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Sample records for care smoking cessation

  1. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  2. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Armero A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Marín Armero,1 Miguel A Calleja Hernandez,2 Sabina Perez-Vicente,3 Fernando Martinez-Martinez4 1Community Pharmacy, Murcia, Spain; 2Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain; 3Result Evaluation Unit, Institute of Biomedicine, Sevilla, Spain; 4Research Unit in Pharmaceutical Care, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract: As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. Keywords: community pharmacy, health campaign, tobacco cessation, nicotine replacement therapy

  3. Best Practices for Smoking Cessation Interventions in Primary Care

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew McIvor; John Kayser; Jean-Marc Assaad; Gerald Brosky; Penny Demarest; Philippe Desmarais; Christine Hampson; Milan Khara; Ratsamy Pathammavong; Robert Weinberg

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Canada, smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death. Family physicians and nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to initiate smoking cessation. Because smoking is a chronic addiction, repeated, opportunity-based interventions are most effective in addressing physical dependence and modifying deeply ingrained patterns of beliefs and behaviour. However, only a small minority of family physicians provide thorough smoking cessation counselling and less than on...

  4. Smoking and cancer: smoking cessation.

    OpenAIRE

    Austoker, J; Sanders, D.; Fowler, G

    1994-01-01

    Smoking is the single most important cause of cancer. The risk of developing cancer is reduced by stopping smoking and decreases substantially after five years. Reduction in smoking must be central to any programme aimed seriously at the prevention of cancer. An individual approach, based in primary care, has the potential to bring about modest but important reductions in risk. Many randomised trials have shown the effectiveness of various smoking cessation interventions in primary care. Give...

  5. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  6. Methods of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J L

    1992-03-01

    Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine

  7. Economics of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Parrott, S; Godfrey, C

    2004-01-01

    Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.

  8. Self-reported smoking cessation activities among Swiss primary care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffieux Christiane

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual counselling, pharmacotherapy, and group therapy are evidence-based interventions that help patients stop smoking. Acupuncture, hypnosis, and relaxation have no demonstrated efficacy on smoking cessation, whereas self-help material may only have a small benefit. The purpose of this study is to assess physicians' current clinical practice regarding smokers motivated to stop smoking. Methods The survey included 3385 Swiss primary care physicians. Self-reported use of nine smoking cessation interventions was scored. One point was given for each positive answer about practicing interventions with demonstrated efficacy, i.e. nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, counselling, group therapy, and smoking cessation specialist. No points were given for the recommendation of acupuncture, hypnosis, relaxation, and self-help material. Multivariable logistic analysis was performed to identify factors associated with a good practice score, defined as ≥ 2. Results The response rate was 55%. Respondents were predominately over the age of 40 years (88%, male (79%, and resided in urban areas (74%. Seventeen percent reported being smokers. Most of the physicians prescribed nicotine replacement therapy (84%, bupropion (65%, or provided counselling (70%. A minority of physicians recommended acupuncture (26%, hypnosis (8%, relaxation (7%, or self-help material (24%. A good practice score was obtained by 85% of respondents. Having attended a smoking cessation-training program was the only significant predictor of a good practice score (odds ratio: 6.24, 95% CI 1.95–20.04. Conclusion The majority of respondents practice recommended smoking cessation interventions. However, there is room for improvement and implementing an evidence-based smoking cessation-training program could provide additional benefit.

  9. Smoking cessation and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Tønnesen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay in smoking cessation is counselling in combination with varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or bupropion SR. Varenicline and combination of two NRTs is equally effective, while varenicline alone is more effective than either NRT or bupropion SR. NRT is extremely safe but cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with varenicline have been reported. These treatments have also been shown to be effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. A model study is the Lung Health Study from the USA. Findings from this study of 5,587 patients with mild COPD showed that repeated smoking cessation for a period of 5 yrs resulted in a quit rate of 37%. After 14.5 yrs the quitters had a higher lung function and a higher survival rate. A study with a new nicotine formulation, a mouth spray, showed high relative efficacy. As 5–10% of quitters use long-term NRT, we report the results of a study where varenicline compared with placebo increased the quit rate in long-term users of NRT. Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention in stopping the progression of COPD, as well as increasing survival and reducing morbidity. This is why smoking cessation should be the top priority in the treatment of COPD.

  10. Smoking Cessation Strategies in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lesley W S; Davies, Gregory A

    2015-09-01

    Although pregnancy often motivates women to quit smoking, 20% to 25% will continue to smoke. Smoking is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes such as placental abruption, stillbirth, preterm birth and sudden infant death syndrome, and it is therefore important to motivate women to quit during pregnancy. In this review, we explore the efficacy and evidence for safety of strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy, including behavioural and pharmacologic therapies. The PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1990 to 2014) were accessed to identify relevant studies, using the search terms "smoking cessation," "pregnancy," "medicine, behavioural," "nicotine replacement products," "bupropion," and "varenicline." Studies were selected based on the levels of evidence presented by the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care. Based on our review of the evidence, incentives combined with behavioural therapy appear to show the greatest promise for abstaining from smoking in the pregnant population. Nicotine replacement therapy administered in the form of gum may be better than using transdermal forms to avoid high levels of nicotine in the fetal circulation. One small trial demonstrated that bupropion is an effective aid for smoking cessation and that it does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of major congenital malformations. The currently available studies of varenicline in pregnancy are insufficient to provide evidence for the safety or efficacy of its use. PMID:26605448

  11. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  12. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  13. Evaluation of a structured smoking cessation program for primary care medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaehne, A.; Ruether, T.; Deest, H.; Gehrig, H.; de Zeeuw, J.; Alberti, A.; Mulzer, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that 9 of 10 general practitioners in Germany believe that smoking cessation is an important topic structured programs are only rarely offered to patients. Beside a lack of time and missing reimbursement, physician's limited treatment skills are frequent reasons for this

  14. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According to...... intervention and 21 as controls. There was no difference in 30-day complication rates or 6-week abstinence rates between the two groups. Conclusions: A trial assessing the effect of smoking cessation on postoperative complications on the day of soft tissue surgery is still needed. If another trial is to be...

  15. Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth; Blatt, Kaitlin; Chen, Aimin; Van Hook, James; DeFranco, Emily A

    2016-05-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of various patient characteristics on early smoking cessation to better identify target populations for focused counseling and interventions. Study Design This study was a population-based retrospective cohort study of 1,003,532 Ohio live births more than 7 years (2006-2012). Women who quit smoking in the first trimester were compared with those who smoked throughout pregnancy. Logistic regression estimated the strength of association between patient factors and smoking cessation. Results The factors most strongly associated with early smoking cessation were non-white race and Hispanic ethnicity, at least some college education, early prenatal care, marriage, and breastfeeding. Numerous factors commonly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes were found to have a negative association with smoking cessation: low educational attainment, limited or late prenatal care, prior preterm birth, age breastfeeding before discharge from the hospital are associated with increased RR of quitting early in pregnancy by 52 and 99%, respectively. Public health initiatives and interventions should focus on the importance of early access to prenatal care and education regarding smoking cessation for these particularly vulnerable groups of women who are at inherently high risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:26692202

  16. Clinical trial on the efficacy of exhaled carbon monoxide measurement in smoking cessation in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripoll Joana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation is beneficial for our health at any point in life, both in healthy people and in people already suffering from a smoking-related disease. Any help to quit smoking can produce considerable benefits for Public Health. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of the CO-oximetry technique together with brief advice in smoking cessation, in terms of reduction of the number of cigarettes or in the variation of the motivation to quit smoking at month 12 compared with brief advice alone. Methods/Design Randomised, parallel, single-blind clinical trial in a primary health care setting in Majorca (Spain. Smokers in contemplation or pre-contemplation phase will be included in the study. Exclusion criteria: Smokers in preparation phase, subjects with a terminal illness or whose health status does not allow them to understand the study or complete the informed consent, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. The subjects will be randomly assigned to the control group (CG or the intervention group (IG. The CG will receive brief advice, and the IG will receive brief advice together with a measurement of exhaled CO. There will be follow-up evaluations at 6 and 12 months after inclusion. 471 subjects will be needed per group in order to detect a difference between groups ≥ 5%. Primary outcome: sustained smoking cessation (at 6 and 12 months confirmed by urine cotinine test. Secondary outcomes: point smoking cessation at 6 and 12 months both confirmed by urine cotinine analysis and self-reported, reduction in cigarette consumption, and variation in phase of smoking cessation. Discussion CO-oximetry is an inexpensive, non-invasive, fast technique that requires little technical training; making it a technique for risk assessment in smokers that can be easily applied in primary care and, if proven effective, could serve as a reinforcement aid in smoking cessation intervention activities. Trial

  17. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are...... to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION...... CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review...

  18. Update on smoking cessation therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Deirdre A

    2009-04-01

    As a reflection of an exponential increase in smoking rates throughout the world during the last century, the economic and human burden of mortality and morbidity related to smoking is now clearly defined. Smoking cessation is associated with health benefits for people of all ages. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of current licensed pharmacological smoking cessation agents including efficacy and safety profiles, with comparisons of individual therapies available. Furthermore, we offer a prospective on the need for further testing of other agents including novel avenues of therapy.

  19. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  20. Communication in Smoking Cessation and Self-management : a study at Nurse-led COPD-clinics in Primary Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe general aim of this thesis was to investigate behavioral change communication at nurse-led chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clinics in primary health care, focusing on communication in self-management and smoking cessation for patients with COPD.Designs: Observational, prospective observational and experimental designs were used.Methods: To explore and describe the structure and content of self-management education and smoking cessation communication, consultations bet...

  1. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention (ISTAPS study: design of a cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarza Elvira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a considerable body of evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions in individuals who wish to quit smoking. However, there are no large-scale studies testing the whole range of interventions currently recommended for helping people to give up smoking; specifically those interventions that include motivational interviews for individuals who are not interested in quitting smoking in the immediate to short term. Furthermore, many of the published studies were undertaken in specialized units or by a small group of motivated primary care centres. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a stepped smoking cessation intervention based on a trans-theoretical model of change, applied to an extensive group of Primary Care Centres (PCC. Methods/Design Cluster randomised clinical trial. Unit of randomization: basic unit of care consisting of a family physician and a nurse, both of whom care for the same population (aprox. 2000 people. Intention to treat analysis. Study population: Smokers (n = 3024 aged 14 to 75 years consulting for any reason to PCC and who provided written informed consent to participate in the trial. Intervention: 6-month implementation of recommendations of a Clinical Practice Guideline which includes brief motivational interviews for smokers at the precontemplation – contemplation stage, brief intervention for smokers in preparation-action who do not want help, intensive intervention with pharmacotherapy for smokers in preparation-action who want help, and reinforcing intervention in the maintenance stage. Control group: usual care. Outcome measures: Self-reported abstinence confirmed by exhaled air carbon monoxide concentration of ≤ 10 parts per million. Points of assessment: end of intervention period and 1 and 2 years post-intervention; continuous abstinence rate for 1 year; change in smoking cessation stage; health status measured by SF-36. Discussion The

  2. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review was to...... assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text and...... keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a...

  3. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete; Villebro, Nete

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review was to...... assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text and...... keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a...

  4. Delivering evidence-based smoking cessation treatment in primary care practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Sophia; Gharib, Marie; Hambleton, Josh; Reid, Robert D.; Assi, Roxane; Pipe, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To report on the delivery of evidence-based smoking cessation treatments (EBSCTs) within a sample of 40 Ontario family health teams (FHTs). Design In each FHT, consecutive patients were screened for smoking status and eligible patients completed a questionnaire immediately following their clinic visits (index visits). Multilevel analysis was used to examine FHT-level, provider-level, and patient-level predictors of EBSCT delivery. Setting Forty FHTs in Ontario. Participants Across the 40 participating FHTs, 24 033 patients were screened and 2501 eligible patients contributed data. Main outcome measures Provider performance in the delivery of EBSCTs during the preceding 12 months and during the index visits was assessed. Results The rate of provider delivery of EBSCT for the previous 12 months was 74.0% for the advise strategy. At the index visit, rates of EBSCT strategy delivery were 56.8% for ask; 46.9% for advise; 38.7% for assist; 11.6% for prescribing pharmacotherapy; and 11.3% for arrange follow-up. Significant intra-FHT and intraprovider variability in the rates of EBSCT delivery was identified. Family health teams with a physician champion (odds ratio [OR] 2.0; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6; P < .01) and providers who highly ranked the importance of smoking cessation (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.7; P < .01) were more likely to deliver EBSCTs. Patient readiness to quit (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 1.9; P < .001), presence of smoking-related illness (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1; P < .01), and presenting for an annual health examination (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.5; P < .001) were associated with the delivery of EBSCTs. Conclusion Rates of smoking cessation advice were higher than previously reported for Canadian physicians; however, rates of assistance with quitting were lower. Future quality improvement initiatives should specifically target increasing the rates of screening and advising among low-performing FHTs and providers within FHTs, with a particular emphasis

  5. Cluster randomized trial in smoking cessation with intensive advice in diabetic patients in primary care. ITADI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roura Pilar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve smoking cessation in diabetic smokers, given that this is a group of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, tobacco has a multiplying effect on micro and macro vascular complications. Smoking abstinence rates increase as the intensity of the intervention, length of the intervention and number and diversity of contacts with the healthcare professional during the intervention increases. However, there are few published studies about smoking cessation in diabetics in primary care, a level of healthcare that plays an essential role in these patients. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in diabetic patients in primary care. Methods/Design Cluster randomized trial, controlled and multicentric. Randomization unit: Primary Care Team. Study population: 546 diabetic smokers older than 14 years of age whose disease is controlled by one of the primary care teams in the study. Outcome Measures: Continuous tobacco abstinence (a person who has not smoked for at least six months and with a CO level of less than 6 ppm measured by a cooximeter , evolution in the Prochaska and DiClemente's Transtheoretical Model of Change, number of cigarettes/day, length of the visit. Point of assessment: one- year post- inclusion in the study. Intervention: Brief motivational interview for diabetic smokers at the pre-contemplation and contemplation stage, intensive motivational interview with pharmacotherapy for diabetic smokers in the preparation-action stage and reinforcing intevention in the maintenance stage. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive analysis of all variables will be done, as well as a multilevel logistic regression and a Poisson regression. All analyses will be done with an intention to treatment basis and will be fitted for potential confounding factors and variables of clinical importance. Statistical packages

  6. [Smoking cessation: practice guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgne, A

    2002-09-01

    Smoking is a habit sustained and amplified by dependency on nicotine. Despite knowing the risks to their health, smokers have great difficulty in stopping. The syndrome of nicotine withdrawal and the related complications when stopping smoking: depression, weight gain, are adequate justifications of the many failures to stop smoking. However, we have now come out of the empiricism, effective treatment is available and scientifically validated international recommendations have been established. They involve: the practice of minimal advice which consists of questioning every patient about smoking habits and encouraging them to stop; the treatments of nicotine substitution, patch, chewing gum, tablets or inhaler, used at effective dosage and sometimes in association with each other; more recently, Bupropion (Zyban, LP), a psychotropic inhibitor of Dobutamine and Noradrenalin recapture; behavioural and cognitive therapies, alone or in association with pharmacological therapy. The measurement of the score of tobacco dependency with the Fagerström test enables definition of a therapeutic strategy. Of course, these treatments are only effective in smokers motivated to stop smoking. The decision to stop smoking should only be taken after a period of reflection during which the role of information and advice given by all health professionals is primordial. Also, the long-term follow-up and counsel are essential to prevent relapse, especially during the first year. PMID:12407795

  7. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self...

  8. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  9. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-01-01

    Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US...

  10. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  11. Smoking cessation counseling for Asian immigrants with serious mental illness: using RE-AIM to understand challenges and lessons learned in primary care-behavioral health integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anne; Kim, Jin; Lim, Joyce; Powell, Catherine; Tong, Elisa K

    2013-09-01

    Engagement in modifiable risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, substantially contributes to early mortality rates in individuals with serious mental illness (SMI). There is an alarmingly high prevalence of tobacco use among subgroups of Asian Americans, such as immigrants and individuals with SMI, yet there are no empirically supported effective smoking cessation interventions that have been tailored to meet the unique cultural, cognitive, and psychological needs of Asian immigrants with SMI. In this article, we share the experiences of clinicians in the delivery of smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrants with SMI, in the context of an Asian-focused integrated primary care and behavioral health setting. Through a qualitative analysis of clinician perspectives organized with the RE-AIM framework, we outline challenges, lessons learned, and promising directions for delivering smoking cessation counseling to Asian American immigrant clients with SMI. PMID:23667056

  12. Cluster randomized trial in smoking cessation with intensive advice in diabetic patients in primary care : ITADI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roura Pilar; Armengol Angelina; Advani Mamta; Martin Carlos; Prieto Gemma; Perez Santiago; Roig Lydia; Maria Manresa Josep; Briones Elena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It is a priority to achieve smoking cessation in diabetic smokers, given that this is a group of patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, tobacco has a multiplying effect on micro and macro vascular complications. Smoking abstinence rates increase as the intensity of the intervention, length of the intervention and number and diversity of contacts with the healthcare professional during the intervention increases. However, there are few published studies ab...

  13. NCI launches smoking cessation support for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new effort to help teens quit smoking will use one of today’s teen’s most constant companions—the mobile phone. Developed by smoking cessation experts, SmokefreeTXT is a free text message cessation service that provides 24/7 encouragement, advice, and

  14. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  15. Smoking cessation advice: the self-reported attitudes and practice of primary health care physicians in a military community, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAteeq, Mohammed; Alrashoud, Abdulaziz M; Khair, Mohammed; Salam, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Brief advice on smoking cessation from primary health care (PHC) physicians reduces smoking prevalence. However, few studies have investigated the provision of such advice by PHC physicians providing services to military communities. The aim of this study was to evaluate PHC physicians’ attitudes toward and practice of delivering smoking cessation advice to smokers in a military community in central Saudi Arabia. Methods A self-reported survey of PHC physicians was conducted in 2015 using a previously validated tool. The age, sex, educational level, job title, experience and previous smoking cessation training of each physician was recorded. Attitude (ten statements) and practice (six statements) were evaluated on a five-point Likert scale. Scoring system was applied and percentage mean scores (PMS) were calculated. Descriptive/statistical analyses were applied to identify factors that were significantly associated with a positive attitude and favorable practice (PMS >65 each). P-values age of 35.3±9.6 years. General practitioners constituted 71.4%, followed by consultants (17.9%) and specialists (10.7%). Those with a postgraduate education formed 49.3%, while experience averaged 9.5±9.2 years. Approximately 56% had not attended a smoking cessation educational program in the previous year. Approximately 75% of physicians had a positive attitude (PMS =72.4±11.2), while 64.4% reported favorable practice (PMS =65.3±27.7). Higher education levels were significantly more associated with positive attitude than lower education levels (adj. odds ratio [OR] 95% confidence interval [CI] =17.9 [1.3–242.3]; adj. P=0.03). More experienced physicians (adj. OR [95% CI] =9.5 [1.6–54.6]) and those with positive attitude (adj. OR [95% CI] =6.1 [1.6–23.3]) were more likely to report a favorable practice, compared to the less experienced (adj. P=0.012) and physicians with a negative attitude (adj. P=0.008). Conclusion Provision of smoking cessation advice by

  16. Effectiveness of Non-Primary Care-Based Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults with Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, Shilpa J; Harrington, Kathy F; Agne, April A; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects over 25 million adults, many of whom are smokers. The negative health impact of diabetes and comorbid smoking is significant and requires comprehensive interdisciplinary management. The National Diabetes Education Program has identified specific providers, known as PPOD, who include pharmacists, podiatrists, optometrists, and dentists, as key individuals to improve diabetes-related clinical outcomes. These providers are encouraged to work together through interdisciplinary collaboration and to implement evidence-based strategies as outlined in the PPOD toolkit. The toolkit encourages healthcare providers to ask, advise, and assist patients in their efforts to engage in risk reduction and healthy behaviors, including smoking cessation as an important risk factor. While individual PPOD providers have demonstrated effective smoking cessation interventions in adults with other acute and chronic systemic diseases, they lack specific application and focus on adults with diabetes. This literature review examines the current role of PPOD providers in smoking cessation interventions delivered to adults with diabetes. PMID:27424070

  17. The protocol for the Be Our Ally Beat Smoking (BOABS study, a randomised controlled trial of an intensive smoking cessation intervention in a remote Aboriginal Australian health care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley Julia V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders (Indigenous Australians smoke at much higher rates than non-Indigenous people and smoking is an important contributor to increased disease, hospital admissions and deaths in Indigenous Australian populations. Smoking cessation programs in Australia have not had the same impact on Indigenous smokers as on non-Indigenous smokers. This paper describes the protocol for a study that aims to test the efficacy of a locally-tailored, intensive, multidimensional smoking cessation program. Methods/Design This study is a parallel, randomised, controlled trial. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers aged 16 years and over, who are randomly allocated to a 'control' or 'intervention' group in a 2:1 ratio. Those assigned to the 'intervention' group receive smoking cessation counselling at face-to-face visits, weekly for the first four weeks, monthly to six months and two monthly to 12 months. They are also encouraged to attend a monthly smoking cessation support group. The 'control' group receive 'usual care' (i.e. they do not receive the smoking cessation program. Aboriginal researchers deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to help Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders quit smoking. Data collection occurs at baseline (when they enrol and at six and 12 months after enrolling. The primary outcome is self-reported smoking cessation with urinary cotinine confirmation at 12 months. Discussion Stopping smoking has been described as the single most important individual change Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers could make to improve their health. Smoking cessation programs are a major priority in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and evidence for effective approaches is essential for policy development and resourcing. A range of strategies have been used to encourage Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders to quit

  18. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  19. Smoking among pregnant women in Cantabria (Spain: trend and determinants of smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariscal Marcial

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cantabria (Spain has one of the highest prevalence of smoking among women of the European Union. The objectives are to assess the trend of smoking during pregnancy in a five-year period and the determinants of smoking cessation during pregnancy in Cantabria. Methods A 1/6 random sample of all women delivering at the reference hospital of the region for the period 1998–2002 was drawn, 1559 women. Information was obtained from personal interview, clinical chart, and prenatal care records. In the analysis relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Multivariable analysis was carried out using stepwise logistic regression. Results Smoking prior to pregnancy decreased from 53.6% in 1998 to 39.4% in 2002. A decrease in smoking cessation among women smoking at the beginning of pregnancy was observed, from 37.3% in 1998 to 20.6% in 2002. The mean number of cigarettes/day (cig/d before pregnancy remained constant, around 16 cig/d, whereas a slight trend to increase over time was seen, from 7.7 to 8.9 cig/d. In univariate analysis two variables favoured significantly smoking cessation, although they were not included in the stepwise logistic regression analysis, a higher education level and to be married. The logistic regression model included five significant predictors (also significant in univariate analysis: intensity of smoking, number of previous pregnancies, partner's smoking status, calendar year of study period (these four variables favoured smoking continuation, and adequate prenatal care (which increased smoking cessation. Conclusion The frequency of smoking among pregnant women is very high in Cantabria. As smoking cessation rate has decreased over time, a change in prenatal care programme on smoking counseling is needed. Several determinants of smoking cessation, such as smoking before pregnancy and partner's smoking, should be also addressed by community programmes.

  20. Factors associated with tobacco smoking and cessation among HIV-infected individuals under care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S Torres

    Full Text Available Worldwide the prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is elevated compared to the general population. This probably reflects the cluster of individual characteristics that have shared risk factors for HIV infection and smoking. A cross-sectional study, enrolling a convenience sample from a Brazilian HIV clinical cohort was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and the factors associated with current smoking and abstinence. A total of 2,775 HIV-infected individuals were interviewed: 46.2% have never smoked, 29.9% were current smokers and 23.9% were former smokers. Current smokers had a higher prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use when compared to the other two groups. A higher proportion of heterosexual individuals were former smokers or never smokers while among men who have sex with men (MSM a higher proportion were current smokers. Former smokers had been more frequently diagnosed with high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and depression, while for current smokers lung diseases were more frequent. Former smokers and current smokers were more likely to have had any hospital admission (42.0% and 41.2%, respectively than participants who never smoked (33.5% (p31 cigarettes/day. MSM (compared to heterosexuals and cocaine users (versus non-users had lower odds of being former smokers. Considering our results, smoking cessation interventions should be tailored to younger individuals, MSM and substance users.

  1. National Survey of the Smoking Cessation Services in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Pucchio, Alessandra Di; Pizzi, Enrica; Carosi, Giordano; Mazzola, Monica; Mattioli, Donatella; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is aimed at providing information about structural and organizational characteristics of smoking cessation services (SCS) set up within the Italian National Health Service. Local health units and hospitals are the main institutions connected with SCS which are mainly located within the Department of Drug Addiction and the Department of Lung and Breath Care. SCS provide different tobacco-use cessation programs. Although pharmacotherapy is always used, a combination of therap...

  2. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian; Stoel, Berend C; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD.......Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD....

  3. Smoking and Cessation Behaviors Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Canty-Mitchell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a major factor in increased rates for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Despite numerous studies related to smoking behaviors and patterns in adolescents and adults, few studies examine both smoking behaviors and cessation patterns in college-aged students. The purpose of this study was to describe smoking and cessation patterns in undergraduate students at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington. Students (N= 159; M =20.9 years; 73% female; 91.2% white; 68% single completed a 41-question online health-related survey; 17 items pertained to smoking. Based on data analyses, 17% smoked cigarettes and 77.4% had tried to quit smoking between one time to greater than six times in the past. Students wanted to quit smoking for health and financial reasons and thought that changing habits, self-motivation, and exercise were the most effective ways to quit smoking. Results indicated a need to include physical, psychosocial and medicinal components in smoking cessation programs.

  4. Smoking Cessation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective strategy for slowing down the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reducing mortality in the approximately 50% of patients with diagnosed COPD who continue to smoke. While behavioral interventions (including simple advice) have modest efficacy in improving smoking quit rates, the combination of counseling and pharmacotherapy is more effective than either alone. When combined with even brief counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion SR, and varenicline have all been shown to be effective in promoting smoking cessation and sustained abstinence in smokers with COPD to a degree comparable to that observed in the general smoking population. However, the recidivism rate is high after initial quitting so that at the end of 1 year, approximately 80% or more of patients are still smoking. Thus, new approaches to smoking cessation are needed. One approach is to combine different pharmacotherapies, for example, nicotine patch plus rapidly acting NRT (e.g., gum or nasal spray) and/or bupropion or even varenicline plus either NRT or bupropion, in a stepwise approach over a varying duration depending on the severity of nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the quit attempt, as proposed in the American College of Chest Physicians Tobacco Dependence Took Kit. Electronic (e)-cigarettes, which deliver vaporized nicotine without most of the noxious components in the smoke from burning tobacco cigarettes, also has potential efficacy as a smoking cessation aid, but their efficacy and safety as either substitutes for regular cigarettes or smoking cessation aids require additional study. This task is complicated because e-cigarettes are currently unregulated and hundreds of different brands are currently available. PMID:26238637

  5. Editorial: Smoking Cessation for Crohn's Disease: Clearing the Haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-03-01

    The TABACROHN Study Group conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study, demonstrating that smoking cessation improved the prognosis of Crohn's disease. Patients who continued to smoke were 50% more likely to relapse compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation reduced the risk of flaring, regardless of exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. Despite the evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial, many patients do not quit smoking after their diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Lack of awareness, physical addiction, and social context of smoking inhibit smoking cessation. In spite of this, comprehensive smoking cessation programs have been shown to be effective and reduce costs. PMID:27018116

  6. Smoking and management methods. The practice of smoking cessation programme in University Hospital of Larissa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarogiannis S.,

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is the most important, preventable cause of premature death and this addiction can be regarded as a chronic, recurrent disease. The benefits of smoking cessation are unquestionable and all health care professionals should become more active in recommending it. Aim: To characterise the population seeking medical support for smoking cessation and to investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation programme performed, in the University Hospital of Larissa, for outpatients. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of outpatients in follow-up between March 2004 and October 2007. Age, gender, level of education, smoking habits, compliance in pharmacological treatment, gain weight and abstinence and relapse rates were evaluated.Results: Were studied 376 smokers, 60% male with an average age of 46.9 years. Men, upper graduated smokers have higher cessation rates whereas, in heavy smokers with high degree of dependence was observed lower cessation rates. The continuous abstinence rate at 12 months was 38%, and among pharmacological treatment, varenicline resulted elevated rate of quit smoking. The rate of relapse was found in 39%.Conclusions: This study suggests that smoking cessation programmes may be highly effective in helping smoking withdrawal and should be a strongly recommended component of daily clinical practice.

  7. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  8. Smoking Cessation Experience in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmsen, Lars; Hjalmarsson, Agneta

    1980-01-01

    Studies of post-infarct patients and healthy controls in Sweden show that likelihood of stopping smoking is greater in better informed patients, in those who suffer a sudden bout of serious disease, and those who stop smoking completely, rather than cutting down.

  9. 78 FR 13236 - TRICARE: Smoking Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... proposed rule was published in the Federal Register (76 FR 58199) dated September 20, 2011, for a 60-day... the beneficiary, of pharmaceuticals used for smoking cessation, with the limitation on the availability of such pharmaceuticals to the mail-order pharmacy program under the TRICARE program;...

  10. Smoking habits of factory workers and their thoughts about cessation of smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Yılmazel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine smoking habits, levels of nicotine dependence, thoughts about smoking and smoking cessation of workers. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted by volunteer 200 workers from cement and sugar factories in 2014 Çorum. The data was collected through a 40-item questionnaire form questioning smoking habits, thoughts about smoking and cessation of workers. To determine nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test was used. Results: Among workers, smoking prevalence was 38.0%, the mean age to start smoking was 18.82 ± 4.01 years. The rate of smoking during the 11 and over years was 88.2% and smoking 11 cigarettes in a day was 60.5%. In addition, the rate of smokers regret for smoking was 93.4% while the rate of want to quit smoking was 63.2%, attempts to quit smoking was 68.4. A significant proportion of smokers were concerned about the deterioration of their health. Despite the high awareness among smokers, thoughts preventing to quit smoking were found to be commonly. The 29.0% of the workers were low, 3.9% of were moderate and 67.1% of were high level of addicted to nicotine. Workers dependency levels varied significantly depending on the number of cigarettes consumed in a day (p=0.004. The proportion of workers took recommendations from health care personnel about smoking cessation was low. Almost none of the workers had never been trained in smoking cessation. Conclusion: In this study, the rate of smoking and nicotine dependence levels in factory workers were found to be high.

  11. A study of smoking and smoking cessation on the curricula of UK medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Roddy, E; Rubin, P.; Britton, J.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify current practice in teaching on smoking and smoking cessation in UK medical schools, and establish whether newly qualified UK doctors feel prepared to deliver smoking cessation interventions.

  12. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva;

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...

  13. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  14. Importance of Smoking Cessation in a Lung Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Vidit; McMahon, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation interventions can decrease lung cancer mortality, but information on the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation and lung cancer screening is sparse and inconsistent. This review aims to synthesize recent studies in two major areas of interest. First, we explore the interactions and potential for synergies between lung cancer screening programs and smoking cessation by summarizing reported changes in smoking behavior observe...

  15. The transtheoretical model use for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Eroğlu, Kafiye; KOYUN, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    Available Online at http://iassr.org/journal 2013 (c) EJRE published by International Association of Social Science Research - IASSR European Journal of Research on Education ISSN: 2147-6284 European Journal of Research on Education, 2014, Special Issue: Contemporary Studies in Social Science, 130-134 The transtheoretical model use for smoking cessation Ayşe Koyun a *, Kafiye Eroğlu b aAfyon Kocatepe University, Afyon School of Health, Afyonkarahisar, 03200...

  16. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F.; Car, Josip

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking.ObjectivesTo determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.Search strategyWe searched theCochraneTobaccoAddictionGroup SpecializedRegister, with additional searches ofMEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on ...

  17. 'Do your best for me': The difficulties of finding a clinically effective endpoint in smoking cessation consultations in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Alison; Coleman, Tim

    2010-01-01

    In recent years in the UK there has been a shift towards doctors practising preventative medicine. Research suggests, however, that doctors are more comfortable in their traditional role, and may be reluctant to engage in discussion of lifestyle issues with patients. In this article, we use data from GPs' consultations about smoking, recorded prior to the availability of Nicotine Replacement Therapy on NHS prescription, to demonstrate how they attempt to negotiate behaviour change. Using a discursive analytic approach, and drawing particularly on some of the conversation analytic literature on advice giving, we suggest that there are two kinds of difficulties for doctors to overcome: an ambiguity about the interactional endpoint of a discussion about smoking; and the inability to offer 'expert' medical help. As a result, doctors struggle with following through their advice to stop in terms of talking about how to do it. We suggest that the efficacy of nicotine addiction treatments may be due not only to their clinical effects, but also because their prescription legitimizes the difficulty in stopping reported by most smokers as an appropriate problem for medical treatment. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of smoking and other lifestyle issues within primary care consultations. PMID:20051430

  18. Ear Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Anthony L.; Yuan Ming Di; Christopher Worsnop; Brian H. May; Cliff Da Costa; Xue, Charlie C.L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of ear acupressure (EAP) as a stand-alone intervention for smoking cessation and the feasibility of this study design. Adult smokers were randomised to receive EAP specific for smoking cessation (SSEAP) or a nonspecific EAP (NSEAP) intervention which is not typically used for smoking cessation. Participants received 8 weekly treatments and were requested to press the five pellets taped to one ear at least three times daily. Participants were fol...

  19. Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking and Cessation among HIV-Infected Individuals under Care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Thiago S.; Luz, Paula M; Derrico, Monica; Velasque, Luciane; Grinsztejn, Eduarda; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Santini-Oliveira, Marília; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; De Boni, Raquel Brandini

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide the prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is elevated compared to the general population. This probably reflects the cluster of individual characteristics that have shared risk factors for HIV infection and smoking. A cross-sectional study, enrolling a convenience sample from a Brazilian HIV clinical cohort was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and the factors associated with current smoking and abstinence. A total of 2,775 HIV-infected indivi...

  20. Update on medicines for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Mike

    2015-08-01

    Persistent cigarette smokers usually have a nicotine addiction. This addiction has a chronic relapsing and sometimes remitting course and may persist lifelong. Remission can be facilitated by the use of medication as part of a comprehensive management strategy tailored to the individual patient. Nicotine replacement therapy is a first-line drug treatment. It is available in many formulations. Varenicline is also a first-line drug treatment. It should be started before the patient stops smoking. Bupropion is a second-line therapy. It may be associated with an increased risk of seizures and drug interactions. While there is some evidence that electronic cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation, quit rates are not yet comparable with those of the drugs approved on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. PMID:26648633

  1. Smoking cessation support in Iran: Availability, sources & predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Toghianifar, Nafiseh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Eshrati, Babak; Sadri, Gholamhossein

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Smoking cessation advice is known as an important factor in motivating smokers to quit smoking. We investigated the extent, sources and predictors of receiving unsolicited advice and seeking active advice for smoking cessation in Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed as a part of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) on 9093 adult individuals (both men and women) in 2004-2005. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, sources and preferences for smoki...

  2. 76 FR 58199 - TRICARE; Smoking Cessation Program Under TRICARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ..., include the following: the availability, at no cost to the beneficiary, of pharmaceuticals used for smoking cessation, with the limitation on the availability of such pharmaceuticals to the mail-order... pharmaceuticals used for smoking cessation, with a limitation on the availability of such pharmaceuticals to...

  3. Efficacy of Incorporating Experiencing Exercises into a Smoking Cessation Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Celia A.; Manaster, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of experiential exercises, combined with a traditional smoking cessation intervention, on quit rates and social learning theory variables known to impact smoking cessation. Measures of self-efficacy and locus of control did not significantly differ between the experimental and control conditions. Quit rates did not differ…

  4. Varenicline: a novel pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Berlin, Ivan; Hering, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Varenicline is an orally administered small molecule with partial agonist activity at the alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Varenicline was approved by both the US FDA and the European Medicines Agency of the EU in 2006 as an aid to smoking cessation. Subsequently, varenicline has been approved in over 80 other countries. Varenicline is almost entirely absorbed following oral administration, and absorption is unaffected by food, smoking or the time of day. Varenicline undergoes only minimal metabolism and approximately 90% of the drug is excreted in the urine unchanged. Varenicline has a mean elimination half-life after repeated administration of approximately 24 hours in smokers. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve is increased in patients with moderate or severe renal failure. No clinically relevant varenicline-drug interactions have been identified. In two identical, randomized, double-blind, phase III clinical trials in healthy, motivated-to-quit, mainly Caucasian smokers aged 18-75 years in the US, 12 weeks of treatment with varenicline 1 mg twice daily was associated with significantly higher abstinence rates over weeks 9-12 than sustained-release bupropion 150 mg twice daily or placebo. In a separate phase III trial, an additional 12 weeks of treatment in smokers achieving abstinence in the first 12 weeks was associated with greater abstinence through to week 52 than placebo treatment. Varenicline treatment was also associated with significantly higher rates of abstinence than placebo treatment in randomized, double-blind, clinical trials in smokers in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. In a randomized, open-label, multi-national, phase III trial, varenicline treatment was associated with a significantly higher rate of abstinence than transdermal nicotine-replacement therapy. In these trials, varenicline treatment was associated with lower urge to smoke and satisfaction from smoking in relapsers than placebo or

  5. A successful population-based smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovan-Somborac Jaroslava

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Our country is in the third place in Europe concerning tobacco smoking. Although strict law regulations regarding indoor smoking have been brought, the law banning all tobacco advertising, and the behaviour of our population are inadequate. Our objective was to persuade smokers for the 'Quit and Win' campaign and to establish the number of smokers in health personnel employed in health facilities. Material and methods This population-based smoking cessation campaign was coordinated by Federal Institute of Public Health, through a network of Public Health Institutes within the country with the support of national and local media. Results and discussion Quit and Win campaign was organized for the third time. The campaign was realized with the financial support and sponsorship at community level throughout the country. The Federal Ministry provided a national health award. The national and local media accompanied the campaign. The campaign included 3.178 smokers and 2.575 supporters, that is 0.1% of the population over 18 years of age. This is in accordance with participants in some other countries, who had a better support. More than 60% of health care facility employees are smokers. Conclusions Our tradition, habits in the society and overall situation encourage smoking habits to spread in general population. Our campaign has proved that people should be motivated to quit smoking, but they need to be informed. Actions taken in general population and based on a positive smoking cessation program in which smokers are willing to stop smoking have given unexpectedly good results.

  6. Suicide Prevention Referrals in a Mobile Health Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions. PMID:26066949

  7. An educational campaign to increase chiropractic intern advising roles on patient smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser Sheryl M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use, particularly smoking, is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. More than 400,000 premature deaths are associated with its use and the health care costs are in the billions. All health care provider groups should be concerned with patients who continue to smoke and use tobacco. The US Preventive Services Taskforce and Health People 2010 guidelines encourage providers to counsel smokers on cessation. Current studies, though limited regarding chiropractic advising practices indicate a low engagement rate when it comes to providing cessation information. Objective To test a campaign regarding initial impact aimed at increasing chiropractic interns advising on cessation and delivery of information to smokers on cessation. Discussion Chiropractic interns do engage patients on smoking status and can be encouraged to provide more cessation messages and information to patients. The initial impact assessment of this campaign increased the provision of information to patients by about 25%. The prevalence of smoking among chiropractic patients, particularly at teaching clinics may be lower than the national averages. Conclusion Chiropractic interns can and should be encouraged to advise smokers about cessation. A systematic method of intake information on smoking status is needed and a standardized education protocol for chiropractic colleges is needed. Chiropractic colleges should assess the adequacy of their advising roles and implement changes to increase cessation messages to their patients as soon as possible.

  8. Continuous-Time System Identification of a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behavior change. System identification problems that draw from two modeling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of c...

  9. Regulating Advertisements: The Case of Smoking Cessation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary J. Avery; Donald S. Kenkel; Lillard, Dean R.; Alan D. Mathios

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of pharmaceutical products in affected by regulations of the Food and Drug Administration and by market conditions. We focus on a relatively under-studied segment of the pharmaceutical market -- the market for smoking cessation products. Because of their proven effectiveness, these products could be the key to meeting public health goals to reduce smoking. However, in many ways, smoking cessation products have been more hea...

  10. Smoking cessation in pregnancy: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Miyazaki,1 Kunihiko Hayashi,2 Setsuko Imazeki1 1Faculty of Health Care, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Takasaki, 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan Background: Smoking during pregnancy causes obstetric and fetal complications, and smoking cessation may have great benefits for the mother and the child. However, some pregnant women continue smoking even in pregnancy.Objective: To review the literature addressing the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, explore psychosocial factors associated with smoking, and review the evidence of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy in recent years.Literature review: Computerized Internet search results in PubMed for the years spanning from 2004 to 2014, as well as references cited in articles, were reviewed. A search for the keywords “smoking cessation pregnancy” and “intervention” and “clinical trials” yielded 52 citations. Thirty-five citations were identified as useful to this review for the evidence of psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy.Results: The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy differs by country, reflecting the countries’ social, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds. Women who had socioeconomic disadvantages, problems in their interpersonal relationships, higher stress, depression, less social support, and who engaged in health-risk behaviors were more prone to smoking during pregnancy. Psychosocial interventions, such as counseling, are effective methods for increasing smoking cessation.Conclusion: Smokers may have various psychosocial problems in addition to health problems. It is important to understand each individual’s social situation or psychosocial characteristics, and a psychosocial intervention focused on the characteristics of the individual is required. Keywords: women’s health, smoking cessation, pregnancy, psychosocial intervention  

  11. Craving and nicotine withdrawal in a Spanish smoking cessation sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Fernández del Río, Elena; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2014-01-01

    Craving and nicotine withdrawal syndrome (NWS) are components of the tobacco use disorder in DSM-5. They both appear after smoking cessation or an abrupt reduction in tobacco use, and they are associated with both short and long-term smoking-cessation outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of craving and withdrawal with smoking cessation at the end of the treatment and relapse at 3 months follow-up in a Spanish sample of smokers. The sample comprised 342 smokers (37.7% men; 62.3% women) receiving a cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. The assessments of craving and withdrawal were conducted using the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Abstainers at the end of the treatment, compared to non abstainers, showed significantly lower post-treatment withdrawal, and post-treatment craving. Furthermore, they had lower scores in pre-treatment nicotine dependence. Among abstainers, craving decreased significantly from pre-cessation levels, while in those participants who did not quit smoking it remained on the same levels. High nicotine dependence was a predictor of smoking at the end of the treatment, whereas high nicotine withdrawal predicted relapse at 3 months. Findings support the robust role of craving and NWS in smoking cessation and relapse, although they differ in their specific patterns of change over time. PMID:25314038

  12. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study on the effects of tai chi for smoking cessation suggest that tai chi may be an effective method for enhancing mindfulness and awareness for breaking cycles of addiction and habit. Safety ...

