4 and 1.8 Ma. The faunal change at 6.2 Ma coincides with the ??13C shift and is primarily caused by upwelling in the western Caribbean. This suggests restricted circulation of intermediate water and deflection northeastward, strengthening the Gulf Stream as reflected in the first major erosion on Blake Plateau. The second faunal change, at 4.2 Ma, coincides with increased surface water salinity evident in ??18O data and indicates increasingly restricted surface water exchange. Divergence of faunal provinces beginning at 2.4 Ma is marked by increasing abundance of high salinity tolerant species (Globigerinoides ruber) in the Caribbean. This suggests that initial closure of the Pacific-Caribbean gateway and cessation of sustained surface current flow between the Pacific and Caribbean occurred as late as 2.4 Ma. Maximum divergence of faunal provinces begins at 1.8 Ma and continues to the present. This implies that at least incipient littoral-neritic leakage occurred across the Pacific-Caribbean gateway between 2.4 and 1.8 Ma, with final closure by 1.8 Ma. ?? 1989.

  5. Best practices for scholarly authors in the age of predatory journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, J

    2016-02-01

    'Continuous effort, not strength or intelligence, is the key to understanding our potential.' Margaret J Wheatley. The focus of any academic or research author is to share his or her findings, and to gain respect and reward for publishing. The ideal journal is one that not only publishes an article quickly but also helps the author to improve the article before publication through peer review, selects only the best research so that the author's article lies alongside other high quality articles, and provides maximum (and long-term) visibility and access to the article. Unfortunately, in the real world, authors need to make tradeoffs between high quality journals, those that work quickly, those that are willing to accept the article and those that provide the best access. Into this mix has come the potential of open access as a means of increasing visibility: journals publish the article without a subscription barrier so anyone, anywhere, can read the article. However, the growth of open access (pushed by institutions, grant bodies and governments as a means of improving human health and knowledge) has come with some unforeseen consequences. In this article, Jeffrey Beall discusses one recent phenomenon that has arisen from the open access movement: that of 'predatory publishers'. These are individuals or companies that use the open access financial system (author pays, rather than library subscribes) to defraud authors and readers by promising reputable publishing platforms but delivering nothing of the sort. They frequently have imaginary editorial boards, do not operate any peer review or quality control, are unclear about payment requirements and opaque about ownership or location, include plagiarised content and publish whatever somebody will pay them to publish. Predatory publishers generally make false promises to authors and behave unethically. They also undermine the scholarly information and publishing environment with a deluge of poor quality, unchecked

  6. Migration and development in the Caribbean: relating policies and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, R

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the US has feared that political instability in the Caribbean area could be exploited by adversaries; therefore, the US and the nations of the Caribbean share a compelling interest in the region's development. The dramatic increase in legal and illegal immigration to the US from the Caribbean in the last 2 decades has offered an additional human reason for US interest in the region. This migration has also created a new source of dependence and vulnerability for the region. Curtailment of migration would undoubtedly affect the region, and if the effect were social and political instability, then the US would also share those consequences. The 1984 Conference on Migration and Development in the Caribbean held discussions to 1) enhance the benefits of migration to Caribbean development, 2) identify development strategies, policies, and projects that would reduce pressures that have accelerated the rate of international migration, making it less manageable and more costly, and 3) identify ways to reduce dependence on migration by expanding employment and assisting economies in the region to become more self-reliant. The attitudes of both US and Caribbean participants seemed to reflect a considerable degree of ambivalence on the migration issue. The US views itself as "a nation of immigrants" and yet is troubled by the recent large influx of immigrants, particularly illegal migrants and refugees. While Americans recognize that the "brain" reduces the development capacity of developing countries, the US still needs and benefits from young immigrants trained in the sciences, engineering, and computers. Caribbean participants were also ambivalent about immigration. They consider immigration "a way of life" and a "right," but they also recognize that there are significant developmental costs to some types of migration. While many want the US to keep a wide open door to Caribbean immigrants, they are aware that most Caribbean Community (CARICOM

  7. Impact of Eastern Caribbean Circulation Seasonality on two Reef Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, L. M.; Paris, C. B.; Baums, I. B.; Idrisi, N.

    2008-05-01

    The variability of the Caribbean current is under the influence of the fresh water input from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. Sea Surface Salinity maps of the eastern Caribbean show the seasonal extension of the riverine fresh water across the Caribbean basin, from August to December (wet season). The plume is divided into two main cores: one flows into the Caribbean Sea mostly through the Grenada Passage where it merges with the Caribbean Current while the other core is formed further north by advection of the river plume by the North Brazil Current rings. Due to the presence of fresh water the Caribbean Sea mesoscale activity is strongly increased during the wet season. Therefore, both coral reef ecosystems and coastal flows are under the scope of the large scale flow seasonality. The impact of the flow mesoscale seasonality on reef organisms is studied through two reef organisms: (1) Reef-building coral: Genetic analyzes show that populations of the Caribbean reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and eastern Caribbean. Western Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. Using a bio- physical coupled model accounting for larvae life history traits, we verify the plausibility of a present day oceanographic barrier caused by the Caribbean Current seasonal variability in the vicinity of Mona Passage. (2) Grouper: Several grouper species form spawning aggregations at the shelf edge of the US Virgin Islands starting at the end of the wet season in December. Using ADCP current measurements and numerical simulations, unusual large 'dispersion' pulses are shown to be associated with the presence of sub-mesoscale coherent features more likely to be formed during the wet season. Spawning occurring during the dry season (January to April) is mostly tide driven, suggesting a limited dispersal.

  8. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field with Predatory Stress on Functional and Histological Index of Injured-Sciatic Nerve in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasbih-Forosh, Maryam; Zarei, Leila; Saboory, Ehsan; Bahrami-Bukani, Mehran

    2017-04-01

    To assess the effect of combination of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with predatory stress on transected sciatic nerve regeneration in rats. In sham- operated group (SOG) the nerve was manipulated and left intact. The 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap was created in rats. In transected group (Transected) nerve stumps were sutured to adjacent muscle and in vein graft group (VG) the gap was bridged using an inside-out vein graft. In VG/PEMF group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft and the whole body was exposed to PEMF. In VG/PS group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft and the rats underwent predatory stress (PS).  In VG/PEMF/PS group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft, the whole body was exposed to PEMF and the rats underwent predatory stress. The regenerated nerve fibers were studied within 12 weeks after surgery. Functional, gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in VG/PEMF and VG/PEMF/PS groups compared to those in the other groups ( p =0.001). The whole body exposure to PEMF improved functional recovery. Predatory stress did not affect nerve regeneration in the animals undergone predatory stress ( p =0.343). Pulsed electromagnetic fields could be considered as an effective, safe and tolerable treatment for peripheral nerve repair in clinical practice.

  9. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field with Predatory Stress on Functional and Histological Index of Injured-Sciatic Nerve in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasbih -Forosh, Maryam; Zarei, Leila; Saboory, Ehsan; Bahrami-Bukani, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of combination of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with predatory stress on transected sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.  Methods: In sham- operated group (SOG) the nerve was manipulated and left intact. The 10-mm rat sciatic nerve gap was created in rats. In transected group (Transected) nerve stumps were sutured to adjacent muscle and in vein graft group (VG) the gap was bridged using an inside-out vein graft. In VG/PEMF group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft and the whole body was exposed to PEMF. In VG/PS group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft and the rats underwent predatory stress (PS).  In VG/PEMF/PS group the transected nerve was bridged using vein graft, phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft, the whole body was exposed to PEMF and the rats underwent predatory stress. The regenerated nerve fibers were studied within 12 weeks after surgery. Results: Functional, gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in VG/PEMF and VG/PEMF/PS groups compared to those in the other groups (p=0.001). The whole body exposure to PEMF improved functional recovery. Predatory stress did not affect nerve regeneration in the animals undergone predatory stress (p=0.343).  Conclusion: Pulsed electromagnetic fields could be considered as an effective, safe and tolerable treatment for peripheral nerve repair in clinical practice. PMID:28507996

  10. Proximate response of fish, conch, and sea turtles to the presence of the invasive seagrass Halophila stipulacea in Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Bussel, T.; Engel, M.S.; Christianen, M.; Debrot, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this report we examined the proximate response of fish assemblages, queen conch, and sea turtles on H. stipulacea meadows in Lac Bay, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands. Here we primarily focused on the differences between the invasive species H. stipulacea and the principal species of native sea

  11. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  12. Rapid determination of scopolamine in evidence of recreational and predatory use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Mai, Thanh Duc; López, María López; Bartolomé, Carmen; Hauser, Peter C; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, scopolamine has become a drug of common use for recreational and predatory purposes and several ways of administration have been devised. A method for the rapid analysis of suspicious samples was developed, using a portable capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. The method allows the separation of scopolamine from atropine which has a similar structure and is present along with scopolamine in some samples. The method was demonstrated to be useful for the fast analysis of several types of evidential items which have recently been reported to have been abused with fatal consequences or employed for criminal purposes. An infusion of Datura stramonium L., in which scopolamine and atropine naturally coexist, was analyzed for being frequently consumed for recreational purposes. A spiked moisturizing cream and six spiked alcoholic beverages were also analyzed. In spite of the complexity of the specimens, the sample pre-treatment methods developed were simple and fast. © 2013.

