WorldWideScience

Sample records for cargo ship movements

  1. The complex network of global cargo ship movements

    CERN Document Server

    Kaluza, Pablo; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods, and the spread of invasive species. With 90% of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here we use information about the itineraries of 16,363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features which set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified in three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with s...

  2. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  4. 46 CFR 91.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 91.60-5..., 1974 § 91.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  5. 46 CFR 189.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 189.60-5..., 1974 § 189.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued...

  6. Experimental ship fire measurements with simulated radioactive cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages

  7. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors,the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the possibility of recovery of claim. Moreover the cargo mortgage regulations are, in some regards and aspects, contrary to general legal rules and hence subject to criticism.

  8. SHIP AND CARGO MORTGAGE, TWO DIFFERENT LEGAL VIEWPOINTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Abouata

    2015-01-01

    Although the subject-matter of cargo and ship mortgage are similar (providing financial security for creditors),the regulations of these contracts, differ from each other essentially with regard to the conditionality of taking possession in concluding the contract, the possibility of endorsement and cession in mortgage document, the creditor s kind of real right ,the preference of prior or latter creditor in vindication of right and the effect of mortgage loss on the contract and the pos...

  9. 46 CFR 31.40-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40... Safety Construction Certificate—T/ALL. (a) All tankships on an international voyage are required to have a Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. This certificate shall be issued by the U.S....

  10. The salvaging of the Mont Louis cargo ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Saturday the 25th of August 1984, at 2:20 P.M., the German car ferry Olau Britannia with 800 passengers aboard rammed the rear starboard side of the French cargo ship Mont Louis. The collision occurred in the English Channel at a point 18 kilometers north of Ostend. At 7:00 P.M. the Mont Louis sank to a depth of 15 meters at a distance of several miles by rail from Antwerp. Half the ship's hull lay uncovered at low tide. The cargo included 30 type 48-Y containers, each filled with 12 tons of UF6, and 22 empty type 30-B containers for return of the enriched uranium. The UF6 was to be enriched to 4% in the Soviet Union for use as fuel in nuclear power plants. The table below details the nature of the UF6. After salvaging operation the containers have been inspected and no damage or leaks have been detected. The accident involved no risk of radioactive or chemical contamination of the sea water. The systematic misinformation campaign by Greenpeace and news media is briefly described. (orig./HP)

  11. Hybridization of General Cargo Ships to meet the Required Energy Efficiency Design Index

    OpenAIRE

    Øverleir, Magnus Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis a hybrid propulsion system is proposed for a general cargo ship with the aim to meet the required Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI). The study has investigated how a hybrid propulsion system will influence the ship s EEDI value and fuel economy. The central problem is the coming challenge for the general cargo segment meeting the required efficiency value. Especially small vessels (3 000-15 000 DWT) with high speed will have troubles complying with the stricter regulations....

  12. The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2012-01-01

    We solve an important problem for the liner shipping industry called the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. Shippers wish...

  13. Solving the Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem with Cargo Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Askelsdottir, Björg; Jensen, Rune Møller;

    2015-01-01

    We solve a central problem in the liner shipping industry called the liner shipping fleet repositioning problem (LSFRP). The LSFRP poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between routes in a liner shipping network. Liner carriers wish...

  14. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    cargo sizes to the column generation framework is not straightforward, and we handle the flexible cargo sizes heuristically when solving the subproblems. This leads to convergence issues in the branch-and-price search tree, and the optimal solution cannot be guaranteed. Hence we have introduced a method...... that generates an upper bound on the optimal objective. We have compared our method with an a priori column generation approach, and our computational experiments on real world cases show that the Dantzig-Wolfe approach is faster than the a priori generation of columns, and we are able to deal with...

  15. Column generation approaches to ship scheduling with flexible cargo sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønmo, Geir; Nygreen, Bjørn; Lysgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    consequences for the times used in the ports because both the loading and unloading times depend on the cargo sizes. We found it computationally hard to find exact solutions to the subproblems, so our method does not guarantee to find the optimum over all solutions. To be able to say something about how good...

  16. Modeling pedestrian evacuation movement in a swaying ship

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Juan; Lo, SM

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in living standard, cruise travel has been rapidly expanding around the world in recent years. The transportation of passengers in water has also made a rapid development. It is expected that ships will be more and more widely used. Unfortunately, ship disasters occurred in these years caused serious losses. It raised the concern on effectiveness of passenger evacuation on ships. The present study thus focuses on pedestrian evacuation features on ships. On ships, passenger movements are affected by the periodical water motion and thus are quite different from the characteristic when walking on static horizontal floor. Taking into consideration of this special feature, an agent-based pedestrian model is formulized and the effect of ship swaying on pedestrian evacuation efficiency is investigated. Results indicated that the proposed model can be used to quantify the special evacuation process on ships.

  17. Cosmic-ray-induced ship-effect neutron measurements and implications for cargo scanning at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron measurements are used as part of the interdiction process for illicit nuclear materials at border crossings. Even though the natural neutron background is small, its variation can impact the sensitivity of detection systems. The natural background of neutrons that is observed in monitoring instruments arises almost entirely from cosmic-ray-induced cascades in the atmosphere and the surrounding environment. One significant source of variation in the observed neutron background is produced by the 'ship effect' in large quantities of cargo that transit past detection instruments. This paper reports on results from measurements with typical monitoring equipment of ship effect neutrons in various materials. One new result is the 'neutron shadow shielding' effect seen with some low neutron density materials

  18. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and..., pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. 10.41a Section 10.41a... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments...

  19. Algorithms for Ship Movement Prediction for Location Data Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Czapiewska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to safety reasons, the movement of ships on the sea, especially near the coast should be tracked, recorded and stored. However, the amount of vessels which trajectories should be tracked by authorized institutions, often in real time, is usually huge. What is more, many sources of vessels position data (radars, AIS produces thousands of records describing route of each tracked object, but lots of that records are correlated due to limited dynamic of motion of ships which cannot change their speed and direction very quickly. In this situation it must be considered how many points of recorded trajectories really have to be remembered to recall the path of particular object. In this paper, authors propose three different methods for ship movement prediction, which explicitly decrease the amount of stored data. They also propose procedures which enable to reduce the number of transmitted data from observatory points to database, what may significantly reduce required bandwidth of radio communication in case of mobile observatory points, for example onboard radars.

  20. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics

  1. Design of an experiment to measure the fire exposure of radioactive materials packages aboard container cargo ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    The test described in this paper is intended to measure the typical accident environment for a radioactive materials package in a fire aboard a container cargo ship. A stack of nine used standard cargo containers will be variously loaded with empty packages, simulated packages and combustible cargo and placed over a large hydrocarbon pool fire of one hour duration. Both internal and external fire container fire environments typical of on-deck stowage will be measured as well as the potential for container to container fire spread. With the use of the inverse heat conduction calculations, the local heat transfer to the simulated packages can be estimated from thermocouple data. Data recorded will also provide information on fire durations in each container, fire intensity and container to container fire spread characteristics.

  2. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  3. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps and cargo compressors must shut-down automatically when the quick-closing shut-off valves under §§...

  4. Dry bulk cargo shipping - An overlooked threat to the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matthias; Mazurek, Nicole; Gräbsch, Carolin; Zeilinger, Jana; Le Floch, Stéphane; Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Höfer, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    Approximately 9.5billiontonnes of goods is transported over the world oceans annually with dry bulk representing the largest cargo group. This paper aims to analyse whether the transport and associated inputs of dry bulks into the sea create a risk for the marine environment. For this purpose, we analyse the international regulatory background concerning environmental protection (MARPOL), estimate quantities and identify inputs of such cargoes into the oceans (accidental and operational), and use available information for hazard assessment. Annually, more than 2.15milliontonnes of dry bulk cargoes are likely to enter the oceans, of which 100,000tonnes are potentially harmful to the marine environment according to the definition included in draft maritime regulation. The assessment of the threat to the marine environment is hampered by a lack of available information on chemical composition, bioavailability and toxicity. Perspectives for amendments of the unsatisfying pollution prevention regulations are discussed. PMID:27339744

  5. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and cargo compressor rooms must be above the weather deck and must be within the cargo area. (b) Where pumps...

  6. Calculation of the effects of a cargo fire in a hold of a ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To better understand shipboard fire environments, a combined experimental and computational study has been conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to define problems that could develop and to demonstrate that modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools can adequately model fires in enclosed volumes. A simulated shipping cask was used as a test object (calorimeter) in this study. This paper describes the development of a computational model for a wood crib fire located in the same hold as the test object. The commercially available CFD code used was CFX, developed by Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom. This finite volume code was selected because of its previous use in fire analyses and its ability to treat all heat transfer mechanisms (conduction, convection and thermal radiation) in a coupled manner. Comparisons are made between experimental measurements and blind computational results that is to say: no experimental data were used to make the computations. (authors)

  7. Radiation Scanning Methods for Ship-to-Rail Intermodal Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) runs the Rail Test Center (RTC) at the Port of Tacoma (POT). The RTC affords DNDO with the opportunity to test radiological and nuclear threat detection systems associated with the unique on-dock rail environment while in an operational seaport. DNDO selected the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to manage the RTC. The RTC is conducting various evaluation studies to assess scanning opportunities in terms of their affects on the number of container moves required and the affect that the scanning opportunity has on the time it takes to move a container through the on-dock transfer process from ship to rail. The velocity and the number of container moves are directly associated with incremental costs to the terminal operators; increases in either of these parameters help in-form the potential for incremental costs that would result from the implementation of the opportunity.

  8. Grounds and opportunities for the development of passenger and cargo shipping on the lower Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Wojewódzka-Król

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the objectives defined in the White Paper should prompt us to consider the available opportunities for unlocking the lower Vistula’s potential for transportation, as the river could play an essential role in the context of the burgeoning Gdańsk and Gdynia seaports. In addition, on the basis of European experience, it could help reduce communication problems in the region and serve as an important tourist attraction. This article is an attempt at estimation of the demand for shipping along the lower Vistula, within the framework of which the minimum target is to restore the capacity of the 1980s: 3.5 to 4 million tons a year. With this end in mind, we should improve navigability and apply instruments for the support of inland navigation, in conformity with the transportation policy of the European Union. In respect of passenger services, the minimum target is to restore the capacity of the period between 1965 and 1985: 2 million passengers a year. A comprehensive and attractive range of services and extension of the tourist season are bound to increase this capacity. Current investments on the initiative of local self-governments – including marinas and tourist amenities – lead to improvement in navigation; they also stimulate the development of other modes of passenger transportation (urban transit and regional transit.

  9. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  10. Analysis for the amplitude oscillatory movements of the ship in response to the incidence wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiţu, M. G.; Zăgan, R.; Manea, E.

    2015-11-01

    Event of major accident navigation near offshore drilling rigs remains unacceptably high, known as the complications arising from the problematic of the general motions of the ship sailing under real sea. Dynamic positioning system is an effective instrument used on board of the ships operating in the extraction of oil and gas in the continental shelf of the seas and oceans, being essential that the personnel on board of the vessel can maintain position and operating point or imposed on a route with high precision. By the adoption of a strict safety in terms of handling and positioning of the vessel in the vicinity of the drilling platform, the risk of accidents can be reduced to a minimum. Possibilities in anticipation amplitudes of the oscillatory movements of the ships navigating in real sea, is a challenge for naval architects and OCTOPUS software is a tool used increasingly more in this respect, complementing navigational facilities offered by dynamic positioning systems. This paper presents a study on the amplitudes of the oscillations categories of supply vessels in severe hydro meteorological conditions of navigation. The study provides information on the RAO (Response Amplitude Operator) response operator of the ship, for the amplitude of the roll movements, in some incident wave systems, interpreted using the energy spectrum Jonswap and whose characteristics are known (significant height of the wave, wave period, pulsation of the wave). Ship responses are analyzed according to different positioning of the ship in relation to the wave front (incident angle ranging from 10 to 10 degree from 0 to 180), highlighting the value of the ship roll motion amplitude. For the study, was used, as a tool for modeling and simulation, the features offered by OCTOPUS software that allows the study of the computerized behavior of the ship on the waves, in the real conditions of navigation. Program library was used for both the vessel itself and navigation modeling

  11. A means of communication of distance sensors with the managerial system of a crane to uplift cargo from drilling platforms to a ship during rough sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko Nikolay Gennadievich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to apply soft cargo loading by means of a crane to service and repair drilling platforms during rough sea. Requirements to the communica-tion system between sensors and controller are stated in the paper. Since the posi-tioning system will be set on the ship just before cargo loading, then it was decided to use completely wireless connection of all components to reduce the time for cargo operations. The functional scheme of sensors connection with the managerial system of electric drive is presented. The most famous wireless technologies (Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, Bluetooth, Wireless USB and a comparatively new technology (ZigBee, which was initially developed with the orientation on industrial application, are analyzed. The brief overview of the solutions in the field of wireless data transmission using ZigBee-modules from the largest pro-ducers is given. A ready ZigBee-module from the company Panasonic, PAN802154HAR00, was chosen beforehand to use it in the managerial system of electric drive.

  12. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  13. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump unit. 64.89 Section 64.89 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.89 Cargo pump unit. (a) A cargo pump unit that fills or...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  14. 46 CFR 153.977 - Supervision of cargo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of cargo transfer. 153.977 Section 153.977 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.977 Supervision of cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall:...

  15. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksejevs Ruslans; Guseinovs Raufs; Medvedev Alexander N.; Guseynov Sharif E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy) or several (partially corporate strategy) companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports), where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models b...

  16. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical

  17. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo manual. 154.1810 Section 154.1810 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1810 Cargo manual. (a) No person... navigable waters of the United States, or a U.S. flag vessel, unless the vessel has on board a cargo...

  18. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information. 153.907 Section 153.907 Shipping... Information § 153.907 Cargo information. (a) The master shall ensure that the following information for each... process for the vessel. (b) The master shall make sure that the following information for cargoes...

  19. 46 CFR 105.25-10 - Cargo pumping installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumping installation. 105.25-10 Section 105.25-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS... Installed Below Decks § 105.25-10 Cargo pumping installation. (a) Cargo pumps shall not be installed in...

  20. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section 154.562 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test...

  1. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c)...

  2. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  3. Groupage Cargo Transportation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejevs Ruslans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.

  4. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is— (a) Fitted between the cargo...

  5. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  6. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  7. Economic Impacts of the Category 3 Marine Rule on Great Lakes Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a scenario-based economic assessment of the impacts of EPA’s Category 3 Marine Diesel Engines Rule on certain cargo movements in the Great Lakes shipping network. During the proposed phase of the rulemaking, Congress recommended that EPA conduct such a study, and EPA wil...

  8. 75 FR 64390 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --General cargo ship...

  9. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  10. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of...

  11. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo segregation-tanks. 151.13-5 Section 151.13-5... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Cargo Segregation § 151.13-5 Cargo segregation—tanks. (a... and list the various degrees of segregation required. Paragraphs and (2) of this section explain...

  12. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo...

  13. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying dangerous cargo shall have on board a bill of lading, manifest, or shipping document giving the name...

  14. Preliminary Results Of Hydrodynamic Responses To Ship Movements And Weather Conditions Along The Coastal Walls Of Shallow Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Cagatay, Namık; Ozeren, Sinan; Sarı, Erol; Eris, Kadir; Vardar, Denizhan; Arslan, Tugce; Basegmez, Koray

    2016-04-01

    Water-level variations in coastal areas and shallow channels take place under the influence of more complex factors, compared to those in deeper areas. Atmospheric pressure, wind, and wave interactions with bottom morphological characteristics are some important natural features while human-induced factors are usually maritime traffic and manoeuvres the ships. While weather conditions cause long-term changes in water level, water level interactions in near shore areas, can occur very quickly depending on the ship manoeuvres and squat characteristics, and these rapid changes can lead to unpredictable water level lowering. Such rapid changes may cause various dangerous incidents and ship accidents, particularly in areas where rapid water oscillations occur. Improper calculations of propulsion power or orientation of the ship body, especially in the areas where geological and morphological characteristics permit fast water movements, are the most important additional causes of accidents due to sudden water level decreases. For an example, even though a 200-m-long vessel can complete its 35° rotation in a circular area with radius of 250 m, if it is calm and sufficiently deep, this diameter increases 5 times at the shallow waters also depending on the hydrodynamic flow conditions. In 2005, "Gerardus Mercator" has bumped into the inside bottom wall of the channel with a low speed (4 knots) turn of when she had just made a 200° turn. Seven years later the cruise ship "Costa Concordia" struck a rock, before she drifted and grounded, in the calm seas of the coast of Isola del Giglio in Italy, due to a combined effects of waves generated by side waves of ship manoeuvres, atmospheric pressure and squat specifications as well. The waves reflected from the seawalls complicate the navigation problems which should be examined in detail. Thus, three prototype models with various angular seawall features were prepared, simple in shape with perpendicular and sloped seawalls with

  15. 46 CFR 154.707 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. 154.707 Section 154.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.707 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Ventilation. (a)...

  16. Air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) based ship to shore movement simulation: A decision aid for the amphibious commander. A (SMMAT) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Edward P., III

    1994-09-01

    Amphibious forces are the enabling force of choice to globally project rapid and sustainable combat power in the littoral. Whether delivering supplies and equipment for military operations or for humanitarian or disaster relief, the air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) is the primary surface ship-to-shore movement craft. The time needed to transfer the forces ashore may be critical to operational success and is an important planning consideration. Many factors complicate accurate prediction of this time. Even so, various commanders must use the best available information, given mission priorities and resource and capability limitations, to make numerous tradeoff decisions in planning and executing the movement of forces. A simulation toolbox, the simulated mobility modeling and analysis toolbox (SMMAT), is introduced, and a robust LCAC ship-to-shore simulation model is developed as an extension to SMMAT. This model provides the commander a prediction and tradeoff analysis tool for planning and executing the projection of power ashore.

  17. 46 CFR 153.490 - Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and... Cargo Record Book and Approved Procedures and Arrangements Manual: Categories A, B, C, and D. (a) Unless... carry NLS cargo, a ship must have— (1) If U.S., a Cargo Record Book published by the Coast Guard...

  18. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  19. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  20. Trends of shipping markets development

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-01-01

    Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increa...

  1. 46 CFR 151.05-2 - Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. 151.05-2 Section 151.05-2 Shipping... Compliance with requirements for tank barges carrying benzene and benzene containing cargoes, or butyl acrylate cargoes. A tank barge certificated to carry benzene and benzene containing cargoes or...

  2. 46 CFR 154.701 - Cargo pressure and temperature control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure and temperature control: General. 154.701 Section 154.701 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.701 Cargo pressure and temperature control:...

  3. 46 CFR 154.709 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection equipment. 154.709 Section 154.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.709 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Gas detection...

  4. 46 CFR 154.708 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. 154.708 Section 154.708 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.708 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Valves. (a) Gas fuel lines to the...

  5. Analysis of the development of the complex system of Agent cargo ship based on Software Engineering%浅析基于Agent的复杂系统的船舶货运软件工程的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文新; 吴敏

    2014-01-01

    旧有的建模路径,很难与复杂层级内的货运软件相契合。构建在Agent之上的新颖建模,能指引船舶货运类的软件进展。因此,要明晰Agent的固有框架,解析仿真类办法的总括建构思路。在分析了现存的货运软件类建模弊病后,摸索主体性的仿真体系走向。%Modeling path old,difficult and complex hierarchy within the freight software compatible. Constructed in the novel modeling based on Agent can progress,guide cargo ship class software.Therefore, to clarify the inherent framework Agent,analytical simulation method in construction.In the analysis of freight software modeling drawbacks existing,groping towards the simulation system of subjectivity.

  6. 46 CFR 153.436 - Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. 153.436... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.436 Heat transfer fluids: compatibility with cargo. A heat transfer fluid separated from the cargo by only one wall (for example, the heat transfer fluid in a...

  7. 46 CFR 153.371 - Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo... Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.371 Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a refrigerated cargo must at...

  8. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  9. 46 CFR 91.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 91.60-45 Section 91.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS....60-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  10. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle;

    1996-01-01

    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...... are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state...

  11. Effect of Ship Bow Overhang on Water Shipping for Ship Advancing in Regular Head Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdeljalil Benmansour; Benameur Hamoudi; Lahouari Adjlout

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves. To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water. The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions. It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension. The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping. These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

  12. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... and internal dynamics independently. The 2-dimensional horizontal motions of both ships are taken into account. in the horizontal plane. Structural deformation for both the striking and the struck ship is evaluated independently using rigid-plastic simplified analysis procedure. The dDeveloped tool...

  13. Simplified Analysis Tool for Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a simplified ship collision analysis tool in order to rapidly estimate the structural damage and energy absorption of both striking and struck ships as well as prediction of rupture of cargo oil tanks of struck tankers. The present tool calculates external...... and internal dynamics independently. The 2-dimensional horizontal motions of both ships are taken into account. in the horizontal plane. Structural deformation for both the striking and the struck ship is evaluated independently using rigid-plastic simplified analysis procedure. The dDeveloped tool...

  14. 46 CFR 154.706 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. 154.706 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.706 Cargo boil-off as fuel: Fuel lines. (a) Gas fuel lines must not pass through accommodation, service, or control spaces. Each gas fuel line...

  15. 46 CFR 154.650 - Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. 154.650... Equipment Construction § 154.650 Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding. (a) Cargo tank and process pressure vessel welding must meet Subpart 54.05 and Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Welding consumables...

  16. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature... temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's vapor pressure at 46 °C (approx. 115 °F)....

  17. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  18. 46 CFR 105.25-5 - Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments or areas containing cargo tanks or pumping systems. 105.25-5 Section 105.25-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... or pumping systems. (a) Compartments or areas containing tanks or pumping systems shall be closed...

  19. 46 CFR 153.981 - Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. 153.981 Section 153.981 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Transfer Procedures § 153.981 Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. The person in charge of...

  20. 46 CFR 32.60-15 - Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of cargo; Grade E-TB/ALL. 32.60-15 Section 32.60-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT... § 32.60-15 Segregation of cargo; Grade E—TB/ALL. (a) General. The galleys, living quarters,...

  1. 46 CFR 308.501 - Cargoes on which coverage is available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.501 Cargoes on which coverage is available. The Maritime Administrator will be prepared to provide marine insurance against loss or damage by the risks of... Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 App. U.S.C. 1281(a)); (b) Shipped or to be shipped on any...

  2. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. 154.705 Section 154.705... Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off fuel system under § 154.703(c) must meet §§ 154.706 through 154.709. (b) The piping in the cargo boil-off...