  13. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  14. Smoking cessation among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: preferred cessation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Overland, Simon; Aarø, Leif E

    2011-04-01

    Despite generally declining smoking rates, particularly among young people, a large number of people remain smokers and many young people still pick up smoking. Helping smokers quit therefore remains a high priority for the public health sector. In the present study we examined adolescents and young adults' preferences regarding cessation methods and if these differed between genders and depended on smoking frequency. The data came from a nationally representative survey in Norway among 16-20 year olds. Only regular (weekly and daily) smokers were included in the statistical analyses (n = 509, 51% females). The findings suggest that the majority of both male (83.6%) and female (78.4%) smokers would prefer to quit smoking without help. More males than females reported that they would consider using snus as a cessation aid, while females more often reported willingness to attend cessation classes or use brochures and diaries as cessation aids. Both males and females had similar preferences albeit low, regarding the use of health services, nicotine gum or patches and internet and sms-services to quit smoking. Daily smokers would more often than weekly smokers prefer to attend cessation classes, seek help from health services, use nicotine gum or patches or use brochures and diaries. In contrast, weekly smokers preferred to use snus as a cessation aid more often than daily smokers. Identifying and making appropriate cessation methods attractive may lead to successful quitting and consequently public health gains. PMID:21054423

  15. Effects of Opium Smoking Cessation on the Nasopharyngeal Microbial Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Golshiri, Ali; Mokhtaree, Mohammad Reza; Shabani, Ziba; Tabatabaee, Sayed Taghi; Rahnama, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Sayadi, Ahamad Reza; Faezi, Hadi

    2009-01-01

    Background: To determine the effect of opium smoking cessation on the frequency and type of microorganisms in the nasopharynx of opium smokers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in psychology and ENT department of Moradi Hospital of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in 2008 (Kerman, Iran). Nasopharyngeal cultures were taken from 50 opium smokers before and 2 to 3 months after cessation of opium smoking. Potential pathogens were identified. Findings: Eight potential pa...

  16. Smoking cessation in pregnancy: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    Yukiko Miyazaki,1 Kunihiko Hayashi,2 Setsuko Imazeki1 1Faculty of Health Care, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Takasaki, 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Gunma University, Maebashi, Japan Background: Smoking during pregnancy causes obstetric and fetal complications, and smoking cessation may have great benefits for the mother and the child. However, some pregnant women continue smoking even in pregnancy.Objective: To review the literature addressing the prevalence...

  17. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penberthy, J Kim; Penberthy, J Morgan; Harris, Marcus R; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Martinez, Caridad Ponce; Osika, Apule O; Slepian, Zoe A; Forsyth, Justin C; Starr, J Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E; Hook, Joshua N

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1-4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  18. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Penberthy, J. Morgan; Harris, Marcus R.; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Martinez, Caridad Ponce; Osika, Apule O.; Slepian, Zoe A.; Forsyth, Justin C.; Starr, J. Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E.; Hook, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  19. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    , baseline motivation to stop smoking, and having a non-smoking spouse/cohabitant. The same result was obtainedwhen the analyses were repeated separately for smokers with and without motivation to stop. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers motivated to stop are more likely to quit and remain abstinent than smokers with no...... such motivation. Age, social status, spouse/cohabitant's smoking behaviour, and the daily consumption of tobacco predict success in smoking cessation, irrespective of smokers' former motivation to stop....

  20. A Randomized Trial of Targeted Educational Materials for Smoking Cessation in African Americans Using Transdermal Nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Richter, Kim; Choi, Won S.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Resnicow, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of targeted versus standard care smoking cessation materials among urban African American smokers. Five hundred smokers (250 to each group) are randomized to receive a culturally targeted or standard care videotape and print guide. Both groups receive 8 weeks of nicotine patches and reminder telephone calls at…

  1. Exploring Smoking Cessation Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Occupational Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ollie; Fortuna, Grace; Weinsier, Stephanie; Campbell, Kay; Cantrell, Jennifer; Furmanski, William L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore occupational health nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding the delivery of smoking cessation services to workers. The study included 707 members of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) who completed a one-time survey during the fall of 2012. Results indicated that occupational health nurses believed that evidence-based treatments are at least somewhat effective and that they should provide smoking cessation services to their workers; however, a majority of occupational health nurses reported that they did not have appropriate smoking cessation training or guidelines in their workplaces. Occupational health nurses would benefit from training in the use of smoking cessation guidelines and evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, which could be used in their clinical practice. Employers should ensure that workplace policies, such as providing coverage for cessation services, facilitate smokers' efforts to quit. Employers can benefit from many of these policies through cost savings via reduced health care costs and absenteeism. PMID:26187173

  2. Evaluation of a student-run smoking cessation clinic for a medically underserved population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbert Jon O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is common among medically underserved populations. Accessible resources to encourage and support smoking cessation among these patients are limited. Volunteer medical student-run free smoking cessation clinics may provide an effective option to help these individuals achieve smoking abstinence. In order to demonstrate the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a student-run clinic, we analyzed a case series of patients receiving care in a medical student-run Smoking Cessation Clinic (SCC at the Rochester, Minnesota Salvation Army Good Samaritan Health Clinic (GSHC. Findings Between January 2005 and March 2009, 282 cigarette smokers seeking care at the SCC were analyzed. Student providers at the SCC conducted 1652 weekly individual counseling sessions averaging 18 minutes per encounter. Patients were offered a choice of pharmacotherapies including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline for up to 12 weeks. Smoking abstinence was confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide (CO. Thirty-two patients completed the entire 12-week program (11.3%. At last contact, 94 patients (33.3% abstained from smoking for ≥ 7 days and 39 patients (13.8% were continuously abstinent for ≥ 4 weeks. The 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at last contact were 58.6% for varenicline, 41.2% for bupropion, 33.9% for NRT, and 23.5% for bupropion and NRT. Analyzing missing patients as smoking, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates were 7.1%, 8.9%, and 8.2%, at 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after program enrollment, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusions Our medical student-run smoking cessation clinic provided an effective and safe experience for medically underserved patients who might not otherwise have access to conventional smoking cessation programs because of high cost, lack of insurance, or other disparities. Similar medical student initiatives focusing on healthy lifestyles

  3. Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents during Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…

  4. ROLE OF VARENICLINE IN SMOKING CESSATION: INDIAN SCENARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is one of the leading causes of worldwide morbidity as well as mortality which are largely preventable. Smoking cessation, though a difficult task to achieve, can lead to both immediate and long term health benefits such as reduction of the risk of lung cancer, chronic lung disease, stroke etc. This article reviews the various pharmacological interventions of smoking cessation like nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and nortryptiline etc., especially the role of a novel agent Varenicline in reducing nicotine dependence as well as in decreasing craving after nicotine withdrawal that holds promising effectiveness in Indian scenario.

  5. Tobacco smoking cessation management: integrating varenicline in current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Galanti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Laurence M GalantiClinique Universitaire UCL, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Tobacco smoking is widespread and is one of the world’s most prevalent modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is important to facilitate smoking cessation better in order to reduce the health consequences of tobacco use. The most effective approach assisting smokers in their quit attempts combines both pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions. This review summarizes the latest international epidemiological data available on tobacco use, considers the associated effects on health, and reviews existing policies against tobacco use. Among the interventions for smoking cessation, the three major pharmacotherapies (which have demonstrated efficacy when combined with behavioral support are discussed: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline. As the newest pharmacotherapy made available in this area, particular consideration is given to varenicline, and a review of our clinical experience is offered.Keywords: tobacco smoking cessation, nicotinic substitution, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, varenicline

  6. Contributions of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Paiva Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the contribution of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Method Double-blind randomized controlled trial, conducted with 30 smokers allocated into two groups: Experimental Group (21 participants received 10 sessions of auriculotherapy at specific points for smoking and Control Group (nine participants received auriculotherapy in points that have no effect on the focus of research. Results Auriculotherapy contributed in reducing the number of cigarettes smoked in 61.9% of participants (p=0.002, in reducing the difficult to abstain from smoking in places where it is forbidden by 38% (p=0.050 and in not smoking when ill 23.8% (p=0.025. Conclusion Given the efficacy only in terms of reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and other parameters, we suggest that future studies consider the use of auriculotherapy combined with other treatment methods, in order to achieve better results in cessation/abstinence.

  7. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    OpenAIRE

    Heminger CL; Schindler-Ruwisch JM; Abroms LC

    2016-01-01

    Christina L Heminger, Jennifer M Schindler-Ruwisch, Lorien C AbromsDepartment of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Background: Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscap...

  8. Family History of Lung Cancer and Contemplation of Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Madlensky, Lisa; Bousman, Chad A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the United States has decreased, but current rates remain above nationally set objectives. A family history of lung cancer may motivate adult smokers to quit and contribute to further reductions in smoking prevalence. Methods We surveyed adult smokers (N = 838) interviewed as part of the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. We examined the association between family history of lung cancer and smoking cessation precontemplation (no...

  9. Do Smoking Cessation Websites Meet the Needs of Smokers with Severe Mental Illnesses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, Mary F.; Ferron, Joelle C.; Devitt, Timothy; Geiger, Pamela; Martin, Wendy M.; Pratt, Sarah; Santos, Meghan; McHugo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Many people learn about smoking cessation through information on the Internet. Whether people with severe mental illnesses, who have very high rates of smoking, are able to use currently available websites about smoking cessation is unknown. The study reported here assessed whether four smoking cessation websites met usability guidelines and…

  10. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Shinohara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP.

  11. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  12. Smoking cessation: the role of the foot and ankle surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Bevilacqua, Nicholas J

    2010-02-01

    Tobacco cigarette smoking causes many negative effects on the body, and it is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. These negative effects are a concern for the foot and ankle surgeon, as smoking can increase the risk of diabetes and peripheral artery disease and delay healing of surgical incisions and ulcerations of the lower extremities. Tobacco cigarette smoking can also increase the risk of avascular necrosis and delayed union and nonunions of fractures and osteotomies. Smoking cessation is an important component in the overall treatment of conditions affecting the foot and ankle. Smoking cessation can be a difficult goal to achieve, but proper education and support can help patients reach this goal. PMID:20400436

  13. Application of motivational interviewing to prenatal smoking cessation: training and implementation issues

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez, M.; J. Hecht; V. Quinn; Emmons, K; DiClemente, C.; Dolan-Mullen, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Three of the Smoke-Free Families projects incorporated motivational interviewing (MI) into prenatal smoking cessation interventions. This paper describes the process involved in training healthcare providers to use MI and the issues encountered in implementing the protocols.
DESIGN—Health care providers at all three sites attended local training workshops in which they learned to apply the basics of MI to their study protocol. All sites followed a similar outline and schedule for tr...

  14. A Pilot Test of Self-Affirmations to Promote Smoking Cessation in a National Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M.P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Augustson, Erik; Patrick, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. Objective To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention. Methods Data were collected from smokers (n=1261) who subscribed to a free smoking cessation program and met eligibility criteria. The intervention lasted 42 days. The original design was a 2 (Baseline affirmation: 5-item questionnaire present vs absent) × 2 (Integrated affirmation: texts present vs absent) factorial design. Only 17 eligible users completed all baseline affirmation questions and these conditions did not influence any outcomes, so we collapsed across baseline affirmation conditions in analysis. In the integrated affirmation conditions, affirmations replaced approximately 20% of texts delivering motivational content. Results In all, 687 users remained enrolled throughout the 42-day intervention and 81 reported smoking status at day 42. Among initiators (n=1261), self-affirmation did not significantly improve (1) intervention completion, (2) days enrolled, (3) 1-week smoking status, or (4) 6-week smoking status (all Ps>.10); and among the 687 completers, there were no significant effects of affirmation on cessation (Ps>.25). However, among the 81 responders, those who received affirmations were more likely to report cessation at 6 weeks (97.5%; 39 of 40) than those not given affirmations (78.1%; 32 of 41; χ2(1)=7.08, P=.008). Conclusion This proof-of-concept study provides preliminary evidence that self

  15. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest. PMID:25879476

  16. A before-after implementation trial of smoking cessation guidelines in hospitalized veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisinger Heather

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most hospitalized smokers receive some form of cessation counseling during hospitalization, few receive outpatient cessation counseling and/or pharmacotherapy following discharge, which are key factors associated with long-term cessation. US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals are challenged to find resources to implement and maintain the kind of high intensity cessation programs that have been shown to be effective in research studies. Few studies have applied the Chronic Care Model (CCM to improve inpatient smoking cessation. Specific objectives The primary objective of this protocol is to determine the effect of a nurse-initiated intervention, which couples low-intensity inpatient counseling with sustained proactive telephone counseling, on smoking abstinence in hospitalized patients. Key secondary aims are to determine the impact of the intervention on staff nurses' attitudes toward providing smoking cessation counseling; to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in VA hospitals; and to determine the short-term cost-effectiveness of implementing the intervention. Design Pre-post study design in four VA hospitals Participants Hospitalized patients, aged 18 or older, who smoke at least one cigarette per day. Intervention The intervention will include: nurse training in delivery of bedside cessation counseling, electronic medical record tools (to streamline nursing assessment and documentation, to facilitate prescription of pharmacotherapy, computerized referral of motivated inpatients for proactive telephone counseling, and use of internal nursing facilitators to provide coaching to staff nurses practicing in non-critical care inpatient units. Outcomes The primary endpoint is seven-day point prevalence abstinence at six months following hospital admission and prolonged abstinence after a one-month grace period. To compare abstinence rates during the

  17. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  18. The total lifetime health cost savings of smoking cessation to society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte Susanne; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Søgaard, Jes

    2005-01-01

    Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined....

  19. Determinants of smoking status : cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, AJM; Tijhuis, M; Surtees, PG; Ormel, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and women

  20. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Bal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible responding pattern, has yielded successful results.This article presents application of acceptance and commitment therapy step by step to a chronic smoker who quitted smoking at the end of therapy sessions. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 841-846

  1. College smoking-cessation using cell phone text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayer, Jami L; Riley, William T; Asif, Ofer; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2004-01-01

    Although rates of smoking among college-aged students continue to rise, few interventions that focus on college smokers' unique motivations and episodic smoking patterns exist. The authors developed and evaluated a prototype program targeting college students that integrates Web and cell phone technologies to deliver a smoking-cessation intervention. To guide the user through the creation and initialization of an individualized quitting program delivered by means of cell phone text messaging, the program uses assessment tools delivered with the program Web site. Forty-six regular smokers were recruited from local colleges and provided access to the program. At 6-week follow-up, 43% had made at least one 24-hour attempt to quit, and 22% were quit--based on a 7-day prevalence criterion. The findings provide support for using wireless text messages to deliver potentially effective smoking-cessation behavioral interventions to college students. PMID:15495883

  2. Benefits of smoking cessation for coronary heart disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Hidayat

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence increases with age and is frequently higher in the elderly.(1) Therefore prevention of CVD in the elderly through management of risk factors is important in order to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). There are several risk factors of CVD that can be modified, such as smoking, physical activity, and unhealthy diet. Cessation of smoking is the most potent measure to prevent thousands of CVD events and death

  3. Toward an mHealth Intervention for Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, G. M. Tanimul; Addo, Ivor D.; Ahamed, S. Iqbal; Petereit, Daniel; Kanekar, Shalini; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Krebs, Linda U.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of tobacco dependence in the United States (US) remains alarming. Invariably, smoke-related health problems are the leading preventable causes of death in the US. Research has shown that a culturally tailored cessation counseling program can help reduce smoking and other tobacco usage. In this paper, we present a mobile health (mHealth) solution that leverages the Short Message Service (SMS) or text messaging feature of mobile devices to motivate behavior change among tobacco u...

  4. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heminger CL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Christina L Heminger, Jennifer M Schindler-Ruwisch, Lorien C AbromsDepartment of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Background: Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods: A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results: Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion: Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. Keywords: mHealth, smoking cessation, pregnancy, text messaging

  5. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N;

    1999-01-01

    relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount of...

  6. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    46 never smokers (1·9 ng/mL (1·7-2·2)). In smokers randomized to smoking cessation, suPAR levels after 4 weeks of stopping were decreased and no longer significantly different from the never smokers values. SuPAR decreased in both those who received a placebo as well as nicotine patch. Interestingly...

  7. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  8. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion...

  9. The Gold Standard Program for Smoking Cessation is Effective for Participants Over 60 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Kehlet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among the elderly than among the young, and the elderly also have the most frequent contact with the health care system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Program, which is an intensive six-week smoking cessation program, on continuous self-reported abstinence rates after six months, on participants over the age of 60 years in a real life setting. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study from the national Danish smoking cessation database. Results: The database registered 7369 participants over the age of 60 years (range 60–82 and 24,294 below 60 years (range 15–59. Continuous abstinence rate after six months was 37% for the elderly compared to 35% for the younger (p < 0.05. The significant variables for continuous abstinence were: living with another adult (OR 1.10, prior professional recommendation for smoking cessation (OR 1.12, being compliant with program (OR 1.35 and being abstinent at end of course (OR 13.3. Conclusions: Participants over the age of 60 years had significantly higher continuous abstinence rates after six months than the participants less than 60 years. It is never too late for health professionals to recommend and educate patients about smoking cessation programs even if they are over 60 years of age.

  10. Mediators of a smoking cessation intervention for persons living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J.; Kypriotakis, George; Li, Liang; Arduino, Roberto C.; Fletcher, Faith E.; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is a pressing public health concern, and efforts to evaluate cessation treatments are needed. The purpose of the present study was to assess potential mechanisms of a cell phone-delivered intervention for HIV-positive smokers. Methods Data from 350 PLWH enrolled in a randomized smoking cessation treatment trial were utilized. Participants were randomized to either usual care (UC) or a cell phone intervention (CPI) group. The independent variable of interest was treatment group membership, while the dependent variable of interest was smoking abstinence at a 3-month follow-up. The hypothesized treatment mechanisms were depression, anxiety, social support, quit motivation and self-efficacy change scores. Results Abstinence rates in the UC and CPI groups were 4.7% (8 of 172) and 15.7% (28 of 178), respectively. The CPI group (vs. UC) experienced a larger decline in depression between baseline and the 3-month follow-up, and a decline in anxiety. Self-efficacy increased for the CPI group and declined for the UC group. Quit motivation and social support change scores did not differ by treatment group. Only self-efficacy met the predefined criteria for mediation. The effect of the cell phone intervention on smoking abstinence through change in self-efficacy was statistically significant (psmoking cessation for PLWH. Additional efforts are required to disentangle the relationships between emotional, distress motivation, and efficacious smoking cessation treatment. PMID:25542824

  11. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perret JL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Perret,1–3 Billie Bonevski,4 Christine F McDonald,2,3,5 Michael J Abramson6,7 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Institute for Breathing & Sleep, Melbourne, VIC, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, 4School of Medicine & Public Health, University of Newcastle, NSW, 5Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 6School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 7Allergy, Immunology & Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as “lung age” should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large

  12. Smoking cessation and reduction in people with chronic mental illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mollie E

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of cigarette smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality in people with chronic mental illness is well documented. This review summarizes results from studies of smoking cessation treatments in people with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. It also summarizes experimental studies aimed at identifying biopsychosocial mechanisms that underlie the high smoking rates seen in people with these disorders. Research indicates that smokers with chronic mental illness can quit with standard cessation approaches with minimal effects on psychiatric symptoms. Although some studies have noted high relapse rates, longer maintenance on pharmacotherapy reduces rates of relapse without untoward effects on psychiatric symptoms. Similar biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be involved in the initiation and persistence of smoking in patients with different disorders. An appreciation of these common factors may aid the development of novel tobacco treatments for people with chronic mental illness. Novel nicotine and tobacco products such as electronic cigarettes and very low nicotine content cigarettes may also be used to improve smoking cessation rates in people with chronic mental illness. PMID:26391240

  13. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed the...... entire study population, as well as those opting for text messages (n = 1619). In intention-to-treat analysis with multiple imputation of missing data, the odds ratio for 30-day point abstinence was 1.28 (95% CI 0.91-2.08) for the tailored compared with untailored messages. When restricting the analysis...

  14. Comparative and Cost Effectiveness of Telemedicine Versus Telephone Counseling for Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Kimber P.; Shireman, Theresa I.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Cupertino, A. Paula; Catley, Delwyn; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Preacher, Kristopher J; Spaulding, Ryan; Mussulman, Laura M; Nazir, Niaman; Hunt, Jamie J; Lambart, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Background In rural America, cigarette smoking is prevalent and health care providers lack the time and resources to help smokers quit. Telephone quitlines are important avenues for cessation services in rural areas, but they are poorly integrated with local health care resources. Objective The intent of the study was to assess the comparative effectiveness and cost effectiveness of two models for delivering expert tobacco treatment at a distance: telemedicine counseling that was integrated i...

  15. The effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions prior to surgery: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Cropley, M; Theadom, A.; Pravettoni, G; WEBB, G.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions prior to surgery and examine smoking cessation rates at 6 months follow-up. The Cochrane Library Database, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Medline, and Cinahl databases were searched using the terms: smok$, smoking cessation, tobacco, cigar$, preop$, operati$, surg$, randomi*ed control$ trial, intervention, program$, cessation, abstinen$, quit. Further articles were obtained from reference lists. The search wa...

  16. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Harold G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19 in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh] via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA (χ2(3 = 8.068, p fpA (χ2(3 = 8.477, p h (χ2(3 = 37.599, p gpA and d(PfpA lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA, 64% of baseline for d(PfpA, vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh. Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis.

  17. Pilot Cases of Combined Cognitive Processing Therapy and Smoking Cessation for Smokers With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedert, Eric A; Resick, Patricia A; McFall, Miles E; Dennis, Paul A; Olsen, Maren; Beckham, Jean C

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and smoking are often comorbid, and both problems are in need of improved access to evidence-based treatment. The combined approach could address two high-priority problems and increase patient access to both treatments, but research is needed to determine whether this is feasible and has promise for addressing both PTSD and smoking. We collected data from 15 test cases that received a treatment combining two evidence-based treatments: cognitive processing therapy-cognitive version (CPT-C) for PTSD and integrated care for smoking cessation (ICSC). We explored two combined treatment protocols including a brief (six-session) CPT-C with five follow-up in-person sessions focused on smoking cessation (n=9) and a full 12-session CPT-C protocol with ICSC (n=6). The combined interventions were feasible and acceptable to patients with PTSD making a quit attempt. Initial positive benefits of the combined treatments were observed. The six-session dose of CPT-C and smoking cessation resulted in 6-month bioverified smoking abstinence in two of nine participants, with clinically meaningful PTSD symptom reduction in three of nine participants. In the second cohort (full CPT-C and smoking treatment), both smoking and PTSD symptoms were improved, with three of six participants abstinent from smoking and four of six participants reporting clinically meaningful reduction in PTSD symptoms. Results suggested that individuals with PTSD who smoke are willing to engage in concurrent treatment of these problems and that combined treatment is feasible. PMID:26763497

  18. Smoking cessation intervention practices in Chinese physicians: do gender and smoking status matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tai Hing; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Chan, Ya-Fen; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare settings provide a major arena for administering smoking cessation interventions. However, few studies have reported differences in the frequency of practice in healthcare professionals by gender and smoking status. This might also be influenced by a difference in smoking prevalence by gender, especially in China and other developing countries. This study examined factors associated with the frequency of cessation intervention practices by smoking status among Chinese physicians in men and women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2006 in physicians with direct patient contact from nine hospitals in Guangzhou with a response rate of 60.8%. Significantly more female physicians who were non-smokers (79.7%) reported "initiation and/or advice" smoking cessation interventions than male physicians who were smokers (71.2%) and non-smokers (71.6%). Factors significantly associated with "initiation and/or advice" were prior smoking cessation training (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 1.8-9.6) and lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) among male physicians who smoked; and organisational support (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2) and successful past experience (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) among male physicians who did not smoke. Among female physicians who did not smoke, significant factors were agreeing that quitting smoking is the most cost-effective way to prevent chronic disease and cancer (OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.1), helping patients stop smoking is part of expected role and responsibility (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.0-3.7), lack of knowledge to help patients to quit (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) and organisational support (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) for non-smoking female physicians. This study is the first to show that male physicians were less likely to provide smoking cessation counselling regardless of their smoking status while non-smoking female physicians were more active in advising patients on quitting. The findings highlight the need for developing

  19. Smoking cessation advice in consultations with health problems not related to smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Baarts, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    primarily discussed if it posed a particular risk to a particular patient. Smoking cessation advice also occurred in conversations addressing the patient ’ s well-being. If occurring without any other readable frame, smoking cessation advice was apt to be perceived by patients as part of a public campaign....... Conclusions . Relevance criteria in the shape of communication of particular risks to particular patients and small-talk about well-being refl ect the concept of “ frames ” by Goffman. Criteria of relevance limit the number of issues in individual consultations. Relevance criteria may explain why smoking...

  20. Electrocardiographic changes associated with smoking and smoking cessation: outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Gepner

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD can be detected and quantified by analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG; however the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the ECG have not been characterized. METHODS: Standard 12-lead ECGs were performed at baseline and 3 years after subjects enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. ECGs were interpreted using the Minnesota Code ECG Classification. The effects of (i smoking burden on the prevalence of ECG findings at baseline, and (ii smoking and smoking cessation on ECG changes after 3 years were investigated by multivariable and multinomial regression analyses. RESULTS: At baseline, 532 smokers were (mean [SD] 43.3 (11.5 years old, smoked 20.6 (7.9 cigarettes/day, with a smoking burden of 26.7 (18.6 pack-years. Major and minor ECG criteria were identified in 87 (16.4% and 131 (24.6% of subjects, respectively. After adjusting for demographic data and known CVD risk factors, higher pack-years was associated with major ECG abnormalities (p = 0.02, but current cigarettes/day (p = 0.23 was not. After 3 years, 42.9% of subjects were abstinent from smoking. New major and minor ECG criteria were observed in 7.2% and 15.6% of subjects respectively, but in similar numbers of abstinent subjects and continuing smokers (p>0.2 for both. Continuing smokers showed significant reduction in current smoking (-8.4 [8.8] cigarettes/day, p<0.001 compared to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, major ECG abnormalities are independently associated with lifetime smoking burden. After 3 years, smoking cessation was not associated with a decrease in ECG abnormalities, although cigarettes smoked/day decreased among continuing smokers.

  1. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens; Westergaard, Christian G.; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke; Hansen, Lars H.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity. PMID:27391160

  2. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Munck

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.

  3. Pilot Mobile Smoking Cessation Program Reaches Underserved — Increases Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Barouh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a pilot mobile smoking cessation programthat occurred between 2007 and 2009 across two suburban New Yorkcounties, serving 1,263 individuals. The program was designed andcarried out with three objectives: (a to assess and reduce a potential service disparity faced by adult smokers in heavily disadvantaged communities—including people marginalized by homelessness, economic distress, lack of transportation, alcoholism / drug addiction, mental illness, and/or HIV; (b to use evidence-based methods to promote smoking cessation and reduction among such adults in 14 specific lowincome Long Island, NY areas; (c to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the program’s mobile service modality. Results of this pilot program show that meaningful percentages of the target population had: (1 never encountered a smoking cessation message prior to engagement with thismobile program (38%; (2 a demonstrated desire to quit smoking despite the heightened stresses in their lives that other people don’t face, and (3 a demonstrated ability to quit or reduce smoking when given help in a form (including mobile service that works for them. This paper concludes that Stakeholders and Policymakers in this and/or similar jurisdications would benefit from uniting to fund and design an extended mobile service delivery and data-gathering project that serves a greater number of at-risk/ multi-disadvantaged people, while seeking to quantify the financialsavings to the community that results from helping disadvantaged people to: (1 quit smoking and (2 become linked to affordable doctors for regular check-ups. This pilot program demonstrated a positive social justice impact and suggests a possible parallel positive financial impact on the community worthy of exploration.

  4. Intervention to assess and improve the knowledge and attitudes of health professionals in brief counseling for smoking cessation: The B.O.A.T program (Brief Opportunistic Advice Training Program for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Kikkini-Paschou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Health care professionals can contribute to controlling the epidemic of smoking by applying brief counseling for smoking cessation in clinical practice. Purpose: The program B.O.A.T was implemented to increase knowledge and enhance health professionals’ attitudes on the brief counseling for smoking cessation. The purpose of the intervention was to enforce participants' intention to implement counseling. Material and Method: The research project was a pretest-posttest equivalent groups design. The sample consisted of 33 health professionals of various specialties. The intervention consisted of a two-hour training course and distribution of printed material. Attitudes, subjective norm, perceived control and intention of health professionals were measured, regarding the counseling in smoking cessation. Results: Statistical analysis showed an increase of perceived control in the experimental group (p = 0.031 and increase of its intention to implement smoking cessation counseling compared to the comparison group (p = 0.003. There was no difference between and within groups before and after the intervention for the variables of attitudes and subjective norm. The evaluation also showed an increase of knowledge in the experimental group. Conclusion: This study reinforces the current literature which supports that training health professionals on smoking cessation counseling can be effective. The theoretical background turns out to be important. In the future more time and resources should be invested to increase effectiveness and efficiency of such programs.

  5. Comparative analysis of smoking cessation smartphone applications available in 2012 versus 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ubhi, H. K.; Kotz, D; Michie, S; van Schayck, O. C.; Sheard, D.; Selladurai, A.; West, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Smartphone applications (apps) offer a potentially cost-effective and a wide-reach aid to smoking cessation. In 2012, a content analysis of smoking cessation apps suggested that most apps did not adopt behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which according to previous research had suggested would promote higher success rates in quitting smoking. This study examined whether or not, this situation had changed by 2014 for free smoking cessation apps available in the Apple App S...

  6. Comparative analysis of smoking cessation smartphone applications available in 2012 versus 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; Onno C P van Schayck; Sheard, David; Selladurai, Abiram; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Smartphone applications (apps) offer a potentially cost-effective and a wide-reach aid to smoking cessation. In 2012, a content analysis of smoking cessation apps suggested that most apps did not adopt behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which according to previous research had suggested would promote higher success rates in quitting smoking. This study examined whether or not, this situation had changed by 2014 for free smoking cessation apps available in the Apple App St...

  7. Smoking among female arrestees: prevalence of daily smoking and smoking cessation efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrah, Tracy L; Rosenberg, Terry J

    2004-07-01

    Prior research on smoking in the criminal justice system has focused on men. This study examines smoking behavior among female arrestees in New York City (NYC). The sample includes 836 women interviewed as part of the Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) Program. Questionnaire items analyzed here include the use of licit and illicit substances, current pregnancy, childbearing history, demographics, age at smoking initiation, daily smoking, dependency on tobacco, and quit attempts. Bivariate techniques and logistic regression analyses were used. Fully 71% of all women and 64% of pregnant women were daily smokers. Recent cocaine or heroin users were the most likely to be daily smokers (84% and 92%). Among daily smokers, nearly a third had ever tried to cut down or quit. In the regressions, Latinas were more likely to have tried to quit; recent heroin users and women who had ever felt dependent on tobacco were the least likely to have tried. The authors strongly recommend that female inmates are prime candidates for smoking cessation counseling. PMID:15219351

  8. Systematic critical review of previous economic evaluations of smoking cessation during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Matthew; Lewis, Sarah; Parrott, Steve; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify and critically assess previous economic evaluations of smoking cessation interventions delivered during pregnancy. Design: Qualitative review of studies with primary data collection or hypothetical modelling. Quality assessed using the Quality of Health Economic Studies checklist. Data sources: Electronic search of 13 databases including Medline, Econlit, Embase, and PubMed, and manual search of the UK's National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guideline...

  9. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 Cell Expression upon Smoking Cessation in Mice with Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Chao Duan; Hai-Juan Tang; Xiao-Ning Zhong; Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm)...

  10. Estimating the probabilities of making a smoking quit attempt in Italy: stall in smoking cessation levels, 1986-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreras Giulia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data on annual smoking cessation probability (i.e., the probability of successfully quit in a given year are available for Italy at a population level. Mathematical models typically used to estimate smoking cessation probabilities do not account for smoking relapse. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model to estimate annual quitting probabilities, taking into account smoking relapse and time since cessation. Methods We developed a dynamic model describing the evolution of current, former, and never smokers. We estimated probabilities of smoking cessation by fitting the model with observed smoking prevalence in Italy, 1986-2009. Results Annual cessation probabilities were higher than 5% only in elderly persons and in women aged Conclusions Over the last 20 years, cessation probabilities among Italian smokers, particularly for those aged 30-59 years, have been very low and stalled. Quitting in Italy is considered as a practicable strategy only by women in the age of pregnancy and by elderly persons, when it’s likely that symptoms of tobacco-related diseases have already appeared. In order to increase cessation probabilities, smoking cessation treatment policies (introducing total reimbursement of cessation treatments, with a further development of quitlines and smoking cessation services should be empowered and a country-wide mass media campaign targeting smokers aged 30-59 years and focusing on promotion of quitting should be implemented.

  11. Effect of Smoking on Joint Replacement Outcomes: Opportunities for Improvement Through Preoperative Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Erik; Tzeng, Tony H; Ginnetti, Michael; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Jamal K; Saleh, Jasmine; Lane, J M; Mihalko, William M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-01-01

    Because orthopaedic surgeons focus on identifying serious potential complications, such as heart attack, stroke, and deep vein thrombosis, during the preoperative assessment, correctable factors, such as smoking, may be overlooked. Chronic exposure to nicotine has been correlated with perioperative complications that lead to worse outcomes, including decreased patient satisfaction, longer hospitalization periods, and an increased rate of hospital readmission. It has been proven that smoking is a negative risk factor for decreased bone mineral density, which leads to increased fracture risk, heightened pain, postoperative wound and bone healing complications, decreased fusion rates, and postoperative tendon and ligament healing complications. Physician-led preoperative smoking cessation programs that include, but are not limited to, pharmacotherapy plans have been shown to improve primary surgical outcomes and smoking cessation rates. Smoking has detrimental effects on specialty-specific physiology; however, there are many effective options for intervention that can improve primary outcomes. PMID:27049216

  12. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece Robin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during

  13. A pilot study combining individual-based smoking cessation counseling, pharmacotherapy, and dental hygiene intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madrid Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentists are in a unique position to advise smokers to quit by providing effective counseling on the various aspects of tobacco-induced diseases. The present study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of integrating dentists in a medical smoking cessation intervention. Methods Smokers willing to quit underwent an 8-week smoking cessation intervention combining individual-based counseling and nicotine replacement therapy and/or bupropion, provided by a general internist. In addition, a dentist performed a dental exam, followed by an oral hygiene treatment and gave information about chronic effects of smoking on oral health. Outcomes were acceptability, global satisfaction of the dentist's intervention, and smoking abstinence at 6-month. Results 39 adult smokers were included, and 27 (69% completed the study. Global acceptability of the dental intervention was very high (94% yes, 6% mostly yes. Annoyances at the dental exam were described as acceptable by participants (61% yes, 23% mostly yes, 6%, mostly no, 10% no. Participants provided very positive qualitative comments about the dentist counseling, the oral exam, and the resulting motivational effect, emphasizing the feeling of oral cleanliness and health that encouraged smoking abstinence. At the end of the intervention (week 8, 17 (44% participants reported smoking abstinence. After 6 months, 6 (15%, 95% CI 3.5 to 27.2 reported a confirmed continuous smoking abstinence. Discussion We explored a new multi-disciplinary approach to smoking cessation, which included medical and dental interventions. Despite the small sample size and non-controlled study design, the observed rate was similar to that found in standard medical care. In terms of acceptability and feasibility, our results support further investigations in this field. Trial Registration number ISRCTN67470159

  14. Training Pediatric Residents to Provide Smoking Cessation Counseling to Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Collins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation educational program on pediatric residents' counseling. Residents were randomly selected to receive the intervention. Residents who were trained were compared to untrained residents. Self-reported surveys and patient chart reviews were used. Measures included changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents, and differences in chart documentation and caretaker-reported physician counseling behaviors. The intervention was multidimensional including a didactic presentation, a problem-solving session, clinic reminders, and provision of patient education materials. Results showed that residents who were trained were more likely to ask about tobacco use in their patients' households. They were also more likely to advise caretakers to cut down on or to quit smoking, to help set a quit date, and to follow up on the advice given at a subsequent visit. Trained residents were more likely to record a history of passive tobacco exposure in the medical record. These residents also reported improved confidence in their counseling skills and documented that they had done such counseling more often than did untrained residents. Caretakers of pediatric patients who smoke seen by intervention residents were more likely to report that they had received tobacco counseling. Following this intervention, pediatric residents significantly improved their behaviors, attitudes, and confidence in providing smoking cessation counseling to parents of their pediatric patients.

  15. A Qualitative Study on the Greek Health Professionals' Role in Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrisanthy Sotiriadou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to explore Greek health professionals’ attitudes and perceptions regarding their role as health promoters in assisting pregnant smokers to quit smoking during their pregnancy.Methodology: The sample consisted of 28 health care providers with a wide range of clinical experience in Greek primary health care. The data was gathered using semi-structured interviews. Some of the important topics discussed were the health professionals’ awareness of sensitive and delicate issues; smoking during pregnancy, the Greek health care personnel’s training on counselling and on approaching pregnant smokers, and reasons and barriers that health professionals cite for not offering advice to pregnant smokers.Results: The study indicated that little is done in the area of health promotion and health education regarding smoking cessation during pregnancy. Various attempts by private or public services are isolated and mainly opportunistic, without offering anything important in the Greek community.

  16. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in venti

  17. Cigarette smoking and smoking cessation in relation to risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Whereas the overall association between smoking and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) must be regarded as established, considerably less is known about how much smoking is needed to increase the risk of RA, that is, the effect of smoking intensity, duration and cessation. Methods The Swedish Mammography Cohort, including 34,101 women aged 54 to 89 years, was followed up from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2010 (219 RA cases identified). Relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated as rate ratios using Cox proportional hazards model. Results There was a statistically significant association between smoking intensity (RR comparing 1 to 7 cigarettes/day vs never smoking 2.31 (95% CI: 1.59, 3.36)) as well as duration of smoking (comparing 1 to 25 years vs never smoking RR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.38)) and risk of RA. Compared to never smokers, the risk was still significantly elevated 15 years after smoking cessation (RR = 1.99 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.20)). However, among former smokers, the risk of RA seemed to be decreasing over time since stopping smoking: women who stopped smoking 15 years before the start of the follow-up had 30% lower risk of RA compared to those who stopped only a year before start of the follow-up (RR = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.24,2.02)). Conclusions This prospective study highlights that even light cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of RA in women and that smoking cessation may reduce, though not remove, this risk. PMID:23607815

  18. Predictors of smoking cessation and duration: Implication for smoking prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Meamar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : The above results suggest that there are a significant association between socio-demographic factors and smoking-related behaviors in the Iranian population, consistent with previous reports world-wide. These factors should be considered to have appropriate public-health and policy response.

  19. Physicians discuss the risks of smoking with their patients, but seldom offer practical cessation support

    OpenAIRE

    Keto, Jaana; Jokelainen, Jari; Timonen, Markku; Linden, Kari; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to study the smoking cessation-related 1) attitudes & experiences and 2) consultation practices of Finnish physicians and to determine if there is a relationship between the two. Methods An online survey on smoking cessation was sent to 39 % of all Finnish physicians, with emphasis on physicians working in fields relevant to smoking cessation. A total of 1141 physicians (response rate 15 %) responded to the online survey, 53 % of whom were employed in primary health car...

  20. Cost-Utility Analysis of Varenicline, an Oral Smoking-Cessation Drug, in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ataru Igarashi; Hiroki Takuma; Takashi Fukuda; Kiichiro Tsutani

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a cost-utility analysis of two 12-week smoking-cessation interventions in Japan: smoking-cessation counselling by a physician compared with use of varenicline, an oral smoking-cessation drug, in addition to counselling. Abstract: Methods: A Markov model was constructed to analyse lifetime medical costs and QALYs from the perspective of the healthcare payer. The cycle length was 5 years. Both costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. The cohort of smokers was class...

  1. Physician-Based Tobacco Smoking Cessation Counseling in Belgrade, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray; Harmon, Tanner; Gagon, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physician attitudes and practices pertaining to patient counseling about smoking in Belgrade, Serbia. Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey of 86 physicians at multiple health care facilities. Approximately 74% of physicians agreed that they should routinely ask patients about their smoking habits and 79% agreed…

  2. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian; Helby, Jens; Westergaard, Christian G;

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma w....... We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity....

  3. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction in Denmark 1976-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Osler, M; Vestbo, J;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effects of smoking reduction and smoking cessation on incidence of myocardial infarction after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with record linkage to mortality and hospital registers. The association of individual ...... controlling for baseline illness in different ways. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation in healthy people reduces the risk of a subsequent myocardial infarction, whereas this study provides no evidence of benefit from reduction in the amount smoked....

  4. 'The smoking toolkit study': a national study of smoking and smoking cessation in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangeli Eleni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up-to-date data tracking of national smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour is required to evaluate and inform tobacco control strategies. The Smoking Toolkit Study (STS was designed for this role. This paper describes the methodology of the STS and examines as far as possible the representativeness of the samples. Methods The STS consists of monthly, cross sectional household interviews of adults aged 16 and over in England with smokers and recent ex-smokers in each monthly wave followed up by postal questionnaires three and six months later. Between November 2006 and December 2010 the baseline survey was completed by 90,568 participants. STS demographic, prevalence and cigarette consumption estimates are compared with those from the Health Survey for England (HSE and the General Lifestyle Survey (GLF for 2007-2009. Results Smoking prevalence estimates of all the surveys were similar from 2008 onwards (e.g 2008 STS = 22.0%, 95% C.I. = 21.4% to 22.6%, HSE = 21.7%, 95% C.I. = 20.9% to 22.6%, GLF = 20.8%, 95% C.I. = 19.7% to 21.9%, although there was heterogeneity in 2007 (chi-square = 50.30, p Conclusion There is reason to believe that the STS findings (see http://www.smokinginengland.info are generalisable to the adult population of England.

