WorldWideScience

Sample records for cargo

  1. The Cargo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas; Charlton, Michael F.; Biggs, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The Gresham ship was carrying a substantial cargo of different metals when she sank, representing a considerable financial loss. Reports record that some of that material recovered in 1846 included 2700 tin ingots, lead pigs and iron bars (British Archaeological Association, 1847, 361......). The excavations in 2003–4 found a further three stamped lead ingots, five tin ingots and 42 iron bars from the hull area of the ship. The size of the original cargo remains unknown, though the estimated capacity of the ship, perhaps some 150 tons, provides an indication. In this chapter, the assemblage of lead...... and tin ingots and the bar iron will be described, the production processes established and the innovative analytical evidence for the provenance of the metals discussed. The research presented here suggests that lead ingots were from Derbyshire, the tin from Cornwall, but the bar iron seems...

  2. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  3. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154.534 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps and...

  4. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  5. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  6. Air Cargo Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-30

    security identification display areas ( SIDAs ). This effectively elevates the required security measures for these cargo handling areas and requires...monitoring. Additional technologies, such as computer algorithms for highlighting potential threat objects, may also be considered to aid human observers

  7. Cargo Data Management Demonstration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    Delays in receipt and creation of cargo documents are a problem in international trade. The work described demonstrates some of the advantages and capabilities of a computer-based cargo data management system. A demonstration system for data manageme...

  8. Large Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-20

    FS ( ’ ’ \\ F4 f 1 NOTE: Fx , F2, F3, F^ - 15 Long Tons Minimum for ANSI MH 5.1.1. Figure 6, Externally...the various modes. The containerized cargo may be palletized or in unit loads. Existing facili- ties permit the makeup and simulation of most...on ramp. Loading dock on railcar truck/tractor Rail train makeup Switch engine Railway Loading dock to Forklift, MHE Ramp truck Loading dock to

  9. Cargo-cult training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João

    2009-12-01

    Richard Feynman, in one of his famous rants, evoked as a metaphor what he called "cargo-cult science". During the Second World War, the indigenous people of the South Pacific became accustomed to US Air Force planes landing on their islands, invariably bringing a profusion of desirable goods and tasty foods. When the war ended, they were distressed by the discontinuation of this popular service. So, they decided to take action. They cleared elongated patches of land to make them look like runways. They lit wood fires where they had seen electric floodlights guiding in the planes. They built a wooden shack and made a man sit inside with two halves of a coconut on each ear and bamboo bars sticking out like antennas: he was the "air controller". And they waited for the planes to return.

  10. Cargo recognition and cargo-mediated regulation of unconventional myosins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Li, Jianchao; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-10-21

    Organized motions are hallmarks of living organisms. Such motions range from collective cell movements during development and muscle contractions at the macroscopic scale all the way down to cellular cargo (e.g., various biomolecules and organelles) transportation and mechanoforce sensing at more microscopic scales. Energy required for these biological motions is almost invariably provided by cellular chemical fuels in the form of nucleotide triphosphate. Biological systems have designed a group of nanoscale engines, known as molecular motors, to convert cellular chemical fuels into mechanical energy. Molecular motors come in various forms including cytoskeleton motors (myosin, kinesin, and dynein), nucleic-acid-based motors, cellular membrane-based rotary motors, and so on. The main focus of this Account is one subfamily of actin filament-based motors called unconventional myosins (other than muscle myosin II, the remaining myosins are collectively referred to as unconventional myosins). In general, myosins can use ATP to fuel two types of mechanomotions: dynamic tethering actin filaments with various cellular compartments or structures and actin filament-based intracellular transport. In contrast to rich knowledge accumulated over many decades on ATP hydrolyzing motor heads and their interactions with actin filaments, how various myosins recognize their specific cargoes and whether and how cargoes can in return regulate functions of motors are less understood. Nonetheless, a series of biochemical and structural investigations in the past few years, including works from our own laboratory, begin to shed lights on these latter questions. Some myosins (e.g., myosin-VI) can function both as cellular transporters and as mechanical tethers. To function as a processive transporter, myosins need to form dimers or multimers. To be a mechanical tether, a monomeric myosin is sufficient. It has been shown for myosin-VI that its cellular cargo proteins can play critical roles

  11. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20 °C...

  12. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each... process for the vessel. (b) The master shall make sure that the following information for cargoes other... of these two tables. (2) The name of the cargo prescribed in the letter authorizing carriage of the...

  13. Characterizing Density and Complexity of Imported Cargos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, Nathaniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    X-ray inspection systems are used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, system imaging capabilities and the characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project involved calculation of the modulation transfer function as a metric of system imaging performance and a study of the density and inhomogeneity of imported cargos, which have been shown to correlate with human analysts, threat detection performance.

  14. Understanding X-ray cargo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gongyin

    2005-01-01

    Cargo imaging is the field of imaging large objects, usually cargo containers, trains, trucks or boats. Transmission imaging with photons, especially X-rays of up to 9 MV is the dominant current technique, providing compelling details of the contents of objects this large. This paper discusses the physics aspects of a good X-ray cargo imaging system. The basic performance requirements, such as penetration, contrast and resolution and the components of a cargo imaging system are introduced. The imaging process is divided in this paper into three stages: forming information (probing the object), recording information and presenting information (image display). Their impact on performance is analyzed

  15. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump unit. 64.89 Section 64.89 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.89 Cargo pump unit. (a) A cargo pump unit that fills or...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c) The...

  16. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of...

  17. 33 CFR 105.265 - Security measures for handling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES Facility Security Requirements § 105.265 Security... to do so, routinely check cargo, cargo transport units, and cargo storage areas within the facility..., containers, or other cargo transport units entering the facility match the delivery note or equivalent cargo...

  18. 46 CFR 154.235 - Cargo tank location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank location. 154.235 Section 154.235 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Survival Capability and Cargo Tank Location § 154.235 Cargo tank location. (a) For type IG hulls, cargo...

  19. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from the...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with inert gas and air. (13) A description of hull and cargo tank temperature monitoring systems. (14... vaporization system. (v) Gas main system. (vi) Cargo tank or compressor relief system and blocked liquid or gas relief system. (vii) Inerting system. (viii) Boil-off gas compressor or reliquefaction system. (ix) Gas...

  1. Unmanned Cargo Aircraft : From Anywhere to Everywhere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerkens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    While unmanned aircraft have been in use for decades, their suitability for transporting cargo is only now slowly being recognised. The first prototypes of unmanned cargo aircraft (UCA) are currently being tested. There are two categories of UCA: short-distance aircraft for delivering packages and

  2. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... mitigate the consequences of vessel cargo loss. This rulemaking promotes the Coast Guard's maritime safety... Transportation's Maritime Administration MSC Maritime Safety Committee MISLE Marine Information for Safety and... History Improperly secured maritime cargo threatens the safety of life, property, and the environment...

  3. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Chain Management Professionals, Express Delivery and Logistics Association, International Air Transport... diverse needs of the air cargo supply chain. TSA Response: The 9/11 Act required the Secretary of Homeland... allows industry participants to conduct screening at stages earlier within the cargo supply chain and off...

  4. 46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo...

  5. 46 CFR 153.282 - Cargo filling lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.282 Cargo filling lines. The discharge point of a cargo tank...

  6. 46 CFR 153.316 - Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.316 Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. When Table 1...

  7. Cargo-mix optimization in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario; Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva

    ’ utilization.The more containers a vessel carries the smaller is the resulting CO2 emissions per transported tonof cargo. This is what can be seen as a win-win situation. Better vessel utilization will result bothin cleaner transport and in better revenue margins for the shippers. Focus on vessel intake...... maximization is old news for liner shippers. Container vessels are deliveredwith a nominal capacity that ship owners know is only theoretical. Unless the cargo weightdistribution is perfect, the nominal intake cannot be reached. Stowage coordinators fight this battleeveryday. They are the planners of the cargo...... and have to find a load configuration (stowage plan)that both suits the current cargo to be loaded but also guarantees that the vessel can be utilizedto its maximum in future ports. The size of nowadays vessels is, however, making this work harderand harder (Pacino et al. (2011)). Moreover, the cargo...

  8. Safety of Cargo Aircraft Handling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hlavatý

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to get acquainted with the ways how to improve the safety management system during cargo aircraft handling. The first chapter is dedicated to general information about air cargo transportation. This includes the history or types of cargo aircraft handling, but also the means of handling. The second part is focused on detailed description of cargo aircraft handling, including a description of activities that are performed before and after handling. The following part of this paper covers a theoretical interpretation of safety, safety indicators and legislative provisions related to the safety of cargo aircraft handling. The fourth part of this paper analyzes the fault trees of events which might occur during handling. The factors found by this analysis are compared with safety reports of FedEx. Based on the comparison, there is a proposal on how to improve the safety management in this transportation company.

  9. Characterizing the composition of molecular motors on moving axonal cargo using "cargo mapping" analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Sylvia; Campbell, George E; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Encalada, Sandra E

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms by which molecular motors coordinate their activities to transport vesicular cargoes within neurons requires the quantitative analysis of motor/cargo associations at the single vesicle level. The goal of this protocol is to use quantitative fluorescence microscopy to correlate ("map") the position and directionality of movement of live cargo to the composition and relative amounts of motors associated with the same cargo. "Cargo mapping" consists of live imaging of fluorescently labeled cargoes moving in axons cultured on microfluidic devices, followed by chemical fixation during recording of live movement, and subsequent immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the exact same axonal regions with antibodies against motors. Colocalization between cargoes and their associated motors is assessed by assigning sub-pixel position coordinates to motor and cargo channels, by fitting Gaussian functions to the diffraction-limited point spread functions representing individual fluorescent point sources. Fixed cargo and motor images are subsequently superimposed to plots of cargo movement, to "map" them to their tracked trajectories. The strength of this protocol is the combination of live and IF data to record both the transport of vesicular cargoes in live cells and to determine the motors associated to these exact same vesicles. This technique overcomes previous challenges that use biochemical methods to determine the average motor composition of purified heterogeneous bulk vesicle populations, as these methods do not reveal compositions on single moving cargoes. Furthermore, this protocol can be adapted for the analysis of other transport and/or trafficking pathways in other cell types to correlate the movement of individual intracellular structures with their protein composition. Limitations of this protocol are the relatively low throughput due to low transfection efficiencies of cultured primary neurons and a limited field of view available for

  10. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  11. Molecular Signatures Underlying Synaptic Vesicle Cargo Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yasunori; Takamori, Shigeo

    2018-01-01

    Efficient retrieval of the synaptic vesicle (SV) membrane from the presynaptic plasma membrane, a process called endocytosis, is crucial for the fidelity of neurotransmission, particularly during sustained neural activity. Although multiple modes of endocytosis have been identified, it is clear that the efficient retrieval of the major SV cargos into newly formed SVs during any of these modes is fundamental for synaptic transmission. It is currently believed that SVs are eventually reformed via a clathrin-dependent pathway. Various adaptor proteins recognize SV cargos and link them to clathrin, ensuring the efficient retrieval of the cargos into newly formed SVs. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the molecular signatures within individual SV cargos that underlie efficient retrieval into SV membranes, as well as discuss possible contributions of the mechanisms under physiological conditions. PMID:29379416

  12. Military Airlift: The Joint Cargo Aircraft Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knight, William

    2007-01-01

    Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) is a joint acquisition program between the Army and the Air Force designed to procure a commercial off-the-shelf aircraft, capable of meeting Army requirements for "direct support" to maneuver units...

  13. Military Airlift: The Joint Cargo Aircraft Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hess, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Joint Cargo Aircraft (JCA) is a joint acquisition program between the Army and Air Force intended to procure a commercial off-the-shelf aircraft capable of meeting Army and Air Force requirements for intra-theater airlift...

  14. 76 FR 53080 - Air Cargo Screening; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ...: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments; correction. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is correcting the Air Cargo Screening final rule published in the... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Transportation Security Administration 49 CFR Parts 1515, 1520...

  15. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen [Pinole, CA

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  16. Linking molecular motors to membrane cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmanova, Anna; Hammer, John A

    2010-08-01

    Three types of motors, myosins, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, cooperate to transport intracellular membrane organelles. Transport of each cargo is determined by recruitment of specific sets of motors and their regulation. Targeting of motors to membranes often depends on the formation of large multiprotein assemblies and can be influenced by membrane lipid composition. Motor activity can be regulated by cargo-induced conformational changes such as unfolding or dimerization. The architecture and function of motor: cargo complexes can also be controlled by phosphorylation, calcium signaling, and proteolysis. The complexity of transport systems is further increased by mechanical and functional cross-talk between different types of motors on the same cargo and by participation of the same motor in the movement of different organelles. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C is...

  18. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... and list the various degrees of segregation required. Paragraphs and (2) of this section explain the...

  19. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room must have a discharge pressure gauge outside the pumproom. ...

  20. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the pump...

  1. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of Shipping...

  2. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and followed...

  3. 46 CFR 153.977 - Supervision of cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of cargo transfer. 153.977 Section 153.977 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.977 Supervision of cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall: (a...

  4. Linking molecular motors to membrane cargo

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmanova, Anna; Hammer, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Three types of motors, myosins, kinesins and cytoplasmic dynein, cooperate to transport intracellular membrane organelles. Transport of each cargo is determined by recruitment of specific sets of motors and their regulation. Targeting of motors to membranes often depends on the formation of large multiprotein assemblies and can be influenced by membrane lipid composition. Motor activity can be regulated by cargo-induced conformational changes such as unfolding or dimerization. The architectur...

  5. Specialization and Flexibility in Port Cargo Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkı KİŞİ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cargo handling appears to be the fundamental function of ports. In this context, the question of type of equipment and capacity rate need to be tackled with respect to cargo handling principles. The purpose of this study is to discuss the types of equipment to be used in ports, relating the matter to costs and capacity. The question is studied with a basic economic theoretical approach. Various conditions like port location, size, resources, cargo traffic, ships, etc. are given parameters to dictate the type and specification of the cargo handling equipment. Besides, a simple approach in the context of cost capacity relation can be useful in deciding whether to use specialized or flexible equipment. Port equipment is sometimes expected to be flexible to handle various types of cargo as many as possible and sometimes to be specialized to handle one specific type of cargo. The cases that might be suitable for those alternatives are discussed from an economic point of view in this article. Consequently, effectiveness and efficiency criteria play important roles in determining the handling equipment in ports.

  6. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  7. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, K.D.; Scherrer, C.; Smith, L.E.; Chilton, L.K.; Anderson, K.K.; Ressler, J.J.; Trease, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  8. Optimization of the air cargo supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez Bernal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate and optimize the various operations within the air cargo chain. It pursues to improve the efficiency of the air cargo supply chain and to provide more information to the decision-makers to optimize their fields.Design/methodology/approach: The method used is a process simulation modelling software, WITNESS, which provides information to the decision-makers about the most relevant parameters subject to optimization. The input for the simulation is obtained from a qualitative analysis of the air cargo supply chain with the involved agents and from a study of the external trade by air mode, given that their behaviour depend on the location. The case study is focused on a particular location, the Case of Zaragoza Airport (Spain.Findings: This paper demonstrates that efficiency of the air cargo supply chain can increase by leveraging several parameters such as bottlenecks, resources or warehouses.Originality/value: It explores the use of a simulation modeling software originally intended for manufacturing processes and extended to support decision making processes in the area of air cargo.

  9. Cargo-mix optimization in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario; Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva

    International transportation constitutes one of the biggest challenges in limiting CO2 emission in theworld: it is technically hard to find viable alternatives to fossil fuels, and due to the internationalnature, it is very difficult to regulate CO2 emission of intercontinental trade. Moreover......’ utilization.The more containers a vessel carries the smaller is the resulting CO2 emissions per transported tonof cargo. This is what can be seen as a win-win situation. Better vessel utilization will result bothin cleaner transport and in better revenue margins for the shippers. Focus on vessel intake...... composition available in the different portsmight not be suitable for the full utilization of the vessel. The focus of our work is the analysis ofvessels’ cargo-mix, in particular finding what cargo composition is needed for a vessel to maximizeits utilization on a given service. Such a model can have various...

  10. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    We present a Dantzig-Wolfe procedure for the ship scheduling problem with flexible cargo sizes. This problem is similar to the well-known pickup and delivery problem with time windows, but the cargo sizes are defined by intervals instead of by fixed values. The flexible cargo sizes have consequen......We present a Dantzig-Wolfe procedure for the ship scheduling problem with flexible cargo sizes. This problem is similar to the well-known pickup and delivery problem with time windows, but the cargo sizes are defined by intervals instead of by fixed values. The flexible cargo sizes have...

  11. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangxing; Martz, Harry; Glenn, Steven; Divin, Charles; Birrer, Nat

    2016-01-01

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  12. Port Security: Container Cargo Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladivoj Vlaković

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available illicittrafficking of threat materials, especially explosives, chemicalsubstances and radioactive or nuclear material. The transportof the threat materials by using sea routes is an advantageto te"orists especially because of the possible use of ship containers.The container is the basis of world trade. It is assumed thatthe world total movement in containers is about 200 millionTEUs ("20-foot equivalent units" per year. The list of materialstransported by containers which should be subject to inspectionwith the aim of reducing the acts of te"orism includes explosives,narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicalsand radioactive materials.Of special interest is nuclear te"orism. The risk of nuclearte"orism carried out by sub-national groups should be considerednot only in the construction and/or use of nuclear device,but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urbanareas.The system of ship containers control is an essential componentof «smart border» concept. Modem personnel, parcel,vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imagingtechniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques.The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays(300 keV or more or gamma-rays from radioactive sources(137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV that producea high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately,this information is "non-specific" in that it gives no informationon the nature of objects that do not match_ the travel documentsand are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographicpicture. Moreover, there are regions of the containerwherex and gamma-ray systems are "blind" due to the high averageatomic number of the objects i"adiated that appear asblack spots in the radiographic image.The systems being developed are based on the use of fast, 14Me V, neutrons with detection of associated a-particle from nuclearreactionbywhichneutrons are produced (d+t>a+n.Jnsuch a way the possibility to

  13. 46 CFR 153.283 - Valving for cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.283 Valving for cargo piping. (a) Except as described in this...

  14. Marine cargo imports and forest pest introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch

    2009-01-01

    A major pathway for the introduction of nonindigenous forest pests is accidental transport on cargo imported from overseas. Diseases may be brought into the United States via commercial trade of nursery stock or other live plant material, as has been suggested for Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death (Ivors and others 2006). Insects may...

  15. Molecular approach to intracellular cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2010-03-01

    Landmark discoveries in the study of cytoplasmic motors have been made through advances in single molecule biophysics and detailed mechanistic models exist for kinesin and dynein. However, the function of motors in physiological conditions has not been carefully tested. In cells, more than few dyneins can attach to the same cargo and interact with the opposite polarity motors of kinesin. To study the molecular crosstalk between the motors, we have used intraflagellar transport (IFT) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system. Ultrahigh spatio-temporal tracking of single cargo movement showed that IFT particles move for long distances unidirectionally with 8 nm increments, agreeing with measured step sizes of kinesin and dynein. To measure how many motors transport each cargo, we have linked large polystyrene beads to internal IFT particles through a transmembrane protein. Force measurements indicated that, on average, 3-4 motors transport cargoes in each direction. The results showed that IFT motors are tightly coordinated and might be involved in recycling each other to the appropriate end of the flagellum.

  16. Linking molecular motors to membrane cargo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); J.A. Hammer (John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThree types of motors, myosins, kinesins, and cytoplasmic dynein, cooperate to transport intracellular membrane organelles. Transport of each cargo is determined by recruitment of specific sets of motors and their regulation. Targeting of motors to membranes often depends on the

  17. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____ to...

  18. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... electronic cargo information pursuant to the Trade Act, and has implemented this authority in 19 CFR 122.48a... pilot participants of a subset of mandatory advance electronic information for air cargo. CBP regulations implementing the Trade Act of 2002 require advance information for air cargo to be submitted no...

  19. 14 CFR 205.8 - Cargo liability disclosure statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo liability disclosure statement. 205.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.8 Cargo liability disclosure statement. Every direct U.S. or foreign air carrier providing air cargo service in air transportation shall...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., compressors, and compressor motors. (2) Gas-dangerous cargo control spaces. (3) Other spaces containing cargo... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in... ventilation system, is posted outside of each space under paragraph (a) of this section. (c) The master shall...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1828 - Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. 154.1828 Section... Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. (a) No person may enter a cargo handling space without the... toxic vapors and has an oxygen concentration of at least 19.5 percent oxygen by volume; or (2) Those...

  2. 46 CFR 154.560 - Cargo hose: Prototype test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Prototype test. 154.560 Section 154.560... Hose § 154.560 Cargo hose: Prototype test. (a) Each cargo hose must be of a type that passes a prototype test at a pressure of at least five times its maximum working pressure at or below the minimum...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1816 - Cargo location plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo location plan. 154.1816 Section 154.1816 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1816 Cargo location plan. The master shall ensure that: (a) A cargo location plan is prepared that gives: (1) The location and...

  4. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed spaces...

  5. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast system...

  6. 19 CFR 4.34 - Prematurely discharged, overcarried, and undelivered cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... forwarding cargo. When it is desired that prematurely landed cargo, overcarried cargo, or cargo so stowed as... substitute traveling manifest for the prematurely landed or overcarried cargo being forwarded as residue... forwarding is made on the Cargo Declaration, the new substitute traveling manifest shall be stamped to show...

  7. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  8. Cargo transportation by airships: A systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. J.; Dalton, C.

    1976-01-01

    A systems engineering study of a lighter than air airship transportation system was conducted. The feasibility of the use of airships in hauling cargo was demonstrated. Social, legal, environmental and political factors were considered as well as the technical factors necessary to design an effective airship transportation system. In order to accomplish an effective airship transportation program two phases of implementation were recommended. Phase I would involve a fleet of rigid airships of 3.5 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying 25 tons of cargo internal to the helium-filled gas bag. The Phase I fleet would demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of modern-day airships while providing a training capability for the construction and operation of larger airships. The Phase II portion would be a fleet of rigid airships of 12 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying a cargo of 100 tons a distance of 2,000 miles at a cruising speed of 60 mph. An economic analysis is given for a variety of missions for both Phase I and Phase II airships.

  9. Sorting of cargos between axons and dendrites: modelling of differences in cargo transport in these two types of neurites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A V

    2014-05-01

    Explaining how intracellular cargos are sorted between axons and dendrites is important for a mechanistic understanding of what happens in many neurodegenerative disorders. A simple model of cargo sorting relies on differences in microtubule (MT) orientation between axons and dendrites: in mammalian neurons all MTs in axons have their plus ends directed outward while in proximal regions of dendrites the MT polarity is mixed. It can therefore be assumed that cargos that need to be driven into axons associate with kinesin motors while cargos that need to be driven into dendrites associate with dynein motors. This paper develops equations of cargo transport in axons and dendrites based on the above assumptions. Propagation of a pulse of radiolabelled cargos entering an axon and dendrite is simulated. The model equations are solved utilising the Laplace transform method. Differences in cargo transport between axons and dendrites are discussed.

  10. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  11. Cargo distributions differentiate pathological axonal transport impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cassie S; Lee, Robert H

    2012-05-07

    Axonal transport is an essential process in neurons, analogous to shipping goods, by which energetic and cellular building supplies are carried downstream (anterogradely) and wastes are carried upstream (retrogradely) by molecular motors, which act as cargo porters. Impairments in axonal transport have been linked to devastating and often lethal neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's. Axonal transport impairment types include a decrease in available motors for cargo transport (motor depletion), the presence of defective or non-functional motors (motor dilution), and the presence of increased or larger cargos (protein aggregation). An impediment to potential treatment identification has been the inability to determine what type(s) of axonal transport impairment candidates that could be present in a given disease. In this study, we utilize a computational model and common axonal transport experimental metrics to reveal the axonal transport impairment general characteristics or "signatures" that result from three general defect types of motor depletion, motor dilution, and protein aggregation. Our results not only provide a means to discern these general impairments types, they also reveal key dynamic and emergent features of axonal transport, which potentially underlie multiple impairment types. The identified characteristics, as well as the analytical method, can be used to help elucidate the axonal transport impairments observed in experimental and clinical data. For example, using the model-predicted defect signatures, we identify the defect candidates, which are most likely to be responsible for the axonal transport impairments in the G93A SOD1 mouse model of ALS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  13. The carriage of dangerous and nuclear cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    In an area of real public concern it is regrettable that the applicable principles of legal liability at common law are not certain nor readily adaptable to admittedly remarkable technological change. Whilst the ever-flexible principle of negligence suggests a way forward, in the case of totally destructive cargoes or where evidence of fault may be scarce, principles of strict liability find a necessary operation. This is the approach reflected in the international codes referred to, especially in the area of uranium-related activities which Australia has not yet adopted

  14. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or carry other cargoes in a cargo containment system of a U.S. flag ship endorsed to carry sulfuric acid... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. 153.1052...

  15. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    We present a Dantzig-Wolfe procedure for the ship scheduling problem with flexible cargo sizes. This problem is similar to the well-known pickup and delivery problem with time windows, but the cargo sizes are defined by an interval instead of a fixed value. We show that the introduction of flexible...

  16. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment. ...

  17. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward cargo...

  18. 19 CFR 4.33 - Diversion of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Substitution of ports of discharge on manifest. After entry, the Cargo Declaration, Customs Form 1302, of a... Declaration, under oath, covering the cargo, which it is desired to divert, is furnished in support of the... purposes; and (3) The certified traveling manifest is not altered or added to in any way by the master...

  19. Basic mechanisms for recognition and transport of synaptic cargos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Schlager (Max); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSynaptic cargo trafficking is essential for synapse formation, function and plasticity. In order to transport synaptic cargo, such as synaptic vesicle precursors, mitochondria, neurotransmitter receptors and signaling proteins to their site of action, neurons make use of molecular motor

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... gauge pressure exceeding 4 pounds per square inch, or where air or water pressure is used to discharge... cargo tanks shall be designed for a pressure not less than the vapor pressure, in pounds per square inch gauge, of the lading at 115 °F, or the maximum air or water pressure used to discharge the cargo...

  1. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., cargoes carried under pressure shall have restricted gauging devices designed so that the maximum bleed... (protected), electronic probe, magnetic, differential pressure cell. (d) Isolated or indirect. A gauging... shall be designed for the pressure and temperature of the cargo in accordance with the requirements of...

  2. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section, when Table 1 refers to this section, the containment system must meet the following... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440...

  3. 33 CFR 157.19 - Cargo tank arrangement and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.19 Cargo tank arrangement and size. (a) This... of connection to the tank served to prevent oil outflow in the event of damage to the piping; and (2... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tank arrangement and size...

  4. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation... cargo tank that is discharging crude oil; or (b) Any other means accepted by the Commandant that... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor...

  5. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo tank drainage. Each cargo tank must be designed for longitudinal and transverse drainage of crude oil to allow...

  6. Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, J. M.; Henderson, R. D.; Macey, F. C.; Tuttle, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Air containerization is discussed in terms of lower freight rates, size and pallet limitations, refrigeration, backhaul of empties, and ownership. It is concluded that there is a need for an advance air cargo system as indicated by the industry/transportation case studies, and a stimulation of the air cargo would result in freight rate reductions.

  7. 49 CFR 1549.101 - Acceptance, screening, and transfer of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that cargo in accordance with this part, or parts 1544, 1546, or 1548 of this chapter. (d) Chain of custody. Each certified cargo screening facility must protect the cargo from unauthorized access from the...

  8. A simplified tether model for molecular motor transporting cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang-Zhen, Li; Li-Chun, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors are proteins or protein complexes which function as transporting engines in biological cells. This paper models the tether between motor and its cargo as a symmetric linear potential. Different from Elston and Peskin's work for which performance of the system was discussed only in some limiting cases, this study produces analytic solutions of the problem for general cases by simplifying the transport system into two physical states, which makes it possible to discuss the dynamics of the motor–cargo system in detail. It turns out that the tether strength between motor and cargo should be greater than a threshold or the motor will fail to transport the cargo, which was not discussed by former researchers yet. Value of the threshold depends on the diffusion coefficients of cargo and motor and also on the strength of the Brownian ratchets dragging the system. The threshold approaches a finite constant when the strength of the ratchet tends to infinity. (general)

  9. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Document Server

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  10. A role for cargo in Arf-dependent adaptor recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Amanda H; Sztul, Elizabeth; Kahn, Richard A

    2013-05-24

    Membrane traffic requires the specific concentration of protein cargos and exclusion of other proteins into nascent carriers. Critical components of this selectivity are the protein adaptors that bind to short, linear motifs in the cytoplasmic tails of transmembrane protein cargos and sequester them into nascent carriers. The recruitment of the adaptors is mediated by activated Arf GTPases, and the Arf-adaptor complexes mark sites of carrier formation. However, the nature of the signal(s) that initiates carrier biogenesis remains unknown. We examined the specificity and initial sites of recruitment of Arf-dependent adaptors (AP-1 and GGAs) in response to the Golgi or endosomal localization of specific cargo proteins (furin, mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR), and M6PR lacking a C-terminal domain M6PRΔC). We find that cargo promotes the recruitment of specific adaptors, suggesting that it is part of an upstream signaling event. Cargos do not promote adaptor recruitment to all compartments in which they reside, and thus additional factors regulate the cargo's ability to promote Arf activation and adaptor recruitment. We document that within a given compartment different cargos recruit different adaptors, suggesting that there is little or no free, activated Arf at the membrane and that Arf activation is spatially and temporally coupled to the cargo and the adaptor. Using temperature block, brefeldin A, and recovery from each, we found that the cytoplasmic tail of M6PR causes the recruitment of AP-1 and GGAs to recycling endosomes and not at the Golgi, as predicted by steady state staining profiles. These results are discussed with respect to the generation of novel models for cargo-dependent regulation of membrane traffic.

  11. A Role for Cargo in Arf-dependent Adaptor Recruitment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Amanda H.; Sztul, Elizabeth; Kahn, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane traffic requires the specific concentration of protein cargos and exclusion of other proteins into nascent carriers. Critical components of this selectivity are the protein adaptors that bind to short, linear motifs in the cytoplasmic tails of transmembrane protein cargos and sequester them into nascent carriers. The recruitment of the adaptors is mediated by activated Arf GTPases, and the Arf-adaptor complexes mark sites of carrier formation. However, the nature of the signal(s) that initiates carrier biogenesis remains unknown. We examined the specificity and initial sites of recruitment of Arf-dependent adaptors (AP-1 and GGAs) in response to the Golgi or endosomal localization of specific cargo proteins (furin, mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR), and M6PR lacking a C-terminal domain M6PRΔC). We find that cargo promotes the recruitment of specific adaptors, suggesting that it is part of an upstream signaling event. Cargos do not promote adaptor recruitment to all compartments in which they reside, and thus additional factors regulate the cargo's ability to promote Arf activation and adaptor recruitment. We document that within a given compartment different cargos recruit different adaptors, suggesting that there is little or no free, activated Arf at the membrane and that Arf activation is spatially and temporally coupled to the cargo and the adaptor. Using temperature block, brefeldin A, and recovery from each, we found that the cytoplasmic tail of M6PR causes the recruitment of AP-1 and GGAs to recycling endosomes and not at the Golgi, as predicted by steady state staining profiles. These results are discussed with respect to the generation of novel models for cargo-dependent regulation of membrane traffic. PMID:23572528

  12. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  13. Air Cargo Transportation Route Choice Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obashi, Hiroshi; Kim, Tae-Seung; Oum, Tae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Using a unique feature of air cargo transshipment data in the Northeast Asian region, this paper identifies the critical factors that determine the transshipment route choice. Taking advantage of the variations in the transport characteristics in each origin-destination airports pair, the paper uses a discrete choice model to describe the transshipping route choice decision made by an agent (i.e., freight forwarder, consolidator, and large shipper). The analysis incorporates two major factors, monetary cost (such as line-haul cost and landing fee) and time cost (i.e., aircraft turnaround time, including loading and unloading time, custom clearance time, and expected scheduled delay), along with other controls. The estimation method considers the presence of unobserved attributes, and corrects for resulting endogeneity by use of appropriate instrumental variables. Estimation results find that transshipment volumes are more sensitive to time cost, and that the reduction in aircraft turnaround time by 1 hour would be worth the increase in airport charges by more than $1000. Simulation exercises measures the impacts of alternative policy scenarios for a Korean airport, which has recently declared their intention to be a future regional hub in the Northeast Asian region. The results suggest that reducing aircraft turnaround time at the airport be an effective strategy, rather than subsidizing to reduce airport charges.

  14. Commercial Firm Training Practices versus Aerial Port Hazardous Cargo Frustration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maynard, Jill L

    2007-01-01

    .... This research investigates if commercial companies are a cause of the frustration problems. A case study methodology was used to investigate training practices of companies that had frustrated hazardous cargo at either Charleston or Dover Aerial Ports...

  15. Cargo/Weapons Elevator Land Based Engineering Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Cargo and Weapons Facility consists of a suite of full scale and component test facilities contiguously located in building 77H. The site was constructed in 1987...

  16. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment. The...

  17. Air cargo in the Mid-America Freight Coalition region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a contextual review of air cargo transportation in the 10-state Mid-America Freight Coalition (MAFC) region including the industrys recent history, security implications, and integration within the greater MAFC economy. The re...

  18. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a coil...

  19. 46 CFR 32.50-30 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose-TB/ALL. 32.50-30 Section 32.50-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-30 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. Cargo hose carried on...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-6 - Cargo handling room-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling room-TB/ALL. 30.10-6 Section 30.10-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-6 Cargo handling room—TB/ALL. The term cargo handling room means any enclosed space where cargo is pumped...

  1. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport or...

  2. 14 CFR 296.6 - Public disclosure of cargo liability limits and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....6 Public disclosure of cargo liability limits and insurance. Every indirect cargo air carrier shall... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of cargo liability limits... cargo liability accident insurance, and of the limits on the extent of its liability, if any. The notice...

  3. 46 CFR 153.934 - Entry into spaces containing cargo vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entry into spaces containing cargo vapor. 153.934... General Vessel Safety § 153.934 Entry into spaces containing cargo vapor. (a) No person may enter a cargo... enclosed space in the cargo area, the master shall make sure that: (1) The space is free of toxic vapors...

  4. 46 CFR 154.405 - Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. 154.405... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.405 Design vapor pressure (Po) of a cargo tank. (a) The design...

  5. 46 CFR 98.25-10 - Design and construction of cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and construction of cargo tanks. 98.25-10 Section... Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-10 Design and construction of cargo tanks. (a) The cargo tanks shall meet... Engineering) of this chapter. (b) Unlagged cargo tanks subject to atmospheric temperatures shall be designed...

  6. 46 CFR 154.406 - Design loads for cargo tanks and fixtures: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design loads for cargo tanks and fixtures: General. 154..., Construction and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.406 Design loads for cargo tanks and fixtures: General. (a) Calculations must show that a cargo tank and its fixtures are designed for the following...

  7. 49 CFR 173.315 - Compressed gases in cargo tanks and portable tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... qualified assembly, repair, maintenance, or requalification facility. The cargo tank need not be cleaned and... the cargo tank. If the vehicle engine is supplied fuel from the cargo tank, enough fuel in excess of... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases in cargo tanks and portable tanks...

  8. Network model of cargo processing in containers in the sea ports of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Светлана Петровна Онищенко; Марина Сергеевна Вильшанюк

    2016-01-01

    It is identified the number of operations on cargo processing in containers in the sea ports of Ukraine and build a logical model of the relationship for the members of cargo service. It is developed a network model of cargo processing in containers in the sea ports of Ukraine as a tool for coordination of operations during processing. The used method allows creating an effective cargo processing plan and identifying and reducing the period of container location with cargo in the port

  9. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahon, Jill [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Danagoulian, Areg, E-mail: aregjan@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); MacDonald, Thomas D. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hartwig, Zachary S. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lanza, Richard C. [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as {sup 11}B(d,nγ){sup 12}C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  10. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  11. 46 CFR 151.05-2 - Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. 151.05-2 Section 151.05-2 Shipping... Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. A tank barge certificated to carry benzene and benzene containing cargoes or butyl...

  12. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  13. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  14. Shared Value Potential of Transporting Cargo via Hyperloop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Werner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter-Kramer (2011, we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/ property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we conducted comparative analysis to quantify and compare the abovementioned factors for Hyperloop and over-the-road cargo transport in Germany. Then, we monetized the individual and collective benefits of the shared value created by Hyperloop replacing a significant share of cargo transported by truck. Our findings indicate that the hypothetical Hyperloop project in Northern Germany would create €660 to €900 million of shared value annually. Our research method establishes a framework for assessing future transportation projects like Hyperloop, and our findings can be generalized to industrialized nations beyond Germany.

  15. A matheuristic for the Cargo Mix Problem with Block Stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Mark; Pacino, Dario

    2017-01-01

    The cargo-mix problem aims at selecting the amount of containers of a given type to load on a vessel. In this article we present an extended definition that includes the analysis of a circular route with draft restrictions, limitations on expected cargo and the use of a block stowage strategy....... A compact formulation of the problem based on the state-of-the-art heuristic decomposition is shown not to be able to solve the extended problem, thus a matheuristic approach is presented that can achieve high quality results in a matter of seconds....

  16. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for determining manpower requirements and related personnel shift designs for the build-up and break-down of the unit load devices (ULDs) at the air cargo terminal to minimize manpower costs. To utilize the manpower...... resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  17. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors,the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the possibility of recovery of claim. Moreover the cargo mortgage regulations are, in some regards and aspects, contrary to general legal rules and hence subject to criticism.

  18. 78 FR 50134 - Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Altus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Blackhawk Capital Group BDC, Inc., Cargo Connection Logistics Holding, Inc., Diapulse Corporation of America, Globus... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Cargo Connection Logistics...

  19. 46 CFR 153.297 - Emergency actuators at the point of cargo control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.297 Emergency actuators at the point... Handling Space Ventilation ...

  20. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  1. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  2. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle. ...

  3. 48 CFR 752.228-9 - Cargo insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo insurance. 752.228-9... insurance. As prescribed in 728.313(a), the following preface is to be used preceding the text of the clause at FAR 52.228-9: Preface: To the extent that marine insurance is necessary or appropriate under this...

  4. 19 CFR 4.41 - Cargo of wrecked vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Any cargo landed from a vessel wrecked in the waters of the United States or on the high seas shall be... the salvors of merchandise saved from a wreck at sea or on or along a coast of the United States may... laden with merchandise, in whole or in part subject to duty, has been sunk in any river, harbor, bay, or...

  5. 33 CFR 401.69 - Hazardous cargo vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following cases: (a) A tanker carrying fuel oil, gasoline, crude oil or other flammable liquids in bulk, having a flashpoint below 61 °C, including a tanker that is not gas free where its previous cargo had a flashpoint below 61 °C; (b) A tanker carrying compressed liquefied gases, bulk acids or...

