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Sample records for care smoking cessation

  1. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  2. Best Practices for Smoking Cessation Interventions in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McIvor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death. Family physicians and nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to initiate smoking cessation. Because smoking is a chronic addiction, repeated, opportunity-based interventions are most effective in addressing physical dependence and modifying deeply ingrained patterns of beliefs and behaviour. However, only a small minority of family physicians provide thorough smoking cessation counselling and less than one-half offer adjunct support to patients.

  3. A review of strategies to stimulate dental professionals to integrate smoking cessation interventions into primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarise evidence regarding the effectiveness of various implementation strategies to stimulate the delivery of smoking cessation advice and support during daily dental care. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Search of online medical and psychological databases, correspondence with authors and c

  4. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  5. Economics of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Parrott, S; Godfrey, C

    2004-01-01

    Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.

  6. Self-reported smoking cessation activities among Swiss primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffieux Christiane

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual counselling, pharmacotherapy, and group therapy are evidence-based interventions that help patients stop smoking. Acupuncture, hypnosis, and relaxation have no demonstrated efficacy on smoking cessation, whereas self-help material may only have a small benefit. The purpose of this study is to assess physicians' current clinical practice regarding smokers motivated to stop smoking. Methods The survey included 3385 Swiss primary care physicians. Self-reported use of nine smoking cessation interventions was scored. One point was given for each positive answer about practicing interventions with demonstrated efficacy, i.e. nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, counselling, group therapy, and smoking cessation specialist. No points were given for the recommendation of acupuncture, hypnosis, relaxation, and self-help material. Multivariable logistic analysis was performed to identify factors associated with a good practice score, defined as ≥ 2. Results The response rate was 55%. Respondents were predominately over the age of 40 years (88%, male (79%, and resided in urban areas (74%. Seventeen percent reported being smokers. Most of the physicians prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (84%, bupropion (65%, or provided counselling (70%. A minority of physicians recommended acupuncture (26%, hypnosis (8%, relaxation (7%, or self-help material (24%. A good practice score was obtained by 85% of respondents. Having attended a smoking cessation-training program was the only significant predictor of a good practice score (odds ratio: 6.24, 95% CI 1.95–20.04. Conclusion The majority of respondents practice recommended smoking cessation interventions. However, there is room for improvement and implementing an evidence-based smoking cessation-training program could provide additional benefit.

  7. Barriers and promoters of an evidenced-based smoking cessation counseling during prenatal care in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomar, Mercedes; Tong, Van T; Morello, Paola; Farr, Sherry L; Lawsin, Catalina; Dietz, Patricia M; Aleman, Alicia; Berrueta, Mabel; Mazzoni, Agustina; Becu, Ana; Buekens, Pierre; Belizán, José; Althabe, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    In Argentina and Uruguay, 10.3 and 18.3 %, respectively, of pregnant women smoked in 2005. Brief cessation counseling, based on the 5A's model, has been effective in different settings. This qualitative study aims to improve the understanding of factors influencing the provision of smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay. In 2010, we obtained prenatal care providers', clinic directors', and pregnant smokers' opinions regarding barriers and promoters to brief smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. We interviewed six prenatal clinic directors, conducted focus groups with 46 health professionals and 24 pregnant smokers. Themes emerged from three issue areas: health professionals, health system, and patients. Health professional barriers to cessation counseling included inadequate knowledge and motivation, perceived low self-efficacy, and concerns about inadequate time and large workload. They expressed interest in obtaining a counseling script. Health system barriers included low prioritization of smoking cessation and a lack of clinic protocols to implement interventions. Pregnant smokers lacked information on the risks of prenatal smoking and underestimated the difficulty of smoking cessation. Having access to written materials and receiving cessation services during clinic waiting times were mentioned as promoters for the intervention. Women also were receptive to non-physician office staff delivering intervention components. Implementing smoking cessation counseling in publicly-funded prenatal care clinics in Argentina and Uruguay may require integrating counseling into routine prenatal care and educating and training providers on best-practices approaches.

  8. Patient navigation and financial incentives to promote smoking cessation in an underserved primary care population: A randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Russinova, Zlatka L; Bloch, Philippe P; Truong, Ve; Xuan, Ziming; Pbert, Lori; Lasser, Karen E

    2015-11-01

    Despite the high risk of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality among low-income persons, few studies have connected low-income smokers to evidence-based treatments. We will examine a smoking cessation intervention integrated into primary care. To begin, we completed qualitative formative research to refine an intervention utilizing the services of a patient navigator trained to promote smoking cessation. Next, we will conduct a randomized controlled trial combining two interventions: patient navigation and financial incentives. The goal of the intervention is to promote smoking cessation among patients who receive primary care in a large urban safety-net hospital. Our intervention will encourage patients to utilize existing smoking cessation resources (e.g., quit lines, smoking cessation groups, discussing smoking cessation with their primary care providers). To test our intervention, we will conduct a randomized controlled trial, randomizing 352 patients to the intervention condition (patient navigation and financial incentives) or an enhanced traditional care control condition. We will perform follow-up at 6, 12, and 18 months following the start of the intervention. Evaluation of the intervention will target several implementation variables: reach (participation rate and representativeness), effectiveness (smoking cessation at 12 months [primary outcome]), unintended consequences (e.g., purchase of illicit substances with incentive money), adoption (use of intervention across primary care suites), implementation (delivery of intervention), and maintenance (smoking cessation after conclusion of intervention). Improving the implementation of smoking cessation interventions in primary care settings serving large underserved populations could have substantial public health impact, reducing cancer-related morbidity/mortality and associated health disparities. PMID:26362691

  9. [Smoking cessation for COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, Reiko

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent the annual decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All primary healthcare providers should routinely ask all patients whether tobacco use is active or not, and advise tobacco users to stop smoking. In Japan a treatment of nicotine addiction with varenicline or nicotine patch has been started under health insurance coverage since 2006. About half of the patients taking varenicline could stop smoking. Education on the health risks of smoking in schools for younger ages is essential for prevention of COPD. PMID:27254947

  10. Smoking cessation and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Tønnesen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay in smoking cessation is counselling in combination with varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or bupropion SR. Varenicline and combination of two NRTs is equally effective, while varenicline alone is more effective than either NRT or bupropion SR. NRT is extremely safe but cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with varenicline have been reported. These treatments have also been shown to be effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. A model study is the Lung Health Study from the USA. Findings from this study of 5,587 patients with mild COPD showed that repeated smoking cessation for a period of 5 yrs resulted in a quit rate of 37%. After 14.5 yrs the quitters had a higher lung function and a higher survival rate. A study with a new nicotine formulation, a mouth spray, showed high relative efficacy. As 5–10% of quitters use long-term NRT, we report the results of a study where varenicline compared with placebo increased the quit rate in long-term users of NRT. Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention in stopping the progression of COPD, as well as increasing survival and reducing morbidity. This is why smoking cessation should be the top priority in the treatment of COPD.

  11. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  12. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  13. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  14. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review a...

  15. Preconception care: preliminary estimates of costs and effects of smoking cessation and folic acid supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Polder, J.J.; Cohen-Overbeek, T.E.; Zimmermann, L.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess costs and effectiveness of preconception counseling for all women planning pregnancy in The Netherlands with regard to folic acid supplementation and smoking cessation counseling. STUDY DESIGN: Costs and effects were estimated based on 200,000 women approached yearly and uptake

  16. Evaluation of a structured smoking cessation program for primary care medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaehne, A.; Ruether, T.; Deest, H.; Gehrig, H.; de Zeeuw, J.; Alberti, A.; Mulzer, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that 9 of 10 general practitioners in Germany believe that smoking cessation is an important topic structured programs are only rarely offered to patients. Beside a lack of time and missing reimbursement, physician's limited treatment skills are frequent reasons for this

  17. Clinical trial on the efficacy of exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in smoking cessation in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripoll Joana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation is beneficial for our health at any point in life, both in healthy people and in people already suffering from a smoking-related disease. Any help to quit smoking can produce considerable benefits for Public Health. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the CO-oximetry technique together with brief advice in smoking cessation, in terms of reduction of the number of cigarettes or in the variation of the motivation to quit smoking at month 12 compared with brief advice alone. Methods/Design Randomised, parallel, single-blind clinical trial in a primary health care setting in Majorca (Spain. Smokers in contemplation or pre-contemplation phase will be included in the study. Exclusion criteria: Smokers in preparation phase, subjects with a terminal illness or whose health status does not allow them to understand the study or complete the informed consent, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. The subjects will be randomly assigned to the control group (CG or the intervention group (IG. The CG will receive brief advice, and the IG will receive brief advice together with a measurement of exhaled CO. There will be follow-up evaluations at 6 and 12 months after inclusion. 471 subjects will be needed per group in order to detect a difference between groups ≥ 5%. Primary outcome: sustained smoking cessation (at 6 and 12 months confirmed by urine cotinine test. Secondary outcomes: point smoking cessation at 6 and 12 months both confirmed by urine cotinine analysis and self-reported, reduction in cigarette consumption, and variation in phase of smoking cessation. Discussion CO-oximetry is an inexpensive, non-invasive, fast technique that requires little technical training; making it a technique for risk assessment in smokers that can be easily applied in primary care and, if proven effective, could serve as a reinforcement aid in smoking cessation intervention activities. Trial

  18. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According...... intervention and 21 as controls. There was no difference in 30-day complication rates or 6-week abstinence rates between the two groups. Conclusions: A trial assessing the effect of smoking cessation on postoperative complications on the day of soft tissue surgery is still needed. If another trial...

  19. Smoking cessation care among patients with head and neck cancer: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Kristen; Martínez, Úrsula; Britton, Ben; Baker, Amanda; Bonevski, Billie; Carter, Gregory; Beck, Alison; Wratten, Chris; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Halpin, Sean A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in improving cessation rates and smoking related behaviour in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Design A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. Methods We searched the following data sources: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to February 2016. A search of reference lists of included studies and Google Scholar (first 200 citations published online between 2000 and February 2016) was also undertaken. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP). 2 study authors independently screened and extracted data with disagreements resolved via consensus. Results Of the 5167 studies identified, 3 were eligible and included in the review. Trial designs of included studies were 2 randomised controlled trials and 1 non-randomised controlled trial. 2 studies received a weak methodological rating and 1 received a moderate methodological rating. The trials examine the impact of the following interventions: (1) nurse delivered cognitive–behaviour therapy (CBT) via telephone and accompanied by a workbook, combined with pharmacotherapy; (2) nurse and physician brief advice to quit and information booklets combined with pharmacotherapy; and (3) surgeon delivered enhanced advice to quit smoking augmented by booster sessions. Only the trial of the nurse delivered CBT and pharmacotherapy reported significant increases in smoking cessation rates. 1 study measured quit attempts and the other assessed consumption of cigarettes per day and readiness to change. There was no significant improvement in quit attempts or cigarettes smoked per day among patients in the intervention groups, relative to control. Conclusions There are very few studies evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions that report results specific to the HNC

  20. Update on smoking cessation therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Deirdre A

    2009-04-01

    As a reflection of an exponential increase in smoking rates throughout the world during the last century, the economic and human burden of mortality and morbidity related to smoking is now clearly defined. Smoking cessation is associated with health benefits for people of all ages. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of current licensed pharmacological smoking cessation agents including efficacy and safety profiles, with comparisons of individual therapies available. Furthermore, we offer a prospective on the need for further testing of other agents including novel avenues of therapy.

  1. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete;

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text......; pooled RR 10.76 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55 to 25.46, two trials) and RR 1.41 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.63, five trials) respectively. Four trials evaluating the effect on long-term smoking cessation found a significant effect; pooled RR 1.61 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.33). However, when pooling intensive...

  2. [Health promotion within health care - analysis of employees' smoking habits, consequences for patient care and resources for future smoking cessation initiatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, K; Koch, F; Koßmehl-Zorn, S; Goldhahn, L-M; Kusma, B; Mache, S; Groneberg, D A; Pankow, W

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is still one of the most dangerous and avoidable health risks. This study "Healthy air at work" analysed smoking habits, state of change, the influence of the diagnosis F.17.0 in patient treatment and estimation of subjective workloads and personal resources in health-care workers. Almost 2 000 questionnaires were analysed. 19.9% of this study population were smokers, while 26.4% were considered to be heavy or very heavy smokers. Half of the current smokers were willing to change, while the majority had already tried to quit multiple times. The most important motive to stop smoking was fear of consequences (44.4%), followed by other reasons (42.3%) (e. g., pregnancy) and expenses (33.9%). Protection against second-hand smoke was estimated mostly as very relevant, especially for patients. Being a role model in terms of tobacco consumption seems to be important for health-care workers. 61.3% of all health-care workers stated that patients' nicotine dependency had been diagnosed and out of these 46.5% say it is a relevant factor in therapy. 60% of all interviewed employees evaluated themselves as working quantitatively under heavy and very heavy workloads, while 20% had to deal with high qualitative challenges. In terms of future work ability and personal resources 75% were considerably optimistic. We did not find any relation in terms of workloads and smoking habits. Rather few health-care workers used nicotine replacement therapy during former cessation trials. Health-care workers could play an important role in the treatment and prevention of smoking dependency. This potential is not used to its full extent up to now.

  3. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  4. The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Jon A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim with Bergen and Norway. Methods Sequential birth cohorts were established to evaluate the intervention programme from September 2000 to December 2004 in primary care as a part of the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim study (PACT. The primary outcome variables were self reported smoking behaviour at inclusion and six weeks postnatal. Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBR were used to describe smoking cessation during pregnancy in Trondheim, Bergen and Norway 1999–2004. Results Maternal smoking prevalence at inclusion during pregnancy were 5% (CI 95% 4–6 in the intervention cohort compared to 7% (CI 95% 6–9, p = 0.03, in the control cohort. Of the pre-pregnancy maternal smokers 25% (CI 95% 20–31 and 32% (CI 95% 26–38, p = 0.17, were still smoking at inclusion in the intervention and control cohorts, respectively. Six weeks postnatal 72% (CI 95% 59–83 and 68% (CI 95% 57–77, p = 0.34 of the maternal smokers at inclusion still smoked. No significant difference in paternal smoking between the cohorts was found after the intervention period. Data from the MBR showed a significantly higher proportion of women who stopped smoking during pregnancy in Trondheim than in Bergen in 2003 and 2004, p = 0.03 and Conclusion No impact on parental smoking behaviour between the cohorts was observed after the smoking intervention programme. Of the women who stopped smoking during pregnancy most of them stopped smoking before the intervention. However, we observed a significantly higher quitting

  5. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2003-01-01

    of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation...

  6. Communication in Smoking Cessation and Self-management : a study at Nurse-led COPD-clinics in Primary Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe general aim of this thesis was to investigate behavioral change communication at nurse-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinics in primary health care, focusing on communication in self-management and smoking cessation for patients with COPD.Designs: Observational, prospective observational and experimental designs were used.Methods: To explore and describe the structure and content of self-management education and smoking cessation communication, consultations bet...

  7. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention (ISTAPS study: design of a cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarza Elvira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a considerable body of evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions in individuals who wish to quit smoking. However, there are no large-scale studies testing the whole range of interventions currently recommended for helping people to give up smoking; specifically those interventions that include motivational interviews for individuals who are not interested in quitting smoking in the immediate to short term. Furthermore, many of the published studies were undertaken in specialized units or by a small group of motivated primary care centres. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a stepped smoking cessation intervention based on a trans-theoretical model of change, applied to an extensive group of Primary Care Centres (PCC. Methods/Design Cluster randomised clinical trial. Unit of randomization: basic unit of care consisting of a family physician and a nurse, both of whom care for the same population (aprox. 2000 people. Intention to treat analysis. Study population: Smokers (n = 3024 aged 14 to 75 years consulting for any reason to PCC and who provided written informed consent to participate in the trial. Intervention: 6-month implementation of recommendations of a Clinical Practice Guideline which includes brief motivational interviews for smokers at the precontemplation – contemplation stage, brief intervention for smokers in preparation-action who do not want help, intensive intervention with pharmacotherapy for smokers in preparation-action who want help, and reinforcing intervention in the maintenance stage. Control group: usual care. Outcome measures: Self-reported abstinence confirmed by exhaled air carbon monoxide concentration of ≤ 10 parts per million. Points of assessment: end of intervention period and 1 and 2 years post-intervention; continuous abstinence rate for 1 year; change in smoking cessation stage; health status measured by SF-36. Discussion The

  8. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  9. Delivering evidence-based smoking cessation treatment in primary care practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Sophia; Gharib, Marie; Hambleton, Josh; Reid, Robert D.; Assi, Roxane; Pipe, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To report on the delivery of evidence-based smoking cessation treatments (EBSCTs) within a sample of 40 Ontario family health teams (FHTs). Design In each FHT, consecutive patients were screened for smoking status and eligible patients completed a questionnaire immediately following their clinic visits (index visits). Multilevel analysis was used to examine FHT-level, provider-level, and patient-level predictors of EBSCT delivery. Setting Forty FHTs in Ontario. Participants Across the 40 participating FHTs, 24 033 patients were screened and 2501 eligible patients contributed data. Main outcome measures Provider performance in the delivery of EBSCTs during the preceding 12 months and during the index visits was assessed. Results The rate of provider delivery of EBSCT for the previous 12 months was 74.0% for the advise strategy. At the index visit, rates of EBSCT strategy delivery were 56.8% for ask; 46.9% for advise; 38.7% for assist; 11.6% for prescribing pharmacotherapy; and 11.3% for arrange follow-up. Significant intra-FHT and intraprovider variability in the rates of EBSCT delivery was identified. Family health teams with a physician champion (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6; P < .01) and providers who highly ranked the importance of smoking cessation (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.7; P < .01) were more likely to deliver EBSCTs. Patient readiness to quit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 1.9; P < .001), presence of smoking-related illness (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1; P < .01), and presenting for an annual health examination (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.5; P < .001) were associated with the delivery of EBSCTs. Conclusion Rates of smoking cessation advice were higher than previously reported for Canadian physicians; however, rates of assistance with quitting were lower. Future quality improvement initiatives should specifically target increasing the rates of screening and advising among low-performing FHTs and providers within FHTs, with a particular emphasis

  10. Cluster randomized trial in smoking cessation with intensive advice in diabetic patients in primary care. ITADI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roura Pilar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve smoking cessation in diabetic smokers, given that this is a group of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, tobacco has a multiplying effect on micro and macro vascular complications. Smoking abstinence rates increase as the intensity of the intervention, length of the intervention and number and diversity of contacts with the healthcare professional during the intervention increases. However, there are few published studies about smoking cessation in diabetics in primary care, a level of healthcare that plays an essential role in these patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in diabetic patients in primary care. Methods/Design Cluster randomized trial, controlled and multicentric. Randomization unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 546 diabetic smokers older than 14 years of age whose disease is controlled by one of the primary care teams in the study. Outcome Measures: Continuous tobacco abstinence (a person who has not smoked for at least six months and with a CO level of less than 6 ppm measured by a cooximeter , evolution in the Prochaska and DiClemente's Transtheoretical Model of Change, number of cigarettes/day, length of the visit. Point of assessment: one- year post- inclusion in the study. Intervention: Brief motivational interview for diabetic smokers at the pre-contemplation and contemplation stage, intensive motivational interview with pharmacotherapy for diabetic smokers in the preparation-action stage and reinforcing intevention in the maintenance stage. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive analysis of all variables will be done, as well as a multilevel logistic regression and a Poisson regression. All analyses will be done with an intention to treatment basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Statistical packages

  11. Smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Brigitte Wilhelmina Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of 1-year smoking cessation on airway inflammation in smokers with COPD and asymptomatic smokers. Since it has been shown that smoking cessation may improve clinical features, the effects of smoking cessation on respiratory symptoms, lung functio

  12. In the Clinic. Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish S; Steinberg, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of smoking cessation, focusing on health consequences of smoking, prevention of smoking-related disease, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  13. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel vaporising devices that, similar to nicotine replacement treatments, deliver nicotine but in lower amounts and less swiftly than tobacco smoking. However, they enjoy far greater popularity than these medications due in part to their behaviour replacement characteristics. Evidence for their efficacy as cessation aids, based on several randomised trials of now obsolete e-cigarettes, suggests a modest effect equivalent to nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are almost certainly far less harmful than tobacco smoking, but the health effects of long-term use are as yet unknown. Dual use is common and almost as harmful as usual smoking unless it leads to quitting. Population effects, such as re-normalising smoking behaviour, are a concern. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about these products. If patients who smoke are unwilling to quit or cannot succeed using evidence-based approaches, e-cigarettes may be an option to be considered after discussing the limitations of current knowledge.

  14. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three...... the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount...... of tobacco smoked, inhalation, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in women, smoking cessation was positively associated with level of education and body mass index (BMI). Smoking cessation was not affected by cohabitation status, leisure activity, or bronchitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation...

  15. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  16. Smoking cessation strategies in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; van Riet, Evelien E S; Rutten, Frans H;

    2013-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of behavioural and pharmacological smoking cessation strategies in COPD patients. MEDLINE was searched from January 2002 to October 2011....... Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of smoking cessation interventions for COPD patients, published in English, were selected. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Delphi list by two reviewers independently. The relative risks of smoking cessation due...... that in COPD patients, pharmacological therapy combined with behavioural counselling is more effective than each strategy separately. Neither the intensity of counselling nor the type of anti-smoking drug made a difference....

  17. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-

  18. Smoking cessation counseling for Asian immigrants with serious mental illness: using RE-AIM to understand challenges and lessons learned in primary care-behavioral health integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Kim, Jin; Lim, Joyce; Powell, Catherine; Tong, Elisa K

    2013-09-01

    Engagement in modifiable risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, substantially contributes to early mortality rates in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). There is an alarmingly high prevalence of tobacco use among subgroups of Asian Americans, such as immigrants and individuals with SMI, yet there are no empirically supported effective smoking cessation interventions that have been tailored to meet the unique cultural, cognitive, and psychological needs of Asian immigrants with SMI. In this article, we share the experiences of clinicians in the delivery of smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrants with SMI, in the context of an Asian-focused integrated primary care and behavioral health setting. Through a qualitative analysis of clinician perspectives organized with the RE-AIM framework, we outline challenges, lessons learned, and promising directions for delivering smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrant clients with SMI. PMID:23667056

  19. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  20. [Consensus report for the clinical care of smoking cessation in Spain. Comité Nacional para la Prevención del Tabaquismo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarelles Guillem, Francisco; Dalmau González-Gallarza, Regina; Clemente Jiménez, Lourdes; Díaz-Maroto Muñoz, José Luis; Lozano Polo, Adelaida; Pinet Ogué, María Cristina

    2013-03-16

    Tobacco use presents an odd confluence of circumstances: it is a significant and high threat to health, and there is a lack of motivation among health workers to act accordingly. Yet we have effective interventions. It is really hard to identify any other determinant of health presenting this mixture of lethality, prevalence, and lack of care, despite having effective treatments readily available. On the other hand, smoking cessation interventions are considered as the gold standard of preventive interventions, far above other preventive measures commonly used. This has prompted the National Committee for Smoking Prevention to develop a consensus document for the Clinical Care of Smoking Cessation in Spain. The purpose of this technical and scientific document is to agree on a basic proposal of quality of care to tackle smokers to quit. This document would serve as a guideline in the clinical practice in our country. The aims of this agreement are to review the effectiveness of the existing therapies for smoking cessation, to synthesize their available evidence, and to set the basic minimum standards of care in the clinical practice of patients who smoke. The consensus sets the strategies, and the evidences that support them, in order to assist both the smokers who want to quit, and the smokers who do not, setting out the steps to intervene in the most adequate.

  1. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  2. Long-term effects of smoking cessation support in primary care: results of a two-year longitudinal study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina Pinheiro Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a Brazilian smoking cessation support program and the factors that are associated with its success. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 with 84 patients enrolled in smoking cessation support groups in a Primary Care Center from a poor community in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil. Support was provided according to Brazilian Tobacco Control Program and consisted of cognitive behavioral therapy in addition to nicotine replacement therapy. Logistic regression and the Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. Results There was an increase of 34%, 48% and 97% in the chances of patients stop smoking for at least six months, 12 months and 24 months, respectively, for each new session that the patient participated. Patients that attended three or more meetings had a 79% lower risk of returning to smoking than those who went to less than three meetings. Conclusions Although not all patients who were enrolled in the program could be contacted for the study, our results indicate that about 40% of patients are able to stay smoke-free for at least three months due to the smoking cessation program, but less than 20% are able to remain smoke-free for two years. Initiatives to improve adherence to cognitive behavioral therapy meetings according to the specificity of the population may increase the effectiveness of the program.

  3. Cluster randomized trial in smoking cessation with intensive advice in diabetic patients in primary care : ITADI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roura Pilar; Armengol Angelina; Advani Mamta; Martin Carlos; Prieto Gemma; Perez Santiago; Roig Lydia; Maria Manresa Josep; Briones Elena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve smoking cessation in diabetic smokers, given that this is a group of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, tobacco has a multiplying effect on micro and macro vascular complications. Smoking abstinence rates increase as the intensity of the intervention, length of the intervention and number and diversity of contacts with the healthcare professional during the intervention increases. However, there are few published studies ab...

  4. NCI launches smoking cessation support for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new effort to help teens quit smoking will use one of today’s teen’s most constant companions—the mobile phone. Developed by smoking cessation experts, SmokefreeTXT is a free text message cessation service that provides 24/7 encouragement, advice, and

  5. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  6. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  7. Effectiveness of Non-Primary Care-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults with Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Shilpa J; Harrington, Kathy F; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects over 25 million adults, many of whom are smokers. The negative health impact of diabetes and comorbid smoking is significant and requires comprehensive interdisciplinary management. The National Diabetes Education Program has identified specific providers, known as PPOD, who include pharmacists, podiatrists, optometrists, and dentists, as key individuals to improve diabetes-related clinical outcomes. These providers are encouraged to work together through interdisciplinary collaboration and to implement evidence-based strategies as outlined in the PPOD toolkit. The toolkit encourages healthcare providers to ask, advise, and assist patients in their efforts to engage in risk reduction and healthy behaviors, including smoking cessation as an important risk factor. While individual PPOD providers have demonstrated effective smoking cessation interventions in adults with other acute and chronic systemic diseases, they lack specific application and focus on adults with diabetes. This literature review examines the current role of PPOD providers in smoking cessation interventions delivered to adults with diabetes. PMID:27424070

  8. The protocol for the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS study, a randomised controlled trial of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in a remote Aboriginal Australian health care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley Julia V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders (Indigenous Australians smoke at much higher rates than non-Indigenous people and smoking is an important contributor to increased disease, hospital admissions and deaths in Indigenous Australian populations. Smoking cessation programs in Australia have not had the same impact on Indigenous smokers as on non-Indigenous smokers. This paper describes the protocol for a study that aims to test the efficacy of a locally-tailored, intensive, multidimensional smoking cessation program. Methods/Design This study is a parallel, randomised, controlled trial. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers aged 16 years and over, who are randomly allocated to a 'control' or 'intervention' group in a 2:1 ratio. Those assigned to the 'intervention' group receive smoking cessation counselling at face-to-face visits, weekly for the first four weeks, monthly to six months and two monthly to 12 months. They are also encouraged to attend a monthly smoking cessation support group. The 'control' group receive 'usual care' (i.e. they do not receive the smoking cessation program. Aboriginal researchers deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to help Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders quit smoking. Data collection occurs at baseline (when they enrol and at six and 12 months after enrolling. The primary outcome is self-reported smoking cessation with urinary cotinine confirmation at 12 months. Discussion Stopping smoking has been described as the single most important individual change Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers could make to improve their health. Smoking cessation programs are a major priority in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and evidence for effective approaches is essential for policy development and resourcing. A range of strategies have been used to encourage Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders to quit

  9. Smoking among pregnant women in Cantabria (Spain: trend and determinants of smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariscal Marcial

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cantabria (Spain has one of the highest prevalence of smoking among women of the European Union. The objectives are to assess the trend of smoking during pregnancy in a five-year period and the determinants of smoking cessation during pregnancy in Cantabria. Methods A 1/6 random sample of all women delivering at the reference hospital of the region for the period 1998–2002 was drawn, 1559 women. Information was obtained from personal interview, clinical chart, and prenatal care records. In the analysis relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Multivariable analysis was carried out using stepwise logistic regression. Results Smoking prior to pregnancy decreased from 53.6% in 1998 to 39.4% in 2002. A decrease in smoking cessation among women smoking at the beginning of pregnancy was observed, from 37.3% in 1998 to 20.6% in 2002. The mean number of cigarettes/day (cig/d before pregnancy remained constant, around 16 cig/d, whereas a slight trend to increase over time was seen, from 7.7 to 8.9 cig/d. In univariate analysis two variables favoured significantly smoking cessation, although they were not included in the stepwise logistic regression analysis, a higher education level and to be married. The logistic regression model included five significant predictors (also significant in univariate analysis: intensity of smoking, number of previous pregnancies, partner's smoking status, calendar year of study period (these four variables favoured smoking continuation, and adequate prenatal care (which increased smoking cessation. Conclusion The frequency of smoking among pregnant women is very high in Cantabria. As smoking cessation rate has decreased over time, a change in prenatal care programme on smoking counseling is needed. Several determinants of smoking cessation, such as smoking before pregnancy and partner's smoking, should be also addressed by community programmes.

  10. Risk reduction before surgery. The role of the primary care provider in preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne; Faurschou, Pernille; Ralov, Helge;

    2010-01-01

    Daily smokers and hazardous drinkers are high-risk patients, developing 2-4 times more complications after surgery. Preoperative smoking and alcohol cessation for four to eight weeks prior to surgery halves this complication rate. The patients' preoperative contact with the surgical departments...... might be too brief for the hospital to initiate these programmes. Therefore, it was relevant to evaluate a new clinical practice which combined the general practitioner's (GP) referral to surgery with a referral to a smoking and alcohol intervention in the surgical pathway....

  11. The public health impact of smoking and smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence that smoking cessation reduces the risk for several chronic diseases, information on the magnitude of these public health benefits is scarce. It has furthermore been suggested that smoking cessation also improves health-related quality of life, but this has not been

  12. Effectiveness of group counselling for smoking cessation in hospital staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schoonis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking prevalence among hospital staff is still considerable. It is well known that smoking cessation is difficult to establish without any help. Group counselling is effective for smoking cessation. In 2004, therefore, we decided to offer group counselling for smoking cessation to our hospital staff. (1 To assess the efficacy of group counselling given by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals. (2 To determine the quit rate after group counselling in hospital staff. The program is based on 10 group sessions of 90 min each. Each group contains a maximum of 16 participants. The group sessions were led by a nurse specialized in smoking cessation and consisted of education and behavioural interventions provided by health care professionals (respiratory physician, psychologist and a dietician. To improve smoking cessation motivation, spirometry (FEV1 and FVC and exhaled CO were measured both at the start and at the end of the group counselling. In total, 38 participants of 3 different groups entered group counselling. The mean age was 48 years, and 71% was female. They smoked an average of 20 cigarettes per day. Based on exhaled CO measurements and self-reports, smoking cessation, the quit rates after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were, 27/35 (77%, 25/35 (72% and 23/35 (66%, respectively. Group counselling program on smoking cessation in hospital staff based on 10 group sessions was able to induce a remarkably high amount of quitters. The hospital setting offered the opportunity to meet the group participants frequently afterwards, what might have helped in keeping the quitting results at about the same level, even after 2 years’ follow-up.

  13. Factors associated with tobacco smoking and cessation among HIV-infected individuals under care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S Torres

    Full Text Available Worldwide the prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is elevated compared to the general population. This probably reflects the cluster of individual characteristics that have shared risk factors for HIV infection and smoking. A cross-sectional study, enrolling a convenience sample from a Brazilian HIV clinical cohort was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and the factors associated with current smoking and abstinence. A total of 2,775 HIV-infected individuals were interviewed: 46.2% have never smoked, 29.9% were current smokers and 23.9% were former smokers. Current smokers had a higher prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use when compared to the other two groups. A higher proportion of heterosexual individuals were former smokers or never smokers while among men who have sex with men (MSM a higher proportion were current smokers. Former smokers had been more frequently diagnosed with high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and depression, while for current smokers lung diseases were more frequent. Former smokers and current smokers were more likely to have had any hospital admission (42.0% and 41.2%, respectively than participants who never smoked (33.5% (p31 cigarettes/day. MSM (compared to heterosexuals and cocaine users (versus non-users had lower odds of being former smokers. Considering our results, smoking cessation interventions should be tailored to younger individuals, MSM and substance users.

  14. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  15. Effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, T; Tønnesen, H; Møller, A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation itself. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preoperative smoking cessation interventions....... Trial inclusion, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by two authors. Risk ratios for the above outcomes were calculated and pooled effects estimated using the fixed-effect method. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included containing 1194 patients. Smoking interventions were intensive...... interval 0.41 to 0.78); P smoking cessation rates both before operation and up to 12 months thereafter. The effects of medium to less intensive interventions were not significant. Meta-analysis of the effect on smoking cessation was not done owing...

  16. National Survey of the Smoking Cessation Services in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pucchio, Alessandra Di; Pizzi, Enrica; Carosi, Giordano; Mazzola, Monica; Mattioli, Donatella; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is aimed at providing information about structural and organizational characteristics of smoking cessation services (SCS) set up within the Italian National Health Service. Local health units and hospitals are the main institutions connected with SCS which are mainly located within the Department of Drug Addiction and the Department of Lung and Breath Care. SCS provide different tobacco-use cessation programs. Although pharmacotherapy is always used, a combination of therap...

  17. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD.......Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD....

  18. Smoking Cessation for Crohn's Disease: Clearing the Haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-03-01

    The TABACROHN Study Group conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study, demonstrating that smoking cessation improved the prognosis of Crohn's disease. Patients who continued to smoke were 50% more likely to relapse compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation reduced the risk of flaring, regardless of exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. Despite the evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial, many patients do not quit smoking after their diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Lack of awareness, physical addiction, and social context of smoking inhibit smoking cessation. In spite of this, comprehensive smoking cessation programs have been shown to be effective and reduce costs.

  19. Smoking and management methods. The practice of smoking cessation programme in University Hospital of Larissa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarogiannis S.,

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is the most important, preventable cause of premature death and this addiction can be regarded as a chronic, recurrent disease. The benefits of smoking cessation are unquestionable and all health care professionals should become more active in recommending it. Aim: To characterise the population seeking medical support for smoking cessation and to investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation programme performed, in the University Hospital of Larissa, for outpatients. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of outpatients in follow-up between March 2004 and October 2007. Age, gender, level of education, smoking habits, compliance in pharmacological treatment, gain weight and abstinence and relapse rates were evaluated.Results: Were studied 376 smokers, 60% male with an average age of 46.9 years. Men, upper graduated smokers have higher cessation rates whereas, in heavy smokers with high degree of dependence was observed lower cessation rates. The continuous abstinence rate at 12 months was 38%, and among pharmacological treatment, varenicline resulted elevated rate of quit smoking. The rate of relapse was found in 39%.Conclusions: This study suggests that smoking cessation programmes may be highly effective in helping smoking withdrawal and should be a strongly recommended component of daily clinical practice.

  20. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  1. Smoking Cessation Experience in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmsen, Lars; Hjalmarsson, Agneta

    1980-01-01

    Studies of post-infarct patients and healthy controls in Sweden show that likelihood of stopping smoking is greater in better informed patients, in those who suffer a sudden bout of serious disease, and those who stop smoking completely, rather than cutting down.

  2. A Randomized Evaluation of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Pregnant Women at a WIC Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jeffrey P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates a randomized trial of a self-help smoking cessation program for pregnant smokers at the Kent County Health Department in Grand Rapids, (Michigan). Results indicate larger quit rates amongst program participants than those in the usual care group. Suggests that smoking cessation programs for low-income pregnant WIC clients are…

  3. Smoking Cessation: The Role of the Anesthesiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadeh, Amir; Chung, Frances; Wong, David T; Warner, David O; Wong, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Smoking increases the risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Smoking cessation before surgery reduces the risk of complications. The perioperative period may be a "teachable moment" for smoking cessation and provides smokers an opportunity to engage in long-term smoking cessation. Anesthesiologists as the perioperative physicians are well-positioned to take the lead in this area and improve not only short-term surgical outcomes but also long-term health outcomes and costs. Preoperative interventions for tobacco use are effective to reduce postoperative complications and increase the likelihood of long-term abstinence. If intensive interventions (counseling, pharmacotherapy, and follow-up) are impractical, brief interventions should be implemented in preoperative clinics as a routine practice. The "Ask, Advise, Connect" is a practical strategy to be incorporated in the surgical setting. All anesthesiologists should ask their patients about smoking and strongly advise smokers to quit at every visit. Directly connecting patients to existing counseling resources, such as telephone quitlines, family physicians, or pharmacists using fax or electronic referrals, greatly increases the reach and the impact of the intervention.

  4. A study of smoking and smoking cessation on the curricula of UK medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Roddy, E; Rubin, P.; Britton, J.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify current practice in teaching on smoking and smoking cessation in UK medical schools, and establish whether newly qualified UK doctors feel prepared to deliver smoking cessation interventions.

  5. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva;

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  6. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M;

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  7. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  8. The transtheoretical model use for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Eroğlu, Kafiye; KOYUN, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    Available Online at http://iassr.org/journal 2013 (c) EJRE published by International Association of Social Science Research - IASSR European Journal of Research on Education ISSN: 2147-6284 European Journal of Research on Education, 2014, Special Issue: Contemporary Studies in Social Science, 130-134 The transtheoretical model use for smoking cessation Ayşe Koyun a *, Kafiye Eroğlu b aAfyon Kocatepe University, Afyon School of Health, Afyonkarahisar, 03200...

  9. Indiana family physician attitudes and practices concerning smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywell, R M; Jay, S J; Lukas, P J; Casebeer, L L; Mybeck, K C; Parchman, M L; Haley, A J

    1996-01-01

    Most physicians are aware of the health benefits of smoking cessation and agree they have a responsibility to help smokers quit. Many physicians, however, do not regularly address smoking cessation with their patients. Questionnaires were sent to 2,095 family practice physicians in Indiana. Information obtained included: demographic data; office-based smoking cessation practices; counseling; and physicians' perceptions of intervention outcomes. Most physicians (86%) asked new patients if they smoked, and 23% questioned patients about their exposure to passive smoke. Younger physicians, female physicians and urban physicians were more likely to ask new patients if they smoked. A formal smoking cessation program was used by 28% of the responding physicians. Among those not using a program, 7% reported plans to implement one in the coming year, 40% were not planning to implement one, and 53% were unsure. Physician and practice characteristics were not correlated with the use of smoking cessation programs. Only 11% of physicians considered their smoking cessation counseling skills to be excellent; 27% indicated the need for improvement in skills. One-half (52%) believed their counseling efforts were effective; almost half (45%) believed that current reimbursement policies limited their involvement in smoking cessation interventions. Most respondents have not instituted smoking cessation programs in their practices. It is likely that a combination of strategies, including both undergraduate, graduate and continuing medical education programs and reform in reimbursement practices for cessation programs, will be required to achieve significant increases in long-term smoking abstinence rates.

  10. 'Do your best for me': The difficulties of finding a clinically effective endpoint in smoking cessation consultations in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Alison; Coleman, Tim

    2010-01-01

    In recent years in the UK there has been a shift towards doctors practising preventative medicine. Research suggests, however, that doctors are more comfortable in their traditional role, and may be reluctant to engage in discussion of lifestyle issues with patients. In this article, we use data from GPs' consultations about smoking, recorded prior to the availability of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on NHS prescription, to demonstrate how they attempt to negotiate behaviour change. Using a discursive analytic approach, and drawing particularly on some of the conversation analytic literature on advice giving, we suggest that there are two kinds of difficulties for doctors to overcome: an ambiguity about the interactional endpoint of a discussion about smoking; and the inability to offer 'expert' medical help. As a result, doctors struggle with following through their advice to stop in terms of talking about how to do it. We suggest that the efficacy of nicotine addiction treatments may be due not only to their clinical effects, but also because their prescription legitimizes the difficulty in stopping reported by most smokers as an appropriate problem for medical treatment. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of smoking and other lifestyle issues within primary care consultations. PMID:20051430

  11. Systems-Level Smoking Cessation Activities by Private Health Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Reif, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe US Public Health Service urges providers to screen patients for smoking and advise smokers to quit. Yet, these practices are not widely implemented in clinical practice. This study provides national estimates of systems-level strategies used by private health insurance plans to influence provider delivery of smoking cessation activities.MethodsData are from a nationally representative survey of health plans for benefit year 2003, across product types offered by insurers, including health maintenance organizations (HMOs, preferred provider organizations, and point-of-service products, regarding alcohol, tobacco, drug, and mental health services. Executive directors of 368 health plans responded to the administrative module (83% response rate. Medical directors of 347 of those health plans, representing 771 products, completed the clinical module in which health plan respondents were asked about screening for smoking, guideline distribution, and incentives for guideline adherence.ResultsOnly 9% of products require, and 12% verify, that primary care providers (PCPs screen for smoking. HMOs are more likely than other product types to require screening. Only 17% of products distribute smoking cessation guidelines to PCPs, and HMOs are more likely to do this. Feedback to PCPs was most frequently used to encourage guideline adherence; financial incentives were rarely used. Furthermore, health plans that did require screening often conducted other cessation activities.ConclusionFew private health plans have adopted techniques to encourage the use of smoking cessation activities by their providers. Increasing health plan involvement is necessary to reduce tobacco use and concomitant disease in the United States.

  12. Ear Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Anthony L.; Yuan Ming Di; Christopher Worsnop; Brian H. May; Cliff Da Costa; Xue, Charlie C.L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of ear acupressure (EAP) as a stand-alone intervention for smoking cessation and the feasibility of this study design. Adult smokers were randomised to receive EAP specific for smoking cessation (SSEAP) or a nonspecific EAP (NSEAP) intervention which is not typically used for smoking cessation. Participants received 8 weekly treatments and were requested to press the five pellets taped to one ear at least three times daily. Participants were fol...

  13. Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking and Cessation among HIV-Infected Individuals under Care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Thiago S.; Luz, Paula M; Derrico, Monica; Velasque, Luciane; Grinsztejn, Eduarda; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Santini-Oliveira, Marília; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; De Boni, Raquel Brandini

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide the prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is elevated compared to the general population. This probably reflects the cluster of individual characteristics that have shared risk factors for HIV infection and smoking. A cross-sectional study, enrolling a convenience sample from a Brazilian HIV clinical cohort was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and the factors associated with current smoking and abstinence. A total of 2,775 HIV-infected indivi...

  14. Update on medicines for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Mike

    2015-08-01

    Persistent cigarette smokers usually have a nicotine addiction. This addiction has a chronic relapsing and sometimes remitting course and may persist lifelong. Remission can be facilitated by the use of medication as part of a comprehensive management strategy tailored to the individual patient. Nicotine replacement therapy is a first-line drug treatment. It is available in many formulations. Varenicline is also a first-line drug treatment. It should be started before the patient stops smoking. Bupropion is a second-line therapy. It may be associated with an increased risk of seizures and drug interactions. While there is some evidence that electronic cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation, quit rates are not yet comparable with those of the drugs approved on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. PMID:26648633

  15. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2003-01-01

    .003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts......BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the effect of a multimodal smoking cessation intervention regimen on a number of pregnant smokers. METHODS: A prospective intervention study was designed where participants were allocated to intervention or control based on their birth date. The study included 647...... pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...

  16. Improving smoking cessation policy by assessing user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service in adult psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kathy; Creamer, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among people with mental health conditions compared to the general population. Smoking reduces physical, mental and financial well-being, and interacts with psychotropic drugs. An inpatient admission provides an opportunity to engage and support smokers in smoking cessation. Compliance with Trust/NICE smoking cessation guidelines was assessed in two inpatient wards, and a questionnaire evaluated user demand for an inpatient smoking cessation service. A need for improved documentation of smoking status to identify and treat smokers routinely was revealed. A new electronic health form was designed and introduced, and a clear pathway for onward referrals was developed. This intervention preceded the introduction of the Trust-wide smoke free policy from October 2014. The intervention doubled rates of documentation of smoking status, cessation advice and offer of NRT/referral. There were large differences between the two wards, highlighting the need for a tailored approach.