  3. Difference Characteristic Analysis of Cargo Ship Vibration Caused by Low-speed Diesel Engine and Propeller%主机与螺旋桨激励下某型散货轮船体振动差异特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘义军; 闫力奇; 曹贻鹏

    2015-01-01

    Low frequency vibration of ship hull and underwater radiation noise are the main noise sources of ships. This vibration usually can be found in the low frequency range below 80 Hz, which is mainly caused by diesel engine exciting force and propeller exciting force. In this paper, the finite element model of a real 30 000 DWT cargo ship was established. This model includes diesel engines, shaft system, propeller and hull of the ship. Modal analysis was done for the model and the natural frequencies of the ship were obtained. On this basis, the vibration transmission functions of the ship hull caused by the diesel engine and the propeller exciting forces were analyzed and the characteristic of the ship vibration caused by these forces were studied. The results can be used as a database for ship propulsion system design and vibration control.%船舶的低频振动与水下辐射噪声是船舶最主要的噪声源,该振动噪声频谱通常分布在80 Hz以下的频段内,该频段内噪声源主要由主机激励和螺旋桨激励两部分构成。利用有限元法,基于某30000 DWT型散货轮实际船型的尺寸和主机的安装位置建立带有主机、轴系、螺旋桨的船体有限元分析模型,进行模态分析,得到整船的固有特性。并在此基础上,分别计算主机机座垂向激励和螺旋桨轴向、垂向激励下整船的振动传递函数,获取两激励源引起船体振动的差异特性,为船舶动力系统设计与船体振动噪声控制提供参考。

  4. Simulative Research on Six DOF Robot for Compensating Wave Movement of Sealift Ships%舰船过驳6自由度波浪补偿机器人仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温兆麟; 陈爱国

    2012-01-01

    A six degree-of-freedom robot for compensating wave movement of sealift ships was proposed in this paper. The kinematical modeling, optimal design, simulation experiments were made on the robot. The research results have demonstrated that the robot made it possible for compensating the six degree-of-freedom wave movement of sealift ships%提出一种对舰船过驳进行6自由度波浪补偿的机器人,对该机器人进行了运动学建模、优化设计,并进行了仿真.研究结果表明:该优化的补偿机器人可以实现舰船过驳6自由度的波浪补偿,为舰船过驳波浪运动实现6个自由度的完全补偿提供了可能.

  5. Simplified Analysis of IMU Sensor Corruptions on Existing Pendulation Control System For Ship-Mounted Crane

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jia Qi

    2006-01-01

    Ship-mounted boom cranes play an important role in the ship-to-ship offshore cargo transport process. In recent years, there has been significant need to increase stability of the payload during the cargo transport process for both safety and efficiency reasons. However, the stability of the payload during the transport process directly correlates to the ship's pitch and roll motion that in turn relates to the current particular sea-state. In this study, we analyze an existing Pendul...

  6. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  7. 78 FR 70391 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., lifting and anchor-handling operations --General cargo ship safety --Development of an interpretation of... seating capacity of the room. To facilitate the building security process, and to request...

  8. COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRU SERGIU SERBAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.

  9. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither...... quality.The contributions of this thesis cover modeling, methodology, and applications.The developed methods address operational (cargo routing), tactical (speed optimization and service selection), and strategic (network design) planning problems faced by liner shipping companies. Ultimately, the......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of...

  10. Automated ship image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  11. 46 CFR 36.10-1 - Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL. 36.10-1 Section 36.10-1..., Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 36.10-1 Cargo pump relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo pump relief valves and pressure gages may be omitted, however, a suitable device shall be fitted to stop...

  12. 46 CFR 308.551 - War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo, Form MA-321.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk insurance clearing agency agreement for cargo... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.551 War risk insurance... domestic insurance companies authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United...

  13. 46 CFR 31.10-16 - Inspection and certification of cargo gear-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection and certification of cargo gear-TB/ALL. 31.10... CERTIFICATION Inspections § 31.10-16 Inspection and certification of cargo gear—TB/ALL. (a) The owner, operator... treatment of chains, rings, hooks, shackles, and swivels which require such treatment; and,...

  14. Cargo transportation by two species of motor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    The cargo motion in living cells transported by two species of motor protein with different intrinsic directionality is discussed in this study. Similar to single motor movement, cargo steps forward and backward along microtubule stochastically. Recent experiments found that, cargo transportation by two motor species has a memory, it does not change its direction as frequently as expected, which means that its forward and backward step rates depends on its previous motion trajectory. By assuming cargo has only the least memory, i.e. its step direction depends only on the direction of its last step, two cases of cargo motion are detailed analyzed in this study: {\\bf (I)} cargo motion under constant external load; and {\\bf (II)} cargo motion in one fixed optical trap. Due to the existence of memory, for the first case, cargo can keep moving in the same direction for a long distance. For the second case, the cargo will oscillate in the trap. The oscillation period decreases and the oscillation amplitude increase...

  15. Holistic control of ship noise emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli Davide; Gaggero Tomaso; Rizzuto Enrico; Schenone Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of anthropogenic activities at sea is recently gaining more and more attention. As regards shipping, emissions from ships into the environment of various nature (engine exhaust gases, anti-fouling paints leaching, ballast exchange, releases at sea of oil and other noxious liquid or solid cargoes, of sewage and of garbage) have been recognized as sources of pollution and therefore controlled and limited since a long time. The subject of noise emission...

  16. Manning of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manning of nuclear propelled merchant ships bases on two principles: safe management of the vessel from the starting port to the place of destination, including cargo handling; qualification for operating a nuclear plant. The German Atomic Law requires the proof of sufficient qualifications of the personnel running land-based power stations. These requirements are applied analogously at the technical crews of nuclear powered ships. After dealing with the differences of plant operation on board ship and land-based plants the education of technical crews will be discussed. At the example of NS OTTO HAHN, the manning, education of the key positions, and responsibility of the ship's management are presented. For reasons of comparison the crews of NS SAVANNAH and NS MUTSU are opposed to this. A hint will be given on the new developments in the manning field of conventional ships, and at least a view into the future will be given under the aspect of progressive studies on the questions of manning future ships, and the work carried out by IMCO for a code of nuclear powered merchant ships

  17. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  18. 46 CFR 32.50-5 - Cargo pump gauges on tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump gauges on tank vessels constructed on or... SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-5 Cargo pump gauges on tank vessels constructed on or after November 10, 1936—TB/ALL....

  19. Shielding Analysis of the 5320 Shipping Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Nathan, S. [Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that the 5320 shipping cask meets Federal regulations for maximum radiation dose rates when loaded with the intended plutonium oxide cargo. It should be emphasized that the 5320 is an existing cask, and therefore this work represents confirmatory analysis rather than design analysis.

  20. Journeys on the Rivers and Oceans: Ship Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.; Carper, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Ship transportation includes various forms of technology. Ships have special designs to meet technological needs. They are used to transport people and cargoes and have been a major part of history throughout civilization. Products are available from around the world because they can be economically moved from producers to consumers. Not only are…

  1. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  2. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  3. Aim to International Shipping Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since 1990s,various countries in the world have been focusing on the construction of the key ports,leading to a fiercer competition between ports.For example,in East Asia,South Korea and Japan are rivaling for the international shipping center in Northeast Asia.Taking Busan Port and Gwangyang Port as the central ports,South Korea is boosting the ports expansion plans,to construct a"logistic center in Northeast Asia".Meanwhile.Japan is projecting the optimizmg and integration of port resources,to regain the international shipping center in Asia.The central government of China made plans for constructing Shanghai Shipping Center as early in 1996.and after 13 years'construction,now Shanghai Port has the largest cargo throughput and the second largest container throughput in the world.

  4. Refuses and delays in the transportation by ship of radioactive material; Recusas e demoras no transporte maritimo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Clarice; Sobreira, Ana Celia [REM Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Some Class 7 materials can only be transported by ship, making that load and unload activities can be done in a port. In the Brazil, the port of Santos posses the most volume of cargo manipulation, and cargoes which contain radioactive material are always present with all manipulation requisites according to applicable regulations. The transport and manipulation operations of radioactive material are performed in accordance with national and international requisites but, some individuals posses yet a high risk perception according to our experience, involving members of Brazilian port authorities, the Navy and cargoes handlers at the ports. So, exist yet a high quantity of refuses and delays during the transport by ship. Therefore, a communication strategy was developed and applied, to inform the risk perception, supplying information on the very principles of ionizing radiation, legislation and uses of radiation, and so, diminishing the quantity of refuses and delays. From that initial communication strategy on, it becomes evident the necessity of training and conscience making a movement for the problem of refuses and delays be diminished

  5. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    , while minimizing the cost of operating the network. Liner shipping companies publish a set of routes with a time schedule, and it is an industry standard to have a weekly departure at each port call on a route. A weekly frequency is achieved by deploying several vessels to a single route, respecting the......We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the liner shipping network design problem. This problem consists of finding a set of container shipping routes defining a capacitated network for cargo transport. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport...

  6. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian;

    maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close...

  7. Molecular approach to intracellular cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    2010-03-01

    Landmark discoveries in the study of cytoplasmic motors have been made through advances in single molecule biophysics and detailed mechanistic models exist for kinesin and dynein. However, the function of motors in physiological conditions has not been carefully tested. In cells, more than few dyneins can attach to the same cargo and interact with the opposite polarity motors of kinesin. To study the molecular crosstalk between the motors, we have used intraflagellar transport (IFT) in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model system. Ultrahigh spatio-temporal tracking of single cargo movement showed that IFT particles move for long distances unidirectionally with 8 nm increments, agreeing with measured step sizes of kinesin and dynein. To measure how many motors transport each cargo, we have linked large polystyrene beads to internal IFT particles through a transmembrane protein. Force measurements indicated that, on average, 3-4 motors transport cargoes in each direction. The results showed that IFT motors are tightly coordinated and might be involved in recycling each other to the appropriate end of the flagellum.

  8. Analytical basis of technology asymmetrical allocation of cargo masses common centre in wagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibulla TURANOV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the account of results of the analytical basis of technology asymmetrical cargo allocation in a wagon during rolling stock movement on track unevenness waves. The finite analytical formulas have been obtained for determination of response of wagon bogie spring sets in case of simultaneous displacement of cargo masses common centre longitudinally and sideways to the wagon, which make it possible to ground the cargo allocation according to admissible value of wagon vertical dynamic addition coefficient.

  9. Icebreaking ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Antarctic Program will have a new ship for working in polar waters by early 1992. It will be the first U.S. ship with icebreaking capability dedicated to scientific research. The Polar Duke, currently leased by the National Science Foundation, which manages the program, is ice-strengthened but cannot break ice.NSF announced in February that an $83.8-million contract for construction and 10-year lease of the 900-m ship had been signed with Edison Chouest Offshore, Inc., of Galliano, La. The design calls for a crew of 22, support for the research of 37 scientists for cruises as long as 75 days, a helicopter landing deck and housing and maintenance for two 4-passenger helicopters. The ship will have two propellers with three diesel engines driving each; the six engines can generate 11,070 horsepower. While it is not a true icebreaker, the ship will be able to break ice as thick as a meter at a speed of 3 knots

  10. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    With a growing demand for fast international freight service, the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use will soon find a substantial portion of their clients looking elsewhere. One candidate for filling this expected gap in the freight market is a span-loading aircraft (or 'flying wing') capable of long-range operation with extremely large payloads. This report summarizes the design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long-haul, high-capacity cargo mission. The spanloader seeks to gain advantage over conventional aircraft by eliminating the aircraft fuselage and thus reducing empty weight. The primary disadvantage of this configuration is that the cargo-containing wing tends to be thick, thus posing a challenge to the airfoil designer. It also suffers from stability and control problems not encountered by conventional aircraft. The result is an interesting, challenging exercise in unconventional design. The report that follows is a student written synopsis of an effort judged to be the best of eight designs developed during the year 1988-1989.

  11. Boiler for ships; Hakuyo boira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, F. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    In this paper, production and technology trend of boiler for ships in 1998 are described. The actual results of main boiler are as follows. As the main boiler for LNG ships, 4 boilers produced by Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding for Qatar Project, 8 produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries for South Korea and 10 produced by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for domestic use and South Korea. 1998 was an active year for the main boiler for ships. The auxiliary boiler of steam pressure of 16k to 25k equipping for tanker ships was 115 (4,441t/h of steam quantity in total), it greatly increased in comparison with 88 (3,172t/h) produced in the proceeding year. Donkey boilers of steam pressure of 6k to 10k equipping for container ships and bulk cargo was 147 (672t/h), and it substantially decreased in comparison with 274 (693t/h) of the proceeding year, but capacity per boiler increased. The gas exhaust economizer for turbo power generation plants was 6 produced for VLCC. (NEDO)

  12. UNIVERSE IS LIKE SPACE SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A scientific research in this article focus that the whole Cosmo Universe shall be considered as a “SPACE SHIP”. The Space Ship shall be considered as ANCHORED to the base of universe with three-in-one space elements SUN, EARTH, MOON for its stability and symmetry. Further the Anchor of Universe shall be considered fastened to the “J-Hook” through strong THREAD consists of three core or strand for its “Centre of Buoyancy”.The Space Ship shall be considered as a suspending pendulum. The base of the pendulum considered like Anchor which is fastened to J-Hook through a cable of three core and in “Standstill State”.The human populations, life organisms spread all over the EARTH shall be considered as Passengers. Other space objects such as Planets, Comets, Asteroids, Matters, Molecules having definite mass shall be considered as CARGO existing in the Upper Deck of Human Passengers and other life organisms.The “J-Hook” shall be considered as having infinity energy level and any weight added to the base of space ship during the course of expanding universe shall not affect the centre of buoyancy of ship and the ship shall be considered as highly stable for ever (Highly Anchored and become standstill.

  13. 46 CFR 154.1836 - Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature control. 154.1836 Section 154.1836 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1836 Vapor venting as a means of cargo tank pressure and temperature... cargo pressure and temperature control system under §§ 154.701 through 154.709 is operating and...

  14. 46 CFR 32.60-10 - Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D-TB/ALL. 32.60-10 Section 32.60-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL... 1, 1951 § 32.60-10 Segregation of cargo; Grade A, B, C, or D—TB/ALL. (a) General. The...

  15. Bidirectional cargo transport: Moving beyond tug-of-war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, William O.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Vesicles, organelles and other intracellular cargo are transported by kinesin and dynein motors, which move in opposite directions along microtubules. This bidirectional cargo movement is frequently described as a “tug-of-war” between oppositely-directed motors attached to the same cargo. However, although many experimental and modeling studies support the tug-of-war paradigm, numerous knockout and inhibition studies in a variety of systems have found that inhibiting one motor leads to diminished motility in both directions, which is a “paradox of codependence” that challenges it. In an effort to resolve this paradox, three classes of bidirectional transport models, termed microtubule tethering, mechanical activation, and steric disinhibition, are proposed and a general mathematical modeling framework for bidirectional cargo transport is put forward to guide future experiments. PMID:25118718

  16. Dynamic recognition from ship-radiated noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xungao; FENG Xinxin; GE Yi

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of envelope spectrum analysis of ship-radiated noise, the features and the extracting methods are discussed, and then a new method of dynamic recognition has been proposed. Using this method, accurate recognition rate for different types of ship targets can be effectively improved, and some of the important parameters of target's movement can be obtained at the same time.

  17. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  18. Speed Optimization in Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David

    In the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem (LSNDP) services sail at a given speed throughout a round trip. In reality most services operate with a speed differentiated head- and back-haul, or even individual speeds on every sailing between two ports. The speed of a service is decisive for the...... bunker consumption in the network as well as the transit time of cargo. Speed optimization has been considered for tramp shipping showing significant reductions in fuel consumption. However, variable speeds has not been considered for post optimization of the LSNDP, where speed optimization could result...... in changes to the cargo flow due to transit time restrictions as well as significant savings in fuel consumption and required vessel deployment due to a weekly frequency requirement. We present a heuristic method to calculate variable speed on a service and present computational results for improving...

  19. An 18680 dwt Multipurpose/Heavy Lift Cargo Vessel, Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Grubišić, Rajko; Grubiša, Robert; Rimanić, Radojka; Vlah, Radivoj; Kučan, Edi; Štokić, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    In the article the second part of the signifi cant design features of an 18680 dwt multipurpose/ heavy lift cargo vessel is presented. The specifi c features of the ship structure design are fi rst dealt with. Then, the propulsion assembly, including the main engine, the gearbox/coupling and the controllable pitch propeller system, is described. Also, features of the electrical system are given, with special emphasis laid on the supply, driving and controlling system of the heavy cargo dec...

  20. Utilization of nuclear technology to ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SMART, a medium sized power plant with an output of 330mwth, can be used on barges to generate electric power and water, and can be used to propel container ships. For high speed, to secure the container cargo, and huge container carriers, to lower the operating expenses, the use of nuclear power reactor is essential. To compete in this challenging area with the advanced countries, a well-orchestrated joint effort will be necessary by the government and the industries

  1. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  2. 46 CFR 32.65-40 - Construction and testing of cargo tanks and bulkheads-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction and testing of cargo tanks and bulkheads-TB/ALL. 32.65-40 Section 32.65-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Tank Vessels Constructed On or After November 10, 1936, and Prior to July...

  3. 33 CFR 155.1035 - Response plan requirements for manned vessels carrying oil as a primary cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for those notifications. Notifications must include those required by— (i) MARPOL 73/78 and 33 CFR...) Portable pumps and ancillary equipment; (D) Lightering and mooring masters (ship-to-ship only); and (E... the oil cargo aboard the vessel. A material safety data sheet meeting the requirements of 29 CFR...

  4. Shipping Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Through a SBIR contract between Kennedy Space Center and Silicon Designs, came the tri-axial data acquisition system, known commercially as the G-Logger. It is a portable, self-contained device that stores and analyzes shock, vibration, and temperature data during payload transport. It is sealed for protection from the weather and can be left unattended for up to three weeks as it collects data. It can easily be linked with any desktop or laptop computer in order to download the collected data. It serves uses in the automotive, shipping, aerospace, and machining industries.

  5. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE FOR PRELIMINARY DESIGN STAGE OF CAIRO-DAMIETTA SELF-PROPELLED GRAIN BULK SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global logistics center for the storage and handling of grain which will be constructed at Damietta port will extremely increase the annual movement of grain through Cairo-Damietta waterway. Therefore, the demand for inland grain bulk ships has increased significantly in the recent years. This paper introduces a procedure to find out the fleet size and optimum characteristics of self-propelled grain bulk ships working between Cairo and Damietta through River Nile. The characteristics of the Cairo–Damietta waterway are investigated to define the constraints on dimensions and speed for such ship type. Also, mathematical model for the objective function was developed considering: powering, voyage, weight, stability and cost calculation. In this research, Specific cost (Sc, cost of transporting one ton of cargo a distance of one kilometre, is considered as the objective function for this optimization process. This optimization problem is handled as a single objective nonlinear constrained optimization problem using a specially developed computer program. Solutions are generated by varying design variables systematically in certain steps. The best of these solutions is then taken as the estimated optimum. Finally, the problem is presented, the main constrains analyzed and the optimum solution shown.

  6. Risk evaluation methods at individual ship and company level

    OpenAIRE

    Heij, Christiaan; Knapp, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    textabstractSafety management and risk profiling to identify substandard ships are of importance to the shipping industry. Whereas current methods rely heavily on detention risk and flag state performance, we extend the risk assessment by considering various risk dimensions and by evaluating a wide range of risk factors. Apart from detention risk, we consider also the risk of various types of accidents (total loss, very serious, and serious) and damage (hull and machinery, cargo, pollution, l...

  7. Traditional Sailing Ships as Indigenous Dalmatian Nautical Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Favro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern tourist movements of the development of selective tourism forms have offered an opportunity to implement the valorisation of Croatian littoral area through the development of nautical tourism in all its forms, cruising included. As opposed to international cruise market, where the main word have cruisers with few hundred to several thousand passengers, a special type of multi-day cruising or excursion cruising along Croatian coast on traditional Croatian sailing ships has significantly developed in the last few years. Wooden sailing ships have a magical power to attract. They won’t pass unnoticed regardless a huge competition of new trends in constructing technologically perfect modern mega-yachts and the most sophisticated mega-cruisers. In this paper, several traditional sailing ships will be described. They were primary intended to transport cargo, and today they’re renovated with saloons, kitchens, toilets, bathrooms, air-conditioners and satellite TV receivers. Modern usage of this, for Croatian culture, important indigenous product promotes specificities of Croatian maritime and shipbuilding tradition, creates recognition and authenticity of nautical tourism in Croatia and creates also numerous other positive effects such as promotion of middle and small shipbuilding and employment of local inhabitants on islands that at the same time prevents their depopulation. In order to achieve full potential of this form of Croatian nautical offer it is necessary to invest and to motivate main carriers of activities – small ship owners. Besides the need for economic incentives, it is also very important a joint defining of maritime routes for touristic cruising in the way to select ports that, with the state support, would be renovated to accept cruisers. It is also necessary to set a system of planned cruises and berth reservations by a careful selection of favourable locations. This would enable organisation stages and coordination

  8. Shipping Industry Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first part of a book on shipping management; the second part should discuss the different management domains in shipping, such as strategy, finance, investment and risk, marketing, operations, organisation ...

  9. Tramp Ship Routing and Scheduling - Incorporating Additional Complexities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte

    and scheduling, the main contribution of this thesis is the exploration of the three aforementioned extensions of the basic tramp ship routing and scheduling problem. The work on these three distinct extensions together represent a diverse collection of both problems and solution methods within tramp ship......In tramp shipping, ships operate much like taxies, following the available demand. This contrasts liner shipping where vessels operate more like busses on a fixed route network according to a published timetable. Tramp operators can enter into long term contracts and thereby determine some...... of their demand in advance. However, the detailed requirements of these contract cargoes can be subject to ongoing changes, e.g. the destination port can be altered. For tramp operators, a main concern is therefore the efficient and continuous planning of routes and schedules for the individual ships. Due...

  10. Tramp Ship Routing and Scheduling - Models, Methods and Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Charlotte; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    mergers, pooling, and collaboration efforts between shipping companies, the fleet sizes have grown to a point where manual planning is no longer adequate in a market with tough competition and low freight rates. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive introduction to tramp ship routing and......In tramp shipping, ships operate much like taxies, following the available demand. This contrasts liner shipping where vessels operate more like busses on a fixed route network according to a published timetable. Tramp operators can enter into long term contracts and thereby determine some of their...... demand in advance. However, the detailed requirements of these contract cargoes can be subject to ongoing changes, e.g. the destination port can be altered. For tramp operators, a main concern is therefore the efficient and continuous planning of routes and schedules for the individual ships. Due to...

  11. Cargo-cult training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João

    2009-12-01

    Richard Feynman, in one of his famous rants, evoked as a metaphor what he called "cargo-cult science". During the Second World War, the indigenous people of the South Pacific became accustomed to US Air Force planes landing on their islands, invariably bringing a profusion of desirable goods and tasty foods. When the war ended, they were distressed by the discontinuation of this popular service. So, they decided to take action. They cleared elongated patches of land to make them look like runways. They lit wood fires where they had seen electric floodlights guiding in the planes. They built a wooden shack and made a man sit inside with two halves of a coconut on each ear and bamboo bars sticking out like antennas: he was the "air controller". And they waited for the planes to return.

  12. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  13. Sunken ships and a long-lost port

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sundaresh.; Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    armed Portuguese sailing ship, went down at Sunchi Reef about 400 years ago; the second vessel, carrying cargo for a Basel mission company based in India, went down at St. George’s Reef, either in 1865 or some time thereafter. What goods where...

  14. 47 CFR 80.867 - Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit diagrams and testing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit... Requirements for Cargo Vessels Not Subject to Subpart W § 80.867 Ship station tools, instruction books, circuit..., instruction books and circuit diagrams to enable the radiotelephone installation to be maintained in...

  15. A Matheuristic for the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem with Transit Time Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Karsten, Christian Vad;

    2015-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the liner shipping network design problem with transit time restrictions on the cargo flow. We extend an existing matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem to consider transit time restrictions. The matheuristic is an improvement heuristic, where...