  13. Calcium isotopes offer clues on resource partitioning among Cretaceous predatory dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, A; Martin, J E; Amiot, R; Tacail, T; Godet, F Arnaud; Allain, R; Balter, V

    2018-04-11

    Large predators are overabundant in mid-Cretaceous continental dinosaur assemblages of North Africa. Such unbalanced ecosystem structure involves, among predatory dinosaurs, typical abelisaurid or carcharodontosaurid theropods co-occurring with long-snouted spinosaurids of debated ecology. Here, we report calcium (Ca) isotope values from tooth enamel (expressed as δ 44/42 Ca) to investigate resource partitioning in mid-Cretaceous assemblages from Niger (Gadoufaoua) and Morocco (Kem Kem Beds). In both assemblages, spinosaurids display a distinct isotopic signature, the most negative in our dataset. This distinct taxonomic clustering in Ca isotope values observed between spinosaurids and other predators provides unambiguous evidence for niche partitioning at the top of the trophic chains: spinosaurids foraged on aquatic environments while abelisaurid and carcharodontosaurid theropods relied almost exclusively on terrestrial resources. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Wolbachia-mediated parthenogenesis in the predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Thysanoptera: Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, N.; Miyoshi, T.; Noda, H.

    2001-01-01

    Wolbachia are bacterial endosymbionts in arthropods and filarial nematodes. They cause thelytoky, which is a form of parthenogenesis in which females produce females without males, in hymenopteran insects. Infection of this parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia has been restricted to the order Hymenoptera, but was found in another insect order, Thysanoptera. A parthenogenetic colony of a predatory thrips Franklinothrips vespiformis (Aeolothripidae) possessed B-group Wolbachia. Male progeny were produced from this thrips by heat and tetracycline treatments. Males produced motile sperm, which were transferred to the female spermatheca by mating. However, the mating did not affect the sex ratios of the next generation, suggesting that the sperm do not fertilize the eggs. PMID:11375084

  15. The skull of the giant predatory pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni: implications for plesiosaur phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S.; Dyke, Gareth J.

    2008-10-01

    The predatory pliosaurs were among the largest creatures ever to inhabit the oceans, some reaching gigantic proportions greater than 15 m in length. Fossils of this subclade of plesiosaurs are known from sediments all over the world, ranging in age from the Hettangian (approximately 198 Myr) to the Turonian (approximately 92 Myr). However, due to a lack of detailed studies and because only incomplete specimens are usually reported, pliosaur evolution remains poorly understood. In this paper, we describe the three dimensionally preserved skull of the giant Jurassic pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni. The first phylogenetic analysis dedicated to in-group relationships of pliosaurs allows us to hypothesise a number of well-supported lineages that correlate with marine biogeography and the palaeoecology of these reptiles. Rhomaleosaurids comprised a short-lived and early diverging lineage within pliosaurs, whose open-water top-predator niche was filled by other pliosaur taxa by the mid-late Jurassic.

  16. Large predatory coral trout species unlikely to meet increasing energetic demands in a warming ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Johansen, J.L.

    2015-09-08

    Increased ocean temperature due to climate change is raising metabolic demands and energy requirements of marine ectotherms. If productivity of marine systems and fisheries are to persist, individual species must compensate for this demand through increasing energy acquisition or decreasing energy expenditure. Here we reveal that the most important coral reef fishery species in the Indo-west Pacific, the large predatory coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), can behaviourally adjust food intake to maintain body-condition under elevated temperatures, and acclimate over time to consume larger meals. However, these increased energetic demands are unlikely to be met by adequate production at lower trophic levels, as smaller prey species are often the first to decline in response to climate-induced loss of live coral and structural complexity. Consequently, ubiquitous increases in energy consumption due to climate change will increase top-down competition for a dwindling biomass of prey, potentially distorting entire food webs and associated fisheries.

  17. Predatory mites double the economic injury level of Frankliniella occidentalis in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D J

    2016-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) causes bronzing to strawberry fruit. Management of insecticide-resistant strains relies on the integration of predators with carefully timed use of the few insecticides available. Effective management requires better understanding of economic injury levels (EILs) and the factors that affect them. The densities of F. occidentalis and the predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were manipulated in field experiments. All stages of flower and fruit were susceptible to thrips damage, but larvae caused nearly twice as much damage as adults per individual. The EIL was about four adult thrips per flower in the absence of predators, but increased to over eight at densities of N. cucumeris typical of good establishment in crops. The EIL could be increased by about 0.7 adult thrips per flower for every N. cucumeris per flower. The results were supported by measurements of EILs in commercial crops.

  18. Repeated Evolution of Power-Amplified Predatory Strikes in Trap-Jaw Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Hannah M; Parkinson, Dilworth Y; Griswold, Charles E; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Elias, Damian O

    2016-04-25

    Small animals possess intriguing morphological and behavioral traits that allow them to capture prey, including innovative structural mechanisms that produce ballistic movements by amplifying power [1-6]. Power amplification occurs when an organism produces a relatively high power output by releasing slowly stored energy almost instantaneously, resulting in movements that surpass the maximal power output of muscles [7]. For example, trap-jaw, power-amplified mechanisms have been described for several ant genera [5, 8], which have evolved some of the fastest known movements in the animal kingdom [6]. However, power-amplified predatory strikes were not previously known in one of the largest animal classes, the arachnids. Mecysmaucheniidae spiders, which occur only in New Zealand and southern South America, are tiny, cryptic, ground-dwelling spiders that rely on hunting rather than web-building to capture prey [9]. Analysis of high-speed video revealed that power-amplified mechanisms occur in some mecysmaucheniid species, with the fastest species being two orders of magnitude faster than the slowest species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that power-amplified cheliceral strikes have evolved four times independently within the family. Furthermore, we identified morphological innovations that directly relate to cheliceral function: a highly modified carapace in which the cheliceral muscles are oriented horizontally; modification of a cheliceral sclerite to have muscle attachments; and, in the power-amplified species, a thicker clypeus and clypeal apodemes. These structural innovations may have set the stage for the parallel evolution of ballistic predatory strikes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ecological Release from Aquatic Predation Is Associated with the Emergence of Marine Blenny Fishes onto Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Terry J; Summers, Thomas C; Noble, Mae M; Fulton, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    An ecological release from competition or predation is a frequent adaptive explanation for the colonization of novel environments, but empirical data are limited. On the island of Rarotonga, several blenny fish species appear to be in the process of colonizing land. Anecdotal observations have implied that aquatic predation is an important factor in prompting such amphibious fish behavior. We provide evidence supporting this hypothesis by demonstrating that amphibious blennies shift their abundance up and down the shoreline to remain above predatory fishes that periodically move into intertidal areas during high tide. A predation experiment using blenny mimics confirmed a high risk of aquatic predation for blennies, significantly higher than predation experienced on land. These data suggest that predation has played an active role in promoting terrestrial activity in amphibious blennies and provide a rare example of how ecological release from predation could drive the colonization of a novel environment.

  20. Caribbean women: changes in the works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Quiñones-Arocho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The women of Azua: work and family in the rural Dominican Republic, by BARBARA FINLAY. New York: Praeger, 1989. xi + 190 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 The psychosocial development of Puerto Rican women, edited by CYNTHIA T. GARCIA COLL & MARIA DE LOURDES MATTEI. New York: Praeger, 1989. xiii + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Women and the sexual division oflabour in the Caribbean, edited by KEITH HART. Mona, Jamaica: Consortium Graduate School of Social Sciences, UWI, 1989. 141 pp. (Paper n.p. The three books under review work have a common theme: the impact of changing gender expectations on Caribbean women. The authors are mainly concerned with recent political and economie changes that might have contributed to either the improvement or deterioration of women's status in these societies. The questions raised by the contributors are strikingly similar: What has been the impact of dependent economie development on women's lives and has this resulted in increased labor participation (a problem explored for rural Dominican women as well as for Jamaican and Barbadian women or in the migration to metropolitan centers, with its psychosocial consequences (an issue raised for Puerto Rican women living in the United States? If patriarchal values (often referred to as traditional values prevail in these societies, then what impact might wage work, migration, or improved education have on those values? Could it be the disintegration of the nuclear family with an increased proportion of female-headed households (Hart, higher rates of mental illness as a result of dysfunctional aceulturation (Garcia Coll and Mattei, or even an improvement of women's status within their families and communities (Finlay?

  1. Internet and Society in Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research contained in this book is designed to foster discussion about the policies and actions that must be promoted for building an Internet culture in Latin America and the Caribbean based on the principles of social and cultural equity.

  2. 75 FR 65453 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Caribbean Fishery Management Council (Council) and its Administrative Committee will hold meetings. DATES... held at the El Conquistador Resort, 1000 El Conquistador Avenue, Las Croabas, Fajardo, Puerto Rico...