  17. The health care costs of smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is desirable from a public health perspective, its consequences with respect to health care costs are still debated. Smokers have more disease than nonsmokers, but nonsmokers live longer and can incur more health costs

  18. Successful Smoking Cessation in COPD : Association with Comorbidities and Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupiainen, H; Kinnula, V L; Lindqvist, A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M; Laitinen, T; Kilpeläinen, M

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of COPD management, but difficult to achieve in clinical practice. The effect of comorbidities on smoking cessation and risk factors for mortality were studied in a cohort of 739 COPD patients recruited in two Finnish University Hospitals. The diagnosis of COPD w

  19. Efficacy of Incorporating Experiencing Exercises into a Smoking Cessation Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Celia A.; Manaster, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of experiential exercises, combined with a traditional smoking cessation intervention, on quit rates and social learning theory variables known to impact smoking cessation. Measures of self-efficacy and locus of control did not significantly differ between the experimental and control conditions. Quit rates did not differ…

  20. A randomised controlled trial linking mental health inpatients to community smoking cessation supports: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy Richard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial that will test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of linking inpatient smoking care with ongoing community cessation support for smokers with a mental illness. Methods/Design This study will be conducted as a randomised controlled trial. 200 smokers with an acute mental illness will be recruited from a large inpatient mental health facility. Participants will complete a baseline survey and will be randomised to either a multimodal smoking cessation intervention or provided with hospital smoking care only. Randomisation will be stratified by diagnosis (psychotic, non-psychotic. Intervention participants will be provided with a brief motivational interview in the inpatient setting and options of ongoing smoking cessation support post discharge: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; referral to Quitline; smoking cessation groups; and fortnightly telephone support. Outcome data, including cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts, and self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (validated by exhaled carbon monoxide, will be collected via blind interview at one week, two months, four months and six months post discharge. Process information will also be collected, including the use of cessation supports and cost of the intervention. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the potential of an integrated, multimodal smoking cessation intervention for persons with an acute mental illness, linking inpatient with community cessation support. Trial Registration

  1. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life: The role of time since cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; van Baal, Pieter HM; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha L

    2008-01-01

    made in specifying the model. The model should be specified carefully in accordance with the questions it is supposed to answer. If the aim of the model is to estimate effects of smoking cessation interventions on mortality and morbidity, one should include relapse of quitters and dependency on time since cessation of incidence rates of smoking-related chronic diseases. A drawback of such models is that data requirements are extensive. PMID:18190684

  2. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life: The role of time since cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boshuizen Hendriek C

    2008-01-01

    sensitive to assumptions made in specifying the model. The model should be specified carefully in accordance with the questions it is supposed to answer. If the aim of the model is to estimate effects of smoking cessation interventions on mortality and morbidity, one should include relapse of quitters and dependency on time since cessation of incidence rates of smoking-related chronic diseases. A drawback of such models is that data requirements are extensive.

  3. Smoking Cessation 1 Year or More: Experiences of Successful Quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPiazza, Jennifer T; Naegle, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of research focused on the experience of maintaining cessation for a year or longer, and recidivism rates for smoking cessation are estimated at 50% to 97%. As cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is a critical need for more knowledge about maintaining smoking cessation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the lived experience of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation for a year or more. Using Streubert's nurse-developed descriptive phenomenological method, seven adults who sustained cessation for 1.5 to 18 years, after repeated relapses, were interviewed about their experience of sustaining cessation. Data collection included interviews, field notes, and a reflexive journal. Phenomenological analysis involved dwelling intensely with the data, extracting parts of the transcript, and identifying codes and themes, defined by Streubert as essences, common to all participants' descriptions of the experience of sustained cessation. Through this inductive process, the investigator ascertained relationships among the essences, forming the basis for a formalized, exhaustive description of the experience. Six essences captured participants' experiences of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation: (a) breaking free, (b) developing an olfactory aversion, (c) reframing, (d) learning through relapse, (e) reclaiming acceptance, and (f) self-transformation. The findings suggest that maintaining cessation for a year or more is shaped by biological, psychological, and social conditions, as reflected in the essences. The essences coalesced to a tipping point of motivation and conditions leading to sustained behavior change, allowing participants to maintain cessation. PMID:27580193

  4. A successful population-based smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovan-Somborac Jaroslava

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Our country is in the third place in Europe concerning tobacco smoking. Although strict law regulations regarding indoor smoking have been brought, the law banning all tobacco advertising, and the behaviour of our population are inadequate. Our objective was to persuade smokers for the 'Quit and Win' campaign and to establish the number of smokers in health personnel employed in health facilities. Material and methods This population-based smoking cessation campaign was coordinated by Federal Institute of Public Health, through a network of Public Health Institutes within the country with the support of national and local media. Results and discussion Quit and Win campaign was organized for the third time. The campaign was realized with the financial support and sponsorship at community level throughout the country. The Federal Ministry provided a national health award. The national and local media accompanied the campaign. The campaign included 3.178 smokers and 2.575 supporters, that is 0.1% of the population over 18 years of age. This is in accordance with participants in some other countries, who had a better support. More than 60% of health care facility employees are smokers. Conclusions Our tradition, habits in the society and overall situation encourage smoking habits to spread in general population. Our campaign has proved that people should be motivated to quit smoking, but they need to be informed. Actions taken in general population and based on a positive smoking cessation program in which smokers are willing to stop smoking have given unexpectedly good results.

  5. An educational campaign to increase chiropractic intern advising roles on patient smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser Sheryl M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use, particularly smoking, is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. More than 400,000 premature deaths are associated with its use and the health care costs are in the billions. All health care provider groups should be concerned with patients who continue to smoke and use tobacco. The US Preventive Services Taskforce and Health People 2010 guidelines encourage providers to counsel smokers on cessation. Current studies, though limited regarding chiropractic advising practices indicate a low engagement rate when it comes to providing cessation information. Objective To test a campaign regarding initial impact aimed at increasing chiropractic interns advising on cessation and delivery of information to smokers on cessation. Discussion Chiropractic interns do engage patients on smoking status and can be encouraged to provide more cessation messages and information to patients. The initial impact assessment of this campaign increased the provision of information to patients by about 25%. The prevalence of smoking among chiropractic patients, particularly at teaching clinics may be lower than the national averages. Conclusion Chiropractic interns can and should be encouraged to advise smokers about cessation. A systematic method of intake information on smoking status is needed and a standardized education protocol for chiropractic colleges is needed. Chiropractic colleges should assess the adequacy of their advising roles and implement changes to increase cessation messages to their patients as soon as possible.

  6. Regulating Advertisements: The Case of Smoking Cessation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary J. Avery; Donald S. Kenkel; Lillard, Dean R.; Alan D. Mathios

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of pharmaceutical products in affected by regulations of the Food and Drug Administration and by market conditions. We focus on a relatively under-studied segment of the pharmaceutical market -- the market for smoking cessation products. Because of their proven effectiveness, these products could be the key to meeting public health goals to reduce smoking. However, in many ways, smoking cessation products have been more hea...

  7. Prize Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adjunctive behavioral smoking cessation treatments have the potential to improve outcomes beyond standard care. The present study had two aims: 1) compare standard care (SC) for smoking (four weeks of brief counseling and monitoring) to SC plus prize-based contingency management (CM), involving the chance to earn prizes on days with demonstrated smoking abstinence (carbon monoxide (CO) ≤6ppm); and 2) compare the relative efficacy of two prize reinforcement schedules - one a traditional CM schedule, and the second an early enhanced CM schedule providing greater reinforcement magnitude in the initial week of treatment but equal overall reinforcement. Methods Participants (N = 81 nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers) were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Results Prize CM resulted in significant reductions in cigarette smoking relative to SC. These reductions were not apparent at follow-up. We found no meaningful differences between the traditional and enhanced CM conditions. Conclusions Our findings reveal that prize CM leads to significant reductions in smoking during treatment relative to a control intervention, but the benefits did not extend long-term. PMID:24793364

  8. Use of Smoking Cessation Interventions by Physicians in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Veronica; Mejia, Raul; Alderete, Mariela; Kaplan, Celia P.; Peña, Lorena; Gregorich, Steven E.; Alderete, Ethel; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-implemented interventions for smoking cessation are effective but infrequently used. We evaluated smoking cessation practices among physicians in Argentina. Methods A self-administered survey of physicians from six clinical systems asked about smoking cessation counselling practices, barriers to tobacco use counselling and perceived quality of training received in smoking cessation practices. Results Of 254 physicians, 52.3% were women, 11.8% were current smokers and 52% never smoked. Perceived quality of training in tobacco cessation counselling was rated as very good or good by 41.8% and as poor/very poor by 58.2%. Most physicians (90%) reported asking and recording smoking status, 89% advised patients to quit smoking but only 37% asked them to set a quit date and 44% prescribed medications. Multivariate analyses showed that Physicians’ perceived quality of their training in smoking cessation methods was associated with greater use of evidence-based cessation interventions. (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.2–19.1); motivating patients to quit (OR: 7.9 CI 3.44–18.5), assisting patients to quit (OR = 9.9; 95% CI = 4.0–24.2) prescribing medications (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.5–26.7), and setting up follow-up (OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 4.4–38.5). Conclusions Perceived quality of training in smoking cessation was associated with using evidence-based interventions and among physicians from Argentina. Medical training programs should enhance the quality of this curriculum. PMID:27594922

  9. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  10. Smoking cessation among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: preferred cessation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Overland, Simon; Aarø, Leif E

    2011-04-01

    Despite generally declining smoking rates, particularly among young people, a large number of people remain smokers and many young people still pick up smoking. Helping smokers quit therefore remains a high priority for the public health sector. In the present study we examined adolescents and young adults' preferences regarding cessation methods and if these differed between genders and depended on smoking frequency. The data came from a nationally representative survey in Norway among 16-20 year olds. Only regular (weekly and daily) smokers were included in the statistical analyses (n = 509, 51% females). The findings suggest that the majority of both male (83.6%) and female (78.4%) smokers would prefer to quit smoking without help. More males than females reported that they would consider using snus as a cessation aid, while females more often reported willingness to attend cessation classes or use brochures and diaries as cessation aids. Both males and females had similar preferences albeit low, regarding the use of health services, nicotine gum or patches and internet and sms-services to quit smoking. Daily smokers would more often than weekly smokers prefer to attend cessation classes, seek help from health services, use nicotine gum or patches or use brochures and diaries. In contrast, weekly smokers preferred to use snus as a cessation aid more often than daily smokers. Identifying and making appropriate cessation methods attractive may lead to successful quitting and consequently public health gains. PMID:21054423

  11. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Penberthy, J. Morgan; Harris, Marcus R.; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Ponce Martinez, Caridad; Osika, Apule O.; Slepian, Zoe A.; Forsyth, Justin C.; Starr, J. Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E.; Hook, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  12. Development and application of culturally appropriate decision aids for smoking cessation in Korea: a pragmatic clustered randomization crossover trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Dong Wook; Suh, Beomseok; Chun, Sohyun; Nam, You-Seon; Cho, Belong

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Asian countries, reluctance to seek pharmacological intervention is a major barrier for smoking cessation. Culturally appropriate decision aids are expected to help people in the decision making for the use of smoking cessation medication. Objective The aim of this study was to develop a culturally tailored decision aid for smoking cessation and evaluate its effect on the use of smoking cessation medication. Patients and methods A 7-minute video on smoking cessation information and options was developed. Physicians were randomized into intervention and control groups. The decision aid was provided to patients in the intervention group, and they watched it, while those in the control group were provided usual medical care for smoking cessation. The primary outcome was the proportion of smokers who were prescribed smoking cessation medication within 1 month after consultation. The secondary outcomes were abstinence rate and use of smoking cessation medication within 6 months. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of the decision aid on the outcomes. Results In total, 414 current smokers (intervention group: 195; control group: 219) were enrolled. The mean age of the participants was 48.2 years, and 381 subjects (92%) were males. In total, 11.8% of the participants in the intervention group and 10.5% in the control group were prescribed smoking cessation medications within 1 month. The odds ratio was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.40–2.63) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. Within 6 months, 17.4% of the participants in the intervention group and 15% in the control group were prescribed medication (adjusted odds ratio 1.12, 95% CI: 0.59–2.13). Conclusion The culturally tailored smoking cessation decision aid developed in this study did not show a significant impact on the decision to use smoking cessation medication. Further research to develop more effective and more interactive interventions is expected.

  13. Smoking Cessation Counselling for Pregnant and Postpartum Women among Midwives, Gynaecologists and Paediatricians in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hannöver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of guidelines for the treatment of tobacco smoking into routine care requires positive attitudes, counselling skills and knowledge about additional help available for smokers.The study assesses performance of smoking cessation intervention, attitudes, training status and knowledge about additional help for smokers in the care for pregnant and parenting women by midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians. A survey of all midwives, gynaecologists and paediatricians registered for primary medical care in the federal state Saarland, Germany, was conducted. Participation in the postal questionnaires was 85 %. Depending on profession, 90 % to 100 % see smoking cessation counselling as their assignment, 17 % to 80 % screen for, 48 % to 90 % document smoking status, and 55 % to 76 % offer brief or extensive counselling. 61 % to 87 % consider training to enhance their knowledge and/or counselling skills necessary. The compliance of providers with the necessity to give support in smoking cessation is very high. However, the current status of cessation counselling does not sufficiently correspond to the evidence based requirements. Reports in medical press and advanced training courses should support health care providers and establish smoking as an inherent topic of the anamnesis and treatment of current and former pregnant or parenting smokers.

  14. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  15. The Gold Standard Program for Smoking Cessation is Effective for Participants Over 60 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flamand, Mette Kehlet; Schroeder, Torben V; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among the elderly than among the young, and the elderly also have the most frequent contact with the health care system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Program, which is an intensive six-week smoking...... cessation program, on continuous self-reported abstinence rates after six months, on participants over the age of 60 years in a real life setting. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study from the national Danish smoking cessation database. RESULTS: The database registered 7369 participants over...... recommendation for smoking cessation (OR 1.12), being compliant with program (OR 1.35) and being abstinent at end of course (OR 13.3). CONCLUSIONS: Participants over the age of 60 years had significantly higher continuous abstinence rates after six months than the participants less than 60 years. It is never too...

  16. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented. PMID:26738374

  17. Evaluation of a student-run smoking cessation clinic for a medically underserved population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbert Jon O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is common among medically underserved populations. Accessible resources to encourage and support smoking cessation among these patients are limited. Volunteer medical student-run free smoking cessation clinics may provide an effective option to help these individuals achieve smoking abstinence. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a student-run clinic, we analyzed a case series of patients receiving care in a medical student-run Smoking Cessation Clinic (SCC at the Rochester, Minnesota Salvation Army Good Samaritan Health Clinic (GSHC. Findings Between January 2005 and March 2009, 282 cigarette smokers seeking care at the SCC were analyzed. Student providers at the SCC conducted 1652 weekly individual counseling sessions averaging 18 minutes per encounter. Patients were offered a choice of pharmacotherapies including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline for up to 12 weeks. Smoking abstinence was confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO. Thirty-two patients completed the entire 12-week program (11.3%. At last contact, 94 patients (33.3% abstained from smoking for ≥ 7 days and 39 patients (13.8% were continuously abstinent for ≥ 4 weeks. The 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at last contact were 58.6% for varenicline, 41.2% for bupropion, 33.9% for NRT, and 23.5% for bupropion and NRT. Analyzing missing patients as smoking, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 7.1%, 8.9%, and 8.2%, at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after program enrollment, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusions Our medical student-run smoking cessation clinic provided an effective and safe experience for medically underserved patients who might not otherwise have access to conventional smoking cessation programs because of high cost, lack of insurance, or other disparities. Similar medical student initiatives focusing on healthy lifestyles

  18. Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents during Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…

  19. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed...

  20. Smoking cessation: How compelling is the evidence? A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Philip

    2009-01-01

    with scientific well-documented efficacy when used for 2-3 months and mostly mild side effects. Alternative therapies such as hypnosis and acupuncture have no scientifically proven effects. CONCLUSIONS: With the most optimal drugs and counseling today a 1-year abstinence rate of approximately 25% can be expected...... in smoking cessation. On-going research is examining the potential effects of nicotine vaccination as relapse prevention.......OBJECTIVES: To provide a short review of the evidence base supporting smoking cessation interventions, including behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment options. METHODS: Published meta-analysis was mainly used supplemented with a limited literature search. RESULTS: Effective smoking...

  1. ROLE OF VARENICLINE IN SMOKING CESSATION: INDIAN SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is one of the leading causes of worldwide morbidity as well as mortality which are largely preventable. Smoking cessation, though a difficult task to achieve, can lead to both immediate and long term health benefits such as reduction of the risk of lung cancer, chronic lung disease, stroke etc. This article reviews the various pharmacological interventions of smoking cessation like nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and nortryptiline etc., especially the role of a novel agent Varenicline in reducing nicotine dependence as well as in decreasing craving after nicotine withdrawal that holds promising effectiveness in Indian scenario.

  2. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  3. Tobacco smoking cessation management: integrating varenicline in current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Galanti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurence M GalantiClinique Universitaire UCL, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Tobacco smoking is widespread and is one of the world’s most prevalent modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is important to facilitate smoking cessation better in order to reduce the health consequences of tobacco use. The most effective approach assisting smokers in their quit attempts combines both pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions. This review summarizes the latest international epidemiological data available on tobacco use, considers the associated effects on health, and reviews existing policies against tobacco use. Among the interventions for smoking cessation, the three major pharmacotherapies (which have demonstrated efficacy when combined with behavioral support are discussed: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline. As the newest pharmacotherapy made available in this area, particular consideration is given to varenicline, and a review of our clinical experience is offered.Keywords: tobacco smoking cessation, nicotinic substitution, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, varenicline

  4. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Ghorai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape.

  5. Contributions of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Paiva Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the contribution of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Method Double-blind randomized controlled trial, conducted with 30 smokers allocated into two groups: Experimental Group (21 participants received 10 sessions of auriculotherapy at specific points for smoking and Control Group (nine participants received auriculotherapy in points that have no effect on the focus of research. Results Auriculotherapy contributed in reducing the number of cigarettes smoked in 61.9% of participants (p=0.002, in reducing the difficult to abstain from smoking in places where it is forbidden by 38% (p=0.050 and in not smoking when ill 23.8% (p=0.025. Conclusion Given the efficacy only in terms of reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and other parameters, we suggest that future studies consider the use of auriculotherapy combined with other treatment methods, in order to achieve better results in cessation/abstinence.

  6. Nonjudging facet of mindfulness predicts enhanced smoking cessation in Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Stewart, Diana W; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Wetter, David W

    2015-12-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations, including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, nonjudgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age of 39 years, 77.9% with a high school education or less) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 postquit (biochemically confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficient regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting With Awareness, Nonjudging, and Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks postquit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness.

  7. Addressing Heavy Drinking in Smoking Cessation Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; LaChance, Heather R.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Abrams, David B.; Monti, Peter M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking and may impede smoking cessation. This clinical trial examined whether smoking cessation treatment that incorporates brief alcohol intervention can improve smoking cessation outcomes (7-day verified point prevalence abstinence) and reduce drinks consumed per week. Heavy drinkers seeking…

  8. Brief preoperative smoking cessation counselling in relation to breast cancer surgery: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Samuelsen, Susanne;

    2009-01-01

    of cancer diagnosis was difficult for some women. They relapsed to smoking as an ingrown response to emotional distress. The smoking intervention heightened the women's awareness of their addiction to smoking; however, they expressed a need for prolonged smoking cessation support. For others, the smoking......: In newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, brief preoperative smoking intervention motivated smoking cessation. However, prolonged intervention, pre- and postoperatively, may more effectively support cessation in breast cancer patients and should therefore be evaluated in this patient population....

  9. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Shinohara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP.

  10. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  11. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption......OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking......, baseline motivation to stop smoking, and having a non-smoking spouse/cohabitant. The same result was obtained when the analyses were repeated separately for smokers with and without motivation to stop. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers motivated to stop are more likely to quit and remain abstinent than smokers...

  12. Smoking cessation: the role of the foot and ankle surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Bevilacqua, Nicholas J

    2010-02-01

    Tobacco cigarette smoking causes many negative effects on the body, and it is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. These negative effects are a concern for the foot and ankle surgeon, as smoking can increase the risk of diabetes and peripheral artery disease and delay healing of surgical incisions and ulcerations of the lower extremities. Tobacco cigarette smoking can also increase the risk of avascular necrosis and delayed union and nonunions of fractures and osteotomies. Smoking cessation is an important component in the overall treatment of conditions affecting the foot and ankle. Smoking cessation can be a difficult goal to achieve, but proper education and support can help patients reach this goal. PMID:20400436

  13. Anxiety and Depression in Bidirectional Relations Between Pain and Smoking: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zale, Emily L; Maisto, Stephen A; Ditre, Joseph W

    2016-01-01

    Pain and tobacco smoking are highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that impose considerable burdens on individuals and health care systems. A recently proposed reciprocal model suggests that these conditions interact in a bidirectional manner, resulting in greater pain and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Anxiety and depression are common among smokers in pain and have been identified as central mechanisms of interest. There is emerging evidence that smokers with anxiety/depression may experience more severe pain and functional impairment, greater pain-induced motivation to smoke, and increased sensitivity to pain during periods of smoking abstinence. Based on empirical findings, we hypothesize that these experiences may engender expectations that abstaining from smoking will exacerbate both pain and negative affect, thus eroding self-efficacy for smoking cessation and increasing perceived barriers to quitting. The goal of this narrative review is to examine the role of anxiety/depression in complex pain-smoking relations so as to advance evolving theoretical perspectives and inform the development of tailored interventions. PMID:26467214

  14. Application of motivational interviewing to prenatal smoking cessation: training and implementation issues

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez, M.; J. Hecht; V. Quinn; Emmons, K; DiClemente, C.; Dolan-Mullen, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Three of the Smoke-Free Families projects incorporated motivational interviewing (MI) into prenatal smoking cessation interventions. This paper describes the process involved in training healthcare providers to use MI and the issues encountered in implementing the protocols.
DESIGN—Health care providers at all three sites attended local training workshops in which they learned to apply the basics of MI to their study protocol. All sites followed a similar outline and schedule for tr...

  15. Facilitators and Barriers to Effective Smoking Cessation: Counselling Services for Inpatients from Nurse-Counsellors’ Perspectives — A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chuan Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use has reached epidemic levels around the World, resulting in a world-wide increase in tobacco-related deaths and disabilities. Hospitalization presents an opportunity for nurses to encourage inpatients to quit smoking. This qualitative descriptive study was aimed to explore nurse-counsellors’ perspectives of facilitators and barriers in the implementation of effective smoking cessation counselling services for inpatients. In-depth interviews were conducted with 16 nurses who were qualified smoking cessation counsellors and who were recruited from eleven health promotion hospitals that were smoke-free and located in the Greater Taipei City Area.  Data were collected from May 2012 to October 2012, and then analysed using content analysis based on the grounded theory approach. From nurse-counsellors’ perspectives, an effective smoking cessation program should be patient-centred and provide a supportive environment. Another finding is that effective smoking cessation counselling involves encouraging patients to modify their lifestyles. Time constraints and inadequate resources are barriers that inhibit the effectiveness of smoking cessation counselling programs in acute-care hospitals. We suggest that hospitals should set up a smoking counselling follow-up program, including funds, facilities, and trained personnel to deliver counselling services by telephone, and build a network with community smoking cessation resources.

  16. A Pilot Test of Self-Affirmations to Promote Smoking Cessation in a National Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M.P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Augustson, Erik; Patrick, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. Objective To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention. Methods Data were collected from smokers (n=1261) who subscribed to a free smoking cessation program and met eligibility criteria. The intervention lasted 42 days. The original design was a 2 (Baseline affirmation: 5-item questionnaire present vs absent) × 2 (Integrated affirmation: texts present vs absent) factorial design. Only 17 eligible users completed all baseline affirmation questions and these conditions did not influence any outcomes, so we collapsed across baseline affirmation conditions in analysis. In the integrated affirmation conditions, affirmations replaced approximately 20% of texts delivering motivational content. Results In all, 687 users remained enrolled throughout the 42-day intervention and 81 reported smoking status at day 42. Among initiators (n=1261), self-affirmation did not significantly improve (1) intervention completion, (2) days enrolled, (3) 1-week smoking status, or (4) 6-week smoking status (all Ps>.10); and among the 687 completers, there were no significant effects of affirmation on cessation (Ps>.25). However, among the 81 responders, those who received affirmations were more likely to report cessation at 6 weeks (97.5%; 39 of 40) than those not given affirmations (78.1%; 32 of 41; χ2(1)=7.08, P=.008). Conclusion This proof-of-concept study provides preliminary evidence that self

  17. Parents who quit smoking and their adult children's smoking cessation: a 20-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricker, J.B.; Otten, R.; Liu, J.L.; Peterson, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Extending our earlier findings from a longitudinal cohort study, this study examines parents' early and late smoking cessation as predictors of their young adult children's smoking cessation. Design - Parents' early smoking cessation status was assessed when their children were aged 8 years;

  18. A before-after implementation trial of smoking cessation guidelines in hospitalized veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisinger Heather

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most hospitalized smokers receive some form of cessation counseling during hospitalization, few receive outpatient cessation counseling and/or pharmacotherapy following discharge, which are key factors associated with long-term cessation. US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals are challenged to find resources to implement and maintain the kind of high intensity cessation programs that have been shown to be effective in research studies. Few studies have applied the Chronic Care Model (CCM to improve inpatient smoking cessation. Specific objectives The primary objective of this protocol is to determine the effect of a nurse-initiated intervention, which couples low-intensity inpatient counseling with sustained proactive telephone counseling, on smoking abstinence in hospitalized patients. Key secondary aims are to determine the impact of the intervention on staff nurses' attitudes toward providing smoking cessation counseling; to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in VA hospitals; and to determine the short-term cost-effectiveness of implementing the intervention. Design Pre-post study design in four VA hospitals Participants Hospitalized patients, aged 18 or older, who smoke at least one cigarette per day. Intervention The intervention will include: nurse training in delivery of bedside cessation counseling, electronic medical record tools (to streamline nursing assessment and documentation, to facilitate prescription of pharmacotherapy, computerized referral of motivated inpatients for proactive telephone counseling, and use of internal nursing facilitators to provide coaching to staff nurses practicing in non-critical care inpatient units. Outcomes The primary endpoint is seven-day point prevalence abstinence at six months following hospital admission and prolonged abstinence after a one-month grace period. To compare abstinence rates during the

  19. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest. PMID:25879476

  20. Smoking cessation: an economic analysis and review of varenicline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A Faulkner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Michele A FaulknerCreighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Despite efforts to decrease tobacco use, smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. The associated economic burden is substantial, both in the form of direct costs (healthcare expenditures and indirect costs (lost productivity, regardless of whether the burden is assessed from the standpoint of an employer, a health plan, or society as a whole. Cessation programs are considered among the most cost-effective in healthcare, and are often used as a benchmark for other medical interventions. This analysis specifically considers the cost-effectiveness of varenicline, a novel α4β2 partial agonist used for smoking cessation, in comparison to other approved therapies. Clinical trial data have demonstrated that varenicline has the ability to decrease cravings and withdrawal symptoms, and lessen positive reinforcement associated with smoking. Varenicline’s novel mechanism has translated into superior efficacy in comparison to other available therapies. For this reason, despite an initial cost that typically exceeds that of other medications, varenicline is a cost-effective option for smoking cessation.Keywords: cost-effectiveness, economic analysis, smoking cessation, varenicline 

  1. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, M; Rigotti, N; Lancaster, T; Stead, L; Murphy, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—An admission to hospital provides an opportunity to help people stop smoking. Individuals may be more open to help at a time of perceived vulnerability, and may find it easier to quit in an environment where smoking is restricted or prohibited. Providing smoking cessation services during hospitalisation may help more people to attempt and sustain an attempt to quit. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the effectiveness of interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients.
METHODS—We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group register, CINAHL, and the Smoking and Health database for studies of interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of behavioural, pharmacological, or multi-component interventions to help patients stop smoking conducted with hospitalised patients who were current smokers or recent quitters were included. Studies of patients admitted for psychiatric disorders or substance abuse, those that did not report abstinence rates, and those with follow up of less than 6 months were excluded. Two of the authors extracted data independently for each paper, with assistance from others.
RESULTS—Intensive intervention (inpatient contact plus follow up for at least 1 month) was associated with a significantly higher cessation rate compared with controls (Peto odds ratio (OR) 1.82,95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Any contact during hospitalisation followed by minimal follow up failed to detect a statistically significant effect on cessation rate, but did not rule out a 30% increase in smoking cessation (Peto OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.31). There was insufficient evidence to judge the effect of interventions delivered only during the hospital stay. Although the interventions increased quit rates irrespective of whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was used, the results for NRT were compatible with other data indicating that it increases quit rates. There was no

  2. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  3. Determinants of smoking status : cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, AJM; Tijhuis, M; Surtees, PG; Ormel, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and women

  4. Determinants of smoking status: cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and women

  5. 78 FR 13236 - TRICARE: Smoking Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... proposed rule was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 58199) dated September 20, 2011, for a 60-day... Cessation, one comment was received from a retiree who was upset that he might be forced to pay more for..., except that the following are not excluded: (i) Services provided by a certified marriage and...

  6. College smoking-cessation using cell phone text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayer, Jami L; Riley, William T; Asif, Ofer; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2004-01-01

    Although rates of smoking among college-aged students continue to rise, few interventions that focus on college smokers' unique motivations and episodic smoking patterns exist. The authors developed and evaluated a prototype program targeting college students that integrates Web and cell phone technologies to deliver a smoking-cessation intervention. To guide the user through the creation and initialization of an individualized quitting program delivered by means of cell phone text messaging, the program uses assessment tools delivered with the program Web site. Forty-six regular smokers were recruited from local colleges and provided access to the program. At 6-week follow-up, 43% had made at least one 24-hour attempt to quit, and 22% were quit--based on a 7-day prevalence criterion. The findings provide support for using wireless text messages to deliver potentially effective smoking-cessation behavioral interventions to college students. PMID:15495883

  7. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Bal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible responding pattern, has yielded successful results.This article presents application of acceptance and commitment therapy step by step to a chronic smoker who quitted smoking at the end of therapy sessions. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 841-846

  8. The Effects of Smoking Cessation on the Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Christopher L.; Chien, Jason W.; Sun, Haili; Udris, Edmunds M.; Evans, Laura E.; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking cessation has been demonstrated to reduce the rate of loss of lung function and mortality among patients with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is a paucity of evidence about the effects of smoking cessation on the risk of COPD exacerbations. OBJECTIVE We sought to examine whether smoking status and the duration of abstinence from tobacco smoke is associated with a decreased risk of COPD exacerbations. DESIGN We assessed current smoking status and duration of smoking abstinence by self-report. Our primary outcome was either an inpatient or outpatient COPD exacerbation. We used Cox regression to estimate the risk of COPD exacerbation associated with smoking status and duration of smoking cessation. PARTICIPANTS We performed a cohort study of 23,971 veterans who were current and past smokers and had been seen in one of seven Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care clinics throughout the US. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS In comparison to current smokers, ex-smokers had a significantly reduced risk of COPD exacerbation after adjusting for age, comorbidity, markers of COPD severity and socio-economic status (adjusted HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75–0.87). The magnitude of the reduced risk was dependent on the duration of smoking abstinence (adjusted HR: quit <1 year, 1.04; 95% CI 0.87–1.26; 1–5 years 0.93, 95% CI 0.79–1.08; 5–10 years 0.84, 95% CI 0.70–1.00; ≥10 years 0.65, 95% CI 0.58–0.74; linear trend <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Smoking cessation is associated with a reduced risk of COPD exacerbations, and the described reduction is dependent upon the duration of abstinence. PMID:19194768

  9. Toward an mHealth Intervention for Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, G. M. Tanimul; Addo, Ivor D.; Ahamed, S. Iqbal; Petereit, Daniel; Kanekar, Shalini; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Krebs, Linda U.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of tobacco dependence in the United States (US) remains alarming. Invariably, smoke-related health problems are the leading preventable causes of death in the US. Research has shown that a culturally tailored cessation counseling program can help reduce smoking and other tobacco usage. In this paper, we present a mobile health (mHealth) solution that leverages the Short Message Service (SMS) or text messaging feature of mobile devices to motivate behavior change among tobacco u...

  10. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Jennifer L; Bonevski, Billie; McDonald, Christine F; Abramson, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as "lung age" should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large. PMID:27445499

  11. The barriers to smoking cessation in Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stohler Rudolf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates in methadone-maintained patients are almost three times higher than in the general population and remain elevated and stable. Due to the various negative health effects of smoking, nicotine dependence contributes to the high mortality in this patient group. The purpose of the current study was to investigate Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients' willingness to stop smoking and to clarify further smoking cessation procedures. Methods Substance abuse history, nicotine dependence, and readiness to stop smoking were assessed in a sample of 103 opiate-dependent patients in the metropolitan area of Zurich, Switzerland. Patients were asked to document their smoking patterns and readiness to quit. Results Only a small number of patients were willing to quit smoking cigarettes (10.7% and, even though bupropione or nicotine replacement therapy was included in the fixed daily treatment care, only one patient received nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. A diagnosis of depression in patients' clinical records was associated with readiness to stop smoking. No significant associations were found between readiness to quit smoking and age, methadone treatment characteristics, and presence of co-dependencies. Conclusion The current prescription level of best medicine for nicotine dependence in Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients is far from adequate. Possible explanations and treatment-relevant implications are discussed.

  12. Brief smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Tønnesen, Hanne; Okholm, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    Smokers are more prone to develop postoperative complications. Smoking cessation intervention beginning 4-8 weeks prior to surgery improves the postoperative outcome. Cancer patients, however, often undergo surgery less than 4 weeks after diagnosis. The primary objective of this study was therefo...... to examine if a brief smoking cessation intervention shortly before breast cancer surgery would influence postoperative complications and smoking cessation....

  13. Brief smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Tønnesen, Hanne; Okholm, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    Smokers are more prone to develop postoperative complications. Smoking cessation intervention beginning 4-8 weeks prior to surgery improves the postoperative outcome. Cancer patients, however, often undergo surgery less than 4 weeks after diagnosis. The primary objective of this study was therefore...... to examine if a brief smoking cessation intervention shortly before breast cancer surgery would influence postoperative complications and smoking cessation....

  14. High cessation rates of cigarette smoking in subjects with and without COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, B; Lesman-Leegte, I.; Timens, W; Postma, DJ; ten Hacken, N

    2005-01-01

    Background/objective: In general, smoking cessation programs have low success rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of a 1-year smoking cessation program. This program was part of a research project investigating the effects of smoking cessation. Participants: In this longitudinal study on the effec

  15. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is…

  16. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perret JL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Perret,1–3 Billie Bonevski,4 Christine F McDonald,2,3,5 Michael J Abramson6,7 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Institute for Breathing & Sleep, Melbourne, VIC, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, 4School of Medicine & Public Health, University of Newcastle, NSW, 5Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 6School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 7Allergy, Immunology & Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as “lung age” should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large

  17. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Pain in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Hooten, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Smokers are at increased risk of developing chronic pain and suffering higher pain intensity. However, nicotine has analgesic properties, and smokers may view smoking as a means to cope with pain. Smoking cessation is clearly beneficial to the long-term health of smokers. However, it is not known how abstinence from smoking affects pain. The aim of this study was to determine the association between smoking cessation and changes in pain symptoms by secondary analysis of a large longitudinal dataset of older adults. Methods: Secondary analyses were performed of longitudinal biennial survey data (1992 through 2006) from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study of United States adults older than 50 years. Multivariate logistic regressions were utilized to determine the relationship between the changes in smoking status and changes in pain symptoms, controlling for demographics, depression, self-rated health, history of arthritis, and body mass index. Results: In multivariate analyses, among the 4,695 smokers who reported no pain or mild pain at enrollment, smoking status was not independently associated with exacerbation of pain (odds ratio [OR]: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.08). Among the 1,118 smokers who reported moderate to severe pain at enrollment, smoking status was not independently associated with improvement of pain (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.08). Conclusions: Smoking cessation was not independently associated with changes in pain symptoms in older adults. These results suggest that concerns regarding the effects of abstinence from smoking on pain should not pose a barrier to offering tobacco use interventions to smokers with chronic pain. PMID:21571690

  18. Smoking Cessation Intervention After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were......-report and verified by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Fewer patients than expected were recruited, which renders this report a pilot study. RESULTS: The 6-month self-reported smoking cessation rate was 37.8% in the minimal intervention group and 42.9% in the intensive intervention group. Smoking...... randomized to minimal smoking cessation intervention or intensive smoking cessation intervention. All patients attended a 30-min individual counseling by the study nurse. Patients randomized to intensive smoking cessation intervention also participated in a 5-session outpatient smoking cessation program...

  19. Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind.

  20. Experienced barriers and facilitators for integrating smoking cessation advice and support into daily dental practice. A short report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Hilberink, S.R.; Maassen, I.M.; Segaar, D.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In a controlled study, primary care dental professionals in the intervention group were encouraged to provide smoking cessation advice and support for all smoking patients with the help of a stage-based motivational protocol. The barriers and facilitators reported by the dental professionals on two

  1. Effectiveness of dentist’s intervention in smoking cessation: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Omaña Cepeda, Carlos; Jane Salas, Enric; Estrugo Devesa, Albert; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo; López López, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is one of the main public health problems in developed countries. Despite extensive evidence on the effects of smoking on both oral and general health, the rate of smoking cessation is not promising. Material and Methods To review the evidence on knowledge and programs for smoking cessation developed by dentists, a literature review was carried out on programs for smoking cessation from the dentist’s perspective, as well as a review of behavioral guidelines that have been...

  2. Successful Smoking Cessation in COPD: Association with Comorbidities and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kupiainen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of COPD management, but difficult to achieve in clinical practice. The effect of comorbidities on smoking cessation and risk factors for mortality were studied in a cohort of 739 COPD patients recruited in two Finnish University Hospitals. The diagnosis of COPD was done for the first time on average 5.5 years prior to the enrollment. Data from the medical records and followup questionnaires (years 0, 1, 2, and 4 have been analyzed. The patients’ lung function varied greatly; mean FEV1 58% of predicted. A total of 60.2% of men and 55.6% of women had been able to quit smoking. Alcohol abuse (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.3 and psychiatric conditions (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7 were strongly related to low success rates of quitting. Among current smokers high nicotine dependency was again explained by alcohol abuse and psychiatric conditions. Non-quitters were younger than quitters, but their mortality rates remained significantly higher even when the model was adjusted for impairment of lung functions and comorbidities. In conclusion, co-existing addiction and psychiatric diseases significantly decreased the success rates in smoking cessation and increased mortality among the patients.

  3. Methods for smoking cessation and treatment of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira; Montovani, Jair Cortez

    2005-01-01

    Smoking is related to 30% of cancer deaths. It is a risk factor for respiratory tract, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, uterine cervix, kidney and bladder carcinomas. Nicotine induces tolerance and addiction by acting on the central dopaminergic pathways, thus leading to pleasure and reward sensations within the limbic system. It stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), enhances alertness and reduces the appetite. A 50% reduction of nicotine consumption may trigger withdrawal symptoms in addicted individuals: anxiety, anger, sleep disorders, hunger, cognitive dysfunction and cigarette craving. Medical advice is the cornerstone of smoking cessation. Pharmacotherapy of nicotine addiction comprises first-line (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy) and second-line (clonidine and nortriptyline) drugs. Bupropion is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that inhibits dopamine uptake, whose contraindications are: epilepsy, eating disorders, uncontrolled hypertension, recent alcohol abstinence and current therapy with MAO inhibitors. Nicotine replacement therapy can be done with patches or gums. Counseling groups and behavioral interventions are efficacious. The effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation are not fully elucidated. Prompt smoking cessation or gradual reduction strategies have similar success rates. PMID:16878254

  4. Pilot Cases of Combined Cognitive Processing Therapy and Smoking Cessation for Smokers With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedert, Eric A; Resick, Patricia A; McFall, Miles E; Dennis, Paul A; Olsen, Maren; Beckham, Jean C

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and smoking are often comorbid, and both problems are in need of improved access to evidence-based treatment. The combined approach could address two high-priority problems and increase patient access to both treatments, but research is needed to determine whether this is feasible and has promise for addressing both PTSD and smoking. We collected data from 15 test cases that received a treatment combining two evidence-based treatments: cognitive processing therapy-cognitive version (CPT-C) for PTSD and integrated care for smoking cessation (ICSC). We explored two combined treatment protocols including a brief (six-session) CPT-C with five follow-up in-person sessions focused on smoking cessation (n=9) and a full 12-session CPT-C protocol with ICSC (n=6). The combined interventions were feasible and acceptable to patients with PTSD making a quit attempt. Initial positive benefits of the combined treatments were observed. The six-session dose of CPT-C and smoking cessation resulted in 6-month bioverified smoking abstinence in two of nine participants, with clinically meaningful PTSD symptom reduction in three of nine participants. In the second cohort (full CPT-C and smoking treatment), both smoking and PTSD symptoms were improved, with three of six participants abstinent from smoking and four of six participants reporting clinically meaningful reduction in PTSD symptoms. Results suggested that individuals with PTSD who smoke are willing to engage in concurrent treatment of these problems and that combined treatment is feasible.

  5. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Harold G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19 in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh] via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA (χ2(3 = 8.068, p fpA (χ2(3 = 8.477, p h (χ2(3 = 37.599, p gpA and d(PfpA lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA, 64% of baseline for d(PfpA, vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh. Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis.

  6. Health and economic implications of a work-site smoking-cessation program: a simulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E; Smith, R J; Smith, D G; Fries, B E

    1996-10-01

    In this article, we examine the health and economic implications of a workplace smoking-cessation program by using a simulation model that includes, among its novel features, consideration of long-term as well as short-term implications and evaluation of the effects of employee turnover on benefits derived by both the firm and the broader community. As a result of employee turnover, approximately half of the program-generated benefits are realized by the community outside the firm. Still, smoking cessation is a very sound economic investment for the firm, and is particularly profitable when long-term benefits are included, with an eventual benefit-cost ratio of 8.75. Saving life-years at a cost of $894 each, the program is more cost-effective than most of the conventional medical care covered by the firm's insurance. Nevertheless, the intervention successfully addresses only a fraction of the costs that smoking imposes on the firm.

  7. Smoking cessation intervention practices in Chinese physicians: do gender and smoking status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Chan, Ya-Fen; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare settings provide a major arena for administering smoking cessation interventions. However, few studies have reported differences in the frequency of practice in healthcare professionals by gender and smoking status. This might also be influenced by a difference in smoking prevalence by gender, especially in China and other developing countries. This study examined factors associated with the frequency of cessation intervention practices by smoking status among Chinese physicians in men and women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006 in physicians with direct patient contact from nine hospitals in Guangzhou with a response rate of 60.8%. Significantly more female physicians who were non-smokers (79.7%) reported "initiation and/or advice" smoking cessation interventions than male physicians who were smokers (71.2%) and non-smokers (71.6%). Factors significantly associated with "initiation and/or advice" were prior smoking cessation training (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.8-9.6) and lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) among male physicians who smoked; and organisational support (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2) and successful past experience (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) among male physicians who did not smoke. Among female physicians who did not smoke, significant factors were agreeing that quitting smoking is the most cost-effective way to prevent chronic disease and cancer (OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.1), helping patients stop smoking is part of expected role and responsibility (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7), lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) and organisational support (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) for non-smoking female physicians. This study is the first to show that male physicians were less likely to provide smoking cessation counselling regardless of their smoking status while non-smoking female physicians were more active in advising patients on quitting. The findings highlight the need for developing

  8. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Lipids and Lipoproteins: Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Adam D.; Piper, Megan E.; Johnson, Heather M.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.; Stein, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on lipoproteins have not been studied in a large contemporary group of smokers. This study was designed to determine the effects of smoking cessation on lipoproteins. Methods One-year, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Fasting nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy lipoprotein profiles were obtained before and 1-year after the target smoking cessation date. The effects of smoking cessation and predictors of changes in lipoproteins after one year were identified by multivariable regression. Results The 1,504 current smokers were mean (standard deviation) 45.4 (11.3) years old and smoked 21.4 (8.9) cigarettes/day at baseline. Of the 923 adult smokers who returned at 1 year, 334 (36.2%) had quit smoking. Despite gaining more weight (4.6 kg [5.7] vs. 0.7 kg [5.1], p<0.001], abstainers had increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (2.4 [8.3] vs. 0.1 [8.8] mg/dL, p<0.001], total HDL (1.0 [4.6] vs. −0.3 mcmol/L [5.0], p<0.001) and large HDL (0.6 [2.2] vs. 0.1 [2.1] mcmol/L, p=0.003) particles, compared with continuing smokers. Significant changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and particles were not observed. After adjustment, abstinence from smoking (p<0.001) was independently associated with increases in HDL-C and total HDL particles. These effects were stronger in women. Conclusions Despite weight gain, smoking cessation improved HDL-C, total HDL and large HDL particles, especially in women. Smoking cessation did not affect LDL or LDL size. Increases in HDL may mediate part of the reduced cardiovascular disease risk observed after smoking cessation. PMID:21167347

  9. Electrocardiographic changes associated with smoking and smoking cessation: outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Gepner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD can be detected and quantified by analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG; however the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the ECG have not been characterized. METHODS: Standard 12-lead ECGs were performed at baseline and 3 years after subjects enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. ECGs were interpreted using the Minnesota Code ECG Classification. The effects of (i smoking burden on the prevalence of ECG findings at baseline, and (ii smoking and smoking cessation on ECG changes after 3 years were investigated by multivariable and multinomial regression analyses. RESULTS: At baseline, 532 smokers were (mean [SD] 43.3 (11.5 years old, smoked 20.6 (7.9 cigarettes/day, with a smoking burden of 26.7 (18.6 pack-years. Major and minor ECG criteria were identified in 87 (16.4% and 131 (24.6% of subjects, respectively. After adjusting for demographic data and known CVD risk factors, higher pack-years was associated with major ECG abnormalities (p = 0.02, but current cigarettes/day (p = 0.23 was not. After 3 years, 42.9% of subjects were abstinent from smoking. New major and minor ECG criteria were observed in 7.2% and 15.6% of subjects respectively, but in similar numbers of abstinent subjects and continuing smokers (p>0.2 for both. Continuing smokers showed significant reduction in current smoking (-8.4 [8.8] cigarettes/day, p<0.001 compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, major ECG abnormalities are independently associated with lifetime smoking burden. After 3 years, smoking cessation was not associated with a decrease in ECG abnormalities, although cigarettes smoked/day decreased among continuing smokers.

  10. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Munck

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.