  5. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention. PMID:26264661

  6. Bupropion SR and Contingency Management for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Kevin M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Hartwell, Karen J.; Lewis, A. Lee; Hiott, D. Walter; Deas, Deborah; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant need for evidence-based treatments for adolescent smoking cessation. Prior research, though limited, has suggested potential roles for bupropion SR and contingency management (CM), but no previous studies have assessed their combined effect. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 134 adolescent smokers were randomized to receive a 6-week course of bupropion SR + CM, bupropion SR + non-CM, placebo + CM, or placebo + non-CM, with final follow-up at 12 weeks. The pr...

  7. Compliance and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Program Started on Hospitalized Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gun Hee; Yi, Sung Won; Park, Eal Whan; Choi, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Varenicline is now very useful medication for cessation; however, there is only little result of researches with varenicline for cessation of hospitalized patients. This research attempted to analyze the cessation effect of medication and compliance of hospitalized patients. Methods This research included data for 52 patients who were prescribed varenicline among 280 patients who were consulted for cessation during their admission period. This research checked whether smoking was stopped or not after six months and analyzed their compliance, the factors for succeeding in smoking cessation. Results One hundred and ninety hospitalized patients participated in smoking cessation counseling among 280 patients who included consultation from their admission departments. And varenicline was prescribed for only 80 patients after counseling. Nineteen smokers were successful in smoking cessation among 52 final participants representing the rating of success of 36.5%. The linkage between compliance of varenicline and rate of smoking successful has no statistical significance. The factors for succeeding in smoking of hospitalized patients are admission departments, diseases, and economic states. Conclusion Smoking cessation program has low inpatient compliance. Cooperation of each departments is very important for better compliance. Success rate of cessation was relatively high (36.5%). Cessation attempt during hospitalization is very effective strategy.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment initiated during psychiatric hospitalization: analysis from a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Paul G.; Wong, Wynnie; Jeffers, Abra; Hall, Sharon M.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment for psychiatric inpatients. Method Smokers, regardless of intention to quit, were recruited during psychiatric hospitalization and randomized to receive stage-based smoking cessation services or usual aftercare. Smoking cessation services, quality of life, and biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes were assessed during 18-months of follow-up. Trial findings were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the age and gender adjusted effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and quality of life in a Markov model of cost-effectiveness during a lifetime horizon. Results Among 223 smokers randomized between 2006 and 2008, the mean cost of smoking cessation services was $189 in the experimental treatment group and $37 in the usual care condition (p < 0.001). At the end of follow-up, 18.75% of the experimental group was abstinent from cigarettes, compared to 6.80% abstinence in the usual care group (p <0.05). The model projected that the intervention added $43 in lifetime cost and generated 0.101 additional Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $428 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found the experimental intervention was cost-effective against the acceptance criteria of $50,000/QALY in 99.0% of the replicates. Conclusions A cessation intervention for smokers identified in psychiatric hospitalization did not result in higher mental health care costs in the short-run and was highly cost-effective over the long-term. The stage-based intervention was a feasible and cost-effective way of addressing the high smoking prevalence in persons with serious mental illness. PMID:26528651

  9. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmee Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking.A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success.The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation.A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  10. Evidence Suggests That The ACA's Tobacco Surcharges Reduced Insurance Take-Up And Did Not Increase Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Abigail S; Schpero, William L; Busch, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    To account for tobacco users' excess health care costs and encourage cessation, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) allowed insurers to impose a surcharge on tobacco users' premiums for plans offered on the health insurance exchanges, or Marketplaces. Low-income tax credits for Marketplace coverage were based on premiums for non-tobacco users, which means that these credits did not offset any surcharge costs. Thus, this policy greatly increased out-of-pocket premiums for many tobacco users. Using data for 2011-14 from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we examined the effect of tobacco surcharges on insurance status and smoking cessation in the first year of the exchanges' implementation, among adults most likely to purchase insurance from them. Relative to smokers who faced no surcharges, smokers facing medium or high surcharges had significantly reduced coverage (reductions of 4.3 percentage points and 11.6 percentage points, respectively), but no significant differences in smoking cessation. In contrast, those facing low surcharges showed significantly less smoking cessation. Taken together, these findings suggest that tobacco surcharges conflicted with a major goal of the ACA-increased financial protection-without increasing smoking cessation. States should consider these potential effects when deciding whether to limit surcharges to less than the federal maximum. PMID:27385231

  11. Smoking cessation and mortality trends among two United States populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstrom, J E

    1999-09-01

    The long-term impact of smoking cessation on mortality is assessed among two U.S. populations: a large cohort of U.S. veterans aged 55-64 at entry and followed from 1954 through 1979 and the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS) cohort of a national sample of U.S. adults aged 55-74 at entry and followed from 1971 through 1992. Direct and indirect survey data indicate that 50-70% of those who were current cigarette smokers at entry had quit smoking during the 19- to 26-year follow-up periods. The impact of smoking cessation on mortality among the cigarette smokers as a whole has been assessed by determining the time trend of the relative risk (RR) of death and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the cigarette smokers compared with never-smokers over the entire follow-up period in both cohorts. The total death rates for the 1954/57 U.S. veteran smokers as a whole (63,159 males) have converged only slightly toward those of never-smokers, from RR = 1.65 (1.58-1.72) during 1954-1959 to RR = 1.61 (1.58-1.63) during 1954-1979. The lung cancer death rates for 1954/57 smokers as a whole have not converged toward those of never-smokers, with RR = 10.89 (7.70-15.41) during 1954-1959 and RR = 11.10 (9.78-12.61) during 1954-1979. The total death rates for the 1971-1975 NHEFS smokers as a whole (694 males and 1116 females) have not converged toward those of never-smokers. For males, RR = 1.92 (1.46-2.52) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.96 (1.63-2.36) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 1.79 (1.31-2.46) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.79 (1.47-2.17) during 1971-1992. The lung cancer death rates have diverged, based on small numbers of deaths. For males, RR = 15.76 (2.06-120.61) during 1971-1982 and RR = 22.20 (5.31-92.92) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 2.92 (0.57-15.06) during 1971-1982 and RR = 4.74 (1.94-11.59) during 1971-1992. These trends are contrary to the substantial convergence predicted by the death rate trends among U.S. veterans who were former smokers at the

  12. Characteristics of smoking cessation in former smokers in a rural area of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshi Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Personal health concerns in former smokers in Nanao, Japan were the predominant motivation for quitting smoking, with the vast majority of former smokers achieving successful smoking cessation by themselves.

  13. Pragmatic, observational study of bupropion treatment for smoking cessation in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkes, S; Evans, A; Henderson, M.; Gibson, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking remains the single largest cause of premature death in the United Kingdom. As part of the government's national service framework for coronary heart disease, smoking cessation forms a key part of the strategy.

  14. An evaluation study of a gender-specific smoking cessation program to help Hong Kong Chinese women quit smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Wan, Zoe Siu Fung; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a lack of population-based smoking cessation interventions targeting woman smokers in Hong Kong, and in Asia generally. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a gender-specific smoking cessation program for female smokers in Hong Kong. Methods To evaluate the effectiveness of the service, a total of 457 eligible smokers were recruited. After the baseline questionnaire had been completed, a cessation counseling intervention was given by a trained counselor accord...

  15. Teen smoking cessation help via the Internet: a survey of search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens. PMID:14610996

  16. Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy (LEAP trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussher Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women try to stop smoking in pregnancy but fail. One difficulty is that there is insufficient evidence that medications for smoking cessation are effective and safe in pregnancy and thus many women prefer to avoid these. Physical activity (PA interventions may assist cessation; however, trials examining these interventions have been too small to detect or exclude plausible beneficial effects. The London Exercise And Pregnant smokers (LEAP trial is investigating whether a PA intervention is effective and cost-effective when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women, and will be the largest study of its kind to date. Methods/design The LEAP study is a pragmatic, multi-center, two-arm, randomized, controlled trial that will target pregnant women who smoke at least one cigarette a day (and at least five cigarettes a day before pregnancy, and are between 10 and 24 weeks pregnant. Eligible patients are individually randomized to either usual care (that is, behavioral support for smoking cessation or usual care plus a intervention (entailing supervised exercise on a treadmill plus PA consultations. The primary outcome of the trial is self-reported and biochemically validated continuous abstinence from smoking between a specified quit date and the end of pregnancy. The secondary outcomes, measured at 1 and 4 weeks after the quit date, and at the end of pregnancy and 6 months after childbirth, are PA levels, depression, self-confidence, and cigarette withdrawal symptoms. Smoking status will also be self-reported at 6 months after childbirth. In addition, perinatal measures will be collected, including antenatal complications, duration of labor, mode of delivery, and birth and placental weight. Outcomes will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and logistic regression models used to compare treatment effects on the primary outcome. Discussion This trial will assess whether a PA intervention is effective when used for

  17. Bronchial Responsiveness and Lung Function Related to Cigarette Smoking and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shieh Ching Yang

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationships between bronchial responsiveness and both cigarette smokingand smoking cessation are still controversial.Methods: To investigate the effects of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation onbronchial reactivity and the level of pulmonary function, bronchial responsivenessto methacholine using the forced oscillation method, the transferfactor, and spirometry were measured in 180 nonsmokers, 109 current smokers,and 82 ex-smokers. The following indices of bronchial responsivenesswere used: (1 baseline respiratory resistance (Rrs; (2 the cumulative doseof methacholine (DA causing an increase in Rrs by twice the baseline values(bronchial sensitivity; and (3 the slope of linearly decreased respiratoryconductance (SGrs representing bronchial reactivity.Results: Current smokers had significantly higher baseline Rrs ( p < 0.001 andbronchial responsiveness than did nonsmokers and ex-smokers. In 24.7% ofsmokers, Rrs increased by twice or more upon challenge with methacholine(responders, compared with 0% of nonsmokers ( p < 0.0001 and 19.5% ofex-smokers ( p = 0.28. SGrs for responders among ex-smokers was foundnot to differ from that for responders among smokers. However, smokershad a significantly lower DA of inhaled methacholine than did ex-smokers.Cigarette smoking was also associated with an appreciable reduction inFEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1s/forced vital capacity, DLCO(carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and DLCO/VA (alveolar volume.Conclusion: There seems to be a partially reversible phenomenon that leads to improvementin airway responsiveness and DLCO upon smoking cessation.

  18. Assessment of effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners in India: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Sachin; Khanagar, Sanjeev; Kumar, Amit; Ramachandra, Sujith; Vadavadagi, Sunil V.; Dhananjaya, Kiran Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking is an integral part of prison life and an established part of the culture. Little attention has been paid to prevention of smoking in prison. Approximately 70–80% of prisoners have been identified as current smokers. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. Aim: To assess the effectiveness of smoking cessation intervention among male prisoners at Central Jail, Bangalore city. Materials ...

  19. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, David; Sadr Azodi, Omid; Wladis, Andreas; Tønnesen, Hanne; Linder, Stefan; Nåsell, Hans; Ponzer, Sari; Adami, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications.......To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications....

  20. Brief preoperative smoking cessation counselling in relation to breast cancer surgery: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Samuelsen, Susanne;

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe how women smokers with newly diagnosed breast cancer experienced brief preoperative smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery. BACKGROUND: Preoperative smoking cessation intervention is relevant for short- and long-term risk reduction in newly diagnosed ...

  1. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  2. Comparing the Efficacy of Two Internet-Based, Computer-Tailored Smoking Cessation Programs: A Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Background Online computer-tailored smoking cessation programs have not yet been compared directly. Objective To compare the efficacy of two Internet-based, computer-tailored smoking cessation programs. Methods Randomized controlled trial conducted in 2003-2004. Visitors to a smoking cessation website were randomly assigned to either an original online, interactive smoking cessation program or to a modified program. Both programs consisted of tailored, personalized counseling letters based on...

  3. Validation of smoking cessation self-reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander R Hilberink

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sander R Hilberink1, Johanna E Jacobs1, Sanne van Opstal2, Trudy van der Weijden2, Janine Keegstra1, Pascal LJ Kempers3, Jean WM Muris2, Richard PTM Grol1, Hein de Vries41IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, Research Institute CAPHRI, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 3Department of Health Risk, Analysis and Toxicology, 4Department of Health Promotion and Health, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The NetherlandsPurpose: The present study reports on the biochemical validation of the self-reported smoking status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The objective is to establish the proportion of overestimation of self-reported success rates.Methods: A cross-sectional smoking-status validation study including 60 patients with COPD who reported that they had stopped smoking. In the analysis of urine samples, a cut-off point of 50 ng/mL of cotinine was used.Results: At the time of biochemical validation, 55 patients reported that they had quit smoking while five patients resumed smoking. Smoking status was biochemically confirmed for 43 patients (78% and 12 patients (22% were classified as smokers. The sensitivity of the self-report of smoking was 29% and the specificity was 100%.Conclusion: Many primary care patients with COPD do not provide valid information on their smoking status, which hamper adequate therapeutic interventions. Integration of biochemical validation in daily care could overcome this problem, but may harm the doctor–patient relationship.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking cessation, biochemical validation, general practice, outcome measurement

  4. Determinants of smoking and smoking cessation among health professionals in Serbia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstev Srmena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bearing in mind a high smoking prevalence in Serbia (34% in adult population; men 38%, women 30% and leading role of health professionals in intervention and prevention, a cross-sectional study was performed smong the representative sample of health professionals in Serbia. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of smoking and smoking cessation prior to the total smoking ban in November 2010. Methods. In this nationwide study, 3,084 physicians and nurses from 4 types of institutions and four geographical regions were selected and 2,282 included (response rate 74.0%. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Standard statistical methods were used to calculate prevalence rates, and multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate independent predictors of smoking pattern. Risks were expressed as odds ratios (OR which represent approximation of relative risks of exposed persons with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results. We found a high smoking prevalence of 38.0%, the same for women and men (37.8% and 37.6%, respectively; p = 0.138, higher among nurses (41.7% than physicians (29.1% (p = 0.000, as well as among those employed in general hospitals (42.6% and institutes of public health (43.8% (p = 0.000. Significantly increased risk of being an ever or current smoker was noticed for nurses (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.42-2.14; and OR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.52-2.40, respectively, those employed in general hospitals (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.73 and OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.09-1.79, respectively, and with worse self-estimated health (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.02-1.30; and OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34, respectively. Intentions to quit smoking or to reduce the number of cigarettes were more frequent in women (OR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.01-2.27 and participants who worse evaluated their health (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.39- 2.18. Conclusion. High smoking prevalence in health professionals could be a barrier for the full implementation of

  5. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Leung Lawrence; Neufeld Troy; Marin Scott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear) acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting pa...

  6. Smoking cessation interventions involving significant others: the role of social support

    OpenAIRE

    Shahab, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that the social environment influences smoking initiation, maintenance as well as cessation. This effect, in particular on stopping smoking, is likely to be partly mediated by social support that is provided to smokers by significant others. Indeed, observational studies investigating the natural progression towards smoking cessation show that social support is clearly associated with abstinence – positive social support generally increasing the likelihood of succ...

  7. Effect of Acupuncture on Smoking Cessation and Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking, and chronic neck and shoulder pain are major public health problems in the modern society, and both lack effective treatments. This thesis presents two trials focusing on acupuncture as a treatment for these two problems. Objectives Study A was undertaken to examine the effects of acupuncture on smoking reduction and cessation, and to examine whether some ‘real’ acupoints are more effective than ‘sham’ acupoints for smoking cessation. An additional aim was to examine w...

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Smoking Cessation Interventions in Japan Using a Discrete-Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Igarashi, Ataru; Goto,Rei; Suwa, Kiyomi; Yoshikawa, Reiko; Ward, Alexandra J; Moller, Jörgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation medications have been shown to yield higher success rates and sustained abstinence than unassisted quit attempts. In Japan, the treatments available include nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and varenicline; however, unassisted attempts to quit smoking remain common. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the health and economic consequences in Japan of using pharmacotherapy to support smoking cessation with unassisted attempts and the current mix o...

  9. Issues Related to Implementing a Smoking Cessation Clinical Trial for Cancer Patients1

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Elisa; Tatum, Kristina L.; Weber, Dorothy M.; Kuzla, Natalie; Pendley, Anna B.S.; Campbell, Kirsten; Ridge, John A; Langer, Corey; Miyamoto, Curtis; Schnoll, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Given high rates of smoking among cancer patients, smoking cessation treatment is crucial, yet limited data exist to guide integration of such trials into the oncologic context. To determine the feasibility of conducting smoking cessation clinical trials with cancer patients, screening and baseline data from a large randomized placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy trial were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used to compare enrollees to decliners, describe program enr...

  10. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopa Krzysztof

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Polish male prisoners, factors determining smoking in this group, prisoners' attitudes towards smoking cessation, and to evaluate prisoners' perception of different anti-tobacco measures. Methods An anonymous questionnaire including personal, demographic and smoking data was distributed among 944 male inmates. Of these, 907 men aged between 17 and 62 years (mean 32.3 years met the inclusion criteria of the study. For the comparison of proportions, a chi-square test was used with continuity correction whenever appropriate. Results In the entire group, 81% of the subjects were smokers, 12% – ex-smokers, and 7% – never smokers. Current smokers had significantly lower education level than non-smokers (p Conclusion The prevalence of cigarette smoking among Polish prisoners is high. However, a majority of smokers attempt to quit, and they should be encouraged and supported. Efforts to reduce cigarette smoking in prisons need to take into consideration the specific factors influencing smoking habits in prisons.

  11. Effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation of rats with chronic bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-yun; HUANG Shao-guang; WAN Huan-ying; WU Hua-cheng; ZHOU Tong; LI Min; DENG Wei-wu

    2007-01-01

    Background Smoking is the major cause of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and smoking cessation is regarded as one of the important strategies for prevention and treatment of the inflammation.The inflammation of the chronic airway may be present and deteriorated even if the COPD patients stop smoking.Whether and how early smoking cessation affects the progress of inflammation is still obscure. This study was conducted to find the appropriate time for smoking cessation to terminate the airway inflammation in rats with smoke-induced chronic bronchitis.Methods A rat model of COPD was established by passively inhaling smoke mixture. Fifty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups with different periods of smoke exposure and different time points of cessation. The inflammation markers to be detected included inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the myeloperoxidose (MPO) activity, the morphologic changes and the expression of ICAM-1 on the airway epithelium.Results When smoking was terminated at early stage, the inflammatory markers and related indexes were different from those of the typical chronic bronchitis group (group M7) (P<0.01). The pathologic score of group SC7 (2 weeks of smoking cessation after occurrence of typical chronic bronchitis ) was not different from that of group M7, and the level of ICAM-1 was still up-regulated (compared to group M7, P>0.05). Meanwhile, most of inflammatory cells in BALF were neutrophils compared to other groups (P<0.01).When smoking was terminated, the MPO activity was significantly lower than that of group M7 (P<0.01).Conclusions Smoking cessation at early stage can effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction of COPD. Once chronic bronchitis occurs, little could be improved by smoking cessation.

  12. A Critical Review of Repurposing Apomorphine for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rosado, Joel A; Cousin, Margot A; Ebbert, Jon O; Klee, Eric W

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use disorder is the leading cause of preventable death and disability in the United States, with one in five Americans currently smoking cigarettes. Only two non-nicotine medications are FDA approved for treating tobacco use disorder, and advances in drug discovery are profoundly outpaced by the morbidity and mortality caused by tobacco dependence. Drug repurposing may provide an approach for addressing this health hazard, offering hope to tobacco users attempting to quit who have failed existing therapies. The focus of this review is to evaluate the potential role of apomorphine (APO) in treating tobacco dependence. Previously described in the literature as a non-specific dopamine agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease and erectile dysfunction, APO's dopaminergic targeting activity may be effective in counteracting the modified response arising from tobacco use. Here, the literature describing APO's activity is reviewed and presented in the context of known nicotine-induced response in neurotransmitter systems. Based on these data, whether APO may be an effective smoking cessation agent by ameliorating a tobacco user's anhedonic state is critically appraised, along with withdrawal symptoms and the chemical reinforcement associated with drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:26690764

  13. CYP2B6 and bupropion’s smoking cessation pharmacology: the role of hydroxybupropion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Andy Z.X.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nollen, Nikki; Faseru, Babalola; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.

    2012-01-01

    Bupropion is indicated to promote smoking cessation. Animal studies suggest that bupropion’s major metabolite hydroxybupropion can mediate bupropion’s pharmacologic activity. We measured plasma bupropion and metabolite levels in a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized smoking cessation trial. Among the treatment adherent individuals, higher hydroxybupropion concentrations (per µg/mL) resulted in better smoking cessation outcomes (Week 3, 7 and 26 OR=2.82, 2.96 and 2.37, P=0.005–0.040),...

  14. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management Based Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S; Smith, Anne E; Liss, Thomas B; McFetridge, Amanda K; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in a number of categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our preliminary results indicate that participation in a CM based program for smoking cessation did not lead to greater spending on cigarettes and other substances and may have produced more socially acceptable spending. PMID:20802850

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of depression on subsequent smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: 1990 to 2013.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cessation is crucial for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), yet depression may impede cessation success. We systematically reviewed the prospective association between depression and subsequent smoking cessation in individuals with CHD to quantify this effect.

  16. An exploration of health beliefs and attitudes of smokers with vascular disease who participate in or decline a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kim E; Aish, Arlene

    2002-09-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional aspect of this study compared a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who chose to participate in a smoking intervention with a group of smokers with peripheral arterial disease who declined to participate. The longitudinal aspect of this study used Ajzen and Fishbein's(1) Theory of Reasoned Action, Keeney's(2) Expected Utility Decision Theory, and Prochaska and DiClemente's(3) Transtheoretical Model of Change to describe the influence of this smoking cessation program on the beliefs and attitudes about smoking in group 1. Smokers completed a smoking beliefs questionnaire with vascular disease at baseline and after 13 weeks of smoking cessation intervention. Smokers who did not want to participate in the smoking cessation program also completed this questionnaire for comparison. Statistically significant differences were found to differentiate people who enrolled in the smoking cessation program from those who did not. Subjects in group 2 smoked less per day, were less educated, were less often diagnosed as having peripheral arterial disease, were found to be more in the precontemplation stage of change in smoking cessation, cared more about what their physician and family thought they should do, and perceived themselves to be at less risk for developing more severe circulatory problems if they did not quit smoking. After 13 weeks, participants in both groups 1 and 2 were found to smoke significantly less per day. No support was found for the expectation that the smoking intervention would influence stage of change in smoking behavior or attitudes and beliefs about the risks of smoking to the participants' health after 13 weeks. PMID:12370691

  17. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  18. Partial nicotinic acetylcholine (α4β2 agonists as promising new medications for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety of partial agonists of a4β 2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Data Sources: Primary literature and review articles were obtained via a PUBMED search (1988-August 2006 using the key terms smoking cessation, partial agonist alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, varenicline, cytisine and SSR591813. Additional studies and abstracts were identified from the bibliographies of reviewed literature. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Studies and review articles related to varenicline, cytisine and the partial agonist alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were reviewed. Data Synthesis: Smoking is widely recognized as a serious health problem. Smoking cessation has major health benefits. According to the US Public Health Services, all patients attempting to quit smoking should be encouraged to use one or more effective pharmacotherapy. Currently, along with nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, nortriptyline and clonidine, are the mainstay of pharmacotherapy. More than ¾ of patients receiving treatment for smoking cessation return to smoking within the first year. Nicotine, through stimulating α4β 2 nAChR, releases dopamine in the reward pathway. Partial agonist of α4β 2 nAChR elicits moderate and sustained release of dopamine, which is countered during the cessation attempts; it simultaneously blocks the effects of nicotine by binding with α4β 2 receptors during smoking. Recently, varenicline, a partial agonist at α4β 2 nAChR, has been approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration for smoking cessation. Conclusion: Partial agonist α4β 2 nAChR appears to be a promising target in smoking cessation. Varenicline of this group is approved for treatment of smoking cessation by the FDA in May 2006.

  19. Use of a New Comprehensive Insurance Benefit for Smoking-Cessation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite E. Burns, MA

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Uncertainty about levels of employee use of an insurance benefit for smoking-cessation treatment has presented a barrier to employers considering the adoption of such coverage. This study examined self-reported awareness and use of a new insurance benefit for smoking-cessation treatment among a sample of Wisconsin state employees, retirees, and adult dependents. Methods We evaluated the self-reported use of insurance coverage for smoking-cessation treatment during the first 2 years of its availability to the Wisconsin state employee, retiree, and adult dependent population. We conducted analyses of responses to smoking-related questions in 2001 and 2002 cross-sectional surveys of insured state employees, retirees, and adult dependents, weighted to represent this population. Results In 2002, benefit use among smokers aware of the benefit was 39.6%, and benefit use among smokers unaware of the benefit was 3.5%. Only 27.4% of smokers were aware of the benefit in 2002; use among all smokers was 13.6%. Of all smokers, 30.4% used smoking-cessation treatment medication (over-the-counter or covered in 2002. Smoking prevalence was 15.6% in 2001 and 13.2% in 2002. Conclusion In an educated employee population, self-reported smoking-cessation treatment benefit use was modest among all smokers during its first 2 years of availability. Benefit awareness was low in this educated population, which may help explain low use rates, particularly given the 30% of all smokers who attempted to quit smoking with the help of smoking-cessation treatment medication. These data provide use-rate estimates for states contemplating adoption of an evidence-based smoking-cessation treatment benefit.

  20. Sensation Seeking as a Predictor of Treatment Compliance and Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Heavy Social Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Spillane, Nichea S.; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M.; Monti, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of sensation seeking has been positively associated with risk of smoking initiation and level of tobacco use. However, its role in smoking cessation is much less established. This study examined the association between sensation seeking and smoking cessation among 236 heavy social drinkers participating in a clinical trial testing the efficacy of incorporating brief alcohol intervention into smoking cessation treatment. As hypothesized, higher sensation seeking predicted...

  1. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a

  2. Who Uses Smoking Cessation Apps? A Feasibility Study Across Three Countries via Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    BinDhim, Nasser F; McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone use is growing worldwide. While hundreds of smoking cessation apps are currently available in the app stores, there is no information about who uses them. Smartphones also offer potential as a research tool, but this has not previously been explored. Objective This study aims to measure and compare the uptake of a smoking cessation app over one year in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also assesses the feasibility of conducting research via an app...

  3. Smoking Cessation Intervention on Facebook: Which Content Generates the Best Engagement?

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, Johannes; Klein, Alexandra B; Ramo, Danielle E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media offer a great opportunity to deliver smoking cessation treatment to young adults, but previous online and social media interventions targeting health behavior change have struggled with low participant engagement. We examined engagement generated by content based on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) in a motivationally tailored smoking cessation intervention on Facebook. Objective This study aimed to identify which intervention content based on the TT...

  4. Promoting hospital-based smoking cessation services at major Swiss hospitals: a before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Bolliger, Chris T; van Biljon, X.; Humair, Jean-Paul Luc André; El Fehri, V.; Cornuz, J.

    2008-01-01

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Whether a 1-year nationwide, government supported programme is effective in significantly increasing the number of smoking cessation clinics at major Swiss hospitals as well as providing basic training for the staff running them. METHODS: We conducted a baseline evaluation of hospital services for smoking cessation, hypertension, and obesity by web search and telephone contact followed by personal visits between October 2005 and January 2006 of 44 major public hospitals...

  5. Smoking Cessation and Chronic Pain: Patient and Pain Medicine Physician Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooten, W. Michael; Vickers, Kristin S.; Shi, Yu; Ebnet, Kaye L.; Townsend, Cynthia O.; Patten, Christi A.; Warner, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Although previous studies suggest that the clinical setting of an interdisciplinary pain treatment program may provide an optimal environment to promote smoking cessation, currently available smoking cessation interventions may be less effective for adults with chronic pain due, in part, to unrecognized clinical factors related to chronic pain. The specific aim of this qualitative study was to solicit information from adult smokers with chronic pain participating in an interdisciplinary pain ...

  6. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management Based Smoking Cessation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a questionnaire about spending in a number of categories, including cigarettes, other addictive substances, durable goods, and disposable goods. Our prelimin...

  7. Smoking Cessation Apps for Smartphones: Content Analysis With the Self-Determination Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jounghwa; Noh, Ghee-Young; Park, Dong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphones are increasingly receiving attention from public health scholars and practitioners as a means to assist individuals’ health management. A number of smartphone apps for smoking cessation are also available; however, little effort has been made to evaluate the content and functions of these apps employing a theoretical framework. Objective The present study aims to analyze and evaluate the contents of smoking cessation apps available in South Korea employing the self-dete...

  8. A Theory-Based Video Messaging Mobile Phone Intervention for Smoking Cessation: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, Robyn; Dorey, Enid; Bramley, Dale; Bullen, Chris; Denny, Simon; Elley, C Raina; Maddison, Ralph; McRobbie, Hayden; Parag, Varsha; Rodgers, Anthony; Salmon, Penny

    2011-01-01

    Background Advances in technology allowed the development of a novel smoking cessation program delivered by video messages sent to mobile phones. This social cognitive theory-based intervention (called “STUB IT”) used observational learning via short video diary messages from role models going through the quitting process to teach behavioral change techniques. Objective The objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of a multimedia mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation. ...

  9. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  10. Effectiveness of smoking cessation therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoulas Popey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking remains the leading preventable cause of premature deaths. Several pharmacological interventions now exist to aid smokers in cessation. These include Nicotine Replacement Therapy [NRT], bupropion, and varenicline. We aimed to assess their relative efficacy in smoking cessation by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched 10 electronic medical databases (inception to Sept. 2006 and bibliographies of published reviews. We selected randomized controlled trials [RCTs] evaluating interventions for smoking cessation at 1 year, through chemical confirmation. Our primary endpoint was smoking cessation at 1 year. Secondary endpoints included short-term smoking cessation (~3 months and adverse events. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. We compared treatment effects across interventions using head-to-head trials and when these did not exist, we calculated indirect comparisons. Results We identified 70 trials of NRT versus control at 1 year, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.55–1.88, P = Varenicline was superior to placebo at 1 year (4 RCTs, OR 2.96, 95% CI, 2.12–4.12, P = Conclusion NRT, bupropion and varenicline all provide therapeutic effects in assisting with smoking cessation. Direct and indirect comparisons identify a hierarchy of effectiveness.

  11. SMOKING CESSATION FOR ADOLESCENTS: A REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL TREATMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepis, TS; Rao, U

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the vast literature on smoking cessation in adults, research in adolescents has gained significant attention only within the last decade. Even with this increase in focus, research into pharmacological aids for smoking cessation in adolescents (e.g., nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion) is a more recent phenomenon and has produced only modest results. While more extensive, much of the research on behaviorally- or psychosocially-based adolescent smoking cessation interventions has been limited by a lack of control for contact time, biochemical verification of self-reported abstinence, and/or a theoretical focus for the interventions. The MEDLINE, PubMed, PSYCInfo CINHAL and Cochrane Systematic Review databases were searched for articles relevant to adolescent smoking cessation treatment. After briefly examining the adolescent smoking cessation research prior to 2000, more recent developments in pharmacological aids and psychological treatment will be reviewed. Investigations have made progress in elucidating efficacious treatments for adolescent smokers, but much work remains to be done in both pharmacological and non-pharmacological areas of treatment. With the current state of the literature as a guide, future directions for research into smoking cessation for adolescents will be proposed. PMID:19630713

  12. Mechanisms of adolescent smoking cessation: roles of readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, and smoking of parents and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Leeuwe, Jan; Brug, Johannes; van Zundert, Rinka M P; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2009-01-01

    Multiple levels of influence should be considered in interventions aimed at the adolescent smoker, including psychological, addiction, peer and parental influences. However, the mechanism by which these variables influence the process of smoking cessation in adolescents is not well elucidated. Therefore, this prospective study tested two models among 850 adolescent smokers, specifying the direct and indirect relations between adolescents' readiness to quit smoking, levels of nicotine dependence, and smoking behavior of their parents and friends. One year later smoking cessation was assessed. Results showed that, among adolescent smokers, readiness to quit was positively associated with quit attempts, while nicotine dependence was inversely associated with successful cessation. Instead of a direct relation, parental and peers' smoking were inversely related to smoking cessation through nicotine dependence. The findings emphasize that interventions should be developed and tested within and outside the school setting, as well as within the family situation. In addition, the strong impact of nicotine dependence on successful cessation indicates that a more direct approach is needed to lower nicotine dependence among adolescents. PMID:18848408

  13. Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. Methods A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n = 2291. Response rate was 54% (n = 1190. Factors related to the SC Guideline familiarity were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Almost half (47% of the respondents (n = 1190 were familiar with the SC Guideline and familiarity enhanced Guideline implementation. The familiarity was associated with the respondents' perceptions of their personal SC skills and knowledge (OR 3.8; of customers' value of counseling on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT (OR 3.3; and regular use of a pocket card supporting SC counseling (OR 3.0. Pharmacists' workplaces' characteristics, such as size and geographical location were not associated with familiarity. In addition to recommending NRT, the pharmacists familiar with the Guideline used more frequently other Guideline-based SC methods, such as recommended non-pharmacological SC aids, compared to unfamiliar respondents. Conclusions SC Guideline familiarity and implementation is crucial for community pharmacists' involvement in SC actions in addition to selling NRT products. Pharmacists can constitute a potential public health resource in SC easily accessible throughout the country.

  14. Exploring Primary Care Providers’ Interest in Using Patient Navigators to Assist in the Delivery of Tobacco Cessation Treatment to Low Income, Ethnic/Racial Minority Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lubetkin, Erica I.; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Krebs, Paul; Yeung, Howa; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation interventions of primary care physicians serving low income, minority patients living in urban areas with a high smoking prevalence. We also explored barriers and facilitators to physicians providing smoking cessation counseling to determine the need for and interest in deploying a tobacco-focused patient navigator at community-based primary care practice sites. A self-administered survey was mailed to providers serving Medicaid ...

  15. [Efficacy of individual smoking cessation instructions for general smokers among clients of a health center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, K; Anada, K; Arino, M; Ono, A; Tomonaga, M; Nakabayashi, M; Nishida, M; Yamakawa, N; Yoshitsugu, M; Shimo, T

    1992-04-01

    Smoking cessation instruction for individuals using a standardized smoking cessation manual and a handout developed by the authors was studied in a controlled trial among employees who visited a health center for Industrial Safety and Health Law mandated annual health examinations. Smokers in the study group were given 5-10 minutes smoking cessation instruction mainly by public health nurses and nutritionists following the above-mentioned manual and using the handouts. Subjects in both groups were interviewed by telephone to assess changes in smoking habits one month after the first contact. Smoking clients who came on Friday (132) and on Monday (93) were assigned to study and control groups, respectively. One hundred and nineteen members (90.2%) of the study group and 88 (94.6%) of the control group were successfully followed until one month after the initial contact. Seven subjects in the study group were not smoking one month after the instruction, while no one gave up smoking in the control group (p less than 0.05). It was confirmed by telephone survey that 6 of the 7 subjects who were not smoking at one month were still maintaining abstinence from smoking one year after the instruction. Smokers who did not stop smoking reported a reduction in their smoking dose in the study group. Lighter smokers reacted more readily to instruction than did heavier smokers and the knowledge level of subjects was positively associated with the success rate. PMID:1611121

  16. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month trial of bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets as an aid to smoking cessation in hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgareth, Oli Jacob; Hansen, Niels-Christian Gerner; Søes-Petersen, Ulrik;

    2004-01-01

    (Zyban) compared with placebo as an aid to smoking cessation in health care workers. A total of 336 hospital employees who smoked at least 10 cigarettes daily were randomized (2:1) to 7 weeks of treatment with bupropion (n=222) or placebo (n=114). All participants were motivated to quit smoking and......Despite changes in smoking behavior, one-third of the Danish population continues to smoke. Many of these smokers are hospital employees. This 6-month, multicenter, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated treatment with bupropion hydrochloride sustained release...... more frequently in the bupropion group than in the placebo group. Bupropion was effective as an aid to smoking cessation in a broad group of hospital employees in Denmark....

  17. Reversion of AHRR Demethylation Is a Quantitative Biomarker of Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Robert; Hollenbeck, Nancy; Andersen, Eleanor; McElroy, Shyheme; Wilson, Scott; Vercande, Kyra; Beach, Steven R H; Osborn, Terry; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Although there are effective pharmacologic and behavioral treatments for smoking cessation, our inability to objectively quantify smokers' progress in decreasing smoking has been a barrier to both clinical and research efforts. In prior work, we and others have shown that DNA methylation at cg05575921, a CpG residue in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR), can be used to determine smoking status and infer cigarette consumption history. In this study, we serially assessed self-report and existing objective markers of cigarette consumption in 35 subjects undergoing smoking cessation therapy, then quantified DNA methylation at cg05575921 at study entry and three subsequent time points. Five subjects who reported serum cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide verified smoking abstinence for the 3 months prior to study exit averaged a 5.9% increase in DNA methylation at cg05575921 (p epigenetic biomarkers. We conclude that AHRR methylation status is a quantifiable biomarker for progress in smoking cessation that could have substantial impact on both smoking cessation treatment and research. PMID:27092088

  18. User Preferences for a Text Message-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C.; Heron, Kristin E.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Magee, Joshua C.; Morrow, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Younger adults are more likely to smoke and less likely to seek treatment than older smokers. They are also frequent users of communication technology. In the current study, we conducted focus groups to obtain feedback about preferences for a text message-based smoking cessation program from potential users. Participants ("N" = 21, "M" age = 25.6…

  19. Smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases: a high priority, integral component of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesen, P; Carrozzi, L; Fagerström, K O; Gratziou, C; Jimenez-Ruiz, C; Nardini, S; Viegi, G; Lazzaro, C; Campell, I A; Dagli, E; West, R

    2007-02-01

    Smoking cessation is the one of the most important ways to improve the prognosis of patients with respiratory disease. The Task Force on guidelines for smoking cessation in patients with respiratory diseases was convened to provide evidence-based recommendations on smoking cessation interventions in respiratory patients. Based on the currently available evidence and the consensus of an expert panel, the following key recommendations were made. 1) Patients with respiratory disease have a greater and more urgent need to stop smoking than the average smoker, so respiratory physicians must take a proactive and continuing role with all smokers in motivating them to stop and in providing treatment to aid smoking cessation. 2) Smoking cessation treatment should be integrated into the management of the patient's respiratory condition. 3) Therapies should include pharmacological treatment (i.e. nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline) combined with behavioural support. 4) Respiratory physicians should receive training to ensure that they have the knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary to deliver these interventions or to refer to an appropriate specialist. 5) Although the cost of implementing these recommendations will partly be offset by a reduction in attendance for exacerbations, etc., a budget should be established to enable implementation. Research is needed to establish optimum treatment strategies specifically for respiratory patients. PMID:17264326

  20. The cessation and detoxification effect of tea filters on cigarette smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To treat tobacco addiction,a tea filter was developed and studied for smoking cessation.This work reports the smoking cessation effect of tea when it was used as a component of cigarette filters.In one trial it was found that after using the tea filters for 2 months,the volunteer smokers decreased their cigarette consumption by 56.5%,and 31.7% of them stopped smoking.This work identified a new method and material,tea filter and theanine,which inhibit tobacco and nicotine addiction and provide an effective strategy for treating tobacco addiction.

  1. Approaching tobacco dependence in youngsters: impact of an interactive smoking cessation program in a population of Romanian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Trofor, Antigona; Mihaicuta, Stefan; Man, Milena Adina; MIRON Ramona; Esanu, Valentina; Trofor, Letitia

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an interactive smoking cessation program when first implemented in a naïve population of Romanian adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess youngsters\\' attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco dependence, their compliance to smoking cessation interventions and success rate of a standard smoking cessation pilot program. Materials and methods: A total of 231 subjects 14-19 years old particip...

  2. The effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation in young asthma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Christian Grabow; Porsbjerg, C; Backer, V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking has been shown to have several detrimental effects on asthma, including poor symptom control, attenuated treatment response and accelerated decline in lung function. In spite of this, smoking is at least as common among asthma patients as in the rest of the population. The...... any parameters. CONCLUSION: Smoking cessation improved asthma control, but the changes were not related to change in eosinophilic inflammation, and the reduction in neutrophils was small. Thus, airway inflammation with eosinophils and neutrophils may be less important drivers of asthma control in...... aggravations of smoking on asthma may be caused by effects on airway inflammation, which has been found to be changed in asthmatic smokers. It is not known whether these smoking-induced airway inflammation changes are reversible after smoking cessation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess airway...

  3. Examining an underlying mechanism between perceived stress and smoking cessation-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Hogan, Julianna; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    The mediational role of negative reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies in the relation between perceived stress and (1) perceived barriers to cessation, (2) severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and (3) smoking-specific experiential avoidance (AIS) was examined. Data were drawn from a baseline assessment of a larger clinical trial. Participants included 332 adult treatment-seeking smokers (47.3% female; Mage=38.45; SD=.50; age range: 18-65years). Results indicated that perceived stress was indirectly related to perceived barriers to smoking cessation, severity of problematic symptoms during past quit attempts, and AIS through negative reinforcement outcome expectancies. These results were evident after accounting for the variance explained by gender, negative affectivity, and alternative outcome expectancies for smoking. The present findings suggest that smokers with greater perceived stress experience greater negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, which in turn, may be related to numerous processes involved in the maintenance of smoking. PMID:26946445

  4. Smoking Cessation Intervention Preferences Among Urban African Americans: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cathy J; Palmer, Sheena D; Lee, Chia-Wen Vianne

    2016-06-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from smoking-related morbidity and mortality and make more quit attempts but report less success in quitting. Smokers tend to identify more strongly with African American culture. Qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit perceptions toward smoking and intervention content. Seventy-one African American smokers recruited from community locations participated. The majority stated they would not use any cessation aids if trying to quit smoking, despite the availability of free nicotine replacement. Acculturative stress scores were significantly higher in younger participants and those with higher income. Higher African American acculturation did not predict smoking cessation intervention preference. Family and social relationships were cited as both reasons for wanting to quit and reasons for continuing to smoke. Based on these findings, interventions for urban African Americans should address household members continuing to smoke, social/family connections, stress management, and cultural identification in urban areas. PMID:26809884

  5. The Effects and Measures of Auricular Acupressure and Interactive Multimedia for Smoking Cessation in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Ling Yeh; Pei-Lan Wang; Jaung-Geng Lin; Mei-Ling Chung

    2014-01-01

    The earlier one starts to smoke, the more likely it is that one’s tobacco use will increase. Either auricular acupressure or multimedia education could improve physiological health status and reduce smoking for young smokers. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 10-week auricular acupressure (AA) and interactive multimedia (IM) on smoking cessation in college smokers. A pre- and posttest control research design with two experiments (AA and IM) and one control was used. Thirty-two par...