  3. Introduction: Caribbean forest dynamics and regional forestry initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Herein we provide the context within which the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting took place, some background information about the meeting, and a general introduction to this Special Issue focused on that meeting.

  4. 78 FR 59917 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Verdanza Hotel, 8020 Tartak St. Isla Verde, Puerto Rico 00909. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean... participate with oral or written statements regarding agenda issues. Special Accommodations This meeting is...

  5. EPA Efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) program provides environmental tools and information to build the capacity of LAC governments and civil society organizations to reduce environmental degradation and its impacts on public health.

  6. The community diversity of two Caribbean MPAs invaded by lionfish does not support the biotic resistance hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobián-Rojas, Dorka; Schmitter-Soto, Juan J.; Aguilar Betancourt, Consuelo M.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Ruiz-Zárate, Miguel Á.; González-Sansón, Gaspar; Chevalier Monteagudo, Pedro P.; Herrera Pavón, Roberto; García Rodríguez, Alain; Corrada Wong, Raúl I.; Cabrera Guerra, Delmis; Salvat Torres, Héctor; Perera Valderrama, Susana

    2018-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) conserve diversity and abundance of fish communities. According to the biotic resistance hypothesis, communities with higher diversity and abundance should resist invasions better. To test this idea, the presence of lionfish in two Caribbean MPAs was studied: Parque Nacional Guanahacabibes (PNG) in Cuba and Parque Nacional Arrecifes de Xcalak (PNAX) in Mexico. Selection of these MPAs was based on both their different levels of success with enforcement and different abundances of native fish, with a more abundant native fish fauna at PNG. Underwater visual censuses were used to evaluate both the native fish structure and composition and at the same time distribution and abundance of lionfish. The abundance of potential predators on lionfish was also measured to determine possible effects of lionfish on both the abundance and the size of its prey and competitors. Lionfish showed higher abundance and larger size in PNG compared to PNAX, even though its probable competitors and predators were also more abundant and larger in PNG. Prey abundance and size decreased after the invasion. No correlation was detected between potential predators and lionfish, which might indicate natural predation is not substantial. In PNAX, lower abundance of prey, potential competitors and predators can also be attributed to historical overfishing, but this did not provide an advantage to lionfish. Lionfish were less abundant and reached smaller sizes in PNAX compared to PNG. This work confirms the effectiveness of lionfish culling at PNAX, but does not support the biotic resistence hypothesis that native fish might have controlled this invasive species.

  7. A BRIEF HISTORY OF TSUNAMIS IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Lockridge; LowellS. Whiteside; James F. Lander

    2002-01-01

    The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunami...

  8. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  9. Forage fish quality: seasonal lipid dynamics of herring (Clupea harengus L.) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus L.) in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjbek, Maria; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates lipid content and fatty acid composition of two important forage fish, sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Seasonal variation in lipids was studied during three periods following the annual reproductive cycle considering...... potential differences relating to fish size, sex, and reproductive status. The isopod Saduria entomon, being at times an important prey for predatory fish, was included for comparison. In both sprat and herring, lipid content and absolute contents of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) varied...... seasonally with high levelstowards the end of the annual zooplankton production cycle, succeeded by a decline. Lipid content and fatty acid composition differed significantly between sprat and herring. Sprat lipid content was higher than herring, increasing with fish size and characterized by large...

  10. Predation and landscape characteristics independently affect reef fish community organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Adrian C; Hanson, Katharine M; Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Brooks, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Trophic island biogeography theory predicts that the effects of predators on prey diversity are context dependent in heterogeneous landscapes. Specifically, models predict that the positive effect of habitat area on prey diversity should decline in the presence of predators, and that predators should modify the partitioning of alpha and beta diversity across patchy landscapes. However, experimental tests of the predicted context dependency in top-down control remain limited. Using a factorial field experiment we quantify the effects of a focal predatory fish species (grouper) and habitat characteristics (patch size, fragmentation) on the partitioning of diversity and assembly of coral reef fish communities. We found independent effects of groupers and patch characteristics on prey communities. Groupers reduced prey abundance by 50% and gamma diversity by 45%, with a disproportionate removal of rare species relative to common species (64% and 36% reduction, respectively; an oddity effect). Further, there was a 77% reduction in beta diversity. Null model analysis demonstrated that groupers increased the importance of stochastic community assembly relative to patches without groupers. With regard to patch size, larger patches contained more fishes, but a doubling of patch size led to a modest (36%) increase in prey abundance. Patch size had no effect on prey diversity; however, fragmented patches had 50% higher species richness and modified species composition relative to unfragmented patches. Our findings suggest two different pathways (i.e., habitat or predator shifts) by which natural and/or anthropogenic processes can drive variation in fish biodiversity and community assembly.

  11. Fish Tales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-01-01

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  12. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  13. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Ward-Paige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.

  14. Fishing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  15. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  16. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...

  17. Biodiversity assessment of the fishes of Saba Bank atoll, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T Williams

    Full Text Available Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna.Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species.The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites.A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are

  18. Shelters and Their Use by Fishes on Fringing Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Alexandre; Turgeon, Katrine; Roche, Dominique G.; Binning, Sandra A.; Kramer, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    Coral reef fish density and species richness are often higher at sites with more structural complexity. This association may be due to greater availability of shelters, but surprisingly little is known about the size and density of shelters and their use by coral reef fishes. We quantified shelter availability and use by fishes for the first time on a Caribbean coral reef by counting all holes and overhangs with a minimum entrance diameter ≥3 cm in 30 quadrats (25 m2) on two fringing reefs in Barbados. Shelter size was highly variable, ranging from 42 cm3 to over 4,000,000 cm3, with many more small than large shelters. On average, there were 3.8 shelters m−2, with a median volume of 1,200 cm3 and a total volume of 52,000 cm3m−2. The number of fish per occupied shelter ranged from 1 to 35 individual fishes belonging to 66 species, with a median of 1. The proportion of shelters occupied and the number of occupants increased strongly with shelter size. Shelter density and total volume increased with substrate complexity, and this relationship varied among reef zones. The density of shelter-using fish was much more strongly predicted by shelter density and median size than by substrate complexity and increased linearly with shelter density, indicating that shelter availability is a limiting resource for some coral reef fishes. The results demonstrate the importance of large shelters for fish density and support the hypothesis that structural complexity is associated with fish abundance, at least in part, due to its association with shelter availability. This information can help identify critical habitat for coral reef fishes, predict the effects of reductions in structural complexity of natural reefs and improve the design of artificial reefs. PMID:22745664

  19. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  20. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  1. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg -1 day -1 . The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day -1 following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 μg Cu L -1 for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  2. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish ( Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad ( Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine δ13C value, over 8‰ higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean δ13C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The δ13C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for δ13C.

  3. Link between diet and cardiovascular disease in Latin America and the Caribbean using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jennifer; Brevard, Patricia B; Lee, Robert E; Wagner, Tammy

    2009-10-01

    To determine the visual, spatial, and/or statistical relationships between food availability/dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). CVD mortality rates and diet information (the number of kilocalories and amount of alcohol, fats, fish, fruits, meats, sugars, and vegetables available per person daily) were obtained from internationally available databases. The analyses included 32 LAC countries with sufficient data (15 of 47 had been excluded for incomplete data). Pearson's correlations (r) were used to determine relationships between diet and CVD mortality, and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of mortality. ArcGIS version 9.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Redlands, California, United States) was used to construct maps to explore visual relationships between CVD and diet. No relationships were found between CVD and alcohol, fruit, meat, sugar, or vegetable intake. Statistically significant, positive correlations were found between oil-crops (r = 0.680, P = 0.000) and fish and seafood (r = 0.411, P = 0.019) and CVD mortality. Regression analysis revealed that high kilocalorie availability was a predictor of low CVD mortality (P = 0.020). High oil-crop availability was a predictor of high CVD mortality (P = 0.000). Maps constructed show visual relationships between availability of fish and seafood, kilocalories, and oil-crops, and CVD mortality. Fish and seafood, kilocalorie, and oil-crop availability appear to be related to CVD mortality, but further investigation is needed. Associations between diet and CVD mortality create the opportunity to target specific countries for nutrition education and CVD prevention programs.

  4. Analysis of Genetic Variation and Phylogeny of the Predatory Bug, Pilophorus typicus, in Japan using Mitochondrial Gene Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Katsura; Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takuji; Ogawa, Kohei; Minamiya, Yukio; Tomoda, Masafumi; Nakahira, Kengo; Kodama, Rika; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Arakawa, Ryo

    2011-01-01

    Pilophorus typicus (Distant) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a predatory bug occurring in East, Southeast, and South Asia. Because the active stages of P. typicus prey on various agricultural pest insects and mites, this species is a candidate insect as an indigenous natural enemy for use in biological control programs. However, the mass releasing of introduced natural enemies into agricultural fields may incur the risk of affecting the genetic integrity of species through hybridization with a loca...