  16. Shipping Industry Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first par

  17. Encoding the Shipping Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lina; Lin Lin; Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the statistics from Frech shipping advisory bod-ies,till December 21,2008,165 container ships were idle,leav-ing the fees,such as anchorage fees,ship maintaining fee,crev resettlement fee and repaying loans for ship-buying,an-noying the ship-owners.

  18. Parametrical Method for Determining Optimal Ship Carrying Capacity and Performance of Handling Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Jan P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of evaluating the optimal value of the cargo ships deadweight and the coupled optimal value of cargo handling capacity. The method may be useful at the stage of establishing the main owners requirements concerning the ship design parameters as well as for choosing a proper second hand ship for a given transportation task. The deadweight and the capacity are determined on the basis of a selected economic measure of the transport effectiveness of ship – the Required Freight Rate. The mathematical model of the problem is of a deterministic character and the simplifying assumptions are justified for ships operating in the liner trade. The assumptions are so selected that solution of the problem is obtained in analytical closed form. The presented method can be useful for application in the preliminary ship design or in the simulation of pre-investment transportation task studies.

  19. Operational efficiency in STS cargo processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    A multifaceted program is presented that addresses both the operational aspects of Shuttle-cargo integration and the needs of the STS Cargo Community. The program consists of the following key elements: (1) processing team awareness of cargo needs and requirements; (2) standardization of Orbiter preparation and cargo integration procedures and methods; (3) maximum application of state-of-the-art ADP techniques in all relevant areas; (4) continual review of cargo integration facility and ground system capabilities versus requirements and enhancement; (5) continual assessment of proposed cargo processing changes for safety and other needs; and (6) review of cargo processing philosophies, policies, and concepts for potential improvements.

  20. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    We present an integer programming based heuristic, a matheuristic, for the liner shipping network design problem. This problem consists of finding a set of container shipping routes defining a capacitated network for cargo transport. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport......, while minimizing the cost of operating the network. Liner shipping companies publish a set of routes with a time schedule, and it is an industry standard to have a weekly departure at each port call on a route. A weekly frequency is achieved by deploying several vessels to a single route, respecting...... the available fleet of container vessels. The matheuristic is composed of four main algorithmic components: a construction heuristic, an improvement heuristic, a reinsertion heuristic, and a perturbation heuristic. The improvement heuristic uses an integer program to select a set of improving port insertions...

  1. Incorporating biplane wing theory into a large, subsonic, all-cargo transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyskowski, Michael K.

    1994-01-01

    If the air-cargo market increases at the pace predicted, a new conceptual aircraft will be demanded to meet the needs of the air-cargo industry. Furthermore, it has been found that not only should this aircraft be optimized to carry the intermodal containers used by the current shipping industry, but it should also be be able to operate at existing airports. The best solution to these problems is a configuration incorporating a bi-wing planform, which has resulted in significant improvements over the monoplane in lift/drag, weight reduction, and span reduction. The future of the air-cargo market, biplane theory, wind tunnel tests, and a comparison of the aerodynamic characteristics of the biplane and monoplane are discussed. The factors pertaining to a biplane cargo transport are then examined, resulting in biplane geometric parameters.

  2. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  3. Innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles for high-speed cargo vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been about four decades since nuclear powered cargo ships were seriously discussed in the naval architecture community. Recent developments in commercial shipping include faster, bigger, and more powerful ships. In addition, several initiatives in advanced reactor design include smaller, safer and more efficient reactors. The development of advanced ships and advanced reactors opens an opportunity for nuclear propulsion. Although the goals of the INPRO and GIF Projects are not related to nuclear propulsion, these are analyzed for such potential case, considering the contribution to energy sustainability. These projects would help to select nuclear propulsion plant and fuel cycle concepts based on user requirements. Current technology trends point out at IPWRs and GT-MHRs, preferably the latter for overall advanced ship competitiveness. Core residual heat removal and other factors recommend the use of a hybrid power plant, with an auxiliary fossil fuel plant. This article illustrates future trends in high-performance cargo vessels, and the benefits of nuclear propulsion in such ships. Two advanced ship proposals are discussed for nuclear power, based on data availability and market opportunities. The economic viability of hybrid propulsion plants is anticipated, even with conservative reactor cost figures. The most important restriction is the reactor cost, so that these projects are opportune. (author)

  4. Advanced gamma ray technology for scanning cargo containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphan, Victor J; Muenchau, Ernie; Gormley, Jerry; Richardson, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The shipping industry is striving to increase security for cargo containers without significantly impeding traffic. Three Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) development programs are supporting this effort. SAIC's ICIS system combines SAIC's VACIS gamma ray imaging, radiation scanning, OCR, elemental analysis and other technologies to scan containers for nuclear materials and other hazards in normal terminal traffic. SAIC's enhanced gamma ray detector improves VACIS image resolution by a factor of three. And SAIC's EmptyView software analyzes VACIS images to automatically verify empty containers. PMID:15996470

  5. Advanced γ ray technology for scanning cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shipping industry is striving to increase security for cargo containers without significantly impeding traffic. Three Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) development programs are supporting this effort. SAIC's ICIS system combines SAIC's VACIS[reg] γ ray imaging, radiation scanning, OCR, elemental analysis and other technologies to scan containers for nuclear materials and other hazards in normal terminal traffic. SAIC's enhanced γ ray detector improves VACIS image resolution by a factor of three. And SAIC's EmptyView software analyzes VACIS images to automatically verify empty containers

  6. Novel Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

  7. Effect of Wind to the Maneuvering Ship Control in the Avoidence Collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia S. Aisjah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine transportation as an important roles in Indonesia, it is two third of Indonesian territorial is waters. Tanjung Perak port is one busiest transportation in Indonesia. To enter the terminal ship is shipping throuh Madura strait. To enhance ship safety management, navigational device known as AIS used for navigational purpose. AIS data contain multiple ship specification, statically and dynamically. Those data can be used as inputs in maneuvering control. This research focus on creating ship maneuvering control system by utilizing AIS data. The strategic control is Fuzzy Logic (FL. The aim of research is carrying ship to the trajectory to collision avoidence to other ship. The Fuzzy Logic Control consits two units: Heading control and speed control. The case study is applying controler to the cargo ship, and disturbance is wind in various coming angle.

  8. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  9. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1544.228 Section 1544.228 Transportation... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.228 Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments... paragraph (b) of this section— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat...

  10. Genetic algorithms approach for containerships fleet management dependent on cargo and their deadlines

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Ana; Martins, Paulo; Andrade-Campos, António; Lobo,

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes a method to improve the flexibility of short sea shipping and to increase its competitiveness with other means of freight transport. A logistic model and a mathematical model are developed to manage a fleet of two or more vessels which transport cargo to and from several ports, bearing in mind the cargo distribution and delivery deadlines. At each port, the model determines which port to visit next, which containers to embark, disembark and to shift, as well as how to stow ...

  11. Determination of high-risk cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.

    1994-10-01

    The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.

  12. Passengers’ Evacuation in Ships Based on Neighborhood Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Gan-Nan Yuan; Li-Na Zhang; Li-Qiang Liu; Kan Wang

    2014-01-01

    A new intelligent model to simulate evacuation behavior in ships called neighborhood particle swarm optimization is proposed. This model determines the rules of behavior and velocity updating formulas to solve staff conflicts. The individuals in evacuation are taken as particles in PSO and update their behaviors by individual attributes, neighborhood attributes, and social attributes. Putting the degree of freedom movement of ships into environment factor and using the real Ro-Ro ship informa...

  13. Technical issues in the international acceptance of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international movement of nuclear merchant ships on a regular basis requires expeditions and precedent-setting administrative procedures. Special nuclear constraints and safety issues have been considered and identified by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD; recommendations for a code of conduct for nuclear ships is now being considered by IMCO. This paper discusses typical technical safety issues and the measures being taken to solve them in advance of the general usage of nuclear merchant ships

  14. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L.; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J. De; Castón, José R.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ~30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ~20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two

  15. Commercial nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following discussion of the arguments in favour of nuclear merchant ships and development of nuclear ship propulsion, the rentability of nuclear ships is dealt with in a comparative study with conventional ships regarding fuel costs, investments and environmental impact. The structure and components of a nuclear ship are described, with emphasis on its safety equipment. The problem of insurance is examined, particularly in connection with the difficulty in applying insurance for liability due to the present uncertainties of the legal position at international level. French legislation does not solve the problem of visiting foreign nuclear ships. The risk concept at operational, design and construction stages is also discussed. Unresolved difficulties, especially concerning the construction of nuclear ships, uncertainties in competitivity analyses between conventional and nuclear propulsion, and implementation of specific and complete legislation on nuclear ships are also mentioned, particularly in the context of their visits to ports

  16. The South America East Coast Reefer Cargo: A Diagnosis of a Competitive Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Cassia Bömer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses reefer cargo maritime shipping characteristics and development in South American East Coast ports. The geographical area studied goes from Punta Arenas (Chile to Manaus (Brazil. The study main hypothesis is reefer shipping as a profitable market niche in spite of higher operation costs and a very demanding supply chain. The paper comprises three sections: the first one describes global reefer cargo transportation general characteristics; the second, reefer shipping in South American ports, focusing five main issues: (1 Cargo flows; (2 Ports infrastructure; (3 Post-Panamax vessels operation and its economies of scale; (4 Shippers and carriers’ mergers and acquisitions processes and (5 Containerization process; finally, it investigates the marketing relationship between shippers and shipping liners. The exploratory study was based on technical reports and statistics analysis, and interviews with industry executives, performing a multicase study. The general conclusions indicate that South American reefer market has concluded most of its containerization process and is moving fast towards a concentrated market of players. Some experts consider that the market will keep increasing as a result of the improved quality of products and enhancing cold logistics services provision in spite of the international crisis, due to emergent markets buying and more demanding clients.

  17. 46 CFR 32.60-40 - Construction and testing of cargo tanks and bulkheads-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction and testing of cargo tanks and bulkheads-TB/ALL. 32.60-40 Section 32.60-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Hull Requirements for Tank Vessels Constructed On or After July 1, 1951 § 32.60-40 Construction...

  18. Full-shipload tramp ship routing and scheduling with variable speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, M.; Røpke, Stefan; Petersen, Hanne Løhmann;

    2016-01-01

    -dependent fuel consumption. The objective is to determine which orders to serve and to find the optimal route for each ship and the optimal sailing speed on each leg of the route so that the total profit is maximized. The problem originated from a real-life challenge faced by a Danish tramp shipping company in......This paper investigates the simultaneous optimization problem of routing and sailing speed in the context of full-shipload tramp shipping. In this problem, a set of cargoes can be transported from their load to discharge ports by a fleet of heterogeneous ships of different speed ranges and load...

  19. Environmental impact analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program-addendum. Special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study represents a qualitative extension of an earlier Environmental Impact Analysis of the Nuclear Merchant Ship Program (MarAd, 1975) using an Ultra Large Crude Carrier (ULCC) as the reference ship, to other types of ships including a containership, dry-bulk cargo vessel, and an icebreaking oil tanker. This qualitative analysis shows that, for ships operating into coastal ports (containerships and possibly dry-bulk carriers), both ecological and radiological impacts would be somewhat greater than for the reference ULCC docking at an offshore terminal. These impacts can be kept within the guidelines established for land based nuclear power plants by implementation of appropriate operating procedures

  20. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  1. Communication from the Radioactive Shipping Service

    CERN Document Server

    DDGS Unit

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive materials Import/Export service reminds you that all movements of potentially radioactive material must be declared in advance. For exports, shipping requests must be made via the EDH request form, ticking the box “radioactive material”. For imports, an electronic form must be completed before the arrival of the material. Requests which do not comply with the above procedure and any unauthorized imports of radioactive material will be refused.The same applies to imports/exports of radioactive sources. All necessary information is given in the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Phone: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00 Email: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  2. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  3. Outline of The probabilistic Concept of Ship Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the whole probabilistic concept of ship subdivision is given, comprising the latest advances in determination of pi and s1 factors - the two probabilistic factors that form the basis of the new regulations.The method for calculating the pi factor for dry cargo ships is thoroughly...... presented and compared with the original method, developed by IMO inthe late 60's for passenger ships. After that, a review is presented of the past efforts to develop an estimate for the factor si - the most difficultand controversial part of the new subdivision regulations based on the probabilistic...... concept. This may facilitate our present efforts in developing a sound assessment, consistent with the results of damage stability model tests. A new method is provided regarding the capsizal probability, based on the theory underlying numerical simulations of damaged ship behaviour in natural sea...

  4. Simultaneous Optimization of Container Ship Sailing Speed and Container Routing with Transit Time Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Røpke, Stefan; Pisinger, David

    We introduce a decision support tool for liner shipping companies to optimally determine the sailing speed and needed fleet for a global network. As a novelty we incorporate cargo routing decisions with tight transit time restrictions on each container such that we get a realistic picture of the...... decomposition and column generation that exploits the separability of the problem. Computational results show that the method is applicable to liner shipping networks of realistic size and that it is important to incorporate cargo routing decisions when optimizing speed....

  5. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  6. Ship extraction and categorization from ASTER VNIR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Miliaresis, George

    2014-08-01

    We present a methodology for ship extraction and categorization from relatively low resolution multispectral ASTER imagery, corresponding to the sea region south east of Athens in Greece. At a first level, in the radiometrically corrected image, quad tree decomposition and bounding rectangular extraction automatically outline location of objects - possible ships, by statistically evaluating spectral responses throughout the segmented image. Subsequently, the object borders within the rectangular regions are extracted, while connected component labelling combined by size and shape filtering allows ship characterization. The ships' spectral signature is determined in green, red and infrared bands while cluster analysis allows the identification of ship categories on the basis of their size and reflectance. Additional pixel- based measures reveal estimated ship orientation, direction, movement, stability and turning. The results are complemented with additional geographic information and inference tools are formed towards the determination of probable ship type and its destination.

  7. Specialisation strategies in Norwegian shipping : a Vernon product cycle approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tenold, Stig

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important developments in the postwar shipping industry from the 1960s onwards has been the introduction of specialised ship types that have gained market shares in the transport of a large number of cargoes. The share of specialised tonnage in the Norwegian fleet increased from less than one per cent in 1960 to more than thirty per cent by 1987. This trend towards increased specialisation did not occur to the same extent in all maritime centres. Norwegian owners held a large ...

  8. A matheuristic for the liner shipping network design problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Desaulniers, Guy

    2012-01-01

    We present a matheuristic, an integer programming based heuristic, for the Liner Shipping Network Design Problem. The heuristic applies a greedy construction heuristic based on an interpretation of the liner shipping network design problem as a multiple quadratic knapsack problem. The construction...... for revenue and transshipment of cargo along with in/decrease of vessel- and operational cost for the current solution. The evaluation functions may be used by heuristics in general to evaluate changes to a network design without solving a large scale multicommodity flow problem....

  9. Concept design of a fast sail assisted feeder container ship

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Aaron; Hearn, Grant E.; Lloyd, Thomas; Mockler, Simon; Mortola, Lorenzo; Shin, Ie Bum; Smith, Ben

    2010-01-01

    An environmentally sustainable fast sail-assisted feeder-container ship concept, with a maximum speed of 25 knots, has been developed for the 2020 South East Asian and Caribbean container markets. The use of low-carbon and zero-sulphur fuel (liquefied natural gas) and improvements in operational efficiency (cargo handling and scheduling) mean predicted Green house gas emissions should fall by 42% and 40% in the two selected operational regions. The adoption of a Multi-wing sail system reduces...

  10. Concept design of a fast sail assisted feeder container ship

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Aaron; Lloyd, Thomas; Mockler, Simon; Mortola, Lorenzo; Shin, Ie Bum; Smith, Ben

    2010-01-01

    A fast sail assisted feeder container ship concept has been developed for the 2020 container market in the South East Asian and Caribbean regions. The design presented has met the requirements of an initial economic study, with a cargo capacity of 1270 twenty-foot equivalent unit containers, meeting the predictions of container throughput derived from historical data. In determining suitable vessel dimensions, account has also been taken for port and berthing restrictions, and considering...

  11. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J de; Castón, José R

    2016-04-28

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ∼30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ∼20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers. PMID:27091107

  12. United Airlines Assists Tsunami Relief Effort United donates cargo space for relief supplies going to southern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ United Airlines today announced several initiatives to assist with the tsunami relief effort in Asia, including the donation of available cargo space to ship relief supplies to southern Thailand,Indonesia, Sri Lanka and other coastal areas on the Indian Ocean.

  13. United Airlines Assists Tsunami Relief Effort United donates cargo space for relief supplies going to southern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      United Airlines today announced several initiatives to assist with the tsunami relief effort in Asia, including the donation of available cargo space to ship relief supplies to southern Thailand,Indonesia, Sri Lanka and other coastal areas on the Indian Ocean.……

  14. Green channel cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation detection device was installed in the lanes of a highway toll station, radioactive rays which was collimated emitted through the measured, and arrived the detector. The average density of the fresh agricultural products belonged to Green channel and other prohibited items vary greatly, the absorption of radiation are different between the Green Channel Cargo and other substances. Prior to the experimental group, different standard samples which represent different models and goods were measured, the different standard samples were stored in a computer database. When the trucks get through the Green Channel, the detector will detect the radiation signal and bring to the computer, the computer will process the measured data, and make a conclusion whether the goods are Green Channel cargo. (authors)

  15. Toward Visual Autonomous Ship Board Landing of a VTOL UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez López, José Luis; Saripalli, Srikanth; Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Pestana Puerta, Jesús; Fu, Changhong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we tackle the problem of landing a helicopter autonomously on a ship deck, using as the main sensor, an on-board colour camera. To create a test-bed, we first adequately simulate the movement of a ship landing platform on the Sea, for different Sea States, for different ships, randomly and realistically enough. We use a commercial parallel robot to get this movement. Once we had this, we developed an accurate and robust computer vision system to measure the pose of the helipad w...

  16. Safety of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  17. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  18. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now only six non-military ships have been built or are under construction. The operation and experience with the NS OTTO HAHN, which is of value for future large-scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion, is discussed. In many countries studies and plans are being made for further nuclear merchant ships. The types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: nuclear ship technology; economy of nuclear ship propulsion; and legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology has been based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant, entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proved by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in FRG. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proved by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions, e.g. in connection with port entry permission, are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land-based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long-distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account. (author)

  19. NWA Cargo Is Granted Additional Cargo Frequencies to China Four all-cargo frequencies per week granted by U.S. Department of Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ NWA Cargo, the cargo division of Northwest Airlines, will expand its all-cargo freighter service between the United States and China after being awarded four additional frequencies per week by the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  20. Research on bulk-cargo-port berth assignment based on priority of resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Guo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a Priority of Resource Allocation model about how to utilize the resources of the port efficiently, through the improvement of traditional ant colony algorithm, the ship-berth matching relation constraint matrix formed by ontology reasoning. Design/methodology/approach: Through questionnaires?Explore factor analysis (EFA and principal component analysis, the authors extract the importance of the goods, the importance of customers, and type of trade as the main factors of the ship operating priority. Then the authors combine berth assignment problem with the improved ant colony algorithm, and use the model to improve ship scheduling quality. Finally, the authors verify the model with physical data in a bulk-cargo-port in China. Findings: Test by the real data of bulk cargo port, it show that ships’ resource using priority and the length of waiting time are consistent; it indicates that the priority of resource allocation play a prominent role in improving ship scheduling quality. Research limitations: The questionnaires is limited in only one port group, more  related Influence factors should be considered to extend the conclusion. Practical implications: The Priority of Resource Allocation model in this paper can be used to improve the efficiency of the dynamic berth assignment. Originality: This paper makes the time of ship in port minimized as the optimization of key indicators and establishes a dynamic berth assignment model based on improved ant colony algorithm and the ontology reasoning model.

  1. Extension of ship accident analysis to multiple-package shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe ship accidents and the probability of radioactive material release from spent reactor fuel casks were investigated previously (Spring, 1995). Other forms of RAM, e.g., plutonium oxide powder, may be shipped in large numbers of packagings rather than in one to a few casks. These smaller, more numerous packagings are typically placed in ISO containers for ease of handling, and several ISO containers may be placed in one of several holds of a cargo ship. In such cases, the size of a radioactive release resulting from a severe collision with another ship is determined not by the likelihood of compromising a single, robust package but by the probability that a certain fraction of 10's or 100's of individual packagings is compromised. The previous analysis (Spring, 1995) involved a statistical estimation of the frequency of accidents which would result in damage to a cask located in one of seven cargo holds in a collision with another ship. The results were obtained in the form of probabilities (frequencies) of accidents of increasing severity and of release fractions for each level of severity. This paper describes an extension of the same general method in which the multiple packages are assumed to be compacted by an intruding ship's bow until there is no free space in the hold. At such a point, the remaining energy of the colliding ship is assumed to be dissipated by progressively crushing the RAM packagings and the probability of a particular fraction of package failures is estimated by adaptation of the statistical method used previously. The parameters of a common, well-characterized packaging, the 6M with 2R inner containment vessel, were employed as an illustrative example of this analysis method. However, the method is readily applicable to other packagings for which crush strengths have been measured or can be estimated with satisfactory confidence. (authors)

  2. SPACs in Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examine how Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) were used as a financing tool for companies in the shipping industry in period 2004-2011. We confirm that SPACs focused on acquisitions in the shipping industry have similar characteristics as the population of SPACs that entered U.S financial markets in the same period. When their characteristics differ, SPACs focused on shipping are larger in size than the rest of SPACs, have larger number of underwriters in syndic...

  3. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  4. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

  5. Nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional and nuclear merchant ships are compared with a view to economics. Still, one should keep in mind that for quite a time, nuclear merchant ships will remain improbable - not the least for environmental reasons. For the time beyond the year 2000, it is expectet that nuclear fission will be replaced by fusion energy. This form of energy cannot be directly used for ship propulsion, but it may indirectly give new impetus to merchant ship operation via coastal fusion plants for the production of synthetic fuels. (UA)

  6. Optimization of ship inner shell to improve the safety of seagoing transport ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Yun; Lin, Yan

    2013-09-01

    A practical Ship Inner Shell Optimization Method (SISOM), the purpose of which is to improve the safety of the seagoing transport ship by decreasing the maximum Still Water Bending Moment (SWBM) of the hull girder under all typical loading conditions, is presented in this paper. The objective of SISOM is to make the maximum SWBM minimum, and the section areas of the inner shell are taken as optimization variables. The main requirements of the ship performances, such as cargo hold capacity, propeller and rudder immersion, bridge visibility, damage stability and prevention of pollution etc., are taken as constraints. The penalty function method is used in SISOM to change the above nonlinear constraint problem into an unconstrained one, which is then solved by applying the steepest descent method. After optimization, the optimal section area distribution of the inner shell is obtained, and the shape of inner shell is adjusted according to the optimal section area. SISOM is applied to a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and the maximum SWBM of the two ships is significantly decreased by changing the shape of inner shell plate slightly. The two examples prove that SISOM is highly efficient and valuable to engineering practice.

  7. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation) and a...

  8. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries and...