  11. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens; Westergaard, Christian G.; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke; Hansen, Lars H.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity. PMID:27391160

  12. Intervention to assess and improve the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals in brief counseling for smoking cessation: The B.O.A.T program (Brief Opportunistic Advice Training Program for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Kikkini-Paschou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Health care professionals can contribute to controlling the epidemic of smoking by applying brief counseling for smoking cessation in clinical practice. Purpose: The program B.O.A.T was implemented to increase knowledge and enhance health professionals’ attitudes on the brief counseling for smoking cessation. The purpose of the intervention was to enforce participants' intention to implement counseling. Material and Method: The research project was a pretest-posttest equivalent groups design. The sample consisted of 33 health professionals of various specialties. The intervention consisted of a two-hour training course and distribution of printed material. Attitudes, subjective norm, perceived control and intention of health professionals were measured, regarding the counseling in smoking cessation. Results: Statistical analysis showed an increase of perceived control in the experimental group (p = 0.031 and increase of its intention to implement smoking cessation counseling compared to the comparison group (p = 0.003. There was no difference between and within groups before and after the intervention for the variables of attitudes and subjective norm. The evaluation also showed an increase of knowledge in the experimental group. Conclusion: This study reinforces the current literature which supports that training health professionals on smoking cessation counseling can be effective. The theoretical background turns out to be important. In the future more time and resources should be invested to increase effectiveness and efficiency of such programs.

  13. Pilot Mobile Smoking Cessation Program Reaches Underserved — Increases Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Barouh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot mobile smoking cessation programthat occurred between 2007 and 2009 across two suburban New Yorkcounties, serving 1,263 individuals. The program was designed andcarried out with three objectives: (a to assess and reduce a potential service disparity faced by adult smokers in heavily disadvantaged communities—including people marginalized by homelessness, economic distress, lack of transportation, alcoholism / drug addiction, mental illness, and/or HIV; (b to use evidence-based methods to promote smoking cessation and reduction among such adults in 14 specific lowincome Long Island, NY areas; (c to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the program’s mobile service modality. Results of this pilot program show that meaningful percentages of the target population had: (1 never encountered a smoking cessation message prior to engagement with thismobile program (38%; (2 a demonstrated desire to quit smoking despite the heightened stresses in their lives that other people don’t face, and (3 a demonstrated ability to quit or reduce smoking when given help in a form (including mobile service that works for them. This paper concludes that Stakeholders and Policymakers in this and/or similar jurisdications would benefit from uniting to fund and design an extended mobile service delivery and data-gathering project that serves a greater number of at-risk/ multi-disadvantaged people, while seeking to quantify the financialsavings to the community that results from helping disadvantaged people to: (1 quit smoking and (2 become linked to affordable doctors for regular check-ups. This pilot program demonstrated a positive social justice impact and suggests a possible parallel positive financial impact on the community worthy of exploration.

  14. Comparative analysis of smoking cessation smartphone applications available in 2012 versus 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ubhi, H. K.; Kotz, D; Michie, S; van Schayck, O. C.; Sheard, D.; Selladurai, A.; West, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Smartphone applications (apps) offer a potentially cost-effective and a wide-reach aid to smoking cessation. In 2012, a content analysis of smoking cessation apps suggested that most apps did not adopt behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which according to previous research had suggested would promote higher success rates in quitting smoking. This study examined whether or not, this situation had changed by 2014 for free smoking cessation apps available in the Apple App S...

  15. Comparative analysis of smoking cessation smartphone applications available in 2012 versus 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; Onno C P van Schayck; Sheard, David; Selladurai, Abiram; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Smartphone applications (apps) offer a potentially cost-effective and a wide-reach aid to smoking cessation. In 2012, a content analysis of smoking cessation apps suggested that most apps did not adopt behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which according to previous research had suggested would promote higher success rates in quitting smoking. This study examined whether or not, this situation had changed by 2014 for free smoking cessation apps available in the Apple App St...

  16. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    , in smokers, predictive of long-term lung cancer development. Whether smoking cessation impacts the suPAR level is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight smokers were randomized into three groups of 16: (i) continued to smoke 20 cigarettes per day, (ii) refrained from smoking and used transdermal...... nicotine patches and (iii) refrained from smoking and used placebo patches. Nonsmokers were included for comparison. suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: At baseline, the suPAR level was significantly higher in the 48 smokers (median 3·2 ng mL, IQR (2·5-3·9)) than...... in 46 never smokers (1·9 ng/mL (1·7-2·2)). In smokers randomized to smoking cessation, suPAR levels after 4 weeks of stopping were decreased and no longer significantly different from the never smokers values. SuPAR decreased in both those who received a placebo as well as nicotine patch. Interestingly...

  17. Reach and uptake of Internet- and phone-based smoking cessation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Dalum, P; Ekholm, O;

    2014-01-01

    To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling).......To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling)....

  18. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

  19. Smoking cessation in cardiac patients: the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-06-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac patients completed a baseline questionnaire (N = 245) assessing demographic characteristics, smoking behavior, intention, self-efficacy, relapse self-efficacy and action and coping plans. Six months later (N = 184) continued abstinence from smoking was assessed. Self-efficacy predicted intention to quit smoking and was an indirect predictor of continued abstinence, through intention. Intention to quit smoking and making action plans both directly influenced continued abstinence. Future interventions to facilitate smoking cessation in cardiac patients should put strong emphasis on enhancing self-efficacy and on making specific action plans to increase the likelihood of smoking cessation.

  20. Systematic critical review of previous economic evaluations of smoking cessation during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Matthew; Lewis, Sarah; Parrott, Steve; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify and critically assess previous economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions delivered during pregnancy. Design: Qualitative review of studies with primary data collection or hypothetical modelling. Quality assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies checklist. Data sources: Electronic search of 13 databases including Medline, Econlit, Embase, and PubMed, and manual search of the UK's National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guideline...

  1. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D.; Kenny, Anne M.; Oncken, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain, but the effects of smoking cessation on measures of body composition (BC) have not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of 16 months of cigarette abstinence on areas of BC measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods One hundred fifty-two postmenopausal women participated in a smoking cessation study using the nicotine patch. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from 119 subjects (age 56 ± 7 years, range 41–78 years) who had had DXA scans at baseline and 16 months later. Participants were classified either as quitters (self-reported cigarette abstinence confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide [co] ≤8 ppm at 3 and 16 months after quit date) or as continued smokers. BC was assessed using a General Electric Lunar DXA IQ machine. Four areas of BC (kg) were measured: whole body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, and functional skeletal muscle mass in arms and legs (ASM/ht2). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed changes in BC in quitters vs. continued smokers between baseline and 16 months of follow-up. Increases in BC measures were evaluated as a function of increased calorie intake or change in physical activity, using linear regression. Results Quitters significantly increased body weight (p < 0.001), fat mass (p < 0.001), muscle mass (p = 0.04), and functional muscle mass (p = 0.004) over time, when baseline BC measures and other confounding factors were controlled. Regression analysis indicated change in BC could not be accounted for by calorie intake or physical activity. Conclusions Smoking cessation may be associated with increased fat and muscle mass in postmenopausal women. The novel finding of an increase in functional muscle mass suggests that smoking cessation could increase functional capacity. Further studies need to replicate these findings and examine mechanisms of these effects. PMID

  2. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 Cell Expression upon Smoking Cessation in Mice with Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Chao Duan; Hai-Juan Tang; Xiao-Ning Zhong; Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm)...

  3. Model for implementing cognitive behavioural therapy for smartphone app based smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alsharif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation programs are widely implemented to assist smokers in the process of quitting smoking. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT is a psychological approach that is increasingly used in smoking cessation programs. CBT has also been implemented for smoking cessation programs and has been successful in helping smokers to quit. Another advantage of CBT is that it can be combined with different tools and technologies and hence made to deliver effective health intervention programs. The recent advancements in smartphone technologies have been widely explored to develop smoking cessation apps as tools to assist with quitting smoking. However, most existing smartphone apps lack follow-up and adherence to clinical guidelines for treatment. To date, there are no studies which have explored implementing CBT modules into smoking cessation apps. Therefore, there is a need for implementing behavioural change mechanisms in smoking cessation apps to help smokers quit effectively. In this study, we propose a new approach that combines mobile health technology and CBT methods to provide an effective smoking cessation program. The ubiquitous presence of smartphones and the various communication benefits they provide are utilized by our proposed system to provide a CBT paradigm into smoking cessation app systems and hence enhance their success potential. Currently, the proposed system is at the implementation stage, which is soon to be followed by a clinical trial to study the impact of this system on smoking cessation.

  4. A pilot study combining individual-based smoking cessation counseling, pharmacotherapy, and dental hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentists are in a unique position to advise smokers to quit by providing effective counseling on the various aspects of tobacco-induced diseases. The present study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of integrating dentists in a medical smoking cessation intervention. Methods Smokers willing to quit underwent an 8-week smoking cessation intervention combining individual-based counseling and nicotine replacement therapy and/or bupropion, provided by a general internist. In addition, a dentist performed a dental exam, followed by an oral hygiene treatment and gave information about chronic effects of smoking on oral health. Outcomes were acceptability, global satisfaction of the dentist's intervention, and smoking abstinence at 6-month. Results 39 adult smokers were included, and 27 (69% completed the study. Global acceptability of the dental intervention was very high (94% yes, 6% mostly yes. Annoyances at the dental exam were described as acceptable by participants (61% yes, 23% mostly yes, 6%, mostly no, 10% no. Participants provided very positive qualitative comments about the dentist counseling, the oral exam, and the resulting motivational effect, emphasizing the feeling of oral cleanliness and health that encouraged smoking abstinence. At the end of the intervention (week 8, 17 (44% participants reported smoking abstinence. After 6 months, 6 (15%, 95% CI 3.5 to 27.2 reported a confirmed continuous smoking abstinence. Discussion We explored a new multi-disciplinary approach to smoking cessation, which included medical and dental interventions. Despite the small sample size and non-controlled study design, the observed rate was similar to that found in standard medical care. In terms of acceptability and feasibility, our results support further investigations in this field. Trial Registration number ISRCTN67470159

  5. Effect of Smoking on Joint Replacement Outcomes: Opportunities for Improvement Through Preoperative Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Erik; Tzeng, Tony H; Ginnetti, Michael; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Jamal K; Saleh, Jasmine; Lane, J M; Mihalko, William M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-01-01

    Because orthopaedic surgeons focus on identifying serious potential complications, such as heart attack, stroke, and deep vein thrombosis, during the preoperative assessment, correctable factors, such as smoking, may be overlooked. Chronic exposure to nicotine has been correlated with perioperative complications that lead to worse outcomes, including decreased patient satisfaction, longer hospitalization periods, and an increased rate of hospital readmission. It has been proven that smoking is a negative risk factor for decreased bone mineral density, which leads to increased fracture risk, heightened pain, postoperative wound and bone healing complications, decreased fusion rates, and postoperative tendon and ligament healing complications. Physician-led preoperative smoking cessation programs that include, but are not limited to, pharmacotherapy plans have been shown to improve primary surgical outcomes and smoking cessation rates. Smoking has detrimental effects on specialty-specific physiology; however, there are many effective options for intervention that can improve primary outcomes. PMID:27049216

  6. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

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    Reece Robin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during

  7. Training Pediatric Residents to Provide Smoking Cessation Counseling to Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Collins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation educational program on pediatric residents' counseling. Residents were randomly selected to receive the intervention. Residents who were trained were compared to untrained residents. Self-reported surveys and patient chart reviews were used. Measures included changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents, and differences in chart documentation and caretaker-reported physician counseling behaviors. The intervention was multidimensional including a didactic presentation, a problem-solving session, clinic reminders, and provision of patient education materials. Results showed that residents who were trained were more likely to ask about tobacco use in their patients' households. They were also more likely to advise caretakers to cut down on or to quit smoking, to help set a quit date, and to follow up on the advice given at a subsequent visit. Trained residents were more likely to record a history of passive tobacco exposure in the medical record. These residents also reported improved confidence in their counseling skills and documented that they had done such counseling more often than did untrained residents. Caretakers of pediatric patients who smoke seen by intervention residents were more likely to report that they had received tobacco counseling. Following this intervention, pediatric residents significantly improved their behaviors, attitudes, and confidence in providing smoking cessation counseling to parents of their pediatric patients.

  8. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in venti

  9. Nonclinical panic attack history and smoking cessation: an initial examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Lejuez, C W; Kahler, Christopher W; Brown, Richard A

    2004-06-01

    The present study evaluated the association of nonclinical panic attacks among regular smokers with the duration of past quit attempts as well as the type and intensity of DSM-IV smoking withdrawal symptoms. As hypothesized, smokers with a history of panic attacks reported significantly shorter quit attempts compared to their nonpanic counterparts. Additionally, smokers with a history of panic relative to their nonpanic counterparts reported more intense affective reactions during their last quit attempt in regard to anxiety-related but not other types of smoking withdrawal symptomatology. These findings are discussed in regard to the role of negative affect vulnerability factors in smoking cessation with specific reference to panic attacks. PMID:15135567

  10. Disparities in Prevalence of Smoking and Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy: A Population-Based Study

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    Josiane L. Dias-Damé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine time trends in prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy by family income, maternal level of education, skin color, and age. Methods. We conducted three population-based surveys in 2007, 2010, and 2013 with newly delivered mothers living in the municipality of Rio Grande, Southern Brazil. Data were collected using questionnaires administered after delivery in all (two maternity units in the city, at Dr. Miguel Riet Corrêa Júnior Hospital and at Santa Casa de Misericórdia. Time trends were analyzed using chi-square test for linear trend. Results. Data of 7,572 women showed that the prevalence of smoking before pregnancy decreased from 28% (26.2–29.7 in 2007 to 22% (20.8–24.0 in 2013 (P<0.001. Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased from 22% (20.4–23.7 in 2007 to 18% (16.6–19.5 in 2013 (P<0.001. This reduction varied across income ranging from 17% (poorest to 35% (richest (P<0.001. The lower the income, the higher the smoking prevalence during pregnancy. Smoking cessation was more prevalent among women of higher level of education and income. Conclusions. Smoking before and during pregnancy is still highly prevalent and the prevalence of cessation is low pointing to a need to strengthen actions targeting low-income, less educated, black pregnant women.

  11. Physicians discuss the risks of smoking with their patients, but seldom offer practical cessation support

    OpenAIRE

    Keto, Jaana; Jokelainen, Jari; Timonen, Markku; Linden, Kari; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to study the smoking cessation-related 1) attitudes & experiences and 2) consultation practices of Finnish physicians and to determine if there is a relationship between the two. Methods An online survey on smoking cessation was sent to 39 % of all Finnish physicians, with emphasis on physicians working in fields relevant to smoking cessation. A total of 1141 physicians (response rate 15 %) responded to the online survey, 53 % of whom were employed in primary health car...

  12. Cost-Utility Analysis of Varenicline, an Oral Smoking-Cessation Drug, in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ataru Igarashi; Hiroki Takuma; Takashi Fukuda; Kiichiro Tsutani

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a cost-utility analysis of two 12-week smoking-cessation interventions in Japan: smoking-cessation counselling by a physician compared with use of varenicline, an oral smoking-cessation drug, in addition to counselling. Abstract: Methods: A Markov model was constructed to analyse lifetime medical costs and QALYs from the perspective of the healthcare payer. The cycle length was 5 years. Both costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. The cohort of smokers was class...

  13. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. Th...

  14. Predictors of smoking cessation and duration: Implication for smoking prevention

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    Rokhsareh Meamar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : The above results suggest that there are a significant association between socio-demographic factors and smoking-related behaviors in the Iranian population, consistent with previous reports world-wide. These factors should be considered to have appropriate public-health and policy response.

  15. RCT of a client-centred, caseworker-delivered smoking cessation intervention for a socially disadvantaged population

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    Girgis Afaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disadvantaged groups are an important target for smoking cessation intervention. Smoking rates are markedly higher among severely socially disadvantaged groups such as indigenous people, the homeless, people with a mental illness or drug and alcohol addiction, and the unemployed than in the general population. This proposal aims to evaluate the efficacy of a client-centred, caseworker delivered cessation support intervention at increasing validated self reported smoking cessation rates in a socially disadvantaged population. Methods/Design A block randomised controlled trial will be conducted. The setting will be a non-government organisation, Community Care Centre located in New South Wales, Australia which provides emergency relief and counselling services to predominantly government income assistance recipients. Eligible clients identified as smokers during a baseline touch screen computer survey will be recruited and randomised by a trained research assistant located in the waiting area. Allocation to intervention or control groups will be determined by time periods with clients randomised in one-week blocks. Intervention group clients will receive an intensive client-centred smoking cessation intervention offered by the caseworker over two face-to-face and two telephone contacts. There will be two primary outcome measures obtained at one, six, and 12 month follow-up: 1 24-hour expired air CO validated self-reported smoking cessation and 2 7-day self-reported smoking cessation. Continuous abstinence will also be measured at six and 12 months follow up. Discussion This study will generate new knowledge in an area where the current information regarding the most effective smoking cessation approaches with disadvantaged groups is limited. Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN85202510

  16. Are oral health complaints related to smoking cessation intentions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Hilberink, S.R.; Jacobs, J.E.; Maassen, I.M.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking influences oral health in several ways (such as the occurrence of periodontitis, teeth discolouration and oral cancer); therefore, smoking behaviour should be addressed in dental care. Dentists can play a role in primary and secondary prevention of tobacco dependence. They see the

  17. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  18. Osteopathic medical student administered smoking cessation counseling is an effective tool

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    Barbara Capozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physician counseling on the risks of tobacco smoking and the benefits of cessation has been shown to be an effective method of increasing the rate of smoking cessation. Using the "Help Your Patients Quit Smoking: A Coaching Guide" also referred to as the "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guideline from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is thought to be effective to convey the importance of smoking cessation. Aim: To study the efficacy of the "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guideline counseling conducted by osteopathic medical students. Materials and Methods: Osteopathic medical students were trained to counsel smokers for 3-10 min based on New York City Department of Health′s "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guidelines by a licensed physician. Students then counseled health fair participants who were cigarette smokers for 3-10 min. Postcounseling, participants were administered an 4 question survey to evaluate the effect counseling had on their desire to quit smoking. Survey data were collected and analyzed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. Results: A total of 13 anonymous health fair participants who were also smokers were administered both counseling sessions and surveys. 11/13 (84.6% participants stated that the session motivated them to quit smoking. 9/13 (69.2% participants responded that they were now motivated to discuss smoking cessation with their doctor after being counseled. Of these participants 12/13 (92.3% had previously attempted to quit smoking without success. Conclusion: Participants reported an increased willingness to stop smoking after being counseled by osteopathic medical students. Participants also reported an increased motivation to discuss smoking cessation with their physician. These findings indicate that smoking cessation counseling administered by osteopathic medical students effectively in encouraging smokers to consider reduction or cessation of tobacco

  19. Cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment initiated during psychiatric hospitalization: analysis from a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Paul G.; Wong, Wynnie; Jeffers, Abra; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment for psychiatric inpatients. Method Smokers, regardless of intention to quit, were recruited during psychiatric hospitalization and randomized to receive stage-based smoking cessation services or usual aftercare. Smoking cessation services, quality of life, and biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes were assessed during 18-months of follow-up. Trial findings were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the age and gender adjusted effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and quality of life in a Markov model of cost-effectiveness during a lifetime horizon. Results Among 223 smokers randomized between 2006 and 2008, the mean cost of smoking cessation services was $189 in the experimental treatment group and $37 in the usual care condition (p < 0.001). At the end of follow-up, 18.75% of the experimental group was abstinent from cigarettes, compared to 6.80% abstinence in the usual care group (p <0.05). The model projected that the intervention added $43 in lifetime cost and generated 0.101 additional Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $428 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found the experimental intervention was cost-effective against the acceptance criteria of $50,000/QALY in 99.0% of the replicates. Conclusions A cessation intervention for smokers identified in psychiatric hospitalization did not result in higher mental health care costs in the short-run and was highly cost-effective over the long-term. The stage-based intervention was a feasible and cost-effective way of addressing the high smoking prevalence in persons with serious mental illness. PMID:26528651

  20. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion......, which has been in use for some years. The cost-effectiveness of varenicline depends on the cost of the therapy and the cost-savings achieved through reduced morbidity and mortality; several investigations, based on the situation in different countries, indicate that varenicline either finances itself...

  1. 'The smoking toolkit study': a national study of smoking and smoking cessation in England

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    Vangeli Eleni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up-to-date data tracking of national smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour is required to evaluate and inform tobacco control strategies. The Smoking Toolkit Study (STS was designed for this role. This paper describes the methodology of the STS and examines as far as possible the representativeness of the samples. Methods The STS consists of monthly, cross sectional household interviews of adults aged 16 and over in England with smokers and recent ex-smokers in each monthly wave followed up by postal questionnaires three and six months later. Between November 2006 and December 2010 the baseline survey was completed by 90,568 participants. STS demographic, prevalence and cigarette consumption estimates are compared with those from the Health Survey for England (HSE and the General Lifestyle Survey (GLF for 2007-2009. Results Smoking prevalence estimates of all the surveys were similar from 2008 onwards (e.g 2008 STS = 22.0%, 95% C.I. = 21.4% to 22.6%, HSE = 21.7%, 95% C.I. = 20.9% to 22.6%, GLF = 20.8%, 95% C.I. = 19.7% to 21.9%, although there was heterogeneity in 2007 (chi-square = 50.30, p Conclusion There is reason to believe that the STS findings (see http://www.smokinginengland.info are generalisable to the adult population of England.

  2. Does Short Message Service Increase Adherence to Smoking Cessation Clinic Appointments and Quitting Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önür, Seda Tural; Uysal, Mehmet Atilla; İliaz, Sinem; Yurt, Sibel; Bahadır, Ayşe; Hattatoğlu, Didem Görgün; Ortaköylü, Mediha Gönenç; Bağcı, Belma Akbaba; Chousein, Efsun Gonca Uğur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using innovative and scientific methods increases the rate of quitting in smokers. Short message service (SMS) is a communication tool widely used and well integrated in many people’s daily lives. To increase adherence to appointments in smoking cessation clinics (SCC), it is thought that increased compliance could be achieved by falling outside the traditional methods. SMS has been shown to increase the compliance of patients with SCC appointments. Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of SMS in the compliance of patients with SCC follow-up visits and smoking cessation success. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: Our study was a controlled, open, prospective study. We enrolled 436 cases applied to SCC of Yedikule Training and Research Hospital between 01.10.2013–30.06.2014 and agreed to follow-up with SMS. SMS was sent to the patients to remind them of appointments at the SCC and to query their smoking state. Results: Two hundred-and-eighty seven (65.8%) of the patients were male and 149 (34.2%) were female. The mean age was 45±12 years. In this study, 296 (67.9%) patients had graduated from primary school. Our patients’ smoking state was queried by telephone at the 6-month follow-up and we contacted 348 patients. According to this, 88 (25.3%) patients were not smoking, and 260 (74.7%) patients were smokers. Therefore, the smoking cessation rate was 24% (n=60) in patients who did not respond to SMS reminders at all, and 28.6% (n=28) in patients answering any SMS at least once (p=0.377). Smoking cessation rate of the patients invited by SMS but who did not attend any control visits was 19.1%, and it was 34.5% in patients coming to a control visit at least once. This difference was statistically significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: In our study, there was increased success of smoking cessation in patients coming to control visits. We think that this may result from the possibly increased compliance to SCC appointments following

  3. Smoking cessation advice in consultations with health problems not related to smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Baarts, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To identify frames of interaction that allow smoking cessation advice in general practice consultations. Design . Qualitative study based on individual in-depth interviews with GPs and their patients. Each of the GPs’ consultations were observed during a three-day period. Interviews pr...

  4. Evidence Suggests That The ACA's Tobacco Surcharges Reduced Insurance Take-Up And Did Not Increase Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Abigail S; Schpero, William L; Busch, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    To account for tobacco users' excess health care costs and encourage cessation, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed insurers to impose a surcharge on tobacco users' premiums for plans offered on the health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces. Low-income tax credits for Marketplace coverage were based on premiums for non-tobacco users, which means that these credits did not offset any surcharge costs. Thus, this policy greatly increased out-of-pocket premiums for many tobacco users. Using data for 2011-14 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the effect of tobacco surcharges on insurance status and smoking cessation in the first year of the exchanges' implementation, among adults most likely to purchase insurance from them. Relative to smokers who faced no surcharges, smokers facing medium or high surcharges had significantly reduced coverage (reductions of 4.3 percentage points and 11.6 percentage points, respectively), but no significant differences in smoking cessation. In contrast, those facing low surcharges showed significantly less smoking cessation. Taken together, these findings suggest that tobacco surcharges conflicted with a major goal of the ACA-increased financial protection-without increasing smoking cessation. States should consider these potential effects when deciding whether to limit surcharges to less than the federal maximum. PMID:27385231

  5. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  6. Pragmatic, observational study of bupropion treatment for smoking cessation in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkes, S; Evans, A; Henderson, M.; Gibson, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking remains the single largest cause of premature death in the United Kingdom. As part of the government's national service framework for coronary heart disease, smoking cessation forms a key part of the strategy.

  7. An evaluation study of a gender-specific smoking cessation program to help Hong Kong Chinese women quit smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Wan, Zoe Siu Fung; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a lack of population-based smoking cessation interventions targeting woman smokers in Hong Kong, and in Asia generally. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a gender-specific smoking cessation program for female smokers in Hong Kong. Methods To evaluate the effectiveness of the service, a total of 457 eligible smokers were recruited. After the baseline questionnaire had been completed, a cessation counseling intervention was given by a trained counselor accord...

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation in the management of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temitayo Orisasami, Isimat; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2016-07-28

    The aim of this literature review is to assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation in managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is the fifth leading cause of death in the world and smoking leads to COPD in more than 80% of cases. Smoking cessation aids are considered the most effective intervention to improve quality of life and prevent further deterioration in COPD. Evidence based on the use of pharmacotherapies, patient support and motivation as part of smoking cessation strategies were evaluated and discussed. The findings demonstrate that pharmacotherapies, support and counselling in smoking cessation help reduce hospital stay and hospitalisation and improve symptoms and quality of life. In addition, nurses need more education on how to use open-ended questions and motivation when giving advice on smoking cessation to patients with COPD. PMID:27467642

  9. Teen smoking cessation help via the Internet: a survey of search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.

  10. Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy (LEAP trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussher Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women try to stop smoking in pregnancy but fail. One difficulty is that there is insufficient evidence that medications for smoking cessation are effective and safe in pregnancy and thus many women prefer to avoid these. Physical activity (PA interventions may assist cessation; however, trials examining these interventions have been too small to detect or exclude plausible beneficial effects. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP trial is investigating whether a PA intervention is effective and cost-effective when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women, and will be the largest study of its kind to date. Methods/design The LEAP study is a pragmatic, multi-center, two-arm, randomized, controlled trial that will target pregnant women who smoke at least one cigarette a day (and at least five cigarettes a day before pregnancy, and are between 10 and 24 weeks pregnant. Eligible patients are individually randomized to either usual care (that is, behavioral support for smoking cessation or usual care plus a intervention (entailing supervised exercise on a treadmill plus PA consultations. The primary outcome of the trial is self-reported and biochemically validated continuous abstinence from smoking between a specified quit date and the end of pregnancy. The secondary outcomes, measured at 1 and 4 weeks after the quit date, and at the end of pregnancy and 6 months after childbirth, are PA levels, depression, self-confidence, and cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Smoking status will also be self-reported at 6 months after childbirth. In addition, perinatal measures will be collected, including antenatal complications, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and birth and placental weight. Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and logistic regression models used to compare treatment effects on the primary outcome. Discussion This trial will assess whether a PA intervention is effective when used for

  11. Dynamic effects of smoking cessation on disease incidence, mortality and quality of life : The role of time since cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; van Baal, Pieter H M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To support health policy makers in setting priorities, quantifying the potential effects of tobacco control on the burden of disease is useful. However, smoking is related to a variety of diseases and the dynamic effects of smoking cessation on the incidence of these diseases differ. Fur

  12. Assessment of effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners in India: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Sachin; Khanagar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Amit; Ramachandra, Sujith; Vadavadagi, Sunil V.; Dhananjaya, Kiran Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is an integral part of prison life and an established part of the culture. Little attention has been paid to prevention of smoking in prison. Approximately 70–80% of prisoners have been identified as current smokers. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. Materials ...

  13. Enabling the NSW health workforce to provide evidence-based smoking-cessation advice through competency-based training delivered via video conferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Elayne N; Hawkshaw, Barbara N; Naylor, Carlie-Jane; Soewido, Dias; Sanders, John M

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco-related disease is estimated to cost the NSW health system more than $476 million in direct health care costs annually. Population-based smoking-cessation interventions, including brief intervention by health professionals, are effective and cost effective. As the prevalence of smoking in the general community declines, more highly dependent 'treatment-resistant' smokers may present a challenge to the health system. International guidelines recommend that health systems invest in training for health professionals in best practice smoking cessation. As part of the NSW Tobacco Action Plan 2005-2009, NSW Department of Health developed national competency standards in smoking cessation, designed learning and assessment materials and delivered training to more than 300 health professionals via video conference. Building the capacity of the NSW Health workforce to address smoking cessation as part of their routine practice is essential for addressing future challenges in tobacco control. PMID:18507967

  14. A randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention delivered by dental hygienists: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins William

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use continues to be a global public health problem. Helping patients to quit is part of the preventive role of all health professionals. There is now increasing interest in the role that the dental team can play in helping their patients to quit smoking. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of undertaking a randomised controlled smoking cessation intervention, utilising dental hygienists to deliver tobacco cessation advice to a cohort of periodontal patients. Methods One hundred and eighteen patients who attended consultant clinics in an outpatient dental hospital department (Periodontology were recruited into a trial. Data were available for 116 participants, 59 intervention and 57 control, and were analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The intervention group received smoking cessation advice based on the 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange follow-up and were offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, whereas the control group received 'usual care'. Outcome measures included self-reported smoking cessation, verified by salivary cotinine measurement and CO measurements. Self-reported measures in those trial participants who did not quit included number and length of quit attempts and reduction in smoking. Results At 3 months, 9/59 (15% of the intervention group had quit compared to 5/57 (9% of the controls. At 6 months, 6/59 (10% of the intervention group quit compared to 3/57 (5% of the controls. At one year, there were 4/59 (7% intervention quitters, compared to 2/59 (4% control quitters. In participants who described themselves as smokers, at 3 and 6 months, a statistically higher percentage of intervention participants reported that they had had a quit attempt of at least one week in the preceding 3 months (37% and 47%, for the intervention group respectively, compared with 18% and 16% for the control group. Conclusion This study has shown the potential that trained dental hygienists

  15. Influence of dental education in motivational interviewing on the efficacy of interventions for smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schoonheim-Klein; C. Gresnigt; U. van der Velden

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test whether education of dental students in motivational interviewing (MI) for smoking cessation counselling will increase the number of patients and students who quit smoking and will improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards tobacco cessation counselling. Methods Over 2 ye

  16. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  17. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, David; Sadr Azodi, Omid; Wladis, Andreas;

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications.......To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications....

  18. Adenosine receptors in COPD and asymptomatic smokers : effects of smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Mieke; ten Hacken, Nick; Postma, Dirkje; Barroso, Begona; Rutgers, Bea; Geerlings, Marie; Willemse, Brigitte; Timens, Wim; Hylkema, Machteld

    2009-01-01

    Our group has shown that 1-year smoking cessation persisted or increased airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We compared adenosine and adenosine receptor (AR) expression in COPD and asymptomatic smokers (AS) before and after 1-year smoking cessation. Sputum cytospins

  19. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  20. Smoking behavior, attitudes, and cessation counseling among healthcare professionals in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movsisyan Narine K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation counseling by health professionals has been effective in increasing cessation rates. However, little is known about smoking cessation training and practices in transition countries with high smoking prevalence such as Armenia. This study identified smoking-related attitudes and behavior of physicians and nurses in a 500-bed hospital in Yerevan, Armenia, the largest cancer hospital in the country, and explored barriers to their effective participation in smoking cessation interventions. Methods This study used mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. Trained interviewers conducted a survey with physicians and nurses using a 42-item self-administered questionnaire that assessed their smoking-related attitudes and behavior and smoking cessation counseling training. Four focus group discussions with hospital physicians and nurses explored barriers to effective smoking cessation interventions. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed. Results The survey response rate was 58.5% (93/159 for physicians and 72.2% (122/169 for nurses. Smoking prevalence was almost five times higher in physicians compared to nurses (31.2% vs. 6.6%, p  Conclusions This study was the first to explore differences in smoking-related attitudes and behavior among hospital physicians and nurses in Yerevan, Armenia. The study found substantial behavioral and attitudinal differences in these two groups. The study revealed a critical need for integrating cessation counseling training into Armenia’s medical education. As nurses had more positive attitudes toward cessation counseling compared to physicians, and more often reported having cessation training, they are an untapped resource that could be more actively engaged in smoking cessation interventions in healthcare settings.

  1. Effects of Smoking Cessation with Voucher-Based Contingency Management on Birth Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T.; Bernstein, Ira M.; Washio, Yukiko; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan M.; Higgins, Tara M.; Solomon, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study combined data from three controlled trials to examine whether smoking cessation using voucher-based contingency management (CM) improves birth outcomes. Methods Participants (N = 166) were pregnant women who participated in trials examining the efficacy of voucher-based CM for smoking cessation. Women were assigned to either a contingent condition wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items by abstaining from smoking or to a noncontingent condition where they received vouchers independent of smoking status. Birth outcomes were determined by review of hospital delivery records. Results Antepartum abstinence was greater in the contingent than noncontingent condition, with late-pregnancy abstinence being 34.1% vs. 7.4% (p < .001). Mean birth weight of infants born to mothers treated in the contingent condition was greater than infants born to mothers treated in the noncontingent condition (3295.6 ± 63.8 g vs. 3093.6 ± 67.0 g, p = .03) and the percent of low birth weight (< 2500g) deliveries was less (5.9% vs. 18.5%, p = .02). No significant treatment effects were observed across three other outcomes investigated although each was in the direction of improved outcomes in the contingent vs. the noncontingent condition: mean gestational age (39.1 ± 0.2 weeks vs. 38.5 ± 0.3 weeks, p = .06), percent of preterm deliveries (5.9 vs. 13.6, p = .09), and percent admissions to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (4.7% vs. 13.8%, p = .06). Conclusions These results provide evidence that smoking-cessation treatment with voucher-based CM may improve important birth outcomes. PMID:20840188

  2. Counseling Is Effective for Smoking Cessation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Ingrid; Steffenssen, Mia; Bakholdt, Vivi T.;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the efficacy of smoking cessation counseling and the resulting quit rate in patients with head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Predictor...... variables were smoking cessation counseling and smoking cessation interventions. The outcome was smoking cessation. Data collection and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 of the authors. Selected publications were assessed for potential risk of bias, and the level of evidence was evaluated...... using National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines. Review Manager 5.3 was used to conduct the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eight studies involving 1,239 patients were included (3 randomized controlled trials, 3 cohorts, and 2 case series). Smoking cessation was achieved considerably more often...

  3. Assessing the congruence between physician behavior and expert opinion in smoking cessation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, P D; Ito, J R; Carbonari, J P; DiClemente, C C

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the degree of transfer of smoking cessation innovation from research to health care settings by comparing frequency-of-practice ratings by a national sample of family practice physicians (n = 903, response rate = 70%) and importance ratings by smoking cessation and prevention experts (n = 58, response rate = 84%) for 14 counseling techniques. The physician survey elicited a profile that combines traditional and behavioral techniques--discussing smoking with patients, encouraging goal setting, suggesting specific steps for quitting, and presenting pamphlets. They refer to others infrequently and rarely report planning for follow-up about smoking. The experts rated these selected techniques as moderately to highly important. They favored a behavioral approach coupled with active follow-up. The major differences between physician and expert rankings were that the experts placed higher priority on planned follow-up and a lower priority on pamphlets. The uneven quality of counseling reported by physicians suggests that weighting their responses according to expert opinion would provide a more sensitive profile. Scaled weighting produced scores that may help researchers define a composite quality-quantity measure of activity. PMID:1776538

  4. The biological and clinical effects of smoking by patients with cancer and strategies to implement evidence-based tobacco cessation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Graham W; Sobus, Samantha; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-11-01

    Tobacco use is an established risk factor for the development of several cancers; however, far less work has been done to understand the effects of continued smoking on cancer treatment outcomes, and structured tobacco cessation efforts are not well incorporated into the standard care for patients with cancer. In this Review we discuss the known biological effects of smoking on cancer cell biology and emphasise the clinical effects of continued smoking in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Although evidence supports the need for inclusion of dedicated tobacco cessation efforts for patients with cancer, clinicians should consider the methods used to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation support and the available resources to deliver and maintain consistent tobacco cessation support. We also address the variables to consider in the design and implementation of a sustainable tobacco cessation programme. PMID:25439699

  5. Stages of smoking cessation among Malaysian adults--findings from national health morbidity survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Ibrahim, Normala; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Kee, Chee Cheong; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Tee, Eng Ong; Lai, Wai Yee; Nik Mohamad, Mohd Haniki; Sidek, Sherina Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation will reduce the burden of diseases related to smoking, including cancer. Understanding the process of smoking cessation is a pre-requisite to planning and developing effective programs to enhance the rate of smoking cessation.The aims of the study were to determine the demographic distribution of smokers across the initial stages of smoking cessation (the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages) and to identify the predictors of smoking cessation among Malaysian adult smokers. Data were extracted from a population-based, cross-sectional survey carried out from April 2006 to July 2006. The distribution of 2,716,743 current smokers across the pre-contemplation stage (no intention to quit smoking in the next six months) or contemplation stage (intended to quit smoking in the next six months) was described. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and the stages of smoking cessation. Of the 2,716,743 current smokers, approximately 30% and 70% were in the pre-contemplative and contemplative stages of smoking cessation respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that male gender, low education level, older age group, married and those from higher income group and number of cigarettes smoked were associated with higher likelihood of pre-contemplation to cease smoking in the next six months. The majority of current smokers in Malaysia were in the contemplative stage of smoking cessation. Specific interventions should be implemented to ensure the pre-contemplative smokers proceed to the contemplative stage and eventually to the preparation stage.

  6. Validation of smoking cessation self-reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R Hilberink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sander R Hilberink1, Johanna E Jacobs1, Sanne van Opstal2, Trudy van der Weijden2, Janine Keegstra1, Pascal LJ Kempers3, Jean WM Muris2, Richard PTM Grol1, Hein de Vries41IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, Research Institute CAPHRI, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Health Risk, Analysis and Toxicology, 4Department of Health Promotion and Health, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The present study reports on the biochemical validation of the self-reported smoking status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The objective is to establish the proportion of overestimation of self-reported success rates.Methods: A cross-sectional smoking-status validation study including 60 patients with COPD who reported that they had stopped smoking. In the analysis of urine samples, a cut-off point of 50 ng/mL of cotinine was used.Results: At the time of biochemical validation, 55 patients reported that they had quit smoking while five patients resumed smoking. Smoking status was biochemically confirmed for 43 patients (78% and 12 patients (22% were classified as smokers. The sensitivity of the self-report of smoking was 29% and the specificity was 100%.Conclusion: Many primary care patients with COPD do not provide valid information on their smoking status, which hamper adequate therapeutic interventions. Integration of biochemical validation in daily care could overcome this problem, but may harm the doctor–patient relationship.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking cessation, biochemical validation, general practice, outcome measurement

  7. Determinants of smoking cessation in COPD patients treated in the outpatient setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra S; Thomsen, Reimar W; Johnsen, Søren P;

    2016-01-01

    of outpatient treated exacerbations (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.93). CONCLUSION: These findings reinforce that the young and socioeconomically disadvantaged patients have more difficulties achieving timely smoking cessation. A novel finding is that patients with milder COPD are less likely to quit. The findings......BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of smoking cessation on progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are well established. Nevertheless, many COPD patients continue to smoke. METHODS: In this nationwide hospital-based prospective follow-up study, we examined rates of smoking...... cessation and clinical and socio-demographic determinants of smoking cessation in 3,233 COPD patients who smoked upon outpatient contact during 2008-2012. Using multivariate Cox regression we calculated hazard ratios (HR) of quitting. RESULTS: Within one and five years from first outpatient contact...

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Smoking Cessation Interventions in Japan Using a Discrete-Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Ataru; Goto,Rei; Suwa, Kiyomi; Yoshikawa, Reiko; Ward, Alexandra J; Moller, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation medications have been shown to yield higher success rates and sustained abstinence than unassisted quit attempts. In Japan, the treatments available include nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and varenicline; however, unassisted attempts to quit smoking remain common. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the health and economic consequences in Japan of using pharmacotherapy to support smoking cessation with unassisted attempts and the current mix o...

  9. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Leung Lawrence; Neufeld Troy; Marin Scott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear) acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting pa...

  10. Effect of Acupuncture on Smoking Cessation and Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking, and chronic neck and shoulder pain are major public health problems in the modern society, and both lack effective treatments. This thesis presents two trials focusing on acupuncture as a treatment for these two problems. Objectives Study A was undertaken to examine the effects of acupuncture on smoking reduction and cessation, and to examine whether some ‘real’ acupoints are more effective than ‘sham’ acupoints for smoking cessation. An additional aim was to examine w...

  11. Issues Related to Implementing a Smoking Cessation Clinical Trial for Cancer Patients1

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Elisa; Tatum, Kristina L.; Weber, Dorothy M.; Kuzla, Natalie; Pendley, Anna B.S.; Campbell, Kirsten; Ridge, John A; Langer, Corey; Miyamoto, Curtis; Schnoll, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Given high rates of smoking among cancer patients, smoking cessation treatment is crucial, yet limited data exist to guide integration of such trials into the oncologic context. To determine the feasibility of conducting smoking cessation clinical trials with cancer patients, screening and baseline data from a large randomized placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy trial were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to compare enrollees to decliners, describe program enr...

  12. Effects of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Endothelial Function: One-Year Outcomes from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather M.; Gossett, Linda K.; Piper, Megan E.; Aeschlimann, Susan E.; Korcarz, Claudia E.; Baker, Timothy B.; Fiore, Michael C.; Stein, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine if smoking cessation improves flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (BA). Background The long-term effects of continued smoking and smoking cessation on endothelial function have not been described previously. Methods This was a one-year, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. FMD was measured by B-mode ultrasound before and 1-year after the target smoking cessation date. Cessation was verified by exhaled carbon monoxide levels. ΔFMD was compared among study arms and between subjects that successfully quit and those who continued to smoke. Predictors of baseline FMD and ΔFMD were identified by multivariable regression. Results The 1,504 current smokers (58% female, 84% white) were mean (standard deviation): 44.7 (11.1) years old and smoked 21.4 (8.9) cigarettes/day. Baseline FMD was similar in each treatment arm (p=0.499) and was predicted by BA diameter (p<0.001), reactive hyperemia blood flow (p<0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.001), and carbon monoxide (p=0.012) levels. After one year, 36.2% quit smoking. FMD increased by 1% [6.2% (4.4%) to 7.2% (4.2%)] after 1 year (p=0.005) in those who quit, but did not change (p=0.643) in those who continued to smoke. Improved FMD among quitters remained significant (p=0.010) after controlling for changes in BA diameter, reactive hyperemia, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and presence of a home smoking ban. Conclusions Despite weight gain, smoking cessation leads to prolonged improvements in endothelial function, which may mediate part of the reduced cardiovascular disease risk observed after smoking cessation. PMID:20236788

  13. 我院戒烟成功率与戒烟策略的研究%Research and smoking cessation strategies smoking cessation success rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡斌; 王琼; 余荣环

    2013-01-01

    The harm of tobacco is one of the most serious public health problem in the world. Smoking and quit smoking as at ract sb.'s at ention. 3 years in our hospital, in creating smoke-free hospital process, how the effective smoking cessation strategies to protect and promote smoking cessation success achieved some experience. Smoking cessation strategies mainly include:clarify smoking and smoking status, the health hazards of smoking, smoking relapse rate high reason, to strengthen publicity and education;the specific method to quit smoking, including administrative intervention, rewards and punishment regulations create smoking, smoking cessation clinic, smoking cessation in patients with clubs, quit smoking patients to quit smoking exchange etc. The comprehensive measures must be used to smoking cessation education and behavior intervention combined to achieve the desired purpose.%烟草危害是当今世界最严重的公共健康问题之一。吸烟与戒烟成为引人注目的话题。我院3年来,在创建无烟医院过程中,如何通过有效可行的戒烟策略来保障和促进戒烟成功取得了一些经验。戒烟策略上主要包括:阐明吸烟与控烟现状、吸烟对健康的危害、吸烟复吸率高的原因,加强宣传和教育;戒烟的具体方法上,主要包括行政干预,戒烟奖惩条例,创建戒烟门诊,戒烟患者俱乐部,戒烟患者戒烟交流会等多方面。阐述了戒烟必须使用教育与行为干预相结合的综合措施才能达到预期目的。

  14. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopa Krzysztof

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.