  5. Latin American and Caribbean Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The new development agendas confirmed in the year 2015 evidence an increased global interest in cities and urban challenges. In Latin America and the Caribbean, cities have long been an established topic of study and debate. This exploration gives a brief overview of current research on urban development in the region and suggests fruitful avenues for future research. Following different ideological trends in twentieth-century urban studies, we currently see more pragmatic frameworks and a belief in technocratic solutions. Some scholars consider Latin American and Caribbean cities to be the world’s new signposts in urban development, given their role as sites of innovations in politics, architecture and urban design; we see potential here for urban scholars of the region to move beyond technocratic language. In addition, we argue for an area studies approach to these cities that uses the framework of the region as a heuristic device to unsettle global urbanist epistemologies that privilege North-to-South mobilities in both policy and theory. Resumen: El desarrollo urbano latinoamericano y caribeñoLas nuevas agendas de desarrollo confirmadas en el año 2015 reflejan un mayor interés mundial en las ciudades y en los retos urbanos. En Latinoamérica y en el Caribe, las ciudades llevan mucho tiempo siendo un tema habitual de estudio y debate. Esta exploración ofrece un resumen breve de las investigaciones actuales sobre desarrollo urbano en la región y sugiere caminos fructíferos para futuras investigaciones. Siguiendo las distintas tendencias ideológicas en los estudios urbanos del siglo XX, actualmente observamos marcos más pragmáticos y una creencia en soluciones tecnocráticas. Algunos investigadores consideran las ciudades latinoamericanas y caribeñas como los nuevos referentes mundiales en desarrollo urbano, dado su papel como centros de innovación en política, arquitectura y diseño urbano; vemos potencial para que los

  6. Fish welfare: Fish capacity to experience pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teleost fish possess similar nociceptive processing systems to those found in terrestrial vertebrates. It means that they react to potential painful stimuli in a similar manner as mammals and birds. However, the welfare of fish has been the focus of less research than that of higher vertebrates. Humans may affect the welfare of fish through fisheries, aquaculture and a number of other activities. There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that fish have the capacity to experience pain because they possess functional nociceptors, endogenous opioids and opioid receptors, brain structures involved in pain processing and pathways leading from nociceptors to higher brain structures. Also, it is well documented that some anaesthetics and analgesics may reduce nociceptive responses in fish. Behavioural indicators in fish such as lip-rubbing and rocking behaviours are the best proof that fish react to potential painful stimuli. This paper is an overview of some scientific evidence on fish capacity to experience pain.

  7. Predatory violence aiming at relief in a case of mass murder: Meloy's criteria for applied forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Frédéric; Audenaert, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Mass murder is the result of the complex interaction of several factors. What seems ubiquitous within mass murder are extreme feelings of anger and revenge. Yet despite these intense affective states, mass murders are, as a rule, not behaviorally impulsive, but rather prepared. The presence of extreme hate and anger evokes an impulsive outburst of rage, whereas planning and premeditation point in the direction of a cognitive, rather unemotional deed. This inconsistency is also reflected in reports of offenders' emotional states during the execution of their crimes: while some mass murderers have been described as calm, focused and emotionless during the events, others have shown signs of hostility, confusion, and distress. Considering mass murder from the perspective of its violence mode might shed some light on its nature and dynamics. With respect to the differentiation between affective and predatory violence, Meloy (1988) developed a model for applied forensic practice. The fully documented case of mass murder discussed in this study contains nine indices of predatory violence and one of affective violence. Furious affects of hate and anger were present but appeared to precede the cold-blooded killings. As a matter of fact, it is argued that the offender carried out the predatory murder in order to alleviate the psychological tension and symptoms generated by these severe ego-dystonic affects. The offender thus didn't seem to strive for narcissistic gratification of omnipotence, but rather seemed to aim to solve a problem. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Predatory functional response and prey choice identify predation differences between native/invasive and parasitised/unparasitised crayfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal R Haddaway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive predators may change the structure of invaded communities through predation and competition with native species. In Europe, the invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is excluding the native white clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study compared the predatory functional responses and prey choice of native and invasive crayfish and measured impacts of parasitism on the predatory strength of the native species. Invasive crayfish showed a higher (>10% prey (Gammarus pulex intake rate than (size matched natives, reflecting a shorter (16% prey handling time. The native crayfish also showed greater selection for crustacean prey over molluscs and bloodworm, whereas the invasive species was a more generalist predator. A. pallipes parasitised by the microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani showed a 30% reduction in prey intake. We suggest that this results from parasite-induced muscle damage, and this is supported by a reduced (38% attack rate and increased (30% prey handling time. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the per capita (i.e., functional response difference between the species may contribute to success of the invader and extinction of the native species, as well as decreased biodiversity and biomass in invaded rivers. In addition, the reduced predatory strength of parasitized natives may impair their competitive abilities, facilitating exclusion by the invader.

  9. Accelerated proteomic visualization of individual predatory venoms of Conus purpurascens reveals separately evolved predation-evoked venom cabals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himaya, S W A; Marí, Frank; Lewis, Richard J

    2018-01-10

    Cone snail venoms have separately evolved for predation and defense. Despite remarkable inter- and intra-species variability, defined sets of synergistic venom peptides (cabals) are considered essential for prey capture by cone snails. To better understand the role of predatory cabals in cone snails, we used a high-throughput proteomic data mining and visualisation approach. Using this approach, the relationship between the predatory venom peptides from nine C. purpurascens was systematically analysed. Surprisingly, potentially synergistic levels of κ-PVIIA and δ-PVIA were only identified in five of nine specimens. In contrast, the remaining four specimens lacked significant levels of these known excitotoxins and instead contained high levels of the muscle nAChR blockers ψ-PIIIE and αA-PIVA. Interestingly, one of nine specimens expressed both cabals, suggesting that these sub-groups might represent inter-breeding sub-species of C. purpurascens. High throughput cluster analysis also revealed these two cabals clustered with distinct groups of venom peptides that are presently uncharacterised. This is the first report showing that the cone snails of the same species can deploy two separate and distinct predatory cabals for prey capture and shows that the cabals deployed by this species can be more complex than presently realized. Our semi-automated proteomic analysis facilitates the deconvolution of complex venoms to identify co-evolved families of peptides and help unravel their evolutionary relationships in complex venoms.

  10. Caribbean Coral Reef, Seagrass and Mangrove Sites (CARICOMP), (NODC Accession 0000501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity (CARICOMP) Program is a Caribbean-wide research and monitoring network of 27 marine laboratories, parks, and reserves in 17...

  11. The Caribbean and the Wild Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Goslinga

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Suriname: a bibliography, 1980-1989. Jo DERKX & IRENE ROLFES. Leiden, the Netherlands: Department of Caribbean Studies, KITLV/Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, 1990. x + 297 pp. (Paper NLG 25.00 La Caraïbe politique et internationale: bibliographie politologique avec références économiques et socio-culturelles. MICHEL L. MARTIN. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1990. xvii + 287 pp. Suriname. ROSEMARIJN HOEFTE. Oxford and Santa Barbara CA: Clio Press, 1990. xxx + 229 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Although in North American academie circles interest in Suriname (or the Wild Coast, as the area was originally called has always been marginal, the same cannot be said for the Dutch, for whom the former colony continues to hold an enduring fascination. Not only have the Dutch studied the country's historical beginnings assiduously, but Suriname's controversial relationship with the former mother country assures it a definite place in contemporary social and political thought.

  12. Energy review 2003 Latin American and Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    To develop this document we have placed our eagerness to present an analysis of the Energy Sector of Latin American and Caribbean, it contains information about the current energy situation of each of our member countries, regional data, as well as economic and social indicators corrected through historical series. The 2003 energy report, presents an innovative structure for analysis that allows the reader to easily find general information on the energy sectors of the 26th OLADE member countries. In addition, the written publications present data from Algeria, an extra regional participant country of the Organization. With the objective of enriching the statistical value that the document have presented since initial editions, this document contains the participation of our technical coordinators in the each of our specialized areas of our organization: energy policy, hydrocarbons, electricity, statistical information, renewable energy and environment. It is likely to emphasize in this occasion, for the first time the energy report is spread into the immediate year subsequent to the one of reference, as it was obtained thanks to the effort of our specialists and the cooperation of our countries members. The modern world presents us with constant changes and challenges for the security of supply that sets dynamic integration within the strategic areas. In this sense, we expect that this document will be a useful tool to face the challenges of the energy sector of our region. (The author)

  13. Baseball and society in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Zimbalist

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Tropic of Baseball: Baseball in the Dominican Republic. Rob Ruck. Westport CT: Meckler, 1991. x + 205 pp. (Cloth n.p. Trading with the Enemy: A Yankee Travels Through Castro's Cuba. Tom Miller. New York: Atheneum, 1992. x + 338 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.00 Read Bart Giamatti's Take Time for Paradise (1989 or any of the other grand old game sentimentalists and you'11 discover that baseball somehow perfectly reflects the temperament of U.S. culture. This match, in turn, accounts for basebali's enduring and penetrating popularity in the United States. Read Ruck and Miller and you'11 learn that baseball is more popular and culturally dominant in the Dominican Republic and Cuba than it is to the north. The suppressed syllogism affirms that U.S. and Caribbean cultures hold intimate similarities. If that is true, this Caribbeanist has been out to lunch; then again, no one ever accused economists of having acute cultural sensibilities.