  6. Screening Cargo Containers to Remove a Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2005-01-01

    Each year some 48 million cargo containers move between the world's ports. More than 6 million of these enter the U.S., but only about 2 percent are opened and inspected when they arrive at U.S. seaports. The West Coast ports of Los Angeles-Long Beach, Oakland, and Seattle alone process 11,000 containers per day, or about 8 containers per minute. Because of this high traffic volume, U.S. seaports are especially vulnerable to a terrorist attack. Illicit radioactive materials could be hidden in any one of the cargo-filled containers that arrive at U.S. ports. Yet, searching every shipment would be bring legitimate commercial activities to a halt. Improving security at U.S. ports is thus one of the nation's most difficult technical and practical challenges because the systems developed for screening cargo must operate in concert with ongoing seaport activities. Working at this intersection of commerce and national security, Lawrence Livermore researchers are applying their expertise in radiation science and detection to develop improved technologies for detecting hidden radioactive materials. One new technology being designed and tested at the Laboratory is a neutron interrogation system for cargo containers. This system will quickly screen incoming shipments to ensure that nuclear materials such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) are not smuggled into the U.S

  7. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  8. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members...

  9. Investigating Block-Copolymer Micelle Dynamics for Tunable Cargo Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Kidd, Bryce; Cooksey, Tyler; Robertson, Megan; Madsen, Louis

    Block-copolymer micelles (BCPMs) can carry molecular cargo in a nanoscopic package that is tunable using polymer structure in combination with cargo properties, as well as with external stimuli such as temperature or pH. For example, BCPMs can be used in targeted anticancer drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, in vivo degradability and prolonged circulation time. We are using NMR spectroscopy and diffusometry as well as SANS to investigate BCPMs. Here we study a diblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-(caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) that forms spherical micelles at 1% (w/v) in the mixed solvent D2O/THF-d8. We quantify the populations and diffusion coefficients of coexisting micelles and free unimers over a range of temperatures and solvent compositions. We use temperature as a stimulus to enhance unimer exchange and hence trigger cargo release, in some cases at a few degrees above body temperature. We present evidence for dominance of the insertion-expulsion mechanism of unimer exchange in these systems, and we map phase diagrams versus temperature and solvent composition. This study sheds light on how intermolecular interactions fundamentally affect cargo release, unimer exchange, and overall micelle tunability.

  10. Phototriggered cargo release from virus-like assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasch, M.; Voets, I.K.; Koay, M.S.T.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria

    2013-01-01

    There has been tremendous progress towards the development of responsive polymers that are programmed to respond to an external stimulus such as light, pH and temperature. The unique combination of molecular packaging followed by slow, controlled release of molecular cargo is of particular

  11. Hepatitis Virus Capsid Polymorph Stability Depends on Encapsulated Cargo Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, L.; Porterfield, Z.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618; Zlotnick, A.; Dragnea, B.

    2013-01-01

    Protein cages providing a controlled environment to encapsulated cargo are a ubiquitous presence in any biological system. Well-known examples are capsids, the regular protein shells of viruses, which protect and deliver the viral genome. Since some virus capsids can be loaded with nongenomic

  12. A consolidation model for cargo-driven intermodal transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behdani, B.; Zuidwijk, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility of main sea ports by road has become increasingly difficult due to rapid growth in container throughput. To deal with this challenge, new ways for handling containers and distribution of cargo flows are needed to define and implement. One possibility is going beyond container

  13. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  14. 33 CFR 104.275 - Security measures for handling cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.275 Security...) Maritime Security (MARSEC) Level 1. At MARSEC Level 1, the vessel owner or operator must ensure the..., container, or other cargo transport units are loaded; (3) Intensifying screening of vehicles to be loaded on...

  15. Transportation of Nanoscale Cargoes by Myosin Propelled Actin Filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A. Michael; Mansson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies.

  16. Technical means overview of the oversize cargoes customs control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukhnitskiy P.S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available this article focuses on the technical means used by the customs authorities when they control oversize cargoes. Customs inspection efficiency improvement as one of the main forms of customs control during the implementation of sampling is possible by the use of technical means of customs control.

  17. Technical means overview of the oversize cargoes customs control

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhnitskiy P.S.

    2016-01-01

    this article focuses on the technical means used by the customs authorities when they control oversize cargoes. Customs inspection efficiency improvement as one of the main forms of customs control during the implementation of sampling is possible by the use of technical means of customs control.

  18. Bicaudal-D: Switching motors, cargo and direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.D. Splinter (Daniël)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractScope of this thesis Transport of vesicles and organelles is an essential cellular process. Proteins like Rab GTPases, specialized adaptor proteins and motor proteins are involved in targeting and movement of cargos to their destination. This thesis describes the function of the

  19. Intraflagellar transport: mechanisms of motor action, cooperation, and cargo delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prevo, Bram; Scholey, Jonathan M.; Peterman, Erwin J. G.

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a form of motor-dependent cargo transport that is essential for the assembly, maintenance, and length control of cilia, which play critical roles in motility, sensory reception, and signal transduction in virtually all eukaryotic cells. During IFT, anterograde

  20. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to a dock or at anchor in port, the master shall ensure that the tankship displays a warning sign at... Cargo. (3) No Visitors. (4) No Smoking. (5) No Open Lights. (c) Each letter must be block style, black on a white background. (d) Each letter must: (1) Be 7.5 cm (approx. 3 in.) high; (2) Be 5 cm (approx...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks and...

  2. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables used...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-5b - Cargo control station-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo control station-TB/ALL. 30.10-5b Section 30.10-5b Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5b Cargo control station—TB/ALL. The term cargo control station means a location that is manned...

  4. 46 CFR 32.50-3 - Cargo discharge-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo discharge-TB/ALL. 32.50-3 Section 32.50-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-3 Cargo discharge—TB/ALL. (a) Pumps or other...

  5. 46 CFR 153.235 - Exceptions to cargo piping location restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....230(b), 153.231(b), and 153.234(b) unless the cargo piping: (a) Drains back to the cargo tank under any heel or trim resulting from the damage specified in § 172.135 of this chapter; and (b) Enters the cargo tank above the liquid level for a full tank in any condition of heel or trim resulting from the...

  6. 33 CFR 157.37 - Discharge of oily mixtures from oil cargoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge of oily mixtures from... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.37 Discharge of oily mixtures from oil cargoes. (a) A tank vessel may not discharge an oily mixture into the sea from a cargo tank, slop tank, or cargo pump room...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section 1917..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.22 Hazardous cargo 2 (See... related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR...

  8. 76 FR 4847 - Hazardous Materials: Safety Requirements for External Product Piping on Cargo Tanks Transporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... cargo compartment valves are closed, the system introduces compressed air from an auxiliary tank through... in unprotected external product piping on DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles. If adopted as... only) hazardous materials in external product piping of a DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicle...

  9. 14 CFR 297.30 - Public disclosure of cargo liability insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ASSOCIATIONS General Rules for Foreign Indirect Air Carriers § 297.30 Public disclosure of cargo liability... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of cargo liability... shipment is accepted, of the limits of its cargo liability insurance, or of the absence of such insurance...

  10. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  11. Investigate existing non-intrusive (NII) technologies for port cargo inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The quantity of cargo handled by United States ports has increased significantly in recent years. Based on : 2004 data, almost 2.7 billion tons of cargo passed through the ports in one year. To protect the U.S., all of this : cargo must be inspected...

  12. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system... Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-7 Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust system...

  13. 33 CFR 126.17 - Permits required for handling designated dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designated cargoes are not removed from, or placed in, the railroad car or highway vehicle while it is in or... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO AT WATERFRONT FACILITIES... discretion of the Captain of the Port, when such cargoes are contained within railroad cars or highway...

  14. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control: General... the MARVS under § 154.405; or (b) Be refrigerated by a system meeting § 154.702, and each refrigerated...

  15. 49 CFR 173.33 - Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles... Transportation § 173.33 Hazardous materials in cargo tank motor vehicles. (a) General requirements. (1) No person may offer or accept a hazardous material for transportation in a cargo tank motor vehicle except as...

  16. 46 CFR 153.371 - Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.371 Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo... steady state temperature obtained by a full tank of cargo with the refrigeration system operating under ambient conditions described within the definition of a refrigerated tank in § 153.2. ...

  17. Network model of cargo processing in containers in the sea ports of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Петровна Онищенко

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is identified the number of operations on cargo processing in containers in the sea ports of Ukraine and build a logical model of the relationship for the members of cargo service. It is developed a network model of cargo processing in containers in the sea ports of Ukraine as a tool for coordination of operations during processing. The used method allows creating an effective cargo processing plan and identifying and reducing the period of container location with cargo in the port

  18. Implementation of cargo MagLev in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Chris R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dean E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leung, Eddie M [MAGTEC ENGINEERING

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been completed in the United States, but no commercial MagLev systems have been deployed. Outside the U.S., MagLev continues to attract funding for research, development and implementation. A brief review of recent global developments in MagLev technology is given followed by the status of MagLev in the U.S. The paper compares the cost of existing MagLev systems with other modes of transport, notes that the near-term focus of MagLev development in the U.S. should be for cargo, and suggests that future MagLev systems should be for very high speed cargo. The Los Angeles to Port of Los Angeles corridor is suggested as a first site for implementation. The benefits of MagLev are described along with suggestions on how to obtain funding.

  19. Fixing Trailer Hitch for Roof Rack of Cargos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Matisková

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new technical solution of fixing trailer hitch which serves as a connection between single track vehicle and cargo, mainly light trailer. They are manufactured from steel girder and nets which are constructed by point welding. They are designed to indicate the necessary solidity and the required load bearing capacity of the cargo. The application of roof racks is universal and these products are in great demand in the field of game management. There are a lot of trailer hitches which the manufacturers tailor to customers´ demands. The stated technical solution is subject of published industrial utility model at the Industrial property office of the Slovak republic.

  20. Shared value potential of transporting cargo via hyperloop

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Max; Eißing, Klaus; Langton, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This research estimates the shared value created by constructing a hypothetical Hyperloop to transport cargo along 300 km in Northern Germany. Following Porter and Kramer (2011, 2012), we identified and evaluated eight factors that create shared value: travel speed, operating costs, safety, noise pollution, air pollution, climate effect/carbon footprint, separation effect/property efficiency, and maintenance. Using official data compiled by several German institutes and organizations, we cond...

  1. Intraflagellar transport: mechanisms of motor action, cooperation, and cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevo, Bram; Scholey, Jonathan M; Peterman, Erwin J G

    2017-09-01

    Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a form of motor-dependent cargo transport that is essential for the assembly, maintenance, and length control of cilia, which play critical roles in motility, sensory reception, and signal transduction in virtually all eukaryotic cells. During IFT, anterograde kinesin-2 and retrograde IFT dynein motors drive the bidirectional transport of IFT trains that deliver cargo, for example, axoneme precursors such as tubulins as well as molecules of the signal transduction machinery, to their site of assembly within the cilium. Following its discovery in Chlamydomonas, IFT has emerged as a powerful model system for studying general principles of motor-dependent cargo transport and we now appreciate the diversity that exists in the mechanism of IFT within cilia of different cell types. The absence of heterotrimeric kinesin-2 function, for example, causes a complete loss of both IFT and cilia in Chlamydomonas, but following its loss in Caenorhabditis elegans, where its primary function is loading the IFT machinery into cilia, homodimeric kinesin-2-driven IFT persists and assembles a full-length cilium. Generally, heterotrimeric kinesin-2 and IFT dynein motors are thought to play widespread roles as core IFT motors, whereas homodimeric kinesin-2 motors are accessory motors that mediate different functions in a broad range of cilia, in some cases contributing to axoneme assembly or the delivery of signaling molecules but in many other cases their ciliary functions, if any, remain unknown. In this review, we focus on mechanisms of motor action, motor cooperation, and motor-dependent cargo delivery during IFT. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  2. 46 CFR 38.05-4 - Design and construction of nonpressure vessel type cargo tanks-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptable. (d) The design and construction of the cargo tanks shall be at least equivalent to the standards...) The cargo tank shall be designed for a head of cargo at least equal to the highest level the liquid... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and construction of nonpressure vessel type cargo...

  3. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  4. Final Report, Next-Generation Mega-Voltage Cargo-Imaging System for Cargo Container Inspection, March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. James Clayton, Ph.D., Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products; Dr. Emma Regentova, Ph.D, University of Nevada Las Vegas; Dr. Evangelos Yfantis, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2007-01-01

    The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security and Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a ''next-generation'' mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possible the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the ''next-generation'' Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible

  5. How molecular motors are arranged on a cargo is important for vesicular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself--and motor organization on the cargo--affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s, significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their 'on' rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well.

  6. Myosin-V Induces Cargo Immobilization and Clustering at the Axon Initial Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne F. J. Janssen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The selective transport of different cargoes into axons and dendrites underlies the polarized organization of the neuron. Although it has become clear that the combined activity of different motors determines the destination and selectivity of transport, little is known about the mechanistic details of motor cooperation. For example, the exact role of myosin-V in opposing microtubule-based axon entries has remained unclear. Here we use two orthogonal chemically-induced heterodimerization systems to independently recruit different motors to cargoes. We find that recruiting myosin-V to kinesin-propelled cargoes at approximately equal numbers is sufficient to stall motility. Kinesin-driven cargoes entering the axon were arrested in the axon initial segment (AIS upon myosin-V recruitment and accumulated in distinct actin-rich hotspots. Importantly, unlike proposed previously, myosin-V did not return these cargoes to the cell body, suggesting that additional mechanism are required to establish cargo retrieval from the AIS.

  7. X-ray scan detection for cargo integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Juan; Miller, Steve

    2011-04-01

    The increase of terrorism and its global impact has made the determination of the contents of cargo containers a necessity. Existing technology allows non-intrusive inspections to determine the contents of a container rapidly and accurately. However, some cargo shipments are exempt from such inspections. Hence, there is a need for a technology that enables rapid and accurate means of detecting whether such containers were non-intrusively inspected. Non-intrusive inspections are most commonly performed utilizing high powered X-ray equipment. The challenge is creating a device that can detect short duration X-ray scans while maintaining a portable, battery powered, low cost, and easy to use platform. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a methodology and prototype device focused on this challenge. The prototype, developed by PNNL, is a battery powered electronic device that continuously measures its X-ray and Gamma exposure, calculates the dose equivalent rate, and makes a determination of whether the device has been exposed to the amount of radiation experienced during an X-ray inspection. Once an inspection is detected, the device will record a timestamp of the event and relay the information to authorized personnel via a visual alert, USB connection, and/or wireless communication. The results of this research demonstrate that PNNL's prototype device can be effective at determining whether a container was scanned by X-ray equipment typically used for cargo container inspections. This paper focuses on laboratory measurements and test results acquired with the PNNL prototype device using several X-ray radiation levels.

  8. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  9. Development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the research and development of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  10. Study on the multi-sensors monitoring and information fusion technology of dangerous cargo container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shibo; Zhang, Shuhui; Cao, Wensheng

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, monitoring system of dangerous cargo container based on multi-sensors is presented. In order to improve monitoring accuracy, multi-sensors will be applied inside of dangerous cargo container. Multi-sensors information fusion solution of monitoring dangerous cargo container is put forward, and information pre-processing, the fusion algorithm of homogenous sensors and information fusion based on BP neural network are illustrated, applying multi-sensors in the field of container monitoring has some novelty.

  11. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...... introduce a novel mathematical model and a simulated annealing algorithm for the LSFRP with cargo flows that makes use of a carefully constructed graph; we evaluate these approaches using real-world data from our industrial collaborator. Additionally, we compare the performance of our approach against...... to solve the LSFRP....

  12. Optimization of the imported air express cargo distribution problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang, T.L.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the delivering network of imported air express cargo as an integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Integrated multi-depot vehicle routing problem attempts to decide which service centers should be used and how much freight should be unloaded in each service center. The role of an exchange point which is allowing the delivery vans and shuttles to exchange imported and exported goods is also addressed. Test results demonstrate the feasibility of the four models so these are highly promising for use in a diverse array of applications, such as in home delivery and reverse logistics.

  13. Analytical solution of the problem of acceleration of cargo by a bridge crane with constant acceleration at elimination of swings of a cargo rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytov, M. S.; Shcherbakov, V. S.; Titenko, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    Limitation of the swing of the bridge crane cargo rope is a matter of urgency, as it can significantly improve the efficiency and safety of the work performed. In order to completely dampen the pendulum swing after the break-up of a bridge or a bridge-crane freight cart to maximum speed, it is necessary, in the normal repulsion control of the electric motor, to split the process of dispersion into a minimum of three gaps. For a dynamic system of swinging of a bridge crane on a flexible cable hanger in a separate vertical plane, an analytical solution was obtained to determine the temporal dependence of the cargo rope angle relative to the gravitational vertical when the cargo suspension point moves with constant acceleration. The resulting analytical dependence of the cargo rope angle and its first derivative can break the process of dispersing the cargo suspension point into three stages of dispersal and braking with various accelerations and enter maximum speed of movement of the cargo suspension point. In doing so, the condition of eliminating the swings of the cargo rope relative to the gravitational vertical is fulfilled. Provides examples of the maximum speed output constraints-to-time when removing the rope swing.

  14. Cooperating to Compete in the Global Air Cargo Industry: The Case of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo A.G. Joint Venture Airline ‘AeroLogic’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Baxter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo strategic joint venture cargo airline ‘AeroLogic’, the global air cargo industry’s largest operative joint venture between an airline and a leading international express and logistics provider. The study used a qualitative research approach. The data gathered for the study was examined by document analysis. The strategic analysis of the AeroLogic joint venture was based on the use of Porter’s Five Forces framework. The study found that the AeroLogic joint venture airline has provided synergistic benefits to both partners and has allowed the partners to access new markets and to participate in the evolution of the air cargo industry. The new venture has also enabled both joint venture partners to enhance their competitive position in the global air cargo industry through strengthened service offerings and has provided the partners with increased cargo capacities, a larger route network, and greater frequencies within their own route networks. The study also found that the AeroLogic business model is unique in the air cargo industry. A limitation of the study was that AeroLogic’s annual revenue or freight traffic data was not available. It was, therefore, not possible to analyse the business performance of the joint venture.

  15. 77 FR 25187 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... and include facilties upstream ] in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers, warehousing entities, distributors, third party logistics companies, and indirect air carriers located in the...

  16. Safety of Oversize Cargo in Ports and in the Sea Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Chmielinski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Author of the paper analyzes problems related to the safety of the oversize cargo in ports and in the sea transport. Various modes of transport are used to carry oversized units that often include maritime transport. Transport of oversized cargo includes non-standard large and heavy pieces of cargo, such as electric transformers, reactor vessels, wind turbines, airplane fuselage or nuclear power plant components. The above paper is based on results of research oversized cargo in the Elpo Service Company and Pol-Mare Ltd. forwarding consulting agency.

  17. Report on the 2011 and 2012 NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) / Alaska State Cargo Airship Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstettler, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will summarize the Cargo Airships for Northern Operations workshop that was held August 24-25, 2011. This workshop co-sponsored by NASA ARC and the Alaska State Department of Transportation was initiated by interest from Alaska Lt. Governor Mead Treadwell for assistance in investigating the potential benefits of proposed cargo airships for the Alaskan economy and societal needs. The workshop provided a brief background on the technology and operational aspects of conventional airships and hybrids followed by presentations on issues affecting cargo airship operations such as weather management, insurance, regulations, crew duty/rest rules, and available support infrastructures. Speakers representing potential cargo airship users from Alaskan State and commercial organizations presented the needs they felt could be met by cargo airship services. Presenters from Canadian private and military interests also detailed applications and missions that cargo airships could provide to remote regions of Canada. Cost drivers of cargo airship operations were also addressed and tools for modeling and analyzing operational factors and costs affecting cargo airship operations were discussed. Four breakout sessions were held which allowed workshop participants to contribute inputs to four topic areas: Business Approaches and Strategies (financing incentives public/private partnerships etc) for Airship Development and Operation, Design, Development, Production Challenges, and Possible Solutions, Regulatory, Certification, Legal, and Insurance Issues, and Operational Issues, Customer Requirements, and Airship Requirements. A follow on to the 2011 cargo airship workshop is being planned for July 31 August 2, 2012. A status update on this second workshop will also be presented.

  18. Cargo Loading and Unloading Efficiency Analysis in Multimodal Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Burdzik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents assessment of the impact of the processes handling efficiency on the transport process based on research done in the real object, using same technologies and material handling equipment. The aim of the paper was to confirm importance of loading and unloading processes of palletized cargo as an initial and final link of multimodal transport by developing methods’ proposal for monitoring and assessing the effectiveness of cargo operations as well as development of measures and comparison estimators. The analysis of the manipulation operations’ duration throughout the transport process is based on the percentile rates of manipulation and carriage in total transport process duration and the percentage of manipulating time in the duration of the carriage. These indicators and examined loading and unloading times, are the basis for the development of scheduling algorithms for optimizing transport processes on the scale of the whole transport chain. This data is also a helpful input to support strategic decisions on the allocation of financial resources for the development of infrastructure and terminal equipment, warehouses and other facilities.

  19. Filament-filament switching can be regulated by separation between filaments together with cargo motor number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Erickson

    Full Text Available How intracellular transport controls the probability that cargos switch at intersections between filaments is not well understood. In one hypothesis some motors on the cargo attach to one filament while others attach to the intersecting filament, and the ensuing tug-of-war determines which filament is chosen. We investigate this hypothesis using 3D computer simulations, and discover that switching at intersections increases with the number of motors on the cargo, but is not strongly dependent on motor number when the filaments touch. Thus, simply controlling the number of active motors on the cargo cannot account for in vivo observations that found reduced switching with increasing motor number, suggesting additional mechanisms of regulation. We use simulations to show that one possible way to regulate switching is by simultaneously adjusting the separation between planes containing the crossing filaments and the total number of active motors on the cargo. Heretofore, the effect of filament-filament separation on switching has been unexplored. We find that the switching probability decreases with increasing filament separation. This effect is particularly strong for cargos with only a modest number of motors. As the filament separation increases past the maximum head-to-head distance of the motor, individual motors walking along a filament will be unable to reach the intersecting filament. Thus, any switching requires that other motors on the cargo attach to the intersecting filament and haul the cargo along it, while motor(s engaged on the original filament detach. Further, if the filament separation is large enough, the cargo can have difficulty proceeding along the initial filament because the engaged motors can walk underneath the intersecting filament, but the cargo itself cannot fit between the filaments. Thus, the cargo either detaches entirely from the original filament, or must dip to the side of the initial filament and then pass below

  20. Filament-filament switching can be regulated by separation between filaments together with cargo motor number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert P; Gross, Steven P; Yu, Clare C

    2013-01-01

    How intracellular transport controls the probability that cargos switch at intersections between filaments is not well understood. In one hypothesis some motors on the cargo attach to one filament while others attach to the intersecting filament, and the ensuing tug-of-war determines which filament is chosen. We investigate this hypothesis using 3D computer simulations, and discover that switching at intersections increases with the number of motors on the cargo, but is not strongly dependent on motor number when the filaments touch. Thus, simply controlling the number of active motors on the cargo cannot account for in vivo observations that found reduced switching with increasing motor number, suggesting additional mechanisms of regulation. We use simulations to show that one possible way to regulate switching is by simultaneously adjusting the separation between planes containing the crossing filaments and the total number of active motors on the cargo. Heretofore, the effect of filament-filament separation on switching has been unexplored. We find that the switching probability decreases with increasing filament separation. This effect is particularly strong for cargos with only a modest number of motors. As the filament separation increases past the maximum head-to-head distance of the motor, individual motors walking along a filament will be unable to reach the intersecting filament. Thus, any switching requires that other motors on the cargo attach to the intersecting filament and haul the cargo along it, while motor(s) engaged on the original filament detach. Further, if the filament separation is large enough, the cargo can have difficulty proceeding along the initial filament because the engaged motors can walk underneath the intersecting filament, but the cargo itself cannot fit between the filaments. Thus, the cargo either detaches entirely from the original filament, or must dip to the side of the initial filament and then pass below the crossing

  1. 46 CFR 32.60-15 - Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL. 32.60-15 Section 32.60-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT... § 32.60-15 Segregation of cargo; Grade E—TB/ALL. (a) General. The galleys, living quarters, navigation...

  2. 46 CFR 38.15-5 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose-TB/ALL. 38.15-5 Section 38.15-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Special Requirements § 38.15-5 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. (a) When the liquid and vapor line hoses used for loading and discharging...

  3. 19 CFR 192.14 - Electronic information for outward cargo required in advance of departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Information Through the Automated Export System (AES) § 192.14 Electronic information for outward cargo... or its authorized agent must use a CBP-approved electronic data interchange system (currently, the... authorized agents must electronically transmit and verify system acceptance of required cargo information for...

  4. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Except in an emergency, only cargo handling equipment... load, unload, or handle freight containers containing Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials. (b...

  5. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... American War Risk Agency or MARAD. ...

  6. 76 FR 4709 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... off- airport and includes facilities upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers, warehousing entities, distributors, third party logistics companies, and Indirect Air Carriers... supply chain to accept, screen, and transport air cargo. The uninterrupted collection of this information...

  7. 76 FR 8658 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... issues Special Permits as part of its mission to ensure maritime safety and facilitate U.S. commerce. To... Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code... International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, as amended, that carry bulk solid cargoes...

  8. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with

  9. On the question of the capacity of warehouses of packaged-piece cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilesaliev D.I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models are proposed that establish interrelations between the individual parameters of a warehouse of packaged piece cargo. The models were used in the study of the mutual influence of the parameters on each other, also the capacity of the warehouses of packaged cargo

  10. 46 CFR 153.515 - Special requirements for extremely flammable cargoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design... under pressure or that is submerged; and (c) The cargo tank's relief valve setting must be no less than 21 kPa gauge (approx. 3 psig). ...

  11. The GRIP1/14-3-3 pathway coordinates cargo trafficking and dendrite development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, J.C.; Lipka, Joanna; Hoyer, S.; Schlager, M.A.; Wulf, Phebe; Weinges, S.; Demmers, J.; Hoogenraad, Casper

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of cargo transport via adaptor molecules is essential for neuronal development. However, the role of PDZ scaffolding proteins as adaptors in neuronal cargo trafficking is still poorly understood. Here, we show by genetic deletion in mice that the multi-PDZ domain scaffolding protein

  12. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangel, F Walter; Blainey, Paul C; Graziano, Vito; Herrmann, Andreas; McGrath, William J; van Oijen, Antonius Martinus; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  13. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and... percent by volume; and (ii) Closes the master gas fuel valve required under § 154.708(c) before the... amended by CGD 82-063b, 48 FR 4782, Feb. 3, 1983] Cargo Vent Systems ...

  14. 46 CFR 38.05-2 - Design and construction of cargo tanks-general-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design and construction of cargo tanks-general-TB/ALL... FLAMMABLE GASES Design and Installation § 38.05-2 Design and construction of cargo tanks—general—TB/ALL. (a... tanks on barges shall be designed in accordance with § 32.63-25 of this subchapter. (f) Each liquefied...

  15. 49 CFR 178.320 - General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle... lading retention or containment function and provides no structural support to the cargo tank. Baffle.... Cargo tank means a bulk packaging that: (1) Is a tank intended primarily for the carriage of liquids...

  16. 75 FR 9915 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...-airport and includes facilties upstream in the air cargo supply chain, such as shippers, manufacturers...] Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Certified Cargo Screening Program... Request (ICR), OMB control number 1652-0053, abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  17. 77 FR 6135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Activities: Cargo Manifest/ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing... the Paperwork Reduction Act: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and.../Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. OMB Number: 1651-0001. Form...

  18. 76 FR 72715 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Activities: Cargo Manifest/ Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing... Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container Status Messages and Importer Security Filing. This request for... concerning the following information collection. Title: Cargo Manifest/Declaration, Stow Plan, Container...

  19. 77 FR 3487 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... requirement concerning Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station. This request for comment is being made... to a Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096. Form Number: None. Abstract: Before the filing of an...

  20. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... sources for a fire; and an oxygen supply system, which could intensify the growth and size of a fire... requirements for cargo- or baggage-compartment fire- or smoke-detection systems, and a standard that fire be... lavatory, and the oxygen-supply system in the lavatory, in the event of a smoke-detector alarm in the cargo...

  1. 33 CFR 126.29 - Supervision and control of dangerous cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and control of... Supervision and control of dangerous cargo. (a) Authority. The Captain of the Port is authorized to require... cargo covered by this subchapter shall be undertaken and continued only under the immediate supervision...

  2. 49 CFR 175.26 - Notification at cargo facilities of hazardous materials requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following information: (1) Cargo containing hazardous materials (dangerous goods) for transportation by... U.S.C. 5124). (3) Hazardous materials (dangerous goods) include explosives, compressed gases... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification at cargo facilities of hazardous...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix III to Part 1918 - The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory.... 1918, App. III Appendix III to Part 1918—The Mechanics of Conventional Cargo Gear (Non-mandatory) Note: This appendix is non-mandatory and provides an explanation of the mechanics in the correct spotting of...

  4. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CARGO INSURANCE CONTRACT IN CASE OF INTERNATIONAL LAND TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dănilă Ștefan MATEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cargo international transport is an engine for the development of the economic relations between states involving cross-border movement of goods through the crossing of at least one border of a state (international transport or by crossing at least two border crossing points, in which case we are in the presence of an international cargo transit. During the transit the goods transported may be subject to an insurance. The object of the cargo insurance is, thus, represented by the goods, the items expressly listed in the insurance policy, within the territorial limits specified in the insurance policy, both during the transport and during the storage, in the latter case, at the express request of the insured and with the acceptance of the insurer. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the cargo insurance aiming to present the theoretical and practical aspects of interest with regard to the cargo insurance concluded in case of an international land freight transport.

  5. Megavoltage cargo radiography with dual energy material decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2018-02-01

    Megavoltage (MV) radiography has important applications in imaging large cargos for detecting illicit materials. A useful feature of MV radiography is the possibility of decomposing and quantifying materials with different atomic numbers. This can be achieved by imaging cargo at two different X-ray energies, or dual energy (DE) radiography. The performance of both single energy and DE radiography depends on beam energy, beam filtration, radiation dose, object size, and object content. The purpose of this work was to perform comprehensive qualitative and quantitative investigations of the image quality in MV radiography depending on the above parameters. A digital phantom was designed including Fe background with thicknesses of 2cm, 6cm, and 18cm, and materials samples of Polyethylene, Fe, Pb, and U. The single energy images were generated at x-ray beam energies 3.5MV, 6MV, and 9MV. The DE material decomposed images were generated using interlaced low and high energy beams 3.5/6MV and 6/9MV. The X-ray beams were filtered by low-Z (Polyethylene) and high-Z (Pb) filters with variable thicknesses. The radiation output of the accelerator was kept constant for all beam energies. The image quality metrics was signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the particular sample over a particular background. It was found that the SNR depends on the above parameters in a complex way, but can be optimized by selecting a particular set of parameters. For some imaging setups increased filter thicknesses, while strongly absorbing the beams, increased the SNR of material decomposed images. Beam hardening due to polyenergetic x-ray spectra resulted in material decomposition errors, but this could be addressed using region of interest decomposition. It was shown that it is not feasible to separate the materials with close atomic numbers using the DE method. Particularly, Pb and U were difficult to decompose, at least at the dose levels allowed by radiation source and safety requirements.

  6. 46 CFR 154.530 - Valves: Cargo tank MARVS 69 kPa gauge (10 psig) or lower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves: Cargo tank MARVS 69 kPa gauge (10 psig) or lower..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.530 Valves: Cargo tank MARVS 69 kPa gauge (10 psig) or lower. (a) Except those connections for tank safety relief valves and for liquid level gauging...

  7. 75 FR 63192 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Commission Act of 2007, Public Law 110-53, Congress requires that 50 percent of cargo transported on... carriers transport cargo. TSA estimates this will take an estimated one hour per week (52 hours per year...] Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information: Air Cargo Security...

  8. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and that venting of cargo is unnecessary to maintain cargo temperature and pressure control, except under emergency... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  9. Systems Analysis and Structural Design of an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cruz, Jonathan N.; Antol, Jeffrey; Sasamoto, Washito A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station will require a continuous supply of replacement parts for ongoing maintenance and repair after the planned retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2010. These parts are existing line-replaceable items collectively called Orbital Replacement Units, and include heavy and oversized items such as Control Moment Gyroscopes and stowed radiator arrays originally intended for delivery aboard the Space Shuttle. Current resupply spacecraft have limited to no capability to deliver these external logistics. In support of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study, a team at Langley Research Center designed an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle to deliver bulk cargo to the Space Station. The Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle was required to deliver at least 13,200 lbs of cargo mounted on at least 18 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. The Crew Launch Vehicle design recommended in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study would be used to launch one annual resupply flight to the International Space Station. The baseline vehicle design developed here has a cargo capacity of 16,000 lbs mounted on up to 20 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. Major vehicle components are a 5.5m-diameter cargo module containing two detachable cargo pallets with the payload, a Service Module to provide propulsion and power, and an aerodynamic nose cone. To reduce cost and risk, the Service Module is identical to the one used for the Crew Exploration Vehicle design.

  10. DNA hairpins promote temperature controlled cargo encapsulation in a truncated octahedral nanocage structure family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franch, Oskar; Iacovelli, Federico; Falconi, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the mechanism behind temperature controlled cargo uptake using a truncated octahedral DNA cage scaffold functionalized with one, two, three or four hairpin forming DNA strands inserted in one corner of the structure. This investigation was inspired by our...... previous demonstration of temperature controlled reversible encapsulation of the cargo enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, in the cage with four hairpin forming strands. However, in this previous study the mechanism of cargo uptake was not directly addressed (Juul, et al., Temperature-Controlled Encapsulation...

  11. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate......, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and ammonium sulphate. The evaluation was based on the same criteria as those used for the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils. Methyl acetate and ETBE meet...

  12. Simulation for assessment of bulk cargo berths number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. L.; Kirichenko, A. V.; Slitsan, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    The world trade volumes of mineral resources have been growing constantly for decades, notwithstanding any economical crises. At the same time, the proximity of the bulk materials as products to the starting point of the integrated value added or logistic supply chain makes their unit price relatively low. This fact automatically causes a strong economic sensitivity of the supply chain to the level of operational expenses in every link. The core of the integrated logistic supply chain is its maritime segment, with the fleet and terminals (i.e. the cargo transportation system) serving as the base platform for it. In its turn, the terminal berths play a role of the interface between the fleet and the land-transportation sub-system. Current development of the maritime transportation technologies, ships and terminal specialization, vessel size growth, rationalization of route patterns, regionalization of trade etc., has made conventional calculation methods inadequate. The solution of the problem is in using object oriented simulation. At the same time, this approch usually assumes only ad hoc models. Thus, it does not provide the generality of its conventional analytical predecessors. The time and labor consumpting procedure of simulation results in a very narrow application domain of the model. This article describes a new simulation instrument, combining the generality of the analytical technoques with the efficiency of the object-oriented simulation. The approach implemented as a software module, which validity and adequacy are proved. The software was tested on several sea terminal design projects and confirmed its efficiency.

  13. Kinesin-Binding Protein Controls Microtubule Dynamics and Cargo Trafficking by Regulating Kinesin Motor Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kevenaar, Josta T|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338771042; Bianchi, Sarah; van Spronsen, Myrrhe|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337616655; Olieric, Natacha; Lipka, Joanna|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369403142; Frias, Cátia P; Mikhaylova, Marina; Harterink, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304075655; Keijzer, Nanda; Wulf, Phebe S; Hilbert, Manuel; Kapitein, Lukas C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298806630; de Graaff, Esther|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/148374646; Akhmanova, Anna|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156410591; Steinmetz, Michel O; Hoogenraad, Casper C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/227263502

    2016-01-01

    Kinesin motor proteins play a fundamental role for normal neuronal development by controlling intracellular cargo transport and microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton organization. Regulating kinesin activity is important to ensure their proper functioning, and their misregulation often leads to severe human

  14. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 149.130 What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system... system. (b) The alarm must sound automatically in the control room and: (1) Be capable of being activated...

  15. International air cargo operations and gateways : their emerging importance to the state of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Air cargo transport has become particularly important in todays expanding global : economy for the movement of high-value goods such as electronics, computer components, : precision equipment, medical supplies, auto parts, and perishables. Air car...

  16. Matrix-dependent local retention of secretory vesicle cargo in cortical neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.; Toonen, R.F.G.; Verhage, M.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons secrete many diffusible signals from synaptic and other secretory vesicles. We characterized secretion of guidance cues, neuropeptides, neurotrophins, and proteases from single secretory vesicles using pHluorin-tagged cargo in cortical neurons. Stimulation triggered transient and persistent

  17. 46 CFR 154.1710 - Exclusion of air from cargo tank vapor spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is loaded by maintaining a positive pressure of at least 13.8 kPa gauge (2 psig) by: (1) Introducing... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Special Design and...

  18. Opportunity of Constructing a Cargo Terminal – Case Study Brașov International Airport, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BRĂTUCU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Air transport and especially air cargo transport became ever more important during the last 25 years, with a signifi cant impact upon economic development. Air cargo transport supports regional economic development, provided there is suffi cient local demand for its services. In our study, we have identifi ed signifi cant elements of the impact a cargo terminal at the International Brașov-Ghimbav Airport would have upon local economic development. For this purpose, we have conducted a quantitative market research. We have reached the conclusion that constructing a cargo terminal at the Brașov-Ghimbav Airport is a necessary investment in the current economic context, with an important contribution to the economic development of its surrounding counties. The positive results registered in our study could contribute to improving the economic and fi nancial prospects of Brașov-Ghimbav Airport and attract investors in this project.

  19. Crystal structures of the tetratricopeptide repeat domains of kinesin light chains: insight into cargo recognition mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizhong Zhu

    Full Text Available Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%, KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1 cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form "a carboxylate clamp" with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1 interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  20. Evaluation of the operational benefits versus costs of an automated cargo mover

    OpenAIRE

    Culp, Joshua; Feeney, Jon; Meus, Cleevens; Davis, Joshua; Kays, Jennifer; Summer, Jesse; Domondon, Richard; Martin Adam

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This report examines the use of an automated robotic pallet mover during resupply missions in support of forward-deployed Marine units. The pallet mover is capable of loading and unloading itself and its cargo from MV-22 and CH-53 aircraft, and subsequently transporting that cargo 3,281 feet over unimproved terrain. The report explores the operationally relevant scenarios where a robotic pallet mover could be used, to determine whether...