  6. Frequency of alcohol and smoking cessation counseling in hepatitis C patients among internists and gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Tanu; Reyes, Mary; Nguyen, Huy; Borum, Marie

    2009-12-21

    Given the overwhelming evidence that both alcohol consumption and smoking accelerate the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver disease, we evaluated the frequency of alcohol and smoking counseling of patients with HCV-induced liver disease by their primary care internists and gastroenterologists. One hundred and twenty-three medical records of consecutive patients with HCV-induced liver disease referred by an internist to a gastroenterologist for its management were reviewed. Patient gender, race, history of and counseling against alcohol and tobacco use by a physician and a gastroenterologist were obtained. A database was created using Microsoft Excel. There were 105 African-Americans, 12 Caucasians and six patients of other races/ethnicities. Forty-six (37%) patients were daily tobacco users and 34 (28%) patients were daily alcohol consumers. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequencies of alcohol (P = 0.0002) and smoking cessation (P = 0.0022) between gastroenterologists and internists. This study reveals that internists and gastroenterologists, alike, inadequately counsel patients with hepatitis C about tobacco and alcohol use. PMID:20014469

  7. Protocol for the Proactive Or Reactive Telephone Smoking CeSsation Support (PORTSSS trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgelly Paula

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telephone quit lines are accessible to many smokers and are used to engage motivated smokers to make quit attempts. Smoking cessation counselling provided via telephone can either be reactive (i.e. primarily involving the provision of evidence-based information, or proactive (i.e. primarily involving repeated, sequenced calls from and interaction with trained cessation counsellors. Some studies have found proactive telephone counselling more effective and this trial will investigate whether or not proactive telephone support for smoking cessation, delivered through the National Health Service (NHS Smoking Helpline is more effective or cost-effective than reactive support. It will also investigate whether or not providing nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, in addition to telephone counselling, has an adjunctive impact on smoking cessation rates and whether or not this is cost effective. Methods This will be a parallel group, factorial design RCT, conducted through the English national NHS Smoking Helpline which is run from headquarters in Glasgow. Participants will be smokers who call the helpline from any location in England and who wish to stop smoking. If 644 participants are recruited to four equally-sized trial groups (total sample size = 2576, the trial will have 90% power for detecting a treatment effect (Odds Ratio of 1.5 for each of the two interventions: i proactive versus reactive support and ii the offer of NRT versus no offer. The primary outcome measure for the study is self-reported, prolonged abstinence from smoking for at least six months following an agreed quit date. A concurrent health economic evaluation will investigate the cost effectiveness of the two interventions when delivered via a telephone helpline. Discussion The PORTSSS trial will provide high quality evidence to determine the most appropriate kind of counselling which should be provided via the NHS Smoking Helpline and also whether or not an

  8. Reversion of AHRR Demethylation Is a Quantitative Biomarker of Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Robert; Hollenbeck, Nancy; Andersen, Eleanor; McElroy, Shyheme; Wilson, Scott; Vercande, Kyra; Beach, Steven R. H.; Osborn, Terry; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Although there are effective pharmacologic and behavioral treatments for smoking cessation, our inability to objectively quantify smokers’ progress in decreasing smoking has been a barrier to both clinical and research efforts. In prior work, we and others have shown that DNA methylation at cg05575921, a CpG residue in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR), can be used to determine smoking status and infer cigarette consumption history. In this study, we serially assessed self-report and existing objective markers of cigarette consumption in 35 subjects undergoing smoking cessation therapy, then quantified DNA methylation at cg05575921 at study entry and three subsequent time points. Five subjects who reported serum cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide verified smoking abstinence for the 3 months prior to study exit averaged a 5.9% increase in DNA methylation at cg05575921 (p < 0.004) over the 6-month study. Although the other 30 subjects did not achieve smoking cessation at the 6-month time point, their self-reported reduction of cigarette consumption (mean = 6 cigarettes/day) was associated with a 2.8% increase DNA methylation at cg05575921 (p < 0.05). Finally, a survey of subjects as they exited the study demonstrated strong support for the clinical use of epigenetic biomarkers. We conclude that AHRR methylation status is a quantifiable biomarker for progress in smoking cessation that could have substantial impact on both smoking cessation treatment and research. PMID:27092088

  9. Physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation during pregnancy: Two feasibility studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bess

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation have not been adequately tested in pregnancy and women are reluctant to use them. Behavioural support alone has a modest effect on cessation rates; therefore, more effective interventions are needed. Even moderate intensity physical activity (e.g. brisk walk reduces urges to smoke and there is some evidence it increases cessation rates in non-pregnant smokers. Two pilot studies assessed i the feasibility of recruiting pregnant women to a trial of physical activity for smoking cessation, ii adherence to physical activity and iii womens' perceptions of the intervention. Methods Pregnant smokers volunteered for an intervention combining smoking cessation support, physical activity counselling and supervised exercise (e.g. treadmill walking. The first study provided six weekly treatment sessions. The second study provided 15 sessions over eight weeks. Physical activity levels and continuous smoking abstinence (verified by expired carbon monoxide were monitored up to eight months gestation. Results Overall, 11.6% (32/277 of women recorded as smokers at their first antenatal booking visit were recruited. At eight months gestation 25% (8/32 of the women achieved continuous smoking abstinence. Abstinent women attended at least 85% of treatment sessions and 75% (6/8 achieved the target level of 110 minutes/week of physical activity at end-of-treatment. Increased physical activity was maintained at eight months gestation only in the second study. Women reported that the intervention helped weight management, reduced cigarette cravings and increased confidence for quitting. Conclusion It is feasible to recruit pregnant smokers to a trial of physical activity for smoking cessation and this is likely to be popular. A large randomised controlled trial is needed to examine the efficacy of this intervention.

  10. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2015-03-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently, little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared with other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products (e.g., gums). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from 1,988 multiethnic current daily smokers (M age = 45.1, SD = 13.0; 51.3% women) who had made an average of 8.5 (SD = 18.7) lifetime quit attempts but were not currently engaged in a cessation attempt. Reasons for wanting to quit smoking were assessed by using the Reasons for Quitting scale. Path analyses suggested that among reasons for quitting cigarettes, "immediate reinforcement"-a measure of wanting to quit cigarettes for extrinsic reasons such as bad smell, costliness and untidiness-was significantly associated with having tried e-cigarettes for cessation help, and "concerns about health" was associated with having tried NRT-only use. E-cigarettes appear to provide an alternative "smoking" experience to individuals who wish to quit cigarette smoking because of the immediate, undesirable consequences of tobacco smoking (e.g., smell, ash, litter) rather than concerns about health. Provided that the safety of e-cigarette use is ensured, e-cigarettes may be effectively used to reduce tobacco exposure among smokers who may not want to quit cigarettes for intrinsic motivation. PMID:25180551

  11. Smoking cessation reverses DNA double-strand breaks in human mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ishida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for a significant proportion of smoking-related deaths. However, the precise mechanism whereby smoking induces this pathology has not been fully delineated. Based on observation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the most harmful type of DNA damage, in atherosclerotic lesions, we hypothesized that there is a direct association between smoking and DSBs. The goal of this study was to investigate whether smoking induces DSBs and smoking cessation reverses DSBs in vivo through examination of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNCs. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Immunoreactivity of oxidative modification of DNA and DSBs were increased in human atherosclerotic lesions but not in the adjacent normal area. DSBs in human MNCs isolated from the blood of volunteers can be detected as cytologically visible "foci" using an antibody against the phosphorylated form of the histone H2AX (γ-H2AX. Young healthy active smokers (n = 15 showed increased γ-H2AX foci number when compared with non-smokers (n = 12 (foci number/cell: median, 0.37/cell; interquartile range [IQR], 0.31-0.58 vs. 4.36/cell; IQR, 3.09-7.39, p<0.0001. Smoking cessation for 1 month reduced the γ-H2AX foci number (median, 4.44/cell; IQR, 4.36-5.24 to 0.28/cell; IQR, 0.12-0.53, p<0.05. A positive correlation was noted between γ-H2AX foci number and exhaled carbon monoxide levels (r = 0.75, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking induces DSBs in human MNCs in vivo, and importantly, smoking cessation for 1 month resulted in a decrease in DSBs to a level comparable to that seen in non-smokers. These data reinforce the notion that the cigarette smoking induces DSBs and highlight the importance of smoking cessation.

  12. Morbilidad, mortalidad y costes sanitarios evitables mediante una estrategia de tratamiento del tabaquismo en España The effects of implementing a smoking cessation intervention in Spain on morbidity, mortality and health care costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González-Enríquez

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Se valoran los efectos que tendría una intervención destinada a reducir el uso de tabaco en la población española de fumadores sobre la morbilidad, la mortalidad y los costes asociados al consumo de tabaco. Método: Se ha adaptado el modelo Health and Economic Consequences of Smoking patrocinado por la OMS y desarrollado por The Lewin Group. La intervención propuesta incluye el acceso a asistencia farmacológica de un 35% de los fumadores que intentan dejar de fumar, y obtienen una tasa global de cesación al año del 7,2%. Las enfermedades estudiadas son: cáncer de pulmón, enfermedad coronaria, enfermedad cerebrovascular, EPOC, asma y bajo peso al nacer. Se estiman los casos de enfermedad y muerte atribuibles al consumo de tabaco evitados y la reducción en el coste sanitario debidos a la intervención, proyectados a 20 años. Resultados: Sin intervención, en el año 1 del modelo 2.136.094 fumadores padecen alguna de las condiciones clínicas atribuibles al consumo de tabaco, el coste asistencial es de 4.286 millones de euros y las muertes atribuibles son 26.537. La intervención propuesta evita 2.613, 9.192, 17.415 y 23.837 casos de enfermedad atribuible al consumo de tabaco en los años 2, 5, 10 y 20 del modelo, respectivamente. Los costes asistenciales acumulados evitados son 3,5 millones de euros en el año 2 y 386 millones de euros a los 20 años. Las muertes acumuladas evitadas son 284 en el año 2 y 9.205 a los 20 años de la intervención. La intervención añade un total de 78.173 años de vida al final del período considerado. Conclusiones: La disponibilidad de nuevas intervenciones eficaces en el tratamiento del tabaquismo y el incremento de la accesibilidad a las mismas pueden contribuir de forma relevante a la reducción de la morbilidad, la mortalidad y los costes sanitarios asociados al tabaquismo en España.Objective: We estimated the effect that a smoking cessation intervention in the Spanish population of

  13. "Let Me Get You a Nicotine Patch": Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Smoking Cessation Guidelines for Hospitalized Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David A; Stewart, Kenda; Paez, Monica; Holman, John; Adams, Susan L; Vander Weg, Mark W; Battaglia, Catherine T; Joseph, Anne M; Titler, Marita G; Ono, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Many hospitalized smokers do not receive guideline-recommended tobacco treatment, but little is known about the perceptions of inpatient nurses with regard to tobacco treatment. We used a sequential explanatory mixed methods design to help explain the findings of an academic detailing intervention trial on the inpatient medicine units of four Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals. We surveyed 164 nurses and conducted semistructured interviews in a purposeful sample of 33 nurses with different attitudes toward cessation counseling. Content analysis was used to inductively characterize the issues raised by participants. Emerging themes were categorized using the knowledge-attitudes-behavior framework of guideline adherence. Knowledge-related and attitudinal barriers included perceived lack of skills in cessation counseling and skepticism about the effectiveness of cessation guidelines in hospitalized veterans. Nurses also reported multiple behavioral and organizational barriers to guideline adherence: resistance from patients, insufficient time and resources, the presence of smoking areas on VA premises, and lack of coordination with primary care. VA hospitals should train inpatient staff how to negotiate behavior change, integrate cessation counseling into nurses' workflow, develop alternative referral mechanisms for post-discharge cessation counseling, and adopt hospital policies to promote inpatient abstinence. PMID:27046185

  14. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention—an Intervention Mapping approach to planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally op...

  15. Interpersonal communication as an indirect pathway for the effect of antismoking media content on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Putte, Bas; Yzer, Marco; Southwell, Brian G; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    In the context of health campaigns, interpersonal communication can serve at least 2 functions: (a) to stimulate change through social interaction and (b) in a secondary diffusion process, to further disseminate message content. In a 3-wave prospective study of 1,079 smokers, the authors demonstrate that mass media messages (antismoking campaigns and news coverage relevant to smoking cessation) have an indirect effect on smoking cessation intention and behavior via interpersonal communication. Exposure to campaigns and news coverage prompts discussion about the campaigns, and, in turn, about smoking cessation. Interpersonal communication regarding smoking cessation then influences intention to quit smoking and attempts to quit smoking. The study finds evidence not only for the social interaction function of interpersonal communication, but also for the secondary diffusion function. A substantial number of smokers who are not directly exposed to the antismoking campaigns are nevertheless indirectly exposed via communication with people who have seen these campaigns. These results imply that encouragement of interpersonal communication can be an important campaign objective. PMID:21337250

  16. Depression and maintenance of smoking cessation after myocardial infarction with focus on education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kathrine; Rasmussen, Jakob; Kirkegaard, Helene;

    2016-01-01

    patients screened positive or negative for depression, whether the results were adjusted for gender and educational level (OR = 0.84; p-value = .75) or not (OR = 0.75; p-value = .56). There was a significant association between a positive depression screening and failing to maintain a smoking cessation in...... men (OR = 7.67; p-value = .03) at 1-year follow-up. When adjusted for educational level a significant association was still seen (OR = 7.48; p-value = .01). Conclusions: There was a significant association between a positive depression screening and failing to maintain a smoking cessation in men at 1......Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between depression and maintenance of smoking cessation at 1-year follow-up in patients admitted with first-incidence acute myocardial infarction (MI) with a focus on educational level. Methods: From the 1st of September 2002 to the...

  17. A randomized controlled trial of a tailored group smoking cessation intervention for HIV-infected smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moadel, Alyson B.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Dolce, Eileen H.; Shuter, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background More than half of persons living with HIV (PLWH) in the US smoke cigarettes, and tobacco use is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in this group. Little is known about the efficacy of tobacco treatment strategies in PLWH. Design Randomized controlled trial comparing Positively Smoke Free (PSF), an intensive group therapy intervention targeting HIV-infected smokers, to standard care. Methods A cohort of 145 PLWH smokers, recruited from an HIV-care center in the Bronx, New York, were randomized 1:1 into the PSF program or standard care. All were offered a 3-month supply of nicotine replacement therapy. PSF is an eight session program tailored to address the needs and concerns of HIV-infected smokers. Sessions were co-facilitated by a graduate student and an HIV-infected peer. The primary outcome was biochemically-confirmed, seven-day point-prevalence abstinence at three months. Results In the intention to treat analysis, PSF condition subjects had nearly double the quit rate of controls (19.2% vs 9.7%, P=0.11). In the complete case, as-treated analysis, assignment to PSF was associated with increased odds of quitting (ORadj 3.55, 95% CI: 1.04– 12.0). Latino ethnicity and lower loneliness score were predictive of abstinence. Subjects in the PSF condition exhibited significant decreases in daily cigarette consumption and significant increases in self-efficacy and in motivation to quit. Attendance of ≥7 sessions was associated with higher quit rates. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect of PSF on cessation rates in PLWH smokers. Loneliness and self-efficacy are influential factors in the smoking behaviors of PLWH. PMID:22732470

  18. Work factors and smoking cessation in nurses' aides: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Willy

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of smoking in nursing personnel remains high. The aim of this study was to identify work factors that predict smoking cessation among nurses' aides. Methods Of 2720 randomly selected, Norwegian nurses' aides, who were smoking at least one cigarette per day when they completed a questionnaire in 1999, 2275 (83.6 % completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. A wide spectrum of work factors were assessed at baseline. Respondents who reported smoking 0 cigarettes per day at follow-up were considered having stopped smoking. The odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of stopping smoking were derived from logistic regression models. Results Compared with working 1–9 hours per week, working 19–36 hours per week (odds ratio (OR = 0.35; 95 % confidence interval (CI = 0.13 – 0.91, and working more than 36 hours per week (i.e. more than full-time job (OR = 0.27; CI = 0.09 – 0.78 were associated with reduced odds of smoking cessation, after adjustments for daily consumption of cigarettes at baseline, age, gender, marital status, and having preschool children. Adjusting also for chronic health problems gave similar results. Conclusion There seems to be a negative association between hours of work per week and the odds of smoking cessation in nurses' aides. It is important that health institutions offer workplace-based services with documented effects on nicotine dependence, such as smoking cessation courses, so that healthcare workers who want to stop smoking, especially those with long working hours, do not have to travel to the programme or to dedicate their leisure time to it.

  19. A revolutionary approach for the cessation of smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that smoking is harmful to our health. It is estimated that 1.3 billion people are smokers worldwide and 5.4 million deaths are caused by tobacco smoking each year. In China, about 1.2 million people die because of smoking each

  20. Dawning Dependence: Processes underlying smoking cessation in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kleinjan (Marloes)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDuring adolescence young people are known to try out a range of risk behaviours, including smoking. Even though the detrimental health consequences of smoking are well known, the prevalence of smoking among Dutch adolescents remains high. Until today, efforts to control adolescent smokin

  1. A revolutionary approach for the cessation of smoking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JianKang

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is well known that smoking is harmful to our health.It is estimated that 1.3 billion people are smokers worldwide and 5.4 million deaths are caused by tobacco smoking each year.In China, about 1.2 million people die because of smoking each year, which is 2000 people per day.

  2. Experiences of outreach workers in promoting smoking cessation to Bangladeshi and Pakistani men: longitudinal qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Pelham M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite having high smoking rates, there have been few tailored cessation programmes for male Bangladeshi and Pakistani smokers in the UK. We report on a qualitative evaluation of a community-based, outreach worker delivered, intervention that aimed to increase uptake of NHS smoking cessation services and tailor services to meet the needs of Bangladeshi and Pakistani men. Methods This was a longitudinal, qualitative study, nested within a phase II cluster randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention. We explored the perspectives and experiences of five outreach workers, two stop smoking service managers and a specialist stop smoking advisor. Data were collected through focus group discussions, weekly diaries, observations of management meetings, shadowing of outreach workers, and one-to-one interviews with outreach workers and their managers. Analysis was undertaken using a modified Framework approach. Results Outreach workers promoted cessation services by word of mouth on the streets, in health service premises, in local businesses and at a wide range of community events. They emphasised the reasons for cessation, especially health effects, financial implications, and the impact of smoking on the family. Many smokers agreed to be referred to cessation services, but few attended, this in part being explained by concerns about the relative inflexibility of existing service provision. Although outreach workers successfully expanded service reach, they faced the challenges of perceived lack of awareness of the health risks associated with smoking in older smokers and apathy in younger smokers. These were compounded by perceptions of "lip service" being given to their role by community organisations and tensions both amongst the outreach workers and with the wider management team. Conclusions Outreach workers expanded reach of the service through taking it to diverse locations of relevance to Pakistani and Bangladeshi

  3. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Tolstrup, Janne; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-07-01

    Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs. After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. Results We found that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements, gain frame/positive imaging, consciousness-raising, helping relationships, stimulus control, and goal-setting as suitable methods for an Internet- and text-based adult smoking cessation program. Furthermore, we identified computer tailoring as a useful strategy for adapting the intervention to individual users. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping method, with a clear link between behavioral goals, theoretical methods, and practical strategies and materials, proved useful for systematic development of a digital smoking cessation intervention for adults. PMID:27101996

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terwal Donna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk behaviors. Nicotine dependence, length of the longest quit attempt, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and education were examined as other baseline variables. Abstinence from tobacco was recorded through 12 months. Results Diet was related to depressive symptoms at baseline. Alcohol use was related to nicotine dependence and education level. Heavy alcohol use alone and accumulation of two added risk behaviors predicted poorer smoking cessation outcome. Although diet alone was not associated with cessation outcome the high-fat diet interacted with depressive symptoms, such that the depressed women with high-fat diet were significantly more likely to relapse in their quit attempt compared to other subgroups. Conclusion Non-moderate alcohol use alone and accumulation of multiple CVD risk behaviors seem to be associated with lower success in smoking cessation.

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Sedentary Female Smokers and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiles Zandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined female sedentary smokers' additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk behaviors and their associations to smoking cessation. Methods This study was part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of exercise and nicotine gum in smoking cessation. Included in the analyses were 148 participants. Dietary habits and alcohol consumption were measured as additional CVD risk behaviors. High-fat diet and heavy alcohol use were considered those risk behaviors. Nicotine dependence, length of the longest quit attempt, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and education were examined as other baseline variables. Abstinence from tobacco was recorded through 12 months. Results Diet was related to depressive symptoms at baseline. Alcohol use was related to nicotine dependence and education level. Heavy alcohol use alone and accumulation of two added risk behaviors predicted poorer smoking cessation outcome. Although diet alone was not associated with cessation outcome the high-fat diet interacted with depressive symptoms, such that the depressed women with high-fat diet were significantly more likely to relapse in their quit attempt compared to other subgroups. Conclusion Non-moderate alcohol use alone and accumulation of multiple CVD risk behaviors seem to be associated with lower success in smoking cessation.

  6. Web-based smoking cessation intervention that transitions from inpatient to outpatient: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrington Kathleen F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background E-health tools are a new mechanism to expand patient care, allowing supplemental resources to usual care, including enhanced patient-provider communication. These applications to smoking cessation have yet to be tested in a hospitalized patient sample. This project aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a tailored web-based and e-message smoking cessation program for current smokers that, upon hospital discharge, transitions the patient to continue a quit attempt when home (Decide2Quit. Design A randomized two-arm follow-up design will test the effectiveness of an evidence- and theoretically-based smoking cessation program designed for post-hospitalization. Methods A total of 1,488 patients aged 19 or older, who smoked cigarettes in the previous 30 days, are being recruited from 27 patient care areas of a large urban university hospital. Study-eligible hospitalized patients receiving usual tobacco cessation usual care are offered study referral. Trained hospital staff assist the 744 patients who are being randomized to the intervention arm with registration and orientation to the intervention website. This e-mail and web-based program offers tailored messages as well as education, self-assessment and planning aids, and social support to promote tobacco use cessation. Condition-blind study staff assess participants for tobacco use history and behaviors, tobacco use cost-related information, co-morbidities and psychosocial factors at 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome is self-reported 30-day tobacco abstinence at 6 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes include 7-day point prevalence quit rates at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, 30-day point prevalence quit rates at 3 and 12 months, biologically confirmed tobacco abstinence at 6-month follow-up, and multiple point-prevalence quit rates based on self-reported tobacco abstinence rates at each follow-up time period. Healthcare utilization and quality

  7. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 Cell Expression upon Smoking Cessation in Mice with Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chao Duan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm and destructive index (DI. The frequencies of CD8+IL-17+(Tc17 and CD4+IL-17+(Th17 cells, the mRNA levels of ROR gamma and IL-17, and the levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in lungs or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice were assayed. Here we demonstrated that alveolar enlargement and destruction induced by cigarette smoke exposure were irreversible and that cigarette smokeenhanced these T-cell subsets, and related cytokines were not significantly reduced after smoking cessation. In addition, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in lungs of smoke-exposed mice and cessation mice were positively correlated with emphysematous lesions. More important, the frequencies of Tc17 cells were much higher than Th17 cells, and there was a significantly positive correlation between Th17 and Tc17. These results suggested that Th17/Tc17 infiltration in lungs may play a critical role in sustaining lung inflammation in emphysema. Blocking the abnormally increased numbers of Tc17 and Th17 cells may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for emphysema.

  8. Persistence of Th17/Tc17 cell expression upon smoking cessation in mice with cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Min-Chao; Tang, Hai-Juan; Zhong, Xiao-Ning; Huang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Th17 and Tc17 cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease caused predominantly by cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation is the only intervention in the management of COPD. However, even after cessation, the airway inflammation may be present. In the current study, mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for 24 weeks or 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks of cessation. Morphological changes were evaluated by mean linear intercepts (Lm) and destructive index (DI). The frequencies of CD8(+)IL-17(+)(Tc17) and CD4(+)IL-17(+)(Th17) cells, the mRNA levels of ROR gamma and IL-17, and the levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in lungs or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice were assayed. Here we demonstrated that alveolar enlargement and destruction induced by cigarette smoke exposure were irreversible and that cigarette smokeenhanced these T-cell subsets, and related cytokines were not significantly reduced after smoking cessation. In addition, the frequencies of Th17 and Tc17 cells in lungs of smoke-exposed mice and cessation mice were positively correlated with emphysematous lesions. More important, the frequencies of Tc17 cells were much higher than Th17 cells, and there was a significantly positive correlation between Th17 and Tc17. These results suggested that Th17/Tc17 infiltration in lungs may play a critical role in sustaining lung inflammation in emphysema. Blocking the abnormally increased numbers of Tc17 and Th17 cells may be a reasonable therapeutic strategy for emphysema. PMID:24489575

  9. Counseling Is Effective for Smoking Cessation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Ingrid; Steffenssen, Mia; Bakholdt, Vivi T.;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the efficacy of smoking cessation counseling and the resulting quit rate in patients with head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Predictor...... using National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines. Review Manager 5.3 was used to conduct the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Eight studies involving 1,239 patients were included (3 randomized controlled trials, 3 cohorts, and 2 case series). Smoking cessation was achieved considerably more often...

  10. Smoking cessation via the internet: a randomized clinical trial of an internet intervention as adjuvant treatment in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J; Zehner, Mark E; Smith, Stevens S; Jorenby, Douglas E; Valdez, José A; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B; Gustafson, David H

    2006-12-01

    Internet interventions for smoking cessation are ubiquitous. Yet, to date, there are few randomized clinical trials that gauge their efficacy. This study is a randomized clinical trial (N= 284, n= 140 in the treatment group, n= 144 in the control group) of an Internet smoking cessation intervention. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive either bupropion plus counseling alone, or bupropion and counseling in addition to 12 weeks of access to the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System for Smoking Cessation and Relapse Prevention (CHESS SCRP; a Web site which provided information on smoking cessation as well as support). We found that access to CHESS SCRP was not significantly related to abstinence at the end of the treatment period (OR= 1.13, 95% CI 0.66-2.62) or at 6 months postquit (OR= 1.48, 95% CI 0.66-2.62). However, the number of times participants used CHESS SCRP per week was related to abstinence at both end of treatment (OR= 1.79, 95% CI 1.25-2.56) and at the 6-month follow-up (OR= 1.59, 95% CI 1.06-2.38). Participants with access to CHESS SCRP logged in an average of 33.64 times (SD=30.76) over the 90-day period of access. Rates of CHESS SCRP use did not differ by ethnicity, level of education or gender (all p>.05). In sum, results suggest that participants used CHESS SCRP frequently, CHESS SCRP use was related to success, but the effects in general did not yield intergroup effects. PMID:17491172

  11. Evaluation of 3-day smoking cessation training course for doctors from 38 cities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-mei; XIAO Dan; Robert West; Susan Michie; Ronald Troughton; Peter Hajek; WANG Chen

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization's “Framework Convention on Tobacco Control” came into effect in China in 2006.Since then,a series of tobacco control measures has been undertaken,including the first step to establish a coordinated network of stop-smoking clinics in Chinese hospitals.Training for stop-smoking specialists has been traditionally provided via printed materials.This study evaluated the outcomes of the first two intensive 3-day courses in smoking cessation in China run in collaboration with experts who provide training to UK Specialist Stop Smoking Service.@@Methods Eighty-four doctors from 38 cities in China responsible for stop-smoking treatment in 20 provinces and four autonomous regions participated in the training courses.Participants' knowledge competencies and self-efficacy were assessed before and after the authentication training.@@Results The training significantly improved participants' knowledge,skills and self-efficacy across different domains.Forty-eight participants were finally certified as “smoking cessation specialist”.@@Conclusions The UK model of face-to-face training was acceptable and effective in China.A relatively brief intensive training program can generate significant improvements in skills,knowledge,and readiness to engage in smoking cessation activities.

  12. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T.; Oliffe, John L.; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Carole A. Robinson; Ensom, Mary HH; Okoli, Chizimuzo TC; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-01-01

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women’s tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men’s smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men’s tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary...

  13. Design Considerations for Smoking Cessation Apps: Feedback From Nicotine Dependence Treatment Providers and Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Andrea L; Catz, Sheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Background Hundreds of smoking cessation apps are commercially available, but most are not theory-based or designed to take advantage of mobile technology in ways that could make them more engaging and possibly more effective. Considering input from both clinical experts (who understand best practice nicotine dependence treatment requirements) to inform appropriate content and from smokers (the end users) to express their preferences is important in designing these programs in the future. Objective To assess and compare the opinions of nicotine dependence treatment providers and smokers regarding the design of future smoking cessation apps. Methods We surveyed providers (n=264) and smokers who own smartphones (n=40) to assess their opinions on the importance of 21 app design features. Features represented 5 domains: cost, reputation, privacy and security, content and user experience, and communication. Domains were chosen to reflect best practice treatment, leverage mobile technology to support smoking cessation, and elicit important user preferences. Data were collected between June and July 2015. Results Most providers agreed that mHealth apps hold promise for helping people quit smoking (203/264, 76.9%) and would recommend them to their clients/patients (201/264, 76.1%), especially if the app were empirically validated (236/264, 89.4%). Few providers believe effective cessation apps currently exist (112/264, 42.4%). Few smokers (5/40, 13%) had ever downloaded a smoking cessation app; of the ones who had not, most said they would consider doing so (29/35, 83%). Both respondent groups indicated the following features were very to extremely important to include in cessation apps: free or low cost, keeps information private, matches individual needs and interests, adapts as one’s needs and interests change, helps to manage nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side effects, and allows users to track their progress. Providers and smokers also indicated gaming

  14. Targeting Body Image Schema for Smoking Cessation among College Females: Rationale, Program Description, and Pilot Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Melissa A.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Fava, Joseph L.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking among young adults is a significant public health problem. Despite the negative health effects, many young women smoke for weight and body image reasons. Understanding the factors that prompt young women to initiate and continue smoking is important for designing smoking cessation interventions. The aim of the current article is to outline…

  15. Effects of smoking cessation on hypoxia and its potential impact on radiation treatment effects in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: smoking cessation is often attempted in the context of a lung cancer diagnosis. If cessation causes slowly continuing changes of total lung capacity and vital capacity, this may have consequences for lung volume, results of dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis and targeting precision, in addition to changes in oxygenation, tumor biology (gene expression) and prognosis. Methods: to address the impact of smoking cessation on radiation treatment of lung cancer, a literature review was performed. Results: smoking cessation is associated with important benefits such as improved lung function and a better general health and performance status. In surgically and radiation treated patients, smoking cessation might lead to longer survival and reduced complications. Early data indicate that hypoxia in non-small cell lung cancer should be considered a poor prognostic factor. Yet, specific human data on how hypoxia is influenced by smoking status are not available. The influence of smoking history on the pneumonitis risk is not entirely clear. However, it appears that other factors outweigh the influence of smoking. The short-term effects of smoking cessation on lung function do not appear to cause relevant errors in treatment planning or targeting precision. Yet, no prospective study formally addressing this question was identified. Conclusion: smoking cessation appears to be prognostically beneficial. The role of hypoxia in this context requires more detailed evaluation. (orig.)

  16. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Lawrence

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting participants with confirmed habit of tobacco smoking will be recruited and randomized into three arms to receive either auricular acupressure at five true acupoints (NADA protocol, auricular acupressure at five sham points, or no auricular acupressure at all. Participants having auricular acupressure will exert firm pressure to each acupoint bilaterally via the bead in the attached plasters whenever they feel the urge to smoke. The treatment phase will last for six weeks during which all participants will be assessed weekly to review their smoking log, state of abstinence, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and possible adverse effects including withdrawal reactions and stress levels. At any time, a successful quit date will be defined with continuous abstinence for the following consecutive 7 days. From then on, participants will be evaluated individually for continuous abstinence rate (CAR, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and adverse effects of stress and withdrawal at specified intervals up to 26 weeks. Expectancy of treatment will be assessed with a four-item Borkovec and Nau self-assessment credibility scale during and after intervention. Discussion We incorporate validated outcome measures of smoking cessation into our randomised controlled trial design with the objectives to evaluate the feasibility and possible benefits of self-administered auricular acupressure as a non-invasive alternative to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Trial

  17. Using a Mobile App to Promote Smoking Cessation in Hospitalized Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Cha, Eun Me

    2016-01-01

    Background The potential of interactive health education for preventive health applications has been widely demonstrated. However, use of mobile apps to promote smoking cessation in hospitalized patients has not been systematically assessed. Objective This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a mobile app for the hazards of smoking education delivered via touch screen tablets to hospitalized smokers. Methods Fifty-five consecutive hospitalized smokers were recruited. Patient...

  18. A qualitative evidence synthesis of employees' views of workplace smoking reduction or cessation interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, C; Rick, J; Leaviss, J.; Fishwick, D; BOOTH, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The need to reduce smoking rates is a recognised public health policy issue in many countries. The workplace offers a potential context for offering smokers’ programmes and interventions to assist smoking cessation or reduction. A qualitative evidence synthesis of employees’ views about such programmes might explain why some interventions appear effective and others not, and can be used to develop evidence-based interventions for this population and setting. Methods A qua...

  19. Municipalities Collaborating in Public Health: The Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Pernille Tanggaard Andersen; Hanna Barbara Rasmussen; Walid El Ansari; Christiane Stock

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP) which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP...

  20. Smoking cessation and prevention: an urgent public health priority for American Indians in the Northern Plains.

    OpenAIRE

    Gohdes, Dorothy; Harwell, Todd S.; Cummings, Susan; Moore, Kelly R.; Smilie, Jane G.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of cigarette smoking and smoking cessation among American Indians living on or near Montana's seven reservations to those of non-Indians living in the same geographic region. METHODS: Data for Montana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) respondents (n = 1,722) were compared to data from a BRFSS survey of American Indians living on or near Montana's seven reservations in 1999 (n = 1,000). Respondents were asked a...

  1. Smoking Cessation and Socioeconomic Status: An Update of Existing Evidence from a National Evaluation of English Stop Smoking Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokers from lower socioeconomic groups are less likely to be successful in stopping smoking than more affluent smokers, even after accessing cessation programmes. Data were analysed from 3057 clients of nine services. Routine monitoring data were expanded with CO validated smoking status at 52-week follow-up. Backwards logistic regression modelling was used to consider which factors were most important in explaining the relationship between SES and quitting. The odds ratio of stopping smoking among more affluent clients, compared with more disadvantaged clients, after taking into account design variables only, was 1.85 (95% CI 1.44 to 2.37 which declined to 1.44 (1.11 to 1.87 when all controls were included. The factors that explained more than 10% of the decline in the odds ratio were age, proportion of friends and family who smoked, nicotine dependence, and taking varenicline. A range of factors contribute to lower cessation rates for disadvantaged smokers. Some of these can be modified by improved smoking cessation service provision, but others require contributions from wider efforts to improve material, human, and social capital.

  2. Treating Depressed and Anxious Smokers in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…

  3. Smoking Cessation (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-23

    Cigarette smoking remains a leading cause of major health problems and is linked to nearly a half million deaths each year. In this podcast, Dr. Brian King discusses the health risks of smoking and the importance of quitting.  Created: 1/23/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/23/2014.

  4. Smoking Cessation (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-23

    Smoking remains a leading cause of major health problems and is linked to nearly a half a million deaths each year. This podcast discusses the importance of quitting smoking to significantly reduce your risk for serious health problems.  Created: 1/23/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/23/2014.

  5. Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation for American Indians: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireman Theresa I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of preventable death among American Indian and Alaska Natives, AI/ANs. Two out of every five AI/AN will die from tobacco-related diseases if the current smoking rates of AI/ANs (40.8% persist. Currently, there is no proven, effective culturally-tailored smoking cessation program designed specifically for a heterogeneous population of AI. The primary aim of this group randomized clinical trial is to test the efficacy of "All Nations Breath of Life" (ANBL program compared to a non-tailored "Current Best Practices" smoking cessation program among AI smokers. Methods We will randomize 56 groups (8 smokers per group to the tailored program or non-tailored program for a total sample size of 448 American Indian smokers. All participants in the proposed study will be offered pharmacotherapy, regardless of group assignment. This study is the first controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a culturally-tailored smoking cessation program for American Indians. If the intervention is successful, the potential health impact is significant because the prevalence of smoking is the highest in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01106456

  6. The Systematic Development of an Internet-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention for Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Peter; Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Skov-Ettrup, Lise;

    2016-01-01

    that "social cognitive theory," the "transtheoretical model/stages of change," "self-regulation theory," and "appreciative inquiry" were relevant theories for smoking cessation interventions. From these theories, we selected modeling/behavioral journalism, feedback, planning coping responses/if-then statements......ITALIC! Objectives The objective of this project was to determine whether intervention mapping is a suitable strategy for developing an Internet- and text message-based smoking cessation intervention. ITALIC! Method We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programs....... After a needs assessment, we identified important changeable determinants of cessation behavior, specified objectives for the intervention, selected theoretical methods for meeting our objectives, and operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. ITALIC! Results We found...

  7. Diagnóstico y tratamiento psicosocial del tabaquismo Smoking cessation: Diagnosis and psychosocial intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO BELLO S

    2009-01-01

    . The current treatment of smoking has two pillars: psycho-social intervention and pharmacological therapy. The current interventions are based on two theoretical models that try to understand changes of smoking behavior: The Stages of Change and PRIME Theory. Brief intervention is a strategy internationally approved because of its population impact on smoking cessation. The methodology used is named "5A's": Ask, Advise, Asses, Assist and Arrange follow-up. For not motivated patients at the intervention time it can be used the "5R 's" methodology: Relevance, Risks, Rewards, Roadblocks and Repetition. The actual approach used in smokers management, is Motivational Interview, which tries to produce the behavioral change from inside and not imposing it. Its four tools are: express empathy, develop discrepancy, roll with resistance and support self efficacy. The useful psychosocial strategies, in which exists consensus, are: 1 Give practical counseling of problem solving and skills training to face risky situations; 2 Intra-treatment support, encouraging attempts of smoking cessation and communicate caring and concern.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of face-to-face smoking cessation interventions: A dynamic modeling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.L. Feenstra (Talitha); H.H. Hamberg-Van Reenen (Heleen); R.T. Hoogenveen (Rudolf); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of five face-to-face smoking cessation interventions (i.e., minimal counseling by a general practitioner (GP) with, or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), intensive counseling with NRT, or bupropion, and telephone counseling) in term

  9. Predictors of smoking reduction and cessation in a cohort of danish moderate and heavy smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Prescott, E; Osler, M;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the extent and gender distribution of unassisted tobacco reduction and cessation in a cohort of moderate and heavy smokers and to identify possible predictor variables associated with these changes in smoking behavior. METHODS: This was a prospective...

  10. A Review of Motivational Smoking Cessation Programs for Adolescents in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Leigh; McClain, Mary-Catherine; Hurst, Vicie; Grossman, Steffanie; Dehili, Vincent; Flagg, Scott; Marshall, Diana; Prevatt, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a qualitative overview of school-based smoking cessation programs for adolescents, with a focus on motivationally based programs. Project-Ex and Not-On-Tobacco are two heavily studied interventions with substantial empirical support. Other programs such as use of Motivational Interviewing with the stage of change model have…

  11. A Culturally Enhanced Smoking Cessation Study among Chinese and Korean Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn; Shive, Steven E.; Su, Xuefen; Toubbeh, Jamil I.; Miller, Suzanne; Tan, Yin

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of and presents preliminary findings on a culturally enhanced, theory-driven smoking cessation intervention for adult Chinese and Korean smokers. A one-group pre-post test design was used. The intervention consisted of behavioral and nicotine replacement strategies. Participants (N=43) were recruited through…

  12. Effects of an Intensive Depression-Focused Intervention for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinciripini, Paul M.; Blalock, Janice A.; Minnix, Jennifer A.; Robinson, Jason D.; Brown, Victoria L.; Lam, Cho; Wetter, David W.; Schreindorfer, Lisa; McCullough, James P., Jr.; Dolan-Mullen, Patricia; Stotts, Angela L.; Karam-Hage, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate a depression-focused treatment for smoking cessation in pregnant women versus a time and contact health education control. We hypothesized that the depression-focused treatment would lead to improved abstinence and reduced depressive symptoms among women with high levels of depressive…

  13. Smoking Cessation: An Integral Part of Lung Cancer Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Dubey, Sarita; Prochaska, Jodi J.

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the US. About 50% of lung cancer patients are current smokers at the time of diagnosis and up to 83% continue to smoke after diagnosis. A recent study suggests that people who continue to smoke after a diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer almost double their risk of dying. Despite a growing body of evidence that continued smoking by patients after a lung cancer diagnosis is linked with less effective treatment and a poorer prognosis, the bel...