  14. Tracking the Caribbean sound: three current hits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Bilby

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Zouk: World Music in the West lndies. JOCELYNE GuiLBAULT (with GAGE AVERILL, ÉDOUARD BENOIT & GREGORY RABESS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. xxv + 279 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 27.75 Calypso Calaloo: Early Carnival Music in Trinidad. DONALD R. HlLL. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1993. xvi + 344 pp. and compact disk. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Calypso & Society in Pre-Independence Trinidad. GORDON ROHLEHR. Port of Spain: Gordon Rohlehr, 1990. x + 613 pp. (Paper US$ 40.00 In 1983, from my Hstening post in Cayenne, the southernmost extension of the French Caribbean, I reported that "popular musicians in the Lesser Antilles are in the process of breathing life into new musical varieties blending soka, cadence, and reggae" (Bilby 1985:211. Little did I know that what I was describing was the sudden emergence, at that very moment, of an entirely new music in French Guiana's fellow Départements d'Outre-Mer to the north, Martinique and Guadeloupe. Down in Cayenne, which has always had close ties to the French Antilles, there was a feeling in the air that some fresh and invigorating cultural trend was about to burst forth. Even in the Maroon villages of the French Guianese interior, where I relocated in early 1984, the excitement was palpable.

  15. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  16. Regional diversity of Amphipoda in the Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martín

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The order Amphipoda is one of the most diverse within Peracarids, and comprises 6 950 described marine species. Amphipod research in the Caribbean Sea began in the late 1 800s, but has increased significantly since 1 980. In this study, we analized the amphipod biodiversity (Caprellidea, Gammaridea, Hyperiidea, and Ingolfiellidea of the Caribbean Sea. For this, we compiled available data on species diversity of marine amphipods (data bases: WoRMS and OBIS and published species lists into a comprehensive taxonomic list by country for the ecoregions of the Caribbean. Additionally, we analized the relative contribution of each country to regional diversity and the rate of discovery of new species. The Caribbean amphipod fauna is composed of 535 species within 236 genera and 73 families for the higher taxon. The Western Caribbean ecoregion holds the largest diversity (282 species, while the Eastern Caribbean recorded the lowest one (73. Mexico and Venezuela recorded the largest number of species with 266 and 206, respectively. Twelve countries had less than 50 species. The richest suborder is the Gammaridea with 381 species followed by the suborder Hyperiidea with 116. From the total of 535 amphipod species reported for the Caribbean region, 218 have the Caribbean as the holotype locality, and 132 are endemic (about 25% of the total. Areas of higher diversity seem to be concentrated along the Mexican Caribbean, Cuba and the Northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia; however, such pattern is most likely reflecting local collection efforts and taxonomic expertise rather than actual distribution. Knowledge of amphipod species is mostly limited to shallow, near-shore waters, with little information available on the deep sea fauna. Regional research priorities for this group should be focused on completing shallow water coastal inventories of species in Central America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In addition, sampling the deep sea

  17. An Historical and Contemporary Overview of Gendered Caribbean Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sharla Blank

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a broad overview of historical and contemporary gender and social class relations in the British, French, and Spanish Caribbean islands focusing primarily on Afro-Caribbean people. It begins with a discussion of gendered relations during slavery and then investigates gender roles post emancipation. Next, multiple aspects of contemporary West Indian family life are addressed including the prevalence of matrifocal households and child shifting. The important roles played by Caribbean female household heads are discussed in the context of patriarchy. Highlights include the significance of the maternal role over the marital, socializing youth, particular negative expectations each sex holds of the other, customary sexual behavior, as well as common relationship types. Varying aspects of women’s behavior according to social class is touched upon followed by a brief synopsis of the status of Caribbean women on measures of educational and work force participation rates; finally, a summary of the dearth of active women’s movements in the region is addressed. The paper provides an introduction to the intimate and working lives of Caribbean women and men.

  18. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.

  19. Insights Into Caribbean Lithospheric Structure From S Wave Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, M.; Pavlis, G. L.

    2007-12-01

    BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) was aimed at investigating the interplay between the lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle of the Caribbean and the South America plates. The oblique collision of the Caribbean plate migrating eastwards has created a complicated deformation zone with strike-slip, compressional and extensional structures along the Caribbean and South America boundary. Earlier results with P receiver functions revealed strong variations in crustal thickness ranging from 15 km beneath the Caribbean Sea to 55 km beneath Venezuela. However, one of the fundamental questions not yet resolved concerns the thickness of the lithosphere in this region. Using the S wave receiver function technique, we analyzed seismograms from some 100 events at epicentral distances of 55-125 degree. The seismograms were rotated and deconvolved to isolate S-to-P conversions from the incident S wave. These were subsequently stacked after their respective conversion points and mapped into the subsurface. A strong negative phase is associated with the S-to-P conversion from the base of the lithosphere. Analysis of these data is ongoing, but we expect to see large variation in lithospheric thickness as the BOLIVAR array spans the transition from the Caribbean with OBS stations to the interior of South America (Guyana Shield).

  20. A quasi-decadal cycle in Caribbean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2009-07-01

    Climatic variables in the period from 1951 to 2000 are analyzed across the tropics from the East Pacific to Africa. A quasi-decadal mode is isolated using singular value decomposition (SVD) applied to monthly smoothed and detrended rainfall, sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP), and 200 hPa zonal (U) wind anomalies. Seven- to 10-year cycles in Caribbean rainfall are revealed as the dominant mode (50% variance) and are found to be related to a mode of tropical variability that is distinct from previously known global signals. Sources of this signal include east Atlantic SST and the northern subtropical ridge, which modulate upwelling off Venezuela. SVD analysis of daily rainfall suggests interaction between annual and quasi-decadal signals, with northern summer convection as a driver. The second mode of Caribbean rainfall variability derives from the east Pacific El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, 21% variance) that is expressed as an east-west dipole of convection across the Caribbean. Composite analysis of rainfall for high and low phases of the quasi-decadal cycle reveals a corresponding signal that extends from the eastern Pacific Ocean across the Caribbean and West Africa to India. The southern Hadley cell spins up during wet phase, and the ITCZ migrates northward. This hemispheric-scale anomaly brings pulses of convection to the Caribbean. Impacts of the quasi-decadal cycle on socioeconomic resources are investigated.

  1. Dog Food Consumption in the Caribbean: A Baseline Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dogs in the Caribbean have been traditionally viewed as low maintenance pets which are fed leftovers from the household. Changes in the lifestyle of Caribbean families have resulted in changes in their eating patterns. These changes can be expected to have consequences for the feeding of dogs, which may require households to switch to commercial dog food. This paper reports the finding of a survey of groups involved with pets and animal welfare in the Caribbean conducted on behalf of the Pet Food Institute, a non-profit industry association. The study examined perspectives on how dogs are fed in the Caribbean and activities conducted to educate pet owners and the public. Use of household scraps and commercial dog food was associated with household income, except in the case of some high income dependent territories. The findings indicate that while many animal welfare groups in the Caribbean provide educational programs, not all of these provide recommendations on feeding pets and so they neglect to provide information on an important aspect of animal welfare.

  2. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Eulaers, Igor [Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jaspers, Veerle L.B., E-mail: veerle.jaspers@ntnu.no [Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); WWF-Pakistan, Ferozpur Road, PO Box 5180, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Frantz, Adrien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPEC, Paris 7, CNRS, INRA, IRD, Institut d' Ecologie et des Sciences de l' Environnement de Paris, F-75005 Paris (France); Ambus, Per Lennart [Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, 1350 København K (Denmark); Covaci, Adrian [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE: 0.11–2163 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT: 0.36–345 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02–34 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.), ∑ PCBs (0.03–16 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01–0.13 ng g{sup −} {sup 1} dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p′-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑ PCBs and ∑ DDTs were significantly different among species (both p < 0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p < 0.03). Only ∑ PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p < 0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) differed significantly (all p < 0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p = 0.22 for δ{sup 13}C; p = 0.50 for δ{sup 15}N). Concentrations of ∑ PCBs, ∑ DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p = 0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p < 0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ{sup 13}C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of

  3. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L.B.; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Frantz, Adrien; Ambus, Per Lennart; Covaci, Adrian; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE: 0.11–2163 ng g − 1 dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p′-DDT: 0.36–345 ng g − 1 dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02–34 ng g − 1 dry wt.), ∑ PCBs (0.03–16 ng g − 1 dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01–0.13 ng g − 1 dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p′-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑ PCBs and ∑ DDTs were significantly different among species (both p < 0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p < 0.03). Only ∑ PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p < 0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) differed significantly (all p < 0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p = 0.22 for δ 13 C; p = 0.50 for δ 15 N). Concentrations of ∑ PCBs, ∑ DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p = 0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p < 0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ 13 C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of contributing factors responsible for OC contamination differences in

  4. Traces (ichnospecies Oichnus paraboloides of predatory gastropods on bivalve shells from the Seogwipo Formation, Jejudo, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal-Yong Kong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Circular to subcircular drill holes were identified on the bivalve shells collected from the Seogwipo Formation, Jejudo, Korea. A great majority of the drill holes (>70% were found on the surfaces of a bivalve species Glycymeris rotunda. They are characterized by a beveled sharp edge and paraboloid in cross section with larger outer borehole diameter (OBD; mean 4.21 mm and smaller inner borehole diameter (mean 2.94 mm. Walls of the drill holes are generally smooth, and walls ornamented with etched relief-like structures were also recognized. A slightly raised central boss observed in an incomplete specimen may indicate a failure of predator’s attack. All drill holes collected are classified as a single ichnospecies Oichnus paraboloides Bromley, 1981. They are interpreted as boring traces produced by predatory gastropods, particularly naticid gastropods. Most O. paraboloides boreholes are observed in the central area of shell surfaces; a few boreholes lie marginally, which may reflect a borehole-site selectivity. No correlation between size of prey (shell height and size of predator (OBD is recognized. It is likely, however, that drilled shells of about 30 mm in height represent optimal prey size for naticid predators that lived in a benthic Seogwipo community.