  1. Using Monte Carlo Simulation To Improve Cargo Mass Estimates For International Space Station Commercial Resupply Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Historical Averages ................................... 22 Table 4. ISS Cargo Flights. Adapted from NASA at www.nasa.gov. ................ 41 Table 5...to pursue access to ISS by commercial means for both crew and cargo ( NASA 2004). B. COMMERCIAL ORBITAL TRANSPORTATION SERVICES PROGRAM Although...COTS Program that, in turn, delayed the start of ISS resupply in earnest under the CRS contract. NASA took care to stock ISS appropriately to cover

  2. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won (SGC-Toronto); (PPCS); (Toronto)

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  3. Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a combined model composed of grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model to improve the accuracy of forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. The authors also use the existing data of a current port to verify the validity of the combined model.Design/methodology/approach: A literature review is undertaken to find the appropriate forecast model of cargo throughput for the port. Through researching the related forecast model, the authors put together the individual models which are significant to study further. Finally, the authors combine two individual models (grey-forecast model and Logistic-growth-curve model into one combined model to forecast the port cargo throughput, and use the model to a physical port in China to testify the validity of the model.Findings: Test by the perceptional data of cargo throughput in the physical port, the results show that the combined model can obtain relatively higher forecast accuracy when it is not easy to find more information. Furthermore, the forecast made by the combined model are more accurate than any of the individual ones.Research limitations/implications: The study provided a new combined forecast model of cargo throughput with a relatively less information to improve the accuracy rate of the forecast. The limitation of the model is that it requires the cargo throughput of the port have an S-shaped change trend.Practical implications: This model is not limited by external conditions such as geographical, cultural. This model predicted the port cargo throughput of one real port in China in 2015, which provided some instructive guidance for the port development.Originality/value: This is the one of the study to improve the accuracy rate of the cargo throughput forecast with little information.

  4. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  5. Improving customs’ border control by creating a reference database of cargo inspection X-ray images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Kolokytha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Countries’ effective and efficient border security is becoming increasingly important in today’s global world of economy and trade. To ensure these, customs organisations are responsible for the prevention of illicit goods’ transportation across borders, particularly upon entry. The predicament of the customs administrations will soon be aggravated by both the increase of global trade and the trend towards 100% screening. It is therefore a goal to advance inspection methods to enable successful cargo handling, a scope towards which this research was aimed at. This work was carried out as part of the project ACXIS “Automated Comparison of X-ray Images for cargo Scanning” a European research project within the seventh framework programme answering the call SEC-2012.3.4-1: « Research on Automated Comparison of X-ray Images for cargo Scanning », to improve the process with the largest impact to trade flow: the procedures of freight X-ray scanning. As such, this project was focused on to implementing a manufacturer independent reference database for X-ray images of illicit and non-illicit cargo, developing procedures and algorithms in order to uniform X-ray images of different cargo scanners, and developing a training simulator for inspection officers and a toolbox enclosing several assisted and automated identification techniques for potentially illicit cargo.

  6. Photon and neutron interrogation techniques for chemical explosives detection in air cargo: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runkle, Robert C.; White, Timothy A.; Miller, Erin A.; Caggiano, Joseph A.; Collins, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning cargo transported via aircraft ('air cargo') for explosive threats is a problem that presently lacks a comprehensive technical solution. While chemical explosives detection in the baggage-scanning domain has a rich history that sheds light on potential solutions, air cargo differs in several important ways, and thus one cannot look to the present array of technologies. Some contemporary solutions, such as trace analysis, are not readily applied to cargo because of sampling challenges while the larger geometry of air cargo makes others less effective. This review article examines an array of interrogation techniques using photons and neutrons as incident particles. We first present a summary of the signatures and observables chemical explosives provide and review how they have been exploited in baggage scanning. Following this review is a description of the challenges posed by the air-cargo application space. After considering sources of photons and neutrons, we describe methods focused on transmission imaging, sub-surface examination, and elemental characterization. It is our goal to expand the understanding of each method's technical promise while largely deferring questions that revolve around footprint, safety, and conduct of operations. Our overarching intent is that a comprehensive understanding of potential techniques will foster the development of a comprehensive solution.

  7. A fluid membrane enhances the velocity of cargo transport by small teams of kinesin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaochu; Tseng, Kuo-Fu; King, Stephen J.; Qiu, Weihong; Xu, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Kinesin-1 (hereafter referred to as kinesin) is a major microtubule-based motor protein for plus-end-directed intracellular transport in live cells. While the single-molecule functions of kinesin are well characterized, the physiologically relevant transport of membranous cargos by small teams of kinesins remains poorly understood. A key experimental challenge remains in the quantitative control of the number of motors driving transport. Here we utilized "motile fraction" to overcome this challenge and experimentally accessed transport by a single kinesin through the physiologically relevant transport by a small team of kinesins. We used a fluid lipid bilayer to model the cellular membrane in vitro and employed optical trapping to quantify the transport of membrane-enclosed cargos versus traditional membrane-free cargos under identical conditions. We found that coupling motors via a fluid membrane significantly enhances the velocity of cargo transport by small teams of kinesins. Importantly, enclosing a cargo in a fluid lipid membrane did not impact single-kinesin transport, indicating that membrane-dependent velocity enhancement for team-based transport arises from altered interactions between kinesins. Our study demonstrates that membrane-based coupling between motors is a key determinant of kinesin-based transport. Enhanced velocity may be critical for fast delivery of cargos in live cells.

  8. Nonlinear roll damping of a barge with and without liquid cargo in spherical tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damping plays a significant role on the maximum amplitude of a vessel's roll motion, in particular near the resonant frequency. It is a common practice to predict roll damping using a linear radiation–diffraction code and add that to a linearized viscous damping component, which can be obtained through empirical, semi-empirical equations or free decay tests in calm water. However, it is evident that the viscous roll damping is nonlinear with roll velocity and amplitude. Nonlinear liquid cargo motions inside cargo tanks also contribute to roll damping, which when ignored impedes the accurate prediction of maximum roll motions. In this study, a series of free decay model tests is conducted on a barge-like vessel with two spherical tanks, which allows a better understanding of the nonlinear roll damping components considering the effects of the liquid cargo motion. To examine the effects of the cargo motion on the damping levels, a nonlinear model is adopted to calculate the damping coefficients. The liquid cargo motion is observed to affect both the linear and the quadratic components of the roll damping. The flow memory effect on the roll damping is also studied. The nonlinear damping coefficients of the vessel with liquid cargo motions in spherical tanks are obtained, which are expected to contribute in configurations involving spherical tanks.

  9. Air cargo market outlook and impact via the NASA CLASS project. [Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, M. M.; Conner, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the Cargo/Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project which was a 10 man-year effort carried out by two contractor teams, aimed at defining factors impacting future system growth and obtaining market requirements and design guidelines for future air freighters. Growth projection was estimated by two approaches: one, an optimal systems approach with a more efficient and cost effective system considered as being available in 1990; and the other, an evolutionary approach with an econometric behavior model used to predict long term evolution from the present system. Both approaches predict significant growth in demand for international air freighter services and less growth for U.S. domestic services. Economic analysis of air freighter fleet options indicate very strong market appeal of derivative widebody transports in 1990 with little incentive to develop all new dedicated air freighters utilizing the 1990's technology until sometime beyond the year 2000. Advanced air freighters would be economically attractive for a wide range of payload sizes (to 500 metric tons), however, if a government would share in the RD and T costs by virtue of its needs for a slightly modified version of a civil air freighter design (a.g. military airlifter).

  10. Length of encapsidated cargo impacts stability and structure of in vitro assembled alphavirus core-like particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaprolu, Vamseedhar; Moore, Alan; Che-Yen Wang, Joseph; Goh, Boon Chong; Perilla, Juan R.; Zlotnick, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

    2017-12-01

    In vitro assembly of alphavirus nucleocapsid cores, called core-like particles (CLPs), requires a polyanionic cargo. There are no sequence or structure requirements to encapsidate single-stranded nucleic acid cargo. In this work, we wanted to determine how the length of the cargo impacts the stability and structure of the assembled CLPs. We hypothesized that cargo neutralizes the basic region of the alphavirus capsid protein and if the cargo is long enough, it will also act to scaffold the CP monomers together. Experimentally we found that CLPs encapsidating short 27mer oligonucleotides were less stable than CLPs encapsidating 48mer or 90mer oligonucleotides under different chemical and thermal conditions. Furthermore, cryo-EM studies showed there were structural differences between CLPs assembled with 27mer and 48mer cargo. To mimic the role of the cargo in CLP assembly we made a mutant (4D) where we substituted a cluster of four Lys residues in the CP with four Asp residues. We found that these few amino acid substitutions were enough to initiate CLP assembly in the absence of cargo. The cargo-free 4D CLPs show higher resistance to ionic strength and increased temperature compared to wild-type cargo containing CLPs suggesting their CLP assembly mechanism might also be different.

  11. Detection of nuclear material by photon activation inside cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, Mehdi; Berthoumieux, Eric; Boyer, Sébastien; Carrel, Frédérick; Doré, Diane; Giacri, Marie-Laure; Lainé, Frédéric; Poumarède, Bénédicte; Ridikas, Danas; Van Lauwe, Aymeric

    2006-05-01

    Photons with energies above 6 MeV can be used to detect small amounts of nuclear material inside large cargo containers. The method consists in using an intense beam of high-energy photons (bremsstrahlung radiation) in order to induce reactions of photofission on actinides. The measurement of delayed neutrons and delayed gammas emitted by fission products brings specific information on localization and quantification of the nuclear material. A simultaneous measurement of both of these delayed signals can overcome some important limitations due to matrix effects like heavy shielding and/or the presence of light elements as hydrogen. We have a long experience in the field of nuclear waste package characterization by photon interrogation and we have demonstrated that presently the detection limit can be less than one gram of actinide per ton of package. Recently we tried to extend our knowledge to assess the performance of this method for the detection of special nuclear materials in sea and air freights. This paper presents our first results based on experimental measurements carried out in the SAPHIR facility, which houses a linear electron accelerator with the energy range from 15 MeV to 30 MeV. Our experiments were also modeled using the full scale Monte Carlo techniques. In addition, and in a more general frame, due to the lack of consistent data on photonuclear reactions, we have been working on the development of a new photonuclear activation file (PAF), which includes cross sections for more than 600 isotopes including photofission fragment distributions and delayed neutron tables for actinides. Therefore, this work includes also some experimental results obtained at the ELSA electron accelerator, which is more adapted for precise basic nuclear data measurements.

  12. Large area x-ray detectors for cargo radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C.; Albagli, D.; Bendahan, J.; Castleberry, D.; Gordon, C.; Hopkins, F.; Ross, W.

    2007-04-01

    Large area x-ray detectors based on phosphors coupled to flat panel amorphous silicon diode technology offer significant advances for cargo radiologic imaging. Flat panel area detectors provide large object coverage offering high throughput inspections to meet the high flow rate of container commerce. These detectors provide excellent spatial resolution when needed, and enhanced SNR through low noise electronics. If the resolution is reduced through pixel binning, further advances in SNR are achievable. Extended exposure imaging and frame averaging enables improved x-ray penetration of ultra-thick objects, or "select-your-own" contrast sensitivity at a rate many times faster than LDAs. The areal coverage of flat panel technology provides inherent volumetric imaging with the appropriate scanning methods. Flat panel area detectors have flexible designs in terms of electronic control, scintillator selection, pixel pitch, and frame rates. Their cost is becoming more competitive as production ramps up for the healthcare, nondestructive testing (NDT), and homeland protection industries. Typically used medical and industrial polycrystalline phosphor materials such as Gd2O2S:Tb (GOS) can be applied to megavolt applications if the phosphor layer is sufficiently thick to enhance x-ray absorption, and if a metal radiator is used to augment the quantum detection efficiency and reduce x-ray scatter. Phosphor layers ranging from 0.2-mm to 1-mm can be "sandwiched" between amorphous silicon flat panel diode arrays and metal radiators. Metal plates consisting of W, Pb or Cu, with thicknesses ranging from 0.25-mm to well over 1-mm can be used by covering the entire area of the phosphor plate. In some combinations of high density metal and phosphor layers, the metal plate provides an intensification of 25% in signal due to electron emission from the plate and subsequent excitation within the phosphor material. This further improves the SNR of the system.

  13. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Thomas Wesley, E-mail: twholmes@ncsu.edu [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P. [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, ). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.x4 in.x16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.x16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are {sup 137}Cs and {sup 235}U.

  14. 29 CFR 1918.89 - Handling hazardous cargo (See also § 1918.2 and § 1918.99).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handling hazardous cargo (See also § 1918.2 and § 1918.99). 1918.89 Section 1918.89 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 1918.89 Handling hazardous cargo (See also § 1918.2 and § 1918.99). Hazardous cargo shall be slung and...

  15. Spatial relationships and movement patterns of the air cargo industry in airport regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus J. van V. Coetzee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past few years, with the increase in air traffic and the expansion of airports, very few industries had such a large spatial development and movement impact as that of airport-related clusters or airport regions. Although much research was done on the various impacts of the airport industry, very little research was done on the air cargo industry in airport regions. Objectives: This article specifically explored the unique spatial relationships, impacts, trends and movement patterns of the air cargo industry within a typical airport region. Method: The article focused on the OR Tambo International Airport in Gauteng, South Africa, as a case study and was informed by an extensive quantitative spatial and land use analysis and modelling of the study area. Results: The article presented findings and insights on the movement patterns and relationships between (1 the airport facility and (2 the spatial configuration of air cargo industries in the particular airport region. These findings also provided some framework for a possible spatial model and guideline that could assist in steering and managing development and movement patterns in airport regions. Conclusion: The article provided new insights and understanding on the spatial dynamics of airport regions and the air cargo industry, ultimately addressing some gaps in this knowledge field. The article in the end highlighted the need for a different and novel approach to the planning and management of the air cargo industry in airport regions and a basis for further research.

  16. Container cargo simulation modeling for measuring impacts of infrastructure investment projects in Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Qi; Shibasaki, Ryuichi; Li, Bo-Wei

    2010-03-01

    In the Pearl River Delta (PRD), there is severe competition between container ports, particularly those in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou, for collecting international maritime container cargo. In addition, the second phase of the Nansha terminal in Guangzhou’s port and the first phase of the Da Chang Bay container terminal in Shenzhen opened last year. Under these circumstances, there is an increasing need to quantitatively measure the impact these infrastructure investments have on regional cargo flows. The analysis should include the effects of container terminal construction, berth deepening, and access road construction. The authors have been developing a model for international cargo simulation (MICS) which can simulate the movement of cargo. The volume of origin-destination (OD) container cargo in the East Asian region was used as an input, in order to evaluate the effects of international freight transportation policies. This paper focuses on the PRD area and, by incorporating a more detailed network, evaluates the impact of several infrastructure investment projects on freight movement.

  17. Structural basis of cargo membrane protein discrimination by the human COPII coat machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancias, Joseph D.; Goldberg, Jonathan (MSKCC)

    2008-11-18

    Genomic analysis shows that the increased complexity of trafficking pathways in mammalian cells involves an expansion of the number of SNARE, Rab and COP proteins. Thus, the human genome encodes four forms of Sec24, the cargo selection subunit of the COPII vesicular coat, and this is proposed to increase the range of cargo accommodated by human COPII-coated vesicles. In this study, we combined X-ray crystallographic and biochemical analysis with functional assays of cargo packaging into COPII vesicles to establish molecular mechanisms for cargo discrimination by human Sec24 subunits. A conserved IxM packaging signal binds in a surface groove of Sec24c and Sec24d, but the groove is occluded in the Sec24a and Sec24b subunits. Conversely, LxxLE class transport signals and the DxE signal of VSV glycoprotein are selectively bound by Sec24a and Sec24b subunits. A comparative analysis of crystal structures of the four human Sec24 isoforms establishes the structural determinants for discrimination among these transport signals, and provides a framework to understand how an expansion of coat subunits extends the range of cargo proteins packaged into COPII-coated vesicles.

  18. Variable actin dynamics requirement for the exit of different cargo from the trans-Golgi network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Colonna, Cecilia; Cortegano, Miguel; Calvo, María; Martínez, Susana E; Egea, Gustavo

    2007-08-07

    Efficient post-Golgi trafficking depends on microtubules, but actin filaments and actin-associated proteins are also postulated. Here we examined, by inverse fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, the role of actin dynamics in the exit from the TGN of fluorescent-tagged apical or basolateral and raft or non-raft-associated cargoes. Either the actin-stabilizing jasplakinolide or the actin-depolymerising latrunculin B variably but significantly inhibited post-Golgi traffic of non-raft associated apical p75NTR and basolateral VSV-G cargoes. The TGN-exit of the apical-destined VSV-G mutant was impaired only by latrunculin B. Strikingly, the raft-associated GPI-anchor protein was not affected by either actin toxin. Results indicate that actin dynamics participates in the TGN egress of both apical- and basolateral-targeted proteins but is not needed for apical raft-associated cargo.

  19. Automated X-ray image analysis for cargo security: Critical review and future promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Thomas W; Jaccard, Nicolas; Morton, Edward J; Griffin, Lewis D

    2017-01-01

    We review the relatively immature field of automated image analysis for X-ray cargo imagery. There is increasing demand for automated analysis methods that can assist in the inspection and selection of containers, due to the ever-growing volumes of traded cargo and the increasing concerns that customs- and security-related threats are being smuggled across borders by organised crime and terrorist networks. We split the field into the classical pipeline of image preprocessing and image understanding. Preprocessing includes: image manipulation; quality improvement; Threat Image Projection (TIP); and material discrimination and segmentation. Image understanding includes: Automated Threat Detection (ATD); and Automated Contents Verification (ACV). We identify several gaps in the literature that need to be addressed and propose ideas for future research. Where the current literature is sparse we borrow from the single-view, multi-view, and CT X-ray baggage domains, which have some characteristics in common with X-ray cargo.

  20. Electrostatic assembly/disassembly of nanoscaled colloidosomes for light-triggered cargo release

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2015-04-27

    Colloidosome capsules possess the potential for the encapsulation and release of molecular and macromolecular cargos. However, the stabilization of the colloidosome shell usually requires an additional covalent crosslinking which irreversibly seals the capsules, and greatly limits their applications in large-cargos release. Herein we report nanoscaled colloidosomes designed by the electrostatic assembly of organosilica nanoparticles (NPs) with oppositely charged surfaces (rather than covalent bonds), arising from different contents of a bridged nitrophenylene-alkoxysilane [NB; 3-nitro-N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-4-(((3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)-amino)methyl)benzamid] derivative in the silica. The surface charge of the positively charged NPs was reversed by light irradiation because of a photoreaction in the NB moieties, which impacted the electrostatic interactions between NPs and disassembled the colloidosome nanosystems. This design was successfully applied for the encapsulation and light-triggered release of cargos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Design of an experiment to measure fire exposure of packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire abroad a container cargo ship. A stack of nice used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Fire environments, both inside and outside the containers, typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container-to-container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container-to-container fire spread characteristics. (authors)

  2. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE MILITARY TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT AT CARGO ITEM DROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability of military transport aircraft deteriorates at heavy single piece landing. To solve this problem and a specific methodology for pilotage of the pre-emption, and automation tools are being developed. Preliminary study ofpilotage technique and authomatic control algorythm demand a reliable mathematical model of aircraft dynamics at cargo item drop. Such model should take into account significant change in the position of the aircraft center of mass and aircraft inertia tensor. Simplified models were based on modeling the movement of the center of mass and rotation around the cen- ter of mass of the aircraft. Such models do not take into account the inertial forces and moments of moving a cargo item. This circumstance does not allow to obtain reliable results in the simulation. The article presents the description of the complete mathematical model of the movement of military transport aircraft in landing of a cargo item. Examines the com- plex material system of solids and a detailed description of the properties of its components. The equations of motion of the aircraft as a system carrier (aircraft without a cargo item and wear (of moving a cargo item bodies to reflect the changes in the inertia tensor. The functioning of the power plant, steering actuators, flight control system, an exhaust chute, the sen- sors of the primary information are taken into account. The equations of motion for systems of bodies projected on the air- craft reference plane are being recorded. This approach takes into account changes of the inertia tensor and the position of the main central axes of inertia in the process of landing of a cargo item. It allows us to simulate the condition of the air- craft at all speeds of the pitch, normal overload, and masses of single piece and placement, as evidenced by the high con- vergence of modeling results with data from flight tests.

  3. A Benchmarking of Operational Efficiency in Asia Pacific International Cargo Airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-won Chung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares operational efficiency of major cargo airports in the Asia Pacific region. The multi-dimensional scaling cluster analysis by R-square method was used as the benchmarking tool to provide airport management with a means to examine various aspects of their operational efficiency against those of other airports. Ten operational efficiency factors for the clustering and efficiency estimation of airports in the Asia Pacific region were used in a regression model to overcome the complexity of multi-dimensional scaling approach. The resulting classification is used to identify the efficiency benchmarks of leading air cargo airports which have implications for Incheon airport in Korea.

  4. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  5. Use of ABC–XYZ–analysis in cost management of the cargo turnover in transport logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Chukurna O.; Davydova A.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the relevance of the use of ABC–XYZ–analysis in the management of cargo turnover costs in the implementation of transport and logistics operations. It proposed by using the ABC analysis to rank suppliers or customers of freight turnover and the cost of each logistics operation (or profitability of the logistics services). On the basis of the received data to optimise logistics costs. It is proposed to use the XYZ–analysis to predict the volume of cargo turnover and a l...

  6. THE PROBLEM OF PROPER CARGO SECURING IN ROAD TRANSPORT – CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CIEŚLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of improper security of cargo in trucks as the cause of about 25% of the accidents that takes place in road transport. Attention was drawn to aspects of legal liability for errors resulting from incorrect load securing according to polish law. Article was enriched with practical examples illustrating the effects of improper cargo securing on transport unit and shows how it had to be prepared properly. When planning the proper transport protection of metal sheets rolled both calculation methods and computer applications were used.

  7. Protocells and their use for targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, C Jeffrey; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Juewen; Peabody, David S; Wharton, Walker Richard; Carnes, Eric; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L

    2015-03-31

    Various embodiments provide materials and methods for synthesizing protocells for use in targeted delivery of cargo components to cancer cells. In one embodiment, the lipid bilayer can be fused to the porous particle core to form a protocell. The lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting ligands or other ligands to achieve targeted delivery of cargo components that are loaded within the protocell to a target cell, e.g., a type of cancer. Shielding materials can be conjugated to the surface of the lipid bilayer to reduce undesired non-specific binding.

  8. Acceso de las mujeres a los cargos directivos: universidades con techo de cristal

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Gaete Quezada

    2018-01-01

    Se analiza el techo de cristal desde las percepciones y experiencias de las académicas respecto del acceso a los cargos directivos en sus instituciones universitarias, materializado en barreras internas o externas que afectan su carrera laboral. La investigación se desarrolla a través de un estudio de caso de dos universidades chilenas, considerando el uso de metodología cualitativa recopilando la información a través de entrevistas semi-estructuradas con académicas que se desempeñan en cargo...

  9. 49 CFR 178.337 - Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter. 178... MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in...

  10. 46 CFR 30.25-1 - Cargoes carried in vessels certificated under the rules of this subchapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Combustible Bulk Liquid Cargoes Cargo name IMOAnnex II Pollution Category Acetone III Acetophenone @D...-Decylbenzene, see Alkyl(C9+)benzenes III Detergent alkylate D Diacetone alcohol D Dialkyl(C10-C14) benzenes.... Sodium acetate, Glycol, Water mixture (containing 1% or less, Sodium hydroxide) (if flammable or...

  11. 78 FR 11981 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the security of Department of Defense assets and military cargo in the navigable waters of Puget Sound... Sound Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard; telephone 206-217-6045, email SectorPugetSound WWM...

  12. Overview of Crane Control Systems and the Related Problems: Analysis of Container Oscillation Using Different Types of Cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eglynas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing international trading increased cargo transportation in containers, therefore the port cranes have higher loads. Increased cargo flows can influence transportation safety. It is therefore necessary to review the crane systems and determine what factors might influence the volatility of the container and its cargo during transportation. The paper includes consideration and analysis of crane control systems and related problems. The authors consider the reasons of problems, probable damage and solution methods. The paper also provides the analysis of the relationship between different container cargoes and container oscillations occurring during handling operations using a container crane prototype. The analysis of the effect of different cargoes in containers on loading process and the results of occurring oscillations are presented.

  13. Intracellular Delivery of Molecular Cargo Using Cell-Penetrating Peptides and the Combination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs can cross cellular membranes in a non-toxic fashion, improving the intracellular delivery of various molecular cargos such as nanoparticles, small molecules and plasmid DNA. Because CPPs provide a safe, efficient, and non-invasive mode of transport for various cargos into cells, they have been developed as vectors for the delivery of genetic and biologic products in recent years. Most common CPPs are positively charged peptides. While delivering negatively charged molecules (e.g., nucleic acids to target cells, the internalization efficiency of CPPs is reduced and inhibited because the cationic charges on the CPPs are neutralized through the covering of CPPs by cargos on the structure. Even under these circumstances, the CPPs can still be non-covalently complexed with the negatively charged molecules. To address this issue, combination strategies of CPPs with other typical carriers provide a promising and novel delivery system. This review summarizes the latest research work in using CPPs combined with molecular cargos including liposomes, polymers, cationic peptides, nanoparticles, adeno-associated virus (AAV and calcium for the delivery of genetic products, especially for small interfering RNA (siRNA. This combination strategy remedies the reduced internalization efficiency caused by neutralization.

  14. 78 FR 64285 - National Maritime Strategy Symposium: Cargo Opportunities and Sealift Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... operates U.S.-flagged vessels. The purpose of this public meeting is to generate ideas that will improve... purpose of this public meeting is to gather ideas for improving the Nation's cargo opportunities and.... daily, January 14 through January 16, 2014. Key Date: The deadline to submit agenda topics and ideas for...

  15. Local synaptic signaling enhances the stochastic transport of motor-driven cargo in neurons

    KAUST Repository

    Newby, Jay

    2010-08-23

    The tug-of-war model of motor-driven cargo transport is formulated as an intermittent trapping process. An immobile trap, representing the cellular machinery that sequesters a motor-driven cargo for eventual use, is located somewhere within a microtubule track. A particle representing a motor-driven cargo that moves randomly with a forward bias is introduced at the beginning of the track. The particle switches randomly between a fast moving phase and a slow moving phase. When in the slow moving phase, the particle can be captured by the trap. To account for the possibility that the particle avoids the trap, an absorbing boundary is placed at the end of the track. Two local signaling mechanisms-intended to improve the chances of capturing the target-are considered by allowing the trap to affect the tug-of-war parameters within a small region around itself. The first is based on a localized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration gradient surrounding a synapse, and the second is based on a concentration of tau-a microtubule-associated protein involved in Alzheimer\\'s disease-coating the microtubule near the synapse. It is shown that both mechanisms can lead to dramatic improvements in the capture probability, with a minimal increase in the mean capture time. The analysis also shows that tau can cause a cargo to undergo random oscillations, which could explain some experimental observations. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system must have a connection for introducing inert gas and for gas freeing the piping in the machinery space. (c) A gas fired main propulsion boiler or combustion engine must have a fuel oil fired pilot that... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo...

  17. The use of x-ray imaging technology in cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palgan, Renato D.

    2009-01-01

    The aftermath of the September 11,2001 terrorist attack in the United States has brought a significant change in the conduct of trade and commerce among nations. The introduction on non-intrusive cargo inspection equipment, most x-ray and gamma ray scanners, among customs administrations worldwide has been widely employed and incorporated in their respective cargo examination procedures as part of their security initiative to deter terrorist threats. In compliance with our international commitment and agreement passed by the World Customs Organization which required the use of modern technology in cargo inspection, the Bureau of Customs had acquired 30 units of container x-ray scanners in 2006 from China that became operational in 2007 and the acquisition of which was guided by the following objectives: maximize collection of government revenues,facilitate trade and commerce, prevent smuggling, and safeguard the public and environment against the entry of hazardous and harmful substance. In this light, this paper discusses the brief background of the non-intrusive container inspection system project of the Bureau of Customs, an overview of the technical features of x-ray imaging technology acquired, the procedures in the application of x-ray inspection in containerized cargo, the radiation safety infrastructures and considerations, and a review of some major accomplishments after its two years of existence. (author)

  18. 19 CFR 123.92 - Electronic information for truck cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign country. Cargo arriving by truck in transit through the United States from one foreign country to... point to another in the same foreign country (§ 123.31(b); § 123.42) are subject to the advance... complete name and address, or identification number, from the bill(s) of lading (for each house bill in a...

  19. Indications of marine bioinvasion from network theory. An analysis of the global cargo ship network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölzsch, A.; Blasius, B.

    2011-01-01

    The transport of huge amounts of small aquatic organisms in the ballast tanks and at the hull of large cargo ships leads to ever increasing rates of marine bioinvasion. In this study, we apply a network theoretic approach to examine the introduction of invasive species into new ports by global

  20. Database specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Hancock, B.R.; Grubb, J.W.; Russell, D.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Loftis, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This Database Specification for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) describes the database organization and storage allocation, provides the detailed data model of the logical and physical designs, and provides information for the construction of parts of the database such as tables, data elements, and associated dictionaries and diagrams.

  1. Membrane-associated cargo recycling by tubule-based endosomal sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weering, J.R.T.; Cullen, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The endosome system is a collection of organelles that sort membrane-associated proteins and lipids for lysosomal degradation or recycling back to their target organelle. Recycling cargo is captured in a network of membrane tubules emanating from endosomes where tubular carriers pinch off. These

  2. 46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... percent liquid full and without causing the pressure in the loading lines to exceed the design pressure... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and... liquid level gauging system under § 154.1305; (b) Actuates quick-closing valves under §§ 154.530, 154.532...

  3. ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL CARGO TRANSPORTATION BY ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kosovsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes methodology for estimating efficiency international economic relations in the sphere international cargo transportation by road for the national economy on the basis of relationship between advantages and costs of sub-systems of the unified system for automotive export services.

  4. 33 CFR 155.1045 - Response plan requirements for vessels carrying oil as a secondary cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... spill and firefighting procedures for the oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION... percent if he or she submits historical data with the plan that substantiates the transfer of a lower...

  5. 75 FR 34573 - Bulk Solid Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Pollution from Ships MISLE Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement MHB Materials Hazardous only in Bulk MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet NCB National Cargo Bureau NEPA National Environmental Policy Act... material safety data sheet (MSDS) address some portions of proposed Sec. 148.60. We agree with the comment...

  6. 77 FR 14327 - Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 98 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0088] RIN 1625-AB63 Bulk Packaging To Allow for Transfer of Hazardous Liquid Cargoes AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to amend its regulations concerning the...

  7. Injuries sustained by passengers travelling in the cargo area of light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a light delivery vehicle (LDV).[5,6] Injury prevention programmes ... Despite its inherently dangerous nature, the practice of transporting passengers in the cargo area of light delivery vehicles. (LDVs) is widespread in South ... event involved passengers being ejected from or falling out of an. LDV without a collision. Results.

  8. 49 CFR 180.413 - Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or... Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS... of Cargo Tanks § 180.413 Repair, modification, stretching, rebarrelling, or mounting of specification...

  9. 75 FR 59617 - Notification of Arrival in U.S. Ports; Certain Dangerous Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... definition. Because of this change, fewer vessels carrying only lower-risk cargoes will trigger NOA or other... CDC residue definition to include certain bulk liquids and liquefied gases in residue quantities, revise the definition of CDC to reflect the proposed change in the CDC residue definition, and adopt...

  10. 78 FR 57485 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Sound and adjacent waters. Entry into this zone is prohibited unless otherwise exempted or excluded... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this notice, call or email LTJG Johnny Zeng, Sector Puget Sound...

  11. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  12. Injuries sustained by passengers travelling in the cargo area of light ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All patients presenting to the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service in KwaZulu-Natal Province following an event in which they had been travelling in the cargo area of an LDV between January 2011 and December 2012 were included in the audit. Results. A total of 66 patients were treated during the study period; ...

  13. 77 FR 21579 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Activities: Transfer of Cargo to a Container Station AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department... a Container Station. This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously... Container Station. OMB Number: 1651-0096. Form Number: None. Abstract: Before the filing of an entry of...

  14. 19 CFR 122.48a - Electronic information for air cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic information for air cargo required in... OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  15. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  16. Myosin-V opposes microtubule-based cargo transport and drives directional motility on cortical actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitein, Lukas C; van Bergeijk, Petra; Lipka, Joanna; Keijzer, Nanda; Wulf, Phebe S; Katrukha, Eugene A; Akhmanova, Anna; Hoogenraad, Casper C

    2013-05-06

    Intracellular transport is driven by motor proteins that either use microtubules or actin filaments as their tracks, but the interplay between these transport pathways is poorly understood. Whereas many microtubule-based motors are known to drive long-range transport, several actin-based motors have been proposed to function predominantly in cargo tethering. How these opposing activities are integrated on cargoes that contain both types of motors is unknown. Here we use inducible intracellular transport assays to show that acute recruitment of myosin-V to kinesin-propelled cargo reduces their motility near the cell periphery and enhances their localization at the actin-rich cell cortex. Myosin-V arrests rapid microtubule-based transport without the need for regulated auto- or other inhibition of kinesin motors. In addition, myosin-V, despite being an ineffective long-range transporter, can drive slow, medium-range (1-5 μm), point-to-point transport in cortical cell regions. Altogether, these data support a model in which myosin-V establishes local cortical delivery of kinesin-bound cargos through a combination of tethering and active transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-energy x-ray detectors to improve air-cargo security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Caroline; Moulin, Vincent; Perion, Didier; Radisson, Patrick; Verger, Loïck

    2017-05-01

    X-ray based systems have been used for decades to screen luggage or cargo to detect illicit material. The advent of energy-sensitive photon-counting x-ray detectors mainly based on Cd(Zn)Te semi-conductor technology enables to improve discrimination between materials compared to single or dual energy technology. The presented work is part of the EUROSKY European project to develop a Single European Secure Air-Cargo Space. "Cargo" context implies the presence of relatively heavy objects and with potentially high atomic number. All the study is conducted on simulations with three different detectors: a typical dual energy sandwich detector, a realistic model of the commercial ME100 multi-energy detector marketed by MULTIX, and a ME100 "Cargo": a not yet existing modified multi-energy version of the ME100 more suited to air freight cargo inspection. Firstly, a comparison on simulated measurements shows the performances improvement of the new multi-energy detectors compared to the current dual-energy one. The relative performances are evaluated according to different criteria of separability or contrast-to-noise ratio and the impact of different parameters is studied (influence of channel number, type of materials and tube voltage). Secondly, performances of multi-energy detectors for overlaps processing in a dual-view system is accessed: the case of orthogonal projections has been studied, one giving dimensional values, the other one providing spectral data to assess effective atomic number. A method of overlap correction has been proposed and extended to multi-layer objects case. Therefore, Calibration and processing based on bi-material decomposition have been adapted for this purpose.

  18. 46 CFR 32.50-5 - Cargo pump gauges on tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump gauges on tank vessels constructed on or... SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-5 Cargo pump gauges on tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936—TB/ALL. (a...

  19. 46 CFR 32.50-1 - Cargo pumps for tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps for tank vessels constructed on or after... TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-1 Cargo pumps for tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936—TB/ALL. On all...

  20. 46 CFR 32.50-25 - Cargo pumps and piping on tank vessels constructed prior to November 10, 1936-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and piping on tank vessels constructed prior... SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-25 Cargo pumps and piping on tank vessels constructed prior to November 10, 1936—TB/ALL...

  1. 46 CFR 153.372 - Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures exceeding 100 kPa (approx. 14.7 psia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gauges and vapor return for cargo vapor pressures... COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.372 Gauges and vapor... section, the containment system must have a: (a) Tank pressure gauge at the point where cargo flow is...

  2. Evaluation difference between mass of received cargo and mass of handed over the cargo in the determination of the masses by draft survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakuta I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the analysis of problems associated with the evaluation of difference between the mass of received and handed over cargo in determining the masses by draft survey and due to the difference in the measurement conditions at the loading and unloading ports (due to the change errors in various stages of the measurement procedures. The errors that may arise in determining the mass of the cargo due to roughness when measuring draft, due to using the inclinometer to determine the draft from one of boards, due to instrumental errors in the determination of the density of seawater, due to other possible errors have been investigated and evaluated. To estimate the errors of draft due to heaving and errors of inclinometer some formula are to be applied, their derivation has been done in this paper. It has been recommended to use the traditional formula of high-speed drawdown with the replacement of vessel speed on current rate to calculate the error of precipitation arising from the drawdowns ship on a current. The value per unit displacement draft from loading scale has been used to evaluate the error of the displacement appearing in the presence of draft errors. As a result two similar criteria (rigorous and statistical of allowable discrepancies calculated by draft survey mass of cargo in the port of loading and port of discharge have been substantiated. These criteria require the calculation and accumulation in a table of all the errors and calculate the total error of displacement. Criteria will allow the consignee and the carrier come to a reasonable and agreed decision about the significance of differences of the masses taking into account the indifference of conditions and measuring instruments.

  3. Impact of a radio-frequency identification system and information interchange on clearance processes for cargo at border posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Bhero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improved operational efficiency is important to role players in cross-border logistics and trade corridors. Cargo owners and cargo forwarders have been particularly concerned about long delays in the processing and clearing of cargo at border posts. Field studies suggest that these delays are due to a combination of factors, such as a lack of optimum system configurations and non-optimised human-dependent operations, which make the operations prone to corruption and other malpractices.Objectives: This article presents possible strategies for improving some of the operations in this sector. The research hinges on two key questions: (1 what is the impact of information interchange between stakeholders on the cargo transit time and (2 how will cargo transit time be impacted upon by automatic identification of cargo and the status of cargo seals on arriving vehicles at the border?Method: The use of information communication systems enabled by automatic identification systems (incorporating radio-frequency identification technology is suggested.Results: Results obtained by the described simulation model indicate that improvements of up to 82% with regard to transit time are possible using these techniques.Conclusion: The findings therefore demonstrate how operations at border posts can be improved through the use of appropriate technology and configuration of the operations.

  4. Impact of a radio-frequency identification system and information interchange on clearance processes for cargo at border posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Bhero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improved operational efficiency is important to role players in cross-border logistics and trade corridors. Cargo owners and cargo forwarders have been particularly concerned about long delays in the processing and clearing of cargo at border posts. Field studies suggest that these delays are due to a combination of factors, such as a lack of optimum system configurations and non-optimised human-dependent operations, which make the operations prone to corruption and other malpractices. Objectives: This article presents possible strategies for improving some of the operations in this sector. The research hinges on two key questions: (1 what is the impact of information interchange between stakeholders on the cargo transit time and (2 how will cargo transit time be impacted upon by automatic identification of cargo and the status of cargo seals on arriving vehicles at the border? Method: The use of information communication systems enabled by automatic identification systems (incorporating radio-frequency identification technology is suggested. Results: Results obtained by the described simulation model indicate that improvements of up to 82% with regard to transit time are possible using these techniques. Conclusion: The findings therefore demonstrate how operations at border posts can be improved through the use of appropriate technology and configuration of the operations.