  14. Genetic polymorphisms in dopamine-related genes and smoking cessation in women: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinouanprachan Sengkeo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes involved in dopaminergic neurotransmission have been suggested as candidates for involvement in smoking behavior. We hypothesized that alleles associated with reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission would be more common in continuing smokers than among women who quit smoking. Methods The study included 593 women aged 26–65 years who participated in a twelve month smoking cessation trial conducted in 1993–1994. Participants were contacted three years after the trial to obtain updated smoking history and biological specimens. Seven polymorphisms were assessed in genes involved in dopamine synthesis (tyrosine hydoxylase [TH], receptor activation (dopamine receptors [DRD2, DRD3, DRD4], reuptake (dopamine transporter [SLC6A3], and metabolism (catechol-o-methyltransferase [COMT]. Smoking cessation was assessed as "short-term" quitting (abstinence for the seven days before the conclusion of the trial and "long-term" quitting (abstinence for the six months before a subsequent interview conducted several years later. Results We observed no association of any polymorphism with either short- or long-term quitting. Although some relative risk estimates were consistent with weak associations, either the direction of effect was opposite of that hypothesized, or results of the short- and long-term cessation endpoints differed. However, effect modification on smoking cessation was observed between DRD2 Taq1A and SLC6A3 VNTR polymorphisms, DRD3 Ser/Gly and d,1-fenfluramine, and DRD4 VNTR and d,1-fenfluramine. Conclusion Although these results fail to support prior findings of independent associations of these polymorphisms with smoking status, our exploratory findings suggestive of gene-gene and gene-treatment interactions warrants further investigation.

  15. Introducing smoking cessation to Indonesian males treated for tuberculosis: The challenges of low-moderate level smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mark; Padmawati, Siwi; Ng, Nawi

    2016-03-01

    There is a dearth of information about the smoking habits of people currently and formerly treated for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In this paper we describe research carried out in Indonesia between 2007 and 2011 designed to investigate both the impact of TB-specific quit smoking messages in the TB clinic and at home, and shifts in patterns of smoking among those formerly treated for TB who continue to smoke. The results of a modest two-arm smoking cessation trial involving 87 patients undergoing Directly Observed Therapy Short course treatment (DOTS) for TB are presented. In one arm patients received a TB-specific quit smoking message delivered by doctors and a TB and smoking educational booklet and quit smoking guide. In the second, family support arm, patients also received on-going cessation messages delivered by family members trained to be DOTS supporters. The study followed patients twice during their six months of DOTS treatment and twice six months post treatment. Both arms of the study reduced rates of smoking during and following TB treatment significantly with 73% of patients in the doctor arm and 71% in the family support arm remaining quit at the end of the treatment (month 6). When complete abstinence at six months after treatment was taken as a primary outcome measure, no statistical difference was found in the effectiveness of the two arms of the intervention. Notably, 67% of higher-level smokers at baseline and 33% of low-moderate level smokers at baseline quit entirely. Many of those who resumed smoking did so at low-moderate levels (treatment maintained their abstinence six months after treatment, 13% resumed smoking at a low-moderate level (smoking at a higher level. A purposeful sample of 15 patients who shifted from heavy smoking (20-40 cigarettes per day) to low-moderate levels of smoking post treatment were followed for an additional 12 months. We report on their ability to sustain lower levels of smoking

  16. Empowering smokers with a web-assisted tobacco intervention to use prescription smoking cessation medications: a feasibility trial

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Peter; Hussain, Sarwar; Voci, Sabrina; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Background Varenicline and bupropion, efficacious smoking cessation medications, have had suboptimal impact due to barriers at the patient, practitioner and system level. This study explored the feasibility of a web-assisted tobacco intervention offering free prescription smoking cessation medication by mail if the smoker visited a physician for authorization. Methods Adult Ontarians, smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily, intending to quit within 30 days, with no contraindications to bupropio...

  17. Smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in an Asian population: Findings from the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, K-Y; Seow, A.; Koh, W-P; Shankar, A.; Lee, H-P; Yu, M C

    2010-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation is an important strategy for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco, particularly in the prevention of lung cancer; however, prospective data on the impact of smoking cessation on lung cancer risk in Asian populations are limited. Methods: We studied a population-based cohort of Chinese men and women aged 45–74 years – participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Information on smoking, lifestyle and dietary habits was collected at the time of recruitment...

  18. Predictors of long-term smoking cessation: results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleta Dorota

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expanding the information on determinants of smoking cessation is crucial for developing and implementing more effective tobacco control measures at the national as well as European levels. Data on smoking cessation and its social correlates among adults from middle-income countries of Central and Eastern Europe are still poorly reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of socio-demographic indicators with long term tobacco smoking cessation (quit smoking for at least one year prior to interview among adults. Moreover, we evaluated motives for giving up smoking from former smokers. Methods Data on former as well as current smokers’ socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics were derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. GATS collected data on a representative sample of 7,840 individuals including 1,206 individuals who met the criteria of long-term smoking cessation and 2,233 current smokers. Smoking cessation rate was calculated as the number of former smokers divided by the number of ever smokers. Logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI of the broad number of variables on successful cessation of smoking. Results Among females the quit rate was 30.4% compared to 37.9% in males (p  Conclusion Results indicated that smoking cessation policies focused on younger age groups are vital for curbing tobacco epidemic in Poland and should become a public health main concern. There is also the need for interventions to raise awareness on smoking health risks and quitting benefits are crucial to increase cessation potential among adult smokers. Nevertheless further effort needs to be done to prevent smoking uptake.

  19. Reciprocal associations between smoking cessation and depression in older smokers:Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Shahab, Lion; Gilchrist, Gail; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Shankar, Aparna; West, Elizabeth; West, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a particular problem in older people and it is important to know how it affects and is affected by smoking cessation. Aims To identify reciprocal, longitudinal relationships between smoking cessation and depression among older smokers. Method Across four waves, covering six years (2002-2008), changes in smoking status and depression, measured using the 8-item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were assessed among recent ex-smokers and smokers (n = 2375...

  20. Reciprocal associations between smoking cessation and depression in older smokers: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Shahab, L; Gilchrist, G.; Hagger-Johnson, G.; Shankar, A; West, E; West, R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Depression is a particular problem in older people and it is important to know how it affects and is affected by smoking cessation. Aims: To identify reciprocal, longitudinal relationships between smoking cessation and depression among older smokers. Methods: Across four waves, covering six years (2002–2008), changes in smoking status and depression, measured using the 8–item Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, were assessed among recent ex-smokers and smokers (N=2,...

  1. Smoking patterns and predictors of smoking cessation in elderly populations in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, M.; Mehio-Sibai, A.; El-Chemaly, S.

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate smoking patterns in an elderly, low-income population and to identify predictors of smoking cessation, in addition to analyzing the importance of smoking in relation to other risk factors for hospitalization. DESIGN The data were part of an urban health study conducted among 740 individuals aged ≥60 years in three suburban communities of low socio-economic status in Beirut, one of them a refugee camp. A detailed interview schedule was administered that included comprehensive social and health information. RESULTS The overall prevalence of current smokers was 28.1%. Almost half of the group were ever smokers, of whom 44% had quit smoking when they experienced negative health effects. Having at least one chronic illness and having a functional disability significantly increased the odds of smoking cessation. In addition, being a former smoker increased the likelihood of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS This study is of particular importance, as it has implications for similar low-income and refugee communities in the region and elsewhere. There is a need for more concerted efforts by public health officials to target elderly individuals as a group for smoking cessation interventions, particularly now that mortality and health benefits have been well documented. RÉSUMÉ OBJECTIF Investiguer les types de tabagisme dans une population âgée à faibles revenus et identifier les facteurs prédictifs de l’arrêt du tabagisme, tout en analysant l’importance du tabagisme par rapport aux autres facteurs de risque d’hospitalisation. SCHÉMA Les données constituent une fraction de l’étude de santé urbaine menée chez 740 personnes âgées de ≥60 ans à Beyrouth dans trois collectivités suburbaines à faible statut socio-économique dont une des trois se situe dans un camp de réfugiés. Un schéma détaillé d’interview a été utilisé comportant des informations complètes sur le plan social et celui de la santé. R

  2. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Robert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enrolled 319 healthy smokers aged 20-65 years at two occupational health centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Most of them (81% expressed an interest to quit rather than just reduce their smoking. Study products were used ad libitum throughout the 48-week study period. The main study objective during the first 24 weeks was smoking reduction. The primary end-point was defined as a biologically verified reduction of ≥ 50% in the average number of smoked cigarettes per day during week 21-24 compared to baseline. During week 25-48 participants were actively instructed to stop smoking completely. Outcome measures of biologically verified, complete smoking cessation included 1-week point prevalence rates at clinical visits after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, as well as 4-, 12- and 24-week continued cessation rates at the week 36 and 48 visits. Results At the week 24 visit, the proportion of participants who achieved the protocol definition of a ≥ 50% smoking reduction was similar in the two treatment groups. However, the proportion that reported more extreme reductions (≥ 75% was statistically significantly higher in the snus group than in the placebo group (p Conclusions Swedish snus could promote smoking cessation among smokers in Serbia, that is, in a cultural setting without traditional use of oral, smokeless tobacco. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00601042

  3. Online Social Networks and Smoking Cessation: A Scientific Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L.; Byron, M. Justin; Niaura, Raymond S.; Abrams, David B.; ,

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health. Objective Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on onl...

  4. Bayesian Inference for Smoking Cessation with a Latent Cure State

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Sheng; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Thomas A Louis; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2009-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to modeling dynamic smoking addiction behavior processes when cure is not directly observed due to censoring. Subject-specific probabilities model the stochastic transitions among three behavioral states: smoking, transient quitting, and permanent quitting (absorbent state). A multivariate normal distribution for random effects is used to account for the potential correlation among the subject-specific transition probabilities. Inference is conducted using a Bay...

  5. Social Network Behavior and Engagement Within a Smoking Cessation Facebook Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Lewis, Heather; Perotte, Adler; Galica, Kasia; Dreyer, Lindy; Griffith, Christopher; Schwarz, Mary; Yun, Christopher; Patrick, Heather; Coa, Kisha

    2016-01-01

    Background Social media platforms are increasingly being used to support individuals in behavior change attempts, including smoking cessation. Examining the interactions of participants in health-related social media groups can help inform our understanding of how these groups can best be leveraged to facilitate behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of participation, self-reported smoking cessation length, and interactions within the National Cancer Institutes’ Facebook community for smoking cessation support. Methods Our sample consisted of approximately 4243 individuals who interacted (eg, posted, commented) on the public Smokefree Women Facebook page during the time of data collection. In Phase 1, social network visualizations and centrality measures were used to evaluate network structure and engagement. In Phase 2, an inductive, thematic qualitative content analysis was conducted with a subsample of 500 individuals, and correlational analysis was used to determine how participant engagement was associated with self-reported session length. Results Between February 2013 and March 2014, there were 875 posts and 4088 comments from approximately 4243 participants. Social network visualizations revealed the moderator’s role in keeping the community together and distributing the most active participants. Correlation analyses suggest that engagement in the network was significantly inversely associated with cessation status (Spearman correlation coefficient = −0.14, P=.03, N=243). The content analysis of 1698 posts from 500 randomly selected participants identified the most frequent interactions in the community as providing support (43%, n=721) and announcing number of days smoke free (41%, n=689). Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of the moderator for network engagement and provide helpful insights into the patterns and types of interactions participants are engaging in. This study adds knowledge of how the

  6. Evaluating an Adaptive and Interactive mHealth Smoking Cessation and Medication Adherence Program: A Randomized Pilot Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L; Bradley, Katharine; An, Lawrence C; Catz, Sheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions hold great promise for helping smokers quit since these programs can have wide reach and facilitate access to comprehensive, interactive, and adaptive treatment content. However, the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of these programs remain largely untested. Objective To assess feasibility and acceptability of the My Mobile Advice Program (MyMAP) smoking cessation program and estimate its effects on smoking cessation and medication adherence to inform future research planning. Methods Sixty-six smokers ready to quit were recruited from a large regional health care system and randomized to one of two mHealth programs: (1) standard self-help including psychoeducational materials and guidance how to quit smoking or (2) an adaptive and interactive program consisting of the same standard mHealth self-help content as controls received plus a) real-time, adaptively tailored advice for managing nicotine withdrawal symptoms and medication side-effects and b) asynchronous secure messaging with a cessation counselor. Participants in both arms were also prescribed a 12-week course of varenicline. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 2 weeks post-target quit date (TQD), 3 months post-TQD, and 5 months post-TQD. Indices of program feasibility and acceptability included acceptability ratings, utilization metrics including use of each MyMAP program component (self-help content, secure messaging, and adaptively tailored advice), and open-ended feedback from participants. Smoking abstinence and medication adherence were also assessed to estimate effects on these treatment outcomes. Results Utilization data indicated the MyMAP program was actively used, with higher mean program log-ins by experimental than control participants (10.6 vs 2.7, Phttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02136498 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6jT3UMFLj) PMID:27489247

  7. Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrick Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders. Methods We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6 scores and duration of mental illness. Results The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking. Conclusions The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco

  8. A mixed-method systematic review and meta-analysis of mental health professionals' attitudes toward smoking and smoking cessation amongst people with mental illnesses

    OpenAIRE

    Sheals, K.; Tombor, I.; McNEILL, A.; Shahab, L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: People with mental illnesses and substance abuse disorders are important targets for smoking cessation interventions. Mental health professionals (MHPs) are ideally placed to deliver interventions, but their attitudes may prevent this. This systematic review therefore aimed to identify and estimate quantitatively MHPs attitudes towards smoking and main barriers for providing smoking cessation support and to explore these attitudes in-depth through qualitative synthesis. M...

  9. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis-associated Pulmonary Hypertension Showing a Drastic Improvement Following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Atsuhiko; Hidaka, Kouko

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare, smoking-related, interstitial lung disease, and pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with mortality. We herein report a case of PLCH complicated by severe PH and respiratory impairment. After developing PH, the patient displayed a cystic pattern on chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). This, in turn, corresponded with the scarring stage of PLCH. However, the patient's PH and respiratory impairment improve dramatically following smoking cessation. PLCH patients with a cystic pattern on chest HRCT may still be able to improve their PH and respiratory impairment when they are able to quit smoking. PMID:26935369

  10. Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation for American Indians: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Shireman Theresa I; Yeh Hung-Wen; Greiner Allen K; Beebe Laura A; Faseru Babalola; Choi Won S; Talawyma Myrietta; Cully Lance; Kaur Baljit; Daley Christine M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of preventable death among American Indian and Alaska Natives, AI/ANs. Two out of every five AI/AN will die from tobacco-related diseases if the current smoking rates of AI/ANs (40.8%) persist. Currently, there is no proven, effective culturally-tailored smoking cessation program designed specifically for a heterogeneous population of AI. The primary aim of this group randomized clinical trial is to test the efficacy of "All Nation...

  11. Making the journey with me:a qualitative study of experiences of a bespoke mental health smoking cessation intervention for service users with serious mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, Sarah; Planner, Claire; Bradshaw, Tim; Peckham, Emily; Man, Mei-See; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is one of the major modifiable risk factors contributing to early mortality for people with serious mental illness. However, only a minority of service users access smoking cessation interventions and there are concerns about the appropriateness of generic stop-smoking services for this group. The SCIMITAR (Smoking Cessation Intervention for Severe Mental Ill-Health Trial) feasibility study explored the effectiveness of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention delivered by...

  12. Comparative analysis of smoking cessation smartphone applications available in 2012 versus 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; Kotz, Daniel; Michie, Susan; van Schayck, Onno C.P.; Sheard, David; Selladurai, Abiram; West, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Smartphone applications (apps) offer a potentially cost-effective and a wide-reach aid to smoking cessation. In 2012, a content analysis of smoking cessation apps suggested that most apps did not adopt behaviour change techniques (BCTs), which according to previous research had suggested would promote higher success rates in quitting smoking. This study examined whether or not, this situation had changed by 2014 for free smoking cessation apps available in the Apple App Store. It also compared the use of engagement and ease-of-use features between the two time points. Methods 137 free apps available in the Apple App Sore in 2014 were coded using an established framework for the presence or absence of evidence-based BCTs, and engagement and ease-of-use features. The results from the 2014 data were compared with a similar exercise conducted on 83 free apps available in 2012. Results BCTs supporting identity change, rewarding abstinence and advising on changing routines were less prevalent in 2014 as compared with 2012 (14.6% vs. 42.2%, 18.2% vs. 48.2%, and 17.5% vs. 24.1%, respectively). Advice on coping with cravings and advice on the use of stop-smoking medication were more prevalent in 2014 as compared with 2012 (27.7% vs. 20.5% and 14.6% vs 3.6%, respectively). The use of recognised engagement features was less common in 2014 than in 2012 (45.3% vs. 69.6%) while ease-of-use features remained very high (94.5% vs. 82.6%). Conclusion There was little evidence of improvement in the use of evidence-based BCTs in free smoking cessation iPhone-based apps between 2012 and 2014. PMID:26950256

  13. Relative risk for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events after smoking cessation: 6–9 years excess risk in individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelein John JP

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking history is often di- or trichotomized into for example "never, ever or current smoking". However, smoking must be treated as a time-dependent covariate when lifetime data is available. In particular, individuals do not smoke at birth, there is usually a wide variation with respect to smoking history, and smoking cessation must also be considered. Methods Therefore we analyzed smoking as a time-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular atherosclerotic events in a cohort of 2400 individuals with familial hypercholesterolemia who were followed from birth until 2004. Excess risk after smoking-cessation was modelled in a Cox regression model with linear and exponential decaying trends. The model with the highest likelihood value was used to estimate the decay of the excess risk of smoking. Results Atherosclerotic events were observed in 779 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and 1569 individuals had a smoking history. In the model with the highest likelihood value the risk reduction of smoking after cessation follows a linear pattern with time and it appears to take 6 to 9 years before the excess risk is reduced to zero. The risk of atherosclerotic events due to smoking was estimated as 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5; 2.9. Conclusion It was concluded that excess risk due to smoking declined linearly after cessation in at least six to nine years.

  14. The nicotine addiction and the assessment of the effectiveness of smoking cessation in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szpringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking cigarettes is currently one of the most significant health and social issues. The consequences of smoking affect both individuals as well as entire society. Addiction to nicotine has been recognised as a major environmental factor fostering numerous diseases. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of and motives for quitting smoking among the adult inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski. The authors were also interested in the level of nicotine addiction. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 209 inhabitants of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski who were former or ongoing smokers. The study employed a survey technique, with the authors’ own questionnaire as a study tool. The Fagerström test determining addiction to nicotine (nicotine dependence was used too. Results and conclusions: The study revealed that smoking is a serious social issue. The majority of respondents had quit smoking (63.1%, 19.1% had never made any attempt to quit, whereas in 17.7% of respondents the cessation was unsuccessful and they returned to smoking. All respondents were aware of health-affecting consequences of smoking, but were unable to list more than four smoking-related diseases (lung and tongue cancers, arteriosclerosis, and hypertension. Attempts to cease smoking were made by 81,0% of the survey participants, mostly for health and financial reasons (42.0% and 21.3% respectively. Cessation of smoking resulted in numerous side effects, such as irritability (36.4%, outbursts of anger (20.7%, gaining weight (20.4% or binge eating of sweets (11.7%. The factor preventing respondents from quitting smoking was stress (29,0%.

  15. Acute post cessation smoking. A strong predictive factor for metabolic syndrome among adult Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the influence of tobacco exposure in the development of metabolic syndrome (MS) in the adult Saudi population. Six hundred and sixty-four adults (305 males and 359 females) aged 25-70 years were included in this cross-sectional study conducted at the King Abdul Aziz University Hospital, between June 2006 and May 2007. We classified the participants into non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers (defined as complete cessation for 1-2 years). All subjects were screened for the presence of MS using the modified American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and World Health Organization (WHO) definitions. Metabolic syndrome was highest among ex-smokers regardless of definition used. Relative risk for ex-smokers (95% CI: 2.23, 1.06-4.73) was more than twice in harboring MS as compared to non-smokers (95% CI: 2.78, 1.57-4.92) (p=0.009). Acute post-cessation smoking is a strong predictor for MS among male and female Arabs. Smoking cessation programs should include a disciplined lifestyle and dietary intervention to counteract the MS-augmenting side-effect of smoking cessation. (author)

  16. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  17. [An inter-university diploma on tobacco and smoking cessation: pedagogical evaluation and professional impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louam, A; Jung, F; Kruchen, A; Quoix, E

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the post-graduate degree course on tobacco and smoking cessation is to train professionals who have dedicated themselves to the fight against tobacco and smoking. An educational assessment of the degree programme was carried out in order to evaluate its impact on practice. A questionnaire was mailed to 60 students registered in the programme at Strasbourg University between 1997 and 2002 (with a response rate of 71.6%). The evaluation was able to shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the teaching in the programme and the level of student satisfaction. The tobacco control and smoking cessation interventions of the students before and after completing the course were compared in order to assess the impact on their professional practice. The programme's participants came from a variety of professions including medical doctors (74.4%), paramedical staff (16.3%) and other professions (6.9%). The students acknowledged the course's high level of quality (the teachers were appreciated, and the programme was comprehensive). The structure of the course was operational; however, the students admitted that they felt that the practical application and the interactive aspects of the learning (such as case studies, role playing, training in a specific smoking cessation intervention were insufficient. They also noted a lack of emphasis on treatments that do not rely on pharmacotherapy such as behavioural therapy and psychological support. Tobacco cessation related problems or side effects of quitting like weight gain, anxiety or insomnia were not appropriately developed. The majority of students were very satisfied with the theoretical basis of the curriculum and with their internship in a tobacco cessation consultation intervention. Today, 69% of the students trained are working in smoking cessation and tobacco control. They have been able to diversify their activities, going from prevention to tobacco cessation, and vice versa. Course tracks focusing on

  18. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  19. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  20. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there ...

  1. Real-life effectiveness of smoking-cessation treatments in general practice clinics in Denmark. The Escape Smoke project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Bo; Spillemose, Heidi; Nielsen, Gerda;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The smoking prevalence has not decreased in the last years in Denmark. General practice (GP) offers smoking cessation (SC) treatment. Studies of real-life effectiveness of daily practice SC-activities from the GP-setting opposed to efficacy results from randomized clinical trials are...... few. The study aim was to evaluate the real-life effectiveness of SC-treatments for daily smokers among Danish GP-clinics. METHODS: In a multi-centre-based observational study design Danish GP-clinics with prior SC-activity recruited daily smokers motivated for quitting. As per usual clinical practice...

  2. “Hike up yer Skirt, and Quit.” What Motivates and Supports Smoking Cessation in Builders and Renovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Bercovitz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction-related occupations have very high smoking prevalence rates and are an identified priority population for efforts to promote cessation. This study sought to identify the smoking cessation supports and services which best suited this workforce group, and to identify gaps in reach of preventive health services. We performed qualitative text analysis on pre-existing conversations about smoking cessation among workers in this sector. The material appeared on a discussion forum about residential construction from 1998 and 2011. Roughly 250 unique user names appeared in these discussions. The qualitative analysis addressed knowledge, motivation, environmental influences, and positive and negative experiences with supports for cessation. Self-identified smokers tended to want to quit and described little social value in smoking. Actual quit attempts were attributed to aging and tangible changes in health and fitness. Peer-to-peer social support for cessation was evident. Advice given was to avoid cigarettes and smokers, to focus on personal skills, personal commitment, and the benefits of cessation (beyond the harms from smoking. Many discussants had received medical support for cessation, but behavioural counselling services appeared underutilized. Our findings support efforts toward more complete bans on workplace smoking and increased promotion of available behavioural support services among dispersed blue-collar workers.

  3. Assessment of professional competency and need of smoking cessation counseling for dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani A. Dable

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the smoking prevalence among dental students and to assess the need for promoting tobacco education and intervention by exploring their knowledge about smoking related risk factors. The study also examined the attitudes and practices of the students toward tobacco consumption, and their responsibilities toward the community. Methods: In total, 53 male students participated in the study (21 juniors and 32 seniors. The training program was divided into three modules, and the questionnaire was administered before and after the counseling sessions, which provided the comparative data on the students’ views about smoking cessation. Results: The most commonly practiced mode of tobacco consumption was found to be cigarette smoking (90.6 %, while a few consumed Gutkha (9.4%. All the junior students (100% reported to have been benefitted by the counseling program, while 68.8% of the students from the senior group reported the same. Bivariate statistical analysis was conducted using the Pearson’s chi-square test for testing the difference across the age groups. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Conclusion: Curbing tobacco influence on dental students in their initial days can ensure a smoke-free life for them, as well as prevents them from feeling embarrassed or experiencing a lack of confidence while seeing their patients. Thus, tobacco education and intervention programs can motivate the students and increase their potential to be credible advisors regarding smoking cessation.

  4. The influence of in-pregnancy smoking cessation programmes on partner quitting and women's social support mobilization: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN89131885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Olga

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking cessation interventions in pregnancy could influence a woman's social behaviour and her partner's smoking behaviour, but this has not been examined in any published randomized trials. Method 918 women smoking at booking for antenatal care were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial of three interventions: standard care, self-help manual and enhanced stage-based counselling, or self-help manual, enhanced stage-based counselling and use of an interactive computer program. The outcomes were change in social support received by women between booking for maternity care and 30 weeks gestation and 10 days postpartum and reported cessation in the woman's partner at these times. Results Few pregnant women's partners stopped smoking (4.1% at 30 weeks of gestation and 5.8% at 10 days postpartum and the probability of quitting did not differ significantly by trial arm. Women's scores on the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors showed a slight decline from booking to 30 weeks gestation, and a slight increase to 10 days postpartum, but these changes did not differ significantly by trial arm. Conclusion The stage-based interventions tested in this trial aimed partly to influence women's mobilization of support and might have influenced partners' quitting, but there was no evidence that they did so. Given that women and their partners often stopped smoking together, future interventions to prevent smoking in pregnant women could encourage both partners to quit together.

  5. Quit in General Practice: a cluster randomised trial of enhanced in-practice support for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwar Nicholas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study will test the uptake and effectiveness of a flexible package of smoking cessation support provided primarily by the practice nurse (PN and tailored to meet the needs of a diversity of patients. Methods/Design This study is a cluster randomised trial, with practices allocated to one of three groups 1 Quit with Practice Nurse 2 Quitline referral 3 GP usual care. PNs from practices randomised to the intervention group will receive a training course in smoking cessation followed by access to mentoring. GPs from practices randomised to the Quitline referral group will receive information about the study and the process of written referral and GPs in the usual care group will receive information about the study. Eligible patients are those aged 18 and over presenting to their GP who are daily or weekly smokers and who are able to give informed consent. Patients on low incomes in all three groups will be able to access free nicotine patches. Primary outcomes are sustained abstinence and point prevalence abstinence at the three month and 12 month follow-up points; and incremental cost effectiveness ratios at 12 months. Process evaluation on the reach and acceptability of the intervention approached will be collected through Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI with patients and semi-structured interviews with PNs and GPs. The primary analysis will be by intention to treat. Cessation outcomes will be compared between the three arms at three months and 12 month follow-up using multiple logistic regression. The incremental cost effectiveness ratios will be estimated for the 12 month quit rate for the intervention groups compared to usual care and to each other. Analysis of qualitative data on process outcomes will be based on thematic analysis. Discussion High quality evidence on effectiveness of practice nurse interventions is needed to inform health policy on development of practice nurse roles. If effective

  6. Acupressure for smoking cessation – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moody Russell C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a serious risk to health: several therapies are available to assist those who wish to stop. Smokers who approach publicly funded stop-smoking clinics in the UK are currently offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or bupropion, and group behaviour therapy, for which there is evidence of effectiveness. Acupuncture and acupressure are also used to help smokers, though a systematic review of the evidence of their effectiveness was inconclusive. The aim of this pilot project was to determine the feasibility of a study to test acupressure as an adjunct to one anti-smoking treatment currently offered, and to inform the design of the study. Methods An open randomised controlled pilot study was conducted within the six week group programme offered by the Smoking Advice Service in Plymouth, UK. All participants received the usual treatment with NRT and group behavioural therapy, and were randomised into three groups: group A with two auricular acupressure beads, group B with one bead, and group C with no additional therapy. Participants were taught to press the beads when they experienced cravings. Beads were worn in one ear for four weeks, being replaced as necessary. The main outcome measures assessed in the pilot were success at quitting (expired CO ≤ 9 ppm, the dose of NRT used, and the rating of withdrawal symptoms using the Mood and Symptoms Scale. Results From 49 smokers attending four clinics, 24 volunteered to participate, 19 attended at least once after quitting, and seven remained to the final week. Participants who dropped out reported significantly fewer previous quit attempts, but no other significant differences. Participants reported stimulating the beads as expected during the initial days after quitting, but most soon reduced the frequency of stimulation. The discomfort caused by the beads was minor, and there were no significant side effects. There were technical problems with adhesiveness of

  7. The QUIT-PRIMO provider-patient Internet-delivered smoking cessation referral intervention: a cluster-randomized comparative effectiveness trial: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Daniel E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although screening for tobacco use is increasing with electronic health records and standard protocols, other tobacco-control activities, such as referral of patients to cessation resources, is quite low. In the QUIT-PRIMO study, an online referral portal will allow providers to enter smokers' email addresses into the system. Upon returning home, the smokers will receive automated emails providing education about tobacco cessation and encouragement to use the patient smoking cessation website (with interactive tools, educational resources, motivational email messages, secure messaging with a tobacco treatment specialist, and online support group. Methods The informatics system will be evaluated in a comparative effectiveness trial of 160 community-based primary care practices, cluster-randomized at the practice level. In the QUIT-PRIMO intervention, patients will be provided a paper information-prescription referral and then "e-referred" to the system. In the comparison group, patients will receive only the paper-based information-prescription referral with the website address. Once patients go to the website, they are subsequently randomized within practices to either a standard patient smoking cessation website or an augmented version with access to a tobacco treatment specialist online, motivational emails, and an online support group. We will compare intervention and control practice participation (referral rates and patient participation (proportion referred who go to the website. We will then compare the effectiveness of the standard and augmented patient websites. Discussion Our goal is to evaluate an integrated informatics solution to increase access to web-delivered smoking cessation support. We will analyze the impact of this integrated system in terms of process (provider e-referral and patient login and patient outcomes (six-month smoking cessation. Trial Registration Web-delivered Provider Intervention for

  8. Reduced probability of smoking cessation in men with increasing number of job losses and partnership breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Larsen, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ulla;

    2011-01-01

    questionnaire. Results The probability of smoking cessation decreased with the number of job losses (ranging from 1 OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.64) to 3+ OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.55)) and of broken partnerships (ranging from 1 OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.85) to 3+ OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.63)). Furthermore......–23 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.52)). Those who never cohabited and experienced one or more job losses had a particular low chance of smoking cessation (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.30). Conclusion The numbers of job losses and of broken partnerships were both inversely associated with probability of...

  9. The effectiveness of telephone counselling and internet- and text-message-based support for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Dalum, Peter; Bech, Mickael;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling, reactive telephone counselling and an internet- and text messages-based intervention with a self-help booklet for smoking cessation. DESIGN: A randomised controlled trial with equal allocation to four conditions: 1) Proactive...... telephone counselling (n=452), 2) Reactive telephone counselling (n=453), 3) Internet- and text-message-based intervention (n=453), 4) Self-help booklet (control) (n=452) SETTING: Denmark PARTICIPANTS: Smokers who had previously participated in two national health surveys were invited. Eligibility criteria...... counselling group compared with the booklet group (7.3% vs. 3.6%, OR=2.2 (95% CI 1.2-4.0)), There was no clear evidence of a difference in prolonged abstinence between the reactive telephone counselling group or the internet-based smoking cessation program and the booklet group: 1.8% vs. 3.6%, OR=0.8 (95% CI...

  10. Psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyego Mychell Moreira-Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among all causes of preventable deaths, smoking is responsible for the greatest number of deaths worldwide and predisposes to fatal, noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle changes are effective in the treatment of patients with smoking-related diseases and assist in the prevention of premature mortality. Our objective was to investigate the available scientific evidence regarding the psychological distress related to smoking cessation in patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. To that end, we conducted an integrative review of the literature in order to summarize relevant studies on this topic. The selected databases were Scopus, PubMed Central, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science (Core Collection, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, SciELO, LILACS e PsycINFO. On the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria adopted for this study, 14 articles were selected for analysis. Those studies showed that the prevalence of psychological distress is higher among smokers than among nonsmokers, and distress-related symptoms are much more common in smokers with acute myocardial infarction than in those without. Smoking cessation depends on the active participation of the smoker, whose major motivation is the underlying disease. Most studies have shown that there is a need to create treatment subgroups as a means of improving the treatment provided. This review article expands the knowledge regarding smoking cessation and shows the need to invest in future research that investigates subgroups of smokers diagnosed with the major smoking-related comorbidities, such as acute myocardial infarction, in order to develop specific interventions and psychological support strategies.

  11. Smoking Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Among Health Care Professionals from Sulaymaniyah City/Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulateef, Darya Saeed; Ali, Azheen Jamil; Abdulateef, Darwn Saeed; Mohesh, M.I. Glad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a serious risk to health globally. Health care professionals play a key role in the prevention of smoking as they are considered a role model by patients. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study are to evaluate smoking rate among physicians and dentists from Sulaymaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq, and to understand their knowledge and attitudes toward tobacco smoking. METHODS A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted involving physicians and dentists working in both University of Sulaimani and Sulaymaniyah Teaching Hospitals. A questionnaire created based on World Health Organization Global Health Professional Survey with slight modifications was emailed to the study participants and the responses received were analyzed. RESULTS Incidence of smoking among physicians and dentists was 26.5%, with a significantly higher rate among male compared to female health care professionals. The mean age of starting smoking was 22.3 (±4.8) years. Only 7.3% of health care professionals received formal training on smoking cessation. All responders agreed that smoking is harmful to health. However, ever smokers compared to never smokers were less likely to agree that health care professionals should set a positive impact by not smoking. CONCLUSION Smoking rate is high among physicians and dentists from Sulaymaniyah city/Iraq, and at the same time, there is a low rate of training on smoking cessation. PMID:26966391

  12. Twelve Weeks of Successful Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline Reduces Spirometric Lung Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Masahiko; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the short-term effects of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline on the lung function. Methods In this study, 81 subjects received 12 weeks of smoking cessation therapy with varenicline. No changes were made to any previously prescribed medications. A physical examination, blood sampling, and spirometry were performed at the first and last visit. Spirometric lung ages were calculated by a formula based on height and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The success group comprised 62 subjects who attained 4-week continuous abstinence confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide testing; whereas the failure group comprised 19 subjects who did not attain this result. However, the number of cigarettes consumed per day was reduced in all subjects of the failure group. Results The spirometric lung ages significantly improved over the 12-week period in the success group (69.8±24.7 vs. 66.9±24.1, pfailure group (70.5±25.5 vs. 73.7±26.9, pfailure groups were 0.37 and 0.81, respectively. The post-hoc statistical power of the spirometric lung age in the success and failure groups was 0.83 and 0.91, respectively. According to a multiple regression analysis, success in smoking cessation exhibited an independent association with the difference in spirometric lung age between the last visit and baseline (p<0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that successful smoking cessation therapy with varenicline improves the spirometric lung age in the short term. PMID:27580538

  13. Design Considerations for Smoking Cessation Apps: Feedback From Nicotine Dependence Treatment Providers and Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer B McClure; Hartzler, Andrea L; Catz, Sheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hundreds of smoking cessation apps are commercially available, but most are not theory-based or designed to take advantage of mobile technology in ways that could make them more engaging and possibly more effective. Considering input from both clinical experts (who understand best practice nicotine dependence treatment requirements) to inform appropriate content and from smokers (the end users) to express their preferences is important in designing these programs in the future. Obj...

  14. ‘Someone batting in my corner’: experiences of smoking-cessation support via text message

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Nicolas; Free, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background The txt2stop trial demonstrated that smoking-cessation support delivered by text message doubles biochemically verified abstinence at 6 months. There was no significant heterogeneity in any of the pre-specified subgroups. Aim To explore participants’ experiences of the txt2stop intervention via a qualitative study using telephone interviews. Design and setting Qualitative telephone interviews in the community. Method Thematic content analysis of 1283 feedback forms was conducted to...

  15. Assessment of the effectiveness of sustained release Bupropion and intensive physician advice in smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Pranav; Kumar Raj

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is the cause of immense burden on our nation in terms of mortality and morbidity, being the single leading cause of preventable illnesses and death. Smoking cessation interventions in our country will be the most cost effective of all interventions considering that the cost incurred on the three main tobacco related illnesses (COPD, CAD, and Cancer) being around Rs 27,761 crore in the year 1999. Materials and Methods: A double blind placebo controlled trial was cond...

  16. Smoking cessation and inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity: a post hoc analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Covey, Lirio S.; Manubay, Jeanne; Jiang, Huiping; Nortick, Mariel; Palumbo, Domenica

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use is more prevalent and smoking cessation less likely among persons with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than the general population. Evidence that tobacco use and nicotine hold divergent relationships with inattention (IN) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), the core symptoms of ADHD, prompted this post hoc investigation of abstinence patterns by type of ADHD symptoms. Subjects were 583 adult smokers treated openly with bupropion and nicotine patch during the initia...

  17. Smoking cessation behavioural therapy in disadvantaged neighbourhoods: an explorative analysis of recruitment channels

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Fiona E.; Nierkens, Vera; Willemsen, Marc C.; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimum channel(s) used to recruit smokers living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods for smoking cessation behavioural therapy (SCBT) is unknown. This paper examines the channels through which smokers participating in a free, multi-session SCBT programme heard about and were referred to this service in a disadvantaged neighbourhood, and compares participants’ characteristics and attendance between channels. Methods 109 participants, recruited from free SCBT courses in disadvantage...

  18. Multicenter Trial of Fluoxetine as an Adjunct to Behavioral Smoking Cessation Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Niaura, Raymond; Spring, Bonnie; Borrelli, Belinda; Hedeker, Donald; Goldstein, Michael G.; Keuthen, Nancy; DePue, Judy; Kristeller, Jean; Ockene, Judy; Prochazka, Allan; Chiles, John A.; Abrams, David B

    2002-01-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacy of fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac; Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN) as an adjunct to behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Sixteen sites randomized 989 smokers to 3 dose conditions: 10 weeks of placebo, 30 mg, or 60 mg fluoxetine per day. Smokers received 9 sessions of individualized cognitive–behavioral therapy, and biologically verified 7-day self-reported abstinence follow-ups were conducted at 1, 3, and 6 months posttreatment. Analyses as...

  19. Race/Ethnicity and Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Individuals Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Costello, Tracy J.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Businelle, Michael S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking in combination with other behavioral risk factors is known to have a negative influence on health, and individuals who smoke typically engage in multiple risk behaviors. However, little is known about the clustering of risk behaviors among smokers of varying race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of cancer risk behaviors and to identify predictors of multiple risk behaviors in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of individuals seeking smoking cessation treatment. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 424 smokers (African American, n = 144; Latino, n = 141; Caucasian, n = 139). Results indicated that 90% of participants reported behavioral cancer risk factors in addition to smoking. Approximately 70% of participants were overweight or obese, 48% engaged in at-risk drinking, and 27% were insufficiently physically active. Univariate analyses indicated that race/ethnicity, p culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:18990734

  20. Municipalities collaborating in public health: The Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; El Ansari, Walid; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara;

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP) which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration......, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We......-site evaluation; health professions education; leadership...

  1. Effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy: Results after 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francisca Rosa, Ecinele; Corraini, Priscila; Inoue, Gislene; Fueta Gomes, Elaine; R Guglielmetti, Mariana; Regina Sanda, Sheila; P Lotufo, Joao; Alexandre Romito, Giuseppe; Mendes Pannuti, Cláudio

    2014-01-01

    tooth at baseline, 3, 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Expired air carbon monoxide concentration measurements and interviews were performed to gather demographic and behavioral information. RESULTS: From the 116 enrolled subjects, 61 remained up to 24 months of follow-up. Of these, 18 quit smoking (Q), 32......AIM: The aim of this 24-month prospective study was to assess the effect of smoking cessation on non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in adult subjects with chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relative to a previous 12-month follow-up study, recruitment and follow-up period were...

  2. Risk of hospital admission for COPD following smoking cessation and reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Vestbo, J; Osler, M;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of changes in smoking habits on the subsequent risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking cessation and reduction and admission to hospital for COPD in a general...... population sample. METHODS: A total of 19,709 participants from three prospective population studies in Copenhagen were followed with record linkage for date of first hospital admission for COPD until 1998 (mean follow up 14 years). Heavy smokers (>/=15 cigarettes/day) who reduced their tobacco consumption...

  3. A Systematic Review of Peer-Support Programs for Smoking Cessation in Disadvantaged Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coral Gartner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting, psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence. Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.

  4. How can we Improve on Modeling Nicotine Addiction to Develop Better Smoking Cessation Treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, M; Buhidma, Y

    2016-01-01

    Clinically effective smoking cessation treatments are few in number, mainly varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy being prescribed by health organizations. Of the many compounds tested for smoking cessation, a good proportion fail in human trials despite positive findings in rodents. This chapter aims to cover the uses and some pit falls of current methodologies employed to discover clinical treatments in the laboratory. Complicating factors include the complex nature of genetics in tobacco smoking and the comorbidity associated with other psychiatric disorders, which has not been addressed fully in the rodent laboratory. This chapter reviews the evidence from intravenous nicotine self-administration studies and proposes modifications on how we can improve the validity of the animal models by incorporating clinically relevant factors considered to be critical in tobacco smoking. For example, choice procedures that incorporate alternative reinforcers, use of reinstatement models, and second-order schedules of reinforcement are proposed to have better scientific validity that may lead to better clinical outcomes. Furthermore, improved experimental methods will also improve our chances of discovering effective treatments that ultimately may mitigate the effects of tobacco smoking with regard to health worldwide. PMID:27055613

  5. Smoking cessation and associated factors during pregnancy Cese del consumo de tabaco durante el embarazo y factores asociados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Torrent

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine smoking habits before and during pregnancy, as well as factors associated with smoking cessation, in three European settings. Methods: Women seeking antenatal care in Ashford (UK, Minorca and Barcelona (Spain were recruited to the Asthma Multicenter Infant Cohort Study (AMICS. Questionnaires inquiring into the smoking habits of each woman and her partner, demographic data, occupation, educational level, number of previous children, breast feeding, alcohol intake, and history of asthma and of other allergic diseases were completed during pregnancy and in the first year after delivery. Results: A total of 1 572 pregnant women were included in the three cohorts. Smoking prior to pregnancy was more common in Barcelona (46.2% than in Minorca (39.8% or Ashford (31.6%. Cessation rates during pregnancy also differed: 18% of women in Ashford, 20.4% in Minorca and 31.9% in Barcelona were still smoking during the first trimester. In a multivariate regression model, the factors showing a significant (negative association with smoking cessation during pregnancy were having older children, having a partner who smoked and starting smoking at a young age. Conclusions: Baseline smoking habits and changes in smoking habits during pregnancy significantly differed between the three communities studied. Women pregnant with their first child, those who had started smoking at a later age and those whose partners were non-smokers were more likely to stop smoking when pregnant.Objetivo: Describir el hábito tabáquico antes y durante el embarazo y los factores asociados con su cese con relación al embarazo en distintos entornos europeos. Métodos: Se ha incluido en el estudio a las mujeres captadas durante el embarazo para participar en el estudio AMICS (Asthma Multicentre Infant Cohort Study en Ashford (Reino Unido, Barcelona y Menorca (España. Se administró un cuestionario durante el embarazo y otro durante el primer año posparto, que inclu

  6. Integrating smoking cessation and alcohol use treatment in homeless populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo-Fati, Olamide; John, Florence; Thomas, Janet; Joseph, Anne M; Nancy C. Raymond; Cooney, Ned L.; Pratt, Rebekah; Rogers, Charles R.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Luo, Xianghua; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population, smoking rates, cancer morbidity and related heart disease remain strikingly high among the poor and underserved. Homeless individuals’ cigarette smoking rate remains an alarming 70 % or greater, and this population is generally untreated with smoking cessation interventions. Furthermore, the majority of homeless smokers also abuse alcohol and other drugs, which makes quitting more difficult and magnifies...