  9. CONSIDERING ANTI-PIRACY SHIP SECURITY: CITADEL DESIGN AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As piracy continues to pose a threat to the shipping industry, a number of measures for protecting ships, cargo and crew will need to be implemented. Along with other steps, such as deploying military rescue teams, securing the crew within a ship’s citadel has proved to be a highly effective form of self-protection against hostage-taking by pirates. From a design standpoint, aspects that should be considered include the location and dimensions of the citadel, the maximum time crew can stay within it and the specific requirements for various elements of the ship or citadel equipment. Exploiting data on pirate attacks recently occurring in High Risk Areas, this article analyses the design and use of the citadel as a self-protection measure against piracy. As a conclusion, various requirements for these structures are recommended.

  10. Power feature required for PEFC powered electric propulsion ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Isao [NKK Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Oka, Masaru [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC system for ship propulsion, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quote}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns an analysis of the load-following performance required and estimated of a PEFC system to power the envisaged ship. The analysis proved that difficulty should be expected of the fuel supply circuit in following with adequate rapidity the sharp changes of load on fuel cell under certain conditions. Further integrated experiments and simulation exercises are currently in progress to further analyze the response characteristics of the fuel supply circuit-particularly of the methanol reformer and gas reservoir-to determine the best measure to be adopted for overcoming the expected difficulty.

  11. Legal issues in the transboundary movement of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transboundary movement of radioactive waste is a politically sensitive issue, which implies the raising of complex legal questions. Transborder transportation may be governed by various national jurisdictions on its way from the State of origin via the transit States to the State of destination. The overall goal to be achieved is safe management during all the necessary steps of transport, handling, storage and disposal. Far-reaching approximation or harmonization of national law applicable is to be aimed at in order to facilitate transboundary movement. Article 27 of the 1997 Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention) provides for a regime which, in principle, is appropriate. However, there are still open questions and, perhaps, lacunae remaining. Low risk materials exempt or released from regulatory control create specific problems owing to the fact that there are no agreed exemption or clearance levels which could be the base for unified legal provisions. The carrier may face different levels from State to State. The movement of radioactive waste by sea or air outside national jurisdictions is governed by the rules of Public International Law, especially by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which in major parts is a codification of existing International Customary Law. During transport on the high seas, the ship is under the jurisdiction of the State under which flag she is sailing. If the nuclear cargo is loaded onto a ship sailing under the flag of a non-contracting party to the Joint Convention, there may be legal problems with regard to whether and to what extent the Joint Convention is applicable, even if the State of origin or the State of destination is a contracting party to the Joint Convention. If a nuclear incident occurs during the movement of the waste, complicated questions of nuclear liability law will have to be solved. As far as the

  12. Air cargo: An Integrated Systems View. 1978 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, A. (Editor); Eastman, R. (Editor); Hargrove, A. (Editor); Rabiega, W. (Editor); Olsen, R. (Editor); Soberick, M. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The national air cargo system is analyzed and how it should be in 1990 is prescribed in order to operate successfully through 2015; that is through one equipment cycle. Elements of the system which are largely under control of the airlines and the aircraft manufacturers are discussed. The discussion deals with aircraft, networks, facilities, and procedures. The regulations which govern the movement of air freight are considered. The larger public policy interests which must be served by the kind of system proposed, the air cargo integrated system (ACIS), are addressed. The possible social, economical, political, and environment impacts of the system are considered. Recommendations are also given.

  13. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the safety relief valve setting. A reduction... required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=Density of cargo at the...

  14. Evidence for ship noise impacts on humpback whale foraging behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Hannah B; Merchant, Nathan D; Friedlaender, Ari S; Wiley, David N; Parks, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Noise from shipping activity in North Atlantic coastal waters has been steadily increasing and is an area of growing conservation concern, as it has the potential to disrupt the behaviour of marine organisms. This study examines the impacts of ship noise on bottom foraging humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the western North Atlantic. Data were collected from 10 foraging whales using non-invasive archival tags that simultaneously recorded underwater movements and the acoustic environment at the whale. Using mixed models, we assess the effects of ship noise on seven parameters of their feeding behaviours. Independent variables included the presence or absence of ship noise and the received level of ship noise at the whale. We found significant effects on foraging, including slower descent rates and fewer side-roll feeding events per dive with increasing ship noise. During 5 of 18 ship passages, dives without side-rolls were observed. These findings indicate that humpback whales on Stellwagen Bank, an area with chronically elevated levels of shipping traffic, significantly change foraging activity when exposed to high levels of ship noise. This measureable reduction in within-dive foraging effort of individual whales could potentially lead to population-level impacts of shipping noise on baleen whale foraging success. PMID:27512131

  15. 48 CFR 470.203 - Cargo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo preference. 470.203 Section 470.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS COMMODITY ACQUISITIONS 470.203 Cargo preference. An agency having responsibility under this subpart...

  16. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives the status of the development of a ship-hydrodynamic model for real-time ship-wave calculation and ship-structure and ship-ship interaction in a full mission marine simulator. The hydrodynamic model is based on potential flow theory, linear or non-linear free surface boundary...

  17. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... INJURY ABOARD CRUISE SHIPS Cruise ship medical clinics deal with a wide variety of illnesses and injuries. ...

  18. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are...... just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  19. Nuclear ships and their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation

  20. Vehicle and cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbinski, Victor V.; Orphan, Victor J.

    1997-02-01

    Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) is comprised of a 1 Curie 137Cs gamma-ray source in a shield and collimator which produces a fan-shaped beam designed to intercept a vertical array of gama-ray detectors contained in a tower structure. The source and detector modules straddle the vehicle or container being inspected and are mounted on self-propelled trolleys which travel in synchronization along two parallel tracks covering the length of the scanned object. The signals from the gamma-ray detector array are processed and displayed so as to produce a 2D gamma-radiographic image of the object. Testing of the system on a variety of empty and lightly-loaded vehicles and containers has demonstrated the effectiveness of VACIS in detecting hidden contraband. For example, a small sample of cocaine only 1.5 inches thick was readily detected in a container.

  1. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  3. Civilian nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)

  4. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  5. Ship accident studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes ship accident studies performed by George G. Sharp, Inc. for the U.S. Maritime Administration in connection with the Nuclear Ship Project. Casualties studied include fires/explosions, groundings and collisions for which a method for calculating probability on a specific route was developed jointly with the Babcock and Wilcox Co. Casualty data source was the Liverpool's Underwriters Association Casualty Returns

  6. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    ČULIN, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  7. [The hospital ship Jutlandia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winge, M

    1996-01-01

    The Danish contribution to the United Nations action during the Korean War (1950-52) was the hospital ship "Jutlandia". The motorvessel Jutlandia - 8.500 tons - was built by the Nakskov Shipyard in 1934, and was rebuilt in three months at the same shipyard to a modern hospital ship with 300 beds, 3 operating theatres, a dental clinic, an x-ray department etc. The crew and the hospital staff consisted approximately each of 100 persons. Jutlandia sailed for Korea on Jan. 23. 1951 and the expedition ended in Copenhagen on Oct. 16. 1953. On the first two cruises the ship was stationed at Pusan. During the first period mostly as an "evacuation sick-bay" and during the second period the ship was opened for Korean military and civil patients, and extensive help was given to the local population on shore. While in Denmark between the second and third cruise a helicopter deck was installed and the operating theatre for neuro-surgery was changed to an opthalmic clinic. This time the ship was stationed at the Bay of Ichon so close to the front, that the wounded could be admitted directly from the advanced dressing stations. On the return journeys to Europe patients were sailed to their home countries. Commodore Kai Hammerich was in charge of the expedition and captain Christen Kondrup was in charge of the ship, throughout the whole expedition. PMID:11625136

  8. Characterization of fleet emissions from ships through multi-individual determination of size-resolved particle emissions in a coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Jonathan; Hallquist, Mattias; Hallquist, Åsa M.

    2015-07-01

    Shipping is becoming a major source of particulate air pollution in coastal cities. Here we describe the use of a stationary measurement site to characterize nanoparticle emissions (5.6-560 nm) from a large ship fleet (154 ships) in a harbor region of an emission control area (ECA) under real-world dilution conditions. Emission factors (EFs) are described with respect to particle number (PN), mass (PM), size and volatility. Automatic Identification System data were used to obtain information on ship class, direction, speed and acceleration. Cargo and passenger ships had similar average EFs: 2.79 ± 0.19 vs. 2.35 ± 0.20 × 1016 # (kg fuel)-1 and 2550 ± 170 vs. 2200 ± 130 mg (kg fuel)-1 respectively. The number size distributions for cargo and passenger ships were unimodal, peaking at ∼40 nm. Tug-boats and pilots emitted smaller particles with lower EFPN and EFPM. For emissions of non-volatile particles from cargo and passenger ships EFPM increased with decreasing speed and acceleration while the EFPN decreased. The size distributions of the non-volatile particles for all ships contained a large mode at ∼10 nm. This peak is believed to be formed during plume aging. A detailed understanding of size-resolved particle emissions from individual ships will be important in designing appropriate emission regulations for coastal areas.

  9. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined to...... energy absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6 % of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also show that for...

  10. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  11. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  12. Robot mother ship design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2000-07-01

    Small physical agents will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensor and mobility characteristics. The mother ship much effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. The mother ship concept presented in this paper includes the case where the mother ship is itself a robot or a manned system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the robot teams. The mother ship must also establish a robust communications network between the agents and is an up-link point for disseminating the intelligence gathered by the smaller agents; and, because of its global knowledge, provides the high-level information fusion, control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. Additionally, the mother ship incorporates battlefield visualization, information fusion, and multi-resolution analysis, and intelligent software agent technology, to support mission planning and execution. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of a robot mother ship. This research includes docking, battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, information fusion, and multi- modal human computer interaction.

  13. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  14. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  15. SOME PROBLEMS ABOUT SHIP WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Min-jia

    2003-01-01

    Several problems about ship waves were discussed in the dissertation:(1) Transient ship waves from calmness to the generation of steady-state ship waves were described. (2) The procedure of the formation of the V-shaped steady-state ship waves were clearly shown, and the difference of ship waves on an inviscid fluid and on a viscous fluid was exmined. (3) With the Lighthill two-stage scheme, the algebraic expression for ship waves on a viscous fluid of finite depth was obtained.(4) Singularity on the two boundaries of the ship waves was treated.

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.140 - What is cargo preference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is cargo preference... cargo preference? Cargo preference is the statutory requirement that all, or a portion of all, ocean... the cargo preference laws must be approved by: Department of Transportation Maritime...

  17. Development of the INF Code and its relationship to the ships of the Pacific Nuclear Transport Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the adoption of the INF Code as a voluntary instrument in 1993, there were no special construction or equipment requirements, of an advisory or mandatory nature, for ships carrying radioactive materials. Any cargo ship could be used for transporting virtually unlimited quantities of these materials. This paper gives a brief insight in to the development of the PNTL Fleet and the correlation to the INF Code. (author)

  18. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  19. Design of heavy lift cargo aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the bird of the skies of the future. The heavy lift cargo aircraft which is currently being developed by me has twice the payload capacity of an Antonov...

  20. IP-1 Certification of Cargo Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagler, Lisle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-10-05

    The purpose and scope of this engineering note is to demonstrate that the structural design of the cargo container complies with the IP-1 container requirements of 49 CFR 173.410 as required by CFR 173.411.

  1. Economic Possibilities of Shipping though Northern Sea Route1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate change haves brought a new issue in the Arctic sea. Therefore, we can now explore new shipping routes through the Arctic Ocean instead of the existing commercial route. In particular, the Northern Sea Route (NSR is one of the feasible shipping routes and, has provided tremendous shipping benefits. If the NSR becomes commercialized, we will be able to save about 5,000 nautical miles in distance and sailing time. In this study, we will emphasize some of the important results on the possibility of commercializing the shipping route in the Arctic. The NSR may bring positive economic effects in terms of shipping distance and time. For example, when utilizing the NSR, the maximum cargo traffic between Asia and Europe is expected to be around 46 million TEU. However, we also need to consider an expensive passage fee that is currently imposed by Russia. In conclusion, we maintain our efforts to protect the environment in the Arctic, in terms of logistics, and we need to explore every possible avenue to bring possible economic benefits to the North Pacific countries.

  2. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...... the elastic energy absorbed by the struck ship normally is small and varies from 1 to 6% of the energy released for crushing. The energy stored as elastic global hull girder vibrations depends on the ship mass, the local stiffness of the side structure, and of the position of contact. The results also...

  3. Several specific and nonspecific responses of the human and animal body to ship noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaryan, S. S.; Volkov, S. S.; Sysoyev, A. B.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of noise on cargo boats on a long voyage differs considerably from the effect of noise in factories and in service industries. The peculiarities of the effect of round-the-clock noises at sea at 55 to 85 decibels, typical for cargo boats, were studied in white rats in the laboratory and aboard ship (each of the experiments lasted three months) and in young naval cadets and experienced seamen on voyages lasting one, two, and three months. The findings helped to derive health standards for maximum admissible noise level at sea.

  4. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birrer, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  5. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions to...... measured torque on the propeller shaft. Further, an index based on the properties of the ship’s propeller, is used. The different indexes are described in a case study where the performance of a container ship is evaluated over one year. The reliability of the performance index is measured from the scatter...... in results and the ability of identifying the events that improves performance e.g. propeller and hull clean....

  6. Innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles for high-speed cargo vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It has been about four decades since nuclear powered cargo ships were seriously discussed in the naval architecture community. However, recent developments in commercial shipping include faster, bigger, and more powerful ships. In addition, several initiatives in advanced reactor design include smaller, safer and more efficient reactors. The development of advanced ships and advanced reactors opens an opportunity for nuclear propulsion. Although the goals of the international projects, such as INPRO or GIF, are not directly related to propulsion, those are analyzed for such possibility regarding the contribution of nuclear propulsion to energy sustainability and environment, considering that freight and transportation activities currently fueled by oil or other fossil fuels will continue to expand. Nuclear energy only serves 6% of the primary energy mix. Current nuclear technology can provide large and lasting CO2-free energy with less harm to the environment and minimum depletion of natural energy resources. Contradictorily, its potential contribution to sustainable development is unlikely without a major technological shift, resulting in much less capital intensive power plants and reduced energy production costs for competitive operation, in addition to huge reactor and fuel cycle safety, waste and non-proliferation improvements. Early commercial marine nuclear power did not succeed. However, based on a set of 'marine' economics; environment, fuel cycle and waste; reactor and fuel cycle safety; non-proliferation and other crosscutting user requirements, and on cargo trends, innovative nuclear propulsion could be justified for a few ship classes: the high-performance cargo monohull and multihull, with innovative propulsors and highly compact power plant packages. Two tools were used for characterizing these platforms: the Suspension Pyramid and the Transport Factor. In some cases, the fuel component of the transport factor may be very large (and indeed

  7. On the possibility of the in-cell molecular motors working as cargo moorings only

    CERN Document Server

    Lisowski, Bartosz

    2012-01-01

    Although active transport is considered the most efficient way of depositing materials in the appropriate compartments within living cells, free diffusion remains the energetically cheapest and most widespread determinant of the in-cell dynamics. Here we investigate the hypothesis of cargoes - vesicles or organelles - being transported by the means of free diffusion, limited spatially by the molecular motors. Routinely navigating through ever-changing and unsteady environment, utilizing chemical energy (e.g. from hydrolyzing ATP), as the result they transport cell's crucial components, such as neurotransmitters and organelles. In our model the motor, which we identify with kinesin-1 walking along the microtubule, tethers the cargo in the same manner as a mooring rope attached to a bollard holds a ship from drifting toward the open sea. We study the model behavior in the context of optical trap single molecule experiments, mimicking their procedures in our simulations and investigate how the mechanical propert...

  8. Piracy in shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Q. Mejia Jr., Maximo; Cariou, Pierre; wolff, François-Charles

    2010-01-01

    Piracy in its various forms has posed a threat to trade and shipping for millennia. In the 1970s, a steady rise in the number of attacks ushered in the present phenomenon of modern piracy and not many parts of the world's seas are free from piracy in one form or another today. This paper reviews the historical and geographical developments of piracy in shipping, with a discussion on contentious issues involved in defining piracy. Using data available on piracy acts collected from the IMB rela...

  9. Shipping emissions in ports

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf MERK

    2014-01-01

    Shipping emissions in ports are substantial, accounting for 18 million tonnes of CO2 emissions, 0.4 million tonnes of NOx, 0.2 million of SOx and 0.03 million tonnes of PM10 in 2011. Around 85% of emissions come from containerships and tankers. Containerships have short port stays, but high emissions during these stays. Most of CO2 emissions in ports from shipping are in Asia and Europe (58%), but this share is low compared to their share of port calls (70%). European ports have much less emi...

  10. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils – Part III of III

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM)

    2012-01-01

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, in which substances, included in a positive list, had been previously transported. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the list of substances in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils, taking into account its review of the Scientific Committee on Food criteria for acceptable previous cargoes and criteria proposed by the Codex Committee for Fats and...

  11. Measuring SO2 ship emissions with an ultraviolet imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last few years fast-sampling ultraviolet (UV) imaging cameras have been developed for use in measuring SO2 emissions from industrial sources (e.g. power plants; typical emission rates ~ 1-10 kg s-1) and natural sources (e.g. volcanoes; typical emission rates ~ 10-100 kg s-1). Generally, measurements have been made from sources rich in SO2 with high concentrations and emission rates. In this work, for the first time, a UV camera has been used to measure the much lower concentrations and emission rates of SO2 (typical emission rates ~ 0.01-0.1 kg s-1) in the plumes from moving and stationary ships. Some innovations and trade-offs have been made so that estimates of the emission rates and path concentrations can be retrieved in real time. Field experiments were conducted at Kongsfjord in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, where SO2 emissions from cruise ships were made, and at the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands, measuring emissions from more than 10 different container and cargo ships. In all cases SO2 path concentrations could be estimated and emission rates determined by measuring ship plume speeds simultaneously using the camera, or by using surface wind speed data from an independent source. Accuracies were compromised in some cases because of the presence of particulates in some ship emissions and the restriction of single-filter UV imagery, a requirement for fast-sampling (> 10 Hz) from a single camera. Despite the ease of use and ability to determine SO2 emission rates from the UV camera system, the limitation in accuracy and precision suggest that the system may only be used under rather ideal circumstances and that currently the technology needs further development to serve as a method to monitor ship emissions for regulatory purposes. A dual-camera system or a single, dual-filter camera is required in order to properly correct for the effects of particulates in ship plumes.

  12. Study on estimating fluid force acting on a hull during maneuvering movement; Soju undoji no sentai ni sayosuru ryutairyoku no suitei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, K.; Kijima, K. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    With types of general cargo vessel and VLCC vessel as the object of discussion, a method was discussed to estimate fluid force acting theoretically on a hull during maneuvering movement, taking frame line shape into consideration. A vortex model was improved by giving consideration of time-based decay on intensity of discrete vortex lines based on the Rankine vortex. Modeling of flow fields around a hull was attempted to deal with movements in which width and draft are small as compared with the ship length, and turning angle speed and deviation angle are small. It was assumed that the ship speed is slow and effects of waves can be disregarded. Specular images of the hull were taken with regard to free surface, and handled as a double body model. Speed potential to express flow fields around a hull is required to satisfy the following five boundary conditions of Laplace, substance surface, free vortex layers, infinity and exfoliation. The potential may be handled as a two-dimensional problem in a field near the hull by using assumption of a slender and long body and conformal mapping. It was found possible to estimate hull fluid force with relatively good accuracy. Fine linear coefficients derived from the estimation were used to have performed highly accurate determination on course stabilization. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Emissions from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report assesses global emission of ship transport based on fuel consumption, military and civil fleet sizes and average engine statistics. Part 1 gives estimates for the years 1950 to 2001, part 2 displays scenarios for the years 2020 and 2050. (uke)

  14. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  15. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance and the...

  16. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined...

  17. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  18. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  19. Ship and installation program optimal stationing of Naval ships

    OpenAIRE

    Willett, Devon K.

    2006-01-01

    .2 billion in savings. We also investigate the influence of using two different measures of pier capacity and incorporate 30 new ships and submarines to demonstrate SHIP's ability to station the proposed future force structure.

  20. Structural response of cargo containment systems in LNG carriers under ice loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas exploration has been extended into the Arctic region such as in the Russian Arctic area, because of the increasing demand for energy resources. As a result, shipping in ice-covered seas is also increasing. Many technical issues are involved in ensuring the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships during the transportation. This paper discussed an investigation of ship-ice interaction scenarios for possible operation routes in Arctic areas. Six scenarios were selected to study the structural response of cargo containment systems (CCS) in both membrane and spherical types of LNG ships. For selected ship-ice interaction scenarios, ice loads and loading areas in the hull structure were determined based on the energy theory. The configurations of LNG carriers were discussed and illustrated. The paper also outlined the assessment criteria and structure analysis procedures. It was concluded that the strength of the CCS of membrane-type LNG carrier and the strength of the skirt structure of spherical-type LNG carrier were strong enough under the design ice loads. 13 refs., 9 tabs., 18 figs

  1. EU Shipping Taxation: The Comparative Position of Greek Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Marlow; Kyriaki Mitroussi

    2008-01-01

    The critical role shipping taxation has played in the structure and evolution of the shipping business over the last century can easily be recognised. Whether connected with the actual initiation of the open registries scheme or as a means to improve competitiveness of traditional flags, shipping taxation attracts the attention of shipping practitioners and policy makers and constitutes an always topical focus of study. Recent years have particularly seen the rise and growth of tonnage tax sy...

  2. Status report on the detection of illicit materials in cargo containers by using neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-intrusive inspection of cargo containers has become a key issue in the fight against terrorism. Indeed, shipping of cargo container between seaports represent today one of the more important way of the international trade. After 9/11, the Cargo Security Initiative started setting standards for the cargo containers inspections in the trading between US and other countries, as the ones in the European Union (E U). US are now aiming at 100% scanning of cargo containers shipped towards the American ports. At present time, controls are mainly based on X- or gamma-ray scanners, which provide mainly the shape and density of the transported goods. Fast neutrons can be additionally employed to deduce information about their elemental composition. Neutrons have been selected mainly thanks to their capability of penetrating materials and the availability of different type of neutron sources. Neutron transmission measurements or the detection of characteristic gamma-rays emitted following neutron induced reactions have been proposed to characterize carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, which are major components of explosives or narcotics, with the goal of discriminating illicit from benign materials. Several systems have been validated under laboratory conditions demonstrating that such technologies are capable of providing material specific information and few of them have been fielded. However, the use of neutron based tools depends not only on the intrinsic capability of the method, as explored in laboratory conditions, but also on some major issues: 1) the possibility of solving logistics and licensing problems; 2) the possibility of constructing systems that are operated directly by end-users; 3) the effective integration of the neutron based system in current customs procedures. In this talk, the general capability of neutron sources to be used in a cost effective way to detect illicit materials inside cargo containers will be discussed looking also to the latest technical

  3. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics are...

  4. Cargo transport by sea and road - Technical and economical environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2006-01-01

    .)) Having established a method for the calculation of the ships energy demand, it is relatively simple to calculate the exhaust emissions by using some well-established specific emission factors, i.e. figures for the exhaust emission pr. consumed energy unit (g/Mj). >> In the paper, a comparison with road...... transport will also be presented focusing on the energy demand and exhaust emissions per transport unit, i.e. per ton cargo per km. >>) Finally, the energy and emission data will be used for an economical evaluation of sea transport versus land transport. This will be done by calculating the external costs...