  5. Justification of the project a network of freight terminals unitized cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilesaliev D.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the question of Uzbekistan in promoting the development of international transport in supply chains. The development of transport infrastructure to ensure timely delivery of goods is one of the main tasks in supply chain management. The aim is to study of the project network terminal unitized cargo Uzbekistan in supply chains. Methods the study is based on analysis of existing methods and techniques of Russian scientists in the field of place-ment of objects. The method of searching the most rational location of logistics facility in the supply chain. Also pre-justified the project network terminal unitized cargo in Uzbekistan. Given the state of the problems and prospects of transport logistics of Uzbekistan, the developed method can be used by experts when performing the supporting calcula-tions location of logistic objects.

  6. Microbial behaviour and cross contamination between cargoes in containerized transportation of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abban, Stephen

    . Firstly, the attachment and detachment of bacteria pathogens on container lining materials and apple (food) surfaces were investigated in the absence and presence of food residue. The number of attached cells for the two organisms studied, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium, was negatively......Transportation is central to the global food and feed supply chain. Thus issues of safety, especially cross contamination with pathogens during food transit should be important in food handling operations. A large proportion of the worlds’ food cargo is moved using intermodal cargo containers...... chain, its role in food safety cannot be ignored. Unfortunately not much effort has been put, scientifically, into understanding the role of the various features of the transportation links in food cross contamination (compared to studies for homes, processing factories and farm yards). The PhD project...

  7. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  8. Finite element analysis of container ship's cargo hold using ANSYS and POSEIDON software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, Tania Tamiz; Akter, Naznin; Amin, Osman Md.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays ship structural analysis has become an integral part of the preliminary ship design providing further support for the development and detail design of ship structures. Structural analyses of container ship's cargo holds are carried out for the balancing of their safety and capacity, as those ships are exposed to the high risk of structural damage during voyage. Two different design methodologies have been considered for the structural analysis of a container ship's cargo hold. One is rule-based methodology and the other is a more conventional software based analyses. The rule based analysis is done by DNV-GL's software POSEIDON and the conventional package based analysis is done by ANSYS structural module. Both methods have been applied to analyze some of the mechanical properties of the model such as total deformation, stress-strain distribution, Von Mises stress, Fatigue etc., following different design bases and approaches, to indicate some guidance's for further improvements in ship structural design.

  9. Model of Optimal Cargo Transport Structure by Full Container Ship on Predefined Sailing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serđo Kos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model for solving theproblem of defining optimal cargo transport structure, occurringwhen, on a predefined sailing route, adequate number ofcontainers of various types, masses and sizes, possibly includingRO!RO cargo, is to be selected, i.e., a "container lot" is to beestablished in loading ports with the aim of gaining maximumship profit and, at the same time, of exploiting useful load andtransport capacity of container ship as much as possible. Theimplementation of the proposed model enables considerableincrease in the efficiency of container ship operations. Themodel was tested using a numerical example with real data.The applied post-optimal analysis examines the influence ofchange in some values of the mathematical model on the resultingoptimal program.

  10. Active colloids as mobile microelectrodes for unified label-free selective cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boymelgreen, Alicia M; Balli, Tov; Miloh, Touvia; Yossifon, Gilad

    2018-02-22

    Utilization of active colloids to transport both biological and inorganic cargo has been widely examined in the context of applications ranging from targeted drug delivery to sample analysis. In general, carriers are customized to load one specific target via a mechanism distinct from that driving the transport. Here we unify these tasks and extend loading capabilities to include on-demand selection of multiple nano/micro-sized targets without the need for pre-labelling or surface functionalization. An externally applied electric field is singularly used to drive the active cargo carrier and transform it into a mobile floating electrode that can attract (trap) or repel specific targets from its surface by dielectrophoresis, enabling dynamic control of target selection, loading and rate of transport via the electric field parameters. In the future, dynamic selectivity could be combined with directed motion to develop building blocks for bottom-up fabrication in applications such as additive manufacturing and soft robotics.

  11. Shock and vibration environments encountered during normal rail transportation of heavy cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    This study was conducted to obtain vibration and superimposed shock data during normal rail shipment of heavy cargo. The data were obtained during a regularly scheduled rail shipment of a 45-tonne (50-ton) cargo which consisted of an empty spent-fuel container, its supporting structure, and associated hoisting devices. The shipment was made over rail lines which are operated by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company between Denver, Colorado and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The instrumented rail car was equipped with 0.38-m (15-in.) hydraulic end-of-car coupling devices. The 99 percentile levels of vibration acceleration amplitudes and single degree-of-freedom superimposed shock response spectra for the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical axes are presented

  12. Acceso de las mujeres a los cargos directivos: universidades con techo de cristal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gaete Quezada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el techo de cristal desde las percepciones y experiencias de las académicas respecto del acceso a los cargos directivos en sus instituciones universitarias, materializado en barreras internas o externas que afectan su carrera laboral. La investigación se desarrolla a través de un estudio de caso de dos universidades chilenas, considerando el uso de metodología cualitativa recopilando la información a través de entrevistas semi-estructuradas con académicas que se desempeñan en cargos directivos universitarios. Los resultados identifican a la conciliación trabajo-familia y la cultura machista como las principales barreras que configuran el techo de cristal dentro de las universidades analizadas.

  13. Microbial behaviour and cross contamination between cargoes in containerized transportation of food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abban, Stephen

    contamination scenarios involving both biotic and abiotic surfaces alongside the factors affecting the process have been briefly discussed. Cleaning and disinfection scenarios in related food hygiene environments have been looked into in the literature as well. The experimental work was in several phases...... of construction materials (linings) as well as the need for prompt and effective removal, cleaning and disinfection of residue and pathogens from incidental food contact surfaces in the containers. Measures such as instituting and enforcing HACCP based programs for the container handling operations will also......Transportation is central to the global food and feed supply chain. Thus issues of safety, especially cross contamination with pathogens during food transit should be important in food handling operations. A large proportion of the worlds’ food cargo is moved using intermodal cargo containers...

  14. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan serglycin influences protein cargo loading and functions of tumor-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushothaman, Anurag; Bandari, Shyam K; Chandrashekar, Darshan S; Jones, Richard J; Lee, Hans C; Weber, Donna M; Orlowski, Robert Z

    2017-09-26

    Tumor cells produce and utilize exosomes to promote tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor-cell-derived exosomes deliver cargos that partially mimic the contents of the parent cell to nearby or distant normal or abnormal cells, thereby reprogramming the recipient cells to support tumor progression. Mechanisms by which tumor-derived exosomes subserve the tumor are under intense investigation. Here we demonstrate a critical role of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan serglycin in regulating the protein cargo and functions of myeloma cell-derived exosomes. Previous studies have shown that serglycin, the only known intracellular proteoglycan, functions mainly in the storage of basically charged components within the intracellular granules/vesicles via serglycin's densely clustered, negatively charged glycosaminoglycan chains. Here we demonstrate that serglycin plays a critical role in the protein cargo loading of tumor-derived exosomes. Serglycin was detected in exosomes derived from cell culture supernatants of human myeloma cell lines and serum of myeloma patients. Mass spectrometry analysis of exosomal proteins identified significantly fewer protein components within exosomes derived from serglycin-knockdown myeloma cells than within exosomes from control cells. On gene ontology analysis, exosomes derived from serglycin-knockdown cells, but not from control cells, lacked many proteins that are required for mediating different cellular processes. In functional assays, exosomes from serglycin-knockdown cells failed to induce an invasive phenotype in myeloma cells and failed to promote migration of macrophages. These findings reveal that serglycin plays an important role in maintaining the protein cargo in tumor-derived exosomes and suggest that targeting serglycin may temper the influence of these exosomes on cancer progression.

  15. Aviation Security: Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-25

    today, employees with unescorted access privileges to security identification display areas ( SIDAs ) may access secured areas and aircraft without...that the results of these pilot tests will be provided to the TSA in FY2009 to aid in decisions regarding the technology approach to be taken to meet...where all-cargo aircraft are loaded and unloaded, as security identification display areas ( SIDAs ). This effectively elevates the required security

  16. Geomagnetic variations in field tubes crossed by cargo vehicle with operating engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatulin, Ravil; Khakhinov, Vitaly; Pashinin, Alexander; Lipko, Yury

    Since 2011, in the framework of the "Radar-Progress" active space experiment, we have studied effects of operating engines of the “Progress” cargo vehicle on the geomagnetic field. We supposed that engine burn can generate geomagnetic disturbances in field tubes crossed by "Progress". These disturbances may be measured at sub-ionospheric magnetoconjugate points where the tubes cross the Earth's surface. Geomagnetic variations measurements are performed as follows. Prior to each experimental session, the cargo vehicle's orbital parameters were used to calculate coordinates of sub-ionospheric magnetoconjugate points. Then we selected a place most suitable for installing the Lemi-30 mobile induction magnetometer. Continuous record of geomagnetic variations starts not less than 2 hours before the cargo vehicle flyby. We used GPS for synchronization with regular measurements performed at all magnetic observatories of Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics. After the cargo vehicle flybys with operating engines, an excitation of geomagnetic oscillations with 25 - 160 s periods was recorded. In some cases, we observed a recurrence of the oscillations 6-15 min later. The analysis of the data was carried out taking account of the planetary and local magnetic activity. The April and June 2013 experiments were conducted under quiet and very quiet geomagnetic conditions for both middle and high latitudes. This allowed us to exclude natural sources of the geomagnetic variations. Results of this study were obtained at unique facilities of the common use centre «Angara». The study was supported by the grant 13-05-00456-a and 13-02-00957-a of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  17. Overcoming the membrane barrier: Recruitment of γ-glutamyl transferase for intracellular release of metabolic cargo from peptide vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzl, Tilmann; Sroka, Magdalena; Srivastava, Puneet; Herdewijn, Piet; Marlière, Philippe; Panke, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Semipermeable membranes of cells frequently pose an obstacle in metabolic engineering by limiting uptake of substrates, intermediates, or xenobiotics. Previous attempts to overcome this barrier relied on the promiscuous nature of peptide transport systems, but often suffered from low versatility or chemical instability. Here, we present an alternative strategy to transport cargo molecules across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli based on chemical synthesis of a stable cargo-peptide vector construct, transport through the peptide import system, and efficient intracellular release of the cargo by the promiscuous enzyme γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Retaining the otherwise periplasmic GGT in the cytoplasm was critical for the functionality of the system, as was fine-tuning its expression in order to minimize toxic effects associated to cytoplasmic GGT expression. Given the established protocols of peptide synthesis and the flexibility of peptide transport and GGT, the system is expected to be suitable for a broad range of cargoes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Multi-Criteria Optimisation of Liquid Cargo Transport According to Linguistic Approach to the Route Selection Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guze Sambor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the possibility of use of the multi-criteria optimization method Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to liquid cargo transportation by sea. Finding the optimal solution is not simple. There are many factors influencing the shipping process. In the case of liquid cargo, the most important thing is the safety of the crew, ship, and environment. Therefore, the Mathematical Theory of Evidence is introduced and used to determine the optimal path in terms of time and safety of transport. Moreover, the details of liquid cargo transport process are described with particular attention to ship to ship operations. Besides, the basic concept of the AHP method, steps of the algorithm are introduced. Finally, the multicriteria optimization of the transport of the liquid cargo from the Persian Gulf to Port of Gdansk is done. It is based on the experts′ opinions.

  19. Research on characteristics of radiated noise of large cargo ship in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the shipping industry, the number of the world's ship is gradually increasing. The characteristics of the radiated noise of the ship are also of concern. Since the noise source characteristics of multichannel interference, the surface wave and the sea temperature microstructure and other reasons, the sound signal received in the time-frequency domain has varying characteristics. The signal of the radiated noise of the large cargo ship JOCHOH from horizontal hydrophone array in some shallow water of China is processed and analyzed in the summer of 2015, and the results show that a large cargo ship JOCHOH has a number of noise sources in the direction of the ship's bow and stern lines, such as host, auxiliary and propellers. The radiating sound waves generated by these sources do not meet the spherical wave law at lower frequency in the ocean, and its radiated noise has inherent spatial distribution, the variation characteristics of the radiated noise the large cargo ship in time and frequency domain are given. The research method and results are of particular importance.

  20. Efficiency Analysis of Additions of Ice Flake in Cargo Hold Cooling System of Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiadji Amiadji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a maritime nation, the majority of people's livelihood in Indonesia coast is as a fishermen. The process of preserving fish after being caught will determine how good the product quality. One of process on preserving fish that can be done is to perform the cooling process using a cooling machine on board. Refrigeration system certainly requires high electrical power consumption. That high power usage can be reduced as much as possible, one of which is to add chopped ice (ice flake on a fishing boat cargo space. So that the load for cooling can be reduced.The purpose of this thesis is to find out how the influence of the addition of ice flake on cooling load in the cargo hold of fishing vessels, and to know how much power is used when the cooling machine is combined with the addition of ice flake. In this analysis cooling load calculation refers to the standard ISO 7547.from the results of analysis found that the addition of ice flake on cargo space can reduce cooling load and can reduce electricity consumption day in the main vessel for the addition comparison flake ice and fish weight of 1: 1.

  1. An Improved Spectral Analysis Method for Fatigue Damage Assessment of Details in Liquid Cargo Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng-yuan; Huang, Xiao-ping

    2018-03-01

    Errors will be caused in calculating the fatigue damages of details in liquid cargo tanks by using the traditional spectral analysis method which is based on linear system, for the nonlinear relationship between the dynamic stress and the ship acceleration. An improved spectral analysis method for the assessment of the fatigue damage in detail of a liquid cargo tank is proposed in this paper. Based on assumptions that the wave process can be simulated by summing the sinusoidal waves in different frequencies and the stress process can be simulated by summing the stress processes induced by these sinusoidal waves, the stress power spectral density (PSD) is calculated by expanding the stress processes induced by the sinusoidal waves into Fourier series and adding the amplitudes of each harmonic component with the same frequency. This analysis method can take the nonlinear relationship into consideration and the fatigue damage is then calculated based on the PSD of stress. Take an independent tank in an LNG carrier for example, the accuracy of the improved spectral analysis method is proved much better than that of the traditional spectral analysis method by comparing the calculated damage results with the results calculated by the time domain method. The proposed spectral analysis method is more accurate in calculating the fatigue damages in detail of ship liquid cargo tanks.

  2. MW-Class Electric Propulsion System Designs for Mars Cargo Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Oleson, Steven; Mercer, Carolyn; Pencil, Eric; Maosn, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Multi-kilowatt electric propulsion systems are well developed and have been used on commercial and military satellites in Earth orbit for several years. Ion and Hall thrusters have also propelled robotic spacecraft to encounters with asteroids, the Moon, and minor planetary bodies within the solar system. High power electric propulsion systems are currently being considered to support piloted missions to near earth asteroids, as cargo transport for sustained lunar or Mars exploration, and for very high-power piloted missions to Mars and the outer planets. Using NASA Mars Design Architecture 5.0 as a reference, a preliminary parametric analysis was performed to determine the suitability of a nuclear powered, MW-class electric propulsion system for Mars cargo transport. For this initial analysis, high power 100-kW Hall thrusters and 250-kW VASIMR engines were separately evaluated to determine optimum vehicle architecture and estimated performance. The DRA 5.0 cargo mission closed for both propulsion options, delivering a 100 t payload to Mars orbit and reducing the number of heavy lift launch vehicles from five in the baseline DRA 5.0 architecture to two using electric propulsion. Under an imposed single engine-out mission success criteria, the VASIMR system took longer to reach Mars than did the Hall system, arising from the need to operate the VASIMR thrusters in pairs during the spiral out from low Earth orbit.

  3. Video-based cargo fire verification system with fuzzy inference engine for commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadok, Mokhtar; Zakrzewski, Radek; Zeliff, Bob

    2005-02-01

    Conventional smoke detection systems currently installed onboard aircraft are often subject to high rates of false alarms. Under current procedures, whenever an alarm is issued the pilot is obliged to release fire extinguishers and to divert to the nearest airport. Aircraft diversions are costly and dangerous in some situations. A reliable detection system that minimizes false-alarm rate and allows continuous monitoring of cargo compartments is highly desirable. A video-based system has been recently developed by Goodrich Corporation to address this problem. The Cargo Fire Verification System (CFVS) is a multi camera system designed to provide live stream video to the cockpit crew and to perform hotspot, fire, and smoke detection in aircraft cargo bays. In addition to video frames, the CFVS uses other sensor readings to discriminate between genuine events such as fire or smoke and nuisance alarms such as fog or dust. A Mamdani-type fuzzy inference engine is developed to provide approximate reasoning for decision making. In one implementation, Gaussian membership functions for frame intensity-based features, relative humidity, and temperature are constructed using experimental data to form the system inference engine. The CFVS performed better than conventional aircraft smoke detectors in all standardized tests.

  4. Probing the structure and in silico stability of cargo loaded DNA icosahedra using MD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Himanshu; Bhatia, Dhiraj; Krishnan, Yamuna; Maiti, Prabal K

    2017-03-30

    Platonic solids such as polyhedra based on DNA have been deployed for multifarious applications such as RNAi delivery, biological targeting and bioimaging. All of these applications hinge on the capability of DNA polyhedra for molecular display with high spatial precision. Therefore high resolution structural models of such polyhedra are critical to widen their applications in both materials and biology. Here, we present an atomistic model of a well-characterized DNA icosahedron, with demonstrated versatile functionalities in biological systems. We study the structure and dynamics of this DNA icosahedron using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in explicit water and ions. The major modes of internal motion have been identified using principal component analysis. We provide a quantitative estimate of the radius of gyration (R g ), solvent accessible surface area (SASA) and volume of the icosahedron which is essential to estimate its maximal cargo carrying capacity. Importantly, our simulation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) encapsulated within DNA icosahedra revealed enhanced stability of the AuNP loaded DNA icosahedra compared to empty icosahedra. This is consistent with the experimental results that show high yields of cargo-encapsulated DNA icosahedra that have led to its diverse applications for precision targeting. These studies reveal that the stabilizing interactions between the cargo and the DNA scaffold powerfully position DNA polyhedra as targetable nanocapsules for payload delivery. These insights can be exploited for precise molecular display for diverse biological applications.

  5. DISEÑO ESTRATÉGICO DE PERFILES DE CARGOS POR COMPETENCIAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Soltura Laseria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta una tecnología para la determinación de los perfiles de cargo por competencias en las organizaciones cubanas con base científica, fundamentada en la creciente necesidad de dirigir los esfuerzos individuales hacia el cumplimiento de la estrategia. La tecnología provee a las organizaciones de una forma de determinar la estructura de competencias que ha de adoptar para satisfacer las demandas o necesidades de clientes o usuarios, estado, proveedores y sociedad, en función de su cultura, procesos, estructura, rivalidad de competidores -en caso que exista y la estrategia como guía del proceso, donde los perfiles de cargo por competencias desempeñan el papel fundamental para la implantación de la estrategia. Palabras Clave Gestión de (por competencias, perfiles de competencias, diseño estratégico de perfiles de cargo por competencias.

  6. Radiological risks from irradiation of cargo contents with EURITRACK neutron inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giroletti, E.; Bonomi, G.; Donzella, A.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.

    2012-01-01

    The radiological risk for the population related to the neutron irradiation of cargo containers with a tagged neutron inspection system has been studied. Two possible effects on the public health have been assessed: the modification of the nutritional and organoleptic properties of the irradiated materials, in particular foodstuff, and the neutron activation of consumer products (i.e. food and pharmaceuticals). The result of this study is that irradiation of food and foodstuff, pharmaceutical and medical devices in container cargoes would neither modify the properties of the irradiated material nor produce effective doses of concern for public health. Furthermore, the dose received by possible stowaways present inside the container during the inspection is less than the annual effective dose limit defined by European Legislation for the public. - Highlights: ► Neutron irradiation of cargo containers implies a radiological risk. ► The risk is about the modification of food properties and the products activation. ► Assessment is made about the EURITRACK neutron irradiation system. ► Results show that the EURITRACK scanning is not dangerous for the population.

  7. Dose to drivers during drive-through cargo scanning using GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Rogerio S.; Gomes, Joana D'Arc R.L.; Costa, Mara Lucia L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of radiation technologies to perform screening for cargo containers has been increased due to security issues, mainly, as a consequence of the United States (US) legislation which requires, from 2013, the scanning of all intermodal cargo containers which arrive at US ports. Currently, systems to cargo inspections, using accelerator-driven high energy X-rays, between 4 and 9 MeV, are available for scanning operations. It is expected that, in the future, the use of these systems will be widely spread on roads, ports and airports in Brazil. However, in order to improve the productivity and reduce the costs of acquisition, operation and maintenance these systems require that the driver drives its vehicle through irradiation area, in a situation where members of the public (the truck drivers) enter in controlled area and are deliberately exposed to high-energy beam. Some manufacturers justifies this procedure arguing that the drivers are exposed briefly, and only to the scattered beam, since there are safety systems in order to avoid that the drivers are exposed to direct beam. In this work, it is presented the preliminary results of Monte Carlo simulations concerning the dose of drivers during scanning operations, including the dose due to a failure of safety system, producing an exposure of drivers to the direct beam, as well as, an analysis of the justification of practice, mainly related to the drive-through operational procedure. (author)

  8. 46 CFR 32.60-10 - Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D-TB/ALL. 32.60-10 Section 32.60-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL... 1, 1951 § 32.60-10 Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D—TB/ALL. (a) General. The galleys...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1860 - Integral tanks: Cargo colder than −10 °C (14 °F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral tanks: Cargo colder than â10 °C (14 °F). 154.1860 Section 154.1860 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK....1860 Integral tanks: Cargo colder than −10 °C (14 °F). The master shall ensure that an integral tank...

  10. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  11. THE ASSESSMENT MODELS OF AIR POLLUTION DURING TRANSPORTATION OF BULK CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work is concentrated on development of 3D, 2D numerical models for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transport of bulk cargo in the railway car. Methodology. To solve this problem numerical models were developed, based on the use of the motion equations of inviscid incompressible fluid and mass transfer, to determine the field of wind velocity near the cars and dispersion of dust in the atmosphere. For the numerical integration of the pollutant transport equation implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme was used. When constructing a difference scheme splitting of the transport equation is carried out that allows us to construct an efficient algorithm for solving a differential problem. Unknown value of the pollutant concentration at every step of splitting is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of point-to-point computation, which provides a simple numerical implementation of splitting equations. For numerical integration of the 3D equation for the velocity potential method of Richardson is applied. For numerical integration of the 2D equation for the velocity potential the method of total approximation is applied. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package. On the basis of the constructed numerical models a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution when demolition of coal dust from the gondola car was carried out. Findings. 3D, 2D numerical models that belong to the class «diagnostic models» were developed. These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dust pollution dispersion in the atmosphere during transportation of bulk cargo, but require small costs of the computer time in the practice at the low and medium power machines. These models are used for serial calculations of various situations of scenarios related to issues of environmental protection and pollution intensity diagnostics for

  12. El acceso a los cargos de gobierno de la audiencia de Quito (1701-1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Tapia, Ángel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Study oft the designations of the posts of government (“presidencias”, “gobiernos”, ”alcaldías Mayores” y “corregimientos” in the “Audiencia” of Quito and its connection with the way to get them (by a service given, by a merit, by money…. The appointments were effected from Madrid during the first half of the 18th century. Analysis in detail of the posts and of the amounts of money that were paid as a benefit in order to get the post as well as some references to the same circumstances in the High Court at the end of the rign of Carlos II (1674-1700. Location of the designated personages, information about the dedication to their work and about their social standing. In conclusion: Two in three offices were got by money; the number of creoles in the Spanish - American governments increased in relation to the previous stage.

    Estudio de las provisiones de cargos de gobierno (presidencias audienciales, gobernaciones, alcaldías mayores y corregimientos de la audiencia de Quito efectuadas desde Madrid en relación con su modo de acceso (por méritos, por dinero, etc., durante la primera mitad del siglo XVIII. Análisis detallado de los cargos, cuantías abonadas por concepto de “beneficio”, y referencias a las mismas circunstancias de la audiencia en la etapa final de Carlos II (1674-1700. Localización de los personajes provistos y referencias sobre dedicación y categoría social. Conclusiones: 2 de cada 3 oficios se consiguieron mediante donativo pecuniario; hay un aumento del número de criollos en los cargos de gobierno indianos analizados en relación con la etapa precedente.

  13. Detection of concealed cars in complex cargo X-ray imagery using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Rogers, Thomas W; Morton, Edward J; Griffin, Lewis D

    2017-01-01

    Non-intrusive inspection systems based on X-ray radiography techniques are routinely used at transport hubs to ensure the conformity of cargo content with the supplied shipping manifest. As trade volumes increase and regulations become more stringent, manual inspection by trained operators is less and less viable due to low throughput. Machine vision techniques can assist operators in their task by automating parts of the inspection workflow. Since cars are routinely involved in trafficking, export fraud, and tax evasion schemes, they represent an attractive target for automated detection and flagging for subsequent inspection by operators. Development and evaluation of a novel method for the automated detection of cars in complex X-ray cargo imagery. X-ray cargo images from a stream-of-commerce dataset were classified using a window-based scheme. The limited number of car images was addressed by using an oversampling scheme. Different Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures were compared with well-established bag of words approaches. In addition, robustness to concealment was evaluated by projection of objects into car images. CNN approaches outperformed all other methods evaluated, achieving 100% car image classification rate for a false positive rate of 1-in-454. Cars that were partially or completely obscured by other goods, a modus operandi frequently adopted by criminals, were correctly detected. We believe that this level of performance suggests that the method is suitable for deployment in the field. It is expected that the generic object detection workflow described can be extended to other object classes given the availability of suitable training data.

  14. Morintides: cargo-free chitin-binding peptides from Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, Shruthi G; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang; Xiao, Tianshu; Tam, James P

    2017-03-31

    Hevein-like peptides are a family of cysteine-rich and chitin-binding peptides consisting of 29-45 amino acids. Their chitin-binding property is essential for plant defense against fungi. Based on the number of cysteine residues in their sequences, they are divided into three sub-families: 6C-, 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. All three subfamilies contain a three-domain precursor comprising a signal peptide, a mature hevein-like peptide and a C-terminal domain comprising a hinge region with protein cargo in 8C- and 10C-hevein-like peptides. Here we report the isolation and characterization of two novel 8C-hevein-like peptides, designated morintides (mO1 and mO2), from the drumstick tree Moringa oleifera, a drought-resistant tree belonging to the Moringaceae family. Proteomic analysis revealed that morintides comprise 44 amino acid residues and are rich in cysteine, glycine and hydrophilic amino acid residues such as asparagine and glutamine. Morintides are resistant to thermal and enzymatic degradation, able to bind to chitin and inhibit the growth of phyto-pathogenic fungi. Transcriptomic analysis showed that they contain a three-domain precursor comprising an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signal sequence, a mature peptide domain and a C-terminal domain. A striking feature distinguishing morintides from other 8C-hevein-like peptides is a short and protein-cargo-free C-terminal domain. Previously, a similar protein-cargo-free C-terminal domain has been observed only in ginkgotides, the 8C-hevein-like peptides from a gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba. Thus, morintides, with a cargo-free C-terminal domain, are a stand-alone class of 8C-hevein-like peptides from angiosperms. Our results expand the existing library of hevein-like peptides and shed light on molecular diversity within the hevein-like peptide family. Our work also sheds light on the anti-fungal activity and stability of 8C-hevein-like peptides.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CARGO TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM BY ROAD ON THE BASIS OF LOGISTICS PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Tsarenkova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Рurpose. The article is aimed to develop and adapt the theoretical and methodological foundations for improving logistics system of cargo delivery by road transport in the framework of the scientific support of formation processes of transport-logistical system of the country. Methodology. The theory of system functioning control requires formalization of connections within the system. The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of entity were performed and the regularities of elements interaction in the system of road goods transportation were found out. The role of the road in transport industry and the influence of transportation and logistics space on the road itself in the process of its functioning were clarified. In the study of this topic the system approach, methods of synthesis and rational problem solving, theory of mass service were used. Findings. The work presents the highway as an element of the cargo transportation system that will make it possible to increase its economic efficiency in a constantly changing environment of transportation and logistics space according to the chosen criterion, the lower total costs to promote material flow. Theoretical-methodological bases of perfection of logistics system of cargo delivery by road transport include substantiation for the use of logistics as an effective control element to reduce the costs associated with goods transportation. They are distinguished by the presence of evidence-based methods for calculating the timing and sequence of execution of road works, logistic integration involved in the carriage of goods of the enterprises, structure and volume of material and accompanying flows and the formation of the logistics chain of its promotion. Originality. The road is represented by the link of single integral process of creation and management of the material flows. We propose formation of sub-system of the elements of road and transportation components with their further

  16. A POSSIBLE SOLUTION WITH PASSIVE PROTECTION STRUCTURAL RESISTANCE ELEMENTS TO CARGO SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU Ildikó Renata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors are proposing an additional fire protection solution (semi-passive for cargo ships, by inserting in the tubular strength structure (hollow section, some rectangular, thin wall pipes manufactured of copper alloy, filled with cooling fluid, that, once the fire bursts, it will be activated (i.e. will be pumped into a closed circuit; this closed system contains also a well dimensioned radiator. This innovative solution could bring improvements with regard to the classic one, of intumescent paints, by extending the safe period for evacuating people and goods.

  17. Dual-body magnetic helical robot for drilling and cargo delivery in human blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonseo; Jeon, Seungmun; Nam, Jaekwang; Jang, Gunhee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a novel dual-body magnetic helical robot (DMHR) manipulated by a magnetic navigation system. The proposed DMHR can generate helical motions to navigate in human blood vessels and to drill blood clots by an external rotating magnetic field. It can also generate release motions which are relative rotational motions between dual-bodies to release the carrying cargos to a target region by controlling the magnitude of an external magnetic field. Constraint equations were derived to selectively manipulate helical and release motions by controlling external magnetic fields. The DMHR was prototyped and various experiments were conducted to demonstrate its motions and verify its manipulation methods.

  18. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, J.E.; Rainey, S.; Stevens, R.J.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1-2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005

  19. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  20. Cargo transport by sea and road - Technical and economical environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2006-01-01

    transport will also be presented focusing on the energy demand and exhaust emissions per transport unit, i.e. per ton cargo per km. >>) Finally, the energy and emission data will be used for an economical evaluation of sea transport versus land transport. This will be done by calculating the external costs...... to society caused by the negative effect of the different modes of transportation, i.e. costs due to air pollution, noise, accidents and congestion, which in total covers most of the external transport costs....

  1. LOAD FAKTOR PERALATAN PADA KAPAL CARGO TYPE LCT (Studi Kasus Kapal Lestari Abadi 03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfaidah Ariany

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article titled is equipment load factor on cargo ship LCT type by taking a case study on Lestari Abadi ship03, the study aims to predict electric consumption calculation of LCT ship’s type which concerning with thenumber and type of generator; effective and efficience power consumption, safe and effective electric instalationand existing panel. So, minimum required output electric installed to Kapal Lestari Abadi 03 has to 150KW, asspecification performed by caterpillar C9TA 150KW, 188KVA, 1500rpm, 50Hz and 0.8.

  2. Mission Design Considerations for Mars Cargo of the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjauw, Waldy K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in human missions to Mars has led to an Evolvable Mars Campaign by the agency's Human Architecture Team. Delivering the crew return propulsion stages and Mars surface landers, SEP based systems are employed because of their high specific impulse characteristics enabling missions requiring less propellant although with longer transfer times. The Earth departure trajectories start from an SLS launch vehicle delivery orbit and are spiral shaped because of the low SEP thrust. Previous studies have led to interest in assessing the divide in trip time between the Earth departure and interplanetary legs of the mission for a representative SEP cargo vehicle.

  3. Comunidad, sistema de cargos y proyecto social. Una propuesta analítica de sociedades locales en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íñigo González de la Fuente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto contiene una propuesta de análisis antropológico del sistema de cargos que incluye tanto a comunidades indígenas como no-indígenas. Partiendo del reconocimiento del sistema de cargos como una institución esencialmente heterogénea, se sugiere que, como hipótesis principal, tal institución alimenta una serie de mecanismos que, en sí mismos, potencian los escenarios de interacciones que protagonizan los miembros de la comunidad a través de un conjunto de roles: fomentan que los escenarios puedan ser protagonizados por el mayor número de miembros; propician que tales escenarios se articulen con la mayor frecuencia posible; todo ello con el acuerdo tácito entre protagonistas de que exista rotación de roles entre escenario y escenario. Esta propuesta analítica va a estar estructurada en tres bloques. En primer lugar, se ubican los fenómenos estudiados en torno al sistema de cargos en un continuum de comportamientos tendentes al individualismo y a lo colectivo en sus dos polos. En segundo lugar, se explicita el concepto de comunidad como elemento básico para el estudio de los sistemas de cargos; por último, se propone la idea del proyecto comunitario como denominador común en cuanto a sistemas de cargos se refiere en el área mesoamericana.

  4. Crystallization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae aminopeptidase 1, the major cargo protein of the Cvt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Wakana; Suzuki, Nobuo N.; Fujioka, Yuko; Suzuki, Kuninori; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Aminopeptidase 1, a cargo protein in the cytosol-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, was expressed, purified and crystallized in two crystal forms. The vacuole hydrolase aminopeptidase 1 (Ape1) is a cargo protein transported to the vacuole by the cytosol-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway during conditions of growth and by autophagy during conditions of starvation. After transport to the vacuole, Ape1 is processed into mature Ape1 (mApe1). mApe1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized in two crystal forms. Form I belongs to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 120.6, b = 219.5, c = 133.1 Å, β = 116.5°. Form II belongs to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = 141.2, c = 349.4 Å. Diffraction data were collected from these crystals to a resolution of 2.5 Å for form I and 1.83 Å for form II. Self-rotation functions and the volume-to-weight ratio values suggest that forms I and II contain 12 and four mApe1 molecules per asymmetric unit, respectively, and that mApe1 exists as a tetrahedral dodecamer in both crystal forms

  5. Crystallization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mannosidase, a cargo protein of the Cvt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yasunori; Noda, Nobuo N.; Honbou, Kazuya; Suzuki, Kuninori; Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Ohsumi, Yoshinori; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Vacuolar α-mannosidase, a cargo protein of the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mannosidase (Ams1) is a cargo protein that is transported to the vacuole by the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway during conditions of growth and by autophagy during conditions of starvation. After transport to the vacuole, Ams1 functions as a resident hydrolase. Ams1 has been overexpressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, purified and crystallized in two crystal forms. Form I belongs to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 145.7, b = 127.7, c = 164.0 Å, β = 101.5°. Form II belongs to space group I222 or I2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 127.9, b = 163.7, c = 291.5 Å. Diffraction data were collected from these crystals to a resolution of 3.3 Å for form I and of 2.6 Å for form II using synchrotron radiation

  6. Scanning of Cargo Containers by Gamma-Ray and Fast Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousri, A.M.; Bashter, I.I.; Megahid, M.R.; Osman, A.M.; Kansouh, W.A.; Reda, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the combined systems which were installed and tested to detect contraband smuggled in cargo containers. These combined systems are based on radiographers work by gamma-rays emitted from point source 60 Co with 0.5 Ci activity and neutrons emitted from point isotopic sources of Pu-α-Be as well as 14 MeV neutrons emitted from sealed tube neutron generator. The transmitted gamma ray through the inspected object was measured by gamma detection system with NaI(Tl) detector while the transmitted fast neutron beam was measured by a neutron gamma detection system with stilbene organic scintillator. The later possess the capability of discrimination between between gamma and neutron pulses using a discrimination system based on pulse shape discrimination method. The measured intensities of primary incident and transmitted beams of gamma-rays and fast neutrons were used to construct 2D cross-sectional images of the inspected objects hidden directly within benign materials of the container and for object screened by high dense material to stop object detection by gamma or X-rays. The constructed images for the inspected objects show the good capability and effectiveness of the installed gamma and neutron radiographers to detect illicit materials hidden in air cargo containers and sea containers of med size. They have also indicated that the developed scanning systems possess the ease of mobility and low cost of scanning

  7. Lipid membrane editing with peptide cargo linkers in cells and synthetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua; Myerson, Jacob W.; Ivashyna, Olena; Soman, Neelesh R.; Marsh, Jon N.; Hood, Joshua L.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Current strategies for deploying synthetic nanocarriers involve the creation of agents that incorporate targeting ligands, imaging agents, and/or therapeutic drugs into particles as an integral part of the formulation process. Here we report the development of an amphipathic peptide linker that enables postformulation editing of payloads without the need for reformulation to achieve multiplexing capability for lipidic nanocarriers. To exemplify the flexibility of this peptide linker strategy, 3 applications were demonstrated: converting nontargeted nanoparticles into targeting vehicles; adding cargo to preformulated targeted nanoparticles for in vivo site-specific delivery; and labeling living cells for in vivo tracking. This strategy is expected to enhance the clinical application of molecular imaging and/or targeted therapeutic agents by offering extended flexibility for multiplexing targeting ligands and/or drug payloads that can be selected after base nanocarrier formulation.—Pan, H., Myerson, J. W., Ivashyna, O., Soman, N. R., Marsh, J. N., Hood, J. L., Lanza, G. M., Schlesinger, P. H., Wickline, S. A.. Lipid membrane editing with peptide cargo linkers in cells and synthetic nanostructures. PMID:20335225

  8. Detector placement optimization for cargo containers using deterministic adjoint transport examination for SNM detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Trevor D.; Sjoden, Glenn E.; Manalo, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    With growing concerns over port security and the potential for illicit trafficking of SNM through portable cargo shipping containers, efforts are ongoing to reduce the threat via container monitoring. This paper focuses on answering an important question of how many detectors are necessary for adequate coverage of a cargo container considering the detection of neutrons and gamma rays. Deterministic adjoint transport calculations are performed with compressed helium- 3 polyethylene moderated neutron detectors and sodium activated cesium-iodide gamma-ray scintillation detectors on partial and full container models. Results indicate that the detector capability is dependent on source strength and potential shielding. Using a surrogate weapons grade plutonium leakage source, it was determined that for a 20 foot ISO container, five neutron detectors and three gamma detectors are necessary for adequate coverage. While a large CsI(Na) gamma detector has the potential to monitor the entire height of the container for SNM, the He-3 neutron detector is limited to roughly 1.25 m in depth. Detector blind spots are unavoidable inside the container volume unless additional measures are taken for adequate coverage. (author)

  9. Bacteriophages and phage-inspired nanocarriers for targeted delivery of therapeutic cargos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud; Bahrami, Sajad; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-11-15

    The main goal of drug delivery systems is to target therapeutic cargoes to desired cells and to ensure their efficient uptake. Recently a number of studies have focused on designing bio-inspired nanocarriers, such as bacteriophages, and synthetic carriers based on the bacteriophage structure. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically recognize their bacterial hosts. They can replicate only inside their host cell and can act as natural gene carriers. Each type of phage has a particular shape, a different capacity for loading cargo, a specific production time, and their own mechanisms of supramolecular assembly, that have enabled them to act as tunable carriers. New phage-based technologies have led to the construction of different peptide libraries, and recognition abilities provided by novel targeting ligands. Phage hybridization with non-organic compounds introduces new properties to phages and could be a suitable strategy for construction of bio-inorganic carriers. In this review we try to cover the major phage species that have been used in drug and gene delivery systems, and the biological application of phages as novel targeting ligands and targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Guo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of trade as the main factors of the ship operating priority. Then the authors combine berth assignment problem with the improved ant colony algorithm, and use the model to improve ship scheduling quality. Finally, the authors verify the model with physical data in a bulk-cargo-port in China. Findings: Test by the real data of bulk cargo port, it show that ships’ resource using priority and the length of waiting time are consistent; it indicates that the priority of resource allocation play a prominent role in improving ship scheduling quality. Research limitations: The questionnaires is limited in only one port group, more  related Influence factors should be considered to extend the conclusion. Practical implications: The Priority of Resource Allocation model in this paper can be used to improve the efficiency of the dynamic berth assignment. Originality: This paper makes the time of ship in port minimized as the optimization of key indicators and establishes a dynamic berth assignment model based on improved ant colony algorithm and the ontology reasoning model.