  5. Aphid secondary symbionts do not affect prey attractiveness to two species of predatory lady beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kovacs

    Full Text Available Heritable symbionts have been found to mediate interactions between host species and their natural enemies in a variety of organisms. Aphids, their facultative symbionts, and their potential fitness effects have been particularly well-studied. For example, the aphid facultative symbiont Regiella can protect its host from infection from a fungal pathogen, and aphids with Hamiltonella are less likely to be parasitized by parasitic wasps. Recent work has also found there to be negative fitness effects for the larvae of two species of aphidophagous lady beetles that consumed aphids with facultative symbionts. In both species, larvae that consumed aphids with secondary symbionts were significantly less likely to survive to adulthood. In this study we tested whether adult Harmonia axyridis and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles avoided aphids with symbionts in a series of choice experiments. Adults of both lady beetle species were as likely to choose aphids with symbionts as those without, despite the potential negative fitness effects associated with consuming aphids with facultative symbionts. This may suggest that under natural conditions aphid secondary symbionts are not a significant source of selection for predatory lady beetles.

  6. Aphid secondary symbionts do not affect prey attractiveness to two species of predatory lady beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Candice; Voisin, Dené; Wolf, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Heritable symbionts have been found to mediate interactions between host species and their natural enemies in a variety of organisms. Aphids, their facultative symbionts, and their potential fitness effects have been particularly well-studied. For example, the aphid facultative symbiont Regiella can protect its host from infection from a fungal pathogen, and aphids with Hamiltonella are less likely to be parasitized by parasitic wasps. Recent work has also found there to be negative fitness effects for the larvae of two species of aphidophagous lady beetles that consumed aphids with facultative symbionts. In both species, larvae that consumed aphids with secondary symbionts were significantly less likely to survive to adulthood. In this study we tested whether adult Harmonia axyridis and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles avoided aphids with symbionts in a series of choice experiments. Adults of both lady beetle species were as likely to choose aphids with symbionts as those without, despite the potential negative fitness effects associated with consuming aphids with facultative symbionts. This may suggest that under natural conditions aphid secondary symbionts are not a significant source of selection for predatory lady beetles. PMID:28880922

  7. Survey of Predatory Coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Chitral District, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Inamullah; Din, Sadrud; Khan Khalil, Said; Ather Rafi, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    An extensive survey of predatory Coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was conducted in the Chitral District, Pakistan, over a period of 7 months (April through October, 2001). A total of 2600 specimens of Coccinellids were collected from 12 different localities having altitudes from 1219.40–2651.63 m. Twelve different species belonging to 9 genera of 3 tribes and 2 sub-families were recorded. Two sub-families, viz, Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807 and Chilocorinae Mulsant, 1846 were identified. The following 8 species belonged to family Coccinellinae Latreille 1807 and tribe Coccinellini Latreille 1807: Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758, Hippodamia (Adonia) variegata Goeze, 1777, Calvia punctata (Mulsant, 1846), Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758),Adalia tetraspilota (Hope, 1831), Aiolocaria hexaspilota Hope 1851, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri Mader, 1930,Oenopia conglobata Linnaeus, 1758. Only one species namely Halyzia tschitscherini Semenov, 1965 represented tribe Psylloborini of the sub-family Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807. Three species occurred from sub-family Chilocorinae Mulsant 1846 and tribe Chilocorini Mulsant 1846: Chilocorus rubidus Hope, 1831, Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyllenhal, 1808), Priscibrumus uropygialis (Mulsant, 1853). From the aforementioned species 6 were recorded for the first time from Pakistan: Chilocorus circumdatus, Calvia punctata, Adalia bipunctata, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri, Priscibrumus uropygialis, and Oenopia conglobata. PMID:20334592

  8. Combined Venom Gland Transcriptomic and Venom Peptidomic Analysis of the Predatory Ant Odontomachus monticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kazuma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae have adapted to many different environments and have become some of the most prolific and successful insects. To date, 13,258 ant species have been reported. They have been classified into 333 genera and 17 subfamilies. Except for a few Formicinae, Dolichoderinae, and members of other subfamilies, most ant species have a sting with venom. The venoms are composed of formic acid, alkaloids, hydrocarbons, amines, peptides, and proteins. Unlike the venoms of other animals such as snakes and spiders, ant venoms have seldom been analyzed comprehensively, and their compositions are not yet completely known. In this study, we used both transcriptomic and peptidomic analyses to study the composition of the venom produced by the predatory ant species Odontomachus monticola. The transcriptome analysis yielded 49,639 contigs, of which 92 encoded toxin-like peptides and proteins with 18,106,338 mapped reads. We identified six pilosulin-like peptides by transcriptomic analysis in the venom gland. Further, we found intact pilosulin-like peptide 1 and truncated pilosulin-like peptides 2 and 3 by peptidomic analysis in the venom. Our findings related to ant venom peptides and proteins may lead the way towards development and application of novel pharmaceutical and biopesticidal resources.

  9. Aphid secondary symbionts do not affect prey attractiveness to two species of predatory lady beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Jennifer L; Wolf, Candice; Voisin, Dené; Wolf, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Heritable symbionts have been found to mediate interactions between host species and their natural enemies in a variety of organisms. Aphids, their facultative symbionts, and their potential fitness effects have been particularly well-studied. For example, the aphid facultative symbiont Regiella can protect its host from infection from a fungal pathogen, and aphids with Hamiltonella are less likely to be parasitized by parasitic wasps. Recent work has also found there to be negative fitness effects for the larvae of two species of aphidophagous lady beetles that consumed aphids with facultative symbionts. In both species, larvae that consumed aphids with secondary symbionts were significantly less likely to survive to adulthood. In this study we tested whether adult Harmonia axyridis and Hippodamia convergens lady beetles avoided aphids with symbionts in a series of choice experiments. Adults of both lady beetle species were as likely to choose aphids with symbionts as those without, despite the potential negative fitness effects associated with consuming aphids with facultative symbionts. This may suggest that under natural conditions aphid secondary symbionts are not a significant source of selection for predatory lady beetles.

  10. A case of cellulitis of the hands caused by a predatory bird attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Adil Abbas; Farid, Mohammed; Sobani, Zain A; Ali, Syed Nadir; Malick, Huzaifa; Baqir, Maryam; Sharif, Hasanat; Beg, M Asim

    2011-01-01

    Many species have been drastically affected by rapid urbanization. Harris's hawks from their natural habitat of open spaces and a supply of rodents, lizards and other small prey have been forced to change their natural environment adapting to living in open spaces in sub- and peri-urban areas. Specific areas include playgrounds, parks and school courtyards. The migration of this predatory species into these areas poses a risk to individuals, and especially the children are often attacked by claws, talons and beaks intentionally or as collateral damage while attacking rodent prey. In addition, the diverse micro-organisms harbored in the beaks and talons can result in wound infections, presenting a challenge to clinical management. Here we would like to present a case of an 80-year-old man with cellulitis of both hands after sustaining minor injuries from the talons of a Harris's hawk and review the management options. We would also like to draw attention to the matter that, even though previously a rarity, more cases of injuries caused by birds of prey may be seen in hospital settings. PMID:23569751

  11. Increasing temperature decreases the predatory effect of the intertidal shanny Lipophrys pholis on an amphipod prey

    KAUST Repository

    South, J.

    2017-11-15

    Interactions between Lipophrys pholis and its amphipod prey Echinogammarus marinus were used to investigate the effect of changing water temperatures, comparing current and predicted mean summer temperatures. Contrary to expectations, predator attack rates significantly decreased with increasing temperature. Handling times were significantly longer at 19° C than at 17 and 15° C and the maximum feeding estimate was significantly lower at 19° C than at 17° C. Functional-response type changed from a destabilizing type II to the more stabilizing type III with a temperature increase to 19° C. This suggests that a temperature increase can mediate refuge for prey at low densities. Predatory pressure by teleosts may be dampened by a large increase in temperature (here from 15 to 19° C), but a short-term and smaller temperature increase (to 17° C) may increase destabilizing resource consumption due to high maximum feeding rates; this has implications for the stability of important intertidal ecosystems during warming events.