  5. Uncertainty Quantification for Cargo Hold Fires

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold -- first, to introduce the application of high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods to buoyancy-driven cargo hold fire simulations, second, to explore statistical variation in the fluid dynamics of a cargo hold fire given parameterized uncertainty in the fire source location and temperature. Cargo hold fires represent a class of problems that require highly-accurate computational methods to simulate faithfully. Hence, we use an in-house discontinuous Galerkin code to treat these flows. Cargo hold fires also exhibit a large amount of uncertainty with respect to the boundary conditions. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to quantify the resulting uncertainty in the flow, using tools from the uncertainty quantification community to ensure that our efforts require a minimal number of simulations. We expect that the results of this study will provide statistical insight into the effects of fire location and temperature on cargo fires, and also assist in the optimization of f...

  6. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  7. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guangxing [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Harry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Steven [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Birrer, Nat [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  8. Ageing of ships, LPG tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Martin

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades there have been several major ship accidents, and it is believed that old ships are more unsafe than newer ships. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon the thesis is investigating different issues with ship ageing. This thesis consists of a general description of the most important ageing issues, and the condition of sea water ballast tanks is identified as one of the most critical issue regarded to ageing on LPG-tankers. This investigation consists of...

  9. Mathematical Modeling: Convoying Merchant Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Susann M.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a mathematical model that connects mathematics with social studies. Students use mathematics to model independent versus convoyed ship deployments and sinkings to determine if the British should have convoyed their merchant ships during World War I. During the war, the British admiralty opposed sending merchant ships grouped…

  10. Diversity of bacteria in ships ballast water as revealed by next generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmeyer, Robin

    2016-06-15

    The bacterial diversity in ballast water from five general cargo ships calling at the Port of Houston was determined with ion semiconductor DNA sequencing (Ion Torrent PGM) of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the composition of bacteria in ballast water did not resemble that of typical marine habitats or even open ocean waters where BWEs occur. The predominant group of bacteria in ships conducting BWEs was the Roseobacter clade within the Alphaproteobacteria. In contrast, Gammaproteobacteria were predominant in the ship that did not conduct a BWE. All the ships contained human, fish, and terrestrial plant pathogens as well as bacteria indicative of fecal or activated sludge contamination. Most of the 60 pathogens had not been detected in ballast water previously. Among these were the human pathogens Corynebacterium diptheriae and several Legionella species and the fish pathogens Francisella piscicida and Piscirickettsia salmonis. PMID:27076378

  11. The Vessel Schedule Recovery Problem (VSRP) – A MIP model for handling disruptions in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Dirksen, Jakob; Pisinger, David;

    2013-01-01

    Containerized transport by liner shipping companies is a multi billion dollar industry carrying a major part of the world trade between suppliers and customers. The liner shipping industry has come under stress in the last few years due to the economic crisis, increasing fuel costs, and capacity...... outgrowing demand. The push to reduce CO2 emissions and costs have increasingly committed liner shipping to slow-steaming policies. This increased focus on fuel consumption, has illuminated the huge impacts of operational disruptions in liner shipping on both costs and delayed cargo. Disruptions can occur...... that the VSRP is NP-hard. The model is applied to four real life cases from Maersk Line and results are achieved in less than 5seconds with solutions comparable or superior to those chosen by operations managers in real life. Cost savings of up to 58% may be achieved by the suggested solutions compared...

  12. Fluctuation effects in bidirectional cargo transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a theoretical model for bidirectional cargo transport in biological cells, which is driven by teams of molecular motors and subject to thermal fluctuations. The model describes explicitly the directed motion of the molecular motors on the filament. The motor-cargo coupling is implemented via linear springs. By means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations we show that the model describes the experimentally observed regimes of anomalous diffusion, i.e. subdiffusive behavior at short times followed by superdiffusion at intermediate times. The model results indicate that subdiffuse regime is induced by thermal fluctuations while the superdiffusive motion is generated by correlations of the motors' activity. We also tested the efficiency of bidirectional cargo transport in crowded areas by measuring its ability to pass barriers with increased viscosity. Our results show a remarkable gain of efficiency for high viscosities.

  13. EMP coupling to ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  14. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  15. Size matters: Exploring the importance of vessel characteristics to inform estimates of shipping emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Ship emission baselines can be used to inform studies but require prior knowledge. ► Region specific conditions alter average shipping emission factors. ► Region specific conditions are clearer when individual callings are examined. ► Relationship between ship size and emissions frustrates estimating mean emissions. -- Abstract: The decarbonisation agenda is placing increasing pressure on retailers to directly and indirectly influence greenhouse gas emissions associated with full supply chains. Transportation by sea is an important and significant element of these supply chains, yet the emissions associated with shipping, particularly international shipping, are often poorly accounted for. The magnitude of emissions embodied in a product is directly related to the distances involved in globalised product chains, where shipping can represent the most emission intensive stage per tonne of goods transported. Specifically, limited choice of ship type and size within assessment tools negates a fair estimate of product chain emissions. To address this, the correlation between ship emissions and size is quantified for a sample of United Kingdom (UK) port callings to estimate typical UK emission factors by ship type and size and to determine how well existing global data and available databases represent UK shipping activity. The results highlight that although ship type is a crucial determinant of emissions, vessel size is also important, particularly for smaller ships where the variance in emission factors is greatest. Existing, globally averaged data correlating ship size with emissions agree well with the UK data. However, the relatively higher proportion of smaller ships satisfying a UK demand for short sea shipping results in a skew towards higher typical emission factors, principally within the general cargo, product and chemical tanker categories. This bias is most visible when emissions per individual ship calling are estimated. Incorporating

  16. Shipping lines and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    FREMONT, A

    2009-01-01

    For some time it has been acknowledged that logistics is a driving force that shapes the integration of the transport chain. This paper argues that while the liner shipping industry exhibits increased horizontal integration, its vertical integration remains limited. A clear distinction is drawn between freight logistics, container logistics and vessel logistics. Freight logistics is defined as part of the supply chain process, the focus of which are the goods being transported. The purpose of...

  17. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  18. A LARGE-SCALE SIMULATION OF INTERNATIONAL MARITIME CONTAINER SHIPPING CONSIDERING OPTIMAL BEHAVIOR OF SHIPPERS AND OCEANGOING CARRIERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Tomihiro; Ieda, Hitoshi

    This paper develops a large-scale simulation model of international maritime container shipping industry considering optimal behaviors of both shippers and oceangoing carriers, in order to measure impact of port and international logistics policies for each country including Japan. Concretely, the authors develop a short-term model (income maximization model of carriers) including shippers' choice of carrier when maritime cargo shipping demand between ports are given and a mid-term model (Nash equilibrium model of shippers and carriers) including shippers' choice of import/export port and route of hinterland transport and carriers' profit maximization behavior when cargo shipping demand between regions are given. The developed model is applied to the actual large-scale international maritime container shipping network in Eastern Asia. From a trial calculation based on the actual cargo shipping demand, the performance of the model is validated in terms of convergency and reproducibility. Also, the sensitivity of the model output taking the actual port policies into account is confirmed.

  19. SIMULATION OF TANK SLOSHING BASED ON OPENFOAM AND COUPLING WITH SHIP MOTIONS IN TIME DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-long; ZHU Ren-chuan; MIAO Guo-ping; FAN Ju

    2012-01-01

    Tank sloshing in ship cargo is excited by ship motions,which induces impact load on tank wall and then affects the ship motion.Wave forces acting on ship hull and the retardation function are solved by using three-dimensional frequency domain theory and an impulse response function method based on the potential flow theory,and global ship motion is examined coupling with nonlinear tank sloshing which is simulated by viscous flow theory.Based on the open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)development platform Open Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM),numerical calculation of ship motion coupled with tank sloshing is achieved and the corresponding numerical simulation and validation are carried out.With this method,the interactions of wave,ship body and tank sloshing are completely taken into consideration.This method has quite high efficiency for it takes advantage of potential flow theory for outer flow field and viscous flow theory for inside tank sloshing respectively.The numerical and experimental results of the ship motion agree well with cach othcr.

  20. The role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kulić, Igor M; Kim, Hwajin; Kural, Comert; Blehm, Benjamin; Selvin, Paul R; Nelson, Philip C; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2008-01-01

    We study the role of microtubule movement in bidirectional organelle transport in Drosophila S2 cells and show that EGFP-tagged peroxisomes in cells serve as sensitive probes of motor induced, noisy cytoskeletal motions. Multiple peroxisomes move in unison over large time windows and show correlations with microtubule tip positions, indicating rapid microtubule fluctuations in the longitudinal direction. We report the first high-resolution measurement of longitudinal microtubule fluctuations performed by tracing such pairs of co-moving peroxisomes. The resulting picture shows that motor-dependent longitudinal microtubule oscillations contribute significantly to cargo movement along microtubules. Thus, contrary to the conventional view, organelle transport cannot be described solely in terms of cargo movement along stationary microtubule tracks, but instead includes a strong contribution from the movement of the tracks.

  1. Institute Cargo Clauses : Nova verzija 2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses, 2009. znače izmijenjene i dopunjene Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta leže u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenom transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose niz rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u odnosu na rješenja Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906. Redaktori novih uvjeta vodili su računa i o tome da pojedine odredbe budu jasnije form...

  2. Trajanje osiguranja prema Institute Cargo Clauses (2009.)

    OpenAIRE

    Petrinović, Ranka; Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses iz 2009. zapravo su izmjene i dopune Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni su razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo-osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenome transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose više rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u usporedbi s onima u Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906., pa se prezentiraju kao klauzule za novo tisućljeće. Među bitnim promjenama koje donose ...

  3. Hedging the financial risk from water scarcity for Great Lakes shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eliot S.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Brown, Casey; Moody, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Low water levels in the Great Lakes have recently had significant financial impacts on the region's commercial shipping, which transports hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of bulk goods each year. Cargo capacity is a function of a ship's draft, the distance between water level and the ship's bottom, and lower water levels force ships to reduce cargo loads to prevent running aground in shallow harbors and locks. Financial risk transfer instruments, such as index-based insurance contracts, may provide an adaptable method for managing these financial risks. In this work, a relationship between water levels and shipping revenues is developed and used in an actuarial analysis of the frequency and magnitude of revenue losses. This analysis is used to develop a standardized suite of binary financial contracts, which are indexed to water levels and priced according to predefined thresholds. These contracts are then combined to form hedging portfolios with different objectives for the shippers. Results suggest that binary contracts could substantially reduce the risk of financial losses during low lake level periods and at a relatively low cost of only one to three percent of total revenues, depending on coverage level.

  4. Short Sea Shipping, intermodality and parameters influencing pricing policies: the Mediterranean case

    OpenAIRE

    M Grosso; Lynce, A.-R.; Silla, A.; Vaggelas, G.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Short Sea Shipping (SSS) market is strongly diversified, due to the variety of cargoes, vessel types and capacity, and segmented due to the existence of many national and peripheral submarkets. It is observed that prices differ considerably among transport services of similar distance routes and/or similar demand characteristics. The aim of this study is to identify factors influencing SSS operators pricing policies for both the sea and the inland part of intermodal chains, in an integrat...

  5. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide in the Pacific by voluntary observing ships

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H; Nojiri, Y.; H. Mukai; Machida, T.; Y. Tohjima

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruise routes: from Japan to Oceania, the United States, Canada, and Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in th...

  6. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide over the Pacific Ocean by voluntary observing ships

    OpenAIRE

    Nara, H.; Tanimoto, H; Nojiri, Y.; H. Mukai; Machida, T.; Y. Tohjima

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruising routes: from Japan to Oceania, from Japan to the United States, from Japan to Canada, and from Japan to Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected durin...

  7. Modeling and analysis of ship traffic by observation and numerical simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Aarsæther, Karl Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    The continuing losses of vessels and the ever increasing volume of cargo carried by ship marks marine traffic as a high risk activity where a single accident has the potential to incur large human, environmental and economic losses. Collision and grounding contributes a significant portion of the total number of accidents at sea and are a manifestation of the fundamental situation where by vessels are at the wrong place at the wrong time. In order to quantify the probability of these unfortun...

  8. 46 CFR 105.20-3 - Cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-3 Cargo tanks. (a... subjected, except that in no case shall the thickness of the shell or head be less than that specified...

  9. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  10. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.)

  11. System/subsystem specifications for the Worldwide Port System (WPS) Regional Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollow, J.P.; Shipe, P.C.; Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Faby, E.Z.; Fluker, J.; Grubb, J.; Hancock, B.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ferguson, R.A. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1995-11-20

    A system is being developed by the Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) to provide data integration and worldwide management and tracking of surface cargo movements. The Integrated Cargo Database (ICDB) will be a data repository for the WPS terminal-level system, will be a primary source of queries and cargo traffic reports, will receive data from and provide data to other MTMC and non-MTMC systems, will provide capabilities for processing Advance Transportation Control and Movement Documents (ATCMDs), and will process and distribute manifests. This System/Subsystem Specifications for the Worldwide Port System Regional ICDB documents the system/subsystem functions, provides details of the system/subsystem analysis in order to provide a communication link between developers and operational personnel, and identifies interfaces with other systems and subsystems. It must be noted that this report is being produced near the end of the initial development phase of ICDB, while formal software testing is being done. Following the initial implementation of the ICDB system, maintenance contractors will be in charge of making changes and enhancing software modules. Formal testing and user reviews may indicate the need for additional software units or changes to existing ones. This report describes the software units that are components of this ICDB system as of August 1995.

  12. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  13. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  14. 46 CFR 151.20-20 - Cargo transfer methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 90 percent of the set pressure of the cargo tank safety relief valve. The pressurizing line shall be... shall be fitted with a safety relief valve set to lift at a pressure no higher than 80 percent of the cargo tank safety relief valve setting. (d) When cargo vapors are flammable, combustible or toxic,...

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF THE LOGISTICS ORGANIZATION OF CUSTOMS CARGO PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ponomariova; Stoliar, T.

    2008-01-01

    The matter concerning customs logistics being an integral part of cargo delivery logistics range of international routes has been considered. The aim of functioning of cargo customs handling process has been determined. The application of Petri network theory for the purpose of customs cargo handling model development has been proved.

  16. Development of 60Co cargo train inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author introduces the research and development of 60Co cargo train inspection system. With the use of radiography principle, every car image is acquired when the cargo train runs through the inspection channel. It is evaluated whether the cargo in car matches the corresponding customs declaration information with digital image processing techniques. The system has been installed in railway port at Manzhouli Customs

  17. 78 FR 68784 - Cargo Securing Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D. Public... Practice for Cargo Stowage and Securing E.O. Executive Order FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime.... vessels or for foreign vessels operating in U.S. waters. In a notice (64 FR 1648; Jan. 11,...

  18. Reliability analysis of the bulk cargo loading system including dependent components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokus-Roszkowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    In the paper an innovative approach to the reliability analysis of multistate series-parallel systems assuming their components' dependency is presented. The reliability function of a multistate series system with components dependent according to the local load sharing rule is determined. Linking these results for series systems with results for parallel systems with independent components, we obtain the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system assuming dependence of components' departures from the reliability states subsets in series subsystem and assuming independence between these subsystems. As a particular case, the reliability function of a multistate series-parallel system composed of dependent components having exponential reliability functions is fixed. Theoretical results are applied practically to the reliability evaluation of a bulk cargo transportation system, which main area is to load bulk cargo on board the ships. The reliability function and other reliability characteristics of the loading system are determined in case its components have exponential reliability functions with interdependent departures rates from the subsets of their reliability states. Finally, the obtained results are compared with results for the bulk cargo transportation system composed of independent components.

  19. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2012-01-01

    more accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship......We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... the model into a large maritime simulator for training of naval officers, in particular tug boat helmsmen. Tug boat simulators are used for training of communication and situation awareness during manoeuvre involved with towing of large vessels. A main objective of the work is to improve and enable...

  20. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  1. Book Review: Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator-produced high-energy X rays, NCRP Commentary No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert May

    2008-11-01

    Having spent roughly the first third of his health physics career on the Norfolk, VA waterfront area, the reviewer was excited to see the NCRP Commentary 20, 'Radiation Protection and Measurements Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with Accelerator Technology'. It signals the advent of the Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System (CAARS). The waterfront is a border that challenges physical security programs and technology. As Commentary 20 provides in the introduction, waterfront cargo terminals and land border crossings together represent over 300 ports of entry in the USA. Every year, the USA receives over 10 million cargo containers from commercial shipping and a roughly equal amount from land border crossings. While rapidly processing containerized cargo, CAARS will be able to detect small quantities of high atomic number radioactive materials and dense shielding materials used for radioactive gamma ray sources and even illicit human cargo - important concerns for homeland security. It will also be able to detect other contraband such as explosives, weapons and drugs. Section 1 of the Commentary presents an executive summary with NCRP's radiation dose management recommendations and related operational recommendations for effective implementation of CAARS technology in the current regulatory environment.

  2. A Model of Ship Auxiliary System for Reliable Ship Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Martinović, Dragan; Tudor, Mato; Bernečić, Dean

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of a vessel is to transport goods and passengers at minimum cost. Out of the analysis of relevant global databases on ship machinery failures, it is obvious that the most frequent failures occur precisely on the generator-running diesel engines. Any failure in the electrical system can leave the ship without propulsion, even if the main engine is working properly. In that case, the consequences could be devastating: higher running expenses, damage to the ship, oil spill or su...

  3. Ship voyage energy efficiency assessment using ship simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam, Ameen M.; Phillips, Alexander B.; Turnock, Stephen R.; Wilson, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in global trade is driving growth in both the size and number of ships. However, this increased demand is leading to greater contributions from shipping to air pollution. This is leading designers and operators to propose and adopt novel powering and propulsion systems. However, there is a challenge with assessing the actual benefit from using a certain retrofit technology or changing the operating conditions of their ships, this may be addressed using numerical simulations. This...

  4. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  5. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  6. Discharging Part of LNG Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Zhou Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the national economy, it is important to develop LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas liquid cargo handling simulator. In this paper, the discharging part of Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator of LNG Carriers is developed by Visual Basic. The system includes 5 major forms and 3 mathematical models such as cargo pump model, the pressure and temperature model of the LNG vapour in the cargo tank and the liquid level model. The system can complete the unloading task. The system has become a preliminary model of LNG liquid cargo handlings simulator training.

  7. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  8. Automated Detection of Anomalous Shipping Manifests to Identify Illicit Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2013-11-12

    We describe an approach to analyzing trade data which uses clustering to detect similarities across shipping manifest records, classification to evaluate clustering results and categorize new unseen shipping data records, and visual analytics to provide to support situation awareness in dynamic decision making to monitor and warn against the movement of radiological threat materials through search, analysis and forecasting capabilities. The evaluation of clustering results through classification and systematic inspection of the clusters show the clusters have strong semantic cohesion and offer novel ways to detect transactions related to nuclear smuggling.

  9. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its...

  10. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; DUNCAN, J; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its ...

  11. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear......Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...

  12. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact......Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...

  13. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  14. Dynamics of a Rigid Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Matusiak, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    This book is primarily meant as textbook of the course Ship Dynamics provided for the students of Naval Architecture of Aalto University. The approach to ship dynamics presented in the book makes it possible to deal with the seemingly different problems such as ship maneouvring, sea-keeping and dynamic stability using the same unified mathematical model. Motion dynamics of a ship regarded as a rigid body in a general motion with six-degree-of-freedom is considered. The relation of non-lineari...

  15. Research Opportunities on board Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenborough, S.; Pomerantz, W.; Stephens, K.

    2013-09-01

    Virgin Galactic is building the world's first commercial spaceline. Our suborbital spaceflight system, pictured in Figure 1, consists of two vehicles: WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) and SpaceShipTwo (SS2). WhiteKnightTwo is a four-engine, dual-fuselage jet aircraft capable of high-altitude heavy lift missions, including, but not limited to fulfilling its role as a mothership for SpaceShipTwo, an air-launched, suborbital spaceplane capable of routinely reaching an apogee up to 110 kilometers. In conjunction, these two vehicles allow access to space and to regions of the atmosphere ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere; additionally, they provide extended periods of microgravity in a reliable and affordable way. SpaceShipTwo, with a payload capacity of up to 1,300 lbs. (~600 kg), features payload mounting interfaces that are compatible with standard architectures such as NASA Space Shuttle Middeck Lockers, Cargo Transfer Bags, and server racks, in addition to custom structures. With the standard interface, payloads are allowed access to the large 17 inch diameter cabin windows for external observations. Each dedicated research flight will be accompanied by a Virgin Galactic Flight Test Engineer, providing an opportunity for limited in-flight interaction. In addition, tended payloads - a flight that includes the researcher and his or her payload - are also an option. At a price point that is highly competitive with parabolic aircraft and sounding rockets and significantly cheaper than orbital flights, SpaceShipTwo is a unique platform that can provide frequent and repeatable research opportunities. Suborbital flights on SpaceShipTwo offer researchers several minutes of microgravity time and views of the external environment in the upper atmosphere and in outer space. In addition to serving as an important research platform in and of itself, SpaceShipTwo also offers researchers a means to test, iterate, and calibrate experiments designed for orbital platforms

  16. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  17. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  18. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  19. A new method for ship inner shell optimization based on parametric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Yun; Lin, Yan; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    A new method for ship Inner Shell optimization, which is called Parametric Inner Shell Optimization Method (PISOM), is presented in this paper in order to improve both hull performance and design efficiency of transport ship. The foundation of PISOM is the parametric Inner Shell Plate (ISP) model, which is a fully-associative model driven by dimensions. A method to create parametric ISP model is proposed, including geometric primitives, geometric constraints, geometric constraint solving etc. The standard optimization procedure of ship ISP optimization based on parametric ISP model is put forward, and an efficient optimization approach for typical transport ship is developed based on this procedure. This approach takes the section area of ISP and the other dominant parameters as variables, while all the design requirements such as propeller immersion, fore bottom wave slap, bridge visibility, longitudinal strength etc, are made constraints. The optimization objective is maximum volume of cargo oil tanker/cargo hold, and the genetic algorithm is used to solve this optimization model. This method is applied to the optimization of a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and it is proved to be effective, highly efficient, and engineering practical.

  20. A new method for ship inner shell optimization based on parametric technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yan-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for ship Inner Shell optimization, which is called Parametric Inner Shell Optimization Method (PISOM, is presented in this paper in order to improve both hull performance and design efficiency of transport ship. The foundation of PISOM is the parametric Inner Shell Plate (ISP model, which is a fully-associative model driven by dimensions. A method to create parametric ISP model is proposed, including geometric primitives, geometric constraints, geometric constraint solving etc. The standard optimization procedure of ship ISP optimization based on parametric ISP model is put forward, and an efficient optimization approach for typical transport ship is developed based on this procedure. This approach takes the section area of ISP and the other dominant parameters as variables, while all the design requirements such as propeller immersion, fore bottom wave slap, bridge visibility, longitudinal strength etc, are made constraints. The optimization objective is maximum volume of cargo oil tanker/cargo hold, and the genetic algorithm is used to solve this optimization model. This method is applied to the optimization of a product oil tanker and a bulk carrier, and it is proved to be effective, highly efficient, and engineering practical.