  11. Intracellular Transport of Cargo in a Sub-diffusive Environment over an Explicit Cytoskeletal Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelfeyt, Bryan; Gopinathan, Ajay

    Intracellular transport occurs in nearly all eukaryotic cells, where materials such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids travel to target locations through phases of passive, diffusion-based transport and active, motor-driven transport along filaments that make up the cell's cytoskeleton.We develop a computational model of the process with explicit cytoskeletal filament networks. In the active transport phase, cargo moves in straight lines along these filaments that are spread throughout the cell. To model the passive transport phase of cargo in the cytoplasm, where anomalous sub-diffusion is thought to take place, we implement a continuous-time random walk. We use this approach to provide a stepping stone to a predictive model where we can determine transport properties over a cytoskeletal network provided by experimental images of real filaments. We illustrate our approach by modeling the transport of insulin out of the cell and determining the impact of network geometry, anomalous sub-diffusion and motor number on the first-passage time distributions for insulin granules reaching their target destinations on the membrane.

  12. Electric-Field-Guided Precision Manipulation of Catalytic Nanomotors for Cargo Delivery and Powering Nanoelectromechanical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhe; Gallegos, Jeremie June; Tom, Ashley Robyn; Fan, Donglei

    2018-02-27

    We report a controllable and precision approach in manipulating catalytic nanomotors by strategically applied electric (E-) fields in three dimensions (3-D). With the high controllability, the catalytic nanomotors have demonstrated versatility in capturing, delivering, and releasing of cargos to designated locations as well as in situ integration with nanomechanical devices (NEMS) to chemically power the actuation. With combined AC and DC E-fields, catalytic nanomotors can be accurately aligned by the AC E-fields and effectively change their speeds instantly by the DC E-fields. Within the 3-D orthogonal microelectrode sets, the in-plane transport of catalytic nanomotors can be swiftly turned on and off, and these catalytic nanomotors can also move in the vertical direction. The interplaying nanoforces that govern the propulsion and alignment are investigated. The modeling of catalytic nanomotors proposed in previous works has been confirmed quantitatively here. Finally, the prowess of the precision manipulation of catalytic nanomotors by E-fields is demonstrated in two applications: the capture, transport, and release of cargos to prepatterned microdocks, and the assembly of catalytic nanomotors on NEMS to power the continuous rotation. The concepts and approaches reported in this work could further advance applications of catalytic nanomotors, e.g., for assembling and powering nanomachines, nanorobots, and complex NEMS devices.

  13. Visualization of PML nuclear import complexes reveals FG-repeat nucleoporins at cargo retrieval sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lång, Anna; Eriksson, Jens; Schink, Kay Oliver; Lång, Emma; Blicher, Pernille; Połeć, Anna; Brech, Andreas; Dalhus, Bjørn; Bøe, Stig Ove

    2017-07-04

    Selective nuclear import in eukaryotic cells involves sequential interactions between nuclear import receptors and phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat nucleoporins. Traditionally, binding of cargoes to import receptors is perceived as a nuclear pore complex independent event, while interactions between import complexes and nucleoporins are thought to take place at the nuclear pores. However, studies have shown that nucleoporins are mobile and not static within the nuclear pores, suggesting that they may become engaged in nuclear import before nuclear pore entry. Here we have studied post-mitotic nuclear import of the tumor suppressor protein PML. Since this protein forms nuclear compartments called PML bodies that persist during mitosis, the assembly of putative PML import complexes can be visualized on the surface of these protein aggregates as the cell progress from an import inactive state in mitosis to an import active state in G1. We show that these post-mitotic cytoplasmic PML bodies incorporate a multitude of peripheral nucleoporins, but not scaffold or nuclear basket nucleoporins, in a manner that depends on FG-repeats, the KPNB1 import receptor, and the PML nuclear localization signal. The study suggests that nucleoporins have the ability to target certain nuclear cargo proteins in a nuclear pore-uncoupled state, before nuclear pore entry.

  14. Efficient material decomposition method for dual-energy X-ray cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyeon; Lee, Jiseoc; Min, Jonghwan; Lee, Byungcheol; Lee, Byeongno; Oh, Kyungmin; Kim, Jaehyun; Cho, Seungryong

    2018-03-01

    Dual-energy X-ray inspection systems are widely used today for it provides X-ray attenuation contrast of the imaged object and also its material information. Material decomposition capability allows a higher detection sensitivity of potential targets including purposely loaded impurities in agricultural product inspections and threats in security scans for example. Dual-energy X-ray transmission data can be transformed into two basis material thickness data, and its transformation accuracy heavily relies on a calibration of material decomposition process. The calibration process in general can be laborious and time consuming. Moreover, a conventional calibration method is often challenged by the nonuniform spectral characteristics of the X-ray beam in the entire field-of-view (FOV). In this work, we developed an efficient material decomposition calibration process for a linear accelerator (LINAC) based high-energy X-ray cargo inspection system. We also proposed a multi-spot calibration method to improve the decomposition performance throughout the entire FOV. Experimental validation of the proposed method has been demonstrated by use of a cargo inspection system that supports 6 MV and 9 MV dual-energy imaging.

  15. Life Science on the International Space Station Using the Next Generation of Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. A.; Phillion, J. P.; Hart, A. T.; Comella, J.; Edeen, M.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.

  16. Mesoporous silica-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) for DNA cargo delivery to the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Ellen C; Liu, Juewen; Kerwin, Audra; Torres, Sergio; Olcott, Clara M; Bowman, Brandi N; Armijo, Leisha; Gentry, Katherine; Wilkerson, Jenny; Wallace, James; Jiang, Xingmao; Carnes, Eric C; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Milligan, Erin D

    2013-06-10

    Amorphous mesoporous silica nanoparticles ('protocells') that support surface lipid bilayers recently characterized in vitro as carrier constructs for small drug and DNA delivery are reported here as highly biocompatible both in vitro and in vivo, involving the brain and spinal cord following spinal delivery into the lumbosacral subarachnoid space (intrathecal; i.t.). Specifically, positively charged, 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-Trimethylammonium-Propane (DOTAP)-cholesterol (DOTAP:Chol) liposome-formulated protocells revealed stable in vitro cargo release kinetics and cellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) transgene transfection. Recent approaches using synthetic non-viral vector platforms to deliver the pain-suppressive therapeutic transgene, IL-10, to the spinal subarachnoid space have yielded promising results in animal models of peripheral neuropathy, a condition involving aberrant neuronal communication within sensory pathways in the nervous system. Non-viral drug and gene delivery protocell platforms offer potential flexibility because cargo release-rates can be pH-dependent. We report here that i.t. delivery of protocells, with modified chemistry supporting a surface coating of DOTAP:Chol liposomes and containing the IL-10 transgene, results in functional suppression of pain-related behavior in rats for extended periods. This study is the first demonstration that protocell vectors offer amenable and enduring in vivo biological characteristics that can be applied to spinal gene delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impaired Cargo Clearance in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE Underlies Irreversible Blinding Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Keeling

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic degeneration of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE is a precursor to pathological changes in the outer retina. The RPE monolayer, which lies beneath the neuroretina, daily internalises and digests large volumes of spent photoreceptor outer segments. Impaired cargo handling and processing in the endocytic/phagosome and autophagy pathways lead to the accumulation of lipofuscin and pyridinium bis-retinoid A2E aggregates and chemically modified compounds such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal within RPE. These contribute to increased proteolytic and oxidative stress, resulting in irreversible damage to post-mitotic RPE cells and development of blinding conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease and choroideremia. Here, we review how impaired cargo handling in the RPE results in their dysfunction, discuss new findings from our laboratory and consider how newly discovered roles for lysosomes and the autophagy pathway could provide insights into retinopathies. Studies of these dynamic, molecular events have also been spurred on by recent advances in optics and imaging technology. Mechanisms underpinning lysosomal impairment in other degenerative conditions including storage disorders, α-synuclein pathologies and Alzheimer’s disease are also discussed. Collectively, these findings help transcend conventional understanding of these intracellular compartments as simple waste disposal bags to bring about a paradigm shift in the way lysosomes are perceived.

  18. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  19. The bacterial carbon-fixing organelle is formed by shell envelopment of preassembled cargo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H Chen

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. In Synechococcuselongatus, the carbon-fixing enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO is concentrated into polyhedral, proteinaceous compartments called carboxysomes.Using live cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that carboxysomes are first detected as small seeds of RuBisCO that colocalize with existing carboxysomes. These seeds contain little or no shell protein, but increase in RuBisCO content over several hours, during which time they are exposed to the solvent. The maturing seed is then enclosed by shell proteins, a rapid process that seals RuBisCO from the cytosol to establish a distinct, solvent-protected microenvironment that is oxidizing relative to the cytosol. These closure events can be spatially and temporally coincident with the appearance of a nascent daughter RuBisCO seed.Carboxysomes assemble in a stepwise fashion, inside-to-outside, revealing that cargo is the principle organizer of this compartment's biogenesis. Our observations of the spatial relationship of seeds to previously formed carboxysomes lead us to propose a model for carboxysome replication via sequential fission, polymerization, and encapsulation of their internal cargo.

  20. La confiabilidad en los sistemas eléctricos competitivos y el modelo colombiano de cargo por confiabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez Luis Guillermo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es hacer un análisis de la seguridad en el suministro de electricidad en Colombia, considerando el nuevo esquema del Cargo por Confiabilidad, modelo adoptado en Colombia para garantizar las inversiones en generación. Para esto se analiza la diferencia entre escenarios de demanda y de oferta de electricidad. La oferta para las plantas nuevas considera las OEF adquiridas con el cargo; y para las plantas existentes se realizan simulaciones bajo diversos escenarios de ocurrencia del fenómeno de “El Niño”. La demanda fue tomada de las proyecciones de la UPME. Las simulaciones realizadas muestran una apropiada dimensión del tamaño del Cargo por Confiabilidad.

  1. Applications and Challenges for Use of Cell-Penetrating Peptides as Delivery Vectors for Peptide and Protein Cargos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Birch, Ditlev; Mørck Nielsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    or protein or via physical complexation obtained by simple bulk-mixing of the CPP with its cargo. Both approaches have their pros and cons, and which is the better choice likely relates to the physicochemical properties of the CPP and its cargo as well as the route of administration, the specific barrier...... and the target cell. Besides the physical barrier, a metabolic barrier must be taken into consideration when applying peptide-based delivery vectors, such as the CPPs, and stability-enhancing strategies are commonly employed to prolong the CPP half-life. The mechanisms by which CPPs translocate cell membranes...... are believed to involve both endocytosis and direct translocation, but are still widely investigated and discussed. The fact that multiple factors influence the mechanisms responsible for cellular CPP internalization and the lack of sensitive methods for detection of the CPP, and in some cases the cargo...

  2. Design and application of radiation apparatus for sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhi Fang; Zhang Yuai

    2002-01-01

    Based on the special requirement for radiation apparatus of sup 6 sup 0 Co cargo train on-line inspection system, a radiation apparatus including two-level shutter, working container, storing container and electromagnetism are designed. The makeup, working mode and functional realization of the radiation apparatus are introduced. The system is used in Manzhouli customs cargo train on-line inspection system. The practice shows that the radiation apparatus is reliable to work steadily and the operating speed of the main shutter can reach 0.1 s open and 0.15 s close

  3. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each person...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix I to Part 1917 - Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements (Mandatory) [see § 1917.50(c)(5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Cargo Gear and Container Spreader Test Requirements (Mandatory) [see § 1917.50(c)(5)] I Appendix I to Part 1917 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...) [see § 1917.50(c)(5)] Type gear Test requirement Tested by Proof test A. All Special Cargo Handling...

  5. Potential Economic Impacts on Non-Market Cargo Allocation in U.S. Foreign Trade : with Special Analysis of the UNCTAD Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    The objective of the report is to analyze the impacts of the non-market allocation of cargo in the U.S.-International liner trades, with a special emphasis on analyzing the impacts of cargo allocation as prescribed by the United Nations Code of Condu...

  6. MAP2 Defines a Pre-axonal Filtering Zone to Regulate KIF1- versus KIF5-Dependent Cargo Transport in Sensory Neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumy, Laura F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337608334; Katrukha, Eugene A; Grigoriev, Ilya; Jaarsma, Dick; Kapitein, Lukas C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298806630; Akhmanova, Anna|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156410591; Hoogenraad, Casper C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/227263502

    2017-01-01

    Polarized cargo transport is essential for neuronal function. However, the minimal basic components required for selective cargo sorting and distribution in neurons remain elusive. We found that in sensory neurons the axon initial segment is largely absent and that microtubule-associated protein 2

  7. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion engine...

  8. Sensitivity Measurements For Cargo Scanning Applications Using Photon Interrogation and Neutron Signature Counting Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankrah, Maxwell

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, non-destructive evaluation techniques which use either photon or neutron sources from accelerators followed by neutron counting signatures have been used in many national security and nuclear nonproliferation applications [4, 60]. Although the United States customs and border protection initiated and implemented a cargo security initiative to discover threats from others countries before they embark to the US, detectors with better sensitivities are more necessary than ever in view of the global threats faced by nations around the world. Photofission based applications which use delayed neutron signal ores as viable detection schemes for fissile material detection have been ongoing for many years. Applications of this technology to include cargo scanning applications are however lacking. This work in this dissertation used the delayed neutron signature counting technique for fissile material detection in conjunction with new formulated Curries' expressions to establish the sensitivity (minimum detectable mass) limits. The fission reactions were induced in a uranyl nitrate solution containing 94.1 g of 238U using bremsstrahlung endpoint cue pies of 9 MeV to 21 MeV in 2 MeV steps. Preliminary data on the sensitvity measurement at bremsstrahlung end point energies of 9, 14, 18 and 22 MeV are also presented. We also present the effect of borated polyethylene and lead shielding on the sensitivity at 9 and 22 N1cV. The sensitivities were calculated for 5%u false positives and 5% fake negatives as well as for 1% false positives and 0.1% false negatives. A dose of 4 Gy, 5 mGy and 1 mGy were assumed to be delivered to Mutt cargo container. For a radiator and target-to-detector distance of 150 cm and 200 cup, the delayed neutron yield from calculation and experiment was also compared. Finally, feasibility studies was conducted to determine if the linac parameters used in this research was capable of detecting 1 mg, 1 g and 1 kg of 238U. This work was funded

  9. View of Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) Module in Cargo Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This onboard photo represents a view of the LMS Module in the Cargo Bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia.

  10. Photocaged Competitor Guests: A General Approach Toward Light-Activated Cargo Release From Cucurbiturils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Miguel A; Basílio, Nuno; Moro, Artur J; Domingues, Mara; González-Delgado, José A; Arteaga, Jesús F; Pischel, Uwe

    2017-09-21

    A general approach toward the light-induced guest release from cucurbit[7]uril by means of a photoactivatable competitor was devised. An o-nitrobenzyl-caged competitor is photolyzed to generate a competitive guest that can displace cargo from the host macrocycle solely based on considerations of chemical equilibrium. With this method the release of terpene guests from inclusion complexes with cucurbit[7]uril was demonstrated. The binding of the herein investigated terpenes, all being lead fragrant components in essential oils, has been characterized for the first time. They feature binding constants of up to 10 8  L mol -1 and a high differential binding selectivity (spanning four orders of magnitude for the binding constants for the particular set of terpenes). By fine-tuning the photoactivatable competitor guest, selective and also sequential release of the terpenes was achieved. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Impact of Road Transporter Development Trajectory onto Cargo Safety and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Lányi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to reveal the general behavioural norms of cargo carriers, with a predominant emphasis on security issues. The security awareness level of road transporters has been found hugely dependent on management capabilities. Additionally, this poses a risk factor indicative of a shipment load's quantity and value. At a certain level of road transporter development trajectory, broad research delineates a sharp increase in security awareness, stemming from leadership recognition at larger companies. The results of the following research findings are significantly similar to various well respected scientific theories which verify the hypothesis that the principal barrier to developing a company is a combination of a lack of management capabilities and an unwillingness to adapt to change.

  12. Cargo transport by sea and road - Technical and economical environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the background for a method of calculating the energy demand for different ship types using only a relatively few, but important parameters. It is an empirical method, based on a statistical analysis of the main parameters of different ship types in order to establish represen......This paper presents the background for a method of calculating the energy demand for different ship types using only a relatively few, but important parameters. It is an empirical method, based on a statistical analysis of the main parameters of different ship types in order to establish......)). >> By combining the statistical analysis with a subsequent power prediction, it has been possible to develop a method which can calculate the energy consumption as a function of only 3 general parameters, namely the size of the ship (more precisely the capacity), the ship's speed and the average cargo utilization...

  13. Theranostic applications of carbon nanomaterials in cancer: Focus on imaging and cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A; Zhu, Kaicheng; Hong, Hao

    2015-07-28

    Carbon based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention over the past decades due to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanomaterials in cancer imaging and drug delivery/therapy. The carbon nanomaterials will be categorized into fullerenes, nanotubes, nanohorns, nanodiamonds, nanodots and graphene derivatives based on their morphologies. The chemical conjugation/functionalization strategies of each category will be introduced before focusing on their applications in cancer imaging (fluorescence/bioluminescence, magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), photoacoustic, Raman imaging, etc.) and cargo (chemo/gene/therapy) delivery. The advantages and limitations of each category and the potential clinical utilization of these carbon nanomaterials will be discussed. Multifunctional carbon nanoplatforms have the potential to serve as optimal candidates for image-guided delivery vectors for cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. GPACC program cost work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated Model 101 configuration of the general purpose Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the ACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the ACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/ACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering payloads to a 160 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  15. Cargos militares y república de indios en el noroeste novohispano, siglos XVII y XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Elvia Enríquez Licón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo expongo los rasgos primordiales de las repúblicas de indios constituidas en los pueblos de misión jesuíticos en el noroeste novohispano, destacando la gran relevancia del factor militar. La inclusión de los cargos militares fue el aporte más significativo que hicieron los indios septentrionales en la constitución de sus cabildos. En esta región fue imposible desarmar a los indígenas pues los conquistadores requerían su apoyo para asegurar el avance de la frontera. De esta manera, los pobladores originarios, al continuar ejerciendo sus habilidades guerreras, dejaron su impronta en la conformación de las estructuras sociales y políticas regionales.

  16. Introduction to Extracellular Vesicles: Biogenesis, RNA Cargo Selection, Content, Release, and Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, Erik R; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of membrane-limited vesicles loaded with various proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Release of extracellular vesicles from its cell of origin occurs either through the outward budding of the plasma membrane or through the inward budding of the endosomal membrane, resulting in the formation of multivesicular bodies, which release vesicles upon fusion with the plasma membrane. The release of vesicles can facilitate intercellular communication by contact with or by internalization of contents, either by fusion with the plasma membrane or by endocytosis into "recipient" cells. Although the interest in extracellular vesicle research is increasing, there are still no real standards in place to separate or classify the different types of vesicles. This review provides an introduction into this expanding and complex field of research focusing on the biogenesis, nucleic acid cargo loading, content, release, and uptake of extracellular vesicles.

  17. The Migration Experience as It Relates to Cargo Participation in San Miguel Cuevas, Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ventura Luna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo ofrece un recuento de los continuos efectos de la migración sobre el gobierno municipal y la organización de una comunidad mixteca: San Miguel Cuevas, Oaxaca, México. Legalmente constituida como un autogobierno municipal indígena, en décadas recientes, Cuevas ha sido reconstituida como una comunidad transnacional, cuyos ciudadanos radican principalmente en ella y en Fresno, California. La creciente circularidad y permanente migración de Cuevas a Estados Unidos desde finales de los ochenta, así como los usos y costumbres impuestos por la vida comunitaria en Cuevas, pone a sus varones migrantes en una situación complicada para cumplir sus obligaciones familiares y comunitarias -cívicas y ceremoniales (cargos-, que se requieren para mantener su ciudadanía y residencia en Cuevas y tener acceso a tierras comunales y otros recursos.

  18. Efficiency Comparison between Conventional and Modern Port Operation System for Small-Scale Dry Bulk Cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Aulia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the launching of Sea Toll Road Program in 2015, the improvement in ports’ operation systems has become Indonesia’s foremost necessity. This improvement commonly leads to equipment modernization, while realistically, modern equipment does not always amount to a productive performance, especially in the context of small-scale ports. Instead, it is prone to creating wasteful capital and maintenance cost as well as making the planning time ineffective. This study compares two options of port operation systems in a small port, which is conventional and technologically-advanced method for dry bulk cargo. It results in thin gaps between each option’s financial assessment variables, which are Internal Rate of Return, Benefit/Cost Ratio and Payback Period, regardless of a stark difference between each option’s equipment cost. This study concludes that with the right approach, the conventional operation system is still the most efficient option compared to its contemporary opposite.

  19. 49 CFR 176.84 - Other requirements for stowage and segregation for cargo vessels and passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stowage and segregation for cargo vessels and passenger vessels. (a) General. When Column 10B of the § 172... group are considered to have certain similar chemical properties and, although not exhaustive in nature... explosive articles must be stowed in accordance with Column (10A) and Column (10B) of the 172.101 Table of...

  20. Molecular Recognition of PTS-1 Cargo Proteins by Pex5p: Implications for Protein Mistargeting in Primary Hyperoxaluria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Mesa-Torres

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomal biogenesis and function critically depends on the import of cytosolic proteins carrying a PTS1 sequence into this organelle upon interaction with the peroxin Pex5p. Recent structural studies have provided important insights into the molecular recognition of cargo proteins by Pex5p. Peroxisomal import is a key feature in the pathogenesis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1, where alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT undergoes mitochondrial mistargeting in about a third of patients. Here, we study the molecular recognition of PTS1 cargo proteins by Pex5p using oligopeptides and AGT variants bearing different natural PTS1 sequences, and employing an array of biophysical, computational and cell biology techniques. Changes in affinity for Pex5p (spanning over 3–4 orders of magnitude reflect different thermodynamic signatures, but overall bury similar amounts of molecular surface. Structure/energetic analyses provide information on the contribution of ancillary regions and the conformational changes induced in Pex5p and the PTS1 cargo upon complex formation. Pex5p stability in vitro is enhanced upon cargo binding according to their binding affinities. Moreover, we provide evidence that the rational modulation of the AGT: Pex5p binding affinity might be useful tools to investigate mistargeting and misfolding in PH1 by pulling the folding equilibria towards the native and peroxisomal import competent state.

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Cccccc... - Applicability Criteria and Management Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Practices for Gasoline Cargo Tanks Unloading at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities With Monthly Throughput of 100,000 Gallons of Gasoline or More 2 Table 2 to Subpart CCCCCC of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants for Source Category: Gasoline Dispensing Facilities Pt. 63, Subpt. CCCCCC, Table 2 Table 2 to...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.94 - Ventilation and atmospheric conditions (See also § 1918.2, definitions of Hazardous cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation and atmospheric conditions (See also § 1918.2.... § 1918.94 Ventilation and atmospheric conditions (See also § 1918.2, definitions of Hazardous cargo... that the compartment's atmosphere is within allowable limits. (See paragraph (b)(3) of this section...

  4. 46 CFR 38.05-3 - Design and construction of pressure vessel type cargo tanks-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature, are lagged with an insulation material of a thickness to provide a thermal conductance of not... insulation material shall conform to the requirements of § 38.05-20. The design shall also be based on the... lower and fabricated of ferritic materials shall be stress relieved. (e) Unlagged cargo tanks, where the...

  5. Pick-up, transport and release of a molecular cargo using a small-molecule robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T. L.; Leigh, David A.; Markevicius, Augustinas; Solà, Jordi

    2016-02-01

    Modern-day factory assembly lines often feature robots that pick up, reposition and connect components in a programmed manner. The idea of manipulating molecular fragments in a similar way has to date only been explored using biological building blocks (specifically DNA). Here, we report on a wholly artificial small-molecule robotic arm capable of selectively transporting a molecular cargo in either direction between two spatially distinct, chemically similar, sites on a molecular platform. The arm picks up/releases a 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide cargo by formation/breakage of a disulfide bond, while dynamic hydrazone chemistry controls the cargo binding to the platform. Transport is controlled by selectively inducing conformational and configurational changes within an embedded hydrazone rotary switch that steers the robotic arm. In a three-stage operation, 79-85% of 3-mercaptopropanehydrazide molecules are transported in either (chosen) direction between the two platform sites, without the cargo at any time fully dissociating from the machine nor exchanging with other molecules in the bulk.

  6. An automated rendezvous and capture system design concept for the cargo transfer vehicle and Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Ron; Marsh, Steven

    1991-01-01

    A rendezvous sensor system concept was developed for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) to autonomously rendezvous with and be captured by Space Station Freedom (SSF). The development of requirements, the design of a unique Lockheed developed sensor concept to meet these requirements, and the system design to place this sensor on the CTV and rendezvous with the SSF are described .

  7. Low cost, robust and real time system for detecting and tracking moving objects to automate cargo handling in port terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaquero, V.; Repiso, E.; Sanfeliu, A.; Vissers, J.; Kwakkernaat, M.

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper addresses the problem of detecting and tracking moving objects for autonomous cargo handling in port terminals using a perception system which input data is a single layer laser scanner. A computationally low cost and robust Detection and Tracking Moving Objects (DATMO) algorithm

  8. Preliminary investigations on a NTP cargo shuttle for earth to moon orbit payload transfer based on a particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.; Gervaise, F.; Baraer, L.; Naury, S.; Linet, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    MAPS, a 3-year study program on NTP has recently been launched at CEA following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results of this scoping study, and gives an outline of the MAPS program. (authors). 5 figs., 11 tabs., 7 refs

  9. 49 CFR 393.100 - Which types of commercial motor vehicles are subject to the cargo securement standards of this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Which types of commercial motor vehicles are... Which types of commercial motor vehicles are subject to the cargo securement standards of this subpart... Section 393.100 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR...

  10. Isolation of human trophoblastic extracellular vesicles and characterization of their cargo and antiviral activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yingshi; Bayer, Avraham; Chu, Tianjiao; Tyurin, Vladimir A.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Morelli, Adrian E.; Coyne, Carolyn B; Sadovsky, Yoel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Primary human trophoblasts release a repertoire of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Among them are nano-sized exosomes, which we found to suppress the replication of a wide range of diverse viruses. These exosomes contain trophoblastic microRNAs (miRNAs) that are expressed from the chromosome 19 miRNA cluster and exhibit antiviral properties. Here, we report our investigation of the cargo of placental EVs, focusing on the composition and the antiviral properties of exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic blebs. Methods We isolated EVs using ultracentrifugation and defined their purity using immunoblotting, electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking. We used liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, protein mass spectrometry, and miRNA TaqMan card PCR to examine the phospholipids, proteins, and miRNA cargo of trophoblastic EVs and an in vitro viral infection assay to assess the antiviral properties of EVs. Results We found that all three EV types contain a comparable repertoire of miRNA. Interestingly, trophoblastic exosomes harbor a protein and phospholipid profile that is distinct from that of microvesicles or apoptotic blebs. Functionally, trophoblastic exosomes exhibit the highest antiviral activity among the EVs. Consistently, plasma exosomes derived from pregnant women recapitulate the antiviral effect of trophoblastic exosomes derived from in vitro cultures of primary human trophoblasts. Discussion When compared to other trophoblastic EVs, exosomes exhibit a unique repertoire of proteins and phospholipids, but not miRNAs, and a potent viral activity. Our work suggests that human trophoblastic EVs may play a key role in maternal-placental-fetal communication. PMID:27780544

  11. C-C chemokine receptor-7 mediated endocytosis of antibody cargoes into intact cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eCharest-Morin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7 is a G protein coupled receptor that has a role in leukocyte homing, but that is also expressed in aggressive tumor cells. Preclinical research supports that CCR7 is a valid target in oncology. In view of the increasing availability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that carry cytotoxic cargoes, we studied the feasibility of forcing intact cells to internalize known monoclonal antibodies by exploiting the cycle of endocytosis and recycling triggered by the CCR7 agonist CCL19. Firstly, an anti-CCR7 antibody (CD197; clone 150503 labeled surface recombinant CCR7 expressed in intact HEK 293a cells and the fluorescent antibody was internalized following CCL19 treatment. Secondly, a recombinant myc-tagged CCL19 construction was exploited along the anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6. The myc-tagged ligand was produced as a conditioned medium of transfected HEK 293a cells that contained the equivalent of 430 ng/ml of immunoreactive CCL19 (average value, ELISA determination. CCL19-myc, but not authentic CCL19, carried the fluorophore-labeled antibody 4A6 into other recipient cells that expressed recombinant CCR7 (microscopy, cytofluorometry. The immune complexes were apparent in endosomal structures, colocalized well with the small GTPase Rab5 and progressed toward Rab7-positive endosomes. A dominant negative form of Rab5 (GDP-locked inhibited this endocytosis. Further, endosomes in CCL19-myc- or CCL19-stimulated cells were positive for β-arrestin2, but rarely for β-arrestin1. Following treatment with CCL19-myc and the 4A6 antibody, the melanoma cell line A375 that expresses endogenous CCR7 was specifically stained using a secondary peroxidase-conjugated antibody. Agonist-stimulated CCR7 can transport antibody-based cargoes, with possible therapeutic applications in oncology.

  12. REEPs are membrane shaping adapter proteins that modulate specific g protein-coupled receptor trafficking by affecting ER cargo capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Björk

    Full Text Available Receptor expression enhancing proteins (REEPs were identified by their ability to enhance cell surface expression of a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, specifically GPCRs that have proven difficult to express in heterologous cell systems. Further analysis revealed that they belong to the Yip (Ypt-interacting protein family and that some REEP subtypes affect ER structure. Yip family comparisons have established other potential roles for REEPs, including regulation of ER-Golgi transport and processing/neuronal localization of cargo proteins. However, these other potential REEP functions and the mechanism by which they selectively enhance GPCR cell surface expression have not been clarified. By utilizing several REEP family members (REEP1, REEP2, and REEP6 and model GPCRs (α2A and α2C adrenergic receptors, we examined REEP regulation of GPCR plasma membrane expression, intracellular processing, and trafficking. Using a combination of immunolocalization and biochemical methods, we demonstrated that this REEP subset is localized primarily to ER, but not plasma membranes. Single cell analysis demonstrated that these REEPs do not specifically enhance surface expression of all GPCRs, but affect ER cargo capacity of specific GPCRs and thus their surface expression. REEP co-expression with α2 adrenergic receptors (ARs revealed that this REEP subset interacts with and alter glycosidic processing of α2C, but not α2A ARs, demonstrating selective interaction with cargo proteins. Specifically, these REEPs enhanced expression of and interacted with minimally/non-glycosylated forms of α2C ARs. Most importantly, expression of a mutant REEP1 allele (hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG31 lacking the carboxyl terminus led to loss of this interaction. Thus specific REEP isoforms have additional intracellular functions besides altering ER structure, such as enhancing ER cargo capacity, regulating ER-Golgi processing, and interacting with select cargo

  13. Prospects of application of artificial neural networks for forecasting of cargo transportation volume in transport systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Yakupov

    2017-01-01

    showed the best result (the average relative forecast error was 8.97% for ANN and 11.21% for the method of exponential smoothing, respectively. This can explained by the fact that the temporal dynamic range of the values of the volumes of cargo transportation by this type of transport, for the period under review, has a nonlinear but uniformly changing character. In the case of forecasting the volumes of cargo transportation by road, the time series of initial values for the reporting period is simultaneously non-linear and unevenly changing. This explains the large values of forecasting errors by the method of exponential smoothing (the average relative forecast error of 47.47% for methods of exponential smoothing ; the forecast error with ANN was 13.97%, therefore the results of the prediction obtained by the method of exponential smoothing are considered unsatisfactory, and for ANN – satisfactory.The conclusion. The results of the study confirm the feasibility of using trained artificial neural networks in forecasting the volumes of freight traffic with different cargo flows that have the initial statistical data of which have an uneven nonlinearly changing character in the time dynamic series. A sufficiently high verification in the application of ANN for difficult-to-forecast indicators of the transport process confirms the practical significance of the application of this method in the modeling of the logistics network. 

  14. ACTITUD DEL ADULTO A CARGO DE LA SALA CUNA HACIA EL GÉNERO Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA CALIDAD DEL AMBIENTE EDUCATIVO

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Garbarini,María Olivia; Mathiesen De Gregori,María Elena; Morales Valverde,María Gabriela; Proust Cartoni,Priscila María; Vergara Martínez,Mónica angélica

    2006-01-01

    En este trabajo se analizan diversos comportamientos del adulto a cargo de la sala cuna que tengan base en el género; al igual que se relaciona el comportamiento del adulto a cargo hacia el género con la calidad del ambiente educativo de la sala cuna. Conforme a la información examinada, se concluye que los y las adulto a cargo de las salas cunas de la provincia de Concepción tienen comportamiento diferentes hacia los niños y las niñas, los cuales, mayoritariamente, van en desmedro de las niñ...

  15. El sistema de prestaciones por hijo a cargo en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obiol Francés, Sandra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Child Benefit (prestaciones familiares por hijo a cargo is the only monetary, regular and direct allowance to contribute bringing up children in Spain. Therefore, the Family Allowance System might be seen as a privileged watchtower where it is possible to observe complex and dynamic relationships between the family, the State and the market. Moreover, it shows its influence on the wellbeing and on the dynamics of inclusion or exclusion. This paper analyzes the Spanish economic allowance addressed to children and its evolution since its last reform in 1990. The main goal is to contribute to our understanding of the compromise level acquired by the Spanish State for familycare. This study tries to draw where the limit between public and private areas is and which are the differences concerning the cost of chid bearing and education.

    Las prestaciones por hijo a cargo constituyen en España la única prestación de carácter monetario, periódico y directo que se otorga a nivel estatal para contribuir a los gastos generados por la crianza y educación de los hijos/as. Este hecho convierte al sistema de prestaciones en una privilegiada atalaya para observar las complejas y dinámicas relaciones que se dan entre familia, Estado y mercado en la canalización del bienestar y, por consiguiente, en las dinámicas de inclusión/exclusión de este mismo bienestar. En este artículo se analiza la evolución del sistema español de prestaciones económicas dirigidas a los hijos desde su última gran reforma en 1990, con la intención de que su estudio nos ayude a dilucidar qué grado de compromiso adquiere el Estado respecto a la atención a la familia, en qué lugar sitúa el límite entre el ámbito público y el ámbito privado, y dónde se incluye, entre esta diferenciación de esferas, la asunción del coste de la crianza y la educación de los hijos.

  16. The Connecdenn DENN domain: a GEF for Rab35 mediating cargo-specific exit from early endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Patrick D; Marat, Andrea L; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Di Paolo, Gilbert; McPherson, Peter S; Ritter, Brigitte

    2010-02-12

    The DENN domain is an evolutionarily ancient protein module. Mutations in the DENN domain cause developmental defects in plants and human diseases, yet the function of this common module is unknown. We now demonstrate that the connecdenn/DENND1A DENN domain functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rab35 to regulate endosomal membrane trafficking. Loss of Rab35 activity causes an enlargement of early endosomes and inhibits MHC class I recycling. Moreover, it prevents early endosomal recruitment of EHD1, a common component of tubules involved in endosomal cargo recycling. Our data reveal an enzymatic activity for a DENN domain and demonstrate that distinct Rab GTPases can recruit a common protein machinery to various sites within the endosomal network to establish cargo-selective recycling pathways.

  17. Temperature Controlled Aircraft Unit Load Devices: The Technological Response to Growing Global Air Cargo Cool Chain Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Baxter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Unit load devices (ULDs are pallets and containers which are used to carry air cargo, mail and passengers baggage on wide-body aircraft. Using an in-depth case study, an empirical investigation was undertaken to examine the recent technological developments and innovations in the temperature-controlled containers that are used extensively in the growing and highly important air cargo cool chains. The results demonstrated that advances in refrigeration systems and the use of composite materials used in the construction of these containers have enhanced the ability of key stakeholders to provide unbroken cool-chains. The study further demonstrated that the services and expertise of Envirotainer, the case company, as well as its strategic partnerships with key stakeholders, underpin its ability to deliver and capture value from its participation in the industry.

  18. Intentional cargo disruption by nefarious means: Examining threats, systemic vulnerabilities and securitisation measures in complex global supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Conor; Harrop, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Global trade and commerce requires products to be securely contained and transferred in a timely way across great distances and between national boundaries. Throughout the process, cargo and containers are stored, handled and checked by a range of authorities and authorised agents. Intermodal transportation involves the use of container ships, planes, railway systems, land bridges, road networks and barges. This paper examines the the nefarious nature of intentional disruption and nefarious risks associated with the movement of cargo and container freight. The paper explores main threats, vulnerabilities and security measures relevant to significant intermodal transit risk issues such as theft, piracy, terrorism, contamination, counterfeiting and product tampering. Three risk and vulnerability models are examined and basic standards and regulations that are relevant to safe and secure transit of container goods across international supply networks are outlined.