  7. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS) cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Solesse Anne; Jeanpetit Yasmine; Vicaut Eric; Stoebner-Delbarre Anne; Peiffer Gérard; Aubin Henri-Jean; Bonnelye Geneviève; Thomas Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. Methods The objectives of this panel study were (1) to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2) to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3) to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4) to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in th...

  8. Effect of nicotine, silver acetate, and ordinary chewing gum in combination with group counselling on smoking cessation.

    OpenAIRE

    E. J. Jensen; Schmidt, E.; Pedersen, B.; Dahl, R.

    1990-01-01

    Four hundred and ninety six smokers participated in a randomised comparison of the effect of silver acetate, nicotine, and ordinary chewing gum on smoking cessation. All were motivated to stop smoking abruptly and all had smoked at least 10 cigarettes a day for at least five years. Side effects and taste acceptability were related to outcome after six months. The participants attended nine meetings over a year, at which lectures, support, and advice about stopping smoking were given. Tobacco ...

  9. The Role of Drinking Alcohol, Coffee, Tea Habits, Fear of Gaining Weight and Treatment Methods in Smoking Cessation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet Fidancı1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate the role of drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits, fear of gaining weight and treatment methods in smoking cessation success. Methods: In our study, we applied a questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to 128 participants consulting Family Medicine Smoking Cessation Outpatient Clinic of Ankara Training and Research Hospital. Among participants, 67 of them were people quitted smoking while the other 61 did not. With questionnaire, we investigated factors possibly affecting smoking cessation success like drinking alcohol, coffee and tea habits and also marital status and occupations of participants. By adding Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to questionnaire we defined the dependence status of participants. Results: Study comprised of 128 participants, 50 of them being female and 78 being male. Mean age of participants was 34.01 (±12.24 in patients quitted smoking and 32.82 (±13.45 in patients still smoking. Tea and alcohol drinking habits were found to be higher in smoking group and difference was statistically significant (p<0,05. When examining smoking cessation success according to occupational groups, civil servants and unemployed people were more successful than other occupational groups, but there was no statistically significant difference. People having coffee drinking habits quitted smoking in a significantly higher rate (p<0,05. Among given treatments, although statistically insignificant, the most effective one was varenicline. Conclusion: According to our results, smoking cessation success is lower among people having tea and alcohol drinking habits. In smokers, we should investigate the relationship with additional substance usage and aim to decrease these additional substance usage habits for increasing smoking cessation success.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding genetic testing for smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Marieke; Smerecnik, Chris; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Vries, Hein; van Schayck, Constant P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research strongly suggests that genetic variation influences smokers' ability to stop. Therefore, the use of (pharmaco) genetic testing may increase cessation rates. This study aims to assess the intention of smokers concerning undergoing genetic testing for smoking cessation and their knowledge, attitudes and preferences about this subject. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Database internet research company of which every inhabitant of the Netherlands of ≥12 years with an email address and capable of understanding Dutch can become a member. Participants 587 of 711 Dutch smokers aged ≥18 years, daily smokers for ≥5 years and smoke on average ≥10 cigarettes/day (response rate=83%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Smokers' knowledge, attitudes and preferences and their intention to undergo genetic testing for smoking cessation. Results Knowledge on the influence of genetic factors in smoking addiction and cessation was found to be low. Smokers underestimated their chances of having a genetic predisposition and the influence of this on smoking cessation. Participants perceived few disadvantages, some advantages and showed moderate self-efficacy towards undergoing a genetic test and dealing with the results. Smokers were mildly interested in receiving information and participating in genetic testing, especially when offered by their general practitioner (GP). Conclusions For successful implementation of genetic testing for smoking in general practice, several issues should be addressed, such as the knowledge on smoking cessation, genetics and genetic testing (including advantages and disadvantages) and the influence of genetics on smoking addiction and cessation. Furthermore, smokers allocate their GPs a crucial role in the provision of information and the delivery of a genetic test for smoking; however, it is unclear whether GPs will be able and willing to take on this role. PMID:22223839

  11. The impact of tetrahydrobiopterin administration on endothelial function before and after smoking cessation in chronic smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beth A; Zaleski, Amanda L; Dornelas, Ellen A; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease mortality is reduced following smoking cessation but the reversibility of specific atherogenic risk factors such as endothelial dysfunction is less established. We assessed brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in 57 chronic smokers and 15 healthy controls, alone and after oral tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) administration, to assess the extent to which reduced bioactivity of BH4, a cofactor for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme (eNOS), contributes to smoking-associated reductions in FMD. Thirty-four smokers then ceased cigarette and nicotine use for 1 week, after which FMD (±BH4 administration) was repeated. Brachial artery FMD was calculated as the peak dilatory response observed relative to baseline (%FMD). Endothelium-independent dilation was assessed by measuring the dilatory response to sublingual nitroglycerin (%NTG). Chronic smokers exhibited reduced %FMD relative to controls: (5.6±3.0% vs. 8.1±3.7%; PFMD in both groups (P=0.03) independent of smoking status (P=0.78) such that FMD was still lower in smokers relative to controls (6.6±3.3% vs. 9.8±3.2%; PFMD increased significantly (from 5.0±2.9 to 7.8±3.2%;PFMD (P=0.33). These findings suggest that the blunted FMD observed in chronic smokers, likely due at least in part to reduced BH4 bioactivity and eNOS uncoupling, can be restored with smoking cessation. Post-cessation BH4 administration does not further improve endothelial function in chronic smokers, unlike the effect observed in nonsmokers, indicating a longer-term impact of chronic smoking on vascular function that is not acutely reversible. PMID:26606877

  12. Lack of Associations of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genetic Variants with Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Caucasian Smokers despite Associations with Baseline Smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F Tyndale

    Full Text Available CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants, rs16969968, rs588765 and rs578776, are consistently associated with tobacco consumption among smokers, but the association with smoking cessation is less consistent. Among the studies that reported significant associations with cessation, the effects were observed in smokers treated with placebo treatment in some studies and conversely in those receiving active pharmacological therapy (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies in others. Thus, it remains unclear whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 is a useful marker for optimizing smoking cessation. Using data from 654 Caucasian smokers treated with placebo, nicotine patch or varenicline, we investigated whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants were associated with smoking cessation outcomes, and whether there were significant genotype-by-treatment or haplotype-by-treatment interactions. We observed no significant associations between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation, despite replicating previous associations with baseline tobacco consumption. At end of treatment the effect size on smoking cessation in the placebo, patch and varenicline groups for rs16969968 [GG vs. GA+AA] was OR = 0.66 (P = 0.23, OR = 1.01 (P = 0.99, and OR = 1.30 (P = 0.36 respectively, of rs588765 [CC vs. CT+TT] was OR = 0.96 (P = 0.90, OR = 0.84 (P = 0.58, and OR = 0.74 (P = 0.29 respectively, and for rs578776 [GG vs. GA+AA] on smoking cessation was OR = 1.02 (P = 0.95, OR = 0.75 (P = 0.35, and OR = 1.20 (P = 0.51 respectively. Furthermore, we observed no associations with cessation using the CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype (constructed using rs16969968 and rs588765, nor did we observe any significant genotype-by-treatment interactions, with or without adjusting for the rate of nicotine metabolism (all P>0.05. We also observed no significant genetic associations with 6 month or 12 month smoking abstinence. In conclusion, we found no association between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation rates in this clinical

  13. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mehrotra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ware G Kuschner, Sunayana Reddy, Nidhi Mehrotra, Harman S PaintalDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1 the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e- cigarette; and 2 new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS. The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room

  14. Use and perceived helpfulness of smoking cessation methods: results from a population survey of recent quitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Donna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of smoking cessation is one of the most effective measures available to improve population health. To advance the goal of increasing successful cessation at the population level, it is imperative that we understand more about smokers' use of cessation methods, as well as the helpfulness of those methods in real-world experiences of quitting. In this survey of recent quitters, we simultaneously examined rates of use and perceived helpfulness of various cessation methods. Methods Recent quitters (within 12 months; n = 1097 completed a telephone survey including questions relating to 13 cessation methods. Indices of use and perceived helpfulness for each method were plotted in a quadrant analysis. Socio-demographic differences were explored using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results From the quadrant analysis, cold turkey, NRT and gradual reduction before quitting had high use and helpfulness; GP advice had high use and lower helpfulness. Prescribed medication and online programs had low use but high helpfulness. Remaining methods had low use and helpfulness. Younger quitters were more likely to use unassisted methods such as cold turkey; older or less educated quitters were more likely to use assisted methods such as prescribed medication or advice from a general practitioner. Conclusions The majority of recent quitters quit cold turkey or cut down before quitting, and reported that these methods were helpful. Efforts to influence population smoking prevalence should attempt to provide support and motivation for smokers choosing these methods, in addition to assessing the effectiveness and accessibility of other methods for smokers who need or choose them.

  15. Identifying multi-level culturally appropriate smoking cessation strategies for Aboriginal health staff: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco control personnel. Smoking cessation strategies (n = 74) were brainstormed using 34 interviews, 3 focus groups and a stakeholder workshop. Stakeholders sorted strategies into meaningful groups and rated them on perceived importance and feasibility. A concept map was developed using multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses. Ten unique clusters of smoking cessation strategies were depicted that targeted individuals, family and peers, community, workplace and public policy. Smoking cessation resources and services were represented in addition to broader strategies addressing social and environmental stressors that perpetuate smoking and make quitting difficult. The perceived importance and feasibility of clusters were rated differently by participants working in health services that were government-coordinated compared with community-controlled. For health service workers within vulnerable populations, these findings clearly implicate a need for contextualized strategies that mitigate social and environmental stressors in addition to conventional strategies for tobacco control. The concept map is being applied in knowledge translation to guide development of smoking cessation programs for AHWs. PMID:23221591

  16. Effects of an Avatar-Based Anti-Smoking Game on Smoking Cessation Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Allen D; Idrees, Thaer; Karanam, Chandana; Anam, Ramankumar; Ruiz, Jorge G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a computer-based anti-smoking game on the intent and motivation to quit tobacco. Smokers with nicotine dependence were briefly exposed to an anti-smoking game with or without an avatar resembling the smoker's self. The computer-based anti-smoking game improved participants' immediate intent and motivation to quit smoking. Embedding an avatar resembling self into the game did not result in added benefits. PMID:27046546

  17. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Routy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8 vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented.

  18. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Lytic Bone Involvement in an Adult Smoker: Regression following Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routy, B; Hoang, J; Gruber, J

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the proliferation and dissemination of histiocytes. These in turn may cause symptoms ranging from isolated, infiltrative lesions to severe multisystem disease. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) presents as a localized polyclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in the lungs causing bilateral cysts and fibrosis. In adults, this rare condition is considered a reactive process associated with cigarette smoking. Recently, clonal proliferation has been reported with the presence of BRAF V600E oncogenic mutation in a subset of PLCH patients. Spontaneous resolution was described; however, based on case series, smoking cessation remains the most effective way to achieve complete remission and prevent long term complications related to tobacco. Herein, we report the case of an adult woman with biopsy-proven PLCH presenting with thoracic (T8) vertebral bone destruction. Both the lung and the bone diseases regressed following smoking cessation, representing a rare case of synchronous disseminated PCLH with bone localization. This observation underscores the contribution of cigarette smoking as a systemic trigger of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary bone lesions. A review of similar cases in the literature is also presented. PMID:25789184

  19. Changes in Health Perceptions of Male Prisoners Following a Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Stephanie; Marshall, Bob

    2016-07-01

    The aim was to explore the changes in health perceptions of men in prison following a smoking cessation program. Interviews, lung age tests, and a quality-of-life questionnaire were carried out with prisoners. Four main themes emerged from the interviews: the increase in exercise tolerance with improvements in general health, an ability to taste food again, an acknowledgment of stress, and the reasoning behind beginning smoking. Lung age tests showed most prisoners had a lung age older than their chronological age. The quality-of-life survey showed that mean normalized results for physical functioning, general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health were above 50%. Helping prisoners to remain smoke-free once they leave prison is a new challenge for health providers. PMID:27302710

  20. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibers Marcus JH

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group, health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1, and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2. Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A

  1. Increased Functional Connectivity in an Insula-Based Network is Associated with Improved Smoking Cessation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Merideth A; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Froeliger, Brett; Rose, Jed E; McClernon, Francis J

    2015-10-01

    Little is known regarding the underlying neurobiology of smoking cessation. Neuroimaging studies indicate a role for the insula in connecting the interoceptive awareness of tobacco craving with a larger brain network that motivates smoking. We investigated differences in insula-based functional connectivity between smokers who did not relapse during a quit attempt vs those who relapsed. Smokers (n=85) underwent a resting-state functional connectivity scan and were then randomized into two groups (either smoking usual brand cigarettes or smoking very low nicotine cigarettes plus nicotine replacement therapy) for 30 days before their target quit date. Following the quit date, all participants received nicotine replacement therapy and their smoking behavior was observed for 10 weeks. Participants were subsequently classified as nonrelapsed (n=44) or relapsed (i.e., seven consecutive days of smoking ⩾1 cigarette/day; n=41). The right and left insula, as well as insula subdivisions (posterior, ventroanterior, and dorsoanterior) were used as seed regions of interest in the connectivity analysis. Using the right and left whole-insula seed regions, the nonrelapsed group had greater functional connectivity than the relapsed group with the bilateral pre- and postcentral gyri. This effect was isolated to the right and left posterior insula seed regions. Our results suggest that relapse vulnerability is associated with weaker connectivity between the posterior insula and primary sensorimotor cortices. Perhaps greater connectivity in this network improves the ability to inhibit a motor response to cigarette cravings when those cravings conflict with a goal to remain abstinent. These results are consistent with recent studies demonstrating a positive relationship between insula-related functional connectivity and cessation likelihood among neurologically intact smokers. PMID:25895453

  2. Identifying Multi-Level Culturally Appropriate Smoking Cessation Strategies for Aboriginal Health Staff: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P.; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco…

  3. Effect of the smoking cessation services in the out-patient department for patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects and clinical prognosis of out-patient department-based smoking cessation services for coronary heart disease(CHD)patients.Methods A total of 140 smoking patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease in our cardiovascular department were randomly divided into the intensive

  4. A teachable moment communication process for smoking cessation talk: description of a group randomized clinician-focused intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flocke Susan A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective clinician-patient communication about health behavior change is one of the most important and most overlooked strategies to promote health and prevent disease. Existing guidelines for specific health behavior counseling have been created and promulgated, but not successfully adopted in primary care practice. Building on work focused on creating effective clinician strategies for prompting health behavior change in the primary care setting, we developed an intervention intended to enhance clinician communication skills to create and act on teachable moments for smoking cessation. In this manuscript, we describe the development and implementation of the Teachable Moment Communication Process (TMCP intervention and the baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial designed to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods/Design This group randomized trial includes thirty-one community-based primary care clinicians practicing in Northeast Ohio and 840 of their adult patients. Clinicians were randomly assigned to receive either the Teachable Moments Communication Process (TMCP intervention for smoking cessation, or the delayed intervention. The TMCP intervention consisted of two, 3-hour educational training sessions including didactic presentation, skill demonstration through video examples, skills practices with standardized patients, and feedback from peers and the trainers. For each clinician enrolled, 12 patients were recruited for two time points. Pre- and post-intervention data from the clinicians, patients and audio-recorded clinician‒patient interactions were collected. At baseline, the two groups of clinicians and their patients were similar with regard to all demographic and practice characteristics examined. Both physician and patient recruitment goals were met, and retention was 96% and 94% respectively. Discussion Findings support the feasibility of training clinicians to use the Teachable Moments

  5. "I did not intend to stop. I just could not stand cigarettes any more." A qualitative interview study of smoking cessation among the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Rudebeck Carl; Melbye Hasse; Medbø Astri

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Every year, more than 650,000 Europeans die because they smoke. Smoking is considered to be the single most preventable factor influencing health. General practitioners (GP) are encouraged to advise on smoking cessation at all suitable consultations. Unsolicited advice from GPs results in one of 40-60 smokers stopping smoking. Smoking cessation advice has traditionally been given on an individual basis. Our aim was to gain insights that may help general practitioners under...

  6. Statement on smoking cessation in COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Andreas, Stefan; Lewis, Keir E; Tonnesen, Philip; van Schayck, C P; Hajek, Peter; Tonstad, Serena; Dautzenberg, Bertrand; Fletcher, Monica; Masefield, Sarah; Powell, Pippa; Hering, Thomas; Nardini, Stefano; Tonia, Thomy; Gratziou, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis are common pulmonary diseases that are caused or worsened by tobacco smoking. Growing observational evidence suggests that symptoms and prognosis of these conditions improve upon smoking cessation. Despite...... review regarding smoking cessation in patients with COPD and other pulmonary disorders, written by a group of European Respiratory Society experts. We describe the epidemiological links between smoking and pulmonary disorders, the evidence for benefits of stopping smoking, how best to assess tobacco...

  7. Budgetary impact analysis on funding smoking-cessation drugs in patients with COPD in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez-Ruiz CA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos A Jiménez-Ruiz,1 Segismundo Solano-Reina,2 Jaime Signes-Costa,3 Eva de Higes-Martinez,4 José I Granda-Orive,5 José J Lorza-Blasco,6 Juan A Riesco-Miranda,7 Neus Altet-Gomez,8 Miguel Barrueco,9 Itziar Oyagüez,10 Javier Rejas11 On behalf of the SEPAR’s Integrated Tobacco Research Program 1Specialised Tobacco Unit, Community of Madrid, 2Tobacco Unit, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario San Juan, Alicante, 4Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, 5Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, 6Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre, 7Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital de San Pedro Alcántara, Cáceres, 8Drassanes Tobacco Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall-d’Hebron-Drassanes, The Jordi Gol University Institute for Research Primary Healthcare, Barcelona, 9Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca, Biomedical Research Institute, Salamanca, 10Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research Iberia, 11Department of Pharmacoeconomics and Health Outcomes Research, Pfizer, Sociedad Limitada Unificada, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the budgetary impact of funding smoking-cessation drugs in COPD patients in Spain. A hybrid model (cohort and Markov was developed for a 5-year time horizon. Only approved cessation drugs (varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy were considered. Irrespective of the drug, the model allowed for an initial cessation attempt, and up to three additional attempts in case of failure or smoking relapse during a 5-year period. Drug effectiveness was based on controlled clinical trials. National Health System perspective was applied; therefore, only medical resources were included. The pharmaceutical costs for

  8. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rennen; G.E. Nagelhout; B. van den Putte; E. Janssen; U. Mons; R. Guignard; F. Beck; H. de Vries; J.F. Thrasher; M.C. Willemsen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  9. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  10. Assessing the effect of an interactive decision-aid smartphone smoking cessation application (app) on quit rates: a double-blind automated randomised control trial protocol

    OpenAIRE

    BinDhim, Nasser F; McGeechan, Kevin; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In a previous study exploring the feasibility of a smoking cessation application (app), we found that about 77% of the respondents from three countries were ready to quit in the next 30 days without significant differences between countries in terms of age, operating system and number of quitting attempts. However, the efficacy of smartphone apps for smoking cessation has not yet been established. This study tests the efficacy of a smartphone smoking cessation decision-aid app co...

  11. Assessment of readiness of dental faculty and students in Kuwait to implement a smoking cessation counseling curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Mai E.; Katz, Ralph V.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the readiness of both dental faculty and dental students in Kuwait to implement a smoking cessation counseling curriculum. Materials and Methods: The study population included all faculty and students in their clinical training years at the Faculty of Dentistry, Kuwait University. The survey instrument was a 42-item questionnaire. Data analysis involved employing various methods of descriptive statistics. Results: Students and faculty reported that their general knowledge of what to include in a cessation message was excellent. Students reported and anticipated more clinical barriers than did the faculty. Both students and faculty agreed strongly that they were willing to refer patients for cessation in their clinical practice, faculty were much less willing to prescribe medications for cessation as compared to students. The majority of students and faculty disagreed with the statement that performing cessation was easy. Responses showed that the use of the 5 A's has not penetrated well into clinical practice for either the students or the faculty. Conclusions: Clinical students and faculty members believe smoking cessation counseling to be effective; however, their activity was mostly limited to asking patients if they smoked and both reported their knowledge of cessation counseling to be only fair. PMID:27195224

  12. Measuring the costs of outreach motivational interviewing for smoking cessation and relapse prevention among low-income pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney Margaret H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic theory provides the philosophical foundation for valuing costs in judging medical and public health interventions. When evaluating smoking cessation interventions, accurate data on costs are essential for understanding resource consumption. Smoking cessation interventions, for which prior data on resource costs are typically not available, present special challenges. We develop a micro-costing methodology for estimating the real resource costs of outreach motivational interviewing (MI for smoking cessation and relapse prevention among low-income pregnant women and report results from a randomized controlled trial (RCT employing the methodology. Methodological standards in cost analysis are necessary for comparison and uniformity in analysis across interventions. Estimating the costs of outreach programs is critical for understanding the economics of reaching underserved and hard-to-reach populations. Methods Randomized controlled trial (1997-2000 collecting primary cost data for intervention. A sample of 302 low-income pregnant women was recruited from multiple obstetrical sites in the Boston metropolitan area. MI delivered by outreach health nurses vs. usual care (UC, with economic costs as the main outcome measures. Results The total cost of the MI intervention for 156 participants was $48,672 or $312 per participant. The total cost of $311.8 per participant for the MI intervention compared with a cost of $4.82 per participant for usual care, a difference of $307 ([CI], $289.2 to $322.8. The total fixed costs of the MI were $3,930 and the total variable costs of the MI were $44,710. The total expected program costs for delivering MI to 500 participants would be 147,430, assuming no economies of scale in program delivery. The main cost components of outreach MI were intervention delivery, travel time, scheduling, and training. Conclusion Grounded in economic theory, this methodology systematically identifies and

  13. Impact of weight gain following smoking cessation on one-yearoutcome after drug-eluting stent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiao-ming; L(u) An-kang; SHEN Wei-feng; WU Qi-hong; MA Xiao-ye; YANG Er-li; ZHANG Rui-Yan; ZHANG Shi-jia

    2012-01-01

    Background Weight gain following smoking cessation increases cardiovascular risk,but its effects on prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain unclear.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between weight gain post smoking cessation and one-year clinical outcome in patients who underwent PCI with drug-eluting stent (DES).Methods A total of 895 consecutive male smoking patients were divided into quitters (n=437) and continuers (n=458)according to their smoking status after PCI.Weight gain,major adverse cardiac events (MACE,including cardiac deaths,myocardial infarction and revascularization),and recurrent angina were recorded during follow-up for one year.Results Average weight gain in quitters was more than that in continuers (1.5 kg vs.-0.03 kg,P<0.001).Weight was unchanged or increased by more than 1.5 kg in 78.17% of continuers,while 50.57% of quitters had a weight gain of less than 1.5 kg.Compared with continuers,MACE in quitters was significantly reduced after PCI (6.12% vs.4.81%,P=0.049),especially recurrent angina (13.97% in continuers vs.9.84% in quitters,P=-0.027).After adjusting for weight gain and other factors,smoking cessation was independently associated with a lower risk of MACE and recurrent angina (OR=0.73,P=0.035).However,weight gain >1.5 kg (OR=1.55,P=0.026) could curtail the benefits from smoking cessation.Conclusions Weight gain may reduce the benefits of smoking cessation after PCI with DES implantation.Thus,although smoking cessation is recommended after PCI,weight control should also be highly encouraged for these patients.

  14. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a person can quit at any age -- they should quit at any age and there are plenty ... want to use a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find ...

  15. Assessing the effectiveness of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) for smoking cessation in women: HIIT to quit study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Pavey, Toby G; Gartner, Coral E.; Coombes, Jeff S; Brown, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking and physical inactivity are major risk factors for heart disease. Linking strategies that promote improvements in fitness and assist quitting smoking has potential to address both these risk factors simultaneously. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of two exercise interventions (high intensity interval training (HIIT) and lifestyle physical activity) on smoking cessation in female smokers. Method/design This study will use a randomised controlled trial d...

  16. Comparison of a high and a low intensity smoking cessation intervention in a dentistry setting in Sweden – a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenblad Andreas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco is still the number one life style risk factor for ill health and premature death and also one of the major contributors to oral problems and diseases. Dentistry may be a potential setting for several aspects of clinical public health interventions and there is a growing interest in several countries to develop tobacco cessation support in dentistry setting. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative effectiveness of a high intensity intervention compared with a low intensity intervention for smoking cessation support in a dental clinic setting. Methods 300 smokers attending dental or general health care were randomly assigned to two arms and referred to the local dental clinic for smoking cessation support. One arm received support with low intensity treatment (LIT, whereas the other group was assigned to high intensity treatment (HIT support. The main outcome measures included self-reported point prevalence and continuous abstinence (≥ 183 days at the 12-month follow-up. Results Follow-up questionnaires were returned from 86% of the participants. People in the HIT-arm were twice as likely to report continuous abstinence compared with the LIT-arm (18% vs. 9%, p = 0.02. There was a difference (not significant between the arms in point prevalence abstinence in favour of the HIT-protocol (23% vs. 16%. However, point prevalence cessation rates in the LIT-arm reporting additional support were relatively high (23% compared with available data assessing abstinence in smokers trying to quit without professional support. Conclusion Screening for willingness to quit smoking within the health care system and offering smoking cessation support within dentistry may be an effective model for smoking cessation support in Sweden. The LIT approach is less expensive and time consuming and may be appropriate as a first treatment option, but should be integrated with other forms of available support in the community. The

  17. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  18. Varenicline for smoking cessation in people with schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Taro; Iwata, Nakao

    2015-04-01

    We performed an updated meta-analysis of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of varenicline adjuvant therapy for smoking cessation in people with schizophrenia, on the basis of a previous meta-analysis (Tsoi in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD007253, 2013). We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library databases, and PsycINFO up to August 1, 2014. RCTs comparing varenicline adjuvant therapy with placebo in schizophrenia were included. The risk ratio (RR), number needed to harm (NNH), and standardized mean differences with its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used. Seven studies (total n = 439), including 6 with only schizophrenia (total n = 352), 1 with both schizophrenia (n = 77) and bipolar disorder (n = 10), were included. Varenicline was not superior to placebo in smoking cessation (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.58-1.08, p = 0.14, 5 RCTs, n = 322). Varenicline failed to show its superiority to placebo for overall, positive, negative, and depressive symptoms. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the discontinuation rate due to all causes, clinical deterioration, or side effects between varenicline and placebo. Although varenicline caused less abnormal dreams/nightmares than placebo (RR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.22-0.99, p = 0.05, NNH = not significant, 4 RCTs, n = 288), it caused more nausea (RR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.20-2.67, p = 0.004, NNH = 6, p = 0.004, 6 RCTs, n = 417). We detected no significant difference in suicidal ideation and depression between varenicline and placebo. Our results suggest that although varenicline adjuvant therapy is well tolerated, varenicline is not superior to placebo for smoking cessation in people with schizophrenia. Because of the limited sample sizes of the available studies, future studies will require larger samples to ensure that these findings are generalizable. PMID:25283510

  19. The effect of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies on pancreatic beta cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, Amanda K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Raha, Sandeep [Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Holloway, Alison C., E-mail: hollow@mcmaster.ca [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8N 3Z5 (Canada)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of our study was to evaluate whether drugs currently used for smoking cessation (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline [a partial agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR)] and bupropion [which acts in part as a nAChR antagonist]) can affect beta cell function and determine the mechanism(s) of this effect. INS-1E cells, a rat beta cell line, were treated with nicotine, varenicline and bupropion to determine their effects on beta cell function, mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity and cellular/oxidative stress. Treatment of INS-1E cells with equimolar concentrations (1 μM) of three test compounds resulted in an ablation of normal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by the cells. This disruption of normal beta cell function was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction since all three compounds tested significantly decreased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activity. These results raise the possibility that the currently available smoking cessation pharmacotherapies may also have adverse effects on beta cell function and thus glycemic control in vivo. Therefore whether or not the use of nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion can cause endocrine changes which are consistent with impaired pancreatic function warrants further investigation. -- Highlights: ► Smoking cessation drugs have the potential to disrupt beta cell function in vitro. ► The effects of nicotine, varenicline and bupropion are similar. ► The impaired beta cell function is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. ► If similar effects are seen in vivo, these drugs may increase the risk of diabetes.

  20. Integrating the promotion of physical activity within a smoking cessation programme: Findings from collaborative action research in UK Stop Smoking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, A. H.; Everson-Hock, E S; Ussher, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Within the framework of collaborative action research, the aim was to explore the feasibility of developing and embedding physical activity promotion as a smoking cessation aid within UK 6/7-week National Health Service (NHS) Stop Smoking Services. Methods: In Phase 1 three initial cycles of collaborative action research (observation, reflection, planning, implementation and re-evaluation), in an urban Stop Smoking Service, led to the development of an integrated in...

  1. Integrating the promotion of physical activity within a smoking cessation programme: Findings from collaborative action research in UK Stop Smoking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Adrian H; Everson-Hock, Emma S; Ussher, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Within the framework of collaborative action research, the aim was to explore the feasibility of developing and embedding physical activity promotion as a smoking cessation aid within UK 6/7-week National Health Service (NHS) Stop Smoking Services. Methods In Phase 1 three initial cycles of collaborative action research (observation, reflection, planning, implementation and re-evaluation), in an urban Stop Smoking Service, led to the development of an integrated intervention in whi...

  2. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  3. Does Smoking Hamper Oral Self-Care Among Dental Professionals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghasemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Smoking may impact oral self-care (OSC.  This study aimed to analyze the role of smoking in OSC among Iranian dental health professionals.Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional data were collected at two annual dental meetings and seven randomly selected dental schools in Iran. A total of 1,459 respond- ents composed of 967 general dental practitioners (GDPs, 229 dental educators (DE, and 263 senior dental students (DS anonymously completed a self-administered ques- tionnaire inquiring about smoking status and OSC.Results: Thirty percent of the men and 12% of women reported smoking with no dif-ference according to their professional status. Women reported better OSC than did men, but only 26% of the women and 17% of the men followed the three most important recommendations for OSC. Smoking was associated with infrequent tooth brushing and flossing, irregular use of fluoride containing toothpaste, consumption of sugary snacks, and weak adherence to the recommended OSC guidelines.Conclusion: Dental health education should place more emphasis on smoking counsel-ing and cessation among dental health professionals.

  4. Effectiveness of training health professionals to provide smoking cessation interventions: systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Silagy, C; Lancaster, T.; Gray, S.; Fowler, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the effectiveness of interventions that train healthcare professionals in methods for improving the quality of care delivered to patients who smoke. DESIGN--Systematic literature review. SETTING--Primary care medical and dental practices in the United States and Canada. Patients were recruited opportunistically. SUBJECTS--878 healthcare professionals and 11,228 patients who smoked and were identified in eight randomised controlled trials. In each of these trials healthcar...

  5. The effectiveness of financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy: is it from being paid or from the extra aid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantzari Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Financial incentives appear to be effective in promoting smoking cessation in pregnancy. The mechanisms by which they might operate however, are poorly understood. The present study examines how financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy may work, by exploring pregnant women's experiences of trying to stop smoking, within and outside of a financial incentives scheme. Methods Thirty-six (n = 36 UK-based pregnant smokers (n = 36, offered standard NHS Stop-Smoking Services, of whom twenty (n = 20 were enrolled in a financial incentives scheme for smoking cessation (n = 20 and sixteen (n = 16 were not, were interviewed about (i their motivation to stop smoking, and (ii the factors they perceived as influencing their quitting efforts. Framework Analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Women in the two groups reported similar reasons for wanting to stop smoking during pregnancy. However, they described dissimilar experiences of the Stop-Smoking Services, which they perceived to have differentially influenced their quit attempts. Women who were incentivised reported using the services more than women who were not incentivised. In addition, they described the motivating experience of being monitored and receiving feedback on their progress. Non-incentivised women reported problems receiving the appropriate Nicotine Replacement Therapy, which they described as having a detrimental effect on their quitting efforts. Conclusion Women participating in a financial incentives scheme to stop smoking reported greater engagement with the Stop-Smoking Services, from which they described receiving more help in quitting than women who were not part of the scheme. These results highlight the complexity of financial incentives schemes and the intricacies surrounding the ways in which they operate to affect smoking cessation. These might involve influencing individuals' motivation and self-regulation, changing engagement with

  6. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Events Calendar Best Practices…Tobacco Control Programs Best Practices User Guide: Health Equity The Community Guide FDA ... of materials about quitting as well as helpful resources about tobacco use ... of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years ...

  7. Smoking reduction and cessation reduce chronic cough in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background: Chronic cough can be the first sign of chronic obstructive disease. A few, and mostly selected, studies exploring the effect of reduced daily tobacco consumption have shown a small effect on pulmonary symptoms. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine if smoking reduction (SR) (>= 50......% of daily tobacco consumption) or smoking cessation (SC) had an effect on chronic cough and phlegm. Methods: A total of 2408 daily smokers were included in a Danish population-based intervention study, Inter99. In the analyses, we included smokers with self-reported chronic cough or phlegm at baseline...... who also attended the 1-year follow-up. We investigated if SR or SC had improved the self-reported pulmonary symptoms, using logistic regression analyses. Results: Almost 34% of the smokers had chronic cough at baseline and 24.5% had chronic phlegm. Thirty-seven persons with cough at baseline and 24...

  8. Time trends of smoking cessation analyzed with six mathematical survival models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elketroussi, M; Fan, D P

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, six mathematical models were applied to model time trends of smoking cessation. Both statistical and non-statistical methods were used and included the exponential, ideodynamic, log-logistic, Pareto, sickle and Weibull models. All models included the possibilities of both permanent abstinence and relapse to smoking. Time trends from all models were compared with data from the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) program. The Pareto, log-logistic, Weibull and ideodynamic models yielded satisfactory fits to the data while the sickle and exponential models did not. Even though the data used in this paper were not sufficient to distinguish among these four models, the methodology will be useful for further narrowing the model choices as additional data for the testing become available. PMID:2050432

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding genetic testing for smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Quaak, Marieke; Smerecnik, Chris; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Vries, Hein de; van Schayck, Constant P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research strongly suggests that genetic variation influences smokers' ability to stop. Therefore, the use of (pharmaco) genetic testing may increase cessation rates. This study aims to assess the intention of smokers concerning undergoing genetic testing for smoking cessation and their knowledge, attitudes and preferences about this subject. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Database internet research company of which every inhabitant of the Netherlands of ≥12 ye...

  10. Smoking cessation during pregnancy: the influence of partners, family and friends on quitters and non-quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, P; Mackenzie, M; Tappin, D; Bauld, L

    2010-09-01

    This research compared pregnant quitters' and non-quitters' accounts of how partners, family and friends influenced their smoking cessation attempts. Qualitative secondary data analysis was carried out on a purposive sample of motivational interview transcripts undertaken by research midwives with pregnant women as part of SmokeChange, a smoking cessation intervention. Interviews with all quitters in the intervention group (n = 12) were analysed comparatively with interviews from a matched sample of non-quitters (n = 12).The discourses of both revealed similarity in how their partners, family and friends influenced their cessation efforts: salient others were simultaneously perceived by both groups of women as providing drivers and barriers to quit attempts; close associates who smoked were often perceived to be as supportive as those who did not. However, women who quit smoking during pregnancy talked more about receiving active praise/encouragement than those who did not. While close associates play an important role in women's attempts to stop smoking during pregnancy, the support they provide varies; further research is needed to develop a better understanding of how key relationships help or hinder cessation during pregnancy. PMID:20561076

  11. Evaluation of a Smoking Cessation Program for HIV Infected Individuals in an Urban HIV Clinic: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Chew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HIV infected persons have high prevalence of smoking and tobacco-associated health risks. Few studies describe smoking cessation programs targeting this population. The Infectious Disease Practice (IDP in Newark, New Jersey, initiated a smoking cessation program (SCP for HIV infected smokers. We report participation, abstinence rates, and predictors of abstinence. Methods. This is a prospective cohort study, comparing participants to non-SCP smokers, during April 1, 2011, to October 31, 2012. Intervention included one individualized counseling session with an offer of pharmacotherapy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with self-reported seven-day point prevalence abstinence at six months as primary outcome measure. Results. Among 1545 IDP patients, 774 (51% were current smokers of whom 123 (16% participated in the SCP. Mean six-month abstinence rate amongst SCP participants was 16%. A history of cocaine or heroin use was predictive of continued smoking (odds ratio [OR] adjusted 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07–0.55 while smokers in the preparation stage of change were more likely abstinent at six months (OR adjusted 8.26, 95% CI 1.02–66.67. Conclusions. A low-intensity smoking cessation intervention in an HIV treatment setting is effective in a minority of participants. Further research is needed to better address barriers to smoking cessation such as substance use.

  12. Prisoners' attitudes towards cigarette smoking and smoking cessation: a questionnaire study in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Konopa Krzysztof; Jassem Ewa; Sieminska Alicja

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background In the last decade Poland has successfully carried out effective anti-tobacco campaigns and introduced tobacco control legislation. This comprehensive strategy has focused on the general population and has led to a considerable decrease in tobacco consumption. Prisoners constitute a relatively small part of the entire Polish population and smoking habits in this group have been given little attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking i...

  13. Distinct coping strategies differentially predict urge levels and lapses in a smoking cessation attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbeck, Jeannette; Bachmann, Monica S; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2013-06-01

    This study analysed mechanisms through which stress-coping and temptation-coping strategies were associated with lapses. Furthermore, we explored whether distinct coping strategies differentially predicted reduced lapse risk, lower urge levels, or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses during the first week of an unassisted smoking cessation attempt. Participants were recruited via the internet and mass media in Switzerland. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) with mobile devices was used to assess urge levels and lapses. Online questionnaires were used to measure smoking behaviours and coping variables at baseline, as well as smoking behaviour at the three-month follow-up. The sample consisted of 243 individuals, aged 20 to 40, who reported 4199 observations. Findings of multilevel regression analyses show that coping was mainly associated with a reduced lapse risk and not with lower urge levels or a weaker association between urge levels and lapses. 'Calming down' and 'commitment to change' predicted a lower lapse risk and also a weaker relation between urge levels and lapses. 'Stimulus control' predicted a lower lapse risk and lower urge levels. Conversely, 'task-orientation' and 'risk assessment' were related to higher lapse risk and 'risk assessment' also to higher urge levels. Disengagement coping i.e. 'eating or shopping', 'distraction', and 'mobilising social support' did not affect lapse risk. Promising coping strategies during the initial stage of smoking cessation attempt are targeted directly at reducing the lapse risk and are characterised by engagement with the stressor or one's reactions towards the stressor and a focus on positive consequences instead of health risks. PMID:23501139

  14. Factores determinantes en el éxito de un tratamiento antitabaco Factors associated with abstinence in a smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Tamblay

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation programs have an efficacy of approximately 30%. Different factors related to the patients may influence this figure. Aim To identify determinant factors for smoking cessation after one year of treatment and to determine if bupropion and nicotine substitutes are effective in smoking cessation treatments. Material and methods: Follow up of 68 patients that attended a smokers clinic at a General Hospital. The patients filled up a questionnaire which included demographic, morbid and smoking habits data. They were subjected to a psychiatric interview to determine their treatment. One year later, patients were contacted by telephone and were asked if they remained without smoking. Results: After one year, 41% of patients responded that they were abstinent. On univariate analysis, male gender appeared as a protective factor associated to abstinence. On multivariate analysis, the use of bupropion appeared as a protective factor. A high score on the automatic item of the smoking motivation questionnaire appeared as a risk factor. The presence of respiratory diseases and the male gender were borderline significant protective factors. Nicotine substitutes were not associated with better abstinence rates. Conclusions: In this sample of smokers, the use of bupropion was associated with better abstinence rates and a high motivation to smoke appeared as a risk factor to continue smoking

  15. Cigarette smoke induces molecular responses in respiratory tissues of ApoE−/− mice that are progressively deactivated upon cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigarette smoking is the primary etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a risk factor for both lung and cardiovascular (CV) diseases, which are rarely investigated concomitantly. Although smoking cessation shows clear CV risk benefit, lung-related disease risk remains higher in former smokers than in never smokers. We sought to determine the differential molecular responses of murine respiratory tissues to better understand the toxicity pathways involved in smoking-related disease risk and those related to the benefits of smoking cessation. ApoE−/− mice were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke (CS) or a smoking cessation-mimicking protocol for up to 6 months and transcriptomics analysis of nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma performed. We supported our gene expression profiling approach with standard lung histopathology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. Many BALF analytes involved in functions ranging from inflammation to cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were found elevated in BALF. Gene expression levels of these molecules were also increased in lung tissue, suggesting that the inflammatory response was the result of local tissue activation and the contribution of recruited inflammatory cells. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of expression data from murine lungs and nasal epithelium showed distinct activation patterns of inflammation, complement, and xenobiotic metabolism pathways during CS exposure that were deactivated upon smoking cessation. Pathways involved in cell proliferation and tissue remodeling were activated by CS and progressively deactivated upon smoke exposure cessation. Differential CS-mediated responses of pulmonary and nasal tissues reflect common mechanisms but also the varying degrees of epithelial functional specialization and exposure along the respiratory tract

  16. A new diagnosis of asthma or COPD is linked to smoking cessation – the Tromsø study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Signe Elise; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Medbø, Astri; Vold, Monica Linea; Melbye, Hasse

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with COPD have had a lower tendency to quit smoking compared to patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We wanted to investigate if this is still true in a Norwegian population. Methods Our data came from the fifth and sixth Tromsø surveys, which took place in 2001–2002 and 2007–2008. The predictors of smoking cessation were evaluated in a cohort of 4,497 participants who had stated their smoking status in both surveys. Results Of the 4,497 subjects in the cohort, 1,150 (25.6%) reported daily smoking in Tromsø 5. In Tromsø 6, 428 had quit (37.2%). A new diagnosis of obstructive lung disease (asthma or COPD) and CHD were both associated with increased quitting rates, 50.6% (P=0.01) and 52.1% (P=0.02), respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis with smoking cessation as outcome, the odds ratios (ORs) of a new diagnosis of obstructive lung disease and of CHD were 1.7 (1.1–2.7) and 1.7 (1.0–2.9), respectively. Male sex had an OR of 1.4 (1.1–1.8) compared to women in the multivariable model, whereas the ORs of an educational length of 13–16 years and ≥17 years compared to shorter education were 1.6 (1.1–2.2) and 2.5 (1.5–4.1), respectively. Conclusion The general trend of smoking cessation in the population was confirmed. Increased rates of smoking cessation were associated with a new diagnosis of heart or lung disease, and obstructive lung disease was just as strongly linked to smoking cessation as was CHD. This should encourage the pursuit of early diagnosis of COPD.