  15. Effects of smoking cessation on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Takeshi; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Smoking affects arterial stiffness, thus causing an elevation in central blood pressure (CBP). The present study was designed to examine whether smoking cessation treatment improved CBP and arterial stiffness. Patients and methods: We conducted an observational study of 70 patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Before and 60 weeks after the start of a 12-week varenicline treatment, we measured brachial blood pressure, CBP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), normalized radial augmentation index (rAIx@75), left ventricular weight, and left ventricular diastolic function of each patient. The data were compared between the patients who succeeded in quitting smoking (smoking cessation group; n = 37) and those who failed to quit smoking (smoking group; n = 33). Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Brachial blood pressure remained unchanged in both groups. CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 decreased significantly in the smoking cessation group, while these parameters showed no significant change in the smoking group. Thus, CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 showed greater decrease in the smoking cessation group than in the smoking group (CBP, −7.1 ± 1.4 mmHg vs 1.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P < 0.01; baPWV, −204 ± 64 cm/s vs −43 ± 72 cm/s; P < 0.01; rAIx@75, −6.4 ± 2.8% vs −1.0 ± 3.9%; P < 0.01). Left ventricular weight and left ventricular diastolic function remained unchanged in both groups. Conclusion: Patients in the smoking cessation group showed significant improvement in CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75. These results indicate that smoking cessation can improve arterial stiffness and CBP. PMID:22102787

  16. Effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation of rats with chronic bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-yun; HUANG Shao-guang; WAN Huan-ying; WU Hua-cheng; ZHOU Tong; LI Min; DENG Wei-wu

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is the major cause of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and smoking cessation is regarded as one of the important strategies for prevention and treatment of the inflammation.The inflammation of the chronic airway may be present and deteriorated even if the COPD patients stop smoking.Whether and how early smoking cessation affects the progress of inflammation is still obscure. This study was conducted to find the appropriate time for smoking cessation to terminate the airway inflammation in rats with smoke-induced chronic bronchitis.Methods A rat model of COPD was established by passively inhaling smoke mixture. Fifty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups with different periods of smoke exposure and different time points of cessation. The inflammation markers to be detected included inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the myeloperoxidose (MPO) activity, the morphologic changes and the expression of ICAM-1 on the airway epithelium.Results When smoking was terminated at early stage, the inflammatory markers and related indexes were different from those of the typical chronic bronchitis group (group M7) (P<0.01). The pathologic score of group SC7 (2 weeks of smoking cessation after occurrence of typical chronic bronchitis ) was not different from that of group M7, and the level of ICAM-1 was still up-regulated (compared to group M7, P>0.05). Meanwhile, most of inflammatory cells in BALF were neutrophils compared to other groups (P<0.01).When smoking was terminated, the MPO activity was significantly lower than that of group M7 (P<0.01).Conclusions Smoking cessation at early stage can effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction of COPD. Once chronic bronchitis occurs, little could be improved by smoking cessation.

  17. Reduced probability of smoking cessation in men with increasing number of job losses and partnership breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Larsen, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ulla;

    2011-01-01

    Background Unemployment and partnership breakdowns are common stressful life events, but their association with smoking cessation has been investigated in only a few studies. Objective To investigate how history of employment and cohabitation affects the probability of smoking cessation and to st......Background Unemployment and partnership breakdowns are common stressful life events, but their association with smoking cessation has been investigated in only a few studies. Objective To investigate how history of employment and cohabitation affects the probability of smoking cessation...... and to study joint exposure to both. Methods Birth cohort study of smoking cessation of 6232 Danish men born in 1953 with a follow-up at age 51 (response rate 66.2%). History of unemployment and cohabitation was measured annually using register data. Information on smoking cessation was obtained......–23 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.52)). Those who never cohabited and experienced one or more job losses had a particular low chance of smoking cessation (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.30). Conclusion The numbers of job losses and of broken partnerships were both inversely associated with probability...

  18. A Critical Review of Repurposing Apomorphine for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rosado, Joel A; Cousin, Margot A; Ebbert, Jon O; Klee, Eric W

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use disorder is the leading cause of preventable death and disability in the United States, with one in five Americans currently smoking cigarettes. Only two non-nicotine medications are FDA approved for treating tobacco use disorder, and advances in drug discovery are profoundly outpaced by the morbidity and mortality caused by tobacco dependence. Drug repurposing may provide an approach for addressing this health hazard, offering hope to tobacco users attempting to quit who have failed existing therapies. The focus of this review is to evaluate the potential role of apomorphine (APO) in treating tobacco dependence. Previously described in the literature as a non-specific dopamine agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease and erectile dysfunction, APO's dopaminergic targeting activity may be effective in counteracting the modified response arising from tobacco use. Here, the literature describing APO's activity is reviewed and presented in the context of known nicotine-induced response in neurotransmitter systems. Based on these data, whether APO may be an effective smoking cessation agent by ameliorating a tobacco user's anhedonic state is critically appraised, along with withdrawal symptoms and the chemical reinforcement associated with drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:26690764

  19. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management Based Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S; Smith, Anne E; Liss, Thomas B; McFetridge, Amanda K; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in a number of categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our preliminary results indicate that participation in a CM based program for smoking cessation did not lead to greater spending on cigarettes and other substances and may have produced more socially acceptable spending. PMID:20802850

  20. Self-efficacy and acceptance of cravings to smoke underlie the effectiveness of quitline counseling for smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined why smoking cessation interventions are effective. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating processes underlying the effectiveness of cessation counseling administered by the Dutch national quitline. Methods: Data were used of a two-arm randomized cont

  1. Experience of a smoking cessation program among high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Ping; Lee, Ting-Ting; Mills, Mary Etta

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, the prevalence of smoking among teenagers has led to a required smoking cessation program in schools. Students caught smoking in school are required to participate in a weekly smoking cessation class. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of high school students in a smoking cessation program. Fifteen adolescents participated in a one-on-one in-depth semistructured interview, and the content was analyzed for patterns based on the methods of Miles and Huberman. In addition, Lewin's change theory of drive forces and restraining forces was used to describe the change in behavior as a result of the program. Five major themes were identified: the onset of smoking-change influenced by families and friends; intention to quit smoking-driving force; the irresistible temptation to smoke-restraining force; limited change effects-more attention and assistance needed; and change in attitude rather than behavior-smoking remained unchanged. Changes were seen in the perceptions and attitudes of these students toward smoking at the end of the program; however, none of them were able to really quit. Most participants revealed that they used improper means to pass the carbon monoxide test requirement that was used as a measure of not smoking. Alternative future intervention strategies for further study include change in health policy to support nicotine replacement methods for heavy adolescent smoker, use of teacher support, and exercise programs to support students going through the smoking cessation period.

  2. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  3. Comparative Evaluation of American Cancer Society and American Lung Association Smoking Cessation Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Harry A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of the American Cancer Society's "FreshStart," the American Lung Association's "Freedom from Smoking," and a laboratory smoking cessation clinic. A one-year followup favored the more intensive laboratory and "Freedom from Smoking" clinics over the "FreshStart" method. (FMW)

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of depression on subsequent smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: 1990 to 2013.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cessation is crucial for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), yet depression may impede cessation success. We systematically reviewed the prospective association between depression and subsequent smoking cessation in individuals with CHD to quantify this effect.

  5. An exploration of health beliefs and attitudes of smokers with vascular disease who participate in or decline a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kim E; Aish, Arlene

    2002-09-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional aspect of this study compared a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who chose to participate in a smoking intervention with a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who declined to participate. The longitudinal aspect of this study used Ajzen and Fishbein's(1) Theory of Reasoned Action, Keeney's(2) Expected Utility Decision Theory, and Prochaska and DiClemente's(3) Transtheoretical Model of Change to describe the influence of this smoking cessation program on the beliefs and attitudes about smoking in group 1. Smokers completed a smoking beliefs questionnaire with vascular disease at baseline and after 13 weeks of smoking cessation intervention. Smokers who did not want to participate in the smoking cessation program also completed this questionnaire for comparison. Statistically significant differences were found to differentiate people who enrolled in the smoking cessation program from those who did not. Subjects in group 2 smoked less per day, were less educated, were less often diagnosed as having peripheral arterial disease, were found to be more in the precontemplation stage of change in smoking cessation, cared more about what their physician and family thought they should do, and perceived themselves to be at less risk for developing more severe circulatory problems if they did not quit smoking. After 13 weeks, participants in both groups 1 and 2 were found to smoke significantly less per day. No support was found for the expectation that the smoking intervention would influence stage of change in smoking behavior or attitudes and beliefs about the risks of smoking to the participants' health after 13 weeks. PMID:12370691

  6. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  7. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union--Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  8. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  9. Sensation Seeking as a Predictor of Treatment Compliance and Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Heavy Social Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Spillane, Nichea S.; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M.; Monti, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of sensation seeking has been positively associated with risk of smoking initiation and level of tobacco use. However, its role in smoking cessation is much less established. This study examined the association between sensation seeking and smoking cessation among 236 heavy social drinkers participating in a clinical trial testing the efficacy of incorporating brief alcohol intervention into smoking cessation treatment. As hypothesized, higher sensation seeking predicted...

  10. Who Uses Smoking Cessation Apps? A Feasibility Study Across Three Countries via Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    BinDhim, Nasser F; McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone use is growing worldwide. While hundreds of smoking cessation apps are currently available in the app stores, there is no information about who uses them. Smartphones also offer potential as a research tool, but this has not previously been explored. Objective This study aims to measure and compare the uptake of a smoking cessation app over one year in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also assesses the feasibility of conducting research via an app...

  11. Smoking Cessation and Chronic Pain: Patient and Pain Medicine Physician Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooten, W. Michael; Vickers, Kristin S.; Shi, Yu; Ebnet, Kaye L.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Patten, Christi A.; Warner, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Although previous studies suggest that the clinical setting of an interdisciplinary pain treatment program may provide an optimal environment to promote smoking cessation, currently available smoking cessation interventions may be less effective for adults with chronic pain due, in part, to unrecognized clinical factors related to chronic pain. The specific aim of this qualitative study was to solicit information from adult smokers with chronic pain participating in an interdisciplinary pain ...

  12. Promoting hospital-based smoking cessation services at major Swiss hospitals: a before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Bolliger, Chris T; van Biljon, X.; Humair, Jean-Paul Luc André; El Fehri, V.; Cornuz, J.

    2008-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Whether a 1-year nationwide, government supported programme is effective in significantly increasing the number of smoking cessation clinics at major Swiss hospitals as well as providing basic training for the staff running them. METHODS: We conducted a baseline evaluation of hospital services for smoking cessation, hypertension, and obesity by web search and telephone contact followed by personal visits between October 2005 and January 2006 of 44 major public hospitals...

  13. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management Based Smoking Cessation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in a number of categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our prelimin...

  14. Knowledge about the Deleterious Effects of Smoking and Its Relationship to Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Susan A.; Higgins, Linda W.; Lebow, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Examines adolescents' knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking on pregnant women and fetuses and its relationship to efforts to quit smoking with a sample of pregnant adolescents (N=71). A three-group randomized intervention design -- Teen FreshStart, Teen Freshstart with buddy, and usual care control -- was used. Results show that…

  15. Success and failure attributions in smoking cessation among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, K E

    1990-04-01

    1. Smoking behavior is intermingled with a very complicated array of social and psychological processes which suggests the presence of sociocultural factors that directly influence smoking behavior. 2. Social and cultural factors which distinguish former smokers from smokers indicate that behavioral factors may be related to the ability to successfully stop smoking. 3. Evidence suggests that attributional patterns differ according to gender, with women being more external and employing more luck attributions than men. 4. When attribution and self-efficacy expectations were combined with demographic variables, increased understanding of the cessation process increased and predictive power of success in smoking cessation improved.

  16. Organizational factors affecting participation in a smoking cessation program and abstinence among 68 auto dealerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emont, S L; Cummings, K M

    1990-01-01

    Abstract The effects of organizational factors on participation rates in a smoking cessation clinic and on one-year quit rates were examined among 68 private sector businesses. Free smoking cessation programs were offered to all smoking employees. Smokers (n = 844) were contacted to determine changes in smoking behavior; managers (n = 68) were also contacted to assess changes in smoking policy implementation over the past year. The participation rate in the clinic was 6.6 percent. Overall, 14.3 percent of smokers reported abstaining from cigarettes for at least one month prior to the one-year follow-up survey. Organization factors predicting clinic participation included having health promotion programs, increased motivation to stop smoking, and greater length of employment. Factors predicting cessation at one year included greater clinic participation rates, larger worksite size, a greater awareness of smoking restrictions, and agreement that passive smoking was dangerous to ones health. The only factor to significantly increase both participation and cessation rates was the presence of smoking policies. Employee, manager, and organizational characteristics can exert independent effects on behavior. Therefore, interventions should be targeted at each of these levels to maximize smoking-related behavior change.

  17. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  18. Therapeutic drug monitoring of nortriptyline in smoking cessation: a multistudy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M E; Reus, V I; Gorecki, J; Hall, S M; Humfleet, G L; Muñoz, R F; Delucchi, K

    2008-03-01

    Multiple, controlled clinical trials support the efficacy of nortriptyline as a smoking cessation agent. Although therapeutic plasma nortriptyline concentrations (PNCs) are known for the treatment of depression, little is known about PNCs in smoking cessation treatment. PNCs from three randomized, placebo-controlled smoking cessation trials (N=244) were analyzed both separately and pooled. PNCs normalized for dose and weight were associated with cigarettes per day and race, but not with sex or age. Greater smoking was associated with decreased normalized PNCs. In addition, both Asian and black populations had significantly higher normalized PNCs than the white populations. Weak and inconsistent associations between PNCs and self-reported side effects were observed. PNCs were linearly related to end of treatment and long-term biochemically verified smoking abstinence. Maximum therapeutic effects were observed over a range of plasma concentrations somewhat lower than those found effective for the treatment of depression. PMID:17687275

  19. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  20. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aziz Rahman

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation.To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation.A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases.Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated.Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97. Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18% reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28. Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used.Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis.Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More

  1. Effects of smoking cessation on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takami T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Takeshi Takami1,Yoshihiko Saito21Department of Internal Medicine, Clinic Jingumae, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, JapanPurpose: Smoking affects arterial stiffness, thus causing an elevation in central blood pressure (CBP. The present study was designed to examine whether smoking cessation treatment improved CBP and arterial stiffness.Patients and methods: We conducted an observational study of 70 patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Before and 60 weeks after the start of a 12-week varenicline treatment, we measured brachial blood pressure, CBP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, normalized radial augmentation index (rAIx@75, left ventricular weight, and left ventricular diastolic function of each patient. The data were compared between the patients who succeeded in quitting smoking (smoking cessation group; n = 37 and those who failed to quit smoking (smoking group; n = 33.Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Brachial blood pressure remained unchanged in both groups. CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 decreased significantly in the smoking cessation group, while these parameters showed no significant change in the smoking group. Thus, CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 showed greater decrease in the smoking cessation group than in the smoking group (CBP, −7.1 ± 1.4 mmHg vs 1.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P < 0.01; baPWV, −204 ± 64 cm/s vs −43 ± 72 cm/s; P < 0.01; rAIx@75, −6.4 ± 2.8% vs −1.0 ± 3.9%; P < 0.01. Left ventricular weight and left ventricular diastolic function remained unchanged in both groups.Conclusion: Patients in the smoking cessation group showed significant improvement in CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75. These results indicate that smoking cessation can improve arterial stiffness and CBP.Keywords: central blood pressure, augmentation index, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, smoking cessation, varenicline

  2. The physician's role in smoking cessation. A present and future agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, L M

    1990-02-01

    Medical views in the United States on the effects of smoking have shifted dramatically since the published evidence in 1958 established the link between smoking and fatal disease. Today's physician should be a nonsmoking role model, whose workplace both directly and indirectly teaches smoking cessation skills. Publications on smoking cessation techniques from the National Institutes of Health along with intervention tools such as patient smoking history questionnaires are available free of charge to physicians. Patient histories are critical to the intervention process, for they provide essential clues and information about which stage in cessation of smoking the patient has already reached: precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance. Different approaches and techniques are required at each stage. The most important objective for the physician with a patient at the stage of contemplating quitting is to initiate a conversation leading to a directive to quit, with benefits of quitting stressed as reinforcement. Actively motivated patients committed to quit dates may need both educational and pharmacologic support; issues such as nicotine dependence and withdrawal symptoms must be addressed. Pharmacologic therapy at this time may consist of substitution of nicotine-containing gum (nicotine polacrilex) for cigarettes. Used in sufficient, regular dosages, the nicotine gum has been found to help diminish withdrawal symptoms following smoking cessation. Other drug therapies are currently under study. For now, nicotine replacement therapy (where indicated) is to be used for at least three months, the period of greatest chance of relapse. The physician should continue to encourage patients who have quit smoking to forestall relapses, while tacitly understanding that the incidence of relapse is high in first-time quitters. Hospital inpatients provide an opportunity to initiate bedside smoking cessation programs. The hope is that, in the future, hospitals will

  3. Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. Methods A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n = 2291. Response rate was 54% (n = 1190. Factors related to the SC Guideline familiarity were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Almost half (47% of the respondents (n = 1190 were familiar with the SC Guideline and familiarity enhanced Guideline implementation. The familiarity was associated with the respondents' perceptions of their personal SC skills and knowledge (OR 3.8; of customers' value of counseling on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT (OR 3.3; and regular use of a pocket card supporting SC counseling (OR 3.0. Pharmacists' workplaces' characteristics, such as size and geographical location were not associated with familiarity. In addition to recommending NRT, the pharmacists familiar with the Guideline used more frequently other Guideline-based SC methods, such as recommended non-pharmacological SC aids, compared to unfamiliar respondents. Conclusions SC Guideline familiarity and implementation is crucial for community pharmacists' involvement in SC actions in addition to selling NRT products. Pharmacists can constitute a potential public health resource in SC easily accessible throughout the country.

  4. Tobacco use among urban Aboriginal Australian young people: a qualitative study of reasons for smoking, barriers to cessation and motivators for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Suzanne; Hawkins, Kimberley; Skaczkowski, Gemma; Copley, David; Bowden, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Smoking prevalence among Aboriginal Australian young people greatly exceeds the prevalence in the broader population of Australian young people, yet limited research has explored the social context in which young Aboriginal Australians smoke. Four focus groups were conducted in 2009 with South Australian Aboriginal smokers aged 15-29 years residing in urban areas (n = 32) to examine attitudes and experiences surrounding smoking and quitting. The primary reasons for smoking initiation and maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people were identified as stress, social influence and boredom. Motivators for quitting were identified as pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons. The barriers to cessation were identified as social influence, the perception of quitting as a distant event and reluctance to access cessation support. However, it appears that social influences and stress were particularly salient contributors to smoking maintenance among Aboriginal Australian young people. Smoking cessation interventions targeted at young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers should aim to build motivation to quit by utilising the motivators of pregnancy and/or children, sporting performance (males only), cost issues and, to a lesser extent, health reasons, while acknowledging the pertinent role of social influence and stress in the lives of young urban Aboriginal Australian smokers.

  5. Treating tobacco dependence in clinically depressed smokers: effect of smoking cessation on mental health functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Hall, Sharon M; Tsoh, Janice Y; Eisendrath, Stuart; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Rosen, Amy B; Meisner, Marc; Humfleet, Gary L; Gorecki, Julie A

    2008-03-01

    We analyzed data from a randomized trial of 322 actively depressed smokers and examined the effect of smoking cessation on their mental health functioning. Only 1 of 10 measures at 4 follow-up time points was significant: participants who successfully stopped smoking reported less alcohol use than did participants who continued smoking. Depressive symptoms declined significantly over time for participants who stopped smoking and those who continued smoking; there were no group differences. Individuals in treatment for clinical depression can be helped to stop smoking without adversely affecting their mental health functioning. PMID:17600251

  6. [Efficacy of individual smoking cessation instructions for general smokers among clients of a health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, K; Anada, K; Arino, M; Ono, A; Tomonaga, M; Nakabayashi, M; Nishida, M; Yamakawa, N; Yoshitsugu, M; Shimo, T

    1992-04-01

    Smoking cessation instruction for individuals using a standardized smoking cessation manual and a handout developed by the authors was studied in a controlled trial among employees who visited a health center for Industrial Safety and Health Law mandated annual health examinations. Smokers in the study group were given 5-10 minutes smoking cessation instruction mainly by public health nurses and nutritionists following the above-mentioned manual and using the handouts. Subjects in both groups were interviewed by telephone to assess changes in smoking habits one month after the first contact. Smoking clients who came on Friday (132) and on Monday (93) were assigned to study and control groups, respectively. One hundred and nineteen members (90.2%) of the study group and 88 (94.6%) of the control group were successfully followed until one month after the initial contact. Seven subjects in the study group were not smoking one month after the instruction, while no one gave up smoking in the control group (p less than 0.05). It was confirmed by telephone survey that 6 of the 7 subjects who were not smoking at one month were still maintaining abstinence from smoking one year after the instruction. Smokers who did not stop smoking reported a reduction in their smoking dose in the study group. Lighter smokers reacted more readily to instruction than did heavier smokers and the knowledge level of subjects was positively associated with the success rate. PMID:1611121

  7. [The practice guideline 'Smoking cessation' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners; a response from the perspective of general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the practice guideline from the Dutch College of General Practitioners on smoking cessation. General practitioners (GP) should strive after smoking cessation when patients consult and ask for support to stop smoking. Moreover, the practitioner should also show such initiative wh

  8. 77 FR 70955 - FDA Actions Related to Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Smoking-Cessation Products; Report to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Therapies and Smoking-Cessation Products; Report to Congress on Innovative Products and Treatments for... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and..., including nicotine-containing gums, patches, and lozenges, are already marketed for smoking cessation....

  9. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month trial of bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets as an aid to smoking cessation in hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgareth, Oli Jacob; Hansen, Niels-Christian Gerner; Søes-Petersen, Ulrik;

    2004-01-01

    (Zyban) compared with placebo as an aid to smoking cessation in health care workers. A total of 336 hospital employees who smoked at least 10 cigarettes daily were randomized (2:1) to 7 weeks of treatment with bupropion (n=222) or placebo (n=114). All participants were motivated to quit smoking......Despite changes in smoking behavior, one-third of the Danish population continues to smoke. Many of these smokers are hospital employees. This 6-month, multicenter, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated treatment with bupropion hydrochloride sustained release...... more frequently in the bupropion group than in the placebo group. Bupropion was effective as an aid to smoking cessation in a broad group of hospital employees in Denmark....

  10. Relation between duration of smoking cessation and bronchial inflammation in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, TS; Postma, DS; Gosman, M.M.E.; Snoeck-Stroband, JB; ten Hacken, NHT; Hiemstra, PS; Timens, W; Sterk, PJ; Mauad, T

    2006-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with airway inflammation. Although smoking cessation improves symptoms and the decline in lung function in COPD, it is unknown whether bronchial inflammation in patients with established COPD varies with the duration of smoking c

  11. Cost-effectiveness of an Intensive Smoking Cessation Intervention for COPD Outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christenhusz, L.C.A.; Prenger, H.C.; Pieterse, M.E.; Seydel, E.R.; Palen, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: To determine the cost-effectiveness of a high-intensity smoking cessation program (SmokeStop Therapy; SST) versus a medium-intensity treatment (Minimal Intervention Strategy for Lung patients [LMIS]) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients. Methods: The cost-effectiven

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Promote Smoking Cessation among African American Smokers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Monica S.; de Ybarra, Denise Rodriguez; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Reis, Isildinha M.; Carey, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The health consequences of tobacco smoking disproportionately affect African Americans, but research on whether efficacious interventions can be generalized to this population is limited. This study examined the efficacy of group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation among African Americans. Method: Participants…

  13. User Preferences for a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C.; Heron, Kristin E.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Magee, Joshua C.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults are more likely to smoke and less likely to seek treatment than older smokers. They are also frequent users of communication technology. In the current study, we conducted focus groups to obtain feedback about preferences for a text message-based smoking cessation program from potential users. Participants ("N" = 21, "M" age = 25.6…

  14. Why Two Smoking Cessation Agents Work Better than One: Role of Craving Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Daniel M.; Piper, Megan E.; Theobald, Wendy E.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This research examined why smokers receiving combination medication for smoking cessation are more likely to quit smoking than are those who receive either single agent (monotherapy) or placebo. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 current smokers (58.2% women, 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) participating in a…

  15. Statewide Demonstration of Not On Tobacco: A Gender-Sensitive Teen Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dino, Geri A.; Horn, Kimberly A.; Goldcamp, Jennifer; Maniar, Sameep D.; Fernandes, Ancilla; Massey, Catherine J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated Not On Tobacco, a gender-sensitive, smoking cessation program for adolescents, comparing experimental group and brief intervention (BI) group students. Overall, Not On Tobacco females were four times more likely to quit than BI females. Approximately 84 percent of experimental group teens quit or reduced smoking, compared to 55 percent…

  16. Implementation Fidelity of Packaged Teen Smoking Cessation Treatments Delivered in Community-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kymberle; Curry, Susan; Sporer, Amy; Emery, Sherry; Mermelstein, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious "packaged" teen smoking cessation treatment programs, those developed by national organizations, are widely disseminated to local communities to help teens quit smoking. The implementation fidelity of these programs in community settings has not been documented. The efficacy of these programs could be lessened if they are not…

  17. A randomized controlled trial of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women: preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun S; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Bernstein, Kunsook; Fang, Hua; Choi, Won S; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Korean women are reluctant to pursue in-person smoking cessation treatment due to stigma attached to women smokers and prefer treatment such as telephone and online smoking cessation programs that they can access secretively at home. However, there is some evidence that face-to-face interaction is the most helpful intervention component for them to quit smoking. Methods This study is a pilot clinical trial that examined the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women and compared its preliminary efficacy with a telephone-based intervention. Women of Korean ethnicity were recruited nationwide in the United States and randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to either a video arm or a telephone arm. Both arms received eight 30-minute weekly individualized counseling sessions of a deep cultural smoking cessation intervention and nicotine patches for 8 weeks. Participants were followed over 3 months from the quit day. Results The videoconferencing intervention was acceptable and feasible for Korean women aged effective, and personal preference is likely an important factor in treatment matching. The deep cultural smoking cessation intervention may account for the outcomes of telephone counseling being better than prior studies in the literature for Korean women.

  18. Smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases: a high priority, integral component of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, P; Carrozzi, L; Fagerström, K O; Gratziou, C; Jimenez-Ruiz, C; Nardini, S; Viegi, G; Lazzaro, C; Campell, I A; Dagli, E; West, R

    2007-02-01

    Smoking cessation is the one of the most important ways to improve the prognosis of patients with respiratory disease. The Task Force on guidelines for smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases was convened to provide evidence-based recommendations on smoking cessation interventions in respiratory patients. Based on the currently available evidence and the consensus of an expert panel, the following key recommendations were made. 1) Patients with respiratory disease have a greater and more urgent need to stop smoking than the average smoker, so respiratory physicians must take a proactive and continuing role with all smokers in motivating them to stop and in providing treatment to aid smoking cessation. 2) Smoking cessation treatment should be integrated into the management of the patient's respiratory condition. 3) Therapies should include pharmacological treatment (i.e. nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline) combined with behavioural support. 4) Respiratory physicians should receive training to ensure that they have the knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary to deliver these interventions or to refer to an appropriate specialist. 5) Although the cost of implementing these recommendations will partly be offset by a reduction in attendance for exacerbations, etc., a budget should be established to enable implementation. Research is needed to establish optimum treatment strategies specifically for respiratory patients. PMID:17264326

  19. The cessation and detoxification effect of tea filters on cigarette smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To treat tobacco addiction,a tea filter was developed and studied for smoking cessation.This work reports the smoking cessation effect of tea when it was used as a component of cigarette filters.In one trial it was found that after using the tea filters for 2 months,the volunteer smokers decreased their cigarette consumption by 56.5%,and 31.7% of them stopped smoking.This work identified a new method and material,tea filter and theanine,which inhibit tobacco and nicotine addiction and provide an effective strategy for treating tobacco addiction.

  20. Examining an underlying mechanism between perceived stress and smoking cessation-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Hogan, Julianna; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    The mediational role of negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies in the relation between perceived stress and (1) perceived barriers to cessation, (2) severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and (3) smoking-specific experiential avoidance (AIS) was examined. Data were drawn from a baseline assessment of a larger clinical trial. Participants included 332 adult treatment-seeking smokers (47.3% female; Mage=38.45; SD=.50; age range: 18-65 years). Results indicated that perceived stress was indirectly related to perceived barriers to smoking cessation, severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and AIS through negative reinforcement outcome expectancies. These results were evident after accounting for the variance explained by gender, negative affectivity, and alternative outcome expectancies for smoking. The present findings suggest that smokers with greater perceived stress experience greater negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, which in turn, may be related to numerous processes involved in the maintenance of smoking. PMID:26946445

  1. The Effects and Measures of Auricular Acupressure and Interactive Multimedia for Smoking Cessation in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Ling Yeh; Pei-Lan Wang; Jaung-Geng Lin; Mei-Ling Chung

    2014-01-01

    The earlier one starts to smoke, the more likely it is that one’s tobacco use will increase. Either auricular acupressure or multimedia education could improve physiological health status and reduce smoking for young smokers. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 10-week auricular acupressure (AA) and interactive multimedia (IM) on smoking cessation in college smokers. A pre- and posttest control research design with two experiments (AA and IM) and one control was used. Thirty-two par...

  2. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Illicit Drug Use among Opioid Maintenance Patients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Reimann, Edward; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    Opioid treatment program patients and staff often have concerns that smoking cessation may jeopardize abstinence from illicit drug use. In this study, we evaluated whether smoking abstinence produced with a two-week contingency-management (CM) intervention was associated with relapse to illicit drug use among patients enrolled in opioid maintenance. Opioid-maintenance patients who were stable in treatment and abstinent from illicit drugs were enrolled in a 14-day smoking-cessation study. Participants were dichotomized into Abstainers (> 90% smoking-negative samples, n=12) and Smokers (< 10% smoking-negative samples, n=16). Illicit drug assays included opioids, oxycodone, propoxyphene, cannabis, amphetamines, cocaine and benzodiazepines. There were no differences between the Abstainers and Smokers, with 99% and 96% of samples testing negative for all illicit drugs in each group, respectively. Data from this study provide no evidence that smoking cessation among stable opioid-maintained patients undermines drug abstinence and lend support for programs that encourage smoking cessation during drug abuse treatment. PMID:20401340

  3. Frequency of alcohol and smoking cessation counseling in hepatitis C patients among internists and gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Tanu; Reyes, Mary; Nguyen, Huy; Borum, Marie

    2009-12-21

    Given the overwhelming evidence that both alcohol consumption and smoking accelerate the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver disease, we evaluated the frequency of alcohol and smoking counseling of patients with HCV-induced liver disease by their primary care internists and gastroenterologists. One hundred and twenty-three medical records of consecutive patients with HCV-induced liver disease referred by an internist to a gastroenterologist for its management were reviewed. Patient gender, race, history of and counseling against alcohol and tobacco use by a physician and a gastroenterologist were obtained. A database was created using Microsoft Excel. There were 105 African-Americans, 12 Caucasians and six patients of other races/ethnicities. Forty-six (37%) patients were daily tobacco users and 34 (28%) patients were daily alcohol consumers. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequencies of alcohol (P = 0.0002) and smoking cessation (P = 0.0022) between gastroenterologists and internists. This study reveals that internists and gastroenterologists, alike, inadequately counsel patients with hepatitis C about tobacco and alcohol use. PMID:20014469

  4. Protocol for the Proactive Or Reactive Telephone Smoking CeSsation Support (PORTSSS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgelly Paula

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telephone quit lines are accessible to many smokers and are used to engage motivated smokers to make quit attempts. Smoking cessation counselling provided via telephone can either be reactive (i.e. primarily involving the provision of evidence-based information, or proactive (i.e. primarily involving repeated, sequenced calls from and interaction with trained cessation counsellors. Some studies have found proactive telephone counselling more effective and this trial will investigate whether or not proactive telephone support for smoking cessation, delivered through the National Health Service (NHS Smoking Helpline is more effective or cost-effective than reactive support. It will also investigate whether or not providing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, in addition to telephone counselling, has an adjunctive impact on smoking cessation rates and whether or not this is cost effective. Methods This will be a parallel group, factorial design RCT, conducted through the English national NHS Smoking Helpline which is run from headquarters in Glasgow. Participants will be smokers who call the helpline from any location in England and who wish to stop smoking. If 644 participants are recruited to four equally-sized trial groups (total sample size = 2576, the trial will have 90% power for detecting a treatment effect (Odds Ratio of 1.5 for each of the two interventions: i proactive versus reactive support and ii the offer of NRT versus no offer. The primary outcome measure for the study is self-reported, prolonged abstinence from smoking for at least six months following an agreed quit date. A concurrent health economic evaluation will investigate the cost effectiveness of the two interventions when delivered via a telephone helpline. Discussion The PORTSSS trial will provide high quality evidence to determine the most appropriate kind of counselling which should be provided via the NHS Smoking Helpline and also whether or not an

  5. Reversion of AHRR Demethylation is a Quantitative Biomarker of Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert ePhilibert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Although there are effective pharmacologic and behavioral treatments for smoking cessation, our inability to objectively quantify smokers’ progress in decreasing smoking has been a barrier to both clinical and research efforts. In prior work, we and others have shown that DNA methylation at cg05575921, a CpG residue in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR, can be used to determine smoking status and infer cigarette consumption history. In this study, we serially assessed self-report and existing objective markers of cigarette consumption in 35 subjects undergoing smoking cessation therapy, then quantified DNA methylation at cg05575921 at study entry and three subsequent time points. Five subjects who reported serum cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide verified smoking abstinence for the three months prior to study exit averaged a 5.9% increase in DNA methylation at cg05575921 (p<0.004 over the six month study. Although the other 30 subjects did not achieve smoking cessation at the six-month time point, their self-reported reduction of cigarette consumption (mean = 6 cigarettes per day was associated with a 2.8% increase DNA methylation at cg05575921 (p<0.05. Finally, a survey of subjects as they exited the study demonstrated strong support for the clinical use of epigenetic biomarkers. We conclude that AHRR methylation status is a quantifiable biomarker for progress in smoking cessation that could have substantial impact on both smoking cessation treatment and research.

  6. Dental vs. Medical Students' Comfort with Smoking Cessation Counseling: Implications for Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Staci Robinson; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if dental and medical students have similar feelings of professional responsibility, comfort, and confidence with counseling patients about smoking cessation during their clinical years. All third- and fourth-year osteopathic medical (N=580) and dental students (N=144) at Western University of Health Sciences were invited to participate in a survey in April-July 2014, either electronically or in person, regarding their perceived professional responsibility, comfort, and confidence in counseling smokers about quitting and major constraints against counseling smokers about quitting. Respondents' demographic characteristics, smoking history, and history of living with a smoker were also assessed. Response rates were 21% (124/580) for medical and 82% (118/144) for dental students. Most of the responding medical (99.2%) and dental (94.9%) students reported feeling it was their professional responsibility to counsel patients about smoking cessation. Medical student respondents were significantly more comfortable and confident counseling patients about smoking cessation than dental student respondents (p0.10). There were no differences by age, but students who were former smokers were significantly more comfortable and confident counseling about smoking cessation than were nonsmokers (p=0.001). While almost all of the responding students reported feeling responsible for counseling patients about smoking cessation, the medical students and former smokers were more comfortable and confident performing this counseling. These results suggest the need for additional training in counseling techniques for dental students and nonsmokers. Future studies should assess the impact of medical and dental students' smoking cessation counseling.

  7. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention—an Intervention Mapping approach to planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally op...

  8. The effects of weight gain after smoking cessation on atherogenic α1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Maki; Wada, Hiromichi; Ura, Shuichi; Yamakage, Hajime; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Shimada, Sayaka; Akao, Masaharu; Koyama, Hiroshi; Kono, Koichi; Shimatsu, Akira; Takahashi, Yuko; Hasegawa, Koji

    2015-11-01

    Although cardiovascular risks decrease after quitting smoking, body weight often increases in the early period after smoking cessation. We have previously reported that the serum level of the α1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein complex (AT-LDL)-an oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein that accelerates atherosclerosis-is high in current smokers, and that the level rapidly decreases after smoking cessation. However, the effects of weight gain after smoking cessation on this cardiovascular marker are unknown. In 183 outpatients (134 males, 49 females) who had successfully quit smoking, serum AT-LDL levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all persons who had successfully quit smoking, body mass index (BMI) significantly increased 12 weeks after the first examination (p smoking is influenced by weight gain after smoking cessation.

  9. Interpersonal communication as an indirect pathway for the effect of antismoking media content on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Putte, Bas; Yzer, Marco; Southwell, Brian G; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    In the context of health campaigns, interpersonal communication can serve at least 2 functions: (a) to stimulate change through social interaction and (b) in a secondary diffusion process, to further disseminate message content. In a 3-wave prospective study of 1,079 smokers, the authors demonstrate that mass media messages (antismoking campaigns and news coverage relevant to smoking cessation) have an indirect effect on smoking cessation intention and behavior via interpersonal communication. Exposure to campaigns and news coverage prompts discussion about the campaigns, and, in turn, about smoking cessation. Interpersonal communication regarding smoking cessation then influences intention to quit smoking and attempts to quit smoking. The study finds evidence not only for the social interaction function of interpersonal communication, but also for the secondary diffusion function. A substantial number of smokers who are not directly exposed to the antismoking campaigns are nevertheless indirectly exposed via communication with people who have seen these campaigns. These results imply that encouragement of interpersonal communication can be an important campaign objective. PMID:21337250

  10. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811, and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers.

  11. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Airflow Obstruction and Quality of Life in Asthmatic Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, An-Soo; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Do-Jin; Uh, SooTaek; Kim, Young Hoon; Whang, Hun Gyu; Lim, Gun Il

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Smoking elicits airway inflammation and airflow obstruction in patients with asthma, even after smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of smoking cessation on lung function and quality of life (QOL) in asthmatic patients. Methods Thirty-two patients with asthma who were active smokers were recruited. After education on the effects of smoking on asthma, 22 patients continued to smoke, and 10 quit smoking. All patients were treated with inhaled fluticasone propionate (1 mg/day) for 3 months. We compared forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% FVC (FEF25-75%), and scores on a QOL questionnaire at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 months. Results Quitters showed a greater percent change in FEV1 (19.1±6.3 vs. 7.9±2.4%, P=0.024) and FEV1/FVC (6.5±4.14 vs. 3.5±1.5%, P=0.05) than smokers. Both quitters and smokers showed improved QOL scores after 1, 2, and 3 months of fluticasone treatment. Conclusions Patients with asthma who quit smoking showed less airway obstruction, suggesting that smoking cessation is crucial in the management of asthma. PMID:20885910

  12. Effects of Smoking Intensity and Cessation on Inflammatory Markers in a Large Cohort of Active Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Asha; Johnson, Heather M.; Piper, Megan E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.; Stein, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking has been associated with increases in C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocyte counts (WBC); however, the effects of smoking intensity and smoking cessation on inflammatory markers have not been evaluated prospectively in a large, modern cohort of current smokers. Methods WBC count and high-sensitivity CRP were measured in current smokers enrolled in a randomized, prospective clinical trial of five smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Smoking intensity parameters included: cigarettes/day, pack-years, Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels. CRP also was measured after 1 year with assessment of abstinence status. Results The 1,504 current smokers (58% female) were mean (standard deviation): 44.7 (11.1) years old, smoked 21.4 (8.9) cigarettes/day and had a smoking burden of 29.4 (20.4) pack-years. Log (CRP) was not associated with any marker of smoking intensity, except for a weak correlation with pack-years (r=0.05, p=0.047). In contrast, statistically significant correlations were observed between all 4 markers of smoking intensity and WBC count (all p≤0.011). In multivariable models, waist circumference (p<0.001) and triglycerides (p<0.05), but no markers of smoking intensity, were associated with log(CRP). However, pack-years (p=0.002), cigarettes/day (p=0.013), CO (p<0.001), and FTND (p<0.001) were independently associated with WBC count. After 1 year, log(CRP) (p=0.296) and changes in log(CRP) (p=0.455) did not differ between abstainers and continuing smokers. Conclusions Smoking intensity is associated with increased WBC count, but not CRP levels. Smoking cessation does not reduce CRP. The relationship between CRP and smoking intensity may be masked by CRP’s stronger relationship with adiposity. PMID:20826253

  13. Work factors and smoking cessation in nurses' aides: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Willy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of smoking in nursing personnel remains high. The aim of this study was to identify work factors that predict smoking cessation among nurses' aides. Methods Of 2720 randomly selected, Norwegian nurses' aides, who were smoking at least one cigarette per day when they completed a questionnaire in 1999, 2275 (83.6 % completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. A wide spectrum of work factors were assessed at baseline. Respondents who reported smoking 0 cigarettes per day at follow-up were considered having stopped smoking. The odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of stopping smoking were derived from logistic regression models. Results Compared with working 1–9 hours per week, working 19–36 hours per week (odds ratio (OR = 0.35; 95 % confidence interval (CI = 0.13 – 0.91, and working more than 36 hours per week (i.e. more than full-time job (OR = 0.27; CI = 0.09 – 0.78 were associated with reduced odds of smoking cessation, after adjustments for daily consumption of cigarettes at baseline, age, gender, marital status, and having preschool children. Adjusting also for chronic health problems gave similar results. Conclusion There seems to be a negative association between hours of work per week and the odds of smoking cessation in nurses' aides. It is important that health institutions offer workplace-based services with documented effects on nicotine dependence, such as smoking cessation courses, so that healthcare workers who want to stop smoking, especially those with long working hours, do not have to travel to the programme or to dedicate their leisure time to it.

  14. Real-life effectiveness of smoking-cessation treatments in general practice clinics in Denmark. The Escape Smoke project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Bo; Spillemose, Heidi; Nielsen, Gerda;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The smoking prevalence has not decreased in the last years in Denmark. General practice (GP) offers smoking cessation (SC) treatment. Studies of real-life effectiveness of daily practice SC-activities from the GP-setting opposed to efficacy results from randomized clinical trials......-clinics recruited 515 (273 females, 20% COPD) daily smokers being moderately nicotine dependent and heavy smoking (19 cigarettes/day). Receiving intensive advice, 74% did use SC-medicine paid out-of-pocket (1/3 NRT and 2/3 prescription-based). After 6 months, 187 participants had remained abstinent (36%). Adjusted......-medicine were independent significant predictors for long-term abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation in Danish GP-clinics with some prior SC-activity can result in rather high long-term quit rates, especially when combining counseling and prescription-based SC-medicine. The effectiveness of prescription...

  15. Web-based smoking cessation intervention that transitions from inpatient to outpatient: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrington Kathleen F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E-health tools are a new mechanism to expand patient care, allowing supplemental resources to usual care, including enhanced patient-provider communication. These applications to smoking cessation have yet to be tested in a hospitalized patient sample. This project aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored web-based and e-message smoking cessation program for current smokers that, upon hospital discharge, transitions the patient to continue a quit attempt when home (Decide2Quit. Design A randomized two-arm follow-up design will test the effectiveness of an evidence- and theoretically-based smoking cessation program designed for post-hospitalization. Methods A total of 1,488 patients aged 19 or older, who smoked cigarettes in the previous 30 days, are being recruited from 27 patient care areas of a large urban university hospital. Study-eligible hospitalized patients receiving usual tobacco cessation usual care are offered study referral. Trained hospital staff assist the 744 patients who are being randomized to the intervention arm with registration and orientation to the intervention website. This e-mail and web-based program offers tailored messages as well as education, self-assessment and planning aids, and social support to promote tobacco use cessation. Condition-blind study staff assess participants for tobacco use history and behaviors, tobacco use cost-related information, co-morbidities and psychosocial factors at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is self-reported 30-day tobacco abstinence at 6 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes include 7-day point prevalence quit rates at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, 30-day point prevalence quit rates at 3 and 12 months, biologically confirmed tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up, and multiple point-prevalence quit rates based on self-reported tobacco abstinence rates at each follow-up time period. Healthcare utilization and quality

  16. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles Zandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk behaviors. Nicotine dependence, length of the longest quit attempt, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and education were examined as other baseline variables. Abstinence from tobacco was recorded through 12 months. Results Diet was related to depressive symptoms at baseline. Alcohol use was related to nicotine dependence and education level. Heavy alcohol use alone and accumulation of two added risk behaviors predicted poorer smoking cessation outcome. Although diet alone was not associated with cessation outcome the high-fat diet interacted with depressive symptoms, such that the depressed women with high-fat diet were significantly more likely to relapse in their quit attempt compared to other subgroups. Conclusion Non-moderate alcohol use alone and accumulation of multiple CVD risk behaviors seem to be associated with lower success in smoking cessation.

  17. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. Results We found that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention to individual users. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping method, with a clear link between behavioral goals, theoretical methods, and practical strategies and materials, proved useful for systematic development of a digital smoking cessation intervention for adults. PMID:27101996

  18. A revolutionary approach for the cessation of smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JianKang

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is well known that smoking is harmful to our health.It is estimated that 1.3 billion people are smokers worldwide and 5.4 million deaths are caused by tobacco smoking each year.In China, about 1.2 million people die because of smoking each year, which is 2000 people per day.

  19. A revolutionary approach for the cessation of smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that smoking is harmful to our health. It is estimated that 1.3 billion people are smokers worldwide and 5.4 million deaths are caused by tobacco smoking each year. In China, about 1.2 million people die because of smoking each

  20. Dawning Dependence: Processes underlying smoking cessation in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleinjan (Marloes)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDuring adolescence young people are known to try out a range of risk behaviours, including smoking. Even though the detrimental health consequences of smoking are well known, the prevalence of smoking among Dutch adolescents remains high. Until today, efforts to control adolescent smokin

  1. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 Cell Expression upon Smoking Cessation in Mice with Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chao Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm and destructive index (DI. The frequencies of CD8+IL-17+(Tc17 and CD4+IL-17+(Th17 cells, the mRNA levels of ROR gamma and IL-17, and the levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in lungs or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice were assayed. Here we demonstrated that alveolar enlargement and destruction induced by cigarette smoke exposure were irreversible and that cigarette smokeenhanced these T-cell subsets, and related cytokines were not significantly reduced after smoking cessation. In addition, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in lungs of smoke-exposed mice and cessation mice were positively correlated with emphysematous lesions. More important, the frequencies of Tc17 cells were much higher than Th17 cells, and there was a significantly positive correlation between Th17 and Tc17. These results suggested that Th17/Tc17 infiltration in lungs may play a critical role in sustaining lung inflammation in emphysema. Blocking the abnormally increased numbers of Tc17 and Th17 cells may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for emphysema.