  19. STS-103 Hubble servicing cargo is transferred to Space Shuttle Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Workers oversee the transfer of STS-103's Hubble servicing cargo from the payload changeout room at Launch Pad 39B to the payload bay in Space Shuttle Discovery. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  20. Structural response of cargo containment systems in LNG carriers under ice loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Yu, H.; Basu, R.; Lee, H.; Kwon, J.C.; Jeon, B.Y.; Kim, J.H.; Daley, C.; Kendrick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Gas exploration has been extended into the Arctic region such as in the Russian Arctic area, because of the increasing demand for energy resources. As a result, shipping in ice-covered seas is also increasing. Many technical issues are involved in ensuring the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships during the transportation. This paper discussed an investigation of ship-ice interaction scenarios for possible operation routes in Arctic areas. Six scenarios were selected to study the structural response of cargo containment systems (CCS) in both membrane and spherical types of LNG ships. For selected ship-ice interaction scenarios, ice loads and loading areas in the hull structure were determined based on the energy theory. The configurations of LNG carriers were discussed and illustrated. The paper also outlined the assessment criteria and structure analysis procedures. It was concluded that the strength of the CCS of membrane-type LNG carrier and the strength of the skirt structure of spherical-type LNG carrier were strong enough under the design ice loads. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 18 figs

  1. Polymeric nanocapsules with up-converting nanocrystals cargo make ideal fluorescent bioprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylińska, U.; Wawrzyńczyk, D.; Kulbacka, J.; Frąckowiak, R.; Cichy, B.; Bednarkiewicz, A.; Samoć, M.; Wilk, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    An innovative approach for up-converting nanoparticles adaptation for bio-related and theranostic applications is presented. We have successfully encapsulated multiple, ~8 nm in size NaYF4 nanoparticles inside the polymeric nanocarriers with average size of ~150 nm. The initial coating of nanoparticles surfaces was preserved due to the hydrophobic environment inside the nanocapsules, and thus no single nanoparticle surface functionalization was necessary. The selection of biodegradable and sugar-based polyelectrolyte shells ensured biocompatibility of the nanostructures, while the choice of Tm3+ and Yb3+ NaYF4 nanoparticles co-doping allowed for near-infrared to near-infrared bioimaging of healthy and cancerous cell lines. The protective role of organic shell resulted in not only preserved high up-converted emission intensity and long luminescence lifetimes, without quenching from water environment, but also ensured low cytotoxicity and high cellular uptake of the engineered nanocapsules. The multifunctionality of the proposed nanocarriers is a consequence of both the organic exterior part that is accessible for conjugation with biologically important molecules, and the hydrophobic interior, which in future application may be used as a container for co-encapsulation of inorganic nanoparticles and anticancer drug cargo.

  2. A Study on Safety and Risk Assessment of Dangerous Cargo Operations in Oil/Chemical Tankers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk ŞAKAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The safety and risk assessment of dangerous cargo operations in oil and chemical tankers is a necessary process to prevent possible accidents during these operations. Fire and explosion are the major accidents encountered in tanker operations. In this study, a model was constructed through the Fuzzy Bayes Network Method for the probabilistic relationships between the causes of fire and explosion accidents that could occur during the tank cleaning process. The study is composed of two stages. Firstly, the variables that are the subject of the problem and that constitute the graphical structure of the Bayes Networks are identified. Then, expert opinion was sought as the statistical data on accident reports were not recorded properly while identifying the conditional probability of the relationships between the variables. Linguistic variables whose fuzzy membership functions were identified were used in detecting the probabilities. The findings of the sensitivity test revealed that the major reasons that could lead to fire and explosion during the tank cleaning process are ignition sources, reaction and safety culture.

  3. The molecular mechanism of photochemical internalization of cell penetrating peptide-cargo-photosensitizer conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Miki, Shunya; Kobayashi, Shouhei; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Nakata, Eiji; Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Sumita, Kensuke; Watanabe, Kazunori; Okazaki, Shigetoshi

    2015-12-21

    In many drug delivery strategies, an inefficient transfer of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids to the cytosol often occurs because of their endosomal entrapment. One of the methods to overcome this problem is photochemical internalization, which is achieved using a photosensitizer and light to facilitate the endosomal escape of the macromolecule. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism of photochemical internalization of cell penetrating peptide-cargo (macromolecule)-photosensitizer conjugates. We measured the photophysical properties of eight dyes (photosensitizer candidates) and determined the respective endosomal escape efficiencies using these dyes. Correlation plots between these factors indicated that the photogenerated (1)O2 molecules from photosensitizers were highly related to the endosomal escape efficiencies. The contribution of (1)O2 was confirmed using (1)O2 quenchers. In addition, time-lapse fluorescence imaging showed that the photoinduced endosomal escape occurred at a few seconds to a few minutes after irradiation (much longer than (1)O2 lifetime), and that the pH increased in the endosome prior to the endosomal escape of the macromolecule.

  4. Gum tragacanth stabilized green gold nanoparticles as cargos for Naringin loading: A morphological investigation through AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Komal; Imran, Muhammad; Jabri, Tooba; Ali, Imdad; Perveen, Samina; Shafiullah; Ahmed, Shakil; Shah, Muhammad Raza

    2017-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have attracted greater scientific interests for the construction of drugs loading cargos due to their biocompatibility, safety and facile surface modifications. This study deals with the fabrication of gum tragacanth (GT) green AuNPs as carrier for Naringin, a less water soluble therapeutic molecule. The optimized AuNPs were characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR and atomic force microscope (AFM). Naringin loaded nanoparticles were investigated for their bactericidal potentials using Tetrazolium Microplate assay. Morphological studies conducted via AFM revealed spherical shape for AuNPs with nano-range size and stabilized by GT multi-functional groups. The AuNPs acted as carrier for increased amount of Naringin. Upon loading in AuNPs, Naringin An increased in the bactericidal potentials of Naringin was observed after loading on AuNPs against various tested bacterial strains. This was further authenticated by the surface morphological analysis, showing enhanced membrane destabilizing effects of loaded Naringin. The results suggest that GT stabilized green AuNPs can act as effective delivery vehicles for enhancing bactericidal potentials of Naringin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. State of the Art and Development Trends of the Digital Radiography Systems for Cargo Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, V.; Van, J.; Osipov, S.; Chakhlov, S.; Temnik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing requirements for technical parameters of inspection digital radiography systems are caused by increasing incidences of terrorism, drug trafficking and explosives via variety of transport. These requirements have determined research for new technical solutions that enable to ensure the safety of passengers and cargos in real-time. The main efforts in the analyzed method of testing are aimed at the creation of new and modernization of operated now systems of digital radiography as a whole and their main components and elements in particular. The number of these main components and elements includes sources of X-ray recording systems and transformation of radiometric information as well as algorithms and software that implements these algorithms for processing, visualization and results interpretation of inspection. Recent developments of X-ray units and betatrons used for inspection of small- and large-sized objects that are made from different materials are deserve special attention. The most effective X-ray detectors are a line and a radiometric detector matrix based on various scintillators. The most promising methods among the algorithms of material identification of testing objects are dual-energy methods. The article describes various models of digital radiography systems applied in Russia and abroad to inspection of baggage, containers, vehicles and large trucks.

  6. Designer exosomes produced by implanted cells intracerebrally deliver therapeutic cargo for Parkinson's disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryosuke; Bojar, Daniel; Rizzi, Giorgio; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Saxena, Pratik; Ausländer, Simon; Tan, Kelly R; Fussenegger, Martin

    2018-04-03

    Exosomes are cell-derived nanovesicles (50-150 nm), which mediate intercellular communication, and are candidate therapeutic agents. However, inefficiency of exosomal message transfer, such as mRNA, and lack of methods to create designer exosomes have hampered their development into therapeutic interventions. Here, we report a set of EXOsomal transfer into cells (EXOtic) devices that enable efficient, customizable production of designer exosomes in engineered mammalian cells. These genetically encoded devices in exosome producer cells enhance exosome production, specific mRNA packaging, and delivery of the mRNA into the cytosol of target cells, enabling efficient cell-to-cell communication without the need to concentrate exosomes. Further, engineered producer cells implanted in living mice could consistently deliver cargo mRNA to the brain. Therapeutic catalase mRNA delivery by designer exosomes attenuated neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation in in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease, indicating the potential usefulness of the EXOtic devices for RNA delivery-based therapeutic applications.

  7. EDUCAR PARA LA SOSTENIBILIDAD. UN PROBLEMA DEL QUE PODEMOS HACERNOS CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Prieto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La reciente toma de conciencia sobre la insostenibilidad del actual desarrollo nos ha llevado a la idea central de sostenibilidad. Nos encontramos ante un problema complejo y global, cuya comprensión también es compleja y está influida por una serie de factores que hemos de tener en cuenta para buscar soluciones desde la ciencia, la política, la educación, etc. Desde la perspectiva de la Didáctica de las Ciencias, si queremos contribuir a que la ciudadanía se haga cargo de la situación del planeta y pase a la acción para dar lugar a un futuro sostenible hay que considerar, además del conocimiento científico, las implicaciones éticas, políticas o económicas delproblema. Para llevar a la práctica estas ideas se sugiere un enfoque interdisciplinar en torno a proyectos relacionados con problemas socio-científicos como el del cambio climático, que permitan reconocer los diferentes aspectos de los problemas, susinterrelaciones o las posibles soluciones y su puesta en acción.

  8. EDUCAR PARA LA SOSTENIBILIDAD. UN PROBLEMA DEL QUE PODEMOS HACERNOS CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Prieto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La reciente toma de conciencia sobre la insostenibilidad del actual desarrollo nos ha llevado a la idea central de sostenibilidad. Nos encontramos ante un problemacomplejo y global, cuya comprensión también es compleja y está influida por una serie de factores que hemos de tener en cuenta para buscar soluciones desde la ciencia, la política, la educación, etc. Desde la perspectiva de la Didáctica de las Ciencias, si queremos contribuir a que la ciudadanía se haga cargo de la situación del planeta y pase a la acción para dar lugar a un futuro sostenible hay que considerar, además del conocimiento científico, las implicaciones éticas, políticas o económicas del problema. Para llevar a la práctica estas ideas se sugiere un enfoque interdisciplinar en torno a proyectos relacionados con problemas socio-científicos como el del cambio climático, que permitan reconocer los diferentes aspectos de los problemas, sus interrelaciones o las posibles soluciones y su puesta en acción.

  9. Study of radiation dose from radioactive shipments to cargo handlers at O'Hare Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    The relationship between the amount of radioactive materials that pass through the cargo areas at O'Hare Field, Chicago, and the resulting radiation dose to the workers handling the packages was determined. Measurements of radiation exposure rates at various distances from the radioactive packages were made. Handling or exposure times for personnel during several unit operations were measured with a watch. These data were used to determine the body dose from the unit operation. In randomly selected cases workers were assigned TLD dosimeters in the form of a ring to be worn on the hand or in the form of a clip to be attached to the clothing for measurement of the hand or body dose from a unit operation. During each survey, several workers were given TLDs that were worn for the duration of the shift, and some workers, in addition, were given dosimeters to be worn for the duration of the study. Results showed that the workers who handled the radioactive packages did not receive any significant radiation exposure. (U.S.)

  10. NanoShuttles: Harnessing Motor Proteins to Transport Cargo in Synthetic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, V.; Hess, H.

    Motors have become a crucial commodity in our daily lives, from transportation to driving conveyor belts that enable the sequential assembly of cars and other industrial machines. For the sequential assembly of building blocks at the nanoscale that would not assemble spontaneously into larger functional systems, however, active transport systems are not yet available. In contrast, cells have evolved sophisticated molecular machinery that drives movement and active transport. Driven by the conversion of chemical into mechanical energy, namely through hydrolysis of the biological fuel ATP, molecular motors enable cells to operate far away from equilibrium by transporting organelles and molecules to designated locations within the cell, often against concentration gradients. Inspired by the biological concept of active transport, major efforts are underway to learn how to build nanoscale transport systems that are driven by molecular motors. Emerging engineering principles are discussed of how to build tracks and junctions to guide such nanoshuttles, how to load them with cargo and control their speed, how to use active transport to assemble mesoscopic structures that would otherwise not assemble spontaneously and what polymeric materials to choose to integrate motors into MEMS and other biohybrid devices. Finally, two applications that exploit the physical properties of microtubules are discussed, surface imaging by a swarm of microtubules and a self-assembled picoNewton force meter to probe receptor-ligand interactions.

  11. Logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle. Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Horst; Schymke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH (NCS) offers logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle to fuel manufacturers, reactor operators, and waste management companies. Transport equipment and interim stores are part of the company's facilities. The firm's Front End unit conducts transnational transports of yellow cake, uranium hexafluoride, and enriched uranium and uranium from reprocessing. In the Back End unit, the company performs worldwide transports of spent fuel elements of research reactors. Another key area of activity is shipment of radioactive waste ranging from low-level waste to HAW (highly active waste generating heat). In its Component Disposal area, NCS offers a variety of transport services up to and including large components, e.g. reactor pressure vessels, both on the road and by rail and ship. NCS operates storage halls of its own for storing radioactive materials including radioactive waste. The technical equipment of NCS comprises a large pool of road and rail transport vehicles as well as a great number of vessels for radioactive materials. (orig.)

  12. Development of a Sono-Assembled, Bifunctional Soy Peptide Nanoparticle for Cellular Delivery of Hydrophobic Active Cargoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yuanhong; Zhao, Mouming; Ning, Zhengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Soy proteins are prone to aggregate upon proteolysis, hindering their sustainable development in food processing. Here, a continuous work on the large insoluble peptide aggregates was carried out, aiming to develop a new type of soy peptide-based nanoparticle (SPN) for active cargo delivery. Sono...... in protecting glutamate-induced toxicity in PC12 cells, where the matrix SPN can simultaneously reduce lipid peroxidation and elevate antioxidant enzymes levels, innovatively demonstrating its bifunctionality during cellular delivery....

  13. 46 CFR 154.532 - Valves: Cargo tank MARVS greater than 69 kPa gauge (10 psig).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves: Cargo tank MARVS greater than 69 kPa gauge (10... greater than 69 kPa gauge (10 psig). (a) Except connections for tank safety relief valves and except for liquid level gauging devices other than those under §§ 154.536 and 154.1310, liquid and vapor connections...

  14. Plant and yeast cornichon possess a conserved acidic motif required for correct targeting of plasma membrane cargos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosas-Santiago, P.; Lagunas-Goméz, D.; Yánez-Domínguez, C.; Vera-Estrella, R.; Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana; Pantoja, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1864, č. 10 (2017), s. 1809-1818 ISSN 0167-4889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-01953S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cornichon * ScErv14 * acidic motif * cargo selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.521, year: 2016

  15. A CFD Study of the Aerodynamics of a 6x6x8 Foot Cargo Container Suspended Beneath a Helicopter. Part 1: Aerodynamics of the Stationary Container

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theron, Johannes N; Duque, Earl P; Cicolani, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    ... for use in simulations of helicopter-slung-load dynamics It is known from the literature on cargo container aerodynamics that instability is caused by unsteady flow effects such as vortex shedding...

  16. Aviation security : preliminary observations on TSA's progress and challenges in meeting the statutory mandate for screening air cargo on passenger aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Implementing : Recommendations of the 9/11 : Commission Act of 2007 mandates : the Department of Homeland : Security (DHS) to establish a : system to physically screen 50 : percent of cargo transported on : passenger aircraft by February : 2009 a...

  17. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening, Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-07-01081

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip [ORNL; Bush, John [Battelle Memorial Institute; Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory; Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory; White, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2004-12-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security’s Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

  18. Comparison of neutron and high-energy X-ray dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dual-beam radiography techniques utilising various combinations of high-energy X-rays and neutrons are attractive for screening bulk cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Dual-beam radiography is an important enhancement to conventional single-beam X-ray radiography systems in that it provides additional information on the composition of the object being imaged. By comparing the attenuations of transmitted dual high-energy beams, it is possible to build a 2D image, colour coded to indicate material. Only high-energy X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons have the required penetration to screen cargo containers. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection. These developments include dual high-energy X-ray techniques as well as fast neutron and gamma-ray (or X-ray) radiography systems. High-energy X-ray systems have the advantage of generally better penetration than neutron systems, depending on the material being interrogated. However, neutron systems have the advantage of much better sensitivity to material composition compared to dual high-energy X-ray techniques. In particular, fast neutron radiography offers the potential to discriminate between various classes of organic material, unlike dual energy X-ray techniques that realistically only offer the ability to discriminate between organic and metal objects

  19. Integration Of Launch Vehicle Simulation/Analysis Tools And Lunar Cargo Lander Design. Part 2/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, George Brian; Shiue, Yeu-Sheng Paul; King, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Part 2, which will be discussed in this report, will discuss the development of a Lunar Cargo Lander (unmanned launch vehicle) that will transport usable payload from Trans- Lunar Injection to the moon. The Delta IV-Heavy was originally used to transport the Lunar Cargo Lander to TLI, but other launch vehicles have been studied. In order to uncover how much payload is possible to land on the moon, research was needed in order to design the sub-systems of the spacecraft. The report will discuss and compare the use of a hypergolic and cryogenic system for its main propulsion system. The guidance, navigation, control, telecommunications, thermal, propulsion, structure, mechanisms, landing gear, command, data handling, and electrical power sub-systems were designed by scaling off other flown orbiters and moon landers. Once all data was collected, an excel spreadsheet was created to accurately calculate the usable payload that will land on the moon along with detailed mass and volume estimating relations. As designed, The Lunar Cargo Lander can plant 5,400 lbm of usable payload on the moon using a hypergolic system and 7,400 lbm of usable payload on the moon using a cryogenic system.

  20. Personal and cargo transportation for Syowa Station by the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition using the icebreaker "Aurora Australis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishizawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The personnel and cargo transportation activities in the 2008-2009 austral summer for Syowa Station by the 50th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-50 are reported. The Antarctic operations for 25 years by the first icebreaker "Shirase" ended with the JARE-49 activity and she was retired in April 2009. The third leg of icebreaker "Aurora Australis" in 2008 2009 season was chartered through the Australian Antarctic Division for the supply of JARE-50. The vessel arrived at the edge of drift sea ice on January 12, 2009. JARE-50 wintering personnel (28 persons and some expeditioners for summer operations such as construction work were transported to the Station. Then, the vessel reached the edge of fast ice at about 40 nautical miles from Syowa Station and continued the transportation by three helicopters on board. The total transported cargo was 91.8 tons. JARE-49 wintering personnel (29 persons, JARE-50 summer persons and cargo were taken in the vessel on February 2, 2009. The voyage lasted 53 days, including 23 days within sea ice. The vessel departed immediately toward the north on that day and arrived in Hobart on February 20. The containers were returned to Japan by sea transportation.

  1. Characteristic rotational behaviors of rod-shaped cargo revealed by automated five-dimensional single particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuangcai; Gu, Yan; Sun, Wei; Bin Dong; Wang, Gufeng; Fan, Xinxin; Xia, Tian; Fang, Ning

    2017-10-12

    We report an automated single particle tracking technique for tracking the x, y, z coordinates, azimuthal and elevation angles of anisotropic plasmonic gold nanorod probes in live cells. These five spatial coordinates are collectively referred to as 5D. This method overcomes a long-standing challenge in distinguishing rotational motions from translational motions in the z-axis in differential interference contrast microscopy to result in full disclosure of nanoscale motions with high accuracy. Transferrin-coated endocytic gold nanorod cargoes initially undergo active rotational diffusion and display characteristic rotational motions on the membrane. Then as the cargoes being enclosed in clathrin-coated pits, they slow down the active rotation and experience a quiet period before they restore active rotational diffusion after fission and eventually being transported away from the original entry spots. Finally, the 3D trajectories and the accompanying rotational motions of the cargoes are resolved accurately to render the intracellular transport process in live cells.Distinguishing rotational motions from translational motions in the z-axis has been a long-standing challenge. Here the authors develop a five-dimensional single particle tracking method to detect rotational behaviors of nanocargos during clathrin-mediated endocytosis and intracellular transport.

  2. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert May

    2008-11-01

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  3. The agony of choice: how to find a suitable CPP for cargo delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Judith; Triebus, Julia; Kretzschmar, Ines; Volkmer, Rudolf; Boisguerin, Prisca

    2012-05-01

    Successful and effective cellular delivery remains a main obstacles in the medical field. The use of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) has become one of the most important tools for the internalisation of a wide range of molecules including pharmaceuticals. It is still difficult to choose one CPP for one biological application because there is no ubiquitous CPP meeting the diverse requirements. In our case, we are looking for a suitable CPP to deliver the pro-apoptotic KLA peptide (KLAKLAKKLAKLAK) by a simple co-incubation strategy. For that reason, we selected three different cell lines (fibroblastic, cancerous and macrophagic cells) and studied the uptake and subcellular localisation of six different CPPs alone as well as mixed with the KLA peptide. Furthermore, we used the CPPs with a carboxyamidated or a carboxylated C-terminus and analysed the impact of the C-termini on internalisation and cargo delivery. We could clearly showed that the cellular CPP uptake is not only dependent on the used CPP and cell line but also highly affected by its chemical nature of the C-terminus (uptake: carboxyamidated CPPs > carboxylated CPPs) and can influence its cellular localisation. We successfully delivered the KLA peptide in the three cell lines and learned that here as well, the C-terminus is crucial for an effective peptide delivery. Finally, we induced apoptosis in mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7) and in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells using the mixture of amidated MPG peptide : KLA and in african green monkey kidney fibroblast (Cos-7) cells using carboxylated integrin peptide : KLA. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Assessment of the risk of transporting plutonium dioxide by cargo aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Johnson, J.F.

    1977-06-01

    To enable easy comparison, all the plutonium shipping evaluations have used the same bases. In each, the results have been related to a future time--the early 1980s--when plutonium shipments are expected to be more frequent. The characteristics of the nuclear economy used in this analysis are: A total of 18 metric tons (MT) of plutonium is shipped annually, via the mode being evaluated. 100 kg of plutonium are transported per shipment. For air shipment, a truck and air segment are considered. The average shipping distance per shipment is 1,422 miles with 14 percent of the distance being by truck. Shipping systems and regulations are the same as in 1974. PuO/sub 2/ is shipped in 6M containers. The use of other shipping conditions could result in different risks than reported here. For the purposes of this study, plutonium dioxide was assumed to be carried exclusively in the 15-gal version of the 6M container. Unless otherwise noted, all references to 6M containers in the report refer to this particular size. Based on the shipping assumptions, the likelihood that an aircraft carrying a shipment will be involved in an accident is estimated to be about once in 450 years. For the projected shipping rate in the early 1980s, the likelihood of a release of plutonium as a result of shipment by air is one in 900 years for dioxide powder in the 6M container. The comparison of the truck and air transport modes for the same material showed truck transport to have less risk. At the same time, the air transport of plutonium dioxide was demonstrated to have a lower risk than other commonly accepted societal risks. The major contributor to the overall risk spectra for air transport was a cargo airplane, carrying plutonium dioxide, crashing at high speed into hard rock.

  5. Crystal Cargo Characterization: Unravelling Granite Petrogenesis through Combined MicroXRF Imaging and In-situ Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, C. L.; Brown, K.; Brydon, R.; Haley, M.; Hill, T.; Shaulis, B.; Tronnes, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in the capabilities of microanalysis over the past several decades have promoted a redefinition of traditional petrological terminology. This has allowed a more accurate evaluation of a samples petrogenetic history. For example, the term "phenocryst", specifically describes crystals that grew from the liquid that solidified into the groundmass. Evolving from this idea is the term xenocryst, referring to crystals that did not originate in the magma but were gathered by it, and antecrysts, which crystallized from a progenitor of the magma that solidified into the groundmass. Through identification of a magmas different, and distinct, crystal populations, the petrogenetic history of a magmatic rock can therefore be unraveled. This approach has been widely applied to terrestrial volcanic systems throughout the past several decades. This study presents results from a combined microimaging and in-situ microanalytical investigation of granitic magmas crystal cargoes in order to unravel how granitic batholiths are constructed. 27 lithological units from two granite batholiths in the Oslo Rift, Norway form the basis of this investigation. Micro X-Ray Fluorescence (µXRF) mapping of major elements and selected trace elements is used in order to chemically map each granitic unit, identify any characteristic growth zoning, and compare the crystal cargoes of the different units. Major and trace elemental abundances of the major phases (feldspars, biotite, amphibole) and minor phases (apatite and titanite) are to be quantified through electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) respectively. Through chemically fingerprinting the crystal cargoes of these Oslo Rift granitic magmas, the open vs. closed nature of granitic, intrusive, magmatic systems will be investigated. Within the context of the Oslo Rift, this study also offers an opportunity to evaluate the processes inherent to granitoid magmatism

  6. ATMOSPHERE PROTECTION IN CASE OF EMERGENCY DURING TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS CARGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Berlov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper highlights the development of numerical models for prediction of atmospheric pollution in case of burning of the solid rocket propellant in a railway car, situated near the building on railway territory. These models can be used in predicting the effectiveness of neutralization upon the atmosphere protection for this type of accidents. Methodology.To solve this problem the numerical models based on the use of Navier-Stokes equations, to determine the velocity field of the wind flow near cars and buildings, and contaminants-transfer equations in the atmosphere were developed. For the numerical integration of pollutant transport equation was used implicit «change – triangle» difference scheme. When constructing a difference scheme physical and geometric cleavage of the transfer equation is carried out in four steps. Unknown value of pollutant concentration at each step of cleavage is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of «point-to-point computation». For the numerical integration of the Navier-Stokes equations are used implicit difference schemes. When carrying out computing experiment also takes into account: the velocity profile of wind flow; interaction between the building and the wind flow and flame jet of solid rocket propellant; the presence of a railroad car; inside which there is a source of pollution; instability of pollutant emissions. On the basis of constructed numerical models was performed the computer experiment for assessing the level of air pollution at dangerous cargo rail transportation in case of emergency at railway territory.The application calculations for the timely combustion products neutralization of solid rocket propellant were carried out. Findings. The numerical models that let promptly calculate air contamination in case of emergency during solid rocket propellant transportation, as well as calculate the rational parameters of pollutant neutralization process were developed by

  7. Feasibility of Reusable Continuous Thrust Spacecraft for Cargo Resupply Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabotin, C. B.

    Continuous thrust propulsion systems benefit from a much greater efficiency in vacuum than chemical rockets, at the expense of lower instantaneous thrust and high power requirements. The satellite telecommunications industry, known for greatly emphasizing heritage over innovation, now uses electric propulsion for station keeping on a number of spacecraft, and for orbit raising for some smaller satellites, such as the Boeing 702SP platform. Only a few interplanetary missions have relied on continuous thrust for most of their mission, such as ESA's 367 kg SMART-1 and NASA's 1217 kg Dawn mission. The high specific impulse of these continuous thrust engines should make them suitable for transportation of heavy payloads to inner solar system destinations in such a way to limit the dependency on heavy rocket launches. Additionally, such spacecraft should be able to perform orbital insertions at destination in order to deliver the cargo directly in a desired orbit. An example application is designing round-trip missions to Mars to support exploration and eventually colonization. This research investigates the feasibility of return journeys to Mars based on the performance of existing or in-development continuous thrust propulsion systems. In order to determine the business viability of such missions, an emphasis is made on the time of flight during different parts of the mission, the relative velocity with respect to the destination planet, and the fuel requirements. The study looks at the applicability for interplanetary mission design of simple control laws for efficient correction of orbital elements, and of thrusting purely in velocity or anti-velocity direction. The simulations explore different configurations of continuous thrusting technologies using a patched-conics approach. In addition, all simulation scenarios facilitate escape from planetary gravity wells as the initial spacecraft orbit is highly elliptical, both around the Earth and around Mars. This work

  8. Desarrollo de carrera de mujeres que ocupan cargos directivos en la empresa privada (Aseguradoras) de la ciudad de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Ruales Vaca, Lucia Catalina

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad el desarrollo de carrera es un tema relevante dentro de la administración del talento humano en las organizaciones; por ello, en la presente investigación de tesis, se busca analizar el conjunto de factores endógenos y exógenos, que están relacionados con el desarrollo de carrera de mujeres líderes de la empresa privada (aseguradoras) y como intervienen en su crecimiento para ocupar cargos de responsabilidad. Desde la perspectiva laboral, entendemos al desarrol...

  9. El acceso de la mujer a cargos de toma de decisiones en las empresas colombianas que cotizan en bolsa

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Marrugo-Salas

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza el fenómeno del techo de cristal y se presenta un panorama de la proporción de mujeres en los más altos cargos directivos de 76 empresas colombianas que cotizan en bolsa. La investigación fue de carácter documental mediante la recolección, procesamiento y análisis de la información pública disponible. Los resultados muestran la baja participación de las mujeres en dichos puestos de responsabilidad, por lo que se propone aumentar el rol que tie...

  10. Problemática Laboral de la Mujer en Cargos Directivos de los Servicios Públicos en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Julio García del Junco; Adriana Riquelme

    2008-01-01

    A pesar de una mejor formación y participación en el mundo laboral, la mayoría de las mujeres, continúan enfrentadas al denominado "techo de cristal": la barrera invisible que les impide el acceso a los puestos de alta dirección en las organizaciones. Esta investigación analiza las distintas barreras o problemáticas laborales a las que se ven enfrentadas las mujeres directivas de los servicios públicos, ya sea para acceder y/o desempeñar dicho cargo. Para efectuar un análisis diferenciado, l...

  11. [An injuries prevention programme in the transport and cargo handling sector, implemented by the ASL 10 Local Health Unit, Florence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, F; Tomassini, A

    2009-01-01

    There are doubts about the ability of public health services to significantly reduce occupational injuries through non-targeted investigations and surveillance programmes. For this reason an intervention was designed specifically for the transport and cargo handling sector, in which inspections are concentrated on the minority of higher risk companies, followed by ex-post assessment of the outcomes. The goal of identifying the most hazardous companies through injury data appears to be successful in companies with more than 3 employees. Some problems remain for smaller companies and for the large porterage cooperatives, where the official data on the number of employees is unreliable.

  12. 8. Some Considerations on Bow Form and Handling of Fast Cargo/ Container Ships from the Viewpoint of Slamming

    OpenAIRE

    Toichi, FUKASAWA; Yoshiyuki, YAMAMOTO; Inst. of Structural Engineering, University of Tsukuba; Dept. of Naval Architecture, University of Tokyo

    1981-01-01

    Fast cargo/container ships with large bow-flare suffer from slamming in the North Pacific, in the North Atlantic, and off the Cape of Good Hope, which may cause damages in the bow region. To avoid these situations, reduction of ship speed and refuge from storms have been known as the best strategies. In rough seas, however, the speed cannot be reduced extremely from the viewpoint of steering. Hence the bow region of such ships should be designed so as to take slamming into account. The streng...

  13. Role of Air Cargo and Road Feeder Services for Regional Airports – Case Studies from the Baltic Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beifert Anatoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although airports play an important role the global and European economies, according to the new guidelines of the EU Commission on the new state aid rules for a competitive aviation industry (EC, 2014, it will be more difficult for unprofitable airports, to get financial public subsidies in the future. The Commission noted that the majority of regional airports experience severe problems to cover their operative costs, resulting from among other things from overlapping of airports’ catchment areas. The main objective of the above mentioned measures is not to close the regional airports, but to motivate them to operate on cost efficient, profitable and more flexible basis, stating however that and that the most inefficient airports will be still closed. In order face upcoming challenges, the regional airports shall reconsider their future development plans. Traditionally, the airports including small and regional airports focus on the passenger traffic and thus, the possible benefits and opportunities of the air cargo market are totally underestimated or even completely ignored. Most regional airports in the Baltic Sea region act totally isolated and do not have a clear picture of the current situation on the international air cargo market today, its future perspectives and sustainable development plans remain basically hidden. There are some examples when trying to meet the market demand, the regional airports have made huge, but unfortunately unjustified investments, e.g. improving airport infrastructure, runways, etc. However, the airports’ infrastructural investments alone cannot fulfil the expected “remedy” role for the airports’ sustainability. This paper aims at investigating the positioning and the role of the regional airports in the current hub-and-spoke network, focusing on the relevance and potential of the air cargo sector for the regional airports development. The optional freight value proposition for the development of

  14. Lemur tyrosine kinase-2 signalling regulates kinesin-1 light chain-2 phosphorylation and binding of Smad2 cargo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manser, C

    2012-05-31

    A recent genome-wide association study identified the gene encoding lemur tyrosine kinase-2 (LMTK2) as a susceptibility gene for prostate cancer. The identified genetic alteration is within intron 9, but the mechanisms by which LMTK2 may impact upon prostate cancer are not clear because the functions of LMTK2 are poorly understood. Here, we show that LMTK2 regulates a known pathway that controls phosphorylation of kinesin-1 light chain-2 (KLC2) by glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). KLC2 phosphorylation by GSK3β induces the release of cargo from KLC2. LMTK2 signals via protein phosphatase-1C (PP1C) to increase inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β on serine-9 that reduces KLC2 phosphorylation and promotes binding of the known KLC2 cargo Smad2. Smad2 signals to the nucleus in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) receptor stimulation and transport of Smad2 by kinesin-1 is required for this signalling. We show that small interfering RNA loss of LMTK2 not only reduces binding of Smad2 to KLC2, but also inhibits TGFβ-induced Smad2 signalling. Thus, LMTK2 may regulate the activity of kinesin-1 motor function and Smad2 signalling.

  15. New mechanisms for non-porative ultrasound stimulation of cargo delivery to cell cytosol with targeted perfluorocarbon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soman, N R; Marsh, J N; Lanza, G M; Wickline, S A

    2008-01-01

    The cell membrane constitutes a major barrier for non-endocytotic intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules from drug delivery vehicles. Existing approaches to breaching the cell membrane include cavitational ultrasound (with microbubbles), electroporation and cell-penetrating peptides. We report the use of diagnostic ultrasound for intracellular delivery of therapeutic bulky cargo with the use of molecularly targeted liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles. To demonstrate the concept, we used a lipid with a surrogate polar head group, nanogold-DPPE, incorporated into the nanoparticle lipid monolayer. Melanoma cells were incubated with nanogold particles and this was followed by insonication with continuous wave ultrasound (2.25 MHz, 5 min, 0.6 MPa). Cells not exposed to ultrasound showed gold particles partitioned only in the outer bilayer of the cell membrane with no evidence of the intracellular transit of nanogold. However, the cells exposed to ultrasound exhibited numerous nanogold-DPPE components inside the cell that appeared polarized inside intracellular vesicles demonstrating cellular uptake and trafficking. Further, ultrasound-exposed cells manifested no incorporation of calcein or the release of lactate dehydrogenase. These observations are consistent with a mechanism that suggests that ultrasound is capable of stimulating the intracellular delivery of therapeutic molecules via non-porative mechanisms. Therefore, non-cavitational adjunctive ultrasound offers a novel paradigm in intracellular cargo delivery from PFC nanoparticles

  16. The Extracellular Vesicles of the Helminth Pathogen, Fasciola hepatica: Biogenesis Pathways and Cargo Molecules Involved in Parasite Pathogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; de la Torre-Escudero, Eduardo; Trelis, Maria; Bernal, Dolores; Dufresne, Philippe J.; Brennan, Gerard P.; O'Neill, Sandra; Tort, Jose; Paterson, Steve; Marcilla, Antonio; Dalton, John P.; Robinson, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by parasites have important roles in establishing and maintaining infection. Analysis of the soluble and vesicular secretions of adult Fasciola hepatica has established a definitive characterization of the total secretome of this zoonotic parasite. Fasciola secretes at least two subpopulations of EVs that differ according to size, cargo molecules and site of release from the parasite. The larger EVs are released from the specialized cells that line the parasite gastrodermus and contain the zymogen of the 37 kDa cathepsin L peptidase that performs a digestive function. The smaller exosome-like vesicle population originate from multivesicular bodies within the tegumental syncytium and carry many previously described immunomodulatory molecules that could be delivered into host cells. By integrating our proteomics data with recently available transcriptomic data sets we have detailed the pathways involved with EV biogenesis in F. hepatica and propose that the small exosome biogenesis occurs via ESCRT-dependent MVB formation in the tegumental syncytium before being shed from the apical plasma membrane. Furthermore, we found that the molecular “machinery” required for EV biogenesis is constitutively expressed across the intramammalian development stages of the parasite. By contrast, the cargo molecules packaged within the EVs are developmentally regulated, most likely to facilitate the parasites migration through host tissue and to counteract host immune attack. PMID:26486420

  17. Effectiveness of elastic damping in the pivot joints of cargo boom of crane-manipulating installations at large gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev I.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article was the analysis of dynamic processes in the cylindrical hinges with large gaps in the cargo boom crane-manipulating installations of mobile machines in operation. Consider the design of damping device for articulated joints, which creates a braking force of elastic resistance to the displacement of the hinge pin within the large gap. The mechanism of action of the damping devices was considered. Analysis of the effectiveness of damping device for re-ducing the dynamic stress state in the elements of cargo boom metal structures depending on the gap size and the stiff-ness of the damping device was performed. Damping device with an elastic shock absorbing elements substantially reduces the additional impact load at the time of selection of the gap in the joint, slow the growth of clearance in the pivot joint, limit the size of the gap specified value, which must not be exceeded during the entire service life of swivel independently from the intensity of his load.

  18. Integration of Launch Vehicle Simulation/Analysis Tools and Lunar Cargo Lander Design. Part 1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Yeu-Sheng Paul

    2005-01-01

    Simulation and analysis of vehicle performance is essential for design of a new launch vehicle system. It is more and more demand to have an integrated, highly efficient, robust simulation tool with graphical user interface (GUI) for vehicle performance and simulations. The objectives of this project are to integrate and develop launch vehicle simulation and analysis tools in MATLAB/Simulink under PC Platform, to develop a vehicle capable of being launched on a Delta-IV Heavy Launch Vehicle which can land on the moon with the goal of pre-implanting cargo for a new lunar mission, also with the capability of selecting other launch vehicles that are capable of inserting a payload into Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI). The vehicle flight simulation software, MAVERIC-II (Marshall Aerospace VEhicle Representation In 'C'), developed by Marshall Space Flight Center was selected as a starting point for integration of simulation/analysis tools. The goals are to convert MAVERIC-II from UNIX to PC platform and build input/output GUI s in the MATLAB environment, and then integrate them under MATLAB/Simulink with other modules. Currently, MAVERIC-II has been successfully converted from UNIX to PC using Microsoft Services for UNIX subsystem on PC. Input/Output GUI's have been done for some key input/output files. Calling MAVERIC-II from Simulink has been tested. Details regarding Lunar Cargo Lander Design are described in Part 2/2 of the paper on page X-1.

  19. Presumption of shipmaster’s criminal responsibility for narcotic drugs in ship’s cargo – maritime reality check

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoleta Radionov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the “Coral Sea” and “Therese” cases, the article deals with the problem of criminalization of the master of the ship for the crime of illicit traffic based on command responsibility. The first part of the article gives the general framework of the crimes of illicit traffic and smuggling by sea, and an overview of the ship security regulations as provided by the ISPS code. In the second part of the article, the position of the master of the ship with respect to responsibility for illicit traffic is emphasised. It starts by explaining details from both “Coral Sea” and “Therese” cases, where masters were indicted and/or prosecuted based solely on their command responsibility. The author tries to elaborate the problem from a maritime law perspective by explaining the evolution and meaning of different aspects of the three functions of the master of the ship today: nautical, administrative and representation of the shipowner. In order to put the potential responsibility of seafarers for the content of cargo into perspective, the reality of containerized cargo shipping is being explained and documented stage-by-stage. Finally, the basic concepts of criminal law are being explained, where principles of “nullumcrimen, nulla poena sine lege” apply. According to that, there can be no analogy between criminal responsibility of the master of the ship for crimes of illicit traffic (where the principle of proven guilt applies with command responsibility for war crimes.