  1. Monitoring of Radionuclides in Ship Ballast Water Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballast water is the waters taken into the ship compartment to provide stability. It is taken on board at the port before the voyage begins and discharged at the port of call (arrival) while loading cargoes. Ballast is primarily composed of water and is full of stones, sediment, and thousands of living species. The quantity of water taken depends on the size of the ship and it can reach up to 10,000 tonnes. As a well known fact, Daiichi nuclear plant in Fukushima had released radioactive contaminated water into its surrounding sea and being dispersed by currents and tides. Therefore, ships travel between Malaysia and Japan in particular those from the affected regions and travel to Malaysia without cargoes will have a risk of transporting back radioactive contaminated water from Japan and released it at local ports. Malaysian Marine Department with the cooperation of Malaysian Nuclear Agency have been analysing the concentrations of several radionuclides in the ship's ballast water and sediment. This is to ensure the effective dosage is safe to the crews and general public as well to fulfill the permissible limit of 1 mSv/yr gazetted by the authorities. It is also to monitor that the contaminated water is not discharged into our marine environment. (author)

  2. Detection of Neutron Sources in Cargo Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, J. I.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of detecting the presence of clandestine neutron sources, such as would be produced by nuclear weapons containing plutonium, within cargo containers. Small, simple and economical semiconductor photodiode detectors affixed to the outsides of containers are capable of producing statistically robust detections of unshielded sources when their output is integrated over the durations of ocean voyages. It is possible to shield such sources with thick layers of neutron-abs...

  3. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  4. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1820 - Shipping document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping document. 154.1820 Section 154.1820 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1820 Shipping document. No person may operate a vessel without carrying a shipping document in the wheelhouse that lists for...

  6. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...

  7. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  8. Conclusions from collision examinations for nuclear merchant ships in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany model tests have been performed for the utilization of a resisting type barrier instead of an energy absorbing type barrier, the latter used in nuclear merchant ships up to now only. After reviewing the model technique the results of nine tests with the new barrier are discussed. Calculations performed to the newly raised questions of the shock accelerations of the reactor plant and of possible overstressing of the hull are reported. The new design has many advantages with respect to safety and to the arrangement of a reactor plant in a ship too. Some questions partly remain unanswered at the moment concerning oblique collisions to the ends of the barrier and the possible effects of bulk cargo in holds close to the bow in striking ships of smaller size

  9. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  10. Driving Cargo Prevention with Facts: : How Risk Analysis Brings Light in the Dark Leading to a Pro-active Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Skorna, Alexander C.H.; Bode, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Transport and logistics operations are vulnerable to many types of risks due to an increasing dynamic and structural complexity of today's supply chain networks. Global distributed sourcing and production leads to more transported goods in general but also to more high value cargoes being shipped around the world. However, detailed information about the transport condition and integrity are not available in the end-toend chain as e.g. a sealed container can be considered as "black box". In t...

  11. Shipping Lanes in U.S. Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GIS REST service for "Shipping Lanes in U.S. waters" provides raster maps of the Shipping Lanes is a term used to indicate the general flow of merchant shipping...

  12. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  13. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    An evaluation of bottom fauna of ship-wreck sites in estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, India, revealed an exceptionally high biotic enrichment. In terms of number of species, faunal dispersion, faunal diversity, biomass and productivity, in space...

  14. The time constrained multi-commodity network flow problem and its application to liner shipping network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    The multi-commodity network flow problem is an important sub-problem in several heuristics and exact methods for designing route networks for container ships. The sub-problem decides how cargoes should be transported through the network provided by shipping routes. This paper studies the multi-commodity...... network flow problem with transit time constraints which puts limits on the duration of the transit of the commodities through the network. It is shown that for the particular application it does not increase the solution time to include the transit time constraints and that including the transit time is...

  15. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  16. NLS cargo transfer vehicle propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Hank C.; Langford, G. K.

    1992-02-01

    The propulsion system of the Cargo Transfer Vehicle is designed to meet a wide range of requirements associated with the National Launch System (NLS) resupply function for Space Station Freedom. It provides both orbit adjustment and precise vehicle control capability, and is compatible with close proximity operation at the space station as well as return on the shuttle for ground refurbishment and reuse. Preliminary trade studies have resulted in designing and sizing an integrated bipropellant system using monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide. Design and analysis activities are continuing, and the design will evolve and mature as part of the NLS program.

  17. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  18. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  19. AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF MAJOR OIL COMPANIES ON CREW SELECTION CRITERIA FOR TANKER OPERATING SHIP MANAGEMENT COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Fışkın, Remzi; ZORBA, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Tanker shipping which is a special sub-sector of maritime transportation industry plays an important role for the world trade. As oil and its derivatives transported by tankers is the fundamental component for developing industries, its transportation becomes an indispensable issue. Though petroleum and chemical transportation is important for all industries, due to its structural properties, these cargoes include major risks for the environment. There have been some enforcement and impositio...

  20. Developments in Global Seatrade and Container Shipping Markets: Their Effects on the Port Industry and Private Sector Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Hans J F Peters

    2001-01-01

    During the past 20 years world seaborne trade increased by almost 40%. Liner shipping grew the fastest. Containerised cargo was clearly the most dynamic sector of global seaborne trade. Containerisation has thus been a major and increasingly important element of not only maritime activity, but also of world trade and of entire global industrial structure. The growing significance of containerisation is a reflection of the changes that have occurred in the international organisation of ...

  1. Primary particles in ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridell, Erik; Steen, Erica; Peterson, Kjell

    There is not much data available regarding particle emissions from ships. In this study the size distributions of particles in ship exhaust from three different ships in normal operational conditions were studied using a cascade impactor. The ships were equipped with slow- or medium-speed main engines and medium-speed auxiliary engines. The fuel was residual oil except for the auxiliary engines on one ship which used marine diesel. Large emissions and a dependence of the sulfur content in the fuel were observed. High amounts of relatively large particles (around 8 μm) were observed. These are attributed to re-entrained soot particles from walls in the engine systems. A strong variation between different ships was observed for the particle-size distribution and for the dependence on engine load. The particle emissions were found to be reduced to about half, over the whole size range, by an SCR system. The total particle emission, measured after dilution, varied between 0.3 and 3 g kW h -1 depending on load, fuel and engine.

  2. Transportation of nanoscale cargoes by myosin propelled actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Persson

    Full Text Available Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies. However, it is poorly understood how actomyosin function is affected by different number of nanoscale cargoes, by cargo size, and by the mode of cargo-attachment to the actin filament. This is studied here using biotin/fluorophores, streptavidin, streptavidin-coated quantum dots, and liposomes as model cargoes attached to monomers along the actin filaments ("side-attached" or to the trailing filament end via the plus end capping protein CapZ. Long-distance transportation (>100 µm could be seen for all cargoes independently of attachment mode but the fraction of motile filaments decreased with increasing number of side-attached cargoes, a reduction that occurred within a range of 10-50 streptavidin molecules, 1-10 quantum dots or with just 1 liposome. However, as observed by monitoring these motile filaments with the attached cargo, the velocity was little affected. This also applied for end-attached cargoes where the attachment was mediated by CapZ. The results with side-attached cargoes argue against certain models for chemomechanical energy transduction in actomyosin and give important insights of relevance for effective exploitation of actomyosin-based cargo-transportation in molecular diagnostics and other nanotechnological applications. The attachment of quantum dots via CapZ, without appreciable modulation of actomyosin function, is useful in fundamental studies as exemplified here by tracking with nanometer accuracy.

  3. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  4. Movement in Architecture: A Spacial Movement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Lauren Coleen

    2010-01-01

    As the body moves through space ephemeral lines of movement are created. These lines of movement are influenced by body tendencies. We learn from the body by watching the path and patterning of movement. From the study of the movement of the body, theories of spacial movement were developed. The goal of my project is to draw from spacial movement theory to create an architectural expression that motivates movement of the body on my site and through my building. The focus of my thesis is ...

  5. Information tecnology and its impact on port cargo distribution businness

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2002-01-01

    The IT revolution has dynamised the port cargo business: up-to-date software is needed to optimize operations such as vessel loading, yard planning, equipment flow, gate handling, administration and invoicing and it is also essential for vessel tracking, electronic declaration of cargo and passengers and as a communication platform to all port users.

  6. 29 CFR 1917.14 - Stacking of cargo and pallets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stacking of cargo and pallets. 1917.14 Section 1917.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... pallets. Cargo, pallets and other material stored in tiers shall be stacked in such a manner as to...

  7. 33 CFR 155.775 - Maximum cargo level of oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum cargo level of oil. 155.775 Section 155.775 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Personnel, Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.775 Maximum cargo level of oil. (a) For the purposes...

  8. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived...

  9. CASE: Reinventing the container shipping industry

    OpenAIRE

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Containerized shipping is the backbone of global trade and a pivotal element in modern day globalization. Every year, millions of containers are shipped onboard more than 5.000 container - the main shipping routes being between Asia, Europa and the USA. In 2010, more than 30 million TEUs (twenty foot equivalent units - the common unit in container shipping) were exported from China alone.

  10. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping tolerances. 750.11 Section... PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.11 Shipping tolerances. (a) Applicability and use of shipping... a shipping tolerance. This section tells you, as the licensee, when you may take advantage of...

  11. 7 CFR 91.20 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping. 91.20 Section 91.20 Agriculture Regulations... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.20 Shipping. (a) Samples must be submitted to the laboratory in a... for providing shipping containers and paying shipping costs for fee basis tests. (f) A courier...

  12. Black carbon emissions from in-use ships: a California regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Buffaloe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC mass emission factors (EFBC; g-BC (kg-fuel−1 from a variety of ocean going vessels have been determined from measurements of BC and carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations in ship plumes intercepted by the R/V Atlantis during the 2010 California Nexus (CalNex campaign. The ships encountered were all operating within 24 nautical miles of the California coast and were utilizing relatively low sulphur fuels. Black carbon concentrations within the plumes, from which EFBC values are determined, were measured using four independent instruments: a photoacoustic spectrometer and a particle soot absorption photometer, which measure light absorption, and a single particle soot photometer and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer, which measure the mass concentration of refractory BC directly. The measured EFBC have been divided into vessel type categories and engine type categories, from which averages have been determined. The geometric average EFBC, determined from over 71 vessels and 135 plumes encountered, was 0.31 g-BC (kg-fuel−1. The most frequent engine type encountered was the slow speed diesel (SSD, and the most frequent SSD vessel type was the cargo ship sub-category. Average and median EFBC values from the SSD category are compared with previous observations from the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS in 2006, during which the ships encountered were predominately operating on high sulphur fuels. There is a statistically significant difference between the EFBC values from CalNex and TexAQS for SSD vessels and for the cargo and tanker ship types within this engine category. The CalNex EFBC values are lower than those from TexAQS, suggesting that operation on lower sulphur fuels is associated with smaller EFBC values.

  13. PERANCANGAN KAPAL GENERAL CARGO 1500 DWT RUTE PELAYARAN JAKARTA-SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlindungan Manik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kapal general cargo  adalah kapal yang mengangkut bermacam-macam muatan berupa barang.Barang yang diangkut biasanya merupakan barang yang sudah dikemas.Kapal general cargo dilengkapi dengan crane pengangkut barang untuk memudahkan bongkar-muat muatan. Pada penelitian ini direncanakan desain lambung kapal. Ukuran utama kapal didapatkan dengan menggunakan metode regresi yang didasarkan pada data 5 kapal pembanding. Dari ukuran utama yang didapat kemudian dilakukan pembuatan rencana garis, rencana umum, analisa hidrostatik, analisa stabilitas dan analisa olah gerak kapal yang sesuai dengan standar IMO. Setelah dilakukan analisa dengan menggunakan metode regresi yang didasarkan pada data 5 kapal pembanding yang diambil dari Register Of Ship2002-03LR (Lloyd’s Register dihasilkan alternatif ukuran utama kapal, yaitu dengan panjang kapal keseluruhan (Loa = 62,46 m, panjang kapal (Lpp = 57,95 m, lebar kapal (B = 12,26 m, tinggi kapal (H = 6,49 m, sarat kapal (T = 3,85 m, dan kecepatan kapal (Vd = 11 knot. Pada kecepatan maksimal 11 knot hambatan yang di terima sebesar = 66,76 KN dan power sebesar 506,3667 Hp. Nilai GZ  maksimum kapal = 3,369 m.deg dan nilai GM awal = 4,021 m.Gerakan heaving maksimum = 1,086 m, gerakan rolling maksimum =14,15°, dan gerakan pitching maksimum = 3,02°

  14. Environmental control of microtubule-based bidirectional cargo-transport

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Inside cells, various cargos are transported by teams of molecular motors. Intriguingly, the motors involved generally have opposite pulling directions, and the resulting cargo dynamics is a biased stochastic motion. It is an open question how the cell can control this bias. Here we develop a model which takes explicitly into account the elastic coupling of the cargo with each motor. We show that bias can be simply controlled or even reversed in a counterintuitive manner via a change in the external force exerted on the cargo or a variation of the ATP binding rate to motors. Furthermore, the superdiffusive behavior found at short time scales indicates the emergence of motor cooperation induced by cargo-mediated coupling.

  15. Fatalities to occupants of cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Greenland, S

    2000-07-01

    We sought to describe the fatalities to occupants of pickup truck cargo areas and to compare the mortality of cargo area occupants to passengers in the cab. From the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files for 1987-1996, we identified occupants of pickup trucks with at least one fatality and at least one passenger in the cargo area. Outcomes of cargo area occupants and passengers in the cab were compared using estimating equations conditional on the crash and vehicle. Thirty-four percent of deaths to cargo occupants were in noncrash events without vehicle deformation. Fifty-five percent of those who died were age 15-29 years and 79% were male. The fatality risk ratio (FRR) comparing cargo area occupants to front seat occupants was 3.0 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 2.7-3.4). The risk was 7.9 (95% CI = 6.2-10.1) times that of restrained front seat occupants. The FRR ranged from 92 (95% CI = 47-179) in noncrash events to 1.7 (95% CI = 1.5-1.9) in crashes with severe vehicle deformation. The FRR was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.4-2.3) for occupants of enclosed cargo areas and 3.5 (95% CI = 3.1-4.0) for occupants of open cargo areas. We conclude that passengers in cargo areas of pickup trucks have a higher risk of death than front seat occupants, especially in noncrash events, and that camper shells offer only limited protection for cargo area occupants. PMID:10868756

  16. An Algorithm for Interpolating Ship Motion Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Qinyou Hu; F. Cai; Chun Yang; Chaojian Shi

    2014-01-01

    Interpolation of ship motion vectors is able to be used for estimating the lost ship AIS dynamic information, which is important for replaying marine accidents and for analysing marine traffic data. The previous methods can only interpolate ship's position, while not including ship's course and speed. In this paper, vector function is used to express the relationship between the ship's time and space coordinates, and the tangent of the vector function and its change rate are able to express p...

  17. Studying Network design in Container linter shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Nguyen Khoi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies network design in container liner shipping by concentrating on four research questions: - How were operational patterns deployed in route design? - How was container shipping network developed? - How efficient were fleet expansion and mega vessel deployment? - How do operational factors influence on route design? Question 1 analyses characteristics of shipping routes, a basis component of shipping operation. Question 2 deals with shipping network, which is a combination of...

  18. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where a...... very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  19. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    structure in ship-ship collisions as compared with that of standard bulbous bows. This is demonstrated by conducting a series of large-scale finite element analyses. The finite element analyses are conducted with the general-purpose nonlinear structural code “LS-DYNA”. The applied scenario is one where...... a very large crude oil carrier (VLCC) in ballast condition collides with the midship region of a D/H VLCC in a laden condition. Fracture of fillet welds, elastic-plastic material properties and strain rate effects, are taken into account in the simulations. The effect of the equivalent failure strain (FS...

  20. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United...— (1) Each individual must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable...

  1. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY INDIRECT AIR CARRIER SECURITY § 1548.15 Access to cargo: Security threat... must successfully complete a security threat assessment or comparable security threat...

  2. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  3. Movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  4. Transporting "exceptional cargo" on the CERN sites

    CERN Multimedia

    EN Department

    2012-01-01

    When the Transport Service is managing "exceptional cargo", the driver and the escort are often in charge of an operation involving equipment worth many hundred thousand francs. Equipment that may well be irreplaceable for a facility or an experiment.   The members of the Transport Service who carry out these tasks are very professional and are – needless to say – highly concentrated on the job. They count on your understanding and support in the traffic on site. Their convoys are – for good reasons – moving slowly. Kindly do not overtake, do not cut in in front of them and do not drive too closely. Respect the escort and do not position yourself between the truck and the escort vehicles. The EN department counts on your courtesy on the road.  

  5. A Liquid Cargo Handling Training Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvin Villabø

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a computer-based, real-time training simulator for liquid cargo handling. The mathematical model description is modular and emphasizes the flow generating part. The flow model applies network theory to describe the logical piping connections and the overall flow system performance, while Bernoulli's equation is used for the description of the piping elements. Numerically the Newton-Raphson method is applied for computation of the non-linear flow model. The programming language is HP-FORTRAN IV and the simulator is implemented on an HP minicomputer system. The instructor part of the system is interactive and controlled by the use of a standard ASCII terminal. The simulation part of the system is running in real-time or scaled real-time, and is controlled from the trainee's panel.

  6. Fuel exchanger for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent enviromental contamination landing radioactive materials from the inside of a ship. Constitution: A provisional cabin having a shape covering a reactor hatch and a hatch cover is disposed on the upper deck of a ship body. A ceiling shutter is disposed to the cabin. A protection cylinder having a shutter and a filter fan is attached on the cabin. Materials to be discharged out of the ship are transported to a fuel exchange tower on land by using a crane while being contained in the protection cylinder with the shutter being closed. The protection cylinder is connected by means of a wire rope to a loop-wheel machine which disposed on the trolly of a crane. While the bellows through which the suspending wire for the discharged products passes is perforated, since the inside of the cylinder is depressurized by a filter fan, there is no air leakage through the perforation to the outside. (Ikeda, J.)

  7. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container configura......An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  8. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.;

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results...... the primary hull structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural...

  9. Ship waves and lee waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, R. D.; Wurtele, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamics analogous to those of surface ship waves on water of finite depth are noted for the three-dimensional trapped lee wave modes produced by an isolated obstacle in a stratified fluid. This vertical trapping of wave energy is modeled by uniform upstream flow and stratification, bounded above by a rigid lid, and by a semiinfinite fluid of uniform stability whose wind velocity increases exponentially with height, representing the atmosphere. While formal asymptotic solutions are produced, limited quantitative usefulness is obtained through them because of the limitations of the approximations and the infinity of modes in the solution. Time-dependent numerical models are accordingly developed for both surface ship waves and internal and atmospheric ship waves, yielding a variety of results.

  10. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration of the...... collision and grounding analysis is the prediction of the onset of fracture and crack propagation in the shell plating. In simulations of accidental loading on ships it is crucial that fracture is determined correctly, as it will influence the global deformation mode and the amount of damage to the hull and...

  11. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of s

  12. Injuries to occupants in cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C

    1994-11-01

    Transporting passengers in the cargo area of pickup trucks is a public health safety issue in the United States. Our study compared crashes involving passengers in the cargo area with those involving passengers in the cab. We obtained data for all injury events of pickup occupants for 1990 from the California Highway Patrol. A total of 702 traffic reports coded as having passengers riding in pickup truck beds involved 1,685 passengers in the cargo area and 865 in the cab. Significantly more events involving passengers in the cargo area occurred in summer in rural areas and were noncollisions than did events with only cab passengers. Crashes with passengers in the cargo area resulted in death in 5% of passengers. Of the drivers, 81% were male and 22% were younger than 20 years. Among the 1,685 passengers in the cargo area, 65% were male, 36% were younger than 15 years, and 30% were ages 15 to 19 years. Passengers in the cargo area were more frequently ejected and more seriously injured than their counterparts in the cab. Legislation to restrict travel in truck beds and the design of restraints for this area are some measures that may reduce the risk of injury. PMID:7810125

  13. EX1001 Ship Shakedown (EX1001, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The ship has been alongside for repairs and leave since November, 2009. The ship shakedown cruise is scheduled to provide an opportunity for the ship to get...

  14. SHIP CLASSIFICATION FROM MULTISPECTRAL VIDEOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Robert-Inacio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of a seaport can be achieved by different means: radar, sonar, cameras, radio communications and so on. Such a surveillance aims, on the one hand, to manage cargo and tanker traffic, and, on the other hand, to prevent terrorist attacks in sensitive areas. In this paper an application to video-surveillance of a seaport entrance is presented, and more particularly, the different steps enabling to classify mobile shapes. This classification is based on a parameter measuring the similarity degree between the shape under study and a set of reference shapes. The classification result describes the considered mobile in terms of shape and speed.

  15. Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ship Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James G.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Strader, Scott R.; Xie, Yonghong; Yum, Seong Soo

    2000-08-01

    Enhancements of droplet concentrations in clouds affected by four ships were fairly accurately predicted from ship emission factors and plume and background cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectra. Ship exhausts thus accounted for the increased droplet concentrations in these `ship tracks.' Derived supersaturations were typical of marine stratus clouds, although there was evidence of some lowering of supersaturations in some ship tracks closer to the ships where CCN and droplet concentrations were very high.Systematic differences were measured in the emission rates of CCN for different engines and fuels. Diesel engines burning low-grade marine fuel oil produced order of magnitude higher CCN emissions than turbine engines burning higher-grade fuel. Consequently, diesel ships burning low-grade fuel were responsible for nearly all of the observed ship track clouds. There is some evidence that fuel type is a better predictor of ship track potential than engine type.

  16. Technical and economic evaluation of advanced air cargo system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA air cargo market studies, reports on NASA and NASA-sponsored studies of advanced freighter concepts, and identifies the opportunities for the application of advanced technology. The air cargo market is studied to evaluate the timing for, and the potential market response to, advanced technology aircraft. The degree of elasticity in future air freight markets is also being investigated, since the demand for a new aircraft is most favorable in a price-sensitive environment. Aircraft design studies are considered with attention to mission and design requirements, incorporation of advanced technologies in transport aircraft, new cargo aircraft concepts, advanced freighter evaluation, and civil-military design commonality.

  17. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  18. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts of the...

  19. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  20. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José;

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed...

  1. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, H; Nielsen, D; Frydenberg, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be initiated.

  2. Modeling ordnance movements into the Asian Pacific Theater

    OpenAIRE

    Almanza, Cielo I.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This thesis explores the capabilities of ordnance movements into the Asian Pacific Theater. Through simulation, logistics modeling, and data analysis, this thesis identifies critical factors and capabilities that are important to the effective movement of ordnance by combat logistics ships through Guam during a military contingency. The experimental design incorporates the effects of competing requirements on the ordnance resupply pro...

  3. 19 CFR 122.117 - Requirements for transit air cargo transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for transit air cargo transport. 122... Requirements for transit air cargo transport. (a) Transportation—(1) Port to port. Transit air cargo may be... cargo, a receipt shall be given. The receipt shall be made by the airline responsible for transport...

  4. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory to...... report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number to...... create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  5. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... piping by means of seamless steel pipe expansion bends. Special consideration will be given for packless... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of...