  2. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 cell expression upon smoking cessation in mice with cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Min-Chao; Tang, Hai-Juan; Zhong, Xiao-Ning; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm) and destructive index (DI). The frequencies of CD8(+)IL-17(+)(Tc17) and CD4(+)IL-17(+)(Th17) cells, the mRNA levels of ROR gamma and IL-17, and the levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in lungs or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice were assayed. Here we demonstrated that alveolar enlargement and destruction induced by cigarette smoke exposure were irreversible and that cigarette smokeenhanced these T-cell subsets, and related cytokines were not significantly reduced after smoking cessation. In addition, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in lungs of smoke-exposed mice and cessation mice were positively correlated with emphysematous lesions. More important, the frequencies of Tc17 cells were much higher than Th17 cells, and there was a significantly positive correlation between Th17 and Tc17. These results suggested that Th17/Tc17 infiltration in lungs may play a critical role in sustaining lung inflammation in emphysema. Blocking the abnormally increased numbers of Tc17 and Th17 cells may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for emphysema. PMID:24489575

  3. Using Rapid Prototyping to Design a Smoking Cessation Website with End-Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Currie, Leanne; Rowsell, Derek; Phillips, J Craig

    2016-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is an iterative approach to design involving cycles of prototype building, review by end-users and refinement, and can be a valuable tool in user-centered website design. Informed by various user-centered approaches, we used rapid prototyping as a tool to collaborate with users in building a peer-support focused smoking-cessation website for gay men living with HIV. Rapid prototyping was effective in eliciting feedback on the needs of this group of potential end-users from a smoking cessation website. PMID:27332420

  4. Smoking cessation via the internet: a randomized clinical trial of an internet intervention as adjuvant treatment in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J; Zehner, Mark E; Smith, Stevens S; Jorenby, Douglas E; Valdez, José A; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B; Gustafson, David H

    2006-12-01

    Internet interventions for smoking cessation are ubiquitous. Yet, to date, there are few randomized clinical trials that gauge their efficacy. This study is a randomized clinical trial (N= 284, n= 140 in the treatment group, n= 144 in the control group) of an Internet smoking cessation intervention. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive either bupropion plus counseling alone, or bupropion and counseling in addition to 12 weeks of access to the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System for Smoking Cessation and Relapse Prevention (CHESS SCRP; a Web site which provided information on smoking cessation as well as support). We found that access to CHESS SCRP was not significantly related to abstinence at the end of the treatment period (OR= 1.13, 95% CI 0.66-2.62) or at 6 months postquit (OR= 1.48, 95% CI 0.66-2.62). However, the number of times participants used CHESS SCRP per week was related to abstinence at both end of treatment (OR= 1.79, 95% CI 1.25-2.56) and at the 6-month follow-up (OR= 1.59, 95% CI 1.06-2.38). Participants with access to CHESS SCRP logged in an average of 33.64 times (SD=30.76) over the 90-day period of access. Rates of CHESS SCRP use did not differ by ethnicity, level of education or gender (all p>.05). In sum, results suggest that participants used CHESS SCRP frequently, CHESS SCRP use was related to success, but the effects in general did not yield intergroup effects. PMID:17491172

  5. Comparing Tailored and Untailored Text Messages for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial among Adolescent and Young Adult Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov-Ettrup, L. S.; Ringgaard, L. W.; Dalum, P.; Flensborg-Madsen, T.; Thygesen, L. C.; Tolstrup, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were consecutively randomized to versions of the…

  6. Efficacy of a Single Computer-Tailored E-Mail for Smoking Cessation: Results after 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poel, Fam Te; Bolman, Catherine; Reubsaet, Astrid; de Vries, Hein

    2009-01-01

    To date, few Internet-delivered smoking cessation interventions have been tested. This study tested the efficacy, understandability, credibility and personal relevance of an e-mail-delivered computer-tailored smoking cessation intervention. It included tailored action plan feedback, as recent studies have demonstrated the importance of planning in…

  7. Smoking cessation treatment in community-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm S; Fallon, Bryan; Sonne, Susan; Flammino, Frank; Nunes, Edward V; Jiang, Huiping; Kourniotis, Eva; Lima, Jennifer; Brady, Ron; Burgess, Cynthia; Arfken, Cynthia; Pihlgren, Eric; Giordano, Louis; Starosta, Aron; Robinson, James; Rotrosen, John

    2008-07-01

    Nicotine dependence is highly prevalent among drug- and alcohol-dependent patients. A multisite clinical trial of smoking cessation (SC) treatment was performed at outpatient community-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment, Clinical Trials Network. Cigarette smokers (N=225) from five methadone maintenance programs and two drug and alcohol dependence treatment programs were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either (1) SC treatment as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment-as-usual (TAU) or (2) substance abuse TAU. Smoking cessation treatment consisted of 1 week of group counseling before the target quit date and 8 weeks of group counseling plus transdermal nicotine patch treatment (21 mg/day for Weeks 1-6 and 14 mg/day for Weeks 7 and 8) after the target quit date. Smoking abstinence rates in SC, 10%-11% during treatment and 5%-6% at the 13- and 26-week follow-up visits, were significantly better than those in TAU during treatment (p< .01). In addition, SC was associated with significantly greater reductions as compared with TAU in cigarettes smoked per day (75% reduction, p< .001), exhaled carbon monoxide levels (p< .001), cigarette craving (p< .05), and nicotine withdrawal (p< .05). Smoking cessation did not differ from TAU on rates of retention in substance abuse treatment, abstinence from primary substance of abuse, and craving for primary substance of abuse. Compliance with SC treatment, moderate at best, was positively associated with smoking abstinence rates. Smoking cessation treatment resulted in significant reductions in daily smoking and modest smoking abstinence rates without having an adverse impact on substance abuse rehabilitation when given concurrently with outpatient substance abuse treatment. Substance abuse treatment programs should not hesitate to implement SC for established patients.

  8. Mechanisms of adolescent smoking cessation: roles of readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, and smoking of parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, van J.; Brug, J.; Zundert, van R.M.P.; Eijn, van den R.J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple levels of influence should be considered in interventions aimed at the adolescent smoker, including psychological, addiction, peer and parental influences. However, the mechanism by which these variables influence the process of smoking cessation in adolescents is not well elucidated. There

  9. Effects of divalproex on smoking cue reactivity and cessation outcomes among smokers achieving initial abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditre, Joseph W; Oliver, Jason A; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Saladin, Michael E; Drobes, David J

    2012-08-01

    Divalproex, a GABA agonist, may be a useful agent in the treatment of tobacco dependence. Cue reactivity assessment paradigms are ideally suited to explore basic mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of medications that purport to have efficacy for smoking cessation. Our primary goal in the current study was to examine the effects of divalproex on in-treatment reactivity to smoking-relevant and affective cues, and to determine if these reactions were predictive of posttreatment smoking behavior. There were 120 nicotine dependent smokers enrolled in an 8-week double-blind clinical trial and randomly assigned to either divalproex or placebo conditions. Of these, 72 smokers (60% female) who achieved a minimal level of abstinence underwent an in-treatment cue reactivity assessment. Contrary to expectations, divalproex was associated with greater craving and arousal during smoking cue presentation. Divalproex also inhibited cardiovascular response to pleasant cues. Although no significant differences in cessation-related outcomes between divalproex- and placebo-treated participants were observed, cue-elicited craving to smoke predicted end-of-treatment and posttreatment smoking rates. These findings suggest that in-treatment cue reactivity assessment may proactively and dynamically inform ongoing treatment as well as provide a tool for screening potential medications for smoking cessation.

  10. Evaluation of 3-day smoking cessation training course for doctors from 38 cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-mei; XIAO Dan; Robert West; Susan Michie; Ronald Troughton; Peter Hajek; WANG Chen

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization's “Framework Convention on Tobacco Control” came into effect in China in 2006.Since then,a series of tobacco control measures has been undertaken,including the first step to establish a coordinated network of stop-smoking clinics in Chinese hospitals.Training for stop-smoking specialists has been traditionally provided via printed materials.This study evaluated the outcomes of the first two intensive 3-day courses in smoking cessation in China run in collaboration with experts who provide training to UK Specialist Stop Smoking Service.@@Methods Eighty-four doctors from 38 cities in China responsible for stop-smoking treatment in 20 provinces and four autonomous regions participated in the training courses.Participants' knowledge competencies and self-efficacy were assessed before and after the authentication training.@@Results The training significantly improved participants' knowledge,skills and self-efficacy across different domains.Forty-eight participants were finally certified as “smoking cessation specialist”.@@Conclusions The UK model of face-to-face training was acceptable and effective in China.A relatively brief intensive training program can generate significant improvements in skills,knowledge,and readiness to engage in smoking cessation activities.

  11. Targeting Body Image Schema for Smoking Cessation among College Females: Rationale, Program Description, and Pilot Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Fava, Joseph L.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking among young adults is a significant public health problem. Despite the negative health effects, many young women smoke for weight and body image reasons. Understanding the factors that prompt young women to initiate and continue smoking is important for designing smoking cessation interventions. The aim of the current article is to outline…

  12. Effects of smoking cessation on hypoxia and its potential impact on radiation treatment effects in lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Radiation Oncology Unit, Medical Dept., Nordlandssykehuset HF, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Bremnes, R.M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital of North Norway, Tromso (Norway)

    2008-11-15

    Background and purpose: smoking cessation is often attempted in the context of a lung cancer diagnosis. If cessation causes slowly continuing changes of total lung capacity and vital capacity, this may have consequences for lung volume, results of dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis and targeting precision, in addition to changes in oxygenation, tumor biology (gene expression) and prognosis. Methods: to address the impact of smoking cessation on radiation treatment of lung cancer, a literature review was performed. Results: smoking cessation is associated with important benefits such as improved lung function and a better general health and performance status. In surgically and radiation treated patients, smoking cessation might lead to longer survival and reduced complications. Early data indicate that hypoxia in non-small cell lung cancer should be considered a poor prognostic factor. Yet, specific human data on how hypoxia is influenced by smoking status are not available. The influence of smoking history on the pneumonitis risk is not entirely clear. However, it appears that other factors outweigh the influence of smoking. The short-term effects of smoking cessation on lung function do not appear to cause relevant errors in treatment planning or targeting precision. Yet, no prospective study formally addressing this question was identified. Conclusion: smoking cessation appears to be prognostically beneficial. The role of hypoxia in this context requires more detailed evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy: Results after 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francisca Rosa, Ecinele; Corraini, Priscila; Inoue, Gislene;

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this 24-month prospective study was to assess the effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in adult subjects with chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relative to a previous 12-month follow-up study, recruitment and follow-up period were...... extended, resulting in 116 eligible among the 286 screened subjects. They received NSPT and concurrent smoking cessation interventions. Periodontal maintenance was performed every three months. A calibrated examined, blinded to smoking status, performed full-mouth periodontal examination in six sites per...... continued smoking (NQ) and 11 oscillated (O) at 24 months of follow-up. Thereby, Q showed significantly higher mean CAL gain in diseased sites and higher reduction in sites with CAL ≥ 3 mm, when compared to NQ. In addition, Q presented significantly higher mean probing depth reduction relative to NQ(p≤ 0...

  14. COPD-related morbidity and mortality after smoking cessation: status of the evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Lam, T H; Hansel, T T;

    2008-01-01

    The evidence base for the benefit of quitting smoking as regards morbidity and mortality outcomes in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. The present article is a review of the existing literature. A systematic literature search in medical...... databases was performed until March 2006, and subsequently until September 1, 2007. The outcomes examined were COPD-related morbidity and mortality (including all-cause mortality) in COPD patients in connection with smoking cessation. A total of 21 and 27 published articles on morbidity and mortality......, respectively, were identified and reviewed. For both outcomes, only a few of the studies included patients with severe COPD. Most of the studies reported a beneficial effect of smoking cessation compared with continued smoking, whereas a few found no improvement. Methodological problems, including small study...

  15. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T.; Oliffe, John L.; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Carole A. Robinson; Ensom, Mary HH; Okoli, Chizimuzo TC; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-01-01

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women’s tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men’s smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men’s tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary...

  16. A translational investigation targeting stress-reactivity and prefrontal cognitive control with guanfacine for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A; Potenza, Marc N; Kober, Hedy; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Arnsten, Amy F T; Picciotto, Marina R; Weinberger, Andrea H; Ashare, Rebecca; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-03-01

    Stress and prefrontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking; however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation that attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors. We used a novel translational approach employing a validated laboratory analogue of stress-precipitated smoking, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and a proof-of-concept treatment period to evaluate whether the noradrenergic α2a agonist guanfacine (3 mg/day) versus placebo (0 mg/day) reduced stress-precipitated smoking in the laboratory, altered cortico-striatal activation during the Stroop cognitive-control task, and reduced smoking following a quit attempt. In nicotine-deprived smokers (n=33), stress versus a neutral condition significantly decreased the latency to smoke, and increased tobacco craving, ad-libitum smoking, and systolic blood pressure in placebo-treated subjects, and these effects were absent or reduced in guanfacine-treated subjects. Following stress, placebo-treated subjects demonstrated decreased cortisol levels whereas guanfacine-treated subjects demonstrated increased levels. Guanfacine, compared with placebo, altered prefrontal activity during a cognitive-control task, and reduced cigarette use but did not increase complete abstinence during treatment. These preliminary laboratory, neuroimaging, and clinical outcome data were consistent and complementary and support further development of guanfacine for smoking cessation. PMID:25516371

  17. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Lawrence

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting participants with confirmed habit of tobacco smoking will be recruited and randomized into three arms to receive either auricular acupressure at five true acupoints (NADA protocol, auricular acupressure at five sham points, or no auricular acupressure at all. Participants having auricular acupressure will exert firm pressure to each acupoint bilaterally via the bead in the attached plasters whenever they feel the urge to smoke. The treatment phase will last for six weeks during which all participants will be assessed weekly to review their smoking log, state of abstinence, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and possible adverse effects including withdrawal reactions and stress levels. At any time, a successful quit date will be defined with continuous abstinence for the following consecutive 7 days. From then on, participants will be evaluated individually for continuous abstinence rate (CAR, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and adverse effects of stress and withdrawal at specified intervals up to 26 weeks. Expectancy of treatment will be assessed with a four-item Borkovec and Nau self-assessment credibility scale during and after intervention. Discussion We incorporate validated outcome measures of smoking cessation into our randomised controlled trial design with the objectives to evaluate the feasibility and possible benefits of self-administered auricular acupressure as a non-invasive alternative to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Trial

  18. Using a Mobile App to Promote Smoking Cessation in Hospitalized Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Cha, Eun Me

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential of interactive health education for preventive health applications has been widely demonstrated. However, use of mobile apps to promote smoking cessation in hospitalized patients has not been systematically assessed. Objective This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a mobile app for the hazards of smoking education delivered via touch screen tablets to hospitalized smokers. Methods Fifty-five consecutive hospitalized smokers were recruited. Patient...

  19. Municipalities Collaborating in Public Health: The Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Pernille Tanggaard Andersen; Hanna Barbara Rasmussen; Walid El Ansari; Christiane Stock

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP) which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP...

  20. A qualitative evidence synthesis of employees' views of workplace smoking reduction or cessation interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, C; Rick, J; Leaviss, J.; Fishwick, D; BOOTH, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The need to reduce smoking rates is a recognised public health policy issue in many countries. The workplace offers a potential context for offering smokers’ programmes and interventions to assist smoking cessation or reduction. A qualitative evidence synthesis of employees’ views about such programmes might explain why some interventions appear effective and others not, and can be used to develop evidence-based interventions for this population and setting. Methods A qua...

  1. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani Wan; Razak Ishak; Yang Yi; Talib Norain; Ikeda Noriaki; Axell Tony; Gupta Prakash C; Handa Yujiro; Abdullah Norlida; Zain Rosnah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initi...

  2. Effectiveness of a mobile smoking cessation service in reaching elderly smokers and predictors of quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Iris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different smoking cessation programmes have been developed in the last decade but utilization by the elderly is low. We evaluated a pilot mobile smoking cessation service for the Chinese elderly in Hong Kong and identified predictors of quitting. Methods The Mobile Smoking Cessation Programme (MSCP targeted elderly smokers (aged 60 or above and provided service in a place that was convenient to the elderly. Trained counsellors provided individual counselling and 4 week's free supply of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. Follow up was arranged at 1 month by face-to-face and at 3 and 6 months by telephone plus urinary cotinine validation. A structured record sheet was used for data collection. The service was evaluated in terms of process, outcome and cost. Results 102 governmental and non-governmental social service units and private residential homes for the elderly participated in the MSCP. We held 90 health talks with 3266 elderly (1140 smokers and 2126 non-smokers attended. Of the 1140 smokers, 365 (32% received intensive smoking cessation service. By intention-to-treat, the validated 7 day point prevalence quit rate was 20.3% (95% confidence interval: 16.2%–24.8%. Smoking less than 11 cigarettes per day and being adherent to NRT for 4 weeks or more were significant predictors of quitting. The average cost per contact was US$54 (smokers only; per smoker with counselling: US$168; per self-reported quitter: US$594; and per cotinine validated quitter: US$827. Conclusion This mobile smoking cessation programme was acceptable to elderly Chinese smokers, with quit rate comparable to other comprehensive programmes in the West. A mobile clinic is a promising model to reach the elderly and probably other hard to reach smokers.

  3. Smoking Cessation and Socioeconomic Status: An Update of Existing Evidence from a National Evaluation of English Stop Smoking Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokers from lower socioeconomic groups are less likely to be successful in stopping smoking than more affluent smokers, even after accessing cessation programmes. Data were analysed from 3057 clients of nine services. Routine monitoring data were expanded with CO validated smoking status at 52-week follow-up. Backwards logistic regression modelling was used to consider which factors were most important in explaining the relationship between SES and quitting. The odds ratio of stopping smoking among more affluent clients, compared with more disadvantaged clients, after taking into account design variables only, was 1.85 (95% CI 1.44 to 2.37 which declined to 1.44 (1.11 to 1.87 when all controls were included. The factors that explained more than 10% of the decline in the odds ratio were age, proportion of friends and family who smoked, nicotine dependence, and taking varenicline. A range of factors contribute to lower cessation rates for disadvantaged smokers. Some of these can be modified by improved smoking cessation service provision, but others require contributions from wider efforts to improve material, human, and social capital.

  4. Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation for American Indians: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireman Theresa I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of preventable death among American Indian and Alaska Natives, AI/ANs. Two out of every five AI/AN will die from tobacco-related diseases if the current smoking rates of AI/ANs (40.8% persist. Currently, there is no proven, effective culturally-tailored smoking cessation program designed specifically for a heterogeneous population of AI. The primary aim of this group randomized clinical trial is to test the efficacy of "All Nations Breath of Life" (ANBL program compared to a non-tailored "Current Best Practices" smoking cessation program among AI smokers. Methods We will randomize 56 groups (8 smokers per group to the tailored program or non-tailored program for a total sample size of 448 American Indian smokers. All participants in the proposed study will be offered pharmacotherapy, regardless of group assignment. This study is the first controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a culturally-tailored smoking cessation program for American Indians. If the intervention is successful, the potential health impact is significant because the prevalence of smoking is the highest in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01106456

  5. Results from a Community-Based Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for LGBT Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia K. Matthews

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Little is known about lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT people’s response to smoking cessation interventions. This descriptive study examined the benefits of a community-based, culturally tailored smoking cessation treatment program for LGBT smokers. Methods. A total of N=198 LGBT individuals recruited from clinical practice and community outreach participated in group-based treatment. Sessions were based on the American Lung Association’s “Freedom from Smoking Program” (ALA-FFS and were tailored to LGBT smokers’ needs. Seven-day smoking point prevalence abstinence served as the primary outcome. Results. Participants (M age = 40.5 were mostly White (70.4% and male (60.5% and had at least a college degree (58.4%. Forty-four percent scored in the moderate range on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence pretreatment, and 42.4% completed treatment (≥75% sessions. Higher educational attainment and use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT were associated with treatment completion. Self-reported quit rates were 32.3% at posttreatment assessment. Treatment attendance (OR = 2.45, use of NRT (OR = 4.24, and lower nicotine dependency (OR = 0.73 were positively associated with quitting smoking. Conclusions. Results suggest the benefits of offering LGBT smokers culturally tailored smoking cessation treatments. Future research could improve outcomes by encouraging treatment attendance and promoting NRT uptake.

  6. Smoking Cessation (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-23

    Cigarette smoking remains a leading cause of major health problems and is linked to nearly a half million deaths each year. In this podcast, Dr. Brian King discusses the health risks of smoking and the importance of quitting.  Created: 1/23/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/23/2014.

  7. Smoking Cessation (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-23

    Smoking remains a leading cause of major health problems and is linked to nearly a half a million deaths each year. This podcast discusses the importance of quitting smoking to significantly reduce your risk for serious health problems.  Created: 1/23/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/23/2014.

  8. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise;

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. ITALIC! Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs......, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention....... After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. ITALIC! Results We found...

  9. Diagnóstico y tratamiento psicosocial del tabaquismo Smoking cessation: Diagnosis and psychosocial intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO BELLO S

    2009-01-01

    . The current treatment of smoking has two pillars: psycho-social intervention and pharmacological therapy. The current interventions are based on two theoretical models that try to understand changes of smoking behavior: The Stages of Change and PRIME Theory. Brief intervention is a strategy internationally approved because of its population impact on smoking cessation. The methodology used is named "5A's": Ask, Advise, Asses, Assist and Arrange follow-up. For not motivated patients at the intervention time it can be used the "5R 's" methodology: Relevance, Risks, Rewards, Roadblocks and Repetition. The actual approach used in smokers management, is Motivational Interview, which tries to produce the behavioral change from inside and not imposing it. Its four tools are: express empathy, develop discrepancy, roll with resistance and support self efficacy. The useful psychosocial strategies, in which exists consensus, are: 1 Give practical counseling of problem solving and skills training to face risky situations; 2 Intra-treatment support, encouraging attempts of smoking cessation and communicate caring and concern.

  10. A Culturally Enhanced Smoking Cessation Study among Chinese and Korean Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn; Shive, Steven E.; Su, Xuefen; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Miller, Suzanne; Tan, Yin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of and presents preliminary findings on a culturally enhanced, theory-driven smoking cessation intervention for adult Chinese and Korean smokers. A one-group pre-post test design was used. The intervention consisted of behavioral and nicotine replacement strategies. Participants (N=43) were recruited through…

  11. Barriers to the provision of smoking cessation assistance : a qualitative study among Romanian family physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panaitescu, Catalina; Moffat, Mandy A.; Williams, Sian; Pinnock, Hilary; Boros, Melinda; Oana, Cristian Sever; Alexiu, Sandra; Tsiligianni, Ioanna

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent and slow down the progression of several respiratory and other diseases and improve patient outcomes. Romania has legislation and a national tobacco control programme in line with the World Health Organization Framework for

  12. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. ITALIC! Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. A

  13. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions : a dynamic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Talitha L; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions (i.e., minimal counseling by a general practitioner (GP) with, or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), intensive counseling with NRT, or bupropion, and telephone counseling) in terms of costs p

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions by professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); H.H. Hamberg-van Reenen; R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions: 1) Telephone Counseling (TC), 2) Minimal counseling by a general practitioner (H-MIS), 3) Minimal counseling by a general practitioner combined with Nicotine Replacement Therapy (H-MIS+NR

  15. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions: A dynamic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); H.H. Hamberg-Van Reenen (Heleen); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions (i.e., minimal counseling by a general practitioner (GP) with, or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), intensive counseling with NRT, or bupropion, and telephone counseling) in term

  16. Predictors of smoking reduction and cessation in a cohort of danish moderate and heavy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Prescott, E; Osler, M;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the extent and gender distribution of unassisted tobacco reduction and cessation in a cohort of moderate and heavy smokers and to identify possible predictor variables associated with these changes in smoking behavior. METHODS: This was a prospective...

  17. Teen Perceptions of Facilitator Characteristics in a School-Based Smoking Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Traci; Horn, Kimberly; Zhang, Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    Background: Facilitators are often responsible for the implementation of public health programs, yet little is known about how they influence outcomes. Not-On-Tobacco (N-O-T) is a youth smoking-cessation program implemented by trained facilitators. The purpose of this study was to investigate teens' perceptions of facilitator characteristics and…

  18. One year effectiveness of an individualised smoking cessation intervention at the workplace: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Artalej..., F; Lafuente, U; Guallar-Castillon, P; Garteizaurrekoa, D.; Sainz, M.; Diez, A; Foj, A; Banegas, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation intervention at the workplace. The intervention was adapted to smokers‘ tobacco dependence, and included minimal structured counselling at the first visit (5–8 minutes), nicotine patches for three months, and three sessions of counselling for reinforcement of abstinence (2–3 minutes) over a three month period.

  19. Clinical management of smoking cessation: patient factors affecting a reward-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Jeanette M; Halpern, Michael T

    2010-12-10

    Although the majority of current smokers indicate they would like to quit, only about half of smokers make a quit attempt each year. Of those who attempt to quit, only about 5% are successful. Many effective products and programs are available to assist in smoking cessation; however those interested in quitting often do not make use of these resources. To increase use of cessation products in order to improve successful cessation rates, the Consumer Demand Roundtable has argued that smokers need to be viewed as consumers of cessation products rather than as patients needing treatment. With this consumer-based approach in mind, the current review examines how participant characteristics, perceptions, and behavior influence, and are influenced by, contingency management (CM) paradigms in various settings. Findings suggest that participant factors associated with success in these programs include demographic characteristics (eg, gender, marital status), self-efficacy, motivation to quit, and impulsivity. Overall, participants perceive incentives for successful cessation as motivating. However, such programs may involve greater withdrawal symptoms (eg, craving for cigarettes) initially, but these symptoms tend to decrease at a greater rate over time compared with nonincentive group participants. CM programs have also been shown to be successful across a number of settings (eg, communities, schools), including settings in which smokers are often considered difficult to treat (eg, substance abuse treatment centers). Overall, CM programs are perceived positively by participants and can increase rates of successful cessation. Furthermore, CM interventions have the flexibility to adapt to individual preferences and needs, leading to greater participation and likelihood of successful cessation. Thus, CM provides an important framework for addressing the need for consumer-focused smoking cessation interventions.

  20. Implementation of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Study at Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs: Smoking Behavior and Treatment Feasibility Across Varied Community-based Outpatient Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm S; Fallon, Bryan; Sonne, Susan; Nunes, Edward V; Lima, Jennifer; Jiang, Huiping; Tyson, Clare; Hiott, Robert; Arfken, Cynthia; Bohs, Rhonda; Orr, Deborah; Muir, Joan; Pihlgren, Eric; Loree, Amy; Fuller, Brett E; Giordano, Louis; Robinson, James; Rotrosen, John

    2007-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is widely prevalent among individuals in treatment for drug or alcohol dependence; however, the treatment of nicotine addiction in this population has numerous obstacles at both programmatic and patient levels. Despite these difficulties, recent studies have demonstrated moderate success in implementing smoking cessation treatment in drug rehabilitation programs. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network sponsored a smoking cessation study in 13 community-based outpatient substance abuse rehabilitation programs across the country. The study evaluated the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment provided as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment-as-usual. This report summarizes the practical and clinical experiences encountered at each of the study sites with regard to implementing the smoking cessation treatment intervention. Smoking behavior of the treatment clientele was assessed by anonymous survey at each site. In addition, sites were systematically characterized by using program review and assessment tools completed by the respective staff and program directors at the site. Survey and recruitment data indicated that cigarette smoking is more prevalent and that smoking cessation treatment is more feasible, in methadone maintenance treatment programs. Other factors associated with smoking behavior and with the recruitment of drug- and alcohol-dependent individuals into the smoking cessation treatment study are described.

  1. Supporting smoking cessation in older patients: a continuing challenge for community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adele

    2016-09-01

    Tobacco smoking continues to pose negative health consequences for smokers and their families, and is the single greatest cause of health inequalities in the UK. Older people are particularly vulnerable to the negative health impacts of smoking and therefore, supporting older smokers to quit remains an important public health goal. Community nurses are required to help patients to lead healthier lifestyles and have ideal opportunities to encourage smoking cessation in older people who are affected by smoking-related health conditions, or whose existing conditions may be exacerbated by continued smoking. This paper discusses how community nurses can support their older patients to quit smoking by fostering a patient-centred partnership through good communication and empathy. The newly developed 'Very Brief Advice on Smoking' (VBA) interventions can provide a useful tool for community nurses who experience time constraints to advise older people that psychosocial support with treatment is the most effective method of smoking cessation, while respecting the health decisions of patients. PMID:27594061

  2. The effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation in young asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Porsbjerg, C; Backer, V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has been shown to have several detrimental effects on asthma, including poor symptom control, attenuated treatment response and accelerated decline in lung function. In spite of this, smoking is at least as common among asthma patients as in the rest of the population. The agg......BACKGROUND: Smoking has been shown to have several detrimental effects on asthma, including poor symptom control, attenuated treatment response and accelerated decline in lung function. In spite of this, smoking is at least as common among asthma patients as in the rest of the population....... The aggravations of smoking on asthma may be caused by effects on airway inflammation, which has been found to be changed in asthmatic smokers. It is not known whether these smoking-induced airway inflammation changes are reversible after smoking cessation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess airway...... parameters. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation improved asthma control, but the changes were not related to change in eosinophilic inflammation, and the reduction in neutrophils was small. Thus, airway inflammation with eosinophils and neutrophils may be less important drivers of asthma control in smokers than...

  3. Genetic polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes and smoking cessation in women: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinouanprachan Sengkeo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission have been suggested as candidates for involvement in smoking behavior. We hypothesized that alleles associated with reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission would be more common in continuing smokers than among women who quit smoking. Methods The study included 593 women aged 26–65 years who participated in a twelve month smoking cessation trial conducted in 1993–1994. Participants were contacted three years after the trial to obtain updated smoking history and biological specimens. Seven polymorphisms were assessed in genes involved in dopamine synthesis (tyrosine hydoxylase [TH], receptor activation (dopamine receptors [DRD2, DRD3, DRD4], reuptake (dopamine transporter [SLC6A3], and metabolism (catechol-o-methyltransferase [COMT]. Smoking cessation was assessed as "short-term" quitting (abstinence for the seven days before the conclusion of the trial and "long-term" quitting (abstinence for the six months before a subsequent interview conducted several years later. Results We observed no association of any polymorphism with either short- or long-term quitting. Although some relative risk estimates were consistent with weak associations, either the direction of effect was opposite of that hypothesized, or results of the short- and long-term cessation endpoints differed. However, effect modification on smoking cessation was observed between DRD2 Taq1A and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms, DRD3 Ser/Gly and d,1-fenfluramine, and DRD4 VNTR and d,1-fenfluramine. Conclusion Although these results fail to support prior findings of independent associations of these polymorphisms with smoking status, our exploratory findings suggestive of gene-gene and gene-treatment interactions warrants further investigation.

  4. Approaching tobacco dependence in youngsters: impact of an interactive smoking cessation program in a population of Romanian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Esanu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters’ attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program.Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old participated in the Adolescent Smoking Cessation (ASC pilot program in Romania in 2005. Subjects were evaluated based on the ASC questionnaire, a validated set of questions about smoking and cessation profile, whether current smoker or not. Smoking status was validated by carbon monoxide determination in exhaled air. Participants were delivered 6 interactive ASC sessions about smoking hazards and methods to quit smoking. A final evaluation was done to assess overall program’s impact and to reward quitters and reducers by prizes.Results: Study population was made of 52.4% every day smokers, 10.4% at least once/week but not every day smokers, 6% less than once/week smokers, 23.4% never smokers and 7.8% ex-smokers. Cessation rate was 12.3% in every day smokers and 16.6 % in at least once a week but not every day smokers. Also, 4.1% every day smokers and 30 % at least once/week not every day smokers reduced number of cigarettes smoked/day. The program registered a high attendance rate/sessions as 85.2 % of subjects were present in all sessions. Also, significant changes occurred in participant’s beliefs about smoking and cessation.Conclusions: Pilot ASC was an efficient program with 12.3% of daily smokers to quit smoking and its positive impact on personal smoking and cessation beliefs in 90 % of participants. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 1(3: 150-155

  5. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  6. Empowering smokers with a web-assisted tobacco intervention to use prescription smoking cessation medications: a feasibility trial

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Peter; Hussain, Sarwar; Voci, Sabrina; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Background Varenicline and bupropion, efficacious smoking cessation medications, have had suboptimal impact due to barriers at the patient, practitioner and system level. This study explored the feasibility of a web-assisted tobacco intervention offering free prescription smoking cessation medication by mail if the smoker visited a physician for authorization. Methods Adult Ontarians, smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily, intending to quit within 30 days, with no contraindications to bupropio...

  7. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  8. Introducing smoking cessation to Indonesian males treated for tuberculosis: The challenges of low-moderate level smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mark; Padmawati, Siwi; Ng, Nawi

    2016-03-01

    There is a dearth of information about the smoking habits of people currently and formerly treated for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this paper we describe research carried out in Indonesia between 2007 and 2011 designed to investigate both the impact of TB-specific quit smoking messages in the TB clinic and at home, and shifts in patterns of smoking among those formerly treated for TB who continue to smoke. The results of a modest two-arm smoking cessation trial involving 87 patients undergoing Directly Observed Therapy Short course treatment (DOTS) for TB are presented. In one arm patients received a TB-specific quit smoking message delivered by doctors and a TB and smoking educational booklet and quit smoking guide. In the second, family support arm, patients also received on-going cessation messages delivered by family members trained to be DOTS supporters. The study followed patients twice during their six months of DOTS treatment and twice six months post treatment. Both arms of the study reduced rates of smoking during and following TB treatment significantly with 73% of patients in the doctor arm and 71% in the family support arm remaining quit at the end of the treatment (month 6). When complete abstinence at six months after treatment was taken as a primary outcome measure, no statistical difference was found in the effectiveness of the two arms of the intervention. Notably, 67% of higher-level smokers at baseline and 33% of low-moderate level smokers at baseline quit entirely. Many of those who resumed smoking did so at low-moderate levels (smoking at a low-moderate level (smoking at a higher level. A purposeful sample of 15 patients who shifted from heavy smoking (20-40 cigarettes per day) to low-moderate levels of smoking post treatment were followed for an additional 12 months. We report on their ability to sustain lower levels of smoking and self-perceived smoking status given their dramatic reduction in cigarette

  9. Introducing smoking cessation to Indonesian males treated for tuberculosis: The challenges of low-moderate level smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mark; Padmawati, Siwi; Ng, Nawi

    2016-03-01

    There is a dearth of information about the smoking habits of people currently and formerly treated for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this paper we describe research carried out in Indonesia between 2007 and 2011 designed to investigate both the impact of TB-specific quit smoking messages in the TB clinic and at home, and shifts in patterns of smoking among those formerly treated for TB who continue to smoke. The results of a modest two-arm smoking cessation trial involving 87 patients undergoing Directly Observed Therapy Short course treatment (DOTS) for TB are presented. In one arm patients received a TB-specific quit smoking message delivered by doctors and a TB and smoking educational booklet and quit smoking guide. In the second, family support arm, patients also received on-going cessation messages delivered by family members trained to be DOTS supporters. The study followed patients twice during their six months of DOTS treatment and twice six months post treatment. Both arms of the study reduced rates of smoking during and following TB treatment significantly with 73% of patients in the doctor arm and 71% in the family support arm remaining quit at the end of the treatment (month 6). When complete abstinence at six months after treatment was taken as a primary outcome measure, no statistical difference was found in the effectiveness of the two arms of the intervention. Notably, 67% of higher-level smokers at baseline and 33% of low-moderate level smokers at baseline quit entirely. Many of those who resumed smoking did so at low-moderate levels (treatment maintained their abstinence six months after treatment, 13% resumed smoking at a low-moderate level (smoking at a higher level. A purposeful sample of 15 patients who shifted from heavy smoking (20-40 cigarettes per day) to low-moderate levels of smoking post treatment were followed for an additional 12 months. We report on their ability to sustain lower levels of smoking

  10. Social Network Behavior and Engagement Within a Smoking Cessation Facebook Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Perotte, Adler; Galica, Kasia; Dreyer, Lindy; Griffith, Christopher; Schwarz, Mary; Yun, Christopher; Patrick, Heather; Coa, Kisha

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media platforms are increasingly being used to support individuals in behavior change attempts, including smoking cessation. Examining the interactions of participants in health-related social media groups can help inform our understanding of how these groups can best be leveraged to facilitate behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of participation, self-reported smoking cessation length, and interactions within the National Cancer Institutes’ Facebook community for smoking cessation support. Methods Our sample consisted of approximately 4243 individuals who interacted (eg, posted, commented) on the public Smokefree Women Facebook page during the time of data collection. In Phase 1, social network visualizations and centrality measures were used to evaluate network structure and engagement. In Phase 2, an inductive, thematic qualitative content analysis was conducted with a subsample of 500 individuals, and correlational analysis was used to determine how participant engagement was associated with self-reported session length. Results Between February 2013 and March 2014, there were 875 posts and 4088 comments from approximately 4243 participants. Social network visualizations revealed the moderator’s role in keeping the community together and distributing the most active participants. Correlation analyses suggest that engagement in the network was significantly inversely associated with cessation status (Spearman correlation coefficient = −0.14, P=.03, N=243). The content analysis of 1698 posts from 500 randomly selected participants identified the most frequent interactions in the community as providing support (43%, n=721) and announcing number of days smoke free (41%, n=689). Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of the moderator for network engagement and provide helpful insights into the patterns and types of interactions participants are engaging in. This study adds knowledge of how the

  11. Evaluating an Adaptive and Interactive mHealth Smoking Cessation and Medication Adherence Program: A Randomized Pilot Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L; Bradley, Katharine; An, Lawrence C; Catz, Sheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions hold great promise for helping smokers quit since these programs can have wide reach and facilitate access to comprehensive, interactive, and adaptive treatment content. However, the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of these programs remain largely untested. Objective To assess feasibility and acceptability of the My Mobile Advice Program (MyMAP) smoking cessation program and estimate its effects on smoking cessation and medication adherence to inform future research planning. Methods Sixty-six smokers ready to quit were recruited from a large regional health care system and randomized to one of two mHealth programs: (1) standard self-help including psychoeducational materials and guidance how to quit smoking or (2) an adaptive and interactive program consisting of the same standard mHealth self-help content as controls received plus a) real-time, adaptively tailored advice for managing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side-effects and b) asynchronous secure messaging with a cessation counselor. Participants in both arms were also prescribed a 12-week course of varenicline. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 2 weeks post-target quit date (TQD), 3 months post-TQD, and 5 months post-TQD. Indices of program feasibility and acceptability included acceptability ratings, utilization metrics including use of each MyMAP program component (self-help content, secure messaging, and adaptively tailored advice), and open-ended feedback from participants. Smoking abstinence and medication adherence were also assessed to estimate effects on these treatment outcomes. Results Utilization data indicated the MyMAP program was actively used, with higher mean program log-ins by experimental than control participants (10.6 vs 2.7, Phttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02136498 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6jT3UMFLj) PMID:27489247

  12. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Robert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enrolled 319 healthy smokers aged 20-65 years at two occupational health centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Most of them (81% expressed an interest to quit rather than just reduce their smoking. Study products were used ad libitum throughout the 48-week study period. The main study objective during the first 24 weeks was smoking reduction. The primary end-point was defined as a biologically verified reduction of ≥ 50% in the average number of smoked cigarettes per day during week 21-24 compared to baseline. During week 25-48 participants were actively instructed to stop smoking completely. Outcome measures of biologically verified, complete smoking cessation included 1-week point prevalence rates at clinical visits after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, as well as 4-, 12- and 24-week continued cessation rates at the week 36 and 48 visits. Results At the week 24 visit, the proportion of participants who achieved the protocol definition of a ≥ 50% smoking reduction was similar in the two treatment groups. However, the proportion that reported more extreme reductions (≥ 75% was statistically significantly higher in the snus group than in the placebo group (p Conclusions Swedish snus could promote smoking cessation among smokers in Serbia, that is, in a cultural setting without traditional use of oral, smokeless tobacco. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00601042

  13. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate smoking patterns in an elderly, low-income population and to identify predictors of smoking cessation, in addition to analyzing the importance of smoking in relation to other risk factors for hospitalization. DESIGN The data were part of an urban health study conducted among 740 individuals aged ≥60 years in three suburban communities of low socio-economic status in Beirut, one of them a refugee camp. A detailed interview schedule was administered that included comprehensive social and health information. RESULTS The overall prevalence of current smokers was 28.1%. Almost half of the group were ever smokers, of whom 44% had quit smoking when they experienced negative health effects. Having at least one chronic illness and having a functional disability significantly increased the odds of smoking cessation. In addition, being a former smoker increased the likelihood of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS This study is of particular importance, as it has implications for similar low-income and refugee communities in the region and elsewhere. There is a need for more concerted efforts by public health officials to target elderly individuals as a group for smoking cessation interventions, particularly now that mortality and health benefits have been well documented. RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Investiguer les types de tabagisme dans une population âgée à faibles revenus et identifier les facteurs prédictifs de l’arrêt du tabagisme, tout en analysant l’importance du tabagisme par rapport aux autres facteurs de risque d’hospitalisation. SCHÉMA Les données constituent une fraction de l’étude de santé urbaine menée chez 740 personnes âgées de ≥60 ans à Beyrouth dans trois collectivités suburbaines à faible statut socio-économique dont une des trois se situe dans un camp de réfugiés. Un schéma détaillé d’interview a été utilisé comportant des informations complètes sur le plan social et celui de la santé. R

  14. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate smoking patterns in an elderly, low-income population and to identify predictors of smoking cessation, in addition to analyzing the importance of smoking in relation to other risk factors for hospitalization. DESIGN The data were part of an urban health study conducted among 740 individuals aged ≥60 years in three suburban communities of low socio-economic status in Beirut, one of them a refugee camp. A detailed interview schedule was administered that included comprehensive social and health information. RESULTS The overall prevalence of current smokers was 28.1%. Almost half of the group were ever smokers, of whom 44% had quit smoking when they experienced negative health effects. Having at least one chronic illness and having a functional disability significantly increased the odds of smoking cessation. In addition, being a former smoker increased the likelihood of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS This study is of particular importance, as it has implications for similar low-income and refugee communities in the region and elsewhere. There is a need for more concerted efforts by public health officials to target elderly individuals as a group for smoking cessation interventions, particularly now that mortality and health benefits have been well documented. RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Investiguer les types de tabagisme dans une population âgée à faibles revenus et identifier les facteurs prédictifs de l’arrêt du tabagisme, tout en analysant l’importance du tabagisme par rapport aux autres facteurs de risque d’hospitalisation. SCHÉMA Les données constituent une fraction de l’étude de santé urbaine menée chez 740 personnes âgées de ≥60 ans à Beyrouth dans trois collectivités suburbaines à faible statut socio-économique dont une des trois se situe dans un camp de réfugiés. Un schéma détaillé d’interview a été utilisé comportant des informations complètes sur le plan social et celui de la santé. R

  15. Bayesian Inference for Smoking Cessation with a Latent Cure State

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Sheng; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Thomas A Louis; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to modeling dynamic smoking addiction behavior processes when cure is not directly observed due to censoring. Subject-specific probabilities model the stochastic transitions among three behavioral states: smoking, transient quitting, and permanent quitting (absorbent state). A multivariate normal distribution for random effects is used to account for the potential correlation among the subject-specific transition probabilities. Inference is conducted using a Bay...

  16. Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrick Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders. Methods We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6 scores and duration of mental illness. Results The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking. Conclusions The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco

  17. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis-associated Pulmonary Hypertension Showing a Drastic Improvement Following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Atsuhiko; Hidaka, Kouko

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare, smoking-related, interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with mortality. We herein report a case of PLCH complicated by severe PH and respiratory impairment. After developing PH, the patient displayed a cystic pattern on chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). This, in turn, corresponded with the scarring stage of PLCH. However, the patient's PH and respiratory impairment improve dramatically following smoking cessation. PLCH patients with a cystic pattern on chest HRCT may still be able to improve their PH and respiratory impairment when they are able to quit smoking. PMID:26935369

  18. Meta-analysis of the association between a serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye D; Shin, Wan G

    2016-04-01

    5-HTTLPR is one of the candidate genes influencing addiction. Recent studies have reported that the 5-HTTLPR genotype is associated with smoking behaviour, but its influence is still controversial. Thus, we reviewed the smoking-cessation outcomes among previously reported studies by comparing the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. In total, eight studies including 3206 participants for the present meta-analysis were assessed and the S/S, S/L and L/L genotypes were compared with respect to smoking-cessation outcomes. The results of comparing 5-HTTLPR genotypes were as follows: odds ratio (OR)=1.044 and 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.751-1.078 for S/S versus S/L; OR=0.862 and 95% CI=0.690-1.077 for S/L versus L/L; and OR=0.924 and 95% CI=0.689-1.433 for S/S versus L/L. We found no significant association between 5-HTTLPR and smoking cessation, but 5-HTTLPR remains an important smoking-related candidate gene.