  20. Enhanced Probiotic Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri When Delivered as a Biofilm on Dextranomer Microspheres That Contain Beneficial Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jason B.; Mashburn-Warren, Lauren; Bakaletz, Lauren O.; Bailey, Michael T.; Goodman, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    As with all orally consumed probiotics, the Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri encounters numerous challenges as it transits through the gastrointestinal tract of the host, including low pH, effectors of the host immune system, as well as competition with commensal and pathogenic bacteria, all of which can greatly reduce the availability of live bacteria for therapeutic purposes. Recently we showed that L. reuteri, when adhered in the form of a biofilm to a semi-permeable biocompatible dextranomer microsphere, reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis by 50% in a well-defined animal model following delivery of a single prophylactic dose. Herein, using the same semi-permeable microspheres, we showed that providing compounds beneficial to L. reuteri as diffusible cargo within the microsphere lumen resulted in further advantageous effects including glucosyltransferase-dependent bacterial adherence to the microsphere surface, resistance of bound bacteria against acidic conditions, enhanced adherence of L. reuteri to human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro, and facilitated production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin and the anti-inflammatory molecule histamine. These data support continued development of this novel probiotic formulation as an adaptable and effective means for targeted delivery of cargo beneficial to the probiotic bacterium. PMID:28396655

  1. Trapping and release of cargo molecules from a micro-stamped mesoporous thin film controlled by Poly(NIPAAm-co-AAm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Melissa M; Raboin, Lorraine; Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2014-05-01

    Materials that utilize the micropatterned structure of a mesoporous silica film to successfully load and release cargo using a thermal sensitive polymer are presented in this paper. Films with pore sizes of ~2 nm and ~5 nm aligned in the pulling direction were synthesized using evaporation induced self-assembly techniques. The pores are exposed using a new method of stamping micropatterns without the use hydrofluoric acid. A well studied temperature dependent polymer (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Acrylamide)) was grafted onto the surface of these films to act as a temperature activated gatekeeper. Below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) the polymer is erect and can block the pore openings, trapping cargo inside the pores. When the temperature is above the LCST the polymer collapses and unblocks the pores, allowing cargo to escape. The loading capacities as well as the reusability of these films were studied.

  2. NASA Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicle Development Approach Builds on Lessons from Past and Present Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The United States (US) Vision for Space Exploration, announced in January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives, including retiring the Space Shuttle and replacing it with new space transportation systems for missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) that the new human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space early next decade will initially ferry astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) Toward the end of the next decade, a heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will deliver the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) carrying the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to low-Earth orbit (LEO), where it will rendezvous with the CEV launched on the CLV and return astronauts to the Moon for the first time in over 30 years. This paper outlines how NASA is building these new space transportation systems on a foundation of legacy technical and management knowledge, using extensive experience gained from past and ongoing launch vehicle programs to maximize its design and development approach, with the objective of reducing total life cycle costs through operational efficiencies such as hardware commonality. For example, the CLV in-line configuration is composed of a 5-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB), which is an upgrade of the current Space Shuttle 4- segment RSRB, and a new upper stage powered by the liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) J-2X engine, which is an evolution of the J-2 engine that powered the Apollo Program s Saturn V second and third stages in the 1960s and 1970s. The CaLV configuration consists of a propulsion system composed of two 5-segment RSRBs and a 33- foot core stage that will provide the LOX/LED needed for five commercially available RS-68 main engines. The J-2X also will power the EDS. The Exploration Launch Projects, managed by the Exploration Launch Office located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is leading the design

  3. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Overview: The Crew Launch Vehicle and the Cargo Launch Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration (January 2004) serves as the foundation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. As the NASA Administrator outlined during his confirmation hearing in April 2005, these include: 1) Flying the Space Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human space flight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. In spring 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The ESAS team performed in-depth evaluations of a number of space transportation architectures and provided recommendations based on their findings? The ESAS analysis focused on a human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) for astronaut transport and a heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) to carry equipment, materials, and supplies for lunar missions and, later, the first human journeys to Mars. After several months of intense study utilizing safety and reliability, technical performance, budget, and schedule figures of merit in relation to design reference missions, the ESAS design options were unveiled in summer 2005. As part of NASA's systems engineering approach, these point of departure architectures have been refined through trade studies during the ongoing design phase leading to the development phase that

  4. Targeting immunoliposomes to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells as a mean for cargo transport across the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Bruun, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    transport further into the CNS. We studied transferrin receptor-targeted (OX26) immunoliposomes containing oxaliplatin with the aim of quantifying the uptake of OX26, liposomes and oxaliplatin in BCECs and the remaining CNS. The uptake of the immunoliposomes and their cargo was studied in 18-dayold rats...... higher both in vitro and in vivo when compared to isotypic IgG-conjugated liposomes. Quantitative analyses after capillary depletion revealed cargo transport from BCECs to the remaining CNS, but not differences could be detected between OX26- conjugated and isotype IgG control liposomes in vivo, whereas...

  5. Parametric study of variation in cargo-airplane performance related to progression from current to spanloader designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made to investigate the relationship between current cargo airplanes and possible future designs that may differ greatly in both size and configuration. The method makes use of empirical scaling laws developed from statistical studies of data from current and advanced airplanes and, in addition, accounts for payload density, effects of span distributed load, and variations in tail area ratio. The method is believed to be particularly useful for exploratory studies of design and technology options for large airplanes. The analysis predicts somewhat more favorable variations of the ratios of payload to gross weight and block fuel to payload as the airplane size is increased than has been generally understood from interpretations of the cube-square law. In terms of these same ratios, large all wing (spanloader) designs show an advantage over wing-fuselage designs.

  6. El acceso de la mujer a cargos de toma de decisiones en las empresas colombianas que cotizan en bolsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Marrugo-Salas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el fenómeno del techo de cristal y se presenta un panorama de la proporción de mujeres en los más altos cargos directivos de 76 empresas colombianas que cotizan en bolsa. La investigación fue de carácter documental mediante la recolección, procesamiento y análisis de la información pública disponible. Los resultados muestran la baja participación de las mujeres en dichos puestos de responsabilidad, por lo que se propone aumentar el rol que tienen en las empresas mediante el desarrollo de programas de responsabilidad social.

  7. Author the red-med railway project a serious competitor to the suez canal for cargo containers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Y. Lakhal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Israel and China have finalized a project plan initiated in 2012. This project received the green light from Israeli cabinet in March 2014. With this venture, China will build a cargo railway line connecting the port of Eilat in the Red Sea to the ports of Ashdod and Haifa on the Mediterranean coast in Israel. This project will be a shipping alternative to the Suez Canal. This statement is the corner stone of this paper and considered an hypothesis to be verified within this paper. The methodology used is based on the concept of “market position.” The main conclusion, theoretically, the Red-Med railway could be an alternative to the Suez Canal for in the 4,000 TFE Vessels containers transportation as far as costs are concerned. However, other concerns, such as the security in the Suez Canal and the risk of its shutdown, must be considered too.

  8. DACC program cost and work breakdown structure-dictionary. General purpose aft cargo carrier study, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Results of detailed cost estimates and economic analysis performed on the updated 201 configuration of the dedicated Aft Cargo Carrier (DACC) are given. The objective of this economic analysis is to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with information on the economics of using the DACC on the Space Transportation System (STS). The detailed cost estimates for the DACC are presented by a work breakdown structure (WBS) to ensure that all elements of cost are considered in the economic analysis and related subsystem trades. Costs reported by WBS provide NASA with a basis for comparing competing designs and provide detailed cost information that can be used to forecast phase C/D planning for new projects or programs derived from preliminary conceptual design studies. The scope covers all STS and STS/DACC launch vehicle cost impacts for delivering an orbital transfer vehicle to a 120 NM low Earth orbit (LEO).

  9. Problemática Laboral de la Mujer en Cargos Directivos de los Servicios Públicos en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio García del Junco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de una mejor formación y participación en el mundo laboral, la mayoría de las mujeres, continúan enfrentadas al denominado "techo de cristal": la barrera invisible que les impide el acceso a los puestos de alta dirección en las organizaciones. Esta investigación analiza las distintas barreras o problemáticas laborales a las que se ven enfrentadas las mujeres directivas de los servicios públicos, ya sea para acceder y/o desempeñar dicho cargo. Para efectuar un análisis diferenciado, las distintas barreras citadas por las directivas se clasifican en factores sociales, organizacionales y actitudinales.

  10. 46 CFR 32.50-20 - Cargo piping for tank vessels constructed between November 10, 1936, and July 1, 1951-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose... may be omitted where the pipe is extra heavy, all joints are welded, and bends are installed to provide for expansion and contraction. (b) Cargo piping shall not pass through spaces containing machinery...

  11. 46 CFR 32.50-15 - Cargo piping on tank vessels constructed on or after July 1, 1951-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo... heavy, all joints are welded, and bends are installed to provide for expansion and contraction. (2) Tank... shall not pass through spaces containing machinery where sources of vapor ignition are normally present...

  12. Targeting immunoliposomes to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells as a mean for cargo transport across the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Bruun, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    higher both in vitro and in vivo when compared to isotypic IgG-conjugated liposomes. Quantitative analyses after capillary depletion revealed cargo transport from BCECs to the remaining CNS, but not differences could be detected between OX26- conjugated and isotype IgG control liposomes in vivo, whereas...

  13. Targeting transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier improves the uptake of immunoliposomes and subsequent cargo transport into the brain parenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper B.; Burkhart, Annette; Melander, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    investigate the possibility of delivering immunoliposomes and their encapsulated cargo to the brain via targeting of the transferrin receptor. We find that transferrin receptor-targeting increases the association between the immunoliposomes and primary endothelial cells in vitro, but that this does...

  14. Simultaneous membrane interaction of amphipathic peptide monomers, self-aggregates and cargo complexes detected by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Luís; Lehto, Tõnis; Madani, Fatemeh; Radoi, Vlad; Hällbrink, Mattias; Vukojević, Vladana; Langel, Ülo

    2018-02-01

    Peptides able to translocate cell membranes while carrying macromolecular cargo, as cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), can contribute to the field of drug delivery by enabling the transport of otherwise membrane impermeable molecules. Formation of non-covalent complexes between amphipathic peptides and oligonucleotides is driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Here we investigate and quantify the coexistence of distinct molecular species in multiple equilibria, namely peptide monomer, peptide self-aggregates and peptide/oligonucleotide complexes. As a model for the complexes, we used a stearylated peptide from the PepFect family, PF14 and siRNA. PF14 has a cationic part and a lipid part, resembling some characteristics of cationic lipids. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) were used to detect distinct molecular entities in solution and at the plasma membrane of live cells. For that, we labeled the peptide with carboxyrhodamine 6G and the siRNA with Cyanine 5. We were able to detect fluorescent entities with diffusional properties characteristic of the peptide monomer as well as of peptide aggregates and peptide/oligonucleotide complexes. Strategies to avoid peptide adsorption to solid surfaces and self-aggregation were developed and allowed successful FCS measurements in solution and at the plasma membrane. The ratio between the detected molecular species was found to vary with pH, peptide concentration and the proximity to the plasma membrane. The present results suggest that the diverse cellular uptake mechanisms, often reported for amphipathic CPPs, might result from the synergistic effect of peptide monomers, self-aggregates and cargo complexes, distributed unevenly at the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interaction of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Oncoprotein with Sorting Nexin 27 Modulates Endocytic Cargo Transport Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketaki Ganti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A subset of high-risk Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs are the causative agents of a large number of human cancers, of which cervical is the most common. Two viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, contribute directly towards the development and maintenance of malignancy. A characteristic feature of the E6 oncoproteins from cancer-causing HPV types is the presence of a PDZ binding motif (PBM at its C-terminus, which confers interaction with cellular proteins harbouring PDZ domains. Here we show that this motif allows E6 interaction with Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27, an essential component of endosomal recycling pathways. This interaction is highly conserved across E6 proteins from multiple high-risk HPV types and is mediated by a classical PBM-PDZ interaction but unlike many E6 targets, SNX27 is not targeted for degradation by E6. Rather, in HPV-18 positive cell lines the association of SNX27 with components of the retromer complex and the endocytic transport machinery is altered in an E6 PBM-dependent manner. Analysis of a SNX27 cargo, the glucose transporter GLUT1, reveals an E6-dependent maintenance of GLUT1 expression and alteration in its association with components of the endocytic transport machinery. Furthermore, knockdown of E6 in HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells phenocopies the loss of SNX27, both in terms of GLUT1 expression levels and its vesicular localization, with a concomitant marked reduction in glucose uptake, whilst loss of SNX27 results in slower cell proliferation in low nutrient conditions. These results demonstrate that E6 interaction with SNX27 can alter the recycling of cargo molecules, one consequence of which is modulation of nutrient availability in HPV transformed tumour cells.

  16. NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on June 11, 2000 to deliver the latest version of the X-38 flight test vehicle to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The B-377SGT Super Guppy Turbine evolved from the 1960s-vintage Pregnant Guppy, Mini Guppy and Super Guppy, used for transporting sections of the Saturn rocket used for the Apollo program moon launches and other outsized cargo. The various Guppies were modified from 1940's and 50's-vintage Boeing Model 377 and C-97 Stratocruiser airframes by Aero Spacelines, Inc., which operated the aircraft for NASA. NASA's Flight Research Center assisted in certification testing of the first Pregnant Guppy in 1962. One of the turboprop-powered Super Guppies, built up from a YC-97J airframe, last appeared at Dryden in May, 1976 when it was used to transport the HL-10 and X-24B lifting bodies from Dryden to the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. NASA's present Super Guppy Turbine, the fourth and last example of the final version, first flew in its outsized form in 1980. It and its three sister ships were built in the 1970s for Europe's Airbus Industrie to ferry outsized structures for Airbus jetliners to the final assembly plant in Toulouse, France. It later was acquired by the European Space Agency, and then acquired by NASA in late 1997 for transport of large structures for the International Space Station to the launch site. It replaced the earlier-model Super Guppy, which has been retired and is used for spare parts. NASA's Super Guppy Turbine carries NASA registration number N941NA, and is based at Ellington Field near the Johnson Space Center. For more information on NASA's Super Guppy Turbine, log onto the Johnson Space Center Super Guppy web page at http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/assembly/superguppy/

  17. Structural basis for cargo binding and autoinhibition of Bicaudal-D1 by a parallel coiled-coil with homotypic registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Yoshikane, Asuka; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Bicaudal-D1 (BICD1) is an α-helical coiled-coil protein mediating the attachment of specific cargo to cytoplasmic dynein. It plays an essential role in minus end-directed intracellular transport along microtubules. The third C-terminal coiled-coil region of BICD1 (BICD1 CC3) has an important role in cargo sorting, including intracellular vesicles associating with the small GTPase Rab6 and the nuclear pore complex Ran binding protein 2 (RanBP2), and inhibiting the association with cytoplasmic dynein by binding to the first N-terminal coiled-coil region (CC1). The crystal structure of BICD1 CC3 revealed a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with asymmetry and complementary knobs-into-holes interactions, differing from Drosophila BicD CC3. Furthermore, our binding study indicated that BICD1 CC3 possesses a binding surface for two distinct cargos, Rab6 and RanBP2, and that the CC1-binding site overlaps with the Rab6-binding site. These findings suggest a molecular basis for cargo recognition and autoinhibition of BICD proteins during dynein-dependent intracellular retrograde transport. - Highlights: • BICD1 CC3 is a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with axial asymmetry. • The coiled-coil packing of BICD1 CC3 is adapted to the equivalent heptad position. • BICD1 CC3 has distinct binding sites for two classes of cargo, Rab6 and RanBP2. • The CC1-binding site of BICD1 CC3 overlaps with the Rab6-binding site

  18. Structural basis for cargo binding and autoinhibition of Bicaudal-D1 by a parallel coiled-coil with homotypic registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi, E-mail: terawaki@gunma-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yoshikane, Asuka [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Higuchi, Yoshiki [Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Department of Picobiology, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Wakamatsu, Kaori [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    Bicaudal-D1 (BICD1) is an α-helical coiled-coil protein mediating the attachment of specific cargo to cytoplasmic dynein. It plays an essential role in minus end-directed intracellular transport along microtubules. The third C-terminal coiled-coil region of BICD1 (BICD1 CC3) has an important role in cargo sorting, including intracellular vesicles associating with the small GTPase Rab6 and the nuclear pore complex Ran binding protein 2 (RanBP2), and inhibiting the association with cytoplasmic dynein by binding to the first N-terminal coiled-coil region (CC1). The crystal structure of BICD1 CC3 revealed a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with asymmetry and complementary knobs-into-holes interactions, differing from Drosophila BicD CC3. Furthermore, our binding study indicated that BICD1 CC3 possesses a binding surface for two distinct cargos, Rab6 and RanBP2, and that the CC1-binding site overlaps with the Rab6-binding site. These findings suggest a molecular basis for cargo recognition and autoinhibition of BICD proteins during dynein-dependent intracellular retrograde transport. - Highlights: • BICD1 CC3 is a parallel homodimeric coiled-coil with axial asymmetry. • The coiled-coil packing of BICD1 CC3 is adapted to the equivalent heptad position. • BICD1 CC3 has distinct binding sites for two classes of cargo, Rab6 and RanBP2. • The CC1-binding site of BICD1 CC3 overlaps with the Rab6-binding site.

  19. TGFBR2-dependent alterations of exosomal cargo and functions in DNA mismatch repair-deficient HCT116 colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Fabia; Lee, Jennifer; Michalak, Malwina; Warnken, Uwe; Hausser, Ingrid; Suarez-Carmona, Meggy; Halama, Niels; Schnölzer, Martina; Kopitz, Jürgen; Gebert, Johannes

    2017-04-04

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) that lack DNA mismatch repair function exhibit the microsatellite unstable (MSI) phenotype and are characterized by the accumulation of frameshift mutations at short repetitive DNA sequences (microsatellites). These tumors recurrently show inactivating frameshift mutations in the tumor suppressor Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor Type 2 (TGFBR2) thereby abrogating downstream signaling. How altered TGFBR2 signaling affects exosome-mediated communication between MSI tumor cells and their environment has not been resolved. Here, we report on molecular alterations of exosomes shed by MSI cells and the biological response evoked in recipient cells. Exosomes were isolated and characterized by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking, and western blot analysis. TGFBR2-dependent effects on the cargo and functions of exosomes were studied in a MSI CRC model cell line enabling reconstituted and inducible TGFBR2 expression and signaling. Microsatellite frameshift mutations in exosomal and cellular DNA were examined by PCR-based DNA fragment analysis and exosomal protein profiles were identified by mass spectrometry. Uptake of fluorescent-labeled exosomes by hepatoma recipient cells was monitored by confocal microscopy. TGFBR2-dependent exosomal effects on secreted cytokine levels of recipient cells were analyzed by Luminex technology and ELISA. Frameshift mutation patterns in microsatellite stretches of TGFBR2 and other MSI target genes were found to be reflected in the cargo of MSI CRC-derived exosomes. At the proteome level, reconstituted TGFBR2 expression and signaling uncovered two protein subsets exclusively occurring in exosomes derived from TGFBR2-deficient (14 proteins) or TGFBR2-proficient (five proteins) MSI donor cells. Uptake of these exosomes by recipient cells caused increased secretion (2-6 fold) of specific cytokines (Interleukin-4, Stem Cell Factor, Platelet-derived Growth Factor-B), depending on the TGFBR2 expression status

  20. In vitro incorporation of a cell-binding protein to a lentiviral vector using an engineered split intein enables targeted delivery of genetic cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun-Emanuelli, Ana M; Wright, Gus; Roger, Smith; Münch, Robert C; Buchholz, Christian J; Chen, Zhilei

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic paradigm for addressing many disorders, but the absence of a vector that can be robustly and reproducibly functionalized with cell-homing functionality to mediate the delivery of genetic cargo specifically to target cells following systemic administration has stood as a major impediment. In this study, a high-affinity protein-protein pair comprising a splicing-deficient naturally split intein was used as molecular Velcro to append a HER2/neu-binding protein (DARPin) onto the surface of a binding-deficient, fusion-competent lentivirus. HER2/neu-specific lentiviruses created using this in vitro pseudotyping approach were able to deliver their genetic reporter cargo specifically to cells that express the target receptor at high levels in a co-culture. We envision that the described technology could provide a powerful, broadly applicable platform for the incorporation of cell-targeting functionality onto viral vectors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Quantitative co-localization and pattern analysis of endo-lysosomal cargo in subcellular image cytometry and validation on synthetic image sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Frederik W.; Wüstner, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    -binding protein NPC2 in LE/LYSs relative to cholesterol-rich lysosomal storage organelles (LSOs) stained with filipin. Second, we show how to simulate realistic vesicle patterns in the cell geometry using Markov Chain Monte Carlo and suitable inter-vesicle and cell-vesicle interaction potentials. Finally, we use......Late endosomes and lysosomes (LE/LYSs) play a central role in trafficking of endocytic cargo, secretion of exosomes, and hydrolysis of ingested proteins and lipids. Failure in such processes can lead to lysosomal storage disorders in which a particular metabolite accumulates within LE...... for quantification of the distribution and dynamics of endo-lysosomal cargo from fluorescence images of living cells. First, we explain how to analyze experimental images of endocytic processes in Niemann Pick C2 disease fibroblasts using SpatTrack. We demonstrate how to quantify the location of the sterol...

  2. El cargo de capital en la evaluación del desempeño financiero de empresas innovadoras de confecciones de Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Rivera Godoy, Ph.D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca conocer el impacto del cargo de capital sobre el valor de las empresas innovadoras de confecciones de Cali, siguiendo los lineamientos teóricos de la gestión basada en el valor y, como metodología, el análisis del valor económico agregado en el periodo 2002–2007. Se encuentra que el sector destruye valor debido a que el incremento del activo no conduce a un crecimiento semejante de la utilidad operacional después de impuestos, pero sí al aumento del cargo de capital, pese a la reducción del riesgo país. Se generan nuevos interrogantes en cuanto si la inversión en innovación va a mejorar la productividad en un futuro y si el costo de capital va a continuar descendiendo.

  3. El cargo de capital en la evaluación del desempeño financiero de empresas innovadoras de confecciones de Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE ALBERTO RIVERA GODOY

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca conocer el impacto del cargo de capital sobre el valor de las empresas innovadoras de confecciones de Cali, siguiendo los lineamientos teóricos de la gestión basada en el valor y, como metodología, el análisis del valor económico agregado en el periodo 2002–2007. Se encuentra que el sector destruye valor debido a que el incremento del activo no conduce a un crecimiento semejante de la utilidad operacional después de impuestos, pero sí al aumento del cargo de capital, pese a la reducción del riesgo país. Se generan nuevos interrogantes en cuanto si la inversión en innovación va a mejorar la productividad en un futuro y si el costo de capital va a continuar descendiendo.

  4. Targeting transferrin receptors at the blood-brain barrier improves the uptake of immunoliposomes and subsequent cargo transport into the brain parenchyma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kasper B.; Burkhart, Annette; Melander, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery to the brain is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which excludes most molecules from freely diffusing into the brain, and tightly regulates the active transport mechanisms that ensure sufficient delivery of nutrients to the brain parenchyma. Harnessing the possibi......Drug delivery to the brain is hampered by the presence of the blood-brain barrier, which excludes most molecules from freely diffusing into the brain, and tightly regulates the active transport mechanisms that ensure sufficient delivery of nutrients to the brain parenchyma. Harnessing...... cargo uptake in the brain endothelium and subsequent cargo transport into the brain. These findings suggest that transferrin receptor-targeting is a relevant strategy of increasing drug exposure to the brain....

  5. A comprehensive estimate of the static aerodynamic forces and moments of the 8 x 8 x 20 ft. cargo container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolani, Luigi; Kanning, Gerd

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive static aerodynamic simulation model of the 8 by 8 by 20 ft MILVAN cargo container is determined by combining the wind tunnel data from a 1972 NASA Ames Research Center study taken over the restricted domain (0 is less than or equal to phi is less than or equal to 90 degrees; 0 is less than or equal to alpha is less than or equal to 45 degrees) with extrapolation relations derived from the geometric symmetry of rectangular boxes. It is found that the aerodynamics of any attitude can be defined from the aerodynamics at an equivalent attitude in the restricted domain (0 is less than phi is less than 45 degrees; 0 is less than alpha is less than 90 degrees). However, a similar comprehensive equivalence with the domain spanned by the data is not available; in particular, about two-thirds of the domain with the absolute value of alpha is greater than 45 degrees is unrelated to the data. Nevertheless, as estimate can be defined for this region consistent with the measured or theoretical values along its boundaries and the theoretical equivalence of points within the region. These descrepancies are assumed to be due to measurement errors. Data from independent wind tunnel studies are reviewed; these are less comprehensive than the NASA Ames Research Center but show good to fair agreement with both the theory and the estimate given here.

  6. Photogrammetric Model Based Method of Automatic Orientation of Space Cargo Ship Relative to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhinov, Y. B.; Chernyavskiy, A. S.; Zheltov, S. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The technical problem of creating the new Russian version of an automatic Space Cargo Ship (SCS) for the International Space Station (ISS) is inseparably connected to the development of a digital video system for automatically measuring the SCS position relative to ISS in the process of spacecraft docking. This paper presents a method for estimating the orientation elements based on the use of a highly detailed digital model of the ISS. The input data are digital frames from a calibrated video system and the initial values of orientation elements, these can be estimated from navigation devices or by fast-and-rough viewpoint-dependent algorithm. Then orientation elements should be defined precisely by means of algorithmic processing. The main idea is to solve the exterior orientation problem mainly on the basis of contour information of the frame image of ISS instead of ground control points. A detailed digital model is used for generating raster templates of ISS nodes; the templates are used to detect and locate the nodes on the target image with the required accuracy. The process is performed for every frame, the resulting parameters are considered to be the orientation elements. The Kalman filter is used for statistical support of the estimation process and real time pose tracking. Finally, the modeling results presented show that the proposed method can be regarded as one means to ensure the algorithmic support of automatic space ships docking.

  7. HID-1 controls formation of large dense core vesicles by influencing cargo sorting andtrans-Golgi network acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Blake H; de Leeuw, Noah F; Burns, Christian; Chen, Lan; Joens, Matthew S; Hosford, Bethany; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Asensio, Cedric S

    2017-12-15

    Large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) mediate the regulated release of neuropeptides and peptide hormones. They form at the trans -Golgi network (TGN), where their soluble content aggregates to form a dense core, but the mechanisms controlling biogenesis are still not completely understood. Recent studies have implicated the peripheral membrane protein HID-1 in neuropeptide sorting and insulin secretion. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we generated HID-1 KO rat neuroendocrine cells, and we show that the absence of HID-1 results in specific defects in peptide hormone and monoamine storage and regulated secretion. Loss of HID-1 causes a reduction in the number of LDCVs and affects their morphology and biochemical properties, due to impaired cargo sorting and dense core formation. HID-1 KO cells also exhibit defects in TGN acidification together with mislocalization of the Golgi-enriched vacuolar H + -ATPase subunit isoform a2. We propose that HID-1 influences early steps in LDCV formation by controlling dense core formation at the TGN. © 2017 Hummer et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Factores que inciden en el acceso de las mujeres a cargos de responsabilidad en la estructura organizacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moine María Beatriz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece una revisión de la literatura a nivel nacional e internacional indagando acerca del proceso de promoción del género femenino en la escala jerárquica de la organización. El objetivo central del artí- culo apunta a determinar qué factores o características personales, profesionales y culturales, entre otras, influyen en la participación de las mujeres en los puestos directivos de las empresas. A partir de esta base, se analiza la situación de las mujeres en el ámbito de Río Cuarto, Córdoba y la región. Esta última premisa involucra la realización de un trabajo de campo que, a nivel exploratorio, analiza las características de la inserción de varones y mujeres en la organización locales y regionales y los determinantes en el acceso a cargos de dirección.

  9. Importance of anisotropy in detachment rates for force production and cargo transport by a team of motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-05-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by collective forces generated by a team consisting of multiple molecular motor proteins. One aspect that has received less attention is the detachment rate of molecular motors under mechanical force/load. While detachment rate of kinesin motors measured under backward force increases rapidly for forces beyond stall-force; this scenario is just reversed for non-yeast dynein motors where detachment rate from microtubule decreases, exhibiting a catch-bond type behavior. It has been shown recently that yeast dynein responds anisotropically to applied load, i.e. detachment rates are different under forward and backward pulling. Here, we use computational modeling to show that these anisotropic detachment rates might help yeast dynein motors to improve their collective force generation in the absence of catch-bond behavior. We further show that the travel distance of cargos would be longer if detachment rates are anisotropic. Our results suggest that anisotropic detachment rates could be an alternative strategy for motors to improve the transport properties and force production by the team. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  10. Highly efficient delivery of functional cargoes by the synergistic effect of GAG binding motifs and cell-penetrating peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, James E; Osman, Gizem; Morris, Gavin E; Markides, Hareklea; Rotherham, Michael; Bayoussef, Zahia; El Haj, Alicia J; Denning, Chris; Shakesheff, Kevin M

    2016-01-19

    Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are powerful nongenetic tools that allow intracellular delivery of conjugated cargoes to modify cell behavior. Their use in biomedicine has been hampered by inefficient delivery to nuclear and cytoplasmic targets. Here we overcame this deficiency by developing a series of novel fusion proteins that couple a membrane-docking peptide to heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with a PTD. We showed that this GET (GAG-binding enhanced transduction) system could deliver enzymes (Cre, neomycin phosphotransferase), transcription factors (NANOG, MYOD), antibodies, native proteins (cytochrome C), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and nucleic acids [plasmid (p)DNA, modified (mod)RNA, and small inhibitory RNA] at efficiencies of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported in cell types considered hard to transduce, such as mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), human ESCs (hESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This technology represents an efficient strategy for controlling cell labeling and directing cell fate or behavior that has broad applicability for basic research, disease modeling, and clinical application.

  11. La justicia en venta. El beneficio de cargos americanos de audiencia bajo Carlos II (1683-1700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Tapia, Ángel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the provision and «beneficio» (sale of Justice appointments to Spanish American Audiencias (Higher Courts in the 17th century, that modifies and completes previous research. The sale process of posts in American Audiencias (Crown attorneys, civil and criminal judges and attorneys for Indian defence is studied beginning with the antecedents in the reign of Felipe IV and the mercantile start in 1683 to the final years of Carlos II. Together with the Crown policy on this respect, it is offered a yearly analysis of the provided posts and beneficiaries, amounts paid and posts holders, along with some social aspects of the buyers (origin, status and professional experience.

    El artículo trata la provisión y «beneficio» (venta de los cargos de Justicia de las audiencias hispanoamericanas durante el siglo XVII, modificando y completando investigaciones anteriores. Estudia el proceso de venta de las plazas audienciales indianas (fiscales, oidores, alcaldes del crimen y fiscales protectores de indios desde sus antecedentes con Felipe IV y su inicio mercantil en 1683 hasta finales de Carlos II. Junto al planteamiento de la Corona se ofrece un completo análisis anual de las plazas provistas y beneficiadas, cantidades abonadas y personas titulares, junto con algunos aspectos sociales de los compradores (origen, estatus, experiencia.

  12. Label-free, ultrahigh-speed, 3D observation of bidirectional and correlated intracellular cargo transport by coherent brightfield microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Chou, Chun-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Hao; Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    2017-05-18

    The investigation of intracellular transport at the molecular scale requires measurements at high spatial and temporal resolutions. We demonstrate the label-free, direct imaging and tracking of native cell vesicles in live cells at an ultrahigh spatiotemporal resolution. Using coherent brightfield (COBRI) microscopy, we monitor individual cell vesicles traveling inside the cell with nanometer spatial precision in 3D at 30 000 frames per second. The stepwise directional motion of the vesicle on the cytoskeletal track is clearly resolved. We also observe the repeated switching of the transport direction of the vesicle in a continuous trajectory. Our high-resolution measurement unveils the transient pausing and subtle bidirectional motion of the vesicle, taking place over tens of nanometers in tens of milliseconds. By tracking multiple particles simultaneously, we found strong correlations between the motions of two neighboring vesicles. Our label-free ultrahigh-speed optical imaging provides the opportunity to visualize intracellular cargo transport at the nanoscale in the microsecond timescale with minimal perturbation.

  13. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MODEL BASED METHOD OF AUTOMATIC ORIENTATION OF SPACE CARGO SHIP RELATIVE TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. B. Blokhinov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The technical problem of creating the new Russian version of an automatic Space Cargo Ship (SCS for the International Space Station (ISS is inseparably connected to the development of a digital video system for automatically measuring the SCS position relative to ISS in the process of spacecraft docking. This paper presents a method for estimating the orientation elements based on the use of a highly detailed digital model of the ISS. The input data are digital frames from a calibrated video system and the initial values of orientation elements, these can be estimated from navigation devices or by fast-and-rough viewpoint-dependent algorithm. Then orientation elements should be defined precisely by means of algorithmic processing. The main idea is to solve the exterior orientation problem mainly on the basis of contour information of the frame image of ISS instead of ground control points. A detailed digital model is used for generating raster templates of ISS nodes; the templates are used to detect and locate the nodes on the target image with the required accuracy. The process is performed for every frame, the resulting parameters are considered to be the orientation elements. The Kalman filter is used for statistical support of the estimation process and real time pose tracking. Finally, the modeling results presented show that the proposed method can be regarded as one means to ensure the algorithmic support of automatic space ships docking.

  14. Unexpected hazard of illegal immigration: Outbreak of viral myocarditis exacerbated by confinement and deprivation in a shipboard cargo container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Melissa K; Beck, Melinda A; Shi, Qing; Harruff, Richard C

    2004-06-01

    We present a group of 18 illegal immigrant stowaways who arrived in a shipboard cargo container suffering from gastroenteritis, dehydration, and malnutrition and showing evidence of viral myocarditis in 3 of 4 fatalities. Our investigation included an evaluation of the 2-week ocean voyage, analysis of medical records and laboratory results of the survivors, autopsies on the decedents, and viral studies on their heart tissue. Of 3 stowaways who died shipboard, 2 showed lymphocytic myocarditis and 1 could not be evaluated histologically due to decomposition. A fourth stowaway died 4 months after arrival with dilated cardiomyopathy and lymphocytic myocarditis. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of viral isolates from the decedents' heart tissues demonstrated Coxsackie virus B3 genome. We believe that these cases represent an outbreak of viral myocarditis, exacerbated by acute dehydration and malnutrition, due to confinement within the shipping container. Our evidence indicates that close confinement promoted the spread of the virus, and nutritional deprivation increased the stowaways' vulnerability. Furthermore, our observations support the conclusion, based on experimental studies, that nutritionally induced oxidative stress increased the virulence of the etiologic viral agent. In summary, these cases represent a potential infectious disease hazard of illegal immigration.

  15. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E.; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell’s specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  16. Utilization scenarios for driving support systems in cargo traffic and their evaluation; Einsatzszenarien fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme im Gueterverkehr und deren Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.; Preuschoff, E. (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    The report presents a summary of the project of the above title (EFAS project). While earlier projects focused on the technical side, EFAS is the first to present a systematic analysis, presentation and evaluation of the parameters influencing driving support systems. With the aid of a systemic analysis, the key influencing factors are defined and analyzed, and three scenarios are developed which take account of user-oriented, organizational, operational, technical, infrastructural and legal aspects. The scenarios are evaluated with the aid of driving and traffic simulations in the fields of humans, organization and technology, and actions are recommended on this basis for driving support systems in cargo transport. [German] Der Bericht fasst die Ergebnisse des Projektes ''Einsatzszenarien fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme im Gueterverkehr'' (EFAS) zusammen. Bisher wurde die Thematik Fahrerassistenzsysteme hauptsaechlich auf der Seite der Fahrzeugtechnik vorangetrieben. Das Projekt EFAS stellt nun zum ersten Mal eine umfassende Analyse, Darstellung und Bewertung dar. Mit Hilfe einer systemischen Analyse werden die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren fuer die Einbindung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen in das Gesamtsystem ''Verkehr'' bestimmt und untersucht. Hieraus werden drei Einsatzszenarien entwickelt, die nutzerbezogene, organisatorische, betriebliche, fahrzeugtechnische, infrastukturelle und rechtliche Aspekte zu Zukunftsbildern zusammenfuegen. Die Szenarien werden mit Hilfe von Fahr- und Verkehrssimulationen in den Bereichen Mensch, Organisation und Technik bewertet. Aus den Ergebnissen werden konkrete Handlungsempfehlungen fuer den Einsatz von Fahrerassistenzsystemen im Strassengueterverkehr abgeleitet. (orig.)

  17. Stromal cell extracellular vesicular cargo mediated regulation of breast cancer cell metastasis via ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 N pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Krishna C; Penfornis, Patrice; Xing, Fei; Hassler, Yoni; Adams, Kristen V; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Watabe, Kounosuke; Pochampally, Radhika

    2017-12-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) have been used to understand the stromal cell properties in solid tumors because of their ablity to differentiate into most cell types. We investigated the role of EVs from hMSCs (hMSC-EVs) in breast cancer metastasis using MDA-MB-231 parental cell line and organotropic sub-lines. We demonstrated that hMSC-EVs significantly suppressed the metastatic potential of the parental cell line when compared to their organotropic sublines. hMSC-EVs induce dormancy in the parental cell line but not in their organotropic sub-lines and miR-205 and miR-31 from EV cargo played a role. Further, Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme E2 N (UBE2N/Ubc13) - metastasis-regulating gene, is a target of these miRNAs and silencing of UBE2N/Ubc13 expression significantly suppressed migration, invasion, and proliferation of breast cancer cells. To summarize, hMSC-EVs support primary breast tumor progression but suppress the metastasis of breast cancer cells that are not organ-committed through the UBE2N/Ubc13 pathway and play a role in premetastic niche formation.

  18. Complexity in human transportation networks: a comparative analysis of worldwide air transportation and global cargo-ship movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley-Meza, O.; Thiemann, C.; Grady, D.; Lee, J. J.; Seebens, H.; Blasius, B.; Brockmann, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comparative network-theoretic analysis of the two largest global transportation networks: the worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) and the global cargo-ship network (GCSN). We show that both networks exhibit surprising statistical similarities despite significant differences in topology and connectivity. Both networks exhibit a discontinuity in node and link betweenness distributions which implies that these networks naturally segregate into two different classes of nodes and links. We introduce a technique based on effective distances, shortest paths and shortest path trees for strongly weighted symmetric networks and show that in a shortest path tree representation the most significant features of both networks can be readily seen. We show that effective shortest path distance, unlike conventional geographic distance measures, strongly correlates with node centrality measures. Using the new technique we show that network resilience can be investigated more precisely than with contemporary techniques that are based on percolation theory. We extract a functional relationship between node characteristics and resilience to network disruption. Finally we discuss the results, their implications and conclude that dynamic processes that evolve on both networks are expected to share universal dynamic characteristics.