  17. Changes in body weight and food choice in those attempting smoking cessation: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Wilma S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fear of weight gain is a barrier to smoking cessation and significant cause of relapse for many people. The provision of nutritional advice as part of a smoking cessation programme may assist some in smoking cessation and perhaps limit weight gain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a structured programme of dietary advice on weight change and food choice, in adults attempting smoking cessation. Methods Cluster randomised controlled design. Classes randomised to intervention commenced a 24-week intervention, focussed on improving food choice and minimising weight gain. Classes randomised to control received “usual care”. Results Twenty-seven classes in Greater Glasgow were randomised between January and August 2008. Analysis, including those who continued to smoke, showed that actual weight gain and percentage weight gain was similar in both groups. Examination of data for those successful at giving up smoking showed greater mean weight gain in intervention subjects (3.9 (SD 3.1 vs. 2.7 (SD 3.7 kg. Between group differences were not significant (p = 0.23, 95% CI −0.9 to 3.5. In comparison to baseline improved consumption of fruit and vegetables and breakfast cereal were reported in the intervention group. A higher percentage of control participants continued smoking (74% vs. 66%. Conclusions The intervention was not successful at minimising weight gain in comparison to control but was successful in facilitating some sustained improvements in the dietary habits of intervention participants. Improved quit rates in the intervention group suggest that continued contact with advisors may have reduced anxieties regarding weight gain and encouraged cessation despite weight gain. Research should continue in this area as evidence suggests that the negative effects of obesity could outweigh the health benefits achieved through reductions in smoking prevalence. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials

  18. Nortriptyline for smoking cessation: release and human skin diffusion from patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, A; Garrigues, T M; Alós, M; Kostka, K H; Lehr, C M; Schaefer, U F

    2009-08-13

    The objective of this work was to develop a simple and inexpensive transdermal formulation containing Nortriptyline Hydrochloride (NTH) for smoking cessation support therapy. Hydroxypropyl-methyl-cellulose was chosen as polymer and a mixture of transdermal enhancers (selected from previous research) was incorporated. The formulations were characterised in terms of appearance, thickness, uniformity of NTH content, release and skin permeation. Release studies demonstrated controlled release for four formulations. Diffusion studies were performed through human heat separated epidermis (HHSE) using Franz Diffusion Cells (FDC). Patches provided different fluxes varying from 20.39+/-7.09 microg/(cm(2) h) to 256.19+/-94.62 microg/(cm(2) h). The penetration profiles of NTH within the stratum corneum (SC) and deeper skin layers (DSL) were established after three administration periods (3 h, 6 h, and 24 h). Skin changes induced by the application of the patches were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The highest flux obtained would provide the recommended doses for smoke cessation support therapy (25-75 mg per day) with a 2 cm x 2 cm patch or a 3.5 cm x 3.5 cm patch, respectively, without skin damage evidence. PMID:19501148

  19. Nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization: pharmacological analyses with candidate smoking cessation aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, Wouter; Kloeze, Margreet; McCreary, Andrew C

    2016-03-01

    There are a number of approved therapeutics for the management of alcohol dependence, which might also convey the potential as smoking cessation aids. The present study investigated the effect of a few of these therapeutics and potential candidates (non-peptide vasopressin V1b antagonists) on the expression of nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats. The following compounds were included in this evaluation: rimonabant, bupropion, topiramate, acamprosate, naltrexone, mecamylamine, nelivaptan (SSR-149415, V1b antagonist) and two novel V1b antagonists. Following the development of nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization and a withdrawal period, the expression of sensitization was assessed in the presence of one of the examined agents given 30 minutes prior to the nicotine challenge injection. Acamprosate, naltrexone, rimonabant, mecamylamine, nelivaptan and V1b antagonist 'compound 2' significantly antagonized the expression of nicotine-induced sensitization. Whereas topiramate showed a trend for effects, the V1b antagonist 'compound 1' did not show any significant effects. Bupropion failed to block sensitization but increased activity alone and was therefore tested in development and cross-sensitization studies. Taken together, these findings provide pre-clinical evidence that these molecules attenuated the expression of nicotine-induced sensitization and should be further investigated as putative treatments for nicotine addiction. Moreover, V1b antagonists should be further investigated as a potential novel smoking cessation aid. PMID:25307867

  20. Interventions for waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention and cessation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Waziry, Reem K; Ballout, Rami A; Akl, Elie A

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is growing in popularity despite adverse health effects among users. We systematically reviewed the literature, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science, for interventions targeting prevention and cessation of waterpipe tobacco smoking. We assessed the evidence quality using the Cochrane (randomised studies), GRADE (non-randomised studies) and CASP (qualitative studies) frameworks. Data were synthesised narratively due to heterogeneity. We included four individual-level, five group-level, and six legislative interventions. Of five randomised controlled studies, two showed significantly higher quit rates in intervention groups (bupropion/behavioural support versus placebo in Pakistan; 6 month abstinence relative risk (RR): 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8); group behavioural support versus no intervention in Egypt, 12 month abstinence RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.9). Non-randomised studies showed mixed results for cessation, behavioural, and knowledge outcomes. One high quality modelling study from Lebanon calculated that a 10% increase in waterpipe tobacco taxation would reduce waterpipe tobacco demand by 14.5% (price elasticity of demand -1.45). In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence of effectiveness for most waterpipe interventions. While few show promising results, higher quality interventions are needed. Meanwhile, tobacco policies should place waterpipe on par with cigarettes. PMID:27167891

  1. Comparative responses to radio and television anti-smoking advertisements to encourage smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Wakefield, Melanie

    2010-03-01

    While mass media campaigns have been shown to contribute to reductions in smoking prevalence, little research has been undertaken on the effectiveness of radio advertising as a communication medium. This is despite radio being less expensive and having greater reach than television in some low and middle income countries. We aimed to explore the potential of radio as an adjunct or alternative to televised campaigns by comparing reactions to a radio anti-smoking ad with three televised anti-smoking ads, all of which communicated the serious health consequences of smoking in an emotionally evocative way. In pre-exposure interviews, 18-59-year-old daily smokers (n = 306) were asked to listen to a particular radio time slot/watch a particular television program that they usually listened to/watched, in which the ad was broadcast. Post-exposure interviews were conducted within 3 days of exposure and measured recall, recognition, emotional and cognitive responses, and intentions to quit smoking. Findings indicate that the radio ad showed similar or slightly higher levels than a concurrently aired television ad on understanding (radio: 96%; television: 95%), believability (radio: 89%; television: 90%), concern about smoking (both 77%) and motivation to quit (radio: 51%; television: 45%), and significantly higher levels of unprompted recall (radio: 20%; television: 6%). It also compared well against two subsequent anti-smoking television ads. Emotionally evocative radio advertising may be an effective adjunct or alternative to television advertising in jurisdictions where there are substantial limits on funds available for airing these campaigns, or where the reach of radio outstrips television. PMID:19855109

  2. Tobacco Cessation Interventions for Underserved Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Despite high rates of smoking among some subgroups of women, there is a lack of tailored interventions to address smoking cessation among women. We identify components of a women-centered approach to tobacco cessation by analyzing 3 bodies of literature: sex and gender influences in tobacco use and addiction; evidence-based tobacco cessation guidelines; and best practices in delivery of women-centered care. Programming for underserved women should be tailored, build confidence and increase motivation, integrate social justice issues and address inequities, and be holistic and comprehensive. Addressing the complexity of women’s smoking and tailoring appropriately could help address smoking among subpopulations of women.

  3. Interdisciplinary proposal for tobacco cessation at a primary health care unit: an experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silva Duarte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the interdisciplinary approach currently used at the Manguinhos Municipal Health Centre (MMHC, Rio de Janeiro, for the longitudinal management of anti-smoking treatment in patients living in low-income community regions, from the perspective of a medical student in his rotating internship. The anti-tobacco approach consists in a longitudinal therapy divided in two steps: (i four interdisciplinary anti-tobacco group sessions scheduled weekly, which includes psychotherapy and pharmacological resources; followed by (ii two sessions of maintenance therapy scheduled fortnightly, characterized by individualized care and pharmacological withdrawal, complemented by a monthly one year follow-up. This article describes the current protocols, the professional activities and how the proposal was developed. This report suggests that improvement in medical training might occur through participation of medical students in health education activities such as tobacco cessation group. 

  4. Evaluation of the First Year Results of Smoking Cessation Therapy with Varenicline or Bupropion in Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Burak Selçuk1

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the one year efficacy of varenicline and bupropion treatment in patients admitted to smoking cessation clinic and started medical treatment. Methods: A total of 681 individuals who admitted to Smoking Cessation Outpatient Clinic in Family Medicine Department of Inonu University School of Medicine between January 2011 and May 2012, and who have been begun medical treatment. The patients invited for follow up controls on the 15th day and in the first, second, 3rd, 6th and 12th months after the medical treatment was started after the first interview. The patients were questioned for whether they were going on using the medications, for any side effects and their smoking cessation status during each visit. Results: A total of 681 subjects were enrolled in the study. In the first interview, a through physical examination was performed, routine laboratory tests were performed and then the patients were informed about smoking cessation methods by physicians who have received tobacco cessation training. In the Bupropion group 65.6% of the men (n=151 and 65% of the women (n=91 had quit smoking in the 15th day evaluation. In the follow-up at the end of the first month 75.6% of the men (n=174 and 72.1% of the women (n=101, and at the end of 12th month 64.7% of the men (n=149 and 72.8% of the women (n=102 had quit smoking. In the Vareniklin group 191 patients (61.4% were male and 120 patients (38.6% were female. In the 15th day evaluation 70.1% of the men (n=134 and 59.1% of the women (n=71 had quit smoking. In the follow up, at the end of the first month 74.8% of the men (n=143 and 64.1% of the women (n=77, and at the end of 12th month 63.3% of the men (n=121 and 53.3% of the women (n=64 had quit smoking. Conclusion: Given that smoking cessation process is a process of intense nicotine withdrawal symptoms, interviews should be planned as frequently as possible during the first 3 months. Continuous bio

  5. Evaluation of knowledge change of internal medicine residents following a training program in smoking cessation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major barriers to smoking cessation practice is that many health professionals do not have the knowledge and skills on how to intervene. Objectives: To assess the effect of a training program on physicians' knowledge about tobacco dependence and cessation interventions. Subjects and Methods: A comprehensive training program was given to internal medicine residents in Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt during 2008-2009. An anonymous, 11- item questionnaire was administered before and after the training program. The training process was evaluated by participants' satisfaction using a 13- item checklist. The objective of the study was adequately explained to participants and their consensus was obtained with assured confidentiality. Results: A total of 163 internists entered the training program. Improvement in overall knowledge was evidenced by higher mean score in the post-test than pre-test (6.2 vs. 4.7; p<0.001). Significant improvement were seen in the participants' knowledge related to assessment of tobacco dependence (61% vs. 27%;p<0.001), interventions for smokers willing to quit (51.6 vs. 28.2%; p<0.001), interventions for smokers unwilling to quit (40.8 vs. 19.6%; p<0.001) and coping skills to handle withdrawal symptoms (52.9 vs. 30.7;p<0.001). Almost all participants reported that the training was very useful (96%) and applicable (85.6%) in their medical practices. Conclusions: Targeted training of health professionals has a potential to translate into improved smoking cessation counseling and to increase their inclination to intervene. Policy message: Continued medical education and regular/targeted training of health providers should be done. (author)

  6. Impact of connecting tuberculosis directly observed therapy short-course with smoking cessation on health-related quality of life

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    Awaisu Ahmed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With evolving evidence of association between tuberculosis (TB and tobacco smoking, recommendations for the inclusion of tobacco cessation interventions in TB care are becoming increasingly important and more widely disseminated. Connecting TB and tobacco cessation interventions has been strongly advocated as this may yield better outcomes. However, no study has documented the impact of such connection on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. The objective of this study was to document the impact of an integrated TB directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS plus smoking cessation intervention (SCI on HRQoL. Methods This was a multi-centered non-randomized controlled study involving 120 TB patients who were current smokers at the time of TB diagnosis in Malaysia. Patients were assigned to either of two groups: the usual TB-DOTS plus SCI (SCIDOTS group or the usual TB-DOTS only (DOTS group. The effect of the novel strategy on HRQoL was measured using EQ-5D questionnaire. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to examine the effects. Results When compared, participants who received the integrated intervention had a better HRQoL than those who received the usual TB care. The SCIDOTS group had a significantly greater increase in EQ-5D utility score than the DOTS group during 6 months follow-up (mean ± SD = 0.98 ± 0.08 vs. 0.91 ± 0.14, p = 0.006. Similarly, the mean scores for EQ-VAS showed a consistently similar trend as the EQ-5D indices, with the scores increasing over the course of TB treatment. Furthermore, for the EQ-VAS, there were significant main effects for group [F (1, 84 = 4.91, p = 0.029, η2 = 0.06], time [F (2, 168 = 139.50, p = 2 = 0.62] and group x time interaction [F (2, 168 = 13.89, p = 2 = 0.14]. Conclusions This study supports the evidence that an integrated TB-tobacco treatment strategy could potentially improve overall quality of life outcomes among TB patients who are smokers.

  7. Smoking in Cancer Care (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of having a second cancer. Quitting smoking is helpful after cancer is diagnosed. Studies have found that ... find help online. The following websites may be helpful: Smokefree.gov : Information about quitting smoking. Clearing the ...

  8. Exploring primary care providers' interest in using patient navigators to assist in the delivery of tobacco cessation treatment to low income, ethnic/racial minority patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetkin, Erica I; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Krebs, Paul; Yeung, Howa; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2010-12-01

    We examined attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation interventions of primary care physicians serving low income, minority patients living in urban areas with a high smoking prevalence. We also explored barriers and facilitators to physicians providing smoking cessation counseling to determine the need for and interest in deploying a tobacco-focused patient navigator at community-based primary care practice sites. A self-administered survey was mailed to providers serving Medicaid populations in New York City's Upper Manhattan and areas of the Bronx. Provider counseling practices were measured by assessing routine delivery (≥80% of the time) of a brief tobacco cessation intervention (i.e., "5 A's"). Provider attitudes were assessed by a decisional balance scale comprising 10 positive (Pros) and 10 negative (Cons) perceptions of tobacco cessation counseling. Of 254 eligible providers, 105 responded (41%). Providers estimated 22% of their patients currently use tobacco and nearly half speak Spanish. A majority of providers routinely asked about tobacco use (92%) and advised users to quit (82%), whereas fewer assisted in developing a quit plan (32%) or arranged follow-up (21%). Compared to providers reporting navigation services at their practices. Although most providers believe they can help patients quit smoking, they also recognize the potential benefit of having a patient navigator connect their patients with evidence-based cessation services in their community. PMID:20336355

  9. The Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation Among Smokers of Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yasini Ardakani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Improper lifestyle is one of the factors affecting the incidence of chronic diseases. According to the World Health Organization statistics, smoking causes four million deaths annually. Studies show that in 1993, 28.6% men and 3.6% of women older than 15 years in the country were smokers. The most practical stage behavior change model is Transtheoretical model. Therefore, this study used this model. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 200 smokers or ex- smokers of Khorramabad who had high school diploma or higher educational levels. Cluster sampling was conducted in two stages. Data was collected by a questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been approved. Data was analyzed by using SPSS statistical software 11.5 and descriptive statistics. P level <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Mean age was 42.5±7.85 years. Regarding stages of change, 39.5% were in pre-contemplation stage, 25.5% in contemplation stage, 12% in preparation stage, 5.5% in action stage and 17.5% were in maintenance stage. Variables that had a significant relationship with stages of change included years of smoking (p=0.001, complications of smoking (0.000, and age (p=0.04. There was no significant relationship between marital status, education, family and income, and stages of change. Conclusion: In this study, majority of the population under study were in the early stages. It is therefore necessary to provide educational programs and develop strategies for the same. Due to the significant relationship between age and years of smoking and exposure to advanced stages of change, people should be made aware of the problems of smoking earlier so that they can decide as soon as possible about smoking cessation.

  10. Age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to three population-level tobacco control interventions: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Nagelhout; M.R. Crone; B. van den Putte; M.C. Willemsen; G.T. Fong; H. de Vries

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International To

  11. Pathways to Health: A Cluster Randomized Trial of Nicotine Gum and Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation in Low-Income Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; James, Aimee S.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Nollen, Nicole; Catley, Delwyn; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high smoking rates among those living in poverty, few cessation studies are conducted in these populations. This cluster-randomized trial tested nicotine gum plus motivational interviewing (MI) for smoking cessation in 20 low-income housing developments (HDs). Intervention participants (10 HDs, n = 66) received educational materials, 8…

  12. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  13. Smoking attenuates wound inflammation and proliferation while smoking cessation restores inflammation but not proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Toft, Birgitte; Rygaard, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Full-thickness 5 mm punch biopsy wounds were made lateral to the sacrum in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. After 1 week, the wounds were excised and fixed. The smokers were then randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo patch. The sequence of w...

  14. Varenicline: a selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist approved for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sum; Patel, Priti N

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains a significant health problem in the United States. It has been associated with staggering morbidity and mortality, specifically due to malignancies and cardiovascular disease. Smoking cessation can be difficult and frequently requires pharmacologic interventions in addition to nonpharmacologic measures. Previously available agents are nicotine replacement products and bupropion, which increased quit rates by about 2-fold compared with placebo. Varenicline is the first drug in a new class known as the selective alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor partial agonists. In several randomized, double-blind, 52-week clinical trials involving healthy chronic smokers, varenicline demonstrated superiority to placebo and bupropion in terms of efficacy measures. Additionally, it improved tobacco withdrawal symptoms and reinforcing effects of smoking in relapsed patients. Patients should start therapy in combination with tobacco cessation counseling 1 week before quit date and continue the regimen for 12 weeks. The dose of varenicline should be titrated to minimize nausea. The recommended dosage is 0.5 mg once daily (QD) on days 1-3; titrate to 0.5 mg twice daily (BID) on days 4-7; and 1 mg BID starting on day 8. An additional 12-week maintenance therapy may be considered for those who achieve abstinence. The most common side effects are nausea (30%), insomnia (18%), headache (15%), abnormal dreams (13%), constipation (8%), and abdominal pain (7%). Overall, varenicline is a breakthrough in the management of tobacco addiction and has demonstrated good efficacy in motivated quitters. It also provides an option for smokers who cannot tolerate other pharmacologic interventions. PMID:17438382

  15. Online Advertising as a Public Health and Recruitment Tool: Comparison of Different Media Campaigns to Increase Demand for Smoking Cessation Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Amanda L.; Milner, Pat; Saul, Jessie E.; Pfaff, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Background To improve the overall impact (reach × efficacy) of cessation treatments and to reduce the population prevalence of smoking, innovative strategies are needed that increase consumer demand for and use of cessation treatments. Given that 12 million people search for smoking cessation information each year, online advertising may represent a cost-efficient approach to reach and recruit online smokers to treatment. Online ads can be implemented in many forms, and surveys consistently s...

  16. Effect of Smoking Reduction Therapy on Smoking Cessation for Smokers without an Intention to Quit: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective strategies are needed to encourage smoking cessation for smokers without an intention to quit. We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate whether smoking reduction therapy can increase the long-term cessation rates of smokers without an intention to quit. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs on the effect of smoking reduction therapy on long-term smoking cessation in smokers without an intention to quit. The primary outcome was the cessation rate at the longest follow-up period. A random effects model was used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: Fourteen trials with a total of 7981 smokers were included. The pooled analysis suggested that reduction support plus medication significantly increased the long-term cessation of smokers without an intention to quit compared to reduction support plus placebo (RR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.44–2.7; I2, 52% or no intervention (RR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.41–2.64; I2, 46%. In a subgroup of smokers who received varenicline or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, the differences were also statistically significant. This suggests the safety of using NRT. The percentage of smokers with serious adverse events who discontinued because of these events in the non-NRT group was slightly significantly different than in the control group. Insufficient evidence is available to test the efficacy of reduction behavioural support in promoting long-term cessation among this population. Conclusions: The present meta-analysis indicated the efficacy of NRT- and varenicline-assisted reduction to achieve complete cessation among smokers without an intention to quit. Further evidence is needed to assess the efficacy and safety of reduction behavioural support and bupropion.

  17. Resurgence of anorexic symptoms during smoking cessation in patients with a history of anorexia nervosa: An unseen problem?--Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Nicolas; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    This report describes a resurgence of anorexic symptoms during a smoking cessation program in two patients with a history of anorexia nervosa. These two events were identified among patients lost to follow-up by using a strategy implemented to limit early drop out. In both cases, the resurgence of anorexic symptoms occurred rapidly after having reached abstinence from tobacco and was described as a response to the weight gain they had experienced just after the start of smoking cessation. The smoking cessation process itself was considered as the most plausible explanation for these two events. Given the potential serious consequences, further research is needed to determine whether such events are frequent during smoking cessation but being unseen because of being hidden in the loss to follow-up. This report also suggests that systematic screening for both binge eating and anorexic behaviors during smoking cessation is warranted. PMID:26016609

  18. Suitability of a Group Behavioural Therapy Module for Workplace Smoking Cessation Programs in Malaysia: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Muhammad Faizal; Ali, Adliah Mhd; Amit, Noh; Bakry, Mohd Makmor; Taha, Nur Akmar

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, data on components suitability the established smoking cessation module is limited. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the suitability of the components developed in the module for group behavioural therapy in workplace smoking cessation programs. Twenty staff were identified but only eight individuals were selected according to the study criteria during the recruitment period in May 2014. Focus group discussion was conducted to identify themes relevant to the behavioural issues among smokers. Thematic analysis yielded seven major themes which were reasons for regular smoking, reasons for quitting, comprehending smoking characteristics, quit attempt experiences, support and encouragement, learning new skills and behaviour, and preparing for lapse/relapse or difficult situations. As a result, the developed module was found to be relevant and suitable for use based on these themes. PMID:26838211

  19. Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation: A Comprehensive Review of Effectiveness and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golechha, Mahaveer

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review. PMID:26941908

  20. "I did not intend to stop. I just could not stand cigarettes any more." A qualitative interview study of smoking cessation among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudebeck Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, more than 650,000 Europeans die because they smoke. Smoking is considered to be the single most preventable factor influencing health. General practitioners (GP are encouraged to advise on smoking cessation at all suitable consultations. Unsolicited advice from GPs results in one of 40-60 smokers stopping smoking. Smoking cessation advice has traditionally been given on an individual basis. Our aim was to gain insights that may help general practitioners understand why people smoke, and why smokers stop and then remain quitting and, from this, to find fruitful approaches to the dialogue about stopping smoking. Methods Interviews with 18 elderly smokers and ex-smokers about their smoking and decisions to smoke or quit were analysed with qualitative content analysis across narratives. A narrative perspective was applied. Results Six stages in the smoking story emerged, from the start of smoking, where friends had a huge influence, until maintenance of the possible cessation. The informants were influenced by "all the others" at all stages. Spouses had vital influence in stopping, relapses and continued smoking. The majority of quitters had stopped by themselves without medication, and had kept the tobacco handy for 3-6 months. Often smoking cessation seemed to happen unplanned, though sometimes it was planned. With an increasingly negative social attitude towards smoking, the informants became more aware of the risks of smoking. Conclusion "All the others" is a clue in the smoking story. For smoking cessation, it is essential to be aware of the influence of friends and family members, especially a spouse. People may stop smoking unplanned, even when motivation is not obvious. Information from the community and from doctors on the negative aspects of smoking should continue. Eliciting life-long smoking narratives may open up for a fruitful dialogue, as well as prompting reflection about smoking and adding to the

  1. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010. Metho...

  2. The Effects and Measures of Auricular Acupressure and Interactive Multimedia for Smoking Cessation in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ling Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The earlier one starts to smoke, the more likely it is that one’s tobacco use will increase. Either auricular acupressure or multimedia education could improve physiological health status and reduce smoking for young smokers. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 10-week auricular acupressure (AA and interactive multimedia (IM on smoking cessation in college smokers. A pre- and posttest control research design with two experiments (AA and IM and one control was used. Thirty-two participants were in each of three groups. A significant difference from pretest to posttest among three groups was exhibited on carbon monoxide (CO, cotinine, and nicotine dependence. Scheffe’s post hoc test found significances on CO in the AA between the IM and the control and cotinine and nicotine dependence between the AA and the control. After controlling the covariates, the main effect of the group was no difference in all outcomes. The interventions, especially AA, may contribute to a decrease of CO, cotinine, and nicotine dependence along with the time change. An analysis without controlling influences may overestimate interventional effects.

  3. Development, dissemination, adherence, and effectiveness of a Smoking Cessation Programs offered in a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Machado Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Smoking Cessation Programs (SCP must comprise factors that increase the chances of successful treatment, such as choice of approach and modality based on scientific evidence; adaptation of the intervention to the characteristics of target patients; records of procedures and efficacy rates; and the use of both active and reactive strategies to recruit smokers. Given this, this study was designed with the aim of describing the implementation of a SCP in a public university that has adopted a 100% smoke-free campus policy, including the evaluation of publicity methods and their possible impact in adherence rates and program success. There were 128 smokers enrolled in nine program groups offered over two years: 97 (76% attended the first meeting and 69 (71% effectively completed the SCP. The groups that underwent follow-up assessment (n = 58 achieved abstinence rates of 27% and 32%, greater than expected for solely psychological treatment and similar to rates that combined cognitive-behavioral approach to pharmacology. The recruitment strategies that combined active strategies (personal contacts, personal invitations, individual interviews and reactive strategies (posters, corporate e-mail, newspapers were the most effective to attract and gain the adherence of smokers to the SCP, corroborating the literature. We conclude that 100% smoke-free environment campaigns are opportunities that favor the effectiveness of SCPs, which can be developed and implemented by any trained health professional.

  4. Smoking cessation can improve quality of life among COPD patients: Validation of the clinical COPD questionnaire into Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardis Apostolos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remains a major public health problem that affects the quality of life of patients, however smoking cessation may emeliorate the functional effects of COPD and alter patient quality of life. Objective-design The aim of this study was to validate the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ into Greek and with such to evaluate the quality of life in patients with different stages of COPD, as also assess their quality of life before and after smoking cessation. Results The internal validity of questionnaire was high (Cronbach's a = 0.92. The reliability of equivalent types in 16 stabilized patients also was high (ICC = 0.99. In general the domains within the CCQ were strongly correlated with each other, while each domain in separate was strongly correlated with the overall CCQ score (r2 = 0.953, r2 = 0.915 and r2 = 0.842 in regards to the functional, symptomatic and mental domain, respectively. The CCQ scores were also correlated with FEV1, (r2 = -0.252, p 1/FVC, (r2 = -0.135, p 2 = -0.384, p Conclusions The self administered CCQ indicates satisfactory validity, reliability and responsiveness and may be used in clinical practice to assess patient quality of life. Moreover the CCQ indicated the health related quality of life gains attributable to smoking cessation among COPD patients, projecting smoking cessation as a key target in COPD patient management.

  5. [Smoking cessation--a "must have" in medical curricula. The European HERMES project--a supportive argument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofor, Antigona; Mihăescu, Traian

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory Medicine is a complex domain of activity, moreover has enlarged its content in last decades by numerous areas of expertise, among which also smoking cessation, a field aiming to assist individuals to quit or prevent tobacco use. Introducing routinely this preoccupation in Romanian doctors' work is supposed to legitimate nicotine dependence as a disease, as already classified by world medical organizations. In agreement with HERMES project, an European Respiratory Society initiative to harmonize education in respiratory medicine across Europe, we recommend smoking cessation to be mandatory in Romanian medical curricula. Thus, students will earn theoretical, practical and behavioral skills to approach health effects of tobacco use, treatment and approach of smokers. Yet, considering real life situation in our country, for actual generations of practitioners we suggest intensive training in two modules: a basic one to cover lack of elementary knowledge during previous years and an advanced module for specialists. To future generations, a continuous, more coherent approach is to be settled, aiming to create brief advice expertise during medical university years of study. When graduating, future doctors willing to become smoking cessation experts will be provided postgraduate training to achieve this degree. Hopefully, within next two generations, many Romanian doctors will become capable to routinely deliver smoking cessation interventions, at European standards. PMID:19817311

  6. 'I'm better off now' : The role of temporal comparisons and exposure evaluations in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menninga, Karin; Dijkstra, Arie; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Siero, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Two new psychological concepts related to relapse in smoking cessation were tested. 'Temporal comparisons' are ex-smokers' evaluations of their present situation compared to their situation as a smoker. 'Exposure evaluations' are evaluations of situations ex-smokers encountered when they used to smo

  7. Smoking attenuates wound inflammation and proliferation while smoking cessation restores inflammation but not proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Toft, Birgitte Grønkær; Rygaard, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    Full-thickness 5 mm punch biopsy wounds were made lateral to the sacrum in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. After 1 week, the wounds were excised and fixed. The smokers were then randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo patch. The sequence of...... wounding and excision was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. All excised tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemically for macrophages (CD68), procollagen 1 N-terminal propeptide (PINP) in fibroblasts, and endothelial cells (CD31). The cellularity was assessed and scored by two...

  8. An evaluation of the range and availability of intensive smoking cessation services in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Currie, LM

    2009-06-27

    BACKGROUND: A review of smoking cessation (SC) services in Ireland is a necessary step in improving service planning and provision. AIMS: To assess the range and availability of intensive SC services in Ireland in 2006. METHODS: A survey of SC service providers in Ireland was conducted. Descriptive analysis and simple linear regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Response rate was 86.3% (63\\/73). All service providers surveyed are employing evidence-based interventions; the most common form of support is individual counselling with initial sessions averaging 40 min and weekly review sessions 20 min in duration. Reaching the recommended target of treating 5.0% of smokers does not seem feasible given the current distribution of resources and there appears to be regional differences in resource allocation. CONCLUSIONS: While intensive SC services are available in all four Health Service Executive Areas, it would appear that there is little uniformity or consistency countrywide in the scope and structure of these services.

  9. Smoking cessation can improve quality of life among COPD patients: Validation of the clinical COPD questionnaire into Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem that affects the quality of life of patients, however smoking cessation may emeliorate the functional effects of COPD and alter patient quality of life. Objective-design The aim of this study was to validate the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) into Greek and with such to evaluate the quality of life in patients with different stages of COPD, as also assess their quality of life before and after smoking cessation. Results The internal validity of questionnaire was high (Cronbach's a = 0.92). The reliability of equivalent types in 16 stabilized patients also was high (ICC = 0.99). In general the domains within the CCQ were strongly correlated with each other, while each domain in separate was strongly correlated with the overall CCQ score (r2 = 0.953, r2 = 0.915 and r2 = 0.842 in regards to the functional, symptomatic and mental domain, respectively). The CCQ scores were also correlated with FEV1, (r2 = -0.252, p < 0.001), FEV1/FVC, (r2 = -0.135, p < 0.001) as also with the quality of life questionnaire SF-12 (r2 = -0.384, p < 0.001). Smoking cessation also lead to a significant reduction in CCQ score and increase in the SF-12 score. Conclusions The self administered CCQ indicates satisfactory validity, reliability and responsiveness and may be used in clinical practice to assess patient quality of life. Moreover the CCQ indicated the health related quality of life gains attributable to smoking cessation among COPD patients, projecting smoking cessation as a key target in COPD patient management. PMID:21352544

  10. [How would plain packaging and pictorial warning impact on smoking reduction, cessation and initiation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Colamesta, Vittoria; Mipatrini, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; Terzano, Claudio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission has proposed a review of the directive on tobacco products on labeling and packaging of tobacco products by introducing warning text with pictorial warning that occupies 75% of the cigarette packages. The aim of the survey was to assess the impact of plain packaging and pictorial warning in smoking reduction, cessation and initiation among a sample of adult. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Rome between September and November 2012. The questionnaires administered were 227, with a response rate of 82.4%. 35.8% (No. 67) of the respondents considered the image of the gangrene the most effective in communicating smoking-related damages, followed by the image on lung cancer (No. 60; 32.1%). Distinguishing between smokers and non-smokers (both former and never smokers), the picture on lung cancer was the most effective for smokers (No. 22; 38.6%); if cigarette packages have pictorial warnings like the ones shown, more than half (No. 33; 57.9%) of smokers would change brand; 66.7% (No. 38) of them would feel uncomfortable in showing the package. Comparing the 3 packagings, classic packaging, plain packaging with textual warning, and plain packaging with both textual and pictorial warning, the majority of people declared that the third is the most effective in preventing smoking initiation (No. 169; 90.9%), in motivating to quit (No. 158; 84.9%), and in changing smoking habits (No. 149; 80.5%). The survey, although its small sample size and being not representative of all strata of Italian population, shows that the plain packaging with pictorial warning is the most convincing in the three outcomes considered. PMID:24548838

  11. Self-perceived factors associated with smoking cessation among primary health care nurses: a qualitative study Tabaquismo en enfermeras de Atención Primaria: un estudio cualitativo Tabagismo em enfermeiras de cuidados primários à saúde: um estudo qualitativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bennasar Veny

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the views of nurses about factors modulating smoking cessation. Results of this study will allow us to design helping interventions with the maximum specificity for nurses. A qualitative study through a semi-structured interview of 15 Primary Health Care nurses who were smokers was performed. In contrast with other studies in which nurses were not aware of any particular social pressure to give up smoking, 18 months after the application of the Anti-Smoking Spanish Law, this feeling was expressed. Therefore, the main reasons for giving up smoking include that smoking in public is every day worse seen, together with a sense of shame and guilt in front of their social and family environment, especially for being a professional group dedicated to health.El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los factores percibidos por las enfermeras fumadoras como moduladores del cese tabáquico, con el fin de diseñar posteriormente intervenciones de ayuda con la máxima especificidad para este colectivo. Se realizó un estudio cualitativo mediante entrevista semiestructurada a 15 enfermeras fumadoras de Atención Primaria de Salud. Contrariamente a otros estudios en los que las enfermeras no percibían una especial presión social para dejar el hábito tabáquico, 18 meses después de vigencia de la Ley de Prevención del Tabaquismo sí que la expresan. Por ello, entre los principales motivos de cese figura el que cada día esté peor considerado fumar en público, unido a un sentimiento de vergüenza y de culpa ante su entorno social y familiar, especialmente por tratarse de un colectivo profesional dedicado a los cuidados de salud.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os fatores percebidos por enfermeiras fumantes como facilitadores ao abandono do tabagismo, com o propósito de, posteriormente, elaborar intervenções de ajuda com maior especificidade para esse grupo. Foi realizado estudo qualitativo, por meio de

  12. How do price minimizing behaviors impact smoking cessation? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Andrea S; Hyland, Andrew J; O'Connor, Richard J; Chaloupka, Frank J; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Nargis, Nigar; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines how price minimizing behaviors impact efforts to stop smoking. Data on 4,988 participants from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four-Country Survey who were smokers at baseline (wave 5) and interviewed at a 1 year follow-up were used. We examined whether price minimizing behaviors at baseline predicted: (1) cessation, (2) quit attempts, and (3) successful quit attempts at one year follow up using multivariate logistic regression modeling. A subset analysis included 3,387 participants who were current smokers at waves 5 and 6 and were followed through wave 7 to explore effects of changing purchase patterns on cessation. Statistical tests for interaction were performed to examine the joint effect of SES and price/tax avoidance behaviors on cessation outcomes. Smokers who engaged in any price/tax avoidance behaviors were 28% less likely to report cessation. Persons using low/untaxed sources were less likely to quit at follow up, those purchasing cartons were less likely to make quit attempts and quit, and those using discount cigarettes were less likely to succeed, conditional on making attempts. Respondents who utilized multiple behaviors simultaneously were less likely to make quit attempts and to succeed. SES did not modify the effects of price minimizing behaviors on cessation outcomes. The data from this paper indicate that the availability of lower priced cigarette alternatives may attenuate public health efforts aimed at to reduce reducing smoking prevalence through price and tax increases among all SES groups. PMID:21655144

  13. Perfil de fumantes atendidos em serviço público para tratamento do tabagismo Characteristics of smokers enrolled in a public smoking cessation program

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    Laura Miranda de Oliveira Caram

    2009-10-01

    . Demographic variables; previous use of the behavioral approach, medications or alternative treatments for smoking cessation; degree of nicotine dependence; and history of comorbidities were evaluated in 387 smokers. RESULTS: In our sample, 63% of the smokers were female. The mean age of the subjects was 50 ± 25 years. More than half of the subjects (61% had up to eight years of schooling, and 66% had a monthly income of less than twice the national minimum wage. The degree of nicotine dependence was high/very high in 59%, medium in 17% and low/very low in 24% of the subjects. Although 95% of the patients presented comorbidities, only 35% had been referred to the program by a physician. More than half of the subjects (68% had made at least one smoking-cessation attempt, 83% of whom did so without the help of a structured program. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers seeking assistance for smoking cessation were socially disadvantaged, presented a high degree of nicotine dependence and had previously made smoking-cessation attempts without the benefit of a structured program. Therefore, in order to be effective, smoking control interventions should take into consideration the general characteristics of the smokers treated via the public health care system.

  14. A Prospective, Randomized Trial in The Emergency Department Of Suggestive Audio-Therapy Under Deep Sedation for Smoking Cessation

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    Shah, Sushma

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In a sample of patients undergoing procedural deep sedation in the emergency department (ED, we conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial of audio-therapy for smoking cessation. Methods: We asked subjects about their smoking, including desire to quit (0-10 numerical scale and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Subjects were randomized to either a control tape (music alone or a tape with repeated smoking-cessation messages over music. Tapes were started with first doses of sedation and stopped with patient arousal. Telephone follow-up occurred between two weeks and three months to assess the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Study endpoints were self-reported complete cessation and decrease of half or more in total cigarettes smoked per day. Results: One hundred eleven patients were enrolled in the study, 54 to intervention and 57 to control. Mean desire to quit was 7.15 ± 2.6 and mean cigarettes per day was 17.5 ± 12.1. We successfully contacted 69 (62% patients. Twenty-seven percent of intervention and 26% of control patients quit (mean difference = 1%; 95% CI: –22.0% to 18.8%. Thirty-seven percent of intervention and 51% of control patients decreased smoking by half or more (mean difference = 14.6%; 95% CI: –8.7% to 35.6%. Conclusion: Suggestive audio-therapy delivered during deep sedation in the ED did not significantly decrease self-reported smoking behavior.

  15. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change. PMID:16182458

  16. The Gold Standard Program for Smoking Cessation is Effective for Participants Over 60 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flamand, Mette Kehlet; Schroeder, Torben V; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is more prevalent among the elderly than among the young, and the elderly also have the most frequent contact with the health care system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Gold Standard Program, which is an intensive six-week smoking...... age of 60 years (range 60-82) and 24,294 below 60 years (range 15-59). Continuous abstinence rate after six months was 37% for the elderly compared to 35% for the younger (p < 0.05). The significant variables for continuous abstinence were: living with another adult (OR 1.10), prior professional...