  19. Smoking-cessation interventions in people living with HIV infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Farley, Jason; DiGiacomo, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains a prevalent behavior in people living with HIV infection (PLWHs) and is associated with impaired immune functioning, increased cardiovascular risk, and decreased response to antiretroviral therapy. This review presents a critique and synthesis of evidence on effective smoking-cessation interventions for PLWHs. A comprehensive search identified nine peer-reviewed intervention studies published between 1989 and 2012. The highest likelihood of smoking cessation (range of odds ratios 4.33-5.6) were in two randomized controlled trial interventions using cell phone technology. Clinically significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, weight gain, and increased CD(4+) T-cell count were reported in participants who ceased smoking in three of the nine studies. Overall, multistrategy smoking-cessation interventions, delivered over multiple sessions, were effective. However, the most effective interventions were tailored to the unique individual needs of PLWHs, including assessment of and intervention for polysubstance abuse and mental health issues, as well as the inclusion of access-promoting elements.

  20. Self-reported smoking cessation interventions among dental practitioners: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the attitudes and practices of dentists toward smoking cessation intervention (SCI; to identify the barriers that prevent them from advising their patients to quit smoking and to determine the level of interest in future training in smoking cessation. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all (122 dentists practicing in private sectors in the Emirate of Ajman, United Arab Emirates. The questionnaire was personally administered, and the dental practitioners were given explanations regarding how to complete it. Only descriptive statistics was calculated. Results: More than half of the respondents (55% inquired about their patients smoking status, whereas 40% of the dentists documented it. The most common barrier cited by the respondents was the lack of training and preparation in the smoking cessation techniques, followed by lack of availability of educational material. Almost three-quarters of the respondent were interested in further training in SCI; being provided to them through full-day training course. Conclusions: Dentists require more access to appropriate forms of training in the SCI and more support needed to enable the dentist to help their patient to quit the habit. Providing training program to the dental practitioners in the United Arab Emirates to equip them with the required skill to deliver SCI would be highly beneficial.

  1. Making the journey with me:a qualitative study of experiences of a bespoke mental health smoking cessation intervention for service users with serious mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Sarah; Planner, Claire; Bradshaw, Tim; Peckham, Emily; Man, Mei-See; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors contributing to early mortality for people with serious mental illness. However, only a minority of service users access smoking cessation interventions and there are concerns about the appropriateness of generic stop-smoking services for this group. The SCIMITAR (Smoking Cessation Intervention for Severe Mental Ill-Health Trial) feasibility study explored the effectiveness of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention delivered by...

  2. Depression and maintenance of smoking cessation after myocardial infarction with focus on education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kathrine; Rasmussen, Jakob; Kirkegaard, Helene;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between depression and maintenance of smoking cessation at 1-year follow-up in patients admitted with first-incidence acute myocardial infarction (MI) with a focus on educational level. Methods: From the 1st of September 2002...... to the 31st of December 2004, 388 patients years old were admitted at Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark with first-incidence MI. The patients were screened for depression 6 weeks after admission and offered cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Patients were included if they stopped smoking at admission...... = 7.67; p-value = .03) at 1-year follow-up. When adjusted for educational level a significant association was still seen (OR = 7.48; p-value = .01). Conclusions: There was a significant association between a positive depression screening and failing to maintain a smoking cessation in men at 1-year...

  3. Relative risk for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events after smoking cessation: 6–9 years excess risk in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelein John JP

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking history is often di- or trichotomized into for example "never, ever or current smoking". However, smoking must be treated as a time-dependent covariate when lifetime data is available. In particular, individuals do not smoke at birth, there is usually a wide variation with respect to smoking history, and smoking cessation must also be considered. Methods Therefore we analyzed smoking as a time-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events in a cohort of 2400 individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia who were followed from birth until 2004. Excess risk after smoking-cessation was modelled in a Cox regression model with linear and exponential decaying trends. The model with the highest likelihood value was used to estimate the decay of the excess risk of smoking. Results Atherosclerotic events were observed in 779 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 1569 individuals had a smoking history. In the model with the highest likelihood value the risk reduction of smoking after cessation follows a linear pattern with time and it appears to take 6 to 9 years before the excess risk is reduced to zero. The risk of atherosclerotic events due to smoking was estimated as 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5; 2.9. Conclusion It was concluded that excess risk due to smoking declined linearly after cessation in at least six to nine years.

  4. Comparative analysis of smoking cessation smartphone applications available in 2012 versus 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; van Schayck, Onno C.P.; Sheard, David; Selladurai, Abiram; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Smartphone applications (apps) offer a potentially cost-effective and a wide-reach aid to smoking cessation. In 2012, a content analysis of smoking cessation apps suggested that most apps did not adopt behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which according to previous research had suggested would promote higher success rates in quitting smoking. This study examined whether or not, this situation had changed by 2014 for free smoking cessation apps available in the Apple App Store. It also compared the use of engagement and ease-of-use features between the two time points. Methods 137 free apps available in the Apple App Sore in 2014 were coded using an established framework for the presence or absence of evidence-based BCTs, and engagement and ease-of-use features. The results from the 2014 data were compared with a similar exercise conducted on 83 free apps available in 2012. Results BCTs supporting identity change, rewarding abstinence and advising on changing routines were less prevalent in 2014 as compared with 2012 (14.6% vs. 42.2%, 18.2% vs. 48.2%, and 17.5% vs. 24.1%, respectively). Advice on coping with cravings and advice on the use of stop-smoking medication were more prevalent in 2014 as compared with 2012 (27.7% vs. 20.5% and 14.6% vs 3.6%, respectively). The use of recognised engagement features was less common in 2014 than in 2012 (45.3% vs. 69.6%) while ease-of-use features remained very high (94.5% vs. 82.6%). Conclusion There was little evidence of improvement in the use of evidence-based BCTs in free smoking cessation iPhone-based apps between 2012 and 2014. PMID:26950256

  5. The nicotine addiction and the assessment of the effectiveness of smoking cessation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szpringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is currently one of the most significant health and social issues. The consequences of smoking affect both individuals as well as entire society. Addiction to nicotine has been recognised as a major environmental factor fostering numerous diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of and motives for quitting smoking among the adult inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The authors were also interested in the level of nicotine addiction. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 209 inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski who were former or ongoing smokers. The study employed a survey technique, with the authors’ own questionnaire as a study tool. The Fagerström test determining addiction to nicotine (nicotine dependence was used too. Results and conclusions: The study revealed that smoking is a serious social issue. The majority of respondents had quit smoking (63.1%, 19.1% had never made any attempt to quit, whereas in 17.7% of respondents the cessation was unsuccessful and they returned to smoking. All respondents were aware of health-affecting consequences of smoking, but were unable to list more than four smoking-related diseases (lung and tongue cancers, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Attempts to cease smoking were made by 81,0% of the survey participants, mostly for health and financial reasons (42.0% and 21.3% respectively. Cessation of smoking resulted in numerous side effects, such as irritability (36.4%, outbursts of anger (20.7%, gaining weight (20.4% or binge eating of sweets (11.7%. The factor preventing respondents from quitting smoking was stress (29,0%.

  6. Effects of Smoking and Cessation on Subclinical Arterial Disease: A Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather M.; Piper, Megan E.; Baker, Timothy B.; Fiore, Michael C.; Stein, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanisms by which smoking cessation reduces cardiovascular disease risk are unclear. We evaluated longitudinal changes in carotid intima-media thickness among current smokers enrolled in a prospective, randomized smoking cessation clinical trial. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies and underwent carotid ultrasonography with carotid intima-media thickness measurement. Subjects were classified as continuously abstinent (biochemically confirmed abstinence at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years post-quit attempt), intermittently abstinent (reported smoking at one of the three time points), or smoked continuously (reported smoking at all three time points). The primary endpoint was the absolute change (mm) in carotid intima-media thickness (ΔCIMTmax) before randomization and 3 years after the target quit date. Pearson correlations were calculated and multivariable regression models (controlling for baseline CIMTmax and research site) were analyzed. Among 795 subjects (45.2±10.6 years old, 58.5% female), 189 (23.8%) were continuously abstinent, 373 (46.9%) smoked continuously, and 233 (29.3%) were abstinent intermittently. There was a greater increase in carotid intima-media thickness among subjects who were continuously abstinent than among those who smoked continuously (p = 0.020), but not intermittently (p = 0.310). Antihypertensive medication use (p = 0.001) and research site (p<0.001) independently predicted ΔCIMTmax – not smoking status. The greatest increase in carotid intima-media thickness among continuous abstainers was related to increases in body-mass index (p = 0.043). Conclusions/Significance Smoking status did not independently predict ΔCIMTmax; increasing body-mass index and antihypertensive medication use were the most important independent predictors. The rapid reduction in cardiovascular disease events

  7. Effects of smoking and cessation on subclinical arterial disease: a substudy of a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which smoking cessation reduces cardiovascular disease risk are unclear. We evaluated longitudinal changes in carotid intima-media thickness among current smokers enrolled in a prospective, randomized smoking cessation clinical trial. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies and underwent carotid ultrasonography with carotid intima-media thickness measurement. Subjects were classified as continuously abstinent (biochemically confirmed abstinence at 6 months, 1 year, and 3 years post-quit attempt, intermittently abstinent (reported smoking at one of the three time points, or smoked continuously (reported smoking at all three time points. The primary endpoint was the absolute change (mm in carotid intima-media thickness (ΔCIMT(max before randomization and 3 years after the target quit date. Pearson correlations were calculated and multivariable regression models (controlling for baseline CIMT(max and research site were analyzed. Among 795 subjects (45.2 ± 10.6 years old, 58.5% female, 189 (23.8% were continuously abstinent, 373 (46.9% smoked continuously, and 233 (29.3% were abstinent intermittently. There was a greater increase in carotid intima-media thickness among subjects who were continuously abstinent than among those who smoked continuously (p = 0.020, but not intermittently (p = 0.310. Antihypertensive medication use (p = 0.001 and research site (p<0.001 independently predicted ΔCIMTmax--not smoking status. The greatest increase in carotid intima-media thickness among continuous abstainers was related to increases in body-mass index (p = 0.043. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Smoking status did not independently predict ΔCIMT(max; increasing body-mass index and antihypertensive medication use were the most important independent predictors. The rapid reduction in cardiovascular disease events observed

  8. The effect of Varenicline on smoking cessation in a group of young asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian G; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco use causes long-term morbidity and mortality. In patients with asthma, the frequency of smokers is high; however, asthmatic smokers experience more pronounced symptoms, accelerated loss of lung function and treatment resistance. Varenicline is an effective drug in smoking...... cessation, when investigated in COPD patients and general populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Varenicline on tobacco cessation in young asthmatics. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial, 52 asthmatic current smokers (age 19-40) ≥ 10 cigarettes...

  9. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  10. [An inter-university diploma on tobacco and smoking cessation: pedagogical evaluation and professional impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louam, A; Jung, F; Kruchen, A; Quoix, E

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the post-graduate degree course on tobacco and smoking cessation is to train professionals who have dedicated themselves to the fight against tobacco and smoking. An educational assessment of the degree programme was carried out in order to evaluate its impact on practice. A questionnaire was mailed to 60 students registered in the programme at Strasbourg University between 1997 and 2002 (with a response rate of 71.6%). The evaluation was able to shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the teaching in the programme and the level of student satisfaction. The tobacco control and smoking cessation interventions of the students before and after completing the course were compared in order to assess the impact on their professional practice. The programme's participants came from a variety of professions including medical doctors (74.4%), paramedical staff (16.3%) and other professions (6.9%). The students acknowledged the course's high level of quality (the teachers were appreciated, and the programme was comprehensive). The structure of the course was operational; however, the students admitted that they felt that the practical application and the interactive aspects of the learning (such as case studies, role playing, training in a specific smoking cessation intervention were insufficient. They also noted a lack of emphasis on treatments that do not rely on pharmacotherapy such as behavioural therapy and psychological support. Tobacco cessation related problems or side effects of quitting like weight gain, anxiety or insomnia were not appropriately developed. The majority of students were very satisfied with the theoretical basis of the curriculum and with their internship in a tobacco cessation consultation intervention. Today, 69% of the students trained are working in smoking cessation and tobacco control. They have been able to diversify their activities, going from prevention to tobacco cessation, and vice versa. Course tracks focusing on

  11. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  12. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  13. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there ...

  14. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson-Spillmann Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessation, and we will compare the results of group hypnosis with group relaxation. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial (RCT to compare the efficacy of a single session of hypnosis with that of relaxation performed in groups of 8-15 smokers. We intend to include at least 220 participants in our trial. The inclusion criteria include smoking at least 5 cigarettes per day, not using other cessation methods and being willing to quit smoking. The intervention is performed by a trained hypnotist/relaxation therapist. Both groups first receive 40 min of mental preparation that is based on motivational interviewing. Then, a state of deep relaxation is induced in the hypnosis condition, and superficial relaxation is induced in the control condition. Suggestions are made in the hypnosis condition that aim to switch the mental self-image of the participants from that of smokers to that of non-smokers. Each intervention lasts for 40 min. The participants also complete questionnaires that assess their smoking status and symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline, 2 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. In addition, saliva samples are collected to assess cotinine levels at baseline and at 6 months post-intervention. We also assess nicotine withdrawal symptoms at 2 weeks post-intervention. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this RCT is the first to test the efficacy of group hypnosis versus group relaxation. Issues requiring discussion in the outcome

  15. Effectiveness of a web-based self-help smoking cessation intervention: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.; Willemsen, M.C.; Conijn, B.; Emst, van A.J.; Brunsting, S.; Riper, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for many chronic and fatal illnesses. Stopping smoking directly reduces those risks. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a web-based interactive self-help programme for smoking cessation, known as the StopSite, by comparin

  16. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Kelly; Carter, Kimberly; Curtin, Lisa; Martz, Denise M.; Gagnon, Sandy G.; Michael, Kurt D.

    2010-01-01

    Motivational interviewing has shown some success as an intervention for college student cigarette smokers. We tested the efficacy and process of a two session motivational-interviewing-based smoking intervention compared to an assessment/information session. College student participants assigned to the motivational interviewing condition did not…

  17. Transitions in smoking behaviour and the design of cessation schemes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Maas, van der H.L.J.

    2012-01-01

    The intake of nicotine by smoking cigarettes is modelled by a dynamical system of differential equations. The variables are the internal level of nicotine and the level of craving. The model is based on the dynamics of neural receptors and the way they enhance craving. Lighting of a cigarette is par

  18. Transitions in smoking behaviour and the design of cessation schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Grasman; R.P.P.P. Grasman; H.L.J. van der Maas

    2012-01-01

    The intake of nicotine by smoking cigarettes is modelled by a dynamical system of differential equations. The variables are the internal level of nicotine and the level of craving. The model is based on the dynamics of neural receptors and the way they enhance craving. Lighting of a cigarette is par

  19. “Hike up yer Skirt, and Quit.” What Motivates and Supports Smoking Cessation in Builders and Renovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Bercovitz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction-related occupations have very high smoking prevalence rates and are an identified priority population for efforts to promote cessation. This study sought to identify the smoking cessation supports and services which best suited this workforce group, and to identify gaps in reach of preventive health services. We performed qualitative text analysis on pre-existing conversations about smoking cessation among workers in this sector. The material appeared on a discussion forum about residential construction from 1998 and 2011. Roughly 250 unique user names appeared in these discussions. The qualitative analysis addressed knowledge, motivation, environmental influences, and positive and negative experiences with supports for cessation. Self-identified smokers tended to want to quit and described little social value in smoking. Actual quit attempts were attributed to aging and tangible changes in health and fitness. Peer-to-peer social support for cessation was evident. Advice given was to avoid cigarettes and smokers, to focus on personal skills, personal commitment, and the benefits of cessation (beyond the harms from smoking. Many discussants had received medical support for cessation, but behavioural counselling services appeared underutilized. Our findings support efforts toward more complete bans on workplace smoking and increased promotion of available behavioural support services among dispersed blue-collar workers.

  20. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction in Denmark 1976-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Osler, M; Vestbo, J;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effects of smoking reduction and smoking cessation on incidence of myocardial infarction after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with record linkage to mortality and hospital registers. The association of individual...... change in smoking with myocardial infarction was examined in Cox proportional hazard analyses with continuous heavy smokers (> or =5 cigarettes/day) as reference. SETTING: Pooled data from three population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 10 956 men and 8467 women with complete...... information on smoking habits at two examinations five to ten years apart were followed up from the second examination for a first hospital admission or death from myocardial infarction. Mean duration of follow up was 13.8 years. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 643 participants who were heavy smokers at baseline...

  1. Depression, anxiety, stress, and motivation over the course of smoking cessation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina, Maritza Muzzi Cardozo; Rondina, Regina de Cássia; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Botelho, Clóvis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Methods: This cohort study involved patients enrolled in a smoking cessation program in Cuiabá, Brazil. We selected patients who completed the program in six months or less (n = 142). Patient evaluations were conducted at enrollment (evaluation 1 [E1]); after 45 days of treatment with medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy (E2); and at the end of the six-month study period (E3). Patients were evaluated with a standardized questionnaire (to collect sociodemographic data and determine smoking status), as well as with the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Wilcoxon test for paired comparisons. To compare treatment success (smoking cessation) with treatment failure, the test for two proportions was used. Results: Among the 142 patients evaluated, there were improvements, in terms of the levels of anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress, between E1 and E2, as well as between E1 and E3. In addition, treatment success correlated significantly with the levels of motivation and anxiety throughout the study period, whereas it correlated significantly with the level of depression only at E2 and E3. Conclusions: We conclude that there are in fact changes in the levels of patient anxiety, depression, motivation, and stress over the course of smoking cessation treatment. Those changes appear to be more pronounced in patients in whom the treatment succeeded. PMID:26578135

  2. Differences between Men and Women Enrolling in Smoking Cessation Programs Using Yoga as a Complementary Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, Herpreet; Jennings, Ernestine; Fava, Joseph L; Sillice, Marie A; Becker, Bruce M; Hartman, Sheri J; Bock, Beth C

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of men and women, respectively, participating in two randomized controlled pilot studies whose primary aims were to test the feasibility of yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Participants were aged 18-65, generally healthy and were daily smokers. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests examined gender differences in smoking rate, potential treatment mediators, and covariates (e.g., smoking history, health status, weight concerns, mood, and prior withdrawal symptoms). A total of 55 women and 38 men participated in the study. Differences between men and women at enrollment included: women reported significantly greater withdrawal (psmoking (p=0.003), had an existing smoking-related illness (33% vs. 13%; p=0.032), and reported smoking for weight control (15% vs. 0%; p=0.014). Results showed good feasibility for recruiting both men and women into a study using yoga as a complementary therapy for smoking cessation. Results also indicate that interventions may need to be tailored to meet different needs (e.g., addressing co-morbid depression) between men and women.

  3. Examining smoking and cessation during pregnancy among an Appalachian sample: a preliminary view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Traci

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several transitions that a woman experiences prenatally may influence her desire or ability to discontinue smoking. This study explores the role of smoking for young, Appalachian, nulliparous pregnant women and their plans for smoking during their pregnancies. Results The reports of women and their male partners were taken from baseline interviews conducted during the first trimester of pregnancy. Cigarette smoking appeared to be more than an isolated addictive activity; rather, smoking was interwoven in women's social and personal realms, often changing as their perceptions of self changed. Women and their partners who continued to smoke appeared to be depressed, reject authority, and perceived little control over issues related to being pregnant. Conclusion These findings support the argument that standard substance use treatments and polices based on stages-of-change theories may not be effective for all individuals particularly those experiencing significant developmental changes in their lives. Greater success might be obtained from treatment programs designed to recognize the impact of these transitions as it relates to the substance use. The changing experiences of pregnant women in terms of their identity development, views of others, and their relationships have not been adequately addressed in existing cessation programs. Empirically-based interventions targeting these lifestyle characteristics may lead to increased cessation success among pregnant women.

  4. Assessment of professional competency and need of smoking cessation counseling for dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani A. Dable

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the smoking prevalence among dental students and to assess the need for promoting tobacco education and intervention by exploring their knowledge about smoking related risk factors. The study also examined the attitudes and practices of the students toward tobacco consumption, and their responsibilities toward the community. Methods: In total, 53 male students participated in the study (21 juniors and 32 seniors. The training program was divided into three modules, and the questionnaire was administered before and after the counseling sessions, which provided the comparative data on the students’ views about smoking cessation. Results: The most commonly practiced mode of tobacco consumption was found to be cigarette smoking (90.6 %, while a few consumed Gutkha (9.4%. All the junior students (100% reported to have been benefitted by the counseling program, while 68.8% of the students from the senior group reported the same. Bivariate statistical analysis was conducted using the Pearson’s chi-square test for testing the difference across the age groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Curbing tobacco influence on dental students in their initial days can ensure a smoke-free life for them, as well as prevents them from feeling embarrassed or experiencing a lack of confidence while seeing their patients. Thus, tobacco education and intervention programs can motivate the students and increase their potential to be credible advisors regarding smoking cessation.

  5. Individual- and area-level unemployment influence smoking cessation among African Americans participating in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2012-05-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  6. The influence of in-pregnancy smoking cessation programmes on partner quitting and women's social support mobilization: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN89131885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Olga

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy could influence a woman's social behaviour and her partner's smoking behaviour, but this has not been examined in any published randomized trials. Method 918 women smoking at booking for antenatal care were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial of three interventions: standard care, self-help manual and enhanced stage-based counselling, or self-help manual, enhanced stage-based counselling and use of an interactive computer program. The outcomes were change in social support received by women between booking for maternity care and 30 weeks gestation and 10 days postpartum and reported cessation in the woman's partner at these times. Results Few pregnant women's partners stopped smoking (4.1% at 30 weeks of gestation and 5.8% at 10 days postpartum and the probability of quitting did not differ significantly by trial arm. Women's scores on the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors showed a slight decline from booking to 30 weeks gestation, and a slight increase to 10 days postpartum, but these changes did not differ significantly by trial arm. Conclusion The stage-based interventions tested in this trial aimed partly to influence women's mobilization of support and might have influenced partners' quitting, but there was no evidence that they did so. Given that women and their partners often stopped smoking together, future interventions to prevent smoking in pregnant women could encourage both partners to quit together.

  7. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on human serum metabolite profile: results from the KORA cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolomics helps to identify links between environmental exposures and intermediate biomarkers of disturbed pathways. We previously reported variations in phosphatidylcholines in male smokers compared with non-smokers in a cross-sectional pilot study with a small sample size, but knowledge of the reversibility of smoking effects on metabolite profiles is limited. Here, we extend our metabolomics study with a large prospective study including female smokers and quitters. Methods Using targeted metabolomics approach, we quantified 140 metabolite concentrations for 1,241 fasting serum samples in the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) human cohort at two time points: baseline survey conducted between 1999 and 2001 and follow-up after seven years. Metabolite profiles were compared among groups of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers, and were further assessed for their reversibility after smoking cessation. Changes in metabolite concentrations from baseline to the follow-up were investigated in a longitudinal analysis comparing current smokers, never smokers and smoking quitters, who were current smokers at baseline but former smokers by the time of follow-up. In addition, we constructed protein-metabolite networks with smoking-related genes and metabolites. Results We identified 21 smoking-related metabolites in the baseline investigation (18 in men and six in women, with three overlaps) enriched in amino acid and lipid pathways, which were significantly different between current smokers and never smokers. Moreover, 19 out of the 21 metabolites were found to be reversible in former smokers. In the follow-up study, 13 reversible metabolites in men were measured, of which 10 were confirmed to be reversible in male quitters. Protein-metabolite networks are proposed to explain the consistent reversibility of smoking effects on metabolites. Conclusions We showed that smoking-related changes in human serum

  8. Quit in General Practice: a cluster randomised trial of enhanced in-practice support for smoking cessation

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    Zwar Nicholas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study will test the uptake and effectiveness of a flexible package of smoking cessation support provided primarily by the practice nurse (PN and tailored to meet the needs of a diversity of patients. Methods/Design This study is a cluster randomised trial, with practices allocated to one of three groups 1 Quit with Practice Nurse 2 Quitline referral 3 GP usual care. PNs from practices randomised to the intervention group will receive a training course in smoking cessation followed by access to mentoring. GPs from practices randomised to the Quitline referral group will receive information about the study and the process of written referral and GPs in the usual care group will receive information about the study. Eligible patients are those aged 18 and over presenting to their GP who are daily or weekly smokers and who are able to give informed consent. Patients on low incomes in all three groups will be able to access free nicotine patches. Primary outcomes are sustained abstinence and point prevalence abstinence at the three month and 12 month follow-up points; and incremental cost effectiveness ratios at 12 months. Process evaluation on the reach and acceptability of the intervention approached will be collected through Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI with patients and semi-structured interviews with PNs and GPs. The primary analysis will be by intention to treat. Cessation outcomes will be compared between the three arms at three months and 12 month follow-up using multiple logistic regression. The incremental cost effectiveness ratios will be estimated for the 12 month quit rate for the intervention groups compared to usual care and to each other. Analysis of qualitative data on process outcomes will be based on thematic analysis. Discussion High quality evidence on effectiveness of practice nurse interventions is needed to inform health policy on development of practice nurse roles. If effective

  9. The QUIT-PRIMO provider-patient Internet-delivered smoking cessation referral intervention: a cluster-randomized comparative effectiveness trial: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Daniel E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although screening for tobacco use is increasing with electronic health records and standard protocols, other tobacco-control activities, such as referral of patients to cessation resources, is quite low. In the QUIT-PRIMO study, an online referral portal will allow providers to enter smokers' email addresses into the system. Upon returning home, the smokers will receive automated emails providing education about tobacco cessation and encouragement to use the patient smoking cessation website (with interactive tools, educational resources, motivational email messages, secure messaging with a tobacco treatment specialist, and online support group. Methods The informatics system will be evaluated in a comparative effectiveness trial of 160 community-based primary care practices, cluster-randomized at the practice level. In the QUIT-PRIMO intervention, patients will be provided a paper information-prescription referral and then "e-referred" to the system. In the comparison group, patients will receive only the paper-based information-prescription referral with the website address. Once patients go to the website, they are subsequently randomized within practices to either a standard patient smoking cessation website or an augmented version with access to a tobacco treatment specialist online, motivational emails, and an online support group. We will compare intervention and control practice participation (referral rates and patient participation (proportion referred who go to the website. We will then compare the effectiveness of the standard and augmented patient websites. Discussion Our goal is to evaluate an integrated informatics solution to increase access to web-delivered smoking cessation support. We will analyze the impact of this integrated system in terms of process (provider e-referral and patient login and patient outcomes (six-month smoking cessation. Trial Registration Web-delivered Provider Intervention for

  10. Assessment of different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran

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    Gholamreza Heydari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health systems play key roles in identifying tobacco users and providing evidence-based care to help them quit. This treatment includes different methods such as simple medical consultation, medication, and telephone counseling. To assess different quit smoking methods selected by patients in tobacco cessation centers in Iran in order to identify those that are most appropriate for the country health system. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a random sample of all quit centers at the country level was used to obtain a representative sample. Patients completed the self-administered questionnaire which contained 10 questions regarding the quality, cost, effect, side effects and the results of quitting methods using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Percentages, frequencies, mean, T-test, and variance analyses were computed for all study variables. Results: A total of 1063 smokers returned completed survey questionnaires. The most frequently used methods were Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT and combination therapy (NRT and Counseling with 228 and 163 individuals reporting these respectively. The least used methods were hypnotism (n = 8 and the quit and win (n = 17. The methods which gained the maximum scores were respectively the combined method, personal and Champix with means of 21.4, 20.4 and 18.4. The minimum scores were for e-cigarettes, hypnotism and education with means of 12.8, 11 and 10.8, respectively. There were significant differences in mean scores based on different cities and different methods. Conclusions: According to smokers′ selection the combined therapy, personal methods and Champix are the most effective methods for quit smoking and these methods could be much more considered in the country health system.

  11. Acupressure for smoking cessation – a pilot study

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    Moody Russell C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a serious risk to health: several therapies are available to assist those who wish to stop. Smokers who approach publicly funded stop-smoking clinics in the UK are currently offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or bupropion, and group behaviour therapy, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. Acupuncture and acupressure are also used to help smokers, though a systematic review of the evidence of their effectiveness was inconclusive. The aim of this pilot project was to determine the feasibility of a study to test acupressure as an adjunct to one anti-smoking treatment currently offered, and to inform the design of the study. Methods An open randomised controlled pilot study was conducted within the six week group programme offered by the Smoking Advice Service in Plymouth, UK. All participants received the usual treatment with NRT and group behavioural therapy, and were randomised into three groups: group A with two auricular acupressure beads, group B with one bead, and group C with no additional therapy. Participants were taught to press the beads when they experienced cravings. Beads were worn in one ear for four weeks, being replaced as necessary. The main outcome measures assessed in the pilot were success at quitting (expired CO ≤ 9 ppm, the dose of NRT used, and the rating of withdrawal symptoms using the Mood and Symptoms Scale. Results From 49 smokers attending four clinics, 24 volunteered to participate, 19 attended at least once after quitting, and seven remained to the final week. Participants who dropped out reported significantly fewer previous quit attempts, but no other significant differences. Participants reported stimulating the beads as expected during the initial days after quitting, but most soon reduced the frequency of stimulation. The discomfort caused by the beads was minor, and there were no significant side effects. There were technical problems with adhesiveness of

  12. Smoking Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Among Health Care Professionals from Sulaymaniyah City/Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulateef, Darya Saeed; Ali, Azheen Jamil; Abdulateef, Darwn Saeed; Mohesh, M.I. Glad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a serious risk to health globally. Health care professionals play a key role in the prevention of smoking as they are considered a role model by patients. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study are to evaluate smoking rate among physicians and dentists from Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq, and to understand their knowledge and attitudes toward tobacco smoking. METHODS A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted involving physicians and dentists working in both University of Sulaimani and Sulaymaniyah Teaching Hospitals. A questionnaire created based on World Health Organization Global Health Professional Survey with slight modifications was emailed to the study participants and the responses received were analyzed. RESULTS Incidence of smoking among physicians and dentists was 26.5%, with a significantly higher rate among male compared to female health care professionals. The mean age of starting smoking was 22.3 (±4.8) years. Only 7.3% of health care professionals received formal training on smoking cessation. All responders agreed that smoking is harmful to health. However, ever smokers compared to never smokers were less likely to agree that health care professionals should set a positive impact by not smoking. CONCLUSION Smoking rate is high among physicians and dentists from Sulaymaniyah city/Iraq, and at the same time, there is a low rate of training on smoking cessation. PMID:26966391

  13. Twelve Weeks of Successful Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline Reduces Spirometric Lung Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Masahiko; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result. However, the number of cigarettes consumed per day was reduced in all subjects of the failure group. Results The spirometric lung ages significantly improved over the 12-week period in the success group (69.8±24.7 vs. 66.9±24.1, psmoking cessation exhibited an independent association with the difference in spirometric lung age between the last visit and baseline (psmoking cessation therapy with varenicline improves the spirometric lung age in the short term. PMID:27580538

  14. Rated measures of narrative structure for written smoking-cessation texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the effect of a series of rated measures of narrative structure on recognition memory, agreement on story-relevant beliefs, and intention to engage in a health-related behavior-in this case smoking cessation. Using short smoking-cessation stories as stimuli, data were collected in a nationally representative sample of adult smokers (n = 1,312). Results suggested that messages rated as more sequential improved encoding and messages rated as containing more context decreased encoding. Messages rated high in transportation were associated with increased recognition, agreement with story-relevant beliefs, and intention to quit. Both positive and negative emotion were positively associated with intention to quit, but were negatively associated with recognition memory.

  15. The effectiveness of telephone counselling and internet- and text-message-based support for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Dalum, Peter; Bech, Mickael;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling, reactive telephone counselling and an internet- and text messages-based intervention with a self-help booklet for smoking cessation. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial with equal allocation to four conditions: 1) Proactive...... telephone counselling (n=452), 2) Reactive telephone counselling (n=453), 3) Internet- and text-message-based intervention (n=453), 4) Self-help booklet (control) (n=452) SETTING: Denmark PARTICIPANTS: Smokers who had previously participated in two national health surveys were invited. Eligibility criteria...... counselling group compared with the booklet group (7.3% vs. 3.6%, OR=2.2 (95% CI 1.2-4.0)), There was no clear evidence of a difference in prolonged abstinence between the reactive telephone counselling group or the internet-based smoking cessation program and the booklet group: 1.8% vs. 3.6%, OR=0.8 (95% CI...

  16. Psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

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    Thyego Mychell Moreira-Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among all causes of preventable deaths, smoking is responsible for the greatest number of deaths worldwide and predisposes to fatal, noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes are effective in the treatment of patients with smoking-related diseases and assist in the prevention of premature mortality. Our objective was to investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. To that end, we conducted an integrative review of the literature in order to summarize relevant studies on this topic. The selected databases were Scopus, PubMed Central, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (Core Collection, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS e PsycINFO. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted for this study, 14 articles were selected for analysis. Those studies showed that the prevalence of psychological distress is higher among smokers than among nonsmokers, and distress-related symptoms are much more common in smokers with acute myocardial infarction than in those without. Smoking cessation depends on the active participation of the smoker, whose major motivation is the underlying disease. Most studies have shown that there is a need to create treatment subgroups as a means of improving the treatment provided. This review article expands the knowledge regarding smoking cessation and shows the need to invest in future research that investigates subgroups of smokers diagnosed with the major smoking-related comorbidities, such as acute myocardial infarction, in order to develop specific interventions and psychological support strategies.

  17. Design Considerations for Smoking Cessation Apps: Feedback From Nicotine Dependence Treatment Providers and Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer B McClure; Hartzler, Andrea L; Catz, Sheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hundreds of smoking cessation apps are commercially available, but most are not theory-based or designed to take advantage of mobile technology in ways that could make them more engaging and possibly more effective. Considering input from both clinical experts (who understand best practice nicotine dependence treatment requirements) to inform appropriate content and from smokers (the end users) to express their preferences is important in designing these programs in the future. Obj...

  18. ‘Someone batting in my corner’: experiences of smoking-cessation support via text message

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Nicolas; Free, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background The txt2stop trial demonstrated that smoking-cessation support delivered by text message doubles biochemically verified abstinence at 6 months. There was no significant heterogeneity in any of the pre-specified subgroups. Aim To explore participants’ experiences of the txt2stop intervention via a qualitative study using telephone interviews. Design and setting Qualitative telephone interviews in the community. Method Thematic content analysis of 1283 feedback forms was conducted to...

  19. Assessment of the effectiveness of sustained release Bupropion and intensive physician advice in smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Pranav; Kumar Raj

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is the cause of immense burden on our nation in terms of mortality and morbidity, being the single leading cause of preventable illnesses and death. Smoking cessation interventions in our country will be the most cost effective of all interventions considering that the cost incurred on the three main tobacco related illnesses (COPD, CAD, and Cancer) being around Rs 27,761 crore in the year 1999. Materials and Methods: A double blind placebo controlled trial was cond...

  20. Risk of hospital admission for COPD following smoking cessation and reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Vestbo, J; Osler, M;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of changes in smoking habits on the subsequent risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking cessation and reduction and admission to hospital for COPD in a general...... population sample. METHODS: A total of 19,709 participants from three prospective population studies in Copenhagen were followed with record linkage for date of first hospital admission for COPD until 1998 (mean follow up 14 years). Heavy smokers (>/=15 cigarettes/day) who reduced their tobacco consumption...

  1. Race/Ethnicity and Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Individuals Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Costello, Tracy J.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Businelle, Michael S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking in combination with other behavioral risk factors is known to have a negative influence on health, and individuals who smoke typically engage in multiple risk behaviors. However, little is known about the clustering of risk behaviors among smokers of varying race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of cancer risk behaviors and to identify predictors of multiple risk behaviors in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of individuals seeking smoking cessation treatment. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 424 smokers (African American, n = 144; Latino, n = 141; Caucasian, n = 139). Results indicated that 90% of participants reported behavioral cancer risk factors in addition to smoking. Approximately 70% of participants were overweight or obese, 48% engaged in at-risk drinking, and 27% were insufficiently physically active. Univariate analyses indicated that race/ethnicity, p culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:18990734

  2. A systematic review of peer-support programs for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-10-28

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.

  3. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral Gartner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting, psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence. Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.

  4. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  5. How can we Improve on Modeling Nicotine Addiction to Develop Better Smoking Cessation Treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, M; Buhidma, Y

    2016-01-01

    Clinically effective smoking cessation treatments are few in number, mainly varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy being prescribed by health organizations. Of the many compounds tested for smoking cessation, a good proportion fail in human trials despite positive findings in rodents. This chapter aims to cover the uses and some pit falls of current methodologies employed to discover clinical treatments in the laboratory. Complicating factors include the complex nature of genetics in tobacco smoking and the comorbidity associated with other psychiatric disorders, which has not been addressed fully in the rodent laboratory. This chapter reviews the evidence from intravenous nicotine self-administration studies and proposes modifications on how we can improve the validity of the animal models by incorporating clinically relevant factors considered to be critical in tobacco smoking. For example, choice procedures that incorporate alternative reinforcers, use of reinstatement models, and second-order schedules of reinforcement are proposed to have better scientific validity that may lead to better clinical outcomes. Furthermore, improved experimental methods will also improve our chances of discovering effective treatments that ultimately may mitigate the effects of tobacco smoking with regard to health worldwide.

  6. Personalized smoking cessation: interactions between nicotine dose, dependence and quit-success genotype score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E; Behm, Frédérique M; Drgon, Tomas; Johnson, Catherine; Uhl, George R

    2010-01-01

    Improving and targeting nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are cost-effective strategies for reducing adverse health consequences for smokers. Treatment studies document the efficacy of precessation NRT and support important roles for level of nicotine dependence and precessation smoking reduction in successful quitting. However, prior work has not identified the optimal precessation dose or means for personalizing NRT. Genome-wide association has identified groups of genomic markers associated with successful quitting, allowing us to develop a v1.0 "quit-success" genotype score. We now report influences of v1.0 quit-success genotype score, level of dependence and precessation smoking reduction in a smoking cessation trial that examined effects of 21 versus 42 mg/24 h precessation NRT. Four hundred seventy-nine smokers were randomized to 21 or 42 mg NRT, initiated 2 wks prior to target quit dates. We monitored self-reported abstinence and end-expired air carbon monoxide (CO). Genotyping used Affymetrix arrays (Santa Clara, CA, USA). The primary outcome was 10-wk continuous smoking abstinence. NRT dose, level of nicotine dependence and genotype scores displayed significant interactive effects on successful quitting. Successful abstinence also was predicted by CO reductions during precessation NRT. These results document ways in which smoking cessation strategies can be personalized based on levels of nicotine dependence, genotype scores and CO monitoring. These assessments, taken together, can help match most smokers with optimal NRT doses and help rapidly identify some who may be better treated using other methods.

  7. Smoking cessation and associated factors during pregnancy Cese del consumo de tabaco durante el embarazo y factores asociados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Torrent

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine smoking habits before and during pregnancy, as well as factors associated with smoking cessation, in three European settings. Methods: Women seeking antenatal care in Ashford (UK, Minorca and Barcelona (Spain were recruited to the Asthma Multicenter Infant Cohort Study (AMICS. Questionnaires inquiring into the smoking habits of each woman and her partner, demographic data, occupation, educational level, number of previous children, breast feeding, alcohol intake, and history of asthma and of other allergic diseases were completed during pregnancy and in the first year after delivery. Results: A total of 1 572 pregnant women were included in the three cohorts. Smoking prior to pregnancy was more common in Barcelona (46.2% than in Minorca (39.8% or Ashford (31.6%. Cessation rates during pregnancy also differed: 18% of women in Ashford, 20.4% in Minorca and 31.9% in Barcelona were still smoking during the first trimester. In a multivariate regression model, the factors showing a significant (negative association with smoking cessation during pregnancy were having older children, having a partner who smoked and starting smoking at a young age. Conclusions: Baseline smoking habits and changes in smoking habits during pregnancy significantly differed between the three communities studied. Women pregnant with their first child, those who had started smoking at a later age and those whose partners were non-smokers were more likely to stop smoking when pregnant.Objetivo: Describir el hábito tabáquico antes y durante el embarazo y los factores asociados con su cese con relación al embarazo en distintos entornos europeos. Métodos: Se ha incluido en el estudio a las mujeres captadas durante el embarazo para participar en el estudio AMICS (Asthma Multicentre Infant Cohort Study en Ashford (Reino Unido, Barcelona y Menorca (España. Se administró un cuestionario durante el embarazo y otro durante el primer año posparto, que inclu

  8. The Role of Drinking Alcohol, Coffee, Tea Habits, Fear of Gaining Weight and Treatment Methods in Smoking Cessation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet Fidancı1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the role of drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits, fear of gaining weight and treatment methods in smoking cessation success. Methods: In our study, we applied a questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to 128 participants consulting Family Medicine Smoking Cessation Outpatient Clinic of Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Among participants, 67 of them were people quitted smoking while the other 61 did not. With questionnaire, we investigated factors possibly affecting smoking cessation success like drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits and also marital status and occupations of participants. By adding Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to questionnaire we defined the dependence status of participants. Results: Study comprised of 128 participants, 50 of them being female and 78 being male. Mean age of participants was 34.01 (±12.24 in patients quitted smoking and 32.82 (±13.45 in patients still smoking. Tea and alcohol drinking habits were found to be higher in smoking group and difference was statistically significant (p<0,05. When examining smoking cessation success according to occupational groups, civil servants and unemployed people were more successful than other occupational groups, but there was no statistically significant difference. People having coffee drinking habits quitted smoking in a significantly higher rate (p<0,05. Among given treatments, although statistically insignificant, the most effective one was varenicline. Conclusion: According to our results, smoking cessation success is lower among people having tea and alcohol drinking habits. In smokers, we should investigate the relationship with additional substance usage and aim to decrease these additional substance usage habits for increasing smoking cessation success.

  9. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS) cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Solesse Anne; Jeanpetit Yasmine; Vicaut Eric; Stoebner-Delbarre Anne; Peiffer Gérard; Aubin Henri-Jean; Bonnelye Geneviève; Thomas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. Methods The objectives of this panel study were (1) to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2) to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3) to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4) to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in th...

  10. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Nancy C. Raymond; Cooney, Ned L.; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals’ cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70 % or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies...

  11. Understanding smoking cessation: the role of smokers' quit history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzer, Marco C; van den Putte, Bas

    2006-09-01

    Many studies have found smokers' quit history to correlate with quitting smoking, but little is known about the psychological processes explaining this relationship. This study uses the integrative model of behavioral prediction to examine how quit history affects quit intention. Data from 3,428 Dutch smokers demonstrate that quit history affects (a) beliefs about quitting and (b) the degree to which self-efficacy predicts quit intention. It seems that a relatively unsuccessful history of prior quit attempts reduces self-efficacy over quitting and strengthens the relationship of self-efficacy with the intention to quit. The results are used to call for more process-oriented research in order to advance our understanding of the relationship between quit history and quit intention. PMID:16938076

  12. Lack of Associations of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genetic Variants with Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Caucasian Smokers despite Associations with Baseline Smoking.

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    Rachel F Tyndale

    Full Text Available CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants, rs16969968, rs588765 and rs578776, are consistently associated with tobacco consumption among smokers, but the association with smoking cessation is less consistent. Among the studies that reported significant associations with cessation, the effects were observed in smokers treated with placebo treatment in some studies and conversely in those receiving active pharmacological therapy (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies in others. Thus, it remains unclear whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 is a useful marker for optimizing smoking cessation. Using data from 654 Caucasian smokers treated with placebo, nicotine patch or varenicline, we investigated whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants were associated with smoking cessation outcomes, and whether there were significant genotype-by-treatment or haplotype-by-treatment interactions. We observed no significant associations between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation, despite replicating previous associations with baseline tobacco consumption. At end of treatment the effect size on smoking cessation in the placebo, patch and varenicline groups for rs16969968 [GG vs. GA+AA] was OR = 0.66 (P = 0.23, OR = 1.01 (P = 0.99, and OR = 1.30 (P = 0.36 respectively, of rs588765 [CC vs. CT+TT] was OR = 0.96 (P = 0.90, OR = 0.84 (P = 0.58, and OR = 0.74 (P = 0.29 respectively, and for rs578776 [GG vs. GA+AA] on smoking cessation was OR = 1.02 (P = 0.95, OR = 0.75 (P = 0.35, and OR = 1.20 (P = 0.51 respectively. Furthermore, we observed no associations with cessation using the CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype (constructed using rs16969968 and rs588765, nor did we observe any significant genotype-by-treatment interactions, with or without adjusting for the rate of nicotine metabolism (all P>0.05. We also observed no significant genetic associations with 6 month or 12 month smoking abstinence. In conclusion, we found no association between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation rates in this clinical

  13. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

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    Nidhi Mehrotra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ware G Kuschner, Sunayana Reddy, Nidhi Mehrotra, Harman S PaintalDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1 the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e- cigarette; and 2 new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS. The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room

  14. Use and perceived helpfulness of smoking cessation methods: results from a population survey of recent quitters

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    Perez Donna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of smoking cessation is one of the most effective measures available to improve population health. To advance the goal of increasing successful cessation at the population level, it is imperative that we understand more about smokers' use of cessation methods, as well as the helpfulness of those methods in real-world experiences of quitting. In this survey of recent quitters, we simultaneously examined rates of use and perceived helpfulness of various cessation methods. Methods Recent quitters (within 12 months; n = 1097 completed a telephone survey including questions relating to 13 cessation methods. Indices of use and perceived helpfulness for each method were plotted in a quadrant analysis. Socio-demographic differences were explored using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results From the quadrant analysis, cold turkey, NRT and gradual reduction before quitting had high use and helpfulness; GP advice had high use and lower helpfulness. Prescribed medication and online programs had low use but high helpfulness. Remaining methods had low use and helpfulness. Younger quitters were more likely to use unassisted methods such as cold turkey; older or less educated quitters were more likely to use assisted methods such as prescribed medication or advice from a general practitioner. Conclusions The majority of recent quitters quit cold turkey or cut down before quitting, and reported that these methods were helpful. Efforts to influence population smoking prevalence should attempt to provide support and motivation for smokers choosing these methods, in addition to assessing the effectiveness and accessibility of other methods for smokers who need or choose them.