  19. The ArfGAP2/3 Glo3 and ergosterol collaborate in transport of a subset of cargoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro F. Estrada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Proteins reach the plasma membrane through the secretory pathway in which the trans Golgi network (TGN acts as a sorting station. Transport from the TGN to the plasma membrane is maintained by a number of different pathways that act either directly or via the endosomal system. Here we show that a subset of cargoes depends on the ArfGAP2/3 Glo3 and ergosterol to maintain their proper localization at the plasma membrane. While interfering with neither ArfGAP2/3 activity nor ergosterol biosynthesis individually significantly altered plasma membrane localization of the tryptophan transporter Tat2, the general amino acid permease Gap1 and the v-SNARE Snc1, in a Δglo3 Δerg3 strain those proteins accumulated in internal endosomal structures. Export from the TGN to the plasma membrane and recycling from early endosomes appeared unaffected as the chitin synthase Chs3 that travels along these routes was localized normally. Our data indicate that a subset of proteins can reach the plasma membrane efficiently but after endocytosis becomes trapped in endosomal structures. Our study supports a role for ArfGAP2/3 in recycling from endosomes and in transport to the vacuole/lysosome.

  20. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  1. Un cargo para el duque de Medina Sidonia: Portugal, el Estrecho de Gibraltar y el comercio indiano (1578-1584

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Almela, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals and interprets the negotiations surrounding the nomination around 1580 of the Duke of Medina Sidonia as a candidate for the presidency of both the Consejo de Indias and the Casa de la Contratación. The historical context of those years, both that of the ducal house and that of the crown and its institutions, provide relevant clues regarding the contemporary debate about the duke’s suitability as a candidate for both posts. In turn, the duke’s refusal of these posts also sheds important light on the significance of this crucial historical juncture.

    Este artículo descubre e interpreta la negociación que se produjo en torno a la candidatura del duque de Medina Sidonia para presidir tanto el Consejo de Indias como la Casa de la Contratación en torno a 1580. A partir de la coyuntura histórica de aquellos años, tanto para la Casa señorial como para la Corona y sus instituciones, analizamos los argumentos a favor y en contra de la idoneidad del duque para los cargos. De este modo, el rechazo de Medina Sidonia arroja nueva luz sobre el significado de aquella crucial coyuntura.

  2. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  3. Analysis of wake vortices of a medium range twin-propeller military cargo aircraft using statistically designed experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Burhan

    An experimental study was initiated to analyze the trajectories of the streamwise vortices behind the wing tip and flap of a medium range and propeller driven twin-engine military cargo aircraft. The model used for the experimental study was a generic, high wing and half model of a propeller driven aircraft and mounted within Old Dominion University's Low Speed Wind Tunnel where the wind tunnel flow speed was set to constant value of 9 m/sec. The main purpose of the study was to reach regression models for the motion and vorticity strength of both vortices under varying factors such as angle of attack, flap angle, propeller pitch angle and downstream distance. Velocity measurements of the flow fields were accomplished using both Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Hotwire Anemometry (HWA) to yield average velocities, turbulence levels, vorticity strengths and Reynolds shear stresses in the wake of the model. The results of measurements showed that the vertical motions, horizontal motions, and vorticity strengths of both vortices as well as the shortest distance between both vortices depend on the aforementioned factors and the interactions of some factors. It can be concluded that propeller pitch angle mainly affects the behaviors of the vortices as much as angle of attack to the extent that their second order terms take place in some of the regression models.

  4. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-11-15

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell's specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  5. Experimental measurements and evaluation of the expanded water repellent perlite used for the cargo containment system of LNG carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manfeng; Ju, Yonglin

    2017-10-01

    To minimize the water absorption and to improve the thermal insulated properties of the insulation materials used for the cargo containment systems (CCSs) of LNG carrier, a kind of expanded water-repellent perlite has been developed by coating hydrophobic membrane onto the outer surface of the expanded perlite to change its physical and chemical characteristics. Considering the CCSs operated in a wide temperature range from environmental temperature to cryogenic temperature, the thermal analysis has been conducted to quantitatively determine the thermal insulted properties of the insulation materials. Furthermore, a double-sided guarded hot plate apparatus (GHP) is specifically designed and fabricated for the measurement of the thermal conductivities of the insulation specimens operated down to liquid nitrogen temperature. The breakage ratio associated with the water absorption and the thermal conductivity of the expanded water-repellent perlite is firstly proposed, and then a series of experiments are carried out to determine the thermal conductivity of the expanded water-repellent perlite ranging from room temperature to cryogenic temperature based on the different breakage ratios.

  6. Public announcement of guidelines for the packing and safe stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transport (Container Stowage Guidelines)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The IMO and ILO guidelines are given, which help to meet the requirements of the Maritime Safety Ordinance and the Ordinance on Ocean Transport of Dangerous Goods. The guidelines explain the principles of safe packing and stowing of cargo in freight containers and vehicles for ocean transports. Further information and practical hints are given in international publications referred to in the annex. The guidelines are also meant for training purposes. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. 29 CFR 1918.11 - Gear certification (See also §§ 1918.2, definition of “Vessel's cargo handling gear” and 1918.51).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gear certification (See also §§ 1918.2, definition of âVessel's cargo handling gearâ and 1918.51). 1918.11 Section 1918.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Gear Certification § 1918.11 Gear certification (See also §§ 1918.2, definition of...

  8. RESEARCH ABOUT THE USERS´ PERCEPTION OF ACCOUNTING AND TAX BOOKKEEPING MODULES OF AN ERP SYSTEM FOR THE CARGO AND PASSENGERS ROAD TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ivam Ricardo Peleias; Napoleão Verardi Galegale; José Carlos Trevizoli; Pedro Luiz Cortes

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluated the users´perception of accounting and tax bookkeeping modules of an ERP – Enterprise Resources Planning System for the cargo and passengers road transportation sector. It´s a survey research, which combined empiric investigation, bibliographical review, as well as field research. It was applied a questionnaire containing 20 questions to characterize the sample and 30 assertive ones, answered by 37 users of the system. The collected data were treated by Qualitative Ana...

  9. Structural and biochemical characterization of SrcA, a multi-cargo type III secretion chaperone in Salmonella required for pathogenic association with a host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A Cooper

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for effector translocation into host cells. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a T3SS encoded in a large genomic island (SPI-2 is required for intracellular infection, but the chaperone complement required for effector translocation by this system is not known. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified a multi-cargo secretion chaperone that is functionally integrated with the SPI-2-encoded T3SS and required for systemic infection in mice. Crystallographic analysis of SrcA at a resolution of 2.5 A revealed a dimer similar to the CesT chaperone from enteropathogenic E. coli but lacking a 17-amino acid extension at the carboxyl terminus. Further biochemical and quantitative proteomics data revealed three protein interactions with SrcA, including two effector cargos (SseL and PipB2 and the type III-associated ATPase, SsaN, that increases the efficiency of effector translocation. Using competitive infections in mice we show that SrcA increases bacterial fitness during host infection, highlighting the in vivo importance of effector chaperones for the SPI-2 T3SS.

  10. Time analysis of the containerized cargo flow in the logistic chain using simulation tools: the case of the Port of Seville (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Aguilar, J.J.; Turias, J.I.; Cerban, M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Pulido, A.

    2016-07-01

    The logistic chain that connects the capital of Spain (Madrid) with the Canary Islands has the Port of Seville as the port node. This port node makes possible to switch from one transport mode (railway) to another (maritime) at the container terminal of the port. Some constraints, such as the operational time window that restricts the freight train access into the port in a certain time-slot or the need of the reversal of the train before entering into port, lead to generate important time delays in the intermodal chain. A time analysis of the process is necessary in order to check the critical points. A simulation of the whole process from the goods departing the origin station by train until they leave the port of Seville by ship to the Canary Islands is performed. To this aim, a queuing model network was developed in order to simulate the travel time of the cargo. The database is composed of daily departures of goods train and daily departures of vessels (including times of docking, berthing or load/unload cargo). The final objective of this work is twofold: firstly, to provide a validated model of the containerized cargo flow and secondly, to demonstrate that this kind of queuing models can become a powerful supporting tool in making decisions about future investments. (Author)

  11. Explosion impacts during transport of hazardous cargo: GIS-based characterization of overpressure impacts and delineation of flammable zones for ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanloo, Bahareh; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate accidental releases of ammonia followed by an en-route incident in an attempt to further predict the consequences of hazardous cargo accidents. The air dispersion model Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) was employed to track the probable outcomes of a hazardous material release of a tanker truck under different explosion scenarios. The significance of identification of the flammable zones was taken into consideration; in case the flammable vapor causes an explosion. The impacted areas and the severity of the probable destructions were evaluated for an explosion by considering the overpressure waves. ALOHA in conjunction with ArcGIS was used to delineate the flammable and overpressure impact zones for different scenarios. Based on the results, flammable fumes were formed in oval shapes having a chief axis along the wind direction at the time of release. The expansions of the impact areas under the overpressure value which can lead to property damage for 2 and 20 tons releases, under very stable and unstable atmospheric conditions were estimated to be around 1708, 1206; 3742, 3527 feet, respectively, toward the wind direction. A sensitivity analysis was done to assess the significance of wind speed on the impact zones. The insight provided by this study can be utilized by decision makers in transportation of hazardous materials as a guide for possible rerouting, rescheduling, or limiting the quantity of hazardous cargo to reduce the possible impacts after hazardous cargo accidents during transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of SrcA, a Multi-cargo Type III Secretion Chaperone in Salmonella Required for Pathogenic Association with a Host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C.; Zhang, K; Andres, S; Fnag, Y; Kaniuk, N; Hannemann, M; Brumell, J; Foster, L; Junop, M; Coombes, B

    2010-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacteria colonize and exploit host niches using a protein apparatus called a type III secretion system (T3SS) that translocates bacterial effector proteins into host cells where their functions are essential for pathogenesis. A suite of T3SS-associated chaperone proteins bind cargo in the bacterial cytosol, establishing protein interaction networks needed for effector translocation into host cells. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, a T3SS encoded in a large genomic island (SPI-2) is required for intracellular infection, but the chaperone complement required for effector translocation by this system is not known. Using a reverse genetics approach, we identified a multi-cargo secretion chaperone that is functionally integrated with the SPI-2-encoded T3SS and required for systemic infection in mice. Crystallographic analysis of SrcA at a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} revealed a dimer similar to the CesT chaperone from enteropathogenic E. coli but lacking a 17-amino acid extension at the carboxyl terminus. Further biochemical and quantitative proteomics data revealed three protein interactions with SrcA, including two effector cargos (SseL and PipB2) and the type III-associated ATPase, SsaN, that increases the efficiency of effector translocation. Using competitive infections in mice we show that SrcA increases bacterial fitness during host infection, highlighting the in vivo importance of effector chaperones for the SPI-2 T3SS.

  13. EL VÍNCULO INDIVIDUO-COLECTIVO EN EL SISTEMA DE CARGOS EN UNA COMUNIDAD RURAL DEL SUR DE TLAXCALA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Salas Quintanal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes the authors reflections about their last investigations into  community organization concept. The research took place in several countries in Mexico from 2008 to 2012. It is an anthropological analysis about cargo system, which includes native and no-native communities. In such a way, the authors recognize the importance of heterogeneous institution into cargo system concept. So that, they suggest, as the main hypothesis, that cargo system creates several mechanisms, which promote that members of the community stimulated social interactions’ scenes into role set. First, the community institutions promote the participation of the largest number of people. Second, interactions’ scenes are constantly created and recreated by the community members. Third, the roles’ rotation, as a product of a tacit agreement into community members, is fundamental to assure social participation, scene by scene. In order to facilitate the analysis, such mechanisms have been categorised in four larger dimensions: political-judicial, economic, religious and social. As a final thought, the idea of a communitarian project becomes the common characteristic of all the studied communities.

  14. Multi-facet implications of PEGylated lysozyme stabilized-silver nanoclusters loaded recombinant PTEN cargo in cancer theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Neha; Gavya S, Lalitha; Ghosh, Siddhartha S

    2018-05-01

    Amalgamation of delivery and tracking of therapeutically relevant moieties on a single platform is made possible by the application of metal nanoclusters, an innovative class of luminescent nanomaterials. Metal nanoclusters, possessing molecule-like attributes, display extraordinary size and shape tunable properties befitting theranostic applications. Herein, we report successful assembly of therapeutically significant phosphatase protein PTEN and fluorescent lysozyme-stabilized silver nanoclusters to accomplish delivery and tracking of the protein. Down-regulation of PTEN perturbs the cellular networking leading to copious pathological conditions. The integration of purified recombinant PTEN with silver nanoclusters was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy study. A key feature of this study is the use of polyethylene glycol coating that allows fabrication of the assembly into spherical nanocomposites as characterized by transmission electron microscope along with retention of both optical functionality of the cluster and biological activity of the protein. Prior to cellular application, the functional integrity of PTEN in the composite was determined in vitro, by enzymatic assay employing para-nitrophenylphosphate as substrate. Cellular internalization of the cargo was studied by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. The efficacy of the payload on modulation of cellular signaling was assessed on cell lines that expressed PTEN differentially. PTEN null U-87 MG and PTEN expressing MCF7 cell lines displayed successful alteration of AKT and FAK signaling proteins culminating in cell cycle arrest and reduced wound healing capacity. A dose dependent reduction in cell proliferation of MCF7 cells was achieved. For U-87 MG, treatment with the payload resulted in chemosensitization toward anti-cancer drug erlotinib. Thus, PEG coated GST-PTEN loaded silver nanoclusters serves as a comprehensive system encompassing cellular imaging and protein delivery with

  15. 2013 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  16. Shuttle with Cargo Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The shuttle is a reusable launch vehicle that can maintain a consistent orbit and provide up to 17 days of high-quality microgravity conditions. The shuttle, which can accomodate a wide range of experiment apparatus, provides a laboratory environment in which scientists can conduct long-term investigations.

  17. 2011 Cargo Vessel Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) are a navigation safety device that transmits and monitors the location and characteristics of many vessels in U.S. and...

  18. The Ebook Cargo Cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Bonfield

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Libraries created the present crisis in scholarly publishing, and we are creating a similar crisis now with our approach to ebooks. We created the crisis in scholarly publishing by ceding control of an intrinsic library function, abstracting and indexing, a decision with inevitable consequences. Consequences like the present need to boycott Elsevier for its predatory [...

  19. Accidental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in waste cargo after heavy seas. Global waste transport as a source of PCB exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Wegner, Ralf; Rogall, Ulrich; Baur, Xaver

    2014-02-01

    After cargo with PCB-containing transformer oil waste was damaged in heavy seas, the vessel crew exposed to PCB developed itching and acne-form eruption of the skin. The objective of our study was to analyse this work-related incident and its effects on health. Air and wipe test samples were taken in the ship for analysis of PCB (28/52/101/138/153/180); clinical investigations of all seafarers (n = 6) included lung function, chest X-ray, clinical chemistry and biomonitoring (plasma PCBs, chlorophenols in urine) measured after a latency of 7 weeks. The biomonitoring data were adjusted according to age-related reference values and validated against controls (n = 96). Biomonitoring showed elevated PCB-28-/52/-102/-138 congeners (mean 1.16/0.91/136, ∑PCB: 5.82 μg/l), which correlates with the dust samples from the cargo hold (∑PCB. 9,440 mg/m(2)) and with 6.1 and 5.0 μg/m(3) in stern and bow cargo air samples. IgE elevation in two seafarers and substantial blood sedimentation rate increase with anaemia or pulmonary emphysema were unlikely to be caused by PCB exposure. Although two members showed slightly elevated airway resistance values, other lung function parameters were normal and reactive airways dysfunction syndrome due to PCBs could be excluded. Elevated chlorophenols in urine could contribute to the manifestation of chloracne. PCB-52/-101/-138 found in plasma and in air samples confirm exposure to PCB. Acne-form skin eruptions were from occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in the spilt transformer oil. There were no other abnormal findings in medical and clinical examinations that could be attributed to PCBs. This does not exclude possible long-term effects.

  20. EL VÍNCULO INDIVIDUO-COLECTIVO EN EL SISTEMA DE CARGOS EN UNA COMUNIDAD RURAL DEL SUR DE TLAXCALA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Salas Quintanal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto contiene las reflexiones que, sobre el estudio de las formas de organización comunitaria en varias localidades de un municipio mexicano, los autores han tenido después de varias temporadas de campo periódicas entre los años 2008 y 2012. Se plantea una propuesta de análisis antropológico del sistema de cargos que incluye tanto a comunidades indígenas como no-indígenas. Partiendo del reconocimiento del sistema de cargos como una institución esencialmente heterogénea, se sugiere que, como hipótesis principal, tal institución alimenta una serie de mecanismos que, en sí mismos, potencian los escenarios de interacciones que protagonizan los miembros de la comunidad a través de un conjunto de roles de la siguiente manera: fomentan que los escenarios puedan ser protagonizados por el mayor número de miembros; propician que tales escenarios se articulen con la mayor frecuencia posible; todo ello con el acuerdo tácito entre protagonistas de que exista rotación de roles entre escenario y escenario. Con el objetivo de facilitar el análisis, tales mecanismos son categorizados en cuatro grandes dimensiones: política-judicial, económica, religiosa y social. A modo de reflexión final, los autores proponen la idea del “proyecto comunitario” como denominador común de lo observado y leído en cuanto a sistemas de cargos se refiere.

  1. Fragile X granules are a family of axonal ribonucleoprotein particles with circuit-dependent protein composition and mRNA cargos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyung, Eunice; LeBlanc, Hannah F; Fallon, Justin R; Akins, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    Local axonal protein synthesis plays a crucial role in the formation and function of neuronal circuits. Understanding the role of this mechanism in specific circuits requires identifying the protein composition and mRNA cargos of the ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) that form the substrate for axonal translation. FXGs (Fragile X granules) are axonal RNPs present in a stereotyped subset of mature axons in the intact brain that contain one or more of the Fragile X related (FXR) proteins (FMRP, FXR2P, and FXR1P) along with mRNA and ribosomes. Here we performed a systematic survey of the FXR protein composition and mRNA association of FXGs in the brain. We have identified four FXG types that can be categorized based on their FXR protein complement. All FXGs contain FXR2P, with FMRP and/or FXR1P present in circuit-selective subsets. Individual neuronal cell types predominantly express a single FXG type, with FMRP-containing FXGs the most prevalent in forebrain neurons. All FXG types associate with ribosomes and mRNA, but the specific mRNA cargos are a function of FXG type, brain region and neuron class. Transcripts for β-catenin and its regulator APC associate with a subset of forebrain FXGs. Moreover, both these transcripts can colocalize within individual FXGs, suggesting that the axonal translation of functionally related proteins may be coordinately regulated with high spatiotemporal resolution. Cell type-dependent expression of specific RNP types with distinct mRNA cargos, such as FXGs, presents a potential mechanism for regulating local translation and its output in a circuit-dependent manner. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Historical volcanic eruptions in the Canary Islands, tephra composition, and insights into the crystal cargo of basaltic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longpre, M. A.; Muller, J.; Beaudry, P.; Andronikides, A.; Felpeto, A.

    2017-12-01

    average glass/bulk rock enrichment factors (1.41 ± 0.18 and 1.47 ± 0.17, respectively). This work provides an internally consistent framework for the comparison of historical Canary Island eruptions and offers novel insights into the relationships between trace element signatures and the crystal cargo of basaltic magmas.

  3. Surfaceome profiling enables isolation of cancer-specific exosomal cargo in liquid biopsies from pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J; Bernard, V; San Lucas, F A; Allenson, K; Capello, M; Kim, D U; Gascoyne, P; Mulu, F C; Stephens, B M; Huang, J; Wang, H; Momin, A A; Jacamo, R O; Katz, M; Wolff, R; Javle, M; Varadhachary, G; Wistuba, I I; Hanash, S; Maitra, A; Alvarez, H

    2018-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor DNA can be limited due to their relative scarcity in circulation, particularly while patients are actively undergoing therapy. Exosomes provide a vehicle through which cancer-specific material can be enriched from the compendium of circulating non-neoplastic tissue-derived nucleic acids. We carried out a comprehensive profiling of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exosomal 'surfaceome' in order to identify surface proteins that will render liquid biopsies amenable to cancer-derived exosome enrichment for downstream molecular profiling. Surface exosomal proteins were profiled in 13 human PDAC and 2 non-neoplastic cell lines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 173 prospectively collected blood samples from 103 PDAC patients underwent exosome isolation. Droplet digital PCR was used on 74 patients (136 total exosome samples) to determine baseline KRAS mutation call rates while patients were on therapy. PDAC-specific exosome capture was then carried out on additional 29 patients (37 samples) using an antibody cocktail directed against selected proteins, followed by droplet digital PCR analysis. Exosomal DNA in a PDAC patient resistant to therapy were profiled using a molecular barcoded, targeted sequencing panel to determine the utility of enriched nucleic acid material for comprehensive molecular analysis. Proteomic analysis of the exosome 'surfaceome' revealed multiple PDAC-specific biomarker candidates: CLDN4, EPCAM, CD151, LGALS3BP, HIST2H2BE, and HIST2H2BF. KRAS mutations in total exosomes were detected in 44.1% of patients undergoing active therapy compared with 73.0% following exosome capture using the selected biomarkers. Enrichment of exosomal cargo was amenable to molecular profiling, elucidating a putative mechanism of resistance to PARP inhibitor therapy in a patient harboring a BRCA2 mutation. Exosomes provide unique opportunities in the context of liquid biopsies for enrichment of tumor

  4. Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colis, William D

    1947-01-01

    The icing characteristics, the de-icing rate with hot air, and the effect of impact ice on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction system consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction system remained ice-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling ice formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-ice formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation icing and minimized the formation of throttling ice below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger ice formations and lower icing temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-ice formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from ice formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-icing.

  5. DATOS DEMOGRÁFICOS DE ANIMALES DE COMPAÑÍA ATENDIDOS EN CONSULTA DE OFTALMOLOGÍA Y DE LAS PERSONAS A SU CARGO

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues H., Beatriz; Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología; Torres L., Miguel; Universidad Agraria de La Habana

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta una descripción de datos demográficos de animales de compañía (n=610) que fueron asistidos en una consulta de oftalmología veterinaria en La Habana, Cuba, en 2012, así como de las personas a su cargo (n=529). Los datos fueron obtenidos de las historias clínicas. Los perros constituyeron la especie de mayor frecuencia (68%), seguida del gato (22%), hámster (5%) y tortugas (4%). Los perros fueron mayormente hembras (62%) con edades de 1 a 5 años (35%), donde los grupos raciales más ...

  6. Railway networks 2025/2030. Expansion concept for an efficient rail cargo traffic in Germany; Schienennetz 2025/2030. Ausbaukonzeption fuer einen leistungsfaehigen Schienengueterverkehr in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhey, Michael [KCW GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    This study investigated the need for the construction of new railway lines and expansion of the existing railway network in Germany. The target to be achieved was based on the UBA strategy of being able to absorb 213 billion tkm on the rail by 2025. The time factor is not really that important, however; what counts is the selection of a target that forces all parties concerned to make infrastructural plans and think ahead if they are convinced in principle of the advantages of railway cargo transport. (orig.)

  7. Application of oil spill environmental vulnerability analysis to Brazilian road networks for hazardous cargo transportation; Aplicacao do indice de vulnerabilidade rodoviario para transporte de cargas perigosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, M. Beatriz da Costa; Silva Junior, Carlos Leandro da; Almeida, Ana Flavia Oliveira de [Ambipetro Consultoria em Meio Ambiente e Petroleo Ltda., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Roads provide the main means of transportation in Brazil. According to data from the Brazilian Department of Infrastructure and Transport, 96.2% of the passenger transportation and 61.8% of the cargo transportation are based on road infrastructure. However, three quarters of the Brazilian roads are in terrible, unsatisfactory or generally inadequate condition. Poor road conditions are responsible for a great number of accidents with severe consequences for the population and the environment. Given the importance of this matter, there is a need to develop an intelligent system for automatic classification of social and environmental sensitivity maps in order to support actions that respond to emergencies and to help in transportation planning, especially considering the heavy movement of hazardous cargoes such as petroleum and its derivates. For this, tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS) allow social-environmental and traffic engineering characterization maps to be analyzed on a unified, geo referenced digital base. This way, administrators can estimate which stretches of the network are more environmentally sensitive and which pose greater risks, and therefore draw inferences on the most socially and environmentally vulnerable. Social and environmental vulnerability data not only help in the classification of the areas which pose the greater risks, but also make it possible to decide on emergency support points, creating a culture of prevention in the area of hazardous cargo transportation. The case study on the state of Rio Grande do Norte provides a measure of the importance of such work. The city of Natal - the state capital - and the Guamare petrochemical facility are interconnected by 180 Km Road, on which more than 100 tanker trucks loaded with diesel and its derivates travel every day. This road is classified as in poor conditions and, according to the Brazilian Roads Police, it is one of the most dangerous. The relevance of this work is to show

  8. O Panorama do Cargo de Secretário Executivo em uma Instituição Federal de Ensino Superior e as Implicações da Lei 11.091/2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Nunes de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A profissão de secretariado executivo, reconhecida pela lei 7.377, de 30/09/1985, ainda encontra desafios quanto à sua lotação nas estruturas organizacionais, sejam elas públicas ou privadas. Com isso, o objetivo do presente estudo é verificar qual o panorama do cargo de secretário executivo na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM. Para alcançar o objetivo proposto, foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva. A população do estudo foram os técnico-administrativos em educação da UFSM, e a amostra foram os ocupantes do cargo de secretário executivo (quarenta e cinco indivíduos. Dentre os resultados da pesquisa, descobriu-se que apenas onze por cento da amostra estudada (cinco pessoas possuem graduação em Secretariado Executivo. A maioria dos ocupantes do cargo de secretário executivo, sessenta e cinco por cento (vinte e nove pessoas, são graduados em Letras. Com isso, conclui-se que cabe às entidades representantes da categoria, bem como aos sindicatos, buscarem formas de fortalecer a profissão. Paradoxalmente, se, por um lado aplica-se a alguns cargos da Administração Pública a exigibilidade de habilitação profissional, por outro, o secretário executivo tem seu cargo eximido de tal exigência.

  9. Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the molecular cargo of extracellular vesicles derived from porcine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirin, Alfonso; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Woollard, John R; Tang, Hui; Dasari, Surendra; Lerman, Amir; van Wijnen, Andre J; Lerman, Lilach O

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a promising therapy for tissue regeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by MSCs act as their paracrine effectors by delivering proteins and genetic material to recipient cells. To assess how their cargo mediates biological processes that drive their therapeutic effects, we integrated miRNA, mRNA, and protein expression data of EVs from porcine adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Simultaneous expression profiles of miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins were obtained by high-throughput sequencing and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis in porcine MSCs and their daughter EVs (n = 3 each). TargetScan and ComiR were used to predict miRNA target genes. Functional annotation analysis was performed using DAVID 6.7 database to rank primary gene ontology categories for the enriched mRNAs, miRNA target genes, and proteins. STRING was used to predict associations between mRNA and miRNA target genes. Differential expression analysis revealed 4 miRNAs, 255 mRNAs, and 277 proteins enriched in EVs versus MSCs (fold change >2, pextracellular matrix remodeling, blood coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Porcine MSC-derived EVs contain a genetic cargo of miRNAs and mRNAs that collectively control TF activity in EVs and recipient cells, as well as proteins capable of modulating cellular pathways linked to tissue repair. These properties provide the fundamental basis for considering therapeutic use of EVs in tissue regeneration.

  10. NASA Constellation Program (CxP) Key Driving Requirements and Element Descriptions for International Architecture Working Group (IAWG) Functional Teams Human Transportation Cargo Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Roland M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation uncrewed cargo mission delivers cargo to any designated location on the lunar surface (or other staging point) in a single mission. This capability is used to deliver surface infrastructure needed for lunar outpost construction, to provide periodic logistics resupply to support a continuous human lunar presence, and potentially deliver other assets to various locations.In the nominal mission mode, the Altair lunar lander is launched on Ares V into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), following a short Low Earth Orbit (LEO) loiter period, the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) performs the Trans Lunar Injection (TLI) burn and is then jettisoned. The Altair performs translunar trajectory correction maneuvers as necessary and performs the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) burn. Altair then descends to the surface to land near a designated target, presumably in proximity to an Outpost location or another site of interest for exploration.Alternatively, the EDS and Altair Descent Stage could deliver assets to various staging points within their propulsive capabilities.

  11. Functional specialization within the vacuolar sorting receptor family: VSR1, VSR3 and VSR4 sort vacuolar storage cargo in seeds and vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhar, Jan; Muñoz, Alfonso; Rojo, Enrique

    2010-11-01

    Two different gene families have been proposed to act as sorting receptors for vacuolar storage cargo in plants: the vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) and the receptor homology-transmembrane-RING H2 domain proteins (RMRs). However, functional data on these genes is scarce and the identity of the sorting receptor for storage proteins remains controversial. Through a genetic screen we have identified the mtv2 mutant, which is defective in vacuolar transport of the storage cargo VAC2 in shoot apices. Map-based cloning revealed that mtv2 is a loss of function allele of the VSR4 gene. We show that VSR1, VSR3 and VSR4, but not the remaining VSRs or RMRs, participate in vacuolar sorting of VAC2 in vegetative tissues, and 12S globulins and 2S albumins in seeds, an activity that is essential for seedling germination vigor. Finally, we demonstrate that the functional diversification in the VSR family results from divergent expression patterns and also from distinct sorting activities of the family members. © 2010 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Mogućnosti unapređenja prevoza specijalnih tereta železnicom / Possibilities of improving railroad transportation of special cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Jovanović

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Kvalitet usluge u železničkom saobraćaju i transportu može da se planira. U radu se sagledavaju osnovni parametri kvaliteta usluge i razmatra pitanje upravljanja kvalitetom usluge prevoza specijalnih tereta železnicom, uz primenu dijagrama toka kao jedne od mogućih metoda i tehnika unapređenja kvaliteta. Prevoženje opasnih materija, jedne od grupa iz kategorije specijalnih tereta, nosi niz potencijalnih opasnosti po ugrožavanje životne sredine. Radi bezbednog prevoza železnicom preduzimaju se odgovarajuće mere. Kvalitetna železnička vozila specifičnih konstruktivnih karakteristika, koje odgovaraju fizičko-hemijskim osobinama opasnih materija, uslov su bezbednog prevoza. / Quality of service in railroad traffic and transportation can be planned. In this paper the basic quality of service parameters are given and question of managing quality of service of railroad special cargos is discussed using the flow diagram as one of the possible methods and techniques for improvement of its quality. Transportation of dangerous materials, ones from the group of special cargos, has a number of potential dangers to the environment. Because of that, certain necessary measures are done to secure safe railroad transportation. Quality railroad vehicles with specific construction characteristics, corresponding to physics and chemical characteristics of the dangerous materials, are condition for safe transportation.

  13. La participación de las mujeres profesionales de la Universidad de Oriente. Su acceso a cargos de dirección / The participation of the professional women of the Orient University. Their access to management charges

    OpenAIRE

    Iliana Benítez Jiménez; Viviana Nicole Fernández Dieguez; Eusebio Fayad Plutín; Evelyn Caraballo Cobas

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo tiene como objetivo evaluar la participación de las mujeres profesionales de la Universidad de Oriente y su acceso a cargos de dirección, precisando las inequidades de género que se manifiestan en este proceso. El primer resultado estuvo en la caracterización cuantitativa de la presencia de la mujer en las diferentes categorías docentes, científicas, áreas del conocimiento y otros estratos, así como en los diferentes niveles de cargos directivos. Por otra parte, ...

  14. RESEARCH ABOUT THE USERS´ PERCEPTION OF ACCOUNTING AND TAX BOOKKEEPING MODULES OF AN ERP SYSTEM FOR THE CARGO AND PASSENGERS ROAD TRANSPORTATION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivam Ricardo Peleias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the users´perception of accounting and tax bookkeeping modules of an ERP – Enterprise Resources Planning System for the cargo and passengers road transportation sector. It´s a survey research, which combined empiric investigation, bibliographical review, as well as field research. It was applied a questionnaire containing 20 questions to characterize the sample and 30 assertive ones, answered by 37 users of the system. The collected data were treated by Qualitative Analysis, Descriptive Statistics, Cluster Analysis and Comparative Analysis among the clusters. The results demonstrate how these users perceive the importance and the facilities with the use of the system, as well as grouped such users in 3 opinion clusters (optimistic, realists and pessimistic and indicated points that can be improved in the system.

  15. The hemopexin and O-glycosylated domains tune gelatinase B/MMP-9 bioavailability via inhibition and binding to cargo receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Steen, Philippe E; Van Aelst, Ilse; Hvidberg, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    with a compact three-dimensional structure. The OG and hemopexin domains have no influence on the cleavage efficiency of MMP-9 substrates. In contrast, the hemopexin domain contains a binding site for the cargo receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1). Furthermore, megalin/LRP-2......Gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a key regulator and effector of immunity, contains a C-terminal hemopexin domain preceded by a unique linker sequence of approximately 64 amino acid residues. This linker sequence is demonstrated to be an extensively O-glycosylated (OG) domain...... is identified as a new functional receptor for the hemopexin domain of MMP-9, able to mediate the endocytosis and catabolism of the enzyme. The OG domain is required to correctly orient the hemopexin domain for inhibition by TIMP-1 and internalization by LRP-1 and megalin. Therefore, the OG and hemopexin...

  16. A review of modeling issues and analysis methods for the thermal response of cargoes transported in the Safe Secure Trailer subjected to fire environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Larsen, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). High Consequence Assessment and Technology Dept.

    1998-05-01

    This paper discusses thermal analysis in support of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to predict the heating of cargoes shipped in vehicles like the Safe Secure Trailer. Fire environments contribute very significantly to the risk associated with ground transport of special nuclear materials. The tradeoff between thermal model complexity and the affordable number of scenarios used to represent the hazard space is discussed as it impacts PRA. The relevant heat transfer mechanisms are discussed along with the applicability of methods from the literature for analysis of these mechanisms. Many of the subject`s real problems remain too complex for affordable and rigorous analysis. Available models are generally restricted to idealizations that are quickly obviated by real effects. Approximate treatment methods, striving to produce conservative, realistic estimates are also discussed.

  17. Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the molecular cargo of extracellular vesicles derived from porcine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Eirin

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC transplantation is a promising therapy for tissue regeneration. Extracellular vesicles (EVs released by MSCs act as their paracrine effectors by delivering proteins and genetic material to recipient cells. To assess how their cargo mediates biological processes that drive their therapeutic effects, we integrated miRNA, mRNA, and protein expression data of EVs from porcine adipose tissue-derived MSCs.Simultaneous expression profiles of miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins were obtained by high-throughput sequencing and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis in porcine MSCs and their daughter EVs (n = 3 each. TargetScan and ComiR were used to predict miRNA target genes. Functional annotation analysis was performed using DAVID 6.7 database to rank primary gene ontology categories for the enriched mRNAs, miRNA target genes, and proteins. STRING was used to predict associations between mRNA and miRNA target genes.Differential expression analysis revealed 4 miRNAs, 255 mRNAs, and 277 proteins enriched in EVs versus MSCs (fold change >2, p<0.05. EV-enriched miRNAs target transcription factors (TFs and EV-enriched mRNAs encode TFs, but TF proteins are not enriched in EVs. Rather, EVs are enriched for proteins that support extracellular matrix remodeling, blood coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis.Porcine MSC-derived EVs contain a genetic cargo of miRNAs and mRNAs that collectively control TF activity in EVs and recipient cells, as well as proteins capable of modulating cellular pathways linked to tissue repair. These properties provide the fundamental basis for considering therapeutic use of EVs in tissue regeneration.

  18. La participación de las mujeres profesionales de la Universidad de Oriente. Su acceso a cargos de dirección / The participation of the professional women of the Orient University. Their access to management charges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Benítez Jiménez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo evaluar la participación de las mujeres profesionales de la Universidad de Oriente y su acceso a cargos de dirección, precisando las inequidades de género que se manifiestan en este proceso. El primer resultado estuvo en la caracterización cuantitativa de la presencia de la mujer en las diferentes categorías docentes, científicas, áreas del conocimiento y otros estratos, así como en los diferentes niveles de cargos directivos. Por otra parte, se evaluaron las condiciones que influyen en el empoderamiento de las mujeres, especialmente de las directivas, atendiendo tanto a las condiciones de trabajo como a las estructuras patriarcales de género en que se desenvuelven.

  19. Enhanced Class I Tumor Antigen Presentation via Cytosolic Delivery of Exosomal Cargos by Tumor-Cell-Derived Exosomes Displaying a pH-Sensitive Fusogenic Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Masaki; Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Ariizumi, Reiichi; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2017-11-06

    Tumor-cell-derived exosomes contain endogenous tumor antigens and can be used as a potential cancer vaccine without requiring identification of the tumor-specific antigen. To elicit an effective antitumor effect, efficient tumor antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules on dendritic cells (DC) is desirable. Because DC endocytose exosomes, an endosomal escape mechanism is required for efficient MHC class I presentation of exosomal tumor antigens. In the present study, efficient cytosolic delivery of exosomal tumor antigens was performed using genetically engineered tumor-cell-derived exosomes and pH-sensitive fusogenic GALA peptide. Murine melanoma B16BL6 cells were transfected with a plasmid vector encoding a streptavidin (SAV; a protein that binds to biotin with high affinity)-lactadherin (LA; an exosome-tropic protein) fusion protein to obtain SAV-LA-modified exosomes (SAV-exo). SAV-exo was mixed with biotinylated GALA to obtain GALA-modified exosomes (GALA-exo). Fluorescent microscopic observation using fluorescent-labeled GALA showed that the exosomes were modified with GALA. GALA-exo exerted a membrane-lytic activity under acidic conditions and efficiently delivered exosomal cargos to the cytosol. Moreover, DC treated with GALA-exo showed enhanced tumor antigen presentation capacity by MHC class I molecules. Thus, genetically engineered GALA-exo are effective in controlling the intracellular traffic of tumor-cell-derived exosomes and for enhancing tumor antigen presentation capacity.

  20. Poderes de control del juez en la terminación anticipada del proceso por acuerdo y aceptación de cargos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Bazzani Montoya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La terminación anticipada del proceso desde la perspectiva de los sistemas procesales es manifestación del esquema inquisitivo porque implica la renuncia a la contradicción y al juicio público. En todo proceso, independientemente de que su terminación sea abreviada o no, el Estado debe probar mas allá de toda duda la responsabilidad del procesado. El control judicial a los procesos que terminan mediante aceptación de cargos o acuerdo implica el ejercicio material de la función de juzgamiento, lo que a su turno exige la comprobación de la prueba como fundamento de la condena. Las modalidades de acuerdo que implican la modificación de la imputación fáctica encuentran fundamento en el principio de oportunidad, lo que significa que su pertinencia debe apoyarse en consideraciones de política criminal desarrolladas legalmente. El concepto de violación de garantías fundamentales como límite a los preacuerdos en la legislación colombiana. La oportunidad para la retractación de la Fiscalía y el procesado. Los impedimentos en caso de frustrarse el acuerdo por improbación del juez. Las modalidades de acuerdo en la legislación colombiana desde el punto de vista del objeto.