  12. A case of cellulitis of the hands caused by a predatory bird attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Adil Abbas; Farid, Mohammed; Sobani, Zain A; Ali, Syed Nadir; Malick, Huzaifa; Baqir, Maryam; Sharif, Hasanat; Beg, M Asim

    2011-04-01

    Many species have been drastically affected by rapid urbanization. Harris's hawks from their natural habitat of open spaces and a supply of rodents, lizards and other small prey have been forced to change their natural environment adapting to living in open spaces in sub- and peri-urban areas. Specific areas include playgrounds, parks and school courtyards. The migration of this predatory species into these areas poses a risk to individuals, and especially the children are often attacked by claws, talons and beaks intentionally or as collateral damage while attacking rodent prey. In addition, the diverse micro-organisms harbored in the beaks and talons can result in wound infections, presenting a challenge to clinical management. Here we would like to present a case of an 80-year-old man with cellulitis of both hands after sustaining minor injuries from the talons of a Harris's hawk and review the management options. We would also like to draw attention to the matter that, even though previously a rarity, more cases of injuries caused by birds of prey may be seen in hospital settings.

  13. Locomotion speeds from trackways: Predatory dinosaurs moved faster than herbivorous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2014-03-01

    Fossilized trackways from dinosaurs leaves evidence of their locomotion from the stride length S and foot length F which yields the leg length L. From studies of living animals, it is known that a walking animal has a relative stride length RSL (= S/L) less than 2 and a running animal has a RSL greater than 2. A statistical analysis was performed of trackways associated with three groups of herbivorous dinosaurs: sauropods (N = 23), the armored ankylosaurs and stegosaurs (N = 10), and the unarmored ornithopods (N = 23) as well as the predatory theropods (N = 35). The average RSL of the sauropods and the armored dinosaurs were both 0.9 +/- 0.3. The ornithopods had an average RSL of 1.2 +/- 0.2. None of the trackways associated with herbivorous dinosaurs have an RSL greater than 1.5, indicating that they were all walking. The theropods showed the fastest and most varied locomomtion: their highest average RSL was 1.8 +/- 0.7. Nine of the theropod trackways had an RSL greater than 2.0, indicating that the dinosaurs were running when they made those trackways. One of the theropod trackways had an RSL of 4.5, indicating that it was running very fast compared to its body length.

  14. A new North American therizinosaurid and the role of herbivory in 'predatory' dinosaur evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Gillette, David D; Albright, L Barry; Titus, Alan L

    2009-10-07

    Historically, ecomorphological inferences regarding theropod (i.e. 'predatory') dinosaurs were guided by an assumption that they were singularly hypercarnivorous. A recent plethora of maniraptoran discoveries has produced evidence challenging this notion. Here, we report on a new species of maniraptoran theropod, Nothronychus graffami sp. nov. Relative completeness of this specimen permits a phylogenetic reassessment of Therizinosauria-the theropod clade exhibiting the most substantial anatomical evidence of herbivory. In the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of the clade conducted to date, we recover Therizinosauria as the basalmost maniraptoran lineage. Using concentrated changes tests, we present evidence for correlated character evolution among herbivorous and hypercarnivorous taxa and propose ecomorphological indicators for future interpretations of diet among maniraptoran clades. Maximum parsimony optimizations of character evolution within our study indicate an ancestral origin for dietary plasticity and facultative herbivory (omnivory) within the clade. These findings suggest that hypercarnivory in paravian dinosaurs is a secondarily derived dietary specialization and provide a potential mechanism for the invasion of novel morpho- and ecospace early in coelurosaurian evolution-the loss of obligate carnivory and origin of dietary opportunism.

  15. The use of artificial crabs for testing predatory behavior and health in the octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, Piero; Andrews, Paul; Salemme, Marinella; Ponte, Giovanna; Fiorito, Graziano

    2014-01-01

    The willingness of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris to attack a live crab is traditionally used as a method to assess the overall health and welfare of octopuses in the laboratory. This method requires placing a crab in the home tank of an animal, measuring the time (latency) taken for the octopus to initiate an attack and withdrawing the crab immediately prior to capture. The same crab is commonly used to assess multiple octopuses as part of daily welfare assessment. Growing concern for the welfare of crustaceans and a review of all laboratory practices for the care and welfare of cephalopods following the inclusion of this taxon in 2010/63/EU prompted a study of the utility of an artificial crab to replace a live crab in the assessment of octopus health. On consecutive days O. vulgaris (N=21) were presented with a live, a dead or an artificial crab, and the latency to attack measured. Despite differences in the predatory performance towards the three different crab alternatives, octopuses readily attacked the artificial (and the dead) crab, showing that they can generalize and respond appropriately towards artificial prey. Researchers should consider using an artificial crab to replace the use of a live crab as part of the routine health assessment of O. vulgaris.

  16. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  17. Recent progress on our understanding of the biological effects of mercury in fish and wildlife in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, Anton; Braune, Birgit; Chan, Hing Man; Frouin, Héloïse; Krey, Anke; Letcher, Robert; Loseto, Lisa; Noël, Marie; Ostertag, Sonja; Ross, Peter; Wayland, Mark

    2015-03-15

    This review summarizes our current state of knowledge regarding the potential biological effects of mercury (Hg) exposure on fish and wildlife in the Canadian Arctic. Although Hg in most freshwater fish from northern Canada was not sufficiently elevated to be of concern, a few lakes in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut contained fish of certain species (e.g. northern pike, Arctic char) whose muscle Hg concentrations exceeded an estimated threshold range (0.5-1.0 μg g(-1) wet weight) within which adverse biological effects begin to occur. Marine fish species generally had substantially lower Hg concentrations than freshwater fish; but the Greenland shark, a long-lived predatory species, had mean muscle Hg concentrations exceeding the threshold range for possible effects on health or reproduction. An examination of recent egg Hg concentrations for marine birds from the Canadian Arctic indicated that mean Hg concentration in ivory gulls from Seymour Island fell within the threshold range associated with adverse effects on reproduction in birds. Mercury concentrations in brain tissue of beluga whales and polar bears were generally lower than levels associated with neurotoxicity in mammals, but were sometimes high enough to cause subtle neurochemical changes that can precede overt neurotoxicity. Harbour seals from western Hudson Bay had elevated mean liver Hg concentrations along with comparatively high muscle Hg concentrations indicating potential health effects from methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on this subpopulation. Because current information is generally insufficient to determine with confidence whether Hg exposure is impacting the health of specific fish or wildlife populations in the Canadian Arctic, biological effects studies should comprise a major focus of future Hg research in the Canadian Arctic. Additionally, studies on cellular interactions between Hg and selenium (Se) are required to better account for potential protective effects of Se on Hg

  18. Differential Responses of Two Ecologically Similar Case-Bearing Caddisfly Species to a Fish Chemical Cue: Implications for a Coexistence Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Jun-Ichi; Tayasu, Ichiro; Nakano, Shin-Ichi; Okuda, Noboru

    2017-12-01

    The mechanisms for the coexistence of multiple species occupying the same ecological niche are often puzzling. Predator effects on competitively superior species is one possible mechanism. In this study, we tested whether the presence of size-selective predators (fishes) acts as a mechanism for the coexistence of two species of case-bearing caddisfly larvae, Perissoneura paradoxa and Psilotreta kisoensis (Odontoceridae, Trichoptera). The larvae of these two species have similar ecological and life history traits except their body size, and they have been found to coexist only in habitats shared with predatory fishes. Experiments on intra and interspecific competition revealed that the larger Pe. paradoxa always outcompeted the smaller Ps. kisoensis in the absence of predatory fishes, suggesting that Pe. paradoxa performed intra-guild predation on Ps. kisoensis. We also conducted experiments to examine how strongly each of these species responded in terms of case repair with/without a predator chemical cue after their cases were partly dismantled. Perissoneura paradoxa exhibited a stronger case repair response in the presence of a predator chemical cue than that exhibited by Ps. kisoensis, suggesting that Pe. paradoxa is more vulnerable to fish predation, probably because their body size is in the preferred prey range of fishes. We suggest that the presence of predators works in the favor of smaller, subordinate species through size-selective predator effects, enabling these two competitive species to coexist in the same habitat.

  19. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  20. Observations on the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Leon, R.; Esteban, N.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Records of whale sharks in the Caribbean are relatively sparse. Here we document 24 records of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus Smith 1882) for the Dutch Caribbean, four for the windward islands of Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Maarten, and twenty for the southern Caribbean leeward islands of Aruba,

  1. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  2. Communication from the Information Sharing Working Group: Agreement for Data Sharing Among Caribbean Foresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Saara DeWalt; François Korysko; Guy Van Laere; Kasey Jacobs; Seth Panka; Joseph Torres

    2016-01-01

    We presented a new information-sharing platform at the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting in August 2013 to facilitate and promote collaboration among Caribbean foresters. The platform can be accessed through the Caribbean Foresters website where information and data on forest research sites can be shared. There is a special focus on identifying potential collaborations...