  15. Persistence of smoking-induced dysregulation of miRNA expression in the small airway epithelium despite smoking cessation.

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    Guoqing Wang

    Full Text Available Even after quitting smoking, the risk of the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer remains significantly higher compared to healthy nonsmokers. Based on the knowledge that COPD and most lung cancers start in the small airway epithelium (SAE, we hypothesized that smoking modulates miRNA expression in the SAE linked to the pathogenesis of smoking-induced airway disease, and that some of these changes persist after smoking cessation. SAE was collected from 10th to 12th order bronchi using fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Affymetrix miRNA 2.0 arrays were used to assess miRNA expression in the SAE from 9 healthy nonsmokers and 10 healthy smokers, before and after they quit smoking for 3 months. Smoking status was determined by urine nicotine and cotinine measurement. There were significant differences in the expression of 34 miRNAs between healthy smokers and healthy nonsmokers (p1.5, with functions associated with lung development, airway epithelium differentiation, inflammation and cancer. After quitting smoking for 3 months, 12 out of the 34 miRNAs did not return to normal levels, with Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway being the top identified enriched pathway of the target genes of the persistent dysregulated miRNAs. In the context that many of these persistent smoking-dependent miRNAs are associated with differentiation, inflammatory diseases or lung cancer, it is likely that persistent smoking-related changes in SAE miRNAs play a role in the subsequent development of these disorders.

  16. Integrated smoking cessation and binge drinking intervention for young adults: a pilot efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Steven C; Pokorny, Steven B; Schroeder, Darrell R; Tan, Winston; Werch, Chudley E

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with cigarette smoking in young adults. The primary aim of this investigation was to complete a pilot evaluation of the efficacy of an integrated intervention that targets both cigarette smoking and binge drinking on the cigarette smoking and binge behavior of young adults at 6-month follow-up. Participants were 95 young adult (M=24.3; SD=3.5 years) smokers (≥1 cigarettes per day) who binge drink (≥1 time per month) and who were randomly assigned to standard treatment (n=47) involving six individual treatment visits plus eight weeks of nicotine patch therapy or the identical smoking cessation treatment integrated with a binge drinking intervention (integrated intervention; n=48). Using an intent-to-treat analysis for tobacco abstinence, at both 3 month end of treatment and 6 month follow-up, more participants who received integrated intervention were biochemically confirmed abstinent from tobacco than those who received standard treatment at 3 months (19% vs. 9%, p=0.06) and 6 months (21% vs. 9%, p=0.05). At 6 months, participants who completed the study and who received integrated intervention consumed fewer drinks per month (psmoking cessation and reduces binge drinking compared to standard treatment.

  17. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

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    B. Routy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8 vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented.

  18. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routy, B.; Hoang, J.; Gruber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8) vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented. PMID:25789184

  19. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routy, B; Hoang, J; Gruber, J

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8) vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented. PMID:25789184

  20. Effects of an Avatar-Based Anti-Smoking Game on Smoking Cessation Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Allen D; Idrees, Thaer; Karanam, Chandana; Anam, Ramankumar; Ruiz, Jorge G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a computer-based anti-smoking game on the intent and motivation to quit tobacco. Smokers with nicotine dependence were briefly exposed to an anti-smoking game with or without an avatar resembling the smoker's self. The computer-based anti-smoking game improved participants' immediate intent and motivation to quit smoking. Embedding an avatar resembling self into the game did not result in added benefits. PMID:27046546

  1. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Eight Urinary Tobacco Carcinogen and Toxicant Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Han, Shaomei; Briggs, Anna; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the persistence at various times (3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42 and 56 days) of eight tobacco smoke carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers in the urine of 17 smokers who stopped smoking. The biomarkers were 1-hydroxy-2-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-3-butene (1) and 1-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-2-hydroxy-3-butene (2) [collectively called MHBMA for monohydroxybutyl mercapturic acid] and 1,2-dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl)butane (3) [DHBMA for dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid], metabolites of 1,3-butadiene; 1-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-propan-3-ol (4, HPMA for 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid), a metabolite of acrolein; 2-(N-acetylcysteinyl)butan-4-ol (5, HBMA for 4-hydroxybut-2-yl mercapturic acid), a metabolite of crotonaldehyde; (N-acetylcysteinyl)benzene (6, SPMA for S-phenyl mercapturic acid), a metabolite of benzene; (N-acetylcysteinyl)ethanol (7, HEMA for 2-hydroxyethyl mercapturic acid), a metabolite of ethylene oxide; 1-hydroxypyrene (8) and its glucuronides (1-HOP), metabolites of pyrene; and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (9) and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of exposure to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). These biomarkers represent some of the major carcinogens and toxicants in cigarette smoke: 1,3-butadiene, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, benzene, ethylene oxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and NNK. With the exception of DHBMA, levels of which did not change after cessation of smoking, all other biomarkers decreased significantly after 3 days of cessation (P<0.001). The decreases in MHBMA, HPMA, HBMA, SPMA, and HEMA were rapid, nearly reaching their ultimate levels (81 – 91% reduction) after 3 days. The decrease in total NNAL was gradual, reaching 92% after 42 days, while reduction in 1-HOP was variable among subjects to about 50% of baseline. Since DHBMA did not change upon smoking cessation, there appear to be sources of this metabolite other than 1,3-butadiene. The results of this study demonstrate that the tobacco

  2. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Huibers Marcus JH

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group, health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1, and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2. Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A

  3. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Paul; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Background Men continue to smoke cigarettes in greater numbers than women. There is growing evidence for the value of developing targeted, men-centered health promotion programs. However, few smoking cessation interventions have been designed for men. A gender-specific website, QuitNow Men, was developed based on focus group interview findings, stakeholder feedback, and evidence-based cessation strategies. The website was designed to incorporate a masculine look and feel through the use of images, direct language, and interactive content. Usability experts and end-users provided feedback on navigation and functionality of the website prior to pilot testing. Objectives The objectives of the pilot study were to describe (1) men’s use and evaluations of the interactive resources and information on the QuitNow Men website, and (2) the potential of QuitNow Men to engage men in reducing and quitting smoking. Methods A one-group, pretest-posttest study design was used. Men who were interested in quitting were recruited and invited to use the website over a 6-month period. Data were collected via online questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 117 men completed the baseline survey. Over half of those (67/117, 57.3%) completed both follow-up surveys. Results At baseline, participants (N=117) had been smoking for an average of 24 years (SD 12.1) and smoked on average 15 cigarettes a day (SD 7.4). The majority had not previously used a quit smoking website (103/117, 88.0%) or websites focused on men’s health (105/117, 89.7%). At the 6-month follow-up, the majority of men used the QuitNow Men website at least once (64/67, 96%). Among the 64 users, 29 (43%) reported using the website more than 6 times. The men using QuitNow Men agreed or strongly agreed that the website was easy to use (51/64, 80%), the design and images were appealing (42/64, 66%), they intended to continue to use the website (42/64, 66%), and that they would recommend Quit

  4. Changes in Health Perceptions of Male Prisoners Following a Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Stephanie; Marshall, Bob

    2016-07-01

    The aim was to explore the changes in health perceptions of men in prison following a smoking cessation program. Interviews, lung age tests, and a quality-of-life questionnaire were carried out with prisoners. Four main themes emerged from the interviews: the increase in exercise tolerance with improvements in general health, an ability to taste food again, an acknowledgment of stress, and the reasoning behind beginning smoking. Lung age tests showed most prisoners had a lung age older than their chronological age. The quality-of-life survey showed that mean normalized results for physical functioning, general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health were above 50%. Helping prisoners to remain smoke-free once they leave prison is a new challenge for health providers. PMID:27302710

  5. Social Cognitive Analysis of Recovery from a Lapse after Smoking Cessation: Comment on Haaga and Stewart (1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Haaga and Stewart on perceived self-efficacy for recovery of abstinence from smoking after lapse and success in maintaining abstinence. Identifies and addresses issues regarding application of social cognitive theory to such areas as smoking cessation. Examines distinctions between efficacy and outcome beliefs,…

  6. Effect of the smoking cessation services in the out-patient department for patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects and clinical prognosis of out-patient department-based smoking cessation services for coronary heart disease(CHD)patients.Methods A total of 140 smoking patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease in our cardiovascular department were randomly divided into the intensive

  7. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  8. CHRNA5 risk variant predicts delayed smoking cessation and earlier lung cancer diagnosis--a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, L.S.; Hung, R.J.; Baker, T.; Horton, A.; Culverhouse, R.; Saccone, N.; Cheng, I.; Deng, B.; Han, Y.; Hansen, H.M.; Horsman, J.; Kim, C.; Lutz, S.; Rosenberger, A.; Aben, K.K.H.; Andrew, A.S.; Breslau, N.; Chang, S.C.; Dieffenbach, A.K.; Dienemann, H.; Frederiksen, B.; Han, J.; Hatsukami, D.K.; Johnson, E.O.; Pande, M.; Wrensch, M.R.; McLaughlin, J.; Skaug, V.; Heijden, H.F. van der; Wampfler, J.; Wenzlaff, A.; Woll, P.; Zienolddiny, S.; Bickeboller, H.; Brenner, H.; Duell, E.J.; Haugen, A.; Heinrich, J.; Hokanson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Kiemeney, B.; Lazarus, P.; Marchand, L. Le; Liu, G.; Mayordomo, J.; Risch, A.; Schwartz, A.G.; Teare, D.; Wu, X.; Wiencke, J.K.; Yang, P.; Zhang, Z.F.; Spitz, M.R.; Kraft, P.; Amos, C.I.; Bierut, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses show strong evidence of associations among genetic variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25, smoking quantity, and lung cancer. This meta-analysis tests whether the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968 predicts age of smoking cessation and age of lung cancer diagnosis. METHODS: M

  9. Ambivalence and Uncertainty: Experiences of and Attitudes towards Addiction and Smoking Cessation in the Mid-to-Late Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Wiltshire, Susan; Haw, Sally; McNeill, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The late teens is an important transitional period as adolescents move into new social worlds which support or challenge their smoking. This paper draws on research with 99 Scottish 16- to 19-year olds which explored their understanding of their smoking and attitudes towards quitting and cessation support. The study involved qualitative interviews…

  10. A teachable moment communication process for smoking cessation talk: description of a group randomized clinician-focused intervention

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    Flocke Susan A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective clinician-patient communication about health behavior change is one of the most important and most overlooked strategies to promote health and prevent disease. Existing guidelines for specific health behavior counseling have been created and promulgated, but not successfully adopted in primary care practice. Building on work focused on creating effective clinician strategies for prompting health behavior change in the primary care setting, we developed an intervention intended to enhance clinician communication skills to create and act on teachable moments for smoking cessation. In this manuscript, we describe the development and implementation of the Teachable Moment Communication Process (TMCP intervention and the baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial designed to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods/Design This group randomized trial includes thirty-one community-based primary care clinicians practicing in Northeast Ohio and 840 of their adult patients. Clinicians were randomly assigned to receive either the Teachable Moments Communication Process (TMCP intervention for smoking cessation, or the delayed intervention. The TMCP intervention consisted of two, 3-hour educational training sessions including didactic presentation, skill demonstration through video examples, skills practices with standardized patients, and feedback from peers and the trainers. For each clinician enrolled, 12 patients were recruited for two time points. Pre- and post-intervention data from the clinicians, patients and audio-recorded clinician‒patient interactions were collected. At baseline, the two groups of clinicians and their patients were similar with regard to all demographic and practice characteristics examined. Both physician and patient recruitment goals were met, and retention was 96% and 94% respectively. Discussion Findings support the feasibility of training clinicians to use the Teachable Moments

  11. Increased Functional Connectivity in an Insula-Based Network is Associated with Improved Smoking Cessation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Merideth A; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Froeliger, Brett; Rose, Jed E; McClernon, Francis J

    2015-10-01

    Little is known regarding the underlying neurobiology of smoking cessation. Neuroimaging studies indicate a role for the insula in connecting the interoceptive awareness of tobacco craving with a larger brain network that motivates smoking. We investigated differences in insula-based functional connectivity between smokers who did not relapse during a quit attempt vs those who relapsed. Smokers (n=85) underwent a resting-state functional connectivity scan and were then randomized into two groups (either smoking usual brand cigarettes or smoking very low nicotine cigarettes plus nicotine replacement therapy) for 30 days before their target quit date. Following the quit date, all participants received nicotine replacement therapy and their smoking behavior was observed for 10 weeks. Participants were subsequently classified as nonrelapsed (n=44) or relapsed (i.e., seven consecutive days of smoking ⩾1 cigarette/day; n=41). The right and left insula, as well as insula subdivisions (posterior, ventroanterior, and dorsoanterior) were used as seed regions of interest in the connectivity analysis. Using the right and left whole-insula seed regions, the nonrelapsed group had greater functional connectivity than the relapsed group with the bilateral pre- and postcentral gyri. This effect was isolated to the right and left posterior insula seed regions. Our results suggest that relapse vulnerability is associated with weaker connectivity between the posterior insula and primary sensorimotor cortices. Perhaps greater connectivity in this network improves the ability to inhibit a motor response to cigarette cravings when those cravings conflict with a goal to remain abstinent. These results are consistent with recent studies demonstrating a positive relationship between insula-related functional connectivity and cessation likelihood among neurologically intact smokers. PMID:25895453

  12. Do counselor techniques predict quitting during smoking cessation treatment? A component analysis of telephone-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mercer, Laina D; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2014-10-01

    No studies to date have examined the effect of counselor techniques on smoking cessation over the course of treatment. To address this gap, we examined the degree to which the use of specific Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) counseling techniques in a given session predicted smoking cessation reported at the next session. The data came from the ACT arm of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered smoking cessation intervention. Trained raters coded 139 counseling sessions across 44 participants. The openness, awareness and activation components of the ACT model were rated for each telephone counseling session. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the predictive relationship between each component during any given telephone session and smoking cessation at the following telephone session. For every 1-unit increase in counselors' use of openness and awareness techniques there were 42% and 52% decreases in the odds of smoking at the next counseling session, respectively. However, there was no significant predictive relationship between counselors' use of activation techniques and smoking cessation. Overall, results highlight the theoretical and clinical value of examining therapists' techniques as predictors of outcome during the course of treatment.

  13. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

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    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  14. Effects of smoking cessation, acute re-exposure and nicotine replacement in smokers on AIR® inhaled insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Alan X; de la Peña, Amparo; Yeo, Kwee P; Chan, Clark; Loh, Mei T; Wise, Stephen D; Silverman, Bernard L; Muchmore, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    Aims To explore the effects of smoking cessation and acute smoking re-exposure on the pharmacokinetic (PK) and glucodynamic (GD) profiles of AIR® inhaled insulin (AIR Insulin) with or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Methods Nondiabetic smokers (n = 24) with normal pulmonary function completed a two-phase (four-period), open-label, randomized euglycaemic clamp study. During the initial study phase, subjects underwent glucose clamps following AIR Insulin dosing, shortly after smoking, 8–12 h after smoking, or following subcutaneous insulin lispro shortly after smoking. AIR Insulin PK and GD were again assessed during and after a 4-week smoking-cessation period with or without NRT. In the last study period, subjects smoked one cigarette shortly before final AIR Insulin dosing and glucose clamp, to study the effect of acute smoking re-exposure on inhaled insulin PK and GD. Results Compared with the preceding active smoking phase, the administration of AIR Insulin in nondiabetic subjects undergoing a 4-week period of smoking abstinence resulted in a decrease in PK and GD of approximately 25% (P = 0.008 for both), an effect which was greater in subjects using NRT. Following rechallenge with a single cigarette (without NRT), GD response to AIR Insulin increased significantly (P = 0.006) towards precessation levels, relative to smoking abstinence. In subjects using NRT, however, the increase in GD was less pronounced. Conclusion Smoking, smoking cessation and acute re-exposure with a single cigarette are associated with clinically significant alterations in AIR Insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics. AIR Insulin should not be used by smokers or those at risk for recidivism. What is already known about this subject Only one other study (Becker et al.) has reported on the influence of smoking cessation and smoking resumption on inhaled insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics, concluding that the rapid changes associated with smoking resumption carry the

  15. Budgetary impact analysis on funding smoking-cessation drugs in patients with COPD in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Ruiz CA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos A Jiménez-Ruiz,1 Segismundo Solano-Reina,2 Jaime Signes-Costa,3 Eva de Higes-Martinez,4 José I Granda-Orive,5 José J Lorza-Blasco,6 Juan A Riesco-Miranda,7 Neus Altet-Gomez,8 Miguel Barrueco,9 Itziar Oyagüez,10 Javier Rejas11 On behalf of the SEPAR’s Integrated Tobacco Research Program 1Specialised Tobacco Unit, Community of Madrid, 2Tobacco Unit, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario San Juan, Alicante, 4Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, 5Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, 6Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre, 7Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital de San Pedro Alcántara, Cáceres, 8Drassanes Tobacco Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall-d’Hebron-Drassanes, The Jordi Gol University Institute for Research Primary Healthcare, Barcelona, 9Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Biomedical Research Institute, Salamanca, 10Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research Iberia, 11Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Health Outcomes Research, Pfizer, Sociedad Limitada Unificada, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the budgetary impact of funding smoking-cessation drugs in COPD patients in Spain. A hybrid model (cohort and Markov was developed for a 5-year time horizon. Only approved cessation drugs (varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy were considered. Irrespective of the drug, the model allowed for an initial cessation attempt, and up to three additional attempts in case of failure or smoking relapse during a 5-year period. Drug effectiveness was based on controlled clinical trials. National Health System perspective was applied; therefore, only medical resources were included. The pharmaceutical costs for

  16. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rennen; G.E. Nagelhout; B. van den Putte; E. Janssen; U. Mons; R. Guignard; F. Beck; H. de Vries; J.F. Thrasher; M.C. Willemsen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  17. Pathways of change explaining the effect of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in the Netherlands: an application of the international tobacco control conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Nagelhout; H. de Vries; G.T. Fong; M.J.J.M. Candel; J.F. Thrasher; B. van den Putte; M.E. Thompson; K.M. Cummings; M.C. Willemsen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to test the pathways of change from individual exposure to smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation, as hypothesized in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Conceptual Model. Methods: A nationally representative sample of Dutch smokers aged 15 years and older was

  18. Assessing the effect of an interactive decision-aid smartphone smoking cessation application (app) on quit rates: a double-blind automated randomised control trial protocol

    OpenAIRE

    BinDhim, Nasser F; McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a previous study exploring the feasibility of a smoking cessation application (app), we found that about 77% of the respondents from three countries were ready to quit in the next 30 days without significant differences between countries in terms of age, operating system and number of quitting attempts. However, the efficacy of smartphone apps for smoking cessation has not yet been established. This study tests the efficacy of a smartphone smoking cessation decision-aid app co...

  19. Measuring the costs of outreach motivational interviewing for smoking cessation and relapse prevention among low-income pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney Margaret H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic theory provides the philosophical foundation for valuing costs in judging medical and public health interventions. When evaluating smoking cessation interventions, accurate data on costs are essential for understanding resource consumption. Smoking cessation interventions, for which prior data on resource costs are typically not available, present special challenges. We develop a micro-costing methodology for estimating the real resource costs of outreach motivational interviewing (MI for smoking cessation and relapse prevention among low-income pregnant women and report results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT employing the methodology. Methodological standards in cost analysis are necessary for comparison and uniformity in analysis across interventions. Estimating the costs of outreach programs is critical for understanding the economics of reaching underserved and hard-to-reach populations. Methods Randomized controlled trial (1997-2000 collecting primary cost data for intervention. A sample of 302 low-income pregnant women was recruited from multiple obstetrical sites in the Boston metropolitan area. MI delivered by outreach health nurses vs. usual care (UC, with economic costs as the main outcome measures. Results The total cost of the MI intervention for 156 participants was $48,672 or $312 per participant. The total cost of $311.8 per participant for the MI intervention compared with a cost of $4.82 per participant for usual care, a difference of $307 ([CI], $289.2 to $322.8. The total fixed costs of the MI were $3,930 and the total variable costs of the MI were $44,710. The total expected program costs for delivering MI to 500 participants would be 147,430, assuming no economies of scale in program delivery. The main cost components of outreach MI were intervention delivery, travel time, scheduling, and training. Conclusion Grounded in economic theory, this methodology systematically identifies and

  20. Impact of weight gain following smoking cessation on one-yearoutcome after drug-eluting stent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-ming; L(u) An-kang; SHEN Wei-feng; WU Qi-hong; MA Xiao-ye; YANG Er-li; ZHANG Rui-Yan; ZHANG Shi-jia

    2012-01-01

    Background Weight gain following smoking cessation increases cardiovascular risk,but its effects on prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain unclear.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between weight gain post smoking cessation and one-year clinical outcome in patients who underwent PCI with drug-eluting stent (DES).Methods A total of 895 consecutive male smoking patients were divided into quitters (n=437) and continuers (n=458)according to their smoking status after PCI.Weight gain,major adverse cardiac events (MACE,including cardiac deaths,myocardial infarction and revascularization),and recurrent angina were recorded during follow-up for one year.Results Average weight gain in quitters was more than that in continuers (1.5 kg vs.-0.03 kg,P<0.001).Weight was unchanged or increased by more than 1.5 kg in 78.17% of continuers,while 50.57% of quitters had a weight gain of less than 1.5 kg.Compared with continuers,MACE in quitters was significantly reduced after PCI (6.12% vs.4.81%,P=0.049),especially recurrent angina (13.97% in continuers vs.9.84% in quitters,P=-0.027).After adjusting for weight gain and other factors,smoking cessation was independently associated with a lower risk of MACE and recurrent angina (OR=0.73,P=0.035).However,weight gain >1.5 kg (OR=1.55,P=0.026) could curtail the benefits from smoking cessation.Conclusions Weight gain may reduce the benefits of smoking cessation after PCI with DES implantation.Thus,although smoking cessation is recommended after PCI,weight control should also be highly encouraged for these patients.

  1. Comparison of a high and a low intensity smoking cessation intervention in a dentistry setting in Sweden – a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenblad Andreas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is still the number one life style risk factor for ill health and premature death and also one of the major contributors to oral problems and diseases. Dentistry may be a potential setting for several aspects of clinical public health interventions and there is a growing interest in several countries to develop tobacco cessation support in dentistry setting. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative effectiveness of a high intensity intervention compared with a low intensity intervention for smoking cessation support in a dental clinic setting. Methods 300 smokers attending dental or general health care were randomly assigned to two arms and referred to the local dental clinic for smoking cessation support. One arm received support with low intensity treatment (LIT, whereas the other group was assigned to high intensity treatment (HIT support. The main outcome measures included self-reported point prevalence and continuous abstinence (≥ 183 days at the 12-month follow-up. Results Follow-up questionnaires were returned from 86% of the participants. People in the HIT-arm were twice as likely to report continuous abstinence compared with the LIT-arm (18% vs. 9%, p = 0.02. There was a difference (not significant between the arms in point prevalence abstinence in favour of the HIT-protocol (23% vs. 16%. However, point prevalence cessation rates in the LIT-arm reporting additional support were relatively high (23% compared with available data assessing abstinence in smokers trying to quit without professional support. Conclusion Screening for willingness to quit smoking within the health care system and offering smoking cessation support within dentistry may be an effective model for smoking cessation support in Sweden. The LIT approach is less expensive and time consuming and may be appropriate as a first treatment option, but should be integrated with other forms of available support in the community. The

  2. An audit of smoking prevalence and awareness of HSE smoking cessation services among HSE staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OhAiseadha, C; Killeen, M; Howell, F; Saunders, J

    2014-04-01

    This audit estimated smoking prevalence and awareness of quit services among Health Service Executive (HSE) staff. A questionnaire posted to a random sample of 1,064 staff received a 71% response rate. Staff smoking prevalence was 15.0% overall, and 4.4% among Medical/Dental staff. Front-line-healthcare staff were less likely to smoke than other staff categories (adjusted OR 0.38, p HSE quit services. Targeted interventions are required to help staff to quit smoking and to boost awareness of quit services.

  3. Study protocol of a Dutch smoking cessation e-health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolman Catherine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aims to test the differential effects of a web-based text and a web-based video-driven computer-tailored approach for lower socio-economic status (LSES and higher socio-economic status (HSES smokers which incorporate multiple computer-tailored feedback moments. The two programs differ only in the mode of delivery (video- versus text-based messages. The paper aims to describe the development and design of the two computer-tailored programs. Methods/design Respondents who smoked at the time of the study inclusion, who were motivated to quit within the following six months and who were aged 18 or older were included in the program. The study is a randomized control trial with a 2 (video/text * 2(LSES/HSES design. Respondents were assigned either to one of the intervention groups (text versus video tailored feedback or to the control group (non-tailored generic advice. In all three conditions participants were asked to fill in the baseline questionnaire based on the I-Change model. The questionnaire assessed socio-demographics, attitude towards smoking, knowledge, self-efficacy, social influence, depression, level of addiction, action planning, goal actions, intention to quit smoking, seven-day point prevalence and continued abstinence. Follow-up measurements were conducted at six and twelve months after baseline. Discussion The present paper describes the development of the two computer-tailored smoking cessation programs, their components and the design of the study. The study results reveal different working mechanisms of multiple tailored smoking cessation interventions and will help us to gain more insight into effective strategies to target different subgroups, especially smokers with a lower socio-economic status. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR3102

  4. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline and three different behavioral treatment formats for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitz, Harold S; Zbikowski, Susan M; Deprey, Mona; McAfee, Timothy A; McClure, Jennifer B; Richards, Julie; Catz, Sheryl L; Jack, Lisa M; Swan, Gary E

    2011-03-01

    There is a lack of evidence of the relative cost-effectiveness of proactive telephone counseling (PTC) and Web-based delivery of smoking cessation services in conjunction with pharmacotherapy. We calculated the differential cost-effectiveness of three behavioral smoking cessation modalities with varenicline treatment in a randomized trial of current smokers from a large health system. Eligible participants were randomized to one of three smoking cessation interventions: Web-based counseling (n=401), PTC (n=402), or combined PTC-Web counseling (n=399). All participants received a standard 12-week course of varenicline. The primary outcome was a 7-day point prevalent nonsmoking at the 6month follow-up. The Web intervention was the least expensive followed by the PTC and PTC-Web groups. Costs per additional 6-month nonsmoker and per additional lifetime quitter were $1,278 and $2,601 for Web, $1,472 and $2,995 for PTC, and $1,617 and $3,291 for PTC-Web. Cost per life-year (LY) and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved were $1,148 and $1,136 for Web, $1,320 and $1,308 for PTC, and $1,450 and $1,437 for PTC-Web. Based on the cost per LY and QALY saved, these interventions are among the most cost-effective life-saving medical treatments. Web, PTC, and combined PTC-Web treatments were all highly cost-effective, with the Web treatment being marginally more cost-effective than the PTC or combined PTC-Web treatments.

  5. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Raha, Sandeep [Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Holloway, Alison C., E-mail: hollow@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  6. 当前戒烟问题的几点思考%Discussion on Smoking Cessation Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亮; 魏路清

    2011-01-01

    尽管目前的戒烟方法较多,但我国的戒烟事业仍面临许多困难,如何克服困难,让人们接受戒烟,是医务人员需要共同思考的问题.这其中既有社会的因素,也有医务人员本身的因素.根据目前的戒烟形势,提出戒烟工作应从开发新药、开展青少年教育及从提高医务人员的戒烟意识着手.%Although there are more ways of smoking cessation, smoking cessation still face many difficulty in our country. How to overcome these factors and let people accepting smoking cessation is a common issue need medical staff thinking a-bout. There are not only concerns with social factors, but also about the medical staff. According to the current situation, we think that smoking cessation should be proceed from developing new drug, carrying out education for youngsters and raising the consciousness of smoking cessation of medical staff.

  7. Does Smoking Hamper Oral Self-Care Among Dental Professionals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghasemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Smoking may impact oral self-care (OSC.  This study aimed to analyze the role of smoking in OSC among Iranian dental health professionals.Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional data were collected at two annual dental meetings and seven randomly selected dental schools in Iran. A total of 1,459 respond- ents composed of 967 general dental practitioners (GDPs, 229 dental educators (DE, and 263 senior dental students (DS anonymously completed a self-administered ques- tionnaire inquiring about smoking status and OSC.Results: Thirty percent of the men and 12% of women reported smoking with no dif-ference according to their professional status. Women reported better OSC than did men, but only 26% of the women and 17% of the men followed the three most important recommendations for OSC. Smoking was associated with infrequent tooth brushing and flossing, irregular use of fluoride containing toothpaste, consumption of sugary snacks, and weak adherence to the recommended OSC guidelines.Conclusion: Dental health education should place more emphasis on smoking counsel-ing and cessation among dental health professionals.

  8. Municipalities collaborating in public health: The Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; El Ansari, Walid; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara;

    2010-01-01

    , and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four......; and the fourth factor is the bearing of personal/individual factors on the partnership e.g., personal engagement in the project. Early attention to these four factors could contribute to more effective partnership working. Keywords: partnership; coalition; smoking cessation; Denmark; multi-site evaluation......; health professions education; leadership...

  9. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  10. Effectiveness of training health professionals to provide smoking cessation interventions: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Silagy, C; Lancaster, T.; Gray, S.; Fowler, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effectiveness of interventions that train healthcare professionals in methods for improving the quality of care delivered to patients who smoke. DESIGN--Systematic literature review. SETTING--Primary care medical and dental practices in the United States and Canada. Patients were recruited opportunistically. SUBJECTS--878 healthcare professionals and 11,228 patients who smoked and were identified in eight randomised controlled trials. In each of these trials healthcar...

  11. Does impulsiveness moderate response to financial incentives for smoking cessation among pregnant and newly postpartum women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alexa A; Skelly, Joan M; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2015-04-01

    We examined whether impulsiveness moderates response to financial incentives for cessation among pregnant smokers. Participants were randomized to receive financial incentives delivered contingent on smoking abstinence or to a control condition wherein incentives were delivered independent of smoking status. The study was conducted in two steps: First, we examined associations between baseline impulsiveness and abstinence at late pregnancy and 24-weeks-postpartum as part of a planned prospective study of this topic using data from a recently completed, randomized controlled clinical trial (N = 118). Next, to increase statistical power, we conducted a second analysis collapsing results across that recent trial and two prior trials involving the same study conditions (N = 236). Impulsivity was assessed using a delay discounting (DD) of hypothetical monetary rewards task in all three trials and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) in the most recent trial. Neither DD nor BIS predicted smoking status in the single or combined trials. Receiving abstinence-contingent incentives, lower baseline smoking rate, and a history of quit attempts prepregnancy predicted greater odds of antepartum abstinence across the single and combined trials. No variable predicted postpartum abstinence across the single and combined trials, although a history of antepartum quit attempts and receiving abstinence-contingent incentives predicted in the single and combined trials, respectively. Overall, this study provides no evidence that impulsiveness as assessed by DD or BIS moderates response to this treatment approach while underscoring a substantial association of smoking rate and prior quit attempts with abstinence across the contingent incentives and control treatment conditions.

  12. Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012 and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment.

  13. Promoting smoking cessation in Pakistani and Bangladeshi men in the UK: pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of trained community outreach workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Pelham

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking prevalence is high among Pakistani and Bangladeshi men in the UK, but there are few tailored smoking cessation programmes for Pakistani and Bangladeshi communities. The aim of this study was to pilot a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of Pakistani and Bangladeshi smoking cessation outreach workers with standard care to improve access to and the success of English smoking cessation services. Methods A pilot cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in Birmingham, UK. Geographical lower layer super output areas were used to identify natural communities where more than 10% of the population were of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin. 16 agglomerations of super output areas were randomised to normal care controls vs. outreach intervention. The number of people setting quit dates using NHS services, validated abstinence from smoking at four weeks, and stated abstinence at three and six months were assessed. The impact of the intervention on choice and adherence to treatments, attendance at clinic appointments and patient satisfaction were also assessed. Results We were able to randomise geographical areas and deliver the outreach worker-based services. More Pakistani and Bangladeshi men made quit attempts with NHS services in intervention areas compared with control areas, rate ratio (RR 1.32 (95%CI: 1.03-1.69. There was a small increase in the number of 4-week abstinent smokers in intervention areas (RR 1.30, 95%CI: 0.82-2.06. The proportion of service users attending weekly appointments was lower in intervention areas than control areas. No difference was found between intervention and control areas in choice and adherence to treatments or patient satisfaction with the service. The total cost of the intervention was £124,000; an estimated cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained of £8,500. Conclusions The intervention proved feasible and acceptable. Outreach workers expanded

  14. The effectiveness of financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy: is it from being paid or from the extra aid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantzari Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial incentives appear to be effective in promoting smoking cessation in pregnancy. The mechanisms by which they might operate however, are poorly understood. The present study examines how financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy may work, by exploring pregnant women's experiences of trying to stop smoking, within and outside of a financial incentives scheme. Methods Thirty-six (n = 36 UK-based pregnant smokers (n = 36, offered standard NHS Stop-Smoking Services, of whom twenty (n = 20 were enrolled in a financial incentives scheme for smoking cessation (n = 20 and sixteen (n = 16 were not, were interviewed about (i their motivation to stop smoking, and (ii the factors they perceived as influencing their quitting efforts. Framework Analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Women in the two groups reported similar reasons for wanting to stop smoking during pregnancy. However, they described dissimilar experiences of the Stop-Smoking Services, which they perceived to have differentially influenced their quit attempts. Women who were incentivised reported using the services more than women who were not incentivised. In addition, they described the motivating experience of being monitored and receiving feedback on their progress. Non-incentivised women reported problems receiving the appropriate Nicotine Replacement Therapy, which they described as having a detrimental effect on their quitting efforts. Conclusion Women participating in a financial incentives scheme to stop smoking reported greater engagement with the Stop-Smoking Services, from which they described receiving more help in quitting than women who were not part of the scheme. These results highlight the complexity of financial incentives schemes and the intricacies surrounding the ways in which they operate to affect smoking cessation. These might involve influencing individuals' motivation and self-regulation, changing engagement with

  15. Smoking reduction and cessation reduce chronic cough in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    also attended the 1-year follow-up. We investigated if SR or SC had improved the self-reported pulmonary symptoms, using logistic regression analyses. Results: Almost 34% of the smokers had chronic cough at baseline and 24.5% had chronic phlegm. Thirty-seven persons with cough at baseline and 24......% of daily tobacco consumption) or smoking cessation (SC) had an effect on chronic cough and phlegm. Methods: A total of 2408 daily smokers were included in a Danish population-based intervention study, Inter99. In the analyses, we included smokers with self-reported chronic cough or phlegm at baseline who...... compared with continuous smoking. Conclusion: SC significantly improved self-reported chronic cough and phlegm as expected. Substantial SR was achieved by few smokers but had a significantly positive effect on chronic cough Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  16. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Events Calendar Best Practices…Tobacco Control Programs Best Practices User Guide: Health Equity The Community Guide FDA ... of materials about quitting as well as helpful resources about tobacco use ... of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years ...

  17. Interdisciplinary proposal for tobacco cessation at a primary health care unit: an experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silva Duarte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the interdisciplinary approach currently used at the Manguinhos Municipal Health Centre (MMHC, Rio de Janeiro, for the longitudinal management of anti-smoking treatment in patients living in low-income community regions, from the perspective of a medical student in his rotating internship. The anti-tobacco approach consists in a longitudinal therapy divided in two steps: (i four interdisciplinary anti-tobacco group sessions scheduled weekly, which includes psychotherapy and pharmacological resources; followed by (ii two sessions of maintenance therapy scheduled fortnightly, characterized by individualized care and pharmacological withdrawal, complemented by a monthly one year follow-up. This article describes the current protocols, the professional activities and how the proposal was developed. This report suggests that improvement in medical training might occur through participation of medical students in health education activities such as tobacco cessation group. 

  18. Lung function and respiratory symptoms in a randomized smoking cessation trial of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibella, Fabio; Campagna, Davide; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Amaradio, Maria Domenica; Caruso, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Cockcroft, Donald W; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    Quitting smoking is the most important step smokers can take to improve their health. Nonetheless, there is little information on long-term improvements in lung function and/or respiratory symptoms after smoking cessation. Here we illustrate long-term changes in spirometric indices as well as in respiratory symptoms in smokers invited to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs). Prospective evaluation of cigarette consumption, spirometry and symptoms was performed in a 1-year randomized controlled trial of smokers receiving EC containing 2.4%, 1.8% or 0% nicotine. Spirometric data are presented on the basis of participants' pooled continuous smoking phenotype classification (Quitters, Reducers, Failures), whereas respiratory symptoms on the basis of their point prevalence-smoking phenotype. Smoking phenotype classification (Quitters, Reducers, Failures) had no significant effect on spirometric indices (FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC) with the exception of FEF25-75%, which significantly (P  =0.034) increased over the time among Quitters; their FEF25-75% (% predicted) improving from (means±S.D.) 85.7±15.6% at baseline (BL) to 100.8±14.6%. High prevalence of cough/phlegm (43.1%) and shortness of breath (SoB; 34.8%) was reported at BL with substantial reduction in their frequency at subsequent follow-up visits. These symptoms virtually disappeared very quickly in both quitters and reducers. Smokers invited to switch to ECs who completely abstained from smoking showed steady progressive improvements in their FEF25-75% Normalization of peripheral airways function was associated with improvement in respiratory symptoms, adding to the notion that abstaining from smoking can reverse tobacco harm in the lung. PMID:27543458

  19. Distinct coping strategies differentially predict urge levels and lapses in a smoking cessation attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2013-06-01

    This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. PMID:23501139

  20. Changes in body weight and food choice in those attempting smoking cessation: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Wilma S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear of weight gain is a barrier to smoking cessation and significant cause of relapse for many people. The provision of nutritional advice as part of a smoking cessation programme may assist some in smoking cessation and perhaps limit weight gain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a structured programme of dietary advice on weight change and food choice, in adults attempting smoking cessation. Methods Cluster randomised controlled design. Classes randomised to intervention commenced a 24-week intervention, focussed on improving food choice and minimising weight gain. Classes randomised to control received “usual care”. Results Twenty-seven classes in Greater Glasgow were randomised between January and August 2008. Analysis, including those who continued to smoke, showed that actual weight gain and percentage weight gain was similar in both groups. Examination of data for those successful at giving up smoking showed greater mean weight gain in intervention subjects (3.9 (SD 3.1 vs. 2.7 (SD 3.7 kg. Between group differences were not significant (p = 0.23, 95% CI −0.9 to 3.5. In comparison to baseline improved consumption of fruit and vegetables and breakfast cereal were reported in the intervention group. A higher percentage of control participants continued smoking (74% vs. 66%. Conclusions The intervention was not successful at minimising weight gain in comparison to control but was successful in facilitating some sustained improvements in the dietary habits of intervention participants. Improved quit rates in the intervention group suggest that continued contact with advisors may have reduced anxieties regarding weight gain and encouraged cessation despite weight gain. Research should continue in this area as evidence suggests that the negative effects of obesity could outweigh the health benefits achieved through reductions in smoking prevalence. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  1. A new diagnosis of asthma or COPD is linked to smoking cessation – the Tromsø study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Signe Elise; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Medbø, Astri; Vold, Monica Linea; Melbye, Hasse

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with COPD have had a lower tendency to quit smoking compared to patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We wanted to investigate if this is still true in a Norwegian population. Methods Our data came from the fifth and sixth Tromsø surveys, which took place in 2001–2002 and 2007–2008. The predictors of smoking cessation were evaluated in a cohort of 4,497 participants who had stated their smoking status in both surveys. Results Of the 4,497 subjects in the cohort, 1,150 (25.6%) reported daily smoking in Tromsø 5. In Tromsø 6, 428 had quit (37.2%). A new diagnosis of obstructive lung disease (asthma or COPD) and CHD were both associated with increased quitting rates, 50.6% (P=0.01) and 52.1% (P=0.02), respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis with smoking cessation as outcome, the odds ratios (ORs) of a new diagnosis of obstructive lung disease and of CHD were 1.7 (1.1–2.7) and 1.7 (1.0–2.9), respectively. Male sex had an OR of 1.4 (1.1–1.8) compared to women in the multivariable model, whereas the ORs of an educational length of 13–16 years and ≥17 years compared to shorter education were 1.6 (1.1–2.2) and 2.5 (1.5–4.1), respectively. Conclusion The general trend of smoking cessation in the population was confirmed. Increased rates of smoking cessation were associated with a new diagnosis of heart or lung disease, and obstructive lung disease was just as strongly linked to smoking cessation as was CHD. This should encourage the pursuit of early diagnosis of COPD.

  2. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Konopa Krzysztof; Jassem Ewa; Sieminska Alicja

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking i...

  3. Nortriptyline for smoking cessation: release and human skin diffusion from patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, A; Garrigues, T M; Alós, M; Kostka, K H; Lehr, C M; Schaefer, U F

    2009-08-13

    The objective of this work was to develop a simple and inexpensive transdermal formulation containing Nortriptyline Hydrochloride (NTH) for smoking cessation support therapy. Hydroxypropyl-methyl-cellulose was chosen as polymer and a mixture of transdermal enhancers (selected from previous research) was incorporated. The formulations were characterised in terms of appearance, thickness, uniformity of NTH content, release and skin permeation. Release studies demonstrated controlled release for four formulations. Diffusion studies were performed through human heat separated epidermis (HHSE) using Franz Diffusion Cells (FDC). Patches provided different fluxes varying from 20.39+/-7.09 microg/(cm(2) h) to 256.19+/-94.62 microg/(cm(2) h). The penetration profiles of NTH within the stratum corneum (SC) and deeper skin layers (DSL) were established after three administration periods (3 h, 6 h, and 24 h). Skin changes induced by the application of the patches were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The highest flux obtained would provide the recommended doses for smoke cessation support therapy (25-75 mg per day) with a 2 cm x 2 cm patch or a 3.5 cm x 3.5 cm patch, respectively, without skin damage evidence. PMID:19501148

  4. Does Utilitarian Policy such as Smoking Cessation Lend Support to Wider Aspirin Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Morgan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco control policy seems to be based on a utilitarian principle that public health is best served by a range of measures that will provide overall population benefit. Aspirin may have a potential wider role since meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials shows it reduces the risk of a first vascular event and also cancer. Are smoking cessation and the public health potential of aspirin different? The benefit versus risk balance of aspirin, an inexpensive and easily available medicine, deserves serious consideration as a public health measure in middle age. Smoking cessation and wider aspirin use are not seen as either competing or duplicating policy areas, but complementary. Their comparison has been purposefully selected because of common impacts, namely reduced vascular disease and cancer with increases in undesirable effects, notably gastrointestinal pathology. Part of the driver for this paper is to convey the message that public health policy has benefits and risks and the concept of a universally effective policy is unrealistic. Is it time for public health action to increase the use of aspirin?

  5. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minsun; Miller, Suzanne M; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention.