  6. Bidirectionality From Cargo Thermal Fluctuations in Motor-Mediated Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular motor proteins serve as an essential component of intracellular transport by generating forces to haul cargoes along cytoskeletal filaments. In some circumstances, two species of motors that are directed oppositely (e.g. kinesin, dynein) can be attached to the same cargo. The resulting net motion is known to be bidirectional, but the mechanism of switching remains unclear. In this work, we propose a mean-field mathematical model of the mechanical interactions of two populations of molecular motors with diffusion of the cargo (thermal fluctuations) as the fundamental noise source. By studying a simplified model, the delayed response of motors to rapid fluctuations in the cargo is quantified, allowing for the reduction of the full model to two "characteristic positions" of each of the motor populations. The system is then found to be "metastable", switching between two distinct directional transport states, or bidirectional motion. The time to switch between these states is then investigated using WKB...

  7. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rubber or other hose material acceptable to the Commandant, shall be fitted to the liquid or vapor lines... valve. (d) Before being placed in service, each new cargo hose, with all necessary fittings...

  8. Stochastic modeling of cargo transport by teams of molecular motors

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Sarah; Santen, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Many different types of cellular cargos are transported bidirectionally along microtubules by teams of molecular motors. The motion of this cargo-motors system has been experimentally characterized in vivo as processive with rather persistent directionality. Different theoretical approaches have been suggested in order to explore the origin of this kind of motion. An effective theoretical approach, introduced by M\\"uller et al., describes the cargo dynamics as a tug-of-war between different kinds of motors. An alternative approach has been suggested recently by Kunwar et al., who considered the coupling between motor and cargo in more detail. Based on this framework we introduce a model considering single motor positions which we propagate in continuous time. Furthermore, we analyze the possible influence of the discrete time update schemes used in previous publications on the system's dynamic.

  9. Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampiceni, John J.; Harper, Lon T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the New Shuttle Orbiter's Multi- Purpose Logistics Modulo (MPLM) Cargo Heat Exchanger (HX) and associated MPLM cooling system. This paper presents Heat Exchanger (HX) design and performance characteristics of the system.

  10. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo...

  11. Aggregating Secondary Source Data for Air Cargo Prescreening Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve the effectiveness of air cargo prescreening by enabling background knowledge about companies and products to be used for threat assessment....

  12. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  13. New Zealand code for nuclear powered shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recommends guidelines for the safety precautions and procedures to be implemented when New Zealand ports and approaches are used by nuclear powered merchant ships and nuclear powered naval ships

  14. The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin; Ohlsson, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Title: The Cargo Tray Industry in India – A Market Research Authors: Martin Eriksson and Tobias Ohlsson Supervisor: Cecilia Lindh University: University of MälardalenDepartment: School of Sustainable Development of Society and TechnologyCourse: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, 15 credits Research question: Is the Indian cargo tray industry a promising place for Autoform to make futureinvestments? Target group: The primary target is Autoform. The secondary target group is other cara...

  15. CARGO INSURANCE. TOTAL LOSS UNDER NORWEGIAN, ENGLISH AND RUSSIAN LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Evstigneeva, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    This Master Thesis was created because of great personal interest towards marine insurance as such ans cargo insurance in particular. The purpose of this work is to give a proper overview of three legal fields - Norwegian, English and Russian Law. Cargo insurance is of no doubts tremendously important nowadays. How often do people consider where the goods they use daily are coming from? Some tea from India, a new phone form Japan, household appliances from Germany. All these goods were made l...

  16. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  17. Operational Measures For Energy Efficiency In Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Emin ÖZTÜRK

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify potential solutions to improve energy efficiency of the existing ships. To have an Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) on board has become mandatory for all ships starting from 1 January 2013. Increasing fuel prices and growing environmental concerns are driving the shipping industry to be more efficient. Therefore it is necessary to develop energy efficient operational measures.

  18. Safety aspects of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety equipment of a nuclear merchant ship is, to a great extent, defined by postulated reactor and ship's accidents. Examples of measures to cope with such accidents and to prevent undue environmental impact from abnormal ship operation are cited. The discussion is based upon the recent design of the Nuclear Container Ship NCS 80 carried out by the Gesellschaft fuer Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt mbH (GKSS) and the industrial consortium INTERATOM/BREMER VULKAN. (orig.)

  19. 集装箱航线结构形态演化过程%Container shipping network structure form change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 颜伟

    2012-01-01

    为揭示集装箱航线不同结构形态的演化过程,以航线投资收益率最大为目标,设计基本港航线与核心港航线两种主要航线结构形态的运营模型.研究两种航线结构形态的关联关系,构建集装箱航线结构形态演化的综合运营模型,分析集装箱航线不同结构形态在船舶大小与货运需求变化下的演化过程.案例结果验证了该模型的有效性.%To reveal the evolution process of container shipping networks structure form change, this paper respectively de- signed the operation models for two major container shipping networks structure forms including multi-port calling model and hub-and-spoke model to maximize the investment efficiency.The correlative relationship between the two major container shipping networks structure forms was studied , and the com- prehensive operation model of container shipping networks was built, and the process of container shipping networks change for different ship-size and cargo demands was analyzed. Case results show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  20. Three-dimensional container and cargo inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Su, Chih-Wu; Baritelle, J.; Rhoton, B.

    1997-02-01

    A fusion of two independent but complementary three- dimensional imaging techniques is proposed for detecting drugs in containers, cargo, mail and luggage. The containers, cargo, mail and/or luggage are scanned using a combined neutron and gamma ray source. A detector that can detect both neutrons and gamma rays is used to produce three dimensional images from both signals. The two images will be combined and analyzed by a fast host computer to detect drugs that may be concealed in the container, cargo and/or luggage. The two independent signatures from both neutrons and gamma rays, when analyzed simultaneously, may help determine the type of concealed material inside the containers. Containers, cargo and luggage are filled with a large variety of materials. Imaging them only in two dimensions may result in a poor contraband detection probability as different materials may shield each other. Therefore, a true three-dimensional imaging system is proposed, where the individual items inside the container or cargo can be resolved. This is expected to lead to reliable identification of the drugs even in small quantities. Such a system will also pinpoint the location of the suspected item and help expedite inspection by law enforcement agents. The proposed detection system produces two complementary three- dimensional images of the containers, cargo and/or luggage. These images are combined and analyzed by a specially developed algorithm to identify and locate the contraband automatically.

  1. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign ships. 151.29 Section 151.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  2. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods of...

  3. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  4. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.187 Section 44.187 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or...

  5. 41 CFR 51-5.6 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shipping. 51-5.6 Section... Shipping. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, commodities are sold to the Government... pay all shipping charges to specified delivery points. (b) The Committee may determine that...

  6. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  7. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  8. The Museum-ship "Abdon Calderon"

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals the reconstruction of the career of the Ecuadorian tug "Abdon Calderon," which is now a museum-ship. It is shown that the ship had a significant impact on the naval history of Ecuador. But the role of the ship in the battle in the strait Jambeli in 1941 clearly exaggerated.

  9. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results...... are presented of non-linear wave induced load effects and the corresponding long-term formulations. Methods to combine linear and non-linear components of wave induced load effects have been developed and checked by alternative methods.These improved models were used for the reliability assessment of...

  10. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results......We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  11. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working situations where possible preventive measures may be...... initiated. Methods: The study is a historical follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993–7. Data were extracted from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance data. Exact data on time at risk were available. Results: A total of 1993 accidents were...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...

  12. Shipping Crises in the Media

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the general media’s portrayal of important maritime accidents which in the maritime media receive widespread publicity and are likely to have an impact on the shipping community’s social image. To this purpose, news framing theories were researched and used in a content analysis of print media articles on six important maritime accidents and incidents during the period 2008 to 2012. The study examines related articles published in the UK newspapers with...

  13. World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

    A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

  14. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audin, L.

    1990-12-01

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs.

  15. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs

  16. Non-Military Nuclear Ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents short description of nuclear reactor of loop-type PWRs for non-military ships in Russia and in Japan. It starts with the first nuclear ice-breaker ''Lenin'' initially powered with 3 x OK-150 reactors, replaced later by only 2 x OK-900 and then 2 x OK-900A. By reason of success the OK-900A twins were chosen for the six subsequent ice-breaker. Newer generation of propulsion reactors is KLT-40, also loop-type PWRs, which is used for container transport despite ice-breaking capabilities. Its modification, KLT-40M is meant also for river bound routes. Whereas the KLT-40C is intended for a floating power plant version. As the number of nuclear ships, civilian as well as military (aircraft carriers, submarines) increased it was rational to provide special (diesel powered) fleet to serve them for refueling, fuel storage, and liquid radwaste processing and interim storage. The Japanese nuclear research ship, Mutsu (36 MWt), had terminated its service several years ago. A stationary version of its reactor design (36 MWt, 9 MWe), being smaller in pressure vessel size, is being offered by the MHI for the coupling with a desalination plant

  17. Ship motion estimation from polarized Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wang-Qiang; Zhang, Min; Nie, Ding; Sun, Rong-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces and further estimate the ship motion characteristics. The analysis of the ship wakes is helpful to detect the existence of ships on sea surface. And it will be an alternative method when the radar cross-section values are not competent to identify the ship target. In the study, Doppler spectra for different polarizations are compared with and without ship's wakes based on the second-order small slope approximation method. As expected, there appears the second spectral peak when ship's wake is considered. Moreover, the ship velocities, wind speed, and direction are also analyzed. As the results shown, there is a good linearity relation between the position of the second Doppler spectral peak and the ship velocity. Therefore, it is feasible to detect ship according the Doppler spectra.

  18. Black Carbon Emissions from In-use Ships: Results from CalNex 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffaloe, Gina Marise

    Black carbon (BC) mass emission factors (EFBC; g-BC (kg-fuel)--1) from a variety of ocean going vessels have been determined from measurements of BC and CO2 concentrations in ship plumes intercepted by the R/V Atlantis during the 2010 California Nexus (CalNex) campaign. The ships encountered were all operating within 24 nautical miles of the California coast and were utilizing relatively low sulphur fuels. Black carbon concentrations within the plumes, from which EFBC values are determined, were measured using four independent instruments: a photoacoustic spectrometer and a particle soot absorption photometer, which measure light absorption, and a single particle soot photometer and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer, which measure the mass concentration of refractory BC directly. The measured EFBC have been divided into vessel type categories and engine type categories, from which averages have been determined. The geometric average EFBC, determined from over 71 vessels and 135 plumes encountered, was 0.31 g-BC (kg-fuel)--1. The most frequent engine type encountered was the slow speed diesel (SSD), and the most frequent SSD vessel type was the cargo ship sub-category. Average and median EF BC values from these two categories are compared to previous observations from the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) in 2006, in which the ships encountered were predominately operating high sulphur fuels. There is some indication that the EFBC values for SSD vessels during CalNex were lower than during TexAQS, although ship-to-ship variability in these data sets makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the influence of fuel quality on EFBC.

  19. Measuring SO2 ship emissions with an ultra-violet imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, A. J.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few years fast-sampling ultra-violet (UV) imaging cameras have been developed for use in measuring SO2 emissions from industrial sources (e.g. power plants; typical fluxes ~1-10 kg s-1) and natural sources (e.g. volcanoes; typical fluxes ~10-100 kg s-1). Generally, measurements have been made from sources rich in SO2 with high concentrations and fluxes. In this work, for the first time, a UV camera has been used to measure the much lower concentrations and fluxes of SO2 (typical fluxes ~0.01-0.1 kg s-1) in the plumes from moving and stationary ships. Some innovations and trade-offs have been made so that estimates of the fluxes and path concentrations can be retrieved in real-time. Field experiments were conducted at Kongsfjord in Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, where emissions from cruise ships were made, and at the port of Rotterdam, Netherlands, measuring emissions from more than 10 different container and cargo ships. In all cases SO2 path concentrations could be estimated and fluxes determined by measuring ship plume speeds simultaneously using the camera, or by using surface wind speed data from an independent source. Accuracies were compromised in some cases because of the presence of particulates in some ship emissions and the restriction of single-filter UV imagery, a requirement for fast-sampling (>10 Hz) from a single camera. Typical accuracies ranged from 10-30% in path concentration and 10-40% in flux estimation. Despite the ease of use and ability to determine SO2 fluxes from the UV camera system, the limitation in accuracy and precision suggest that the system may only be used under rather ideal circumstances and that currently the technology needs further development to serve as a method to monitor ship emissions for regulatory purposes.

  20. Liner Shipping Service Scheduling with Workshift Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    Container shipping companies are currently facing combined challenges of overcapacity and volatile fuel prices. In addition, rising concerns about greenhouse gas emissions has made it crucial for shipping companies to reduce their fuel consumption. The consumption of fuel for shipping vessel is...... polynomially proportional to the speed. This study proposes a new model which for a fixed liner shipping network, minimizes the fuel consumption by adjusting the port berth times to allow for a more even speed throughout the service and thus a lower overall fuel consumption. This speed optimization is done...... liner shipping networks is presented....

  1. Implementing Cargo Movement into Climate Based Risk Assessment of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Margarete Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. The further development and potential spread to other regions depends largely on their climatic suitability. Here, we have developed a tool for identifying and prioritizing European areas at risk for the establishment of Aedes albopictus by taking into account, for the first time, the freight imports from this mosquito’s endemic countries and the climate suitability at harbors and their surrounding regions. In a second step we consider the further transport of containers by train and inland waterways because these types of transport can be well controlled. We identify European regions at risk, where a huge amount of transported goods meet climatically suitable conditions for the disease vector. The current and future suitability of the climate for Aedes albopictus was modeled by a correlative niche model approach and the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. This risk assessment combines impacts of globalization and global warming to improve effective and proactive interventions in disease vector surveillance and control actions.

  2. Implementing Cargo Movement into Climate Based Risk Assessment of Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Margarete Thomas; Nils Benjamin Tjaden; Sanne van den Bos; Carl Beierkuhnlein

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. The further development and potential spread to other regions depends largely on their climatic suitability. Here, we have developed a...

  3. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  4. Logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle. Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH; Weltweite Logistik im gesamten Nuklear-Kreislauf. Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Horst; Schymke, Klaus [Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH (NCS) offers logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle to fuel manufacturers, reactor operators, and waste management companies. Transport equipment and interim stores are part of the company's facilities. The firm's Front End unit conducts transnational transports of yellow cake, uranium hexafluoride, and enriched uranium and uranium from reprocessing. In the Back End unit, the company performs worldwide transports of spent fuel elements of research reactors. Another key area of activity is shipment of radioactive waste ranging from low-level waste to HAW (highly active waste generating heat). In its Component Disposal area, NCS offers a variety of transport services up to and including large components, e.g. reactor pressure vessels, both on the road and by rail and ship. NCS operates storage halls of its own for storing radioactive materials including radioactive waste. The technical equipment of NCS comprises a large pool of road and rail transport vehicles as well as a great number of vessels for radioactive materials. (orig.)

  5. Failure of cargo aileron’s actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zucca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During a ferry flight, in a standard operation condition and at cruising level, a military cargo experienced a double hydraulic system failure due to a structural damage of the dual booster actuator. The booster actuator is the main component in mechanism of aileron’s deflection. The crew was able to arrange an emergency landing thanks to the spare oil onboard: load specialists refilled the hydraulic reservoirs. Due to safety concerns and in order to prevent the possibility of other similar incidents, a technical investigation took place. The study aimed to carry out the analysis of root causes of the actuator failure. The Booster actuator is composed mainly by the piston rod and its aluminum external case (AA7049. The assembly has two bronze caps on both ends. These are fixed in position by means of two retainers. At one end of the actuator case is placed a trunnion: a cylindrical protrusion used as a pivoting point on the aircraft. The fracture was located at one end of the case, on the trunnion side, in correspondence to the cap and over the retainer. One of the two fracture surfaces was found separated to the case and with the cap entangled inside. The fracture surfaces of the external case indicated fatigue crack growth followed by ductile separation. The failure analysis was performed by means of optical, metallographic, digital and electronic microscopy. The collected evidences showed a multiple initiation fracture mechanism. Moreover, 3D scanner reconstruction and numerical simulation demonstrated that dimensional non conformances and thermal loads caused an abnormal stress concentration. Stress concentration was located along the case assy outer surface where the fatigue crack originated. The progressive rupture mechanism grew under cyclical axial load due to the normal operations. Recommendations were issued in order to improve dimensional controls and assembly procedures during production and overhaul activities.

  6. Monte Carlo Simulation on Coordinated Movement of Kinesin and Dynein Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; DOU Shuo-Xing; WANG Peng-Ye

    2008-01-01

    Kinesin and dynein are two important classes of molecular motors which are responsible for active organelle trafficking and cell division.They call work together to carry a cargo,moving along the microtubule in a coordinated way.We use Monte Carlo method to simulate the dynamics of this coordinated movement.Based on four essential assumptions,our simulations reproduce some features of the recent in vivo experiments.The fast moving speed of the cargo js simulated and the speed distribution is presented.

  7. Reducing CO2 from shipping – do non-CO2 effects matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Eide

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shipping is a growing sector in the global economy, and it contributions to global CO2 emissions are expected to increase. CO2 emissions from the world shipping fleet will likely be regulated in the near future, and studies have shown that significant emission reductions can be achieved at low cost. Regulations are being discussed for both existing ships as well as for future additions to the fleet. In this study a plausible CO2 emission reduction inventory is constructed for the cargo fleet existing in 2010, as well as for container ships, bulk ships and tankers separately. In the reduction inventories, CO2 emissions are reduced by 25–32% relative to baseline by applying 15 technical and operational emission reduction measures in accordance with a ship-type-specific cost-effectiveness criterion, and 9 other emission compounds are changed as a technical implication of reducing CO2. The overall climate and environmental effects of the changes to all 10 emission components in the reduction inventory are assessed using a chemical transport model, radiative forcing (RF models and a simple climate model. We find substantial environmental and health benefits with up to 5% reduction in surface ozone levels, 15% reductions in surface sulfate and 10% reductions in wet deposition of sulfate in certain regions exposed to heavy ship traffic. The major ship types show distinctly different contributions in specific locations. For instance, the container fleet contributes 50% of the sulfate decline on the west coast of North America. The global radiative forcing from a 1 yr emission equal to the difference between baseline and reduction inventory shows an initial strong positive forcing from non-CO2 compounds. This warming effect is due to reduced cooling by aerosols and methane. After approximately 25 yr, the non-CO2 forcing is balanced by the CO2 forcing. For the global mean temperature change, we find a shift from warming to cooling after approximately 60

  8. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael; Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; Shaw, Timothy

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  9. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  10. Stokes Efficiency of Molecular Motor-Cargo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A molecular motor utilizes chemical free energy to generate a unidirectional motion through the viscous fluid. In many experimental settings and biological settings, a molecular motor is elastically linked to a cargo. The stochastic motion of a molecular motor-cargo system is governed by a set of Langevin equations, each corresponding to an individual chemical occupancy state. The change of chemical occupancy state is modeled by a continuous time discrete space Markov process. The probability density of a motor-cargo system is governed by a two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The operation of a molecular motor is dominated by high viscous friction and large thermal fluctuations from surrounding fluid. The instantaneous velocity of a molecular motor is highly stochastic: the past velocity is quickly damped by the viscous friction and the new velocity is quickly excited by bombardments of surrounding fluid molecules. Thus, the theory for macroscopic motors should not be applied directly to molecular motors without close examination. In particular, a molecular motor behaves differently working against a viscous drag than working against a conservative force. The Stokes efficiency was introduced to measure how efficiently a motor uses chemical free energy to drive against viscous drag. For a motor without cargo, it was proved that the Stokes efficiency is bounded by 100% [H. Wang and G. Oster, (2002]. Here, we present a proof for the general motor-cargo system.

  11. Optimisation of key performance measures in air cargo demand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander May

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to facilitate the optimisation of key performance measures utilised for demand management in air cargo operations. The focus was on the Revenue Management team at Virgin Atlantic Cargo and a fuzzy group decision-making method was used. Utilising intelligent fuzzy multi-criteria methods, the authors generated a ranking order of ten key outcome-based performance indicators for Virgin Atlantic air cargo Revenue Management. The result of this industry-driven study showed that for Air Cargo Revenue Management, ‘Network Optimisation’ represents a critical outcome-based performance indicator. This collaborative study contributes to existing logistics management literature, especially in the area of Revenue Management, and it seeks to enhance Revenue Management practice. It also provides a platform for Air Cargo operators seeking to improve reliability values for their key performance indicators as a means of enhancing operational monitoring power.

  12. Prediction of ship-ship interactions in ports by a non-hydrostatic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明贵; 邹早建

    2015-01-01

    Complicated channel geometry and currents may aggravate the interactions between passing ships and berthed ships, which should be evaluated and taken into account in a port design. A method for predicting the ship-ship interactions, based on a non-hydrostatic shallow water flow model, is presented in this paper and is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The method is subsequently applied to predict the interaction forces acting on a berthed ship due to a passing ship in ports. The influences of the difference of the water depths between the dock and the main channel, the dock geometry, the current and another berthed ship in the dock on the ship-ship interactions are studied. Analysis based on the numerical results is carried out, which is useful for the port design.

  13. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement-based intera......In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  14. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  15. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment] [and others

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship `MUTSU` was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  16. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  17. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  18. The development of natural circulation operation support program for ship nuclear power machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The natural circulation under various ocean and ship motion conditions is studied. ► A natural circulation operation support computer program (NCOSP) is developed with Simulink. ► The NCOSP program has the merit of easy input preparation, fast and accurate simulation. ► The NCOSP is suitable for the fast parameter simulation of ship nuclear power machinery. -- Abstract: The existing simulation program of ship nuclear power machinery (SNPM) cannot adequately deal with the natural circulation (NC) operation and the effects of various ocean conditions and ship motion. Aiming at the problem, the natural circulation operation support computer program for SNPM is developed, in which the momentum conservation equation of the primary loop, some heat transfer and flow resistance models and equations are modified for the various ocean conditions and ship motion. The additional pressure loss model and effective height model for the control volume in the gyration movement, simple harmonic rolling and pitching movements are also discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the transient response to load change under NC conditions is analyzed by the developed program. The results are compared with those predicted by the modified RELAP5/mod3.2 code. It is shown that the natural circulation operation support program (NCOSP) is simple in the input preparation, runs fast and has a satisfactory precision, and is therefore very suitable for the operating field support of SNPM under the conditions of NC.

  19. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  20. Effect of cargo size and shape on the transport efficiency of the bacterial Tat translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Neal; Bageshwar, Umesh; Musser, Siegfried M

    2013-04-01

    The Tat machinery translocates fully-folded and oligomeric substrates. The passage of large, bulky cargos across an ion-tight membrane suggests the need to match pore and cargo size, and therefore that Tat transport efficiency may depend on both cargo size and shape. A series of cargos of different sizes and shapes were generated using the natural Tat substrate pre-SufI as a base. Four (of 17) cargos transported with significant (>20% of wild-type) efficiencies. These results indicate that cargo size and shape significantly influence Tat transportability. PMID:23422074

  1. Detection of Shielded Nuclear Material in a Cargo Container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., ''calibration'' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  2. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James L.; Norman, Daren R.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Sterbentz, James W.; Yoon, Woo Y.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Zabriskie, John M.; Bennett, Brion D.; Watson, Richard W.; Moss, Cavin E.; Frank Harmon, J.

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., "calibration" pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration.