  3. Gospel Film/Video in the Caribbean - Reading The Grace Thrillers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academics have written about Caribbean film and about film in the Caribbean. There is acknowledgment that the film industry in the Hispanophone and Francophone region has a relatively rich tradition. Anglophone Caribbean film culture is however not as pronounced. Academics have already begun to consider films from ...

  4. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  5. Afro-Caribbean International Students' Ethnic Identity Development: Fluidity, Intersectionality, Agency, and Performativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Zaria T.; Mendoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean international students (ACIS) often become engrossed in a complex racial and ethnic dialogue wherein they are thrust into homogenous categorizations forcing them to negotiate their Afro-Caribbean self with other identities perceived by others such as African American, first- and second-generation Caribbean immigrant, African, and…

  6. 78 FR 48654 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ...: Participants will present summary data and will discuss data needs and treatments. Although non-emergency... the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine... of SEDAR 35 data webinar for Caribbean Red Hind. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessment of the Caribbean...

  7. Fish under exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Planas, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish

  8. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  9. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  10. Religious Involvement among Caribbean Blacks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Joe, Sean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined demographic and denominational differences in religious involvement (i.e., organizational, non-organizational, subjective) among Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) residing in the U.S. using data from the National Survey of American Life. Caribbean Blacks who were born in the U.S. had lower levels of religious involvement than those who immigrated and respondents originating from Haiti (as compared to Jamaica) had higher levels of religious involvement, while persons from Trinidad-Tobago reported lower service attendance than did Jamaicans. Older persons, women and married persons generally demonstrated greater religious involvement than their counterparts, while highly educated respondents expressed lower levels of self-rated religiosity. Denominational differences indicated that Baptists reported high levels of religious involvement; however, in several cases, Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists reported greater involvement. PMID:21927509

  11. Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.

    1997-01-01

    Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs

  12. Cholera in Haiti and other Caribbean regions, 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Deborah; Szabo, Victoria

    2011-11-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833-1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850-1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865-1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands.

  13. Art at the crossroads: Francisco Oller and Caribbean art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Manthorne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Edward J. Sullivan, From San Juan to Paris and Back: Francisco Oller and Caribbean Art in the Era of Impressionism: Francisco Oller (1833-1917 was a Puerto Rican born artist who helped shape the visual production of the Caribbean in the second half of the nineteenth century. He enjoyed a reputation on both sides of the Atlantic, both at home and in Europe, where he spent twenty years. This book fills provides a much-needed analysis of the achievement of Oller, who has received little scholarly attention in the past thirty years. In six chapters that analyze major artworks and themes in Oller’s oeuvre, this book recasts the artist as a key figure in nineteenth century art and sheds new light on his contribution to a uniquely Caribbean aesthetic.

  14. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  15. What's hot about mercury? Examining the influence of climate on mercury levels in Ontario top predator fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miranda M; Lopez, Lianna; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Sharma, Sapna

    2018-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in Ontario top predator fishes have been increasing in recent decades. These increases may be a result of many additive factors, including global climate change. Only recently has research been conducted on how climate change may impact Hg levels in freshwater fishes at large-scales. We examined the relationship between Hg trends and (1) local weather, (2) large-scale climate drivers, and (3) anthropogenic Hg emissions, in native cool water (walleye and northern pike) and warm water (smallmouth bass and largemouth bass) predatory fishes in Ontario, Canada, for historical (1970-1992) and recent (1993-2014) time periods. For each fish species studied, > 25% of Ontario's secondary watersheds shifted from historically declining to recently increasing fish Hg trends, and ≥ 50% of watersheds experienced increasing trends between 1993 and 2014. Recent fish Hg increased at up to 0.20µg/g/decade; which were significant (p climate drivers, and anthropogenic Hg emissions influencing fish Hg levels. Recent Hg levels for walleye and largemouth bass increased with changes in global climate drivers, while higher precipitation influenced smallmouth bass Hg levels the most. Walleye Hg levels increased during the positive phases of global climate drivers, reflecting the local influence of local temperatures and precipitation indirectly. Differentiating the effects of climate-related parameters and emissions is increasingly crucial to assess how changing multiple environmental stressors may impact health of wildlife and humans consuming fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Focused study of interweaving hazards across the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, John J.; Mattioli, Glen S.; Calais, Eric; Carlson, David; Dixon, Timothy H.; Jackson, Michael E.; Kursinski, E. Robert; Mora-Paez, Hector; Miller, M. Meghan; Pandya, Rajul; Robertson, Richard; Wang, Guoquan

    2012-02-01

    The Caribbean is a region of lush vegetation, beaches, active volcanoes, and significant mountain ranges, all of which create a natural aesthetic that is recognized globally. Yet these very same features, molded through geological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes, also pose natural hazards for the developing countries in the Caribbean. The rise in population density, migration to coastal areas, and substandard building practices, combined with the threat of natural hazards, put the region's human population at risk for particularly devastating disasters. These demographic and social characteristics exist against a backdrop of the threat of an evolving climate, which produces a more vigorous hurricane environment and a rising average sea level.

  17. Fish barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Mats

    1992-11-01

    In addition to literature reviews laboratory experiments with both strobe light and different kinds of sound stimuli were carried out. In the experiments silver eel, brown trout, arctic char and salmon smolts were tested. The experiments showed that in darkness silver eel avoided strobe light with intensities between 0.4 and 8.7 lux with 80-90% avoidance in 8.7 lux. The avoidance reactions decreased when background light was raised to 9 lux. Brown trout did not show as strong avoidance reactions possibly due to aggressive behaviour between different individuals of brown trout. The avoidance reaction was however more pronounced in dim background lift with an intensity of 5 lux than in darkness. The experiments also showed that the avoidance reactions started within a few seconds after exposure to strobe light. The frequencies 6.0 and 15 Hz were more effective as triggers of avoidance reactions than were the frequencies 2.1 and 160 Hz. Arctic char did not show any avoidance reactions to strobe light. It was actually attracted to strobe light with the frequency 160 Hz in total darkness and indifferent in dim background light 10 lux. Experiments in running water also showed that salmon smolts could be diverted from an area exposed to strobe light with the frequency 15.0 Hz. The effect was more pronounced in darkness than in dim background light and also more pronounced when water current was 20 cm/s than when it was 40 or 60 cm/s. Experiments to test the avoidance reactions to sound was also performed. The evaluation of these results where however complicated by the fact that the fishes swam rapidly to and fro in the experimental chamber and thus by pure chance very frequently were close to the sound generator

  18. Trends in marine debris in the U.S. Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, 1996-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; Rugg, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Marine debris is a widespread and globally recognized problem. Sound information is necessary to understand the extent of the problem and to inform resource managers and policy makers about potential mitigation strategies. Although there are many short-term studies on marine debris, a longer-term perspective and the ability to compare among regions has heretofore been missing in the U.S. Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. We used data from a national beach monitoring program to evaluate and compare amounts, composition, and trends of indicator marine debris in the U.S. Caribbean (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and the Gulf of Mexico from 1996 to 2003. Indicator items provided a standardized set that all surveys collected; each was assigned a probable source: ocean-based, land-based, or general-source. Probable ocean-based debris was related to activities such as recreational boating/fishing, commercial fishing and activities on oil/gas platforms. Probable land-based debris was related to land-based recreation and sewer systems. General-source debris represented plastic items that can come from either ocean- or land-based sources; these items were plastic bags, strapping bands, and plastic bottles (excluding motor oil containers). Debris loads were similar between the U.S. Caribbean and the western Gulf of Mexico; however, debris composition on U.S. Caribbean beaches was dominated by land-based indicators while the western Gulf of Mexico was dominated by ocean-based indicators. Beaches along the eastern Gulf of Mexico had the lowest counts of debris; composition was dominated by land-based indicators, similar to that found for the U.S. Caribbean. Debris loads on beaches in the Gulf of Mexico are likely affected by Gulf circulation patterns, reducing loads in the eastern Gulf and increasing loads in the western Gulf. Over the seven years of monitoring, we found a large linear decrease in total indicator debris, as well as all source categories, for the U

  19. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people.

  20. Anatomical stomach description of dog fish, Hydrolycus armatus (Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841, (Teleostei: Cynodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolycus armatus (dog fish is a Teleostei of Cynodontidae Family that forms a distinct group of Neotropical Characiformes. This species is a predator, pelagic, freshwater and carnivorous and ichthyophagic feeding habits. Biological studies on fish are important in fishery, already that they are used as parameters to keep the exploitation to sustainable levels. This study aimed to describe the stomach anatomy of H. armatus, in order to generate basic information of this body of this vertebrate. We used ten (10 specimens of H. armatus, from the Teles Pires, city of Carlinda-MT, being this dissected and analyzed. The stomach of saccular format presented the regions cardial, pyloric and fundic, last being this last larger than the others. The anatomical features presented by the liver and stomach of H. armatus confirmed the relationship between the anatomy of these organs and their feeding habits being these, therefore, characteristics of predatory species, carnivorous and preferably ichthyophagics.