  6. Cognitive-behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation for pregnant and postpartum inner city women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minsun; Miller, Suzanne M; Wen, Kuang-Yi; Hui, Sui-kuen Azor; Roussi, Pagona; Hernandez, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated a theory-guided cognitive-behavioral counseling (CBC) intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy and postpartum. It also explored the mediating role of cognitive-affective variables on the impact of CBC. Underserved inner city pregnant women (N = 277) were randomized to the CBC or a best practice (BP) condition, each of which consisted of two prenatal and two postpartum sessions. Assessments were obtained at baseline, late pregnancy, and 1- and 5-months postpartum. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences between the two groups in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence. However, a respondents-only analysis revealed a significantly higher cessation rate in the CBC (37.3 %) versus the BP (19.0 %) condition at 5-months postpartum follow-up. This effect was mediated by higher quitting self-efficacy and lower cons of quitting. CBC, based on the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing model, has the potential to increase postpartum smoking abstinence by assessing and addressing cognitive-affective barriers among women who adhere to the intervention. PMID:26335312

  7. Interventions for waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention and cessation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Waziry, Reem K; Ballout, Rami A; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is growing in popularity despite adverse health effects among users. We systematically reviewed the literature, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science, for interventions targeting prevention and cessation of waterpipe tobacco smoking. We assessed the evidence quality using the Cochrane (randomised studies), GRADE (non-randomised studies) and CASP (qualitative studies) frameworks. Data were synthesised narratively due to heterogeneity. We included four individual-level, five group-level, and six legislative interventions. Of five randomised controlled studies, two showed significantly higher quit rates in intervention groups (bupropion/behavioural support versus placebo in Pakistan; 6 month abstinence relative risk (RR): 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8); group behavioural support versus no intervention in Egypt, 12 month abstinence RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.9). Non-randomised studies showed mixed results for cessation, behavioural, and knowledge outcomes. One high quality modelling study from Lebanon calculated that a 10% increase in waterpipe tobacco taxation would reduce waterpipe tobacco demand by 14.5% (price elasticity of demand -1.45). In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence of effectiveness for most waterpipe interventions. While few show promising results, higher quality interventions are needed. Meanwhile, tobacco policies should place waterpipe on par with cigarettes. PMID:27167891

  8. A Multirelational Social Network Analysis of an Online Health Community for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Cha, Sarah; Cohn, Amy M; Papandonatos, George D; Amato, Michael S; Pearson, Jennifer L; Graham, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    Background Online health communities (OHCs) provide a convenient and commonly used way for people to connect around shared health experiences, exchange information, and receive social support. Users often interact with peers via multiple communication methods, forming a multirelational social network. Use of OHCs is common among smokers, but to date, there have been no studies on users’ online interactions via different means of online communications and how such interactions are related to smoking cessation. Such information can be retrieved in multirelational social networks and could be useful in the design and management of OHCs. Objective To examine the social network structure of an OHC for smoking cessation using a multirelational approach, and to explore links between subnetwork position (ie, centrality) and smoking abstinence. Methods We used NetworkX to construct 4 subnetworks based on users’ interactions via blogs, group discussions, message boards, and private messages. We illustrated topological properties of each subnetwork, including its degree distribution, density, and connectedness, and compared similarities among these subnetworks by correlating node centrality and measuring edge overlap. We also investigated coevolution dynamics of this multirelational network by analyzing tie formation sequences across subnetworks. In a subset of users who participated in a randomized, smoking cessation treatment trial, we conducted user profiling based on users’ centralities in the 4 subnetworks and identified user groups using clustering techniques. We further examined 30-day smoking abstinence at 3 months postenrollment in relation to users’ centralities in the 4 subnetworks. Results The 4 subnetworks have different topological characteristics, with message board having the most nodes (36,536) and group discussion having the highest network density (4.35×10−3). Blog and message board subnetworks had the most similar structures with an in

  9. Evaluation of knowledge change of internal medicine residents following a training program in smoking cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major barriers to smoking cessation practice is that many health professionals do not have the knowledge and skills on how to intervene. Objectives: To assess the effect of a training program on physicians' knowledge about tobacco dependence and cessation interventions. Subjects and Methods: A comprehensive training program was given to internal medicine residents in Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt during 2008-2009. An anonymous, 11- item questionnaire was administered before and after the training program. The training process was evaluated by participants' satisfaction using a 13- item checklist. The objective of the study was adequately explained to participants and their consensus was obtained with assured confidentiality. Results: A total of 163 internists entered the training program. Improvement in overall knowledge was evidenced by higher mean score in the post-test than pre-test (6.2 vs. 4.7; p<0.001). Significant improvement were seen in the participants' knowledge related to assessment of tobacco dependence (61% vs. 27%;p<0.001), interventions for smokers willing to quit (51.6 vs. 28.2%; p<0.001), interventions for smokers unwilling to quit (40.8 vs. 19.6%; p<0.001) and coping skills to handle withdrawal symptoms (52.9 vs. 30.7;p<0.001). Almost all participants reported that the training was very useful (96%) and applicable (85.6%) in their medical practices. Conclusions: Targeted training of health professionals has a potential to translate into improved smoking cessation counseling and to increase their inclination to intervene. Policy message: Continued medical education and regular/targeted training of health providers should be done. (author)

  10. Comparative responses to radio and television anti-smoking advertisements to encourage smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2010-03-01

    While mass media campaigns have been shown to contribute to reductions in smoking prevalence, little research has been undertaken on the effectiveness of radio advertising as a communication medium. This is despite radio being less expensive and having greater reach than television in some low and middle income countries. We aimed to explore the potential of radio as an adjunct or alternative to televised campaigns by comparing reactions to a radio anti-smoking ad with three televised anti-smoking ads, all of which communicated the serious health consequences of smoking in an emotionally evocative way. In pre-exposure interviews, 18-59-year-old daily smokers (n = 306) were asked to listen to a particular radio time slot/watch a particular television program that they usually listened to/watched, in which the ad was broadcast. Post-exposure interviews were conducted within 3 days of exposure and measured recall, recognition, emotional and cognitive responses, and intentions to quit smoking. Findings indicate that the radio ad showed similar or slightly higher levels than a concurrently aired television ad on understanding (radio: 96%; television: 95%), believability (radio: 89%; television: 90%), concern about smoking (both 77%) and motivation to quit (radio: 51%; television: 45%), and significantly higher levels of unprompted recall (radio: 20%; television: 6%). It also compared well against two subsequent anti-smoking television ads. Emotionally evocative radio advertising may be an effective adjunct or alternative to television advertising in jurisdictions where there are substantial limits on funds available for airing these campaigns, or where the reach of radio outstrips television. PMID:19855109

  11. Smoking in Cancer Care (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of having a second cancer. Quitting smoking is helpful after cancer is diagnosed. Studies have found that ... find help online. The following websites may be helpful: Smokefree.gov : Information about quitting smoking. Clearing the ...

  12. The Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation Among Smokers of Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yasini Ardakani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Improper lifestyle is one of the factors affecting the incidence of chronic diseases. According to the World Health Organization statistics, smoking causes four million deaths annually. Studies show that in 1993, 28.6% men and 3.6% of women older than 15 years in the country were smokers. The most practical stage behavior change model is Transtheoretical model. Therefore, this study used this model. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 200 smokers or ex- smokers of Khorramabad who had high school diploma or higher educational levels. Cluster sampling was conducted in two stages. Data was collected by a questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been approved. Data was analyzed by using SPSS statistical software 11.5 and descriptive statistics. P level <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean age was 42.5±7.85 years. Regarding stages of change, 39.5% were in pre-contemplation stage, 25.5% in contemplation stage, 12% in preparation stage, 5.5% in action stage and 17.5% were in maintenance stage. Variables that had a significant relationship with stages of change included years of smoking (p=0.001, complications of smoking (0.000, and age (p=0.04. There was no significant relationship between marital status, education, family and income, and stages of change. Conclusion: In this study, majority of the population under study were in the early stages. It is therefore necessary to provide educational programs and develop strategies for the same. Due to the significant relationship between age and years of smoking and exposure to advanced stages of change, people should be made aware of the problems of smoking earlier so that they can decide as soon as possible about smoking cessation.

  13. Age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to three population-level tobacco control interventions: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Nagelhout; M.R. Crone; B. van den Putte; M.C. Willemsen; G.T. Fong; H. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International To

  14. The Association of Lone-Motherhood with Smoking Cessation and Relapse: Prospective Results from an Australian National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income, social support, and mental health. We used data from 10 yearly waves (2001 to 2010 of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA survey. Response rate in the first wave was 66%. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of lone-motherhood and other covariates on smoking cessation (n = 2,878 and relapse (n = 3,242. Results showed that the age-adjusted odds of smoking cessation were 32% smaller among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p = 0.004. The age-adjusted odds of relapse was 172% greater among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p < 0.001. We found that socioeconomic status, social support, and mental health account for some of the association of lone motherhood and cessation and relapse. While efforts to reduce the smoking prevalence among lone mothers should focus on their material deprivation, availability of social support, and addressing mental health issues, other factors unique to the lives of lone mothers also need to be taken into account. More research is needed to discover other factors that can explain the association of lone-motherhood and smoking behavior.

  15. The association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse: prospective results from an Australian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Tibbits, Melissa; Huang, Terry T-K; Singh, Gopal K

    2013-07-12

    The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income), social support, and mental health. We used data from 10 yearly waves (2001 to 2010) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Response rate in the first wave was 66%. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of lone-motherhood and other covariates on smoking cessation (n = 2,878) and relapse (n = 3,242). Results showed that the age-adjusted odds of smoking cessation were 32% smaller among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p = 0.004). The age-adjusted odds of relapse was 172% greater among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p social support, and mental health account for some of the association of lone motherhood and cessation and relapse. While efforts to reduce the smoking prevalence among lone mothers should focus on their material deprivation, availability of social support, and addressing mental health issues, other factors unique to the lives of lone mothers also need to be taken into account. More research is needed to discover other factors that can explain the association of lone-motherhood and smoking behavior.

  16. Statement on smoking cessation in COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Andreas, Stefan; Lewis, Keir E;

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis are common pulmonary diseases that are caused or worsened by tobacco smoking. Growing observational evidence suggests that symptoms and prognosis of these conditions improve upon smoking cessation. Despite...... increasing numbers of (small) randomised controlled trials suggesting intensive smoking cessation treatments work in people with pulmonary diseases many patients are not given specific advice on the benefits or referred for intensive cessation treatments and, therefore, continue smoking.This is a qualitative...... review regarding smoking cessation in patients with COPD and other pulmonary disorders, written by a group of European Respiratory Society experts. We describe the epidemiological links between smoking and pulmonary disorders, the evidence for benefits of stopping smoking, how best to assess tobacco...

  17. Online Advertising as a Public Health and Recruitment Tool: Comparison of Different Media Campaigns to Increase Demand for Smoking Cessation Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Amanda L.; Milner, Pat; Saul, Jessie E.; Pfaff, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Background To improve the overall impact (reach × efficacy) of cessation treatments and to reduce the population prevalence of smoking, innovative strategies are needed that increase consumer demand for and use of cessation treatments. Given that 12 million people search for smoking cessation information each year, online advertising may represent a cost-efficient approach to reach and recruit online smokers to treatment. Online ads can be implemented in many forms, and surveys consistently s...

  18. Using a realist approach to evaluate smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a study protocol designed to evaluate a programme of smoking cessation interventions targeting pregnant women and young people living in urban and rural locations in Northeast Scotland. The study design was developed on so-called 'realist' evaluation principles, which are concerned with the implementation of interventions as well as their outcomes. Methods/design A two-phased study was designed based on the Theory of Change (TOC using mixed methods to assess both process and outcome factors. The study was designed with input from the relevant stakeholders. The mixed-methods approach consists of semi-structured interviews with planners, service providers, service users and non-users. These qualitative interviews will be analysed using a thematic framework approach. The quantitative element of the study will include the analysis of routinely collected data and specific project monitoring data, such as data on service engagement, service use, quit rates and changes in smoking status. Discussion The process of involving key stakeholders was conducted using logic modelling and TOC tools. Engaging stakeholders, including those responsible for funding, developing and delivering, and those intended to benefit from interventions aimed at them, in their evaluation design, are considered by many to increase the validity and rigour of the subsequent evidence generated. This study is intended to determine not only the components and processes, but also the possible effectiveness of this set of health interventions, and contribute to the evidence base about smoking cessation interventions aimed at priority groups in Scotland. It is also anticipated that this study will contribute to the ongoing debate about the role and challenges of 'realist' evaluation approaches in general, and the utility of logic modelling and TOC approaches in particular, for evaluation of complex health interventions.

  19. Long-term effects of smoking and smoking cessation on exercise stress testing: Three-year outcomes from a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Asha; Piper, Megan E.; McBride, Patrick E.; Ward, Ann; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.; Stein, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The long-term effects of smoking and smoking cessation on markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prognosis obtained during treadmill stress testing (TST) are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of smoking cessation and continued smoking on TST parameters that predict CVD risk. Methods In a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies, symptom-limited TST was performed to determine peak METs, rate-pressure product (RPP), heart rate (HR) increase, HR reserve, and 60-second HR recovery, before and 3 years after the target smoking cessation date. Relationships between TST parameters and treatments among successful abstainers and continuing smokers were evaluated using multivariable analyses. Results At baseline, the 600 current smokers (61% women) had a mean age of 43.4 (SD 11.5) years and smoked 20.7 (8.4) cigarettes per day. Their exercise capacity was 8.7 (2.3) METs, HR reserve was 86.6 (9.6)%, HR increase was 81.1 (20.9) beats/min, and HR recovery was 22.3 (11.3) beats. Cigarettes per day and pack-years were independently and inversely associated with baseline peak METs (P < .001), RPP (P < .01, pack-years only), HR increase (P < .05), and HR reserve (P < .01). After 3 years, 168 (28%) had quit smoking. Abstainers had greater improvements than continuing smokers (all P < .001) in RPP (2,055 mm Hg beats/min), HR increase (5.9 beats/min), and HR reserve (3.7%), even after statistical adjustment (all P < .001). Conclusions Smokers with a higher smoking burden have lower exercise capacity, lower HR reserve, and a blunted exercise HR response. After 3 years, TST improvements suggestive of improved CVD prognosis were observed among successful abstainers. PMID:22172440

  20. Effect of Smoking Reduction Therapy on Smoking Cessation for Smokers without an Intention to Quit: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective strategies are needed to encourage smoking cessation for smokers without an intention to quit. We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether smoking reduction therapy can increase the long-term cessation rates of smokers without an intention to quit. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs on the effect of smoking reduction therapy on long-term smoking cessation in smokers without an intention to quit. The primary outcome was the cessation rate at the longest follow-up period. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: Fourteen trials with a total of 7981 smokers were included. The pooled analysis suggested that reduction support plus medication significantly increased the long-term cessation of smokers without an intention to quit compared to reduction support plus placebo (RR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.44–2.7; I2, 52% or no intervention (RR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.41–2.64; I2, 46%. In a subgroup of smokers who received varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, the differences were also statistically significant. This suggests the safety of using NRT. The percentage of smokers with serious adverse events who discontinued because of these events in the non-NRT group was slightly significantly different than in the control group. Insufficient evidence is available to test the efficacy of reduction behavioural support in promoting long-term cessation among this population. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicated the efficacy of NRT- and varenicline-assisted reduction to achieve complete cessation among smokers without an intention to quit. Further evidence is needed to assess the efficacy and safety of reduction behavioural support and bupropion.

  1. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Lung Cancer Screening in the NELSON Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van der Aalst (Carlijn)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMore than one billion people around the world currently smoke tobacco. The use of tobacco kills more than 5 million people yearly. If this trend continues, it is expected that more than 8 million people will die annually from tobacco-related diseases by 2030 and more than 1 billion peopl

  2. "I did not intend to stop. I just could not stand cigarettes any more." A qualitative interview study of smoking cessation among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudebeck Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, more than 650,000 Europeans die because they smoke. Smoking is considered to be the single most preventable factor influencing health. General practitioners (GP are encouraged to advise on smoking cessation at all suitable consultations. Unsolicited advice from GPs results in one of 40-60 smokers stopping smoking. Smoking cessation advice has traditionally been given on an individual basis. Our aim was to gain insights that may help general practitioners understand why people smoke, and why smokers stop and then remain quitting and, from this, to find fruitful approaches to the dialogue about stopping smoking. Methods Interviews with 18 elderly smokers and ex-smokers about their smoking and decisions to smoke or quit were analysed with qualitative content analysis across narratives. A narrative perspective was applied. Results Six stages in the smoking story emerged, from the start of smoking, where friends had a huge influence, until maintenance of the possible cessation. The informants were influenced by "all the others" at all stages. Spouses had vital influence in stopping, relapses and continued smoking. The majority of quitters had stopped by themselves without medication, and had kept the tobacco handy for 3-6 months. Often smoking cessation seemed to happen unplanned, though sometimes it was planned. With an increasingly negative social attitude towards smoking, the informants became more aware of the risks of smoking. Conclusion "All the others" is a clue in the smoking story. For smoking cessation, it is essential to be aware of the influence of friends and family members, especially a spouse. People may stop smoking unplanned, even when motivation is not obvious. Information from the community and from doctors on the negative aspects of smoking should continue. Eliciting life-long smoking narratives may open up for a fruitful dialogue, as well as prompting reflection about smoking and adding to the

  3. Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation: A Comprehensive Review of Effectiveness and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golechha, Mahaveer

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.

  4. Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation: A Comprehensive Review of Effectiveness and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golechha, Mahaveer

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review. PMID:26941908

  5. Keeping morality out and the GP in. Consultations in Danish general practice as a context for smoking cessation advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Tulinius, Anne Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe consultations in Danish general practice as a context for a mass strategy of smoking cessation advice. METHODS: The focus of the study was on consultations for health problems that were not related to smoking. Interviews with eleven patients and their six GPs were grounded...... based on motivational interviewing would fit in the context of Danish general practice. Relieving the conversation of blocks due to moral implications, however, is still a challenge....

  6. The Effects and Measures of Auricular Acupressure and Interactive Multimedia for Smoking Cessation in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ling Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The earlier one starts to smoke, the more likely it is that one’s tobacco use will increase. Either auricular acupressure or multimedia education could improve physiological health status and reduce smoking for young smokers. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 10-week auricular acupressure (AA and interactive multimedia (IM on smoking cessation in college smokers. A pre- and posttest control research design with two experiments (AA and IM and one control was used. Thirty-two participants were in each of three groups. A significant difference from pretest to posttest among three groups was exhibited on carbon monoxide (CO, cotinine, and nicotine dependence. Scheffe’s post hoc test found significances on CO in the AA between the IM and the control and cotinine and nicotine dependence between the AA and the control. After controlling the covariates, the main effect of the group was no difference in all outcomes. The interventions, especially AA, may contribute to a decrease of CO, cotinine, and nicotine dependence along with the time change. An analysis without controlling influences may overestimate interventional effects.

  7. Internet-based contingency management to promote smoking cessation: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallery, Jesse; Raiff, Bethany R; Grabinski, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated an Internet-based contingency management intervention to promote smoking cessation. Participants in the contingent group (n = 39) earned vouchers contingent on video confirmation of breath carbon monoxide (CO) ≤ 4 parts per million (ppm). Earnings for participants in the noncontingent group (n = 38) were independent of CO levels. Goals and feedback about smoking status were provided on participants' homepages. The median percentages of negative samples during the intervention in the noncontingent and contingent groups were 25% and 66.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in absolute CO levels or abstinence at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Compared to baseline, however, participants in both groups reduced CO by an estimated 15.6 ppm during the intervention phases. The results suggest that the contingency for negative COs promoted higher rates of abstinence during treatment, and that other elements of the system, such as feedback, frequent monitoring, and goals, reduced smoking.

  8. Development, dissemination, adherence, and effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Programs offered in a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Smoking Cessation Programs (SCP must comprise factors that increase the chances of successful treatment, such as choice of approach and modality based on scientific evidence; adaptation of the intervention to the characteristics of target patients; records of procedures and efficacy rates; and the use of both active and reactive strategies to recruit smokers. Given this, this study was designed with the aim of describing the implementation of a SCP in a public university that has adopted a 100% smoke-free campus policy, including the evaluation of publicity methods and their possible impact in adherence rates and program success. There were 128 smokers enrolled in nine program groups offered over two years: 97 (76% attended the first meeting and 69 (71% effectively completed the SCP. The groups that underwent follow-up assessment (n = 58 achieved abstinence rates of 27% and 32%, greater than expected for solely psychological treatment and similar to rates that combined cognitive-behavioral approach to pharmacology. The recruitment strategies that combined active strategies (personal contacts, personal invitations, individual interviews and reactive strategies (posters, corporate e-mail, newspapers were the most effective to attract and gain the adherence of smokers to the SCP, corroborating the literature. We conclude that 100% smoke-free environment campaigns are opportunities that favor the effectiveness of SCPs, which can be developed and implemented by any trained health professional.

  9. Large-scale unassisted smoking cessation over 50 years: lessons from history for endgame planning in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2013-05-01

    In the 50 years since the twentieth century's smoking epidemic began to decline from the beginning of the 1960s, hundreds of millions of smokers around the world have stopped smoking permanently. Overwhelmingly, most stopped without any formal assistance in the form of medication or professional assistance, including many millions of former heavy smokers. Nascent discussion about national and global tobacco endgame scenarios is dominated by an assumption that transitioning from cigarettes to alternative forms of potent, consumer-acceptable forms of nicotine will be essential to the success of endgames. This appears to uncritically assume (1) the hardening hypothesis: that as smoking prevalence moves toward and below 10%, the remaining smokers will be mostly deeply addicted, and will be largely unable to stop smoking unless they are able to move to other forms of 'clean' nicotine addiction such as e-cigarettes and more potent forms of nicotine replacement; and (2) an overly medicalised view of smoking cessation that sees unassisted cessation as both inefficient and inhumane. In this paper, we question these assumptions. We also note that some vanguard nations which continue to experience declining smoking prevalence have long banned smokeless tobacco and non-therapeutic forms of nicotine delivery. We argue that there are potentially risky consequences of unravelling such bans when history suggests that large-scale cessation is demonstrably possible.

  10. Adolescent Psychological and Social Predictors of Young Adult Smoking Acquisition and Cessation: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Bricker, J.B.; Liu, J.M.; Comstock, B.A.; Peterson, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A 10-year follow-up study to test the extent to which theory-based adolescent psychological and social factors directly predict and moderate the prediction of young adult smoking acquisition and cessation. Design: A prospective community-based sample. A total of 2,970 adolescents particip

  11. 'I'm better off now' : The role of temporal comparisons and exposure evaluations in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menninga, Karin; Dijkstra, Arie; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Siero, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Two new psychological concepts related to relapse in smoking cessation were tested. 'Temporal comparisons' are ex-smokers' evaluations of their present situation compared to their situation as a smoker. 'Exposure evaluations' are evaluations of situations ex-smokers encountered when they used to smo

  12. [Smoking cessation--a "must have" in medical curricula. The European HERMES project--a supportive argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofor, Antigona; Mihăescu, Traian

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory Medicine is a complex domain of activity, moreover has enlarged its content in last decades by numerous areas of expertise, among which also smoking cessation, a field aiming to assist individuals to quit or prevent tobacco use. Introducing routinely this preoccupation in Romanian doctors' work is supposed to legitimate nicotine dependence as a disease, as already classified by world medical organizations. In agreement with HERMES project, an European Respiratory Society initiative to harmonize education in respiratory medicine across Europe, we recommend smoking cessation to be mandatory in Romanian medical curricula. Thus, students will earn theoretical, practical and behavioral skills to approach health effects of tobacco use, treatment and approach of smokers. Yet, considering real life situation in our country, for actual generations of practitioners we suggest intensive training in two modules: a basic one to cover lack of elementary knowledge during previous years and an advanced module for specialists. To future generations, a continuous, more coherent approach is to be settled, aiming to create brief advice expertise during medical university years of study. When graduating, future doctors willing to become smoking cessation experts will be provided postgraduate training to achieve this degree. Hopefully, within next two generations, many Romanian doctors will become capable to routinely deliver smoking cessation interventions, at European standards. PMID:19817311

  13. The effectiveness of the Allen Carr smoking cessation training in companies tested in a quasi-experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Zuidema, Rixt; Vos, Diederick; van Kalken, Marike

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Allen Carr training (ACt) is a popular one-session smoking cessation group training that is provided by licensed organizations that have the permission to use the Allen Carr method. However, few data are available on the effectiveness of the training. Methods: In a quasi-experimental

  14. An evaluation of the range and availability of intensive smoking cessation services in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Currie, LM

    2009-06-27

    BACKGROUND: A review of smoking cessation (SC) services in Ireland is a necessary step in improving service planning and provision. AIMS: To assess the range and availability of intensive SC services in Ireland in 2006. METHODS: A survey of SC service providers in Ireland was conducted. Descriptive analysis and simple linear regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Response rate was 86.3% (63\\/73). All service providers surveyed are employing evidence-based interventions; the most common form of support is individual counselling with initial sessions averaging 40 min and weekly review sessions 20 min in duration. Reaching the recommended target of treating 5.0% of smokers does not seem feasible given the current distribution of resources and there appears to be regional differences in resource allocation. CONCLUSIONS: While intensive SC services are available in all four Health Service Executive Areas, it would appear that there is little uniformity or consistency countrywide in the scope and structure of these services.

  15. A vaccine against nicotine for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Cornuz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco dependence is the leading cause of preventable death and disabilities worldwide and nicotine is the main substance responsible for the addiction to tobacco. A vaccine against nicotine was tested in a 6-month randomized, double blind phase II smoking cessation study in 341 smokers with a subsequent 6-month follow-up period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 229 subjects were randomized to receive five intramuscular injections of the nicotine vaccine and 112 to receive placebo at monthly intervals. All subjects received individual behavioral smoking cessation counseling. The vaccine was safe, generally well tolerated and highly immunogenic, inducing a 100% antibody responder rate after the first injection. Point prevalence of abstinence at month 2 showed a statistically significant difference between subjects treated with Nicotine-Qbeta (47.2% and placebo (35.1% (P = 0.036, but continuous abstinence between months 2 and 6 was not significantly different. However, in subgroup analysis of the per-protocol population, the third of subjects with highest antibody levels showed higher continuous abstinence from month 2 until month 6 (56.6% than placebo treated participants (31.3% (OR 2.9; P = 0.004 while medium and low antibody levels did not increase abstinence rates. After 12 month, the difference in continuous abstinence rate between subjects on placebo and those with high antibody response was maintained (difference 20.2%, P = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas Nicotine-Qbeta did not significantly increase continuous abstinence rates in the intention-to-treat population, subgroup analyses of the per-protocol population suggest that such a vaccination against nicotine can significantly increase continuous abstinence rates in smokers when sufficiently high antibody levels are achieved. Immunotherapy might open a new avenue to the treatment of nicotine addiction. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Swiss Medical Registry 2003DR2327; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  16. The effect of cigarette price increases on smoking cessation in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark B; Anderson, Christy M; Vaughn, Jerry W; Burns, David M

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether smoking cessation increased in California after a cigarette manufacturer's retail price increase and an increase in the state cigarette excise tax. The sample for this study was drawn from the 1996 and 1999 California Tobacco Surveys. The rate of unsuccessful and successful quit attempts and the rate of abstinence were calculated for each month of the 14-month period preceding each survey administration. We combined the monthly rates for both surveys and used multiple regression modeling to test whether the proportion of smokers reporting a quit attempt and the proportion of smokers reporting abstinence increased during the period following the price increases. We included several covariates in our models to control for factors other than the price increases that could account for any increases observed in quit attempts and abstinence. Because smokers recall quits occurring closer to the date of the survey better than quits occurring further back in time, we included a term in the models representing the number of months elapsed between the survey administration and the reported quit. We also included terms in the models representing the months before and after the over-the-counter (OTC) availability of the nicotine patch and nicotine gum in 1996 to control for the increase in smoking cessation observed following the availability of OTC nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Lastly, in order to control for increased quits made in January as a result of New Year's resolutions, we included a term in our models for quit attempts and successful quits (abstinence) made during this month. Results of the regression analyses indicated a significantly greater proportion of smokers reported quit attempts (p < 0.05) in the months immediately following the cigarette price increases (after November 1998); however, a significant increase in abstinence was only observed from December 1998 through March 1999 (p < 0.05) relative to abstinence occurring before

  17. Smoking attenuates wound inflammation and proliferation while smoking cessation restores inflammation but not proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Toft, Birgitte; Rygaard, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Full-thickness 5 mm punch biopsy wounds were made lateral to the sacrum in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. After 1 week, the wounds were excised and fixed. The smokers were then randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo patch. The sequence...... independent histopathologists, and for the analysis, proportional odds models and random effect models for repeated measurements were applied. Macrophages and PINP-stained fibroblasts were reduced in the smokers' wounds (0.28 [0.14-0.58] [OR, 95%CI]; p=0.01 and 0.37[0.19-0.70]; p...

  18. Self-perceived factors associated with smoking cessation among primary health care nurses: a qualitative study Tabaquismo en enfermeras de Atención Primaria: un estudio cualitativo Tabagismo em enfermeiras de cuidados primários à saúde: um estudo qualitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bennasar Veny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the views of nurses about factors modulating smoking cessation. Results of this study will allow us to design helping interventions with the maximum specificity for nurses. A qualitative study through a semi-structured interview of 15 Primary Health Care nurses who were smokers was performed. In contrast with other studies in which nurses were not aware of any particular social pressure to give up smoking, 18 months after the application of the Anti-Smoking Spanish Law, this feeling was expressed. Therefore, the main reasons for giving up smoking include that smoking in public is every day worse seen, together with a sense of shame and guilt in front of their social and family environment, especially for being a professional group dedicated to health.El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los factores percibidos por las enfermeras fumadoras como moduladores del cese tabáquico, con el fin de diseñar posteriormente intervenciones de ayuda con la máxima especificidad para este colectivo. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo mediante entrevista semiestructurada a 15 enfermeras fumadoras de Atención Primaria de Salud. Contrariamente a otros estudios en los que las enfermeras no percibían una especial presión social para dejar el hábito tabáquico, 18 meses después de vigencia de la Ley de Prevención del Tabaquismo sí que la expresan. Por ello, entre los principales motivos de cese figura el que cada día esté peor considerado fumar en público, unido a un sentimiento de vergüenza y de culpa ante su entorno social y familiar, especialmente por tratarse de un colectivo profesional dedicado a los cuidados de salud.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores percebidos por enfermeiras fumantes como facilitadores ao abandono do tabagismo, com o propósito de, posteriormente, elaborar intervenções de ajuda com maior especificidade para esse grupo. Foi realizado estudo qualitativo, por meio de

  19. [How would plain packaging and pictorial warning impact on smoking reduction, cessation and initiation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Mipatrini, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; Terzano, Claudio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission has proposed a review of the directive on tobacco products on labeling and packaging of tobacco products by introducing warning text with pictorial warning that occupies 75% of the cigarette packages. The aim of the survey was to assess the impact of plain packaging and pictorial warning in smoking reduction, cessation and initiation among a sample of adult. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Rome between September and November 2012. The questionnaires administered were 227, with a response rate of 82.4%. 35.8% (No. 67) of the respondents considered the image of the gangrene the most effective in communicating smoking-related damages, followed by the image on lung cancer (No. 60; 32.1%). Distinguishing between smokers and non-smokers (both former and never smokers), the picture on lung cancer was the most effective for smokers (No. 22; 38.6%); if cigarette packages have pictorial warnings like the ones shown, more than half (No. 33; 57.9%) of smokers would change brand; 66.7% (No. 38) of them would feel uncomfortable in showing the package. Comparing the 3 packagings, classic packaging, plain packaging with textual warning, and plain packaging with both textual and pictorial warning, the majority of people declared that the third is the most effective in preventing smoking initiation (No. 169; 90.9%), in motivating to quit (No. 158; 84.9%), and in changing smoking habits (No. 149; 80.5%). The survey, although its small sample size and being not representative of all strata of Italian population, shows that the plain packaging with pictorial warning is the most convincing in the three outcomes considered. PMID:24548838

  20. Piggybacking as a media advocacy strategy to increase enrolments in a gender-oriented smoking cessation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sandra Noemi; Morello, Paola; Angel, Adriana; Gelos, Diego Sanchez; Armaleo, María V

    2013-05-01

    Argentina is probably moving to the third phase of the smoking epidemic. Female smoking prevalence is expected to increase over the coming years. In Argentina, smoking cessation programmes usually do not provide specific treatment tailored to women. We implemented a 'piggybacking' media strategy with the goal of announcing the opening of the first gender-oriented smoking cessation programme in Argentina. Piggybacking is a well-known media advocacy strategy in which the newsworthiness of a particular story is increased by releasing it at the same time as a breaking news story about a related topic. We prepared a press release/report about tobacco use among women, as well as our gender-oriented clinic, for the local news media, which appeared in print around the time a well-known young Argentinean actress died. To assess the impact of this strategy, we reviewed media coverage after the press release was issued. We also compared the number of new participants in our programme during the 4 months before and after the report's publication. During the 4 months following our press release, we found five reports in print media, gave 22 radio and seven television interviews, and found 30 digital media publications drawing on our press release. When comparing the 4 months before with the 4 months after the strategy, new participants in our programme increased by 246.15%. This strategy could be a suitable alternative to other media advocacy strategies to increase the number of new participants in smoking cessation programmes.

  1. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in smoking cessation treatment including nicotine patch and cognitive-behavioral group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saules, Karen K; Schuh, Leslie M; Arfken, Cynthia L; Reed, Karen; Kilbey, M Marlyne; Schuster, Charles R

    2004-01-01

    Smoking cessation attempts are often complicated by dysphoria/depression, weight gain, craving, and other nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Fluoxetine's antidepressant and anorectant properties, along with its capacity to attenuate compulsive behavior, suggest that this medication might facilitate smoking cessation treatment. We examined the effect of fluoxetine on smoking cessation in the context of a program that included group cognitive-behavioral therapy (six weeks) and transdermal nicotine patch(ten weeks). In a double-blind randomized trial of fluoxetine for smoking cessation, 150 daily smokers were assigned to placebo (n=48), 20 mg (n=51), or 40 mg fluoxetine (n=51). Fluoxetine did not significantly improve smoking cessation rates, either for those with or without major depressive disorder(MDD)histories or elevated current depression. Our results suggest that fluoxetine may moderate withdrawal symptoms, even if that was not manifested in improved smoking cessation rates. Our results, however, clearly favor the use of fluoxetine if weight gain is a major clinical obstacle to smoking cessation.

  2. How do price minimizing behaviors impact smoking cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. PMID:21655144

  3. How do price minimizing behaviors impact smoking cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups.

  4. A Prospective, Randomized Trial in The Emergency Department Of Suggestive Audio-Therapy Under Deep Sedation for Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah, Sushma

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In a sample of patients undergoing procedural deep sedation in the emergency department (ED, we conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial of audio-therapy for smoking cessation. Methods: We asked subjects about their smoking, including desire to quit (0-10 numerical scale and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Subjects were randomized to either a control tape (music alone or a tape with repeated smoking-cessation messages over music. Tapes were started with first doses of sedation and stopped with patient arousal. Telephone follow-up occurred between two weeks and three months to assess the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Study endpoints were self-reported complete cessation and decrease of half or more in total cigarettes smoked per day. Results: One hundred eleven patients were enrolled in the study, 54 to intervention and 57 to control. Mean desire to quit was 7.15 ± 2.6 and mean cigarettes per day was 17.5 ± 12.1. We successfully contacted 69 (62% patients. Twenty-seven percent of intervention and 26% of control patients quit (mean difference = 1%; 95% CI: –22.0% to 18.8%. Thirty-seven percent of intervention and 51% of control patients decreased smoking by half or more (mean difference = 14.6%; 95% CI: –8.7% to 35.6%. Conclusion: Suggestive audio-therapy delivered during deep sedation in the ED did not significantly decrease self-reported smoking behavior.

  5. Varenicline for smoking cessation: nausea severity and variation in nicotinic receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Javitz, H S; Jack, L M; Wessel, J; Michel, M; Hinds, D A; Stokowksi, R P; McClure, J B; Catz, S L; Richards, J; Zbikowski, S M; Deprey, M; McAfee, T; Conti, D V; Bergen, A W

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated association between common and rare sequence variants in 10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes and the severity of nausea 21 days after initiating the standard, Food and Drug Administration-approved varenicline regimen for smoking cessation. A total of 397 participants from a randomized clinical effectiveness trial with complete clinical and DNA resequencing data were included in the analysis (mean age=49.2 years; 68.0% female). Evidence for significant association between common sequence variants in CHRNB2 and nausea severity was obtained after adjusting for age, gender and correlated tests (all P(ACT)<0.05). Individuals with the minor allele of CHRNB2 variants experienced less nausea than did those without the minor allele, consistent with previously reported findings for CHRNB2 and the occurrence of nausea and dizziness as a consequence of first smoking attempt in adolescents, and with the known neurophysiology of nausea. As nausea is the most common reason for discontinuance of varenicline, further pharmacogenetic investigations are warranted.

  6. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change. PMID:16182458

  7. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  8. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  9. Results of the PAS Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Multiple Tailored Smoking Cessation Program Combined With Tailored Counseling by Practice Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, E S; Candel, M J J M; Hoving, C; de Vries, H

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of Web-based multiple computer tailoring and counseling by a practice nurse (MTC) compared with computer tailoring without counseling (MT) and usual care (UC) on smoking cessation rates, via a randomized controlled trial with 414 Dutch adult smokers, recruited by 91 practice nurses from May 2009 to June 2010. Logistic multilevel regression analyses were conducted with 24-hour point prevalence, 7-day point prevalence, and prolonged abstinence after 6 and 12 months as dependent variables and experimental condition as the independent variable. After 6 and 12 months, 38% and 56% of respondents were followed up, respectively. At both follow-ups, no main effects of the interventions could be identified when comparing them with care as usual and with each other-neither in analyses using available data nor in analyses using a negative scenario in which respondents lost to follow-up were considered to still be smoking. A Web-based multiple computer-tailored smoking cessation program combined with a single face-to-face counseling session by a practice nurse may not be more effective than this computer-tailored program alone or than usual smoking cessation care in the general practice setting. Yet before concluding that the addition of counseling to Web-based computer tailoring cannot be successful, more research needs to be conducted to identify the optimal number of counseling sessions to be combined with the Web-based program and to how to best attune the two modalities. PMID:26934538

  10. Results of a Feasibility and Acceptability Trial of an Online Smoking Cessation Program Targeting Young Adult Nondaily Smokers

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    Carla J. Berg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increases in nondaily smoking among young adults, no prior research has aimed to develop and test an intervention targeting this group. Thus, we aimed to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of an online intervention targeting college student nondaily smokers. We conducted a one-arm feasibility and acceptability trial of a four-week online intervention with weekly contacts among 31 college student nondaily smokers. We conducted assessments at baseline (B, end of treatment (EOT, and six-week followup (FU. We maintained a 100% retention rate over the 10-week period. Google Analytics data indicated positive utilization results, and 71.0% were satisfied with the program. There were increases (P<.001 in the number of people refraining from smoking for the past 30 days and reducing their smoking from B to EOT and to FU, with additional individuals reporting being quit despite recent smoking. Participants also increased in their perceptions of how bothersome secondhand smoke is to others (P<.05; however, no other attitudinal variables were altered. Thus, this intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness among college-aged nondaily smokers. Additional research is needed to understand how nondaily smokers define cessation, improve measures for cessation, and examine theoretical constructs related to smoking among this population.

  11. Project Exhale: preliminary evaluation of a tailored smoking cessation treatment for HIV-positive African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Conrad, Megan; Kuhns, Lisa; Vargas, Maria; King, Andrea C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a culturally tailored smoking cessation intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers. Eligible smokers were enrolled in a seven-session group-based treatment combined with nicotine patch. The mean age of participants was M=46 years. The majority were daily smokers (71%), smoked a mentholated brand (80%), and averaged 8.6 (standard deviation [SD]=8.1) cigarettes per day. Baseline nicotine dependency scores (M=5.8) indicated a moderate to high degree of physical dependence. Of the 31 participants enrolled, the majority completed treatment (≥3 sessions; 68%), 1-month follow-up (74%), and 3-month follow-up (87%) interviews. Program acceptability scores were strong. However, adherence to the patch was low, with 39% reporting daily patch use. The majority of participants (80%, n=24) made a quit attempt. Furthermore, over the course of the intervention, smoking urge, cigarettes smoked, nicotine dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and depression scores all significantly decreased. Follow-up quit rates at 1 and 3 months ranged from 6% to 24%, with treatment completers having better outcomes. This first of its kind intervention for HIV-positive African American male smokers was feasible, acceptable, and showed benefit for reducing smoking behaviors and depression scores. Smoking cessation outcomes were on par with other similar programs. A larger trial is needed to address limitations and to confirm benefits.

  12. Assessment of the effectiveness of sustained release Bupropion and intensive physician advice in smoking cessation

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    Singh Pranav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is the cause of immense burden on our nation in terms of mortality and morbidity, being the single leading cause of preventable illnesses and death. Smoking cessation interventions in our country will be the most cost effective of all interventions considering that the cost incurred on the three main tobacco related illnesses (COPD, CAD, and Cancer being around Rs 27,761 crore in the year 1999. Materials and Methods: A double blind placebo controlled trial was conducted to see the efficacy of Bupropion in smoking cessation. Smokers with current depression were excluded. The subjects (n = 30 were randomly assigned to receive Bupropion SR 300 mg/day or placebo for seven weeks. Target quit date was preferentially 8 th day of starting the treatment. Intensive counseling was provided by the physician at the baseline and brief counseling at every visit weekly during the treatment phase and at weeks 12 and 16. Self reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon monoxide concentration in expired air of less than 10 ppm. Results: The seven-day point prevalence abstinence rate at the end of week 2 and week 16 in the drug group was 46.67% and 53.33 % respectively and in the placebo group was 13.33% and 20% respectively with the ′P" value of 0.04 and 0.05 respectively. Rates of continuous abstinence at weeks 4, 7 and 16 were 46.67%, 40% and 33.33% in the drug group and 13.33%, 13.33% and 13.33% in the placebo group respectively. The rates were significantly higher in the drug group till week 4 starting from week 2 of the treatment phase. The mean weight gain in drug group was found to be significant less as compared to the placebo at week 16 (P = 0.025 The mean change of depression scores from the baseline was not significantly different between the two groups at any point of time. The withdrawal symptom score increase from the baseline was not significantly higher at any point of time in the drug group but in the placebo group the

  13. Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

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    Jennings Ernestine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. Methods/Design This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy. Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36. Discussion Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT00492310

  14. Internally-Developed Teen Smoking Cessation Programs: Characterizing the Unique Features of Programs Developed by Community-Based Organizations

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    Kymberle L. Sterling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We have compared the unique features of teen tobacco cessation programs developed internally by community-based organizations (N=75 to prepackaged programs disseminated nationally (N=234 to expand our knowledge of treatment options for teen smokers. Internally-developed programs were more likely offered in response to the sponsoring organization’s initiative (OR=2.16, p<0.05; had fewer trained cessation counselors (OR=0.31, p<0.01; and were more likely found in urban areas (OR=2.89, p=0.01. Internally-developed programs more often provided other substance-abuse treatment services than prepackaged programs and addressed other youth-specific problem behaviors (p≤0.05. Studies that examine the effectiveness of internally-developed programs in reducing smoking and maintaining cessation for teen smokers are warranted.

  15. Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation: A comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaveer Golechha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.

  16. IL-17A and serum amyloid A are elevated in a cigarette smoke cessation model associated with the persistence of pigmented macrophages, neutrophils and activated NK cells.

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    Michelle J Hansen

    Full Text Available While global success in cessation advocacy has seen smoking rates fall in many developed countries, persistent lung inflammation in ex-smokers is an increasingly important clinical problem whose mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. In this study, candidate effector mechanisms were assessed in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS for 4 months following cessation from long term CS exposure. BALF neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and lung innate NK cells remained significantly elevated following smoking cessation. Analysis of neutrophil mobilization markers showed a transition from acute mediators (MIP-2α, KC and G-CSF to sustained drivers of neutrophil and macrophage recruitment and activation (IL-17A and Serum Amyoid A (SAA. Follicle-like lymphoid aggregates formed with CS exposure and persisted with cessation, where they were in close anatomical proximity to pigmented macrophages, whose number actually increased 3-fold following CS cessation. This was associated with the elastolytic protease, MMP-12 (macrophage metallo-elastase which remained significantly elevated post-cessation. Both GM-CSF and CSF-1 were significantly increased in the CS cessation group relative to the control group. In conclusion, we show that smoking cessation mediates a transition to accumulation of pigmented macrophages, which may contribute to the expanded macrophage population observed in COPD. These macrophages together with IL-17A, SAA and innate NK cells are identified here as candidate persistence determinants and, we suggest, may represent specific targets for therapies directed towards the amelioration of chronic airway inflammation.

  17. Development and usability testing of a web-based smoking cessation treatment for smokers with schizophrenia

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    Mary F. Brunette

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The prototype website was usable and satisfactory. With training and support, home use of this cessation website appears to be feasible and promising for cessation among smokers with schizophrenia. Further research is needed to evaluate web-based cessation treatment in people with psychotic disorders.

  18. Plain cigarette packaging: A policy analysis of Australia’s integrated “whole-of-system” model for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorraine Davies; Erica Bell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Plain cigarette packaging as a tobacco control measure is to be implemented in Australia on December 1st 2012. There is mounting evidence for its likely impact on smokers and potential smokers. Yet Australia’s integrated model of smoking cessation and the particular role and opportunities it has created for primary healthcare have not yet been subject to policy analysis in leading international journals. This policy analysis paper explores these new Australian policy development...

  19. Assessing the Quality of Goal Setting in Behavioural Support for Smoking Cessation and its Association with Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencatto, F.; West, R.; Bruguera, C.; Brose, L. S.; Michie, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation behavioural support can be effective but practitioners differ markedly in effectiveness, possibly due to variation in the quality of delivery of key behaviour change techniques, such as goal setting (i.e. setting a quit date). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (i) develop a reliable method for assessing the quality of practitioners' support in setting quit dates and (ii) assess whether quality predicts initiation of abstinence as a first step to quitting. ...

  20. Formulation of nicotine mucoadhesive tablet for smoking cessation and evaluation of its pharmaceuticals properties

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    Rahim Bahri-Najafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT with gradual decreasing of nicotine is one of the smoking cessation methods. Muccoadhesive formulations are among the novel drug delivery systems that are available in the form of tablets and films, and can be used for NRT. Muccoadhesive nicotine tablets when placed in the upper gum will attach to the buccal mucosa and release nicotine content in a controlled manner. This will meet the immediate and long-term need of the individual to the nicotine, such that the person can decrease his/her dependency on smoking. [1] Materials and Methods: In this study, the tablets were prepared using different conventional bioadhesive polymers such as Hydroxypropyl Methycellulose (HPMC 50cps, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC, and carbapol 934 (CP934 in singular or mixture form. Magnesium hydroxide were used as the pH increasing agent; magnesium stearate as the lubricant; and lactose as the excipiente. Nicotine hydrogen bitartrate, more stable than the liquid, was used in different formulations. Pharmaceutics characteristics such as adhesion degree and drug release rate were evaluated. Results: Increasing of HPMC 50cps in the formulations decrease speed release of nicotine. The carbapol in formulations beget slow releasing of nicotine. With increasing the percent of lactose, the rate of release in formulations was increased. Formulations, which have HPMC 50cps has best adhesiveness and the formulations contains carbapol had not suitable adhesiveness. Formulations contains NaCMC were very fast release and had not suitable adhesiveness. Conclusion: The formulation contains mixture of HPMC50cps and CP934 was the best because of suitable adhesiveness and minimum swing in release.