  3. Detection of shielded nuclear material in a cargo container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory, along with Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center, are developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for the detection of shielded nuclear material within air-, rail-, and especially, maritime-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes a developing prototypical cargo container inspection system utilizing the Pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technology, incorporates interchangeable, well-defined, contraband shielding structures (i.e., 'calibration' pallets) providing realistic detection data for induced radiation signatures from smuggled nuclear material, and provides various shielded nuclear material detection results. Using a 4.8-kg quantity of depleted uranium, neutron and gamma-ray detection responses are presented for well-defined shielded and unshielded configurations evaluated in a selected cargo container inspection configuration

  4. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags fro Reducing Exploration Mission Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  5. Reducing Mission Logistics with Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB), the common logistics carrying bag for the International Space Station (ISS). After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unfolded into a flat panel for reuse. Concepts and potential benefits for various MCTB applications will be discussed including partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing. Acoustic MCTBs are currently in use on ISS to reduce the noise generated by the T2 treadmill, which reaches the hazard limit at high speeds. The development of the AMCTB included identification of keep-out zones, acoustic properties, deployment considerations, and structural testing. Features developed for these considerations are applicable to MCTBs for all crew outfitting applications.

  6. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Emiliya; Or, Yizhar

    2016-06-01

    One of the promising capabilities of magnetic microswimmers is towing a cargo, which can be used for targeted drug delivery or performing tissue biopsy. A key question is what should be the optimal size ratio between the cargo and the swimmer's flexible tail. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer undergoing planar undulations—a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamic is formulated and leading-order expressions for its motion are obtained explicitly under small-amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement, average speed, or energetic efficiency are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with reported experiments in several types of cargo-towing magnetic microswimmers.

  7. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  8. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  9. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  10. Berth Operability Estimation Related to Ship Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Prpić-Oršić, Jasna; Slapničar, Vedran; Turk, Anton

    2014-01-01

    The method of exposed berth operability estimation based on moored ship criteria for safe working and mooring is presented. The solution methodology consists of modelling a ship as a panel model used to calculate the hydrodynamic loads and responses from the potential theory. The mooring lines are modelled by ship-to-ground spring elements. The stiffness of those elements is accumulated in the global restoring matrix of the rigid body equations of motion. The obtained system of differential e...

  11. Auxiliary facilities on nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear ship 'MUTSU' has been moored at SEKINEHAMA, MUTU City in AOMORI Prefecture and several tests and works are being carried out on the ship. The construction of the auxiliary facilities for these works on the ship was completed in safety in August 1988. After that the facilities have fulfilled their function. The outlines of design, fabrication and construction of the facilities are described in this paper. (author)

  12. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  13. The Mersey Barrage - the impact on shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main findings of the shipping and navigation studies carried out in 1990/1991 to assess the impact on shipping of the proposed barrage on the Mersey estuary in the United Kingdom. Shipping in the estuary has been studied using a traffic model and shiphandling simulations to identify any additional shipping related costs as a result of constructing the barrage and to demonstrate the adequacy of the facilities proposed. Consideration has also been given to the effect of the barrage on pilotage, towage, dredging and vessel traffic services and a risk assessment has been carried out. (author)

  14. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  15. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  16. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  17. Numerical solution for Laplace equation with mixed boundary condition for ship problem in the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Fitriani Tupa R.; Budhi, Wono Setya; Adytia, Didit; van Groesen, E.

    2015-09-01

    One interesting phenomena is investigating the movement of ships at the sea. To start with the investigation in modelling of this problem, we will assume that the ship is only a one-dimensional object that is floating on the sea surface. Similarly, we assume that the water flow is uniform in parallel directions to the ship. Therefore, we simply use the two-dimensional Laplace equation in this problem. In the section that describes the surface of sea, Neumann boundary condition is imposed in part related to the ship and the Dirichlet boundary condition for others. Then on the other three boundaries, we imposed the Neumann boundary condition by assuming that the water does not flow on the bottom, and both end. The model is solved by numerical solution using the finite element method. Velocity potential solution on the whole domain is demonstrated as a result of the implementation of the finite element method. In this paper, we initiate an investigation with assuming that the ship is on the water so that the domain of the Laplace equation is rectangular. Then we assume the drift ship. Furthermore, we also study the dependence of width and depth of the domain to the velocity potential.

  18. Development of the hull inspection robot (RTV-SHIP); Sentai kensayo suichu robot (RTV-SHIP) no kaihatsu (atarashii sentai kensaho no ichiteian)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Y.; Otsuka, M.; Ozawa, H.; Konosu, M. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    A compact and lightweight underwater RTV robot (RTV-SHIP) that enables the remote sensing in the double-shell structure of a tanker and the six-freedom motion control was developed based on the technology of the conventional portable underwater robot. The motion performance test in a water tank showed that the RTV-SHIP can freely access the manhole in the double-shell structure of a tanker and completely satisfies the thrust and swing force required for movement and measurement in a tank. The in-tank function confirmation test also shows that the main measurement items such as positioning in the tank, large deflection of panels, and plate thickness have a satisfactory measurement accuracy and that the RTV-SHIP has the same tone discrimination function as for a visual check. The method of inputting the tank shape during measurement and miniaturizing the recording unit should be improved until the RTV-SHIP is put to practical use. This system can be widely used by improving the above points according to the result of a future measurement test for the actual ships. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  19. SPECIFICS OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL MECHANISM TO PROVIDE IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETING STRATEGY OF CARGO HAULERS

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchenko, Galina

    2013-01-01

    Specifics of implementation of marketing strategy of cargo haulers are identified. Indicators of their marketing strategies’ efficiency are reviewed. The structure of organizational and functional mechanism of implementation of marketing strategies’ by cargo haulers is suggested.

  20. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void... spaces containing cargo piping must have: (1) A fixed mechanical ventilation system; or (2) A...

  1. 46 CFR 308.512 - Declaration of shipments under Open Cargo Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.512... shipments and a closing report for all outward shipments, and pay the premium and fees, for all...

  2. 49 CFR 178.348 - Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.348 Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  3. 49 CFR 178.346 - Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346 Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  4. 49 CFR 178.347 - Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347 Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle....

  5. The role of ship and mortgage registration in shipping finance: : the prospects for the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an analysis of the current issues and conditions affecting shipping finance in Russia based on the development of the systems of ship and mortgage registration. Particular economic reasons describing the situation on the shipping markets lie outside the scope of this thesis. However, a general overview of the situation of the shipping markets and results achieved by the leading banks will be provided in the first chapter. The reason is to demonst...

  6. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  7. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan

  8. Nuclear propulsion for merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear propulsion was first used in submarines. The experience acquired in this way has shown the characteristics of naval propulsion reactors: essentially reliability, strength, manoeuvrability and ease of operation. The technique has now been perfected and the development of nuclear propulsion depends mainly on problems of safety, economic competitivity and legislation. With regard to safety, the technical solutions concern essentially the interface with the ship. Competitivity must be studied, not only in the case of replacing a conventional boiler by a nuclear boiler on a given type of vessel, but also against the wider background of a system of transport with optimization of all the factors of its economy. Finally, operation is governed seriously by legislation and much still remains to be done in this field

  9. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE MANAGEMENT ON THE CARGO MOTOR TRANSPORTATION ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Kylnytsvska, Y.; Gluhova, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the efficiency of accounts receivable management on cargo motor transportation enterprises is analyzed using the method of statistical analysis, namely middle descriptions of variation row of account receivable of cargo motor transportation enterprises are analysed; the analysis of unevenness of distributing of the account receivable of cargo motor transportation enterprises is conducted; the degree of dirigibility of conduct of debtors of cargo motor transportation enterprises...

  10. Shipping New Port for Shanghai The opening of Shanghai's Yangshan Port will further lift the city's cargo handling capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Firecrackers and cymbals, plus the presence of several high-profile State and municipal leaders,inaugurated the new Yangshan Deepwater Port in Shanghai on December 10, 2005, a sharp contrast to its mysterious and highly secretive beginnings.

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging (Onsite) transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities

  12. 46 CFR 308.549 - Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.549 Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319. Any domestic insurance company authorized to do a marine insurance business in any State of the United States may apply for appointment as a Cargo Underwriting...

  13. 7 CFR 1493.3 - Restrictions on programs and cargo preference statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on programs and cargo preference... Restrictions on programs and cargo preference statement. (a) Restrictions on use of credit guarantees. (1... service the debt associated with such sales. (b) Cargo preference laws. The provisions of the...

  14. Plate motions, Gondwana Dinosaurs, Noah's Arks, Beached Viking Funeral Ships, Ghost Ships, and Landspans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis L. Jacobs

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Gondwana landmasses have served as large-scale biogeographic Noah's Arks and Beached Viking Funeral Ships, as defined by McKenna. The latitudinal trajectories of selected Gondwana dinosaur localities were traced through time in order to evaluate their movement through climate zones relative to those in which they originally formed. The dispersal of fauna during the breakup of Gondwana may have been facilitated by the presence of offshelf islands forming landspans (sensu Iturralde-Vinent and MacPhee in the Equatorial Atlantic Gateway and elsewhere.As massas de terra do Gondwana serviram como Arcas de Noe biogeograficas de grande escala e Navios Funerarios Vikings encalhados, conforme definido por McKenna. As trajetorias latitudinais de areas selecionadas de dinossauros do Gondwana foram tracadas ao longo do tempo a fim de avaliar seu movimento atraves de zonas climaticas relativas aquelas nas quais elas foram originalmente formadas. A dispersao da fauna durante a quebra do Gondwana pode ter sido facilitada pela presenca de ilhas oceanicas formando extensoes de terra (sensu Iturralde-Vinent e MacPhee na entrada do Atlantico Equatorial e em outros lugares.

  15. Transportation of Nanoscale Cargoes by Myosin Propelled Actin Filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A. Michael; Mansson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies.

  16. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 29.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 29.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  17. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... emergency landing conditions of § 27.561. (b) There must be means to prevent the contents of any compartment...) Under the emergency landing conditions of § 27.561, cargo and baggage compartments must— (1) Be... any of the escape facilities provided for use after an emergency landing; or (2) Have...

  18. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  19. 48 CFR 752.228-9 - Cargo insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo insurance. 752.228-9... insurance. As prescribed in 728.313(a), the following preface is to be used preceding the text of the clause at FAR 52.228-9: Preface: To the extent that marine insurance is necessary or appropriate under...

  20. Combining technologies - radiography and neutron based - for cargo security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspection of air and sea cargo has traditionally been done by X-ray systems of various energies relying on operators to analyze images looking for anomalies in the image of cargo that may signify a threat. This has shown only limited success in detecting explosives and other threats, which do not have any distinctive shapes. OSI Systems, through its subsidiaries Rapiscan and Ancore, has combined high-energy x-ray radiography with thermal neutron analysis (TNA) to create the combined system-''TNX''. The system provides automatic material specific detection of bulk threat items, like explosives, while furnishing the operator with a high-resolution image for weapons detection and also to identify anomalies for the TNA to inspect. Similarly the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) can be combined with high-energy x-ray to create a ''FNX'' system for both air and sea cargo applications. This enables the operator obtain a three dimensional image of the material composition of the cargo under inspection and remove the clutter from the image leaving only the potentially hazardous material(s) automatically while viewing a high resolution image for manifest verification and weapons. The current status of the technology will be discussed and data be presented

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Gravity type cargo tanks shall be fitted with an approved pressure-vacuum relief valve of not less than 21... or pressure vacuum relief valve shall be directed in such a manner as to not impinge on another tank... from the safety or pressure vacuum relief valve as a result of a fire or other casualty. In...

  2. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... will cause the quick closing shutoff valves to close in case of fire. Quick closing shutoff valves... penetrations are not applicable to nozzles at which pressure vacuum or safety relief valves are fitted. (a... conditions, every cargo piping system shall be provided with one of the following sets of control valves...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.85 - Containerized cargo operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, or it exceeds the capacity of the lifting appliance. (d... rated capacity. (D) The lift angle is at 80 to 90 degrees; (E) The distance between the lifting beam and... maximum cargo weight, in pounds. (b) Container weight. No container shall be hoisted by any...

  4. 46 CFR 13.309 - Eligibility: Cargo course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TANKERMEN Requirements for âTankerman-PIC (Barge)â Endorsement § 13.309 Eligibility: Cargo course. Each applicant for an original “Tankerman-PIC (Barge)” endorsement shall present a certificate of completion from a course in DL or LG appropriate for tank barges and for Tankerman-PIC or Tankerman-PIC (Barge),...

  5. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part II; Cargo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single spaceship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper shows the feasibility of the hybrid transportation architecture to pre-deploy cargo to Mars and Phobos in support of the Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions. The analysis shows that the hybrid propulsion stage is able to deliver all of the current manifested payload to Phobos and Mars through the first three crew missions. The conjunction class trajectory also allows the hybrid propulsion stage to return to Earth in a timely fashion so it can be reused for additional cargo deployment. The 1,100 days total trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to deliver cargo to Mars every other Earth-Mars transit opportunity. For the first two Mars surface mission in the Evolvable Mars Campaign, the short trip time allows the hybrid propulsion stage to be reused for three round-trip journeys to Mars, which matches the hybrid propulsion stage's designed lifetime for three round-trip crew missions to the Martian sphere of influence.

  6. 46 CFR 148.01-7 - Permitted cargoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heating and ignition. Note: Definitions of hazard classes of hazardous materials are found in 49 CFR 171.8 and 49 CFR 173.500. (b) A mixture or blend of two or more cargoes, one or more of which is listed in... Flammable solid Contact with water may cause self heating. Coconut meal pellets (or copra...

  7. 19 CFR 4.62 - Accounting for inward cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for inward cargo. 4.62 Section 4.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.62 Accounting for inward...

  8. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under §...

  9. Logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle. Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Cargo + Service GmbH (NCS) offers logistics worldwide for the whole nuclear cycle to fuel manufacturers, reactor operators, and waste management companies. Transport equipment and interim stores are part of the company's facilities. The firm's Front End unit conducts transnational transports of yellow cake, uranium hexafluoride, and enriched uranium and uranium from reprocessing. In the Back End unit, the company performs worldwide transports of spent fuel elements of research reactors. Another key area of activity is shipment of radioactive waste ranging from low-level waste to HAW (highly active waste generating heat). In its Component Disposal area, NCS offers a variety of transport services up to and including large components, e.g. reactor pressure vessels, both on the road and by rail and ship. NCS operates storage halls of its own for storing radioactive materials including radioactive waste. The technical equipment of NCS comprises a large pool of road and rail transport vehicles as well as a great number of vessels for radioactive materials. (orig.)

  10. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three

  11. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  12. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body—the Interna...

  13. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel sec

  14. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept...

  15. 31 CFR 361.3 - Shipping procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipping procedure. 361.3 Section 361.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 361.3 Shipping procedure. Shipments of valuables shall be made so as to provide the greatest...

  16. 48 CFR 8.708 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping. 8.708 Section 8.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.708 Shipping. (a) Delivery is accomplished when a shipment is placed...

  17. Ship detection with Envisat's alternating polarization mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Chesworth, J.; Greidanus, H.

    2005-01-01

    A ship detection algorithm is developed that uses Envisat ASAR imagery in alternating polarisation mode. From airborne data it is shown that of the two co-polarisations, HH is preferred over VV because of a larger ship-to-clutter ratio. Combining the HH and HV images of alternating polarisation mode

  18. Science Ⅲ marine research ship delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August 18, China's most advanced marine research ship Science Ⅲ was commissioned into operation at Qingdao and became an official member of China's marine research fleet. Designed and built by CSIC, the ship was delivered at Shanghai to the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping ...

  20. Nuclear merchant ships: problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the hitherto successful operation of the OTTO HAHN the next steps in the development of an economical, commercial nuclear ship in the FRG are discussed. This ship is to be built until 1985, and from then on it is to be taken into service. (UA)

  1. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...... operations is particularly challenging under third party ship management. Finally, the paper discusses management implications for shipping companies, which outsource ship management to third parties....

  2. Prospects of small nuclear plants utilization for civil ships, floating heat and power stations and power-seawater desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small power nuclear reactor plants are widely used in Russia for nuclear ice-breakers and cargo ships, which operations for a long time provides life sustaining and economic development of regions in Russia's at extreme North and Far East. They have a real prospects of further utilization. Successful experience of small power propulsion reactor plants operation in nuclear ice-breakers and other civil ships gives grounds to recommend them as energy sources for floating heat and power co-generation stations and floating power-seawater desalination complexes. Based on the advanced propulsion nuclear steam supply system a leading co-generation nuclear station with floating power unit is currently being created in Russia, for deployment at port of Peveck in Chuckot national district, which may be a prototype of a floating power unit for power desalination complex

  3. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which...

  4. 46 CFR 189.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 189.60-45 Section 189.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION...-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  5. Wave energy extraction using decommisioned ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, A.E.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Paik, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    scrap naval vessels in 2002 was $33.4 million. Now apparently the Navy sinks naval vessels by bombs and torpedos. Scrapping can cause pollution, health hazards, accidents and threat to the ecosystem. Can a “polluting” ship about to be scrapped be used to generate clean wave energy? Maybe! It is possible...... to place the ship (unmanned) in about 50 m of water where deep-water swells may have an average wave period of 6–15 s. The ship would be “tuned” to have large motion response, particularly in heave and pitch. In short waves, the ship could serve as a platform for secondary energy absorption. The idea...... is to tune the ship to have rigid body resonance, or close to it, and resist that motion to absorb power. A hydraulic ramp connected to an accumulator feeding a hydraulic motor that generates power is one possibility. Several other energy extraction mechanisms such as turbines connected to...

  6. Study of accident environment during sea transport of nuclear material: Analysis of an engine room fire on a purpose built ship. Annex 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The program goal was to show that the IAEA safe transport regulations adequately cover the thermal effects of an engine-room fire on plutonium transportation packages stowed aboard a purpose built ship. The packages are stored in transportation containers located in a cargo hold of the ship. This study addressed the heat transfer from an engine-room fire that could heat and evaporate water out of the water-filled bulkhead and the resulting temperature conditions around the packages and inside the packages near their elastomeric seals. This study was designed to estimate the thermal response of a plutonium package in the hold of a purpose built ship during a shipboard fire, and furthermore, to confirm the sufficiency and adequacy of the current IAEA transport regulation

  7. Extreme waves impact on the ship mooring near berth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leont'ev, Victor; Nudner, Igor; Semenov, Konstantin; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    Ensuring safe ships berthing and loading-unloading operations at berths need reliable mooring systems. The choice of its parameters corresponds to calculating of the maximum displacements of the boat, which are caused by external impact of extreme waves, winds, and currents. Ship motions are described by system of differential equations, which contain disturbing, inertia, damping, and restoring forces, which magnitude strongly depends on the berth design and configuration of its elements. The major impact on the boat movements is caused by sea waves. In the given paper, an interaction between sea waves and ship located near the berth is studied. The cross-sectional shape of the boat is assumed to be rectangular and under-berth slope profile is approximated by finite number of steps. Different types of berth constructions are taken into account: containing impermeable or partially permeable front vertical wall, wave attenuation camera behind it with or without under-berth slope. The fluid is assumed ideal and incompressible, and its motion is potential. The stated problem is reduced to the determination of the velocity potential that satisfies the Laplace equation; the boundary condition on the free surface; the condition of non-flux through the impermeable bottom, the ship and berth elements; the condition on the surface of the permeable wall that is in proportionality between the wave flow velocity through the wall and pressure drop from its front to back faces. The problem is solved by dividing of the region into sub-domains with conditions of the hydrodynamic pressure and velocity continuity on its boundaries. In each sub-domain the solution is found using Fourier method in the form of functional series with unknown coefficients which are found from the system of linear algebraic equations. Calculated velocity potentials are used to determine different hydrodynamic characteristics of ship motions, such as horizontal and vertical components of disturbing force

  8. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  9. Numerical simulation of the stokes wave for the flow around a ship hull coupled with the VOF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengtao, Chen; Jingjun, Zhong; Peng, Sun

    2015-06-01

    The surface wave generated by flow around a ship hull moving near free surface of water is simulated numerically in this study. The three-dimensional implicit finite volume method (FVM) is applied to solve Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation. The realizable k-e turbulence model has been implemented to capture turbulent flow around the ship hull in the free surface zone. The volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with the Stokes wave theory has been used to determine the free surface effect of water. By using is a six degrees of freedom model, the ship hull's movement is numerically solved with the Stokes wave together. Under the action of Stokes waves on the sea, the interface between the air and water waves at the same regular pattern and so does the pressure and the vertical velocity. The ship hull moves in the same way as the wave. The amplitude of the ship hull's heave is less than the wave height because of the viscosity damping. This method could provide an important reference for the study of ships' movement, wave and hydrodynamics.

  10. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  11. Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils – Part III of III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, in which substances, included in a positive list, had been previously transported. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the list of substances in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils, taking into account its review of the Scientific Committee on Food criteria for acceptable previous cargoes and criteria proposed by the Codex Committee for Fats and Oils. This is the third and last scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel on this topic, in which sixteen of these substances or groups of substances have been evaluated. The CONTAM Panel concluded that sodium silicate (water glass solution, iso-octanol, iso-nonanol, iso-decanol, 1,3-propanediol, isobutyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate, tert-butyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, propylene tetramer, paraffin wax, candelilla wax, white mineral oils and glycerol would not be of health concern as previous cargoes. The CONTAM Panel concluded that carnauba wax was not acceptable as a previous cargo because of its insolubility in water and high melting point, which raise concerns regarding the efficiency of tank cleaning. There was insufficient information available on the composition of montan wax for the CONTAM Panel to conclude that it would be of no health concern when used as previous cargo and hence it does not meet the criteria for acceptability as previous cargo. The CONTAM Panel made several recommendations regarding the way in which the substances are described in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC, to correct inaccuracies and to better reflect current transport practices.

  12. Working out of generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation with cargo pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements under the action spatial force system

    OpenAIRE

    Khabibulla TURANOV; Elena TIMUKHINA

    2011-01-01

    The article gives an account of the results of working out a generalized dynamic model of fixation of cargo with pads jointly with flexible and thrust elements. Working out a generalized dynamic model of cargo fixation is rather a complicated problem not in the sense of solving differential equations systems but in the sense of presenting them as a complex mechanical system “cargo – pads – flexible elements – thrust bars”. Generalized dynamic model of cargo with pads observed that this model ...

  13. 76 FR 51980 - Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...) by Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc., hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against DI Nos Shipping, Inc... Respondent is in violation of the Shipping Act of 1984, 46 U.S.C. 40901 and 40902, by operating as a...

  14. MOVEMENT DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitnath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary movements of different types are associated with many diseases in children. Movement disorders in adult have been published in different journals, but in children these disorders have been ignored, even in most of the paediatric neurology books. Here is a brief attempt to describe different types of movement disorders and their various names in different diseases. Possible investigations and treatment of the disorders have been described in short.

  15. The mathematics of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  16. 77 FR 57638 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures; Formal safety assessment; Piracy and armed robbery against ships; Implementation...

  17. 76 FR 19176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... safety --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --Implementation of instruments and related...

  18. 78 FR 29201 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures Formal safety assessment Piracy and armed robbery against ships Implementation...

  19. 75 FR 39089 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  20. 77 FR 16316 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: March 9, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...