  17. The efficacy of vigorous-intensity exercise as an aid to smoking cessation in adults with elevated anxiety sensitivity: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Jasper A J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although cigarette smoking is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States (US, over 40 million adults in the US currently smoke. Quitting smoking is particularly difficult for smokers with certain types of psychological vulnerability. Researchers have frequently called attention to the relation between smoking and anxiety-related states and disorders, and evidence suggests that panic and related anxiety vulnerability factors, specifically anxiety sensitivity (AS or fear of somatic arousal, negatively impact cessation. Accordingly, there is merit to targeting AS among smokers to improve cessation outcome. Aerobic exercise has emerged as a promising aid for smoking cessation for this high-risk (for relapse group because exercise can effectively reduce AS and other factors predicting smoking relapse (for example, withdrawal, depressed mood, anxiety, and it has shown initial efficacy for smoking cessation. The current manuscript presents the rationale, study design and procedures, and design considerations of the Smoking Termination Enhancement Project (STEP. Methods STEP is a randomized clinical trial that compares a vigorous-intensity exercise intervention to a health and wellness education intervention as an aid for smoking cessation in adults with elevated AS. One hundred and fifty eligible participants will receive standard treatment (ST for smoking cessation that includes cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT. In addition, participants will be randomly assigned to either an exercise intervention (ST+EX or a health and wellness education intervention (ST+CTRL. Participants in both arms will meet 3 times a week for 15 weeks, receiving CBT once a week for the first 7 weeks, and 3 supervised exercise or health and wellness education sessions (depending on randomization per week for the full 15-week intervention. Participants will be asked to set a quit date for 6 weeks after

  18. Results of the PAS Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Multiple Tailored Smoking Cessation Program Combined With Tailored Counseling by Practice Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, E S; Candel, M J J M; Hoving, C; de Vries, H

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of Web-based multiple computer tailoring and counseling by a practice nurse (MTC) compared with computer tailoring without counseling (MT) and usual care (UC) on smoking cessation rates, via a randomized controlled trial with 414 Dutch adult smokers, recruited by 91 practice nurses from May 2009 to June 2010. Logistic multilevel regression analyses were conducted with 24-hour point prevalence, 7-day point prevalence, and prolonged abstinence after 6 and 12 months as dependent variables and experimental condition as the independent variable. After 6 and 12 months, 38% and 56% of respondents were followed up, respectively. At both follow-ups, no main effects of the interventions could be identified when comparing them with care as usual and with each other-neither in analyses using available data nor in analyses using a negative scenario in which respondents lost to follow-up were considered to still be smoking. A Web-based multiple computer-tailored smoking cessation program combined with a single face-to-face counseling session by a practice nurse may not be more effective than this computer-tailored program alone or than usual smoking cessation care in the general practice setting. Yet before concluding that the addition of counseling to Web-based computer tailoring cannot be successful, more research needs to be conducted to identify the optimal number of counseling sessions to be combined with the Web-based program and to how to best attune the two modalities. PMID:26934538

  19. Assessment of the effectiveness of sustained release Bupropion and intensive physician advice in smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pranav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use is the cause of immense burden on our nation in terms of mortality and morbidity, being the single leading cause of preventable illnesses and death. Smoking cessation interventions in our country will be the most cost effective of all interventions considering that the cost incurred on the three main tobacco related illnesses (COPD, CAD, and Cancer being around Rs 27,761 crore in the year 1999. Materials and Methods: A double blind placebo controlled trial was conducted to see the efficacy of Bupropion in smoking cessation. Smokers with current depression were excluded. The subjects (n = 30 were randomly assigned to receive Bupropion SR 300 mg/day or placebo for seven weeks. Target quit date was preferentially 8 th day of starting the treatment. Intensive counseling was provided by the physician at the baseline and brief counseling at every visit weekly during the treatment phase and at weeks 12 and 16. Self reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon monoxide concentration in expired air of less than 10 ppm. Results: The seven-day point prevalence abstinence rate at the end of week 2 and week 16 in the drug group was 46.67% and 53.33 % respectively and in the placebo group was 13.33% and 20% respectively with the ′P" value of 0.04 and 0.05 respectively. Rates of continuous abstinence at weeks 4, 7 and 16 were 46.67%, 40% and 33.33% in the drug group and 13.33%, 13.33% and 13.33% in the placebo group respectively. The rates were significantly higher in the drug group till week 4 starting from week 2 of the treatment phase. The mean weight gain in drug group was found to be significant less as compared to the placebo at week 16 (P = 0.025 The mean change of depression scores from the baseline was not significantly different between the two groups at any point of time. The withdrawal symptom score increase from the baseline was not significantly higher at any point of time in the drug group but in the placebo group the

  20. Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Ernestine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. Methods/Design This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy. Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36. Discussion Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT00492310

  1. Interrater Reliability of mHealth App Rating Measures: Analysis of Top Depression and Smoking Cessation Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Steven; Raynor, Geoffrey Stephen; Shwarts, Erik; Shanahan, Meghan; Landman, Adam B

    2016-01-01

    Background There are over 165,000 mHealth apps currently available to patients, but few have undergone an external quality review. Furthermore, no standardized review method exists, and little has been done to examine the consistency of the evaluation systems themselves. Objective We sought to determine which measures for evaluating the quality of mHealth apps have the greatest interrater reliability. Methods We identified 22 measures for evaluating the quality of apps from the literature. A panel of 6 reviewers reviewed the top 10 depression apps and 10 smoking cessation apps from the Apple iTunes App Store on these measures. Krippendorff’s alpha was calculated for each of the measures and reported by app category and in aggregate. Results The measure for interactiveness and feedback was found to have the greatest overall interrater reliability (alpha=.69). Presence of password protection (alpha=.65), whether the app was uploaded by a health care agency (alpha=.63), the number of consumer ratings (alpha=.59), and several other measures had moderate interrater reliability (alphas>.5). There was the least agreement over whether apps had errors or performance issues (alpha=.15), stated advertising policies (alpha=.16), and were easy to use (alpha=.18). There were substantial differences in the interrater reliabilities of a number of measures when they were applied to depression versus smoking apps. Conclusions We found wide variation in the interrater reliability of measures used to evaluate apps, and some measures are more robust across categories of apps than others. The measures with the highest degree of interrater reliability tended to be those that involved the least rater discretion. Clinical quality measures such as effectiveness, ease of use, and performance had relatively poor interrater reliability. Subsequent research is needed to determine consistent means for evaluating the performance of apps. Patients and clinicians should consider conducting their

  2. Health promotion methods for smoking prevention and cessation: A comprehensive review of effectiveness and the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahaveer Golechha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.

  3. IL-17A and serum amyloid A are elevated in a cigarette smoke cessation model associated with the persistence of pigmented macrophages, neutrophils and activated NK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Hansen

    Full Text Available While global success in cessation advocacy has seen smoking rates fall in many developed countries, persistent lung inflammation in ex-smokers is an increasingly important clinical problem whose mechanistic basis remains poorly understood. In this study, candidate effector mechanisms were assessed in mice exposed to cigarette smoke (CS for 4 months following cessation from long term CS exposure. BALF neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and lung innate NK cells remained significantly elevated following smoking cessation. Analysis of neutrophil mobilization markers showed a transition from acute mediators (MIP-2α, KC and G-CSF to sustained drivers of neutrophil and macrophage recruitment and activation (IL-17A and Serum Amyoid A (SAA. Follicle-like lymphoid aggregates formed with CS exposure and persisted with cessation, where they were in close anatomical proximity to pigmented macrophages, whose number actually increased 3-fold following CS cessation. This was associated with the elastolytic protease, MMP-12 (macrophage metallo-elastase which remained significantly elevated post-cessation. Both GM-CSF and CSF-1 were significantly increased in the CS cessation group relative to the control group. In conclusion, we show that smoking cessation mediates a transition to accumulation of pigmented macrophages, which may contribute to the expanded macrophage population observed in COPD. These macrophages together with IL-17A, SAA and innate NK cells are identified here as candidate persistence determinants and, we suggest, may represent specific targets for therapies directed towards the amelioration of chronic airway inflammation.

  4. Municipalities Collaborating in Public Health: The Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership

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    Pernille Tanggaard Andersen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP’s stakeholders and an analysis of the partnership documents and reports. The findings suggested that the main potentials of the partnership were the personal relations between the members and stakeholders with the possibilities of the creation of new connections with other actors. Barriers to successful partnership building were the implementation of the new Local Government Reform as a competing task, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four factors remain critical for partnerships. The first is the clarity of the collaborative effort. Second, partnerships need to take into account the structural circumstances and culture/value systems of all stakeholders. Third is the impact of contextual factors on the development of the partnership; and the fourth factor is the bearing of personal/individual factors on the partnership e.g., personal engagement in the project. Early attention to these four factors could contribute to more effective partnership working.

  5. Plain cigarette packaging: A policy analysis of Australia’s integrated “whole-of-system” model for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorraine Davies; Erica Bell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Plain cigarette packaging as a tobacco control measure is to be implemented in Australia on December 1st 2012. There is mounting evidence for its likely impact on smokers and potential smokers. Yet Australia’s integrated model of smoking cessation and the particular role and opportunities it has created for primary healthcare have not yet been subject to policy analysis in leading international journals. This policy analysis paper explores these new Australian policy development...

  6. Smoking cessation can improve quality of life among COPD patients: Validation of the clinical COPD questionnaire into Greek

    OpenAIRE

    Linardis Apostolos; Limperi Maria; Vardavas Constantine I; Papadopoulos George; Georgoudis George; Behrakis Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem that affects the quality of life of patients, however smoking cessation may emeliorate the functional effects of COPD and alter patient quality of life. Objective-design The aim of this study was to validate the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) into Greek and with such to evaluate the quality of life in patients with different stages of COPD, as also assess their quality of life before and ...

  7. Assessing the Quality of Goal Setting in Behavioural Support for Smoking Cessation and its Association with Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencatto, F.; West, R.; Bruguera, C.; Brose, L. S.; Michie, S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation behavioural support can be effective but practitioners differ markedly in effectiveness, possibly due to variation in the quality of delivery of key behaviour change techniques, such as goal setting (i.e. setting a quit date). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (i) develop a reliable method for assessing the quality of practitioners' support in setting quit dates and (ii) assess whether quality predicts initiation of abstinence as a first step to quitting. ...

  8. Randomized trial of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion and NRT plus bupropion for smoking cessation: Effectiveness in clinical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, J.; Z Abdi; Strang, J.; Sutherland, G; West, R; Vangeli, E.; Hajek, P; McRobbie, H; Humphrey, K.; Wheeler, J.; O'Gara, C; Ali, R

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Bupropion was introduced for smoking cessation following a pivotal trial showing that it gave improved efficacy over the nicotine patch and also suggesting combination treatment was beneficial. We tested in clinical practice for an effectiveness difference between bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), whether the combination improves effectiveness and whether either treatment might be more beneficial for certain subgroups of smokers. Design: Open-label randomi...

  9. Keeping morality out and the GP in. Consultations in Danish general practice as a context for smoking cessation advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Tulinius, Anne Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    observation of their own consultations. RESULTS: Patients and GPs agreed that the GP should adopt an attitude of moral acceptance towards patients. Ideals of moral acceptance of patients in general practice consultations were challenged by the prevailing negative moral values associated with smoking. A...... challenged by smoking cessation advice to patients without smoking-related illness: the ideal of moral acceptance of patients in general practice consultations held by GPs and patients and the wish for mutuality in the conversation during consultations. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: A conversation about smoking...... based on motivational interviewing would fit in the context of Danish general practice. Relieving the conversation of blocks due to moral implications, however, is still a challenge....

  10. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  11. Diffusion of an Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention Through Facebook: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K.; Jacobs, Megan A.; Wileyto, Paul; Valente, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the diffusion of an evidence-based smoking cessation application (“app”) through Facebook social networks and identify specific intervention components that accelerate diffusion. Methods. Between December 2012 and October 2013, we recruited adult US smokers (“seeds”) via Facebook advertising and randomized them to 1 of 12 app variants using a factorial design. App variants targeted components of diffusion: duration of use (t), “contagiousness” (β), and number of contacts (Z). The primary outcome was the reproductive ratio (R), defined as the number of individuals installing the app (“descendants”) divided by the number of a seed participant’s Facebook friends. Results. We randomized 9042 smokers. App utilization metrics demonstrated between-variant differences in expected directions. The highest level of diffusion (R = 0.087) occurred when we combined active contagion strategies with strategies to increase duration of use (incidence rate ratio = 9.99; 95% confidence interval = 5.58, 17.91; P < .001). Involving nonsmokers did not affect diffusion. Conclusions. The maximal R value (0.087) is sufficient to increase the numbers of individuals receiving treatment if applied on a large scale. Online interventions can be designed a priori to spread through social networks. PMID:27077358

  12. Measurement of Reduced Gingival Melanosis after Smoking Cessation: A Novel Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tomotaka; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Sugiyama, Seiichi; Makino, Michiko; Noguchi, Satoshi; Katayama-Ono, Tomoko; Hanioka, Takashi; Naito, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to moisture and the anatomical complexity of the oral mucosa, it is difficult to measure the extent of gingival melanosis in an optical manner. Therefore, we developed a new quantitative method using clinical oral photographs and compared the extent of gingival melanosis before and after smoking cessation. Methods: A new analysis method, which we named the gingival melanosis record (GMR), is a quantitative analysis method using clinical oral photographs. We obtained 659 clinical photographs from 263 patients from 16 general dental offices in Japan. Standardized measuring sites were automatically spotted on the screen, and the presence of gingival melanosis was determined at the measuring sites. We assessed the validity of the GMR with the previously reported Hedin’s classification using Spearman’s rank correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results: The GMR showed a significant association with Hedin’s classification (p 0.61). The longitudinal loss of gingival melanosis was confirmed by a change in the GMR among patients who successfully achieved smoking cessation for a mean of 4.5 years. Conclusion: The GMR is an effective method to assess gingival melanosis. The loss of gingival melanosis after smoking cessation can be objectively confirmed with the use of the GMR. PMID:27322294

  13. Measurement of Reduced Gingival Melanosis after Smoking Cessation: A Novel Analysis of Gingival Pigmentation Using Clinical Oral Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka Kato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to moisture and the anatomical complexity of the oral mucosa, it is difficult to measure the extent of gingival melanosis in an optical manner. Therefore, we developed a new quantitative method using clinical oral photographs and compared the extent of gingival melanosis before and after smoking cessation. Methods: A new analysis method, which we named the gingival melanosis record (GMR, is a quantitative analysis method using clinical oral photographs. We obtained 659 clinical photographs from 263 patients from 16 general dental offices in Japan. Standardized measuring sites were automatically spotted on the screen, and the presence of gingival melanosis was determined at the measuring sites. We assessed the validity of the GMR with the previously reported Hedin’s classification using Spearman’s rank correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients. Results: The GMR showed a significant association with Hedin’s classification (p < 0.01, correlation coefficient = 0.94. The GMR also showed excellent reproducibility of the substantial repeated agreement intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC (1,1 and ICC (2,1, p > 0.61. The longitudinal loss of gingival melanosis was confirmed by a change in the GMR among patients who successfully achieved smoking cessation for a mean of 4.5 years. Conclusion: The GMR is an effective method to assess gingival melanosis. The loss of gingival melanosis after smoking cessation can be objectively confirmed with the use of the GMR.

  14. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m-3, have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  15. Comparing Motivational Interviewing-Based Treatment and its combination with Nicotine Replacement Therapy on smoking cessation in prisoners: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali, Farzad; Afshari, Reza; Babaei, Ali; Abasspour, Hassan; Vahedian-Shahroodi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of smoking is much higher in prisoners than it is in the general population. Prisoners who smoke cause many health problems for themselves and other prisoners. Therefore, we should help them stop smoking. Objective To compare the effects of motivational interviewing-based (MI-based) treatment and its combination with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on smoking cessation in prisoners at Mashhad Central Prison. Methods The study was designed as a double-blind, random...

  16. How pragmatic or explanatory is the randomized, controlled trial? The application and enhancement of the PRECIS tool to the evaluation of a smoking cessation trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selby Peter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous explanatory randomized trials support the efficacy of chronic disease interventions, including smoking cessation treatments. However, there is often inadequate adoption of these interventions for various reasons, one being the limitation of generalizability of the explanatory studies in real-world settings. Randomized controlled trials can be rated as more explanatory versus pragmatic along 10 dimensions. Pragmatic randomized clinical trials generate more realistic estimates of effectiveness with greater relevance to clinical practice and for health resource allocation decisions. However, there is no clear method to scale each dimension during the trial design phase to ensure that the design matches the intended purpose of the study. Methods We designed a pragmatic, randomized, controlled study to maximize external validity by addressing several barriers to smoking cessation therapy in ambulatory care. We analyzed our design and methods using the recently published ‘Pragmatic–Explanatory Continuum Indicatory Summary (PRECIS’ tool, a qualitative method to assess trial design across 10 domains. We added a 20-point numerical rating scale and a modified Delphi process to improve consensus in rating these domains. Results After two rounds of review, there was consensus on all 10 domains of study design. No single domain was scored as either fully pragmatic or fully explanatory; but overall, the study scored high on pragmatism. Conclusions This addition to the PRECIS tool may assist other trial designers working with interdisciplinary co-investigators to rate their study design while building consensus.

  17. Patient and professional user experiences of simple telehealth for hypertension, medication reminders and smoking cessation: a service evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Cox, Tracey; O'Connell, Phil; Chambers, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish patient and professional user satisfaction with the Advice & Interactive Messaging (AIM) for Health programme delivered using a mobile phone-based, simple telehealth intervention, ‘Florence’. Design A service evaluation using data extracted from Florence and from a professional user electronic survey. Setting 425 primary care practices across 31 Clinical Commissioning Groups in England. Participants 3381 patients registered on 1 of 10 AIM protocols between March 2013 and January 2014 and 77 professional users. Intervention The AIM programme offered 10 clinical protocols, in three broad groups: (1) hypertension diagnosis/monitoring, (2) medication reminders and (3) smoking cessation. Florence sent patients prompts to submit clinical information, educational messages and user satisfaction questions. Patient responses were reviewed by their primary healthcare providers. Primary outcome measures Patients and professional user experiences of using AIM, and within this, Florence. Results Patient activity using Florence was generally good at month 1 for the hypertension protocols (71–80%), but reduced over 2–3 months (31–60%). For the other protocols, patient activity was 0–39% at 3 months. Minimum target days of texting were met for half the hypertension protocols. 1707/2304 (74%) patients sent evaluative texts responded at least once. Among responders, agreement with the adapted friends and family statement generally exceeded preproject aspirations. Professional responders were generally positive or equivocal about the programme. Conclusions Satisfaction with AIM appeared optimal when patients were carefully selected for the protocol; professional users were familiar with the system, the programme addressed a problem with the previous service delivery that was identified by users and users took an active approach to achieve clinical goals. However, there was a significant decrease in patients’ use of Florence over time. Future

  18. Impact of inflammation, emphysema, and smoking cessation on V/Q in mouse models of lung obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is known to greatly affect ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) of the lung through pathologies such as inflammation and emphysema. However, there is little direct evidence regarding how these pathologies contribute to the V/Q mismatch observed in COPD and models thereof. Also, little is known regarding how smoking cessation affects V/Q relationships after inflammation and airspace enlargement have become established. To this end, we have quantified V/Q on a per-voxel basis using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in mouse models of COPD and lung obstruction. Methods Three distinct murine models were used to investigate the impact of different pathologies on V/Q, as measured by SPECT. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to produce neutrophilic inflammation, porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) was used to produce emphysema, and long-term cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and cessation were used to investigate the combination of these pathologies. Results CS exposure resulted in an increase in mononuclear cells and neutrophils, an increase in airspace enlargement, and an increase in V/Q mismatching. The inflammation produced by LPS was more robust and predominantly neutrophilic, compared to that of cigarette smoke; nevertheless, inflammation alone caused V/Q mismatching similar to that seen with long-term CS exposure. The emphysematous lesions caused by PPE administration were also capable of causing V/Q mismatch in the absence of inflammation. Following CS cessation, inflammatory cell levels returned to those of controls and, similarly, V/Q measures returned to normal despite evidence of persistent mild airspace enlargement. Conclusions Both robust inflammation and extensive airspace enlargement, on their own, were capable of producing V/Q mismatch. As CS cessation resulted in a return of V/Q mismatching and inflammatory cell counts to control levels, lung inflammation is likely a major contributor to V

  19. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2012-06-13

    AbstractBackgroundIn addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers.MethodsAn evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet). Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat) was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test.ResultsAt week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA). The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0.015), 6 (p = 0

  20. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate tooth stain reduction with nicotine replacement gum during a smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelton Helen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to its general and periodontal health effects smoking causes tooth staining. Smoking cessation support interventions with an added stain removal or tooth whitening effect may increase motivation to quit smoking. Oral health professionals are well placed to provide smoking cessation advice and support to patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Nicorette® Freshmint Gum used in a smoking cessation programme administered in a dental setting, on extrinsic stain and tooth shade among smokers. Methods An evaluator-blinded, randomized, 12-week parallel-group controlled trial was conducted among 200 daily smokers motivated to quit smoking. Participants were randomised to use either the Nicorette® Freshmint Gum or Nicorette® Microtab (tablet. Tooth staining and shade were rated using the modified Lobene Stain Index and the Vita® Shade Guide at baseline, weeks 2, 6 and 12. To maintain consistency with other whitening studies, the primary end-point was the mean change in stain index between baseline and week 6. Secondary variables included changes in stain measurements and tooth shade at the other time points the number of gums or tablets used per day and throughout the trial period; and the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Treatments were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, using treatment and nicotine dependence as factors and the corresponding baseline measurement as a covariate. Each comparison (modified intention-to-treat was tested at the 0.05 level, two-sided. Within-treatment changes from baseline were compared using a paired t-test. Results At week 6, the gum-group experienced a reduction in mean stain scores whilst the tablet-group experienced an increase with mean changes of -0.14 and +0.12 respectively, (p = 0.005, ANCOVA. The change in mean tooth shade scores was statistically significantly greater in the gum-group than in the tablet group at 2 (p = 0

  1. Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

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    Pasquale Caponnetto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been reported, including depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicide. The use of bupropion also has side effects. It should not be used by people who have epilepsy or any condition that lowers the seizure threshold, nor by people who take a specific class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Hence, there are pharmacodynamic reason to believe they could precipitate or exacerbate psychosis. For its capacity to deliver nicotine and provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures, electronic-cigarettes may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms without serious side effects. Our recent work with ECs in healthy smokers not intending to quit consistently show surprisingly high success rates. We hypothesised that these positive findings could be replicated in difficult patients with schizophrenia This tool may help smokers with schizophrenia remain abstinent during their quitting attempts or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated for this special population. Methods: In this study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 14 smokers (not intending to quit with schizophrenia experimenting with the “Categoria” e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend six study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 week-24 and week 52. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, carbon monoxide in exhaled breath (eCO and positive and negative symptoms of

  2. Crave-Out: A Distraction/Motivation Mobile Game to Assist in Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Kamberi, Ariana; English, Thomas M; Seward, Greg L; Chan, S Wayne; Volkman, Julie E; Amante, Daniel J; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is still the number one preventable cause of death. Cravings—an intense desire or longing for a cigarette—are a major contributor to quit attempt failure. New tools to help smokers’ manage their cravings are needed. Objective To present a case study of the development process and testing of a distraction/motivation game (Crave-Out) to help manage cravings. Methods We used a phased approach: in Phase 1 (alpha testing), we tested and refined the game concept, using a Web-based prototype. In Phase 2 (beta testing), we evaluated the distraction/motivation potential of the mobile game prototype, using a prepost design. After varying duration of abstinence, smokers completed the Questionnaire of Smoking Urge-Brief (QSU-Brief) measurement before and after playing Crave-Out. Paired t tests were used to compare pregame and postgame QSU-Brief levels. To test dissemination potential, we released the game on the Apple iTunes App Store and tracked downloads between December 22, 2011, and May 5, 2014. Results Our concept refinement resulted in a multilevel, pattern memory challenge game, with each level increasing in difficulty. Smokers could play the game as long as they wanted. At the end of each level, smokers were provided clear goals for the next level and rewards (positive reinforcement using motivational tokens that represented a benefit of quitting smoking). Negative reinforcement was removed in alpha testing as smokers felt it reminded them of smoking. Measurement of QSU-Brief (N=30) resulted in a pregame mean of 3.24 (SD 1.65) and postgame mean of 2.99 (SD 1.40) with an overall decrease of 0.25 in cravings (not statistically significant). In a subset analysis, the QSU-Brief decrease was significant for smokers abstinent for more than 48 hours (N=5) with a pregame mean of 2.84 (SD 1.16) and a postgame mean of 2.0 (SD 0.94; change=0.84; P =.03). Between December 22, 2011, and May 29, 2014, the game was downloaded 3372 times from the App

  3. Smoking cessation or reduction with nicotine replacement therapy: a placebo-controlled double blind trial with nicotine gum and inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavsson Gunnar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even with effective smoking cessation medications, many smokers are unable to abruptly stop using tobacco. This finding has increased interest in smoking reduction as an interim step towards complete cessation. Methods This multi-center, double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of nicotine 4 mg gum or nicotine 10 mg inhaler in helping smokers (N = 314 to reduce or quit smoking. It included smokers willing to control their smoking, and participants could set individual goals, to reduce or quit. The study was placebo-controlled, randomized in a ratio of 2:1 (Active:Placebo, and subjects could choose inhaler or gum after randomization. Outcome was short-term (from Week 6 to Month 4 and long-term (from Month 6 to Month 12 abstinence or reduction. Abstinence was defined as not a single cigarette smoked and expired CO readings of Results Significantly more smokers managed to quit in the Active group than in the Placebo group. Sustained abstinence rates at 4 months were 42/209 (20.1% subjects in the Active group and 9/105 (8.6% subjects in the Placebo group (p = 0.009. Sustained abstinence rates at 12 months were 39/209 (18.7% and 9/105 (8.6%, respectively (p = 0.019. Smoking reduction did not differ between the groups, either at short-term or long-term. Twelve-month reduction results were 17.2% vs. 18.1%, respectively. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion In conclusion, treatment with 10 mg nicotine inhaler or 4 mg nicotine chewing gum resulted in a significantly higher abstinence rate than placebo. In addition a large number of smokers managed to reduce their cigarette consumption by more than 50% compared to baseline.

  4. Smoking Cessation and Relapse Prevention among Undergraduate Students: A Pilot Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jim; Hoffmann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of college students' tobacco use is widely recognized, but successful cessation and relapse-prevention programs for these smokers have drawn little attention. The authors, who explored the feasibility of training peers to lead cessation and relapse-prevention programs for undergraduates, found a quit rate of 88.2%, suggesting that…

  5. Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Zubrick Stephen R; Mitrou Francis; Lawrence David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders. Methods We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Surve...

  6. Switching to smokeless tobacco as a smoking cessation method: evidence from the 2000 National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Carl V

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although smokeless tobacco (ST use has played a major role in the low smoking prevalence among Swedish men, there is little information at the population level about ST as a smoking cessation aid in the U.S. Methods We used the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to derive population estimates for the number of smokers who had tried twelve methods in their most recent quit attempt, and for the numbers and proportions who were former or current smokers at the time of the survey. Results An estimated 359,000 men switched to smokeless tobacco in their most recent quit attempt. This method had the highest proportion of successes among those attempting it (73%, representing 261,000 successful quitters (switchers. In comparison, the nicotine patch was used by an estimated 2.9 million men in their most recent quit attempt, and almost one million (35% were former smokers at the time of the survey. Of the 964,000 men using nicotine gum, about 323,000 (34% became former smokers. Of the 98,000 men who used the nicotine inhaler, 27,000 quit successfully (28%. None of the estimated 14,000 men who tried the nicotine nasal spray became former smokers. Forty-two percent of switchers also reported quitting smoking all at once, which was higher than among former smokers who used medications (8–19%. Although 40% of switchers quit smoking less than 5 years before the survey, 21% quit over 20 years earlier. Forty-six percent of switchers were current ST users at the time of the survey. Conclusion Switching to ST compares very favorably with pharmaceutical nicotine as a quit-smoking aid among American men, despite the fact that few smokers know that the switch provides almost all of the health benefits of complete tobacco abstinence. The results of this study show that tobacco harm reduction is a viable cessation option for American smokers.

  7. Preclinical pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of varenicline in smoking cessation and clinical utility in high risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Xiong Xi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zheng-Xiong XiNational Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Smoking is still the most prominent cause of preventable premature death in the United States and an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Although the current treatments such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and bupropion are effective, long-term abstinence rates are low. Mechanism studies suggest that the pleasurable effects of smoking are mediated predominantly by nicotine, which activates the brain reward system by activation of brain α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. Varenicline is a novel α4β2 nAChR partial agonist and has been found to be even more effective than NRT or bupropion in attenuating smoking satisfaction and in relieving craving and withdrawal symptoms after abstinence. Thus, varenicline has been recently approved to be a first-line medication for smoking cessation in the United States and European countries. Varenicline is generally well tolerated in healthy adult smokers, with the most commonly reported adverse effects being nausea, insomnia, and headache. However, growing postmarketing data has linked varenicline to an increase in neuropsychiatric symptoms such as seizures, suicidal attempts, depression, and psychosis as well as serious injuries potentially relating to unconsciousness, dizziness, visual disturbances, or movement disorders. Therefore, new safety warnings are issued to certain high risk populations, such as patients with mental illness and operators of commercial vehicles and heavy machinery. In particular, pilots, air traffic controllers, truck and bus drivers have been banned from taking varenicline.Keywords: nicotine, varenicline, α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, nAChRs, partial agonist, smoking cessation

  8. Smoking cessation interventions within the context of Low-Dose Computed Tomography lung cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; Simmons, Vani N; Palmer, Amanda M; Correa, John B; Brandon, Thomas H

    2016-08-01

    The integration of smoking cessation interventions (SCIs) within the context of lung cancer screening programs is strongly recommended by screening guidelines, and is a requirement for Medicare coverage of screening in the US. In Europe, there are no lung cancer screening guidelines, however, research trials are ongoing, and prominent professional societies have begun to recommend lung cancer screening. Little is known about the types and efficacy of SCIs among patients receiving low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. This review addresses this gap. Based on a systematic search, we identified six empirical studies published prior to July 1, 2015, that met inclusion criteria for our review: English language, SCI for LDCT patients, and reported smoking-related outcomes. Three randomized studies and three single-arm studies were identified. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated self-help SCIs, whereas one pilot RCT evaluated the timing (before or after the LDCT scan) of a combined (counseling and pharmacotherapy) SCI. Among the single-arm trials, two observational studies evaluated the efficacy of combined SCI, and one retrospectively assessed the efficacy of clinician-delivered smoking assessment, advice, and assistance. Given the limited research to date, and particularly the lack of studies reporting results from RCTs, assumptions that SCIs would be effective among this population should be made with caution. Findings from this review suggest that participation in a lung screening trial promotes smoking cessation and may represent a teachable moment to quit smoking. Findings also suggest that providers can take advantage of this potentially teachable moment, and that SCIs have been successfully implemented in screening settings. Continued systematic and methodologically sound research in this area will help improve the knowledge base and implementation of interventions for this population of smokers at risk for chronic disease. PMID:27393513

  9. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

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    Chellini Elisabetta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua, participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups. The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p p p Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565

  10. Smoking cessation with young women in public family planning clinics: the impact of physician messages and waiting room media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, V C; Coates, T J; Spielberg, L A; Ewart, C K; Dorfman, S; Huster, W J

    1984-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a media program and a physician-delivered message in encouraging smoking cessation among young black women in public family planning clinics. Incorporated into the clinic visit, the 3- to 5-min physician message was intended to elicit a commitment from participants to take steps toward quitting, namely, to think about quitting, set a target date, enlist the help of family and friends, throw away matches and cigarettes, and to then quit "cold turkey." The media program consisted of specially designed posters in waiting rooms showing models of people in the process of quitting and a continuously run movie dealing with women and smoking. A total of 1,179 female smokers were recruited into the study when they came to three separate clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, to receive gynecological examinations and/or contraceptive services. Four separate interventions were tested: (I) a baseline questionnaire about smoking habits and related information; (II) baseline questionnaire plus media program; (III) baseline questionnaire plus physician message; and (IV) baseline questionnaire plus media program plus physician message. Conditions I and II were administered in Clinic A on alternating weeks, Condition III was administered in Clinic B, and Condition IV was administered in Clinic C. Follow-up was conducted at 3 and 12 months. Follow-up rates were 88.1% at 3 months, 79.9% at 12 months, and 84.1% for both 3 and 12 months. Among women receiving the physician message (Conditions III and IV), 9.9% reported not smoking at 12 months; the lowest selfreported cessation rate was 3.1% in Condition I. When verified through analyzing cotinine in saliva, quit rates were 0.09% in Condition I, 2.4% in Condition II, 3.7% in Condition III, and 2.1% in Condition IV. The fact that participants receiving the physician message quit smoking at a significantly greater rate than those who did not indicates the need for further study of the impact of physician

  11. Variation of serum and urine cotinine in passive and active smokers and applicability in preconceptional smoking cessation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the applicability of serum and urine cotinine as a biochemical marker of self-reported smoking habits for use in a preconception smoking cessation program. The variation of serum and urine cotinine over the course of the day was investigated in a sample of 21 smokers and 8 passive smokers who reported their smoking habits and exposure to smoke daily in a questionnaire for 10 consecutive days. Blood and urine samples were collected on two sampling days, 1 week apart. Both serum and urine cotinine assay could distinguish between passive and active smokers, but not between higher categories of smokers (1019 and ≥20 cigarettes per ay) due to significant intersubject overlap. In serum, no significant differences were found between morning and afternoon cotinine concentrations in either day, in contrast to urine cotinine (with lower excretions observed n the morning). An overall coefficient of variation of 22- was observed for both specimens in smokers. Because serum cotinine is subject to lower variability over the course of the day, it is more practical for use in a clinical setting where appointments are scheduled throughout the day in order o confirm smoking status

  12. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Results Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day. Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%, compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P Conclusion The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  13. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence, consumption, initiation, and cessation between 2001 and 2008 in the Netherlands. Findings from a national population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelhout Gera E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widening of socioeconomic status (SES inequalities in smoking prevalence has occurred in several Western countries from the mid 1970’s onwards. However, little is known about a widening of SES inequalities in smoking consumption, initiation and cessation. Methods Repeated cross-sectional population surveys from 2001 to 2008 (n ≈ 18,000 per year were used to examine changes in smoking prevalence, smoking consumption (number of cigarettes per day, initiation ratios (ratio of ever smokers to all respondents, and quit ratios (ratio of former smokers to ever smokers in the Netherlands. Education level and income level were used as indicators of SES and results were reported separately for men and women. Results Lower educated respondents were significantly more likely to be smokers, smoked more cigarettes per day, had higher initiation ratios, and had lower quit ratios than higher educated respondents. Income inequalities were smaller than educational inequalities and were not all significant, but were in the same direction as educational inequalities. Among women, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Among low educated women, smoking prevalence remained stable between 2001 and 2008 because both the initiation and quit ratio increased significantly. Among moderate and high educated women, smoking prevalence decreased significantly because initiation ratios remained constant, while quit ratios increased significantly. Among men, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking consumption only. Conclusions While inequalities in smoking prevalence were stable among Dutch men, they increased among women, due to widening inequalities in both smoking cessation and initiation. Both components should be addressed in equity-oriented tobacco control policies.

  14. Smoking Cessation Reverses DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Human Mononuclear Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Mari; Ishida, Takafumi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Uchida, Hitomi; Sakai, Chiemi; Hironobe, Naoya; Miura, Katsuya; Hashimoto, Yu; Arihiro, Koji; Chayama, Kazuaki; Kihara, Yasuki; Yoshizumi, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for a significant proportion of smoking-related deaths. However, the precise mechanism whereby smoking induces this pathology has not been fully delineated. Based on observation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), the most harmful type of DNA damage, in atherosclerotic lesions, we hypothesized that there is a direct association between smoking and DSBs. The goal of this study wa...

  15. Identifying Distinct Quitting Trajectories after an Unassisted Smoking Cessation Attempt: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Monica S.; Znoj, Hansjörg; Brodbeck, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed at identifying distinct quitting trajectories over 29 days after an unassisted smoking ces- sation attempt by ecological momentary assessment (EMA). In order to validate these trajectories we tested if they predict smoking frequency up to six months later. Methods: EMA via mobile phones was used to collect real time data on smoking (yes/no) after an unassisted quit attempt over 29 days. Smoking frequency one, three and six months after the quit attempt was assesse...

  16. Speed of engagement with support generated by a smoking cessation smartphone Just In Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Naughton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: An advantage of the high portability and sensing capabilities of smartphones is the potential for health apps to deliver advice and support to individuals close in time to when it is deemed of greatest relevance and impact, often referred to as Just In Time Adaptive Interventions (JITAI. However, little research has been undertaken to explore the viability of JITAI in terms of how long it takes users to engage with support triggered by real time data input, compared to scheduled support, and whether context affects response. This paper is focused on Q Sense, a smoking cessation app developed to deliver both Just in Time and scheduled support messages (every morning during a smoker’s quit attempt. The Just in Time cessation support generated by Q Sense is triggered by and tailored to real time context using location sensing. Objectives: To assess: 1 the time to engage with the app after a Just in Time support notification is delivered and whether this is influenced by the context in which the notification was initially delivered, 2 whether the time to engage with the app differs between Just in Time support notifications and scheduled support message notifications and 3 whether findings from objectives 1 and 2 differ between smokers receiving or not receiving NHS smoking cessation support. Methods: Data are from two studies evaluating the use of Q Sense: a feasibility study using an opportunity sample of smokers initiating a quit attempt with Q Sense without NHS cessation support (N=15 and an ongoing acceptability study of smokers receiving NHS smoking cessation support alongside app use (target N=40, recruitment due to be completed end of November 2015. Time elapse between notification generation and the user opening the app will be calculated and compared between message types (Just in Time vs. scheduled messages, contexts (home, work, socialising, other and samples (receiving or not receiving NHS cessation support using t

  17. Interpersonal communication about pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages: Policy-related influences and relationships with smoking cessation attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Huang, Liling; O'Connor, Richard J; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Markovsky, Barry; Hardin, James

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between interpersonal communication about cigarette health warning labels (HWLs), psychological responses to HWLs, and smoking cessation attempts. Data were analyzed from online consumer panels of adult smokers in Australia, Canada and Mexico, during implementation of new pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) on cigarette packs. Approximately 1000 adult smokers were surveyed in each country every four months (September 2012, January 2013, May 2013, September 2013, January 2014). Only smokers followed for at least two waves were included in the analytic sample. Participants reported the frequency of talking about HWLs in the last month (in general, with family members, and with friends). For each country, poisson generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were estimated to assess the bivariate and adjusted correlates of talking about HWLs. Logistic GEE models regressed having attempted to quit by the subsequent wave on HWL talk, sociodemographics and psychological responses to HWLs. The frequency of HWL talk gradually decreased in Canada (48%-36%) after new HWLs were implemented; an increase (30%-58%) in Australia corresponded with implementation of new HWLs, after which talking stabilized; and the frequency of HWL talk in Mexico was stable over time, where new HWLs are implemented every six months. Talk about HWLs was an independent predictor of subsequent quit attempts in Canada (AOR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.11-2.02), Australia (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.05-1.89), and Mexico (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.11-2.10), as was cognitive responses to HWLs (Australia AOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.22-2.24; Canada AOR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.15-2.11; Mexico AOR = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.91-1.85). No interaction between talk and cognitive reactions to HWLs were found. These results suggest that interpersonal communication about HWLs influences smoking cessation attempts independent of other established predictors of smoking cessation, including

  18. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  19. A cost-utility analysis of lung cancer screening and the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea C Villanti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 2011 report from the National Lung Screening Trial indicates that three annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT screenings for lung cancer reduced lung cancer mortality by 20% compared to chest X-ray among older individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Discussion has shifted from clinical proof to financial feasibility. The goal of this study was to determine whether LDCT screening for lung cancer in a commercially-insured population (aged 50-64 at high risk for lung cancer is cost-effective and to quantify the additional benefits of incorporating smoking cessation interventions in a lung cancer screening program. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The current study builds upon a previous simulation model to estimate the cost-utility of annual, repeated LDCT screenings over 15 years in a high risk hypothetical cohort of 18 million adults between age 50 and 64 with 30+ pack-years of smoking history. In the base case, the lung cancer screening intervention cost $27.8 billion over 15 years and yielded 985,284 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained for a cost-utility ratio of $28,240 per QALY gained. Adding smoking cessation to these annual screenings resulted in increases in both the costs and QALYs saved, reflected in cost-utility ratios ranging from $16,198 per QALY gained to $23,185 per QALY gained. Annual LDCT lung cancer screening in this high risk population remained cost-effective across all sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate that repeat annual lung cancer screening in a high risk cohort of adults aged 50-64 is highly cost-effective. Offering smoking cessation interventions with the annual screening program improved the cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening between 20% and 45%. The cost-utility ratios estimated in this study were in line with other accepted cancer screening interventions and support inclusion of annual LDCT screening for lung cancer in a high risk population in clinical

  20. 尼古丁依赖与烟瘾治疗%Nicotine dependence and smoking cessation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭林湘; 唐全胜; 郝伟

    2009-01-01

    have received empirical validation: behavioral intervention (including 5 As brief intervention) and pharmacotherapy. The evidences show that 5 As brief intervention is one of the most cost-effective treatments in clinical work for busy physicians. Three types of medications have been available in market for smoking cessation treatment: nicotine replacement treatment (NRT, i.e., transdermal patch, gum, inhaler, nasal spray, and lozenge), sustained release bupropion and varenicline. Varenicline, a novel α4β2 nicotinic receptor partial agonist, is effective for tobacco dependence. Phase III trials suggest that it is more effective than NRT and bupropion SR. The safety profile of varenicline is excellent, with the most commonly occurring adverse events, nausea, typically mild and well tolerated. However, new safety warnings are added to the varenicline label because of post-marketing report including agitation, depression and suicidality. A causal connection between varenicline use and these symptoms has not been established.

  1. Conocimiento y actitud del odontólogo frente al manejo del tabaquismo: estudio comparativo entre España, Italia y Venezuela The participation of dentists in smoking cessation: comparative study of Venezuelan, Spanish and Italian dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Villarroel Dorrego

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Odontólogo es capaz de ejercer un gran impacto en el tabaquismo a través de su contacto con los pacientes y la detección precoz de lesiones bucales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el conocimiento y la actitud de los odontólogos frente al tabaquismo en tres países distintos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una encuesta a 293 odontólogos, 93 de ellos localizados en Caracas (OV, 90 con práctica odontológica en Madrid (OE y 110 en Milán (OI. Resultados: 46 OE y 22 OI indicaron ser fumadores, mientras que tan solo 10 OV admitieron ser fumadores. 80 (86,02% OV, 66 (73,33% OE y todos los OI refirieron registrar en la historia datos relacionados con tabaquismo en la primera consulta del paciente. La mayoría motiva a sus pacientes a dejar de fumar, sin embargo, 72,04% (67 OV, 55,55% (50 OE y 100% OI no recomiendan ninguna terapia de apoyo. Sólo 7 odontólogos (2,38% (2 OV y 5 OE reconocieron el medicamento Bupropion pero ningún odontólogo lo ha indicado. Finalmente, 137 odontólogos han diagnosticado cáncer bucal, de los cuales 108 eran OI. Conclusiones: Los odontólogos, independientemente del país, tienen actitudes positivas para participar en el control del tabaquismo, pero no manejan la información relacionada ni ejercen un rol activo en la cesación. Probablemente esta situación se deba a la falta de entrenamiento durante sus estudios de pre y/o postgrado lo cual amerita una revisión de los planes curriculares de Odontología a nivel mundial.Introduction: Health care professionals have an important role in tobacco control. Dentists are capable of having a great impact in smoking cessation due to their regular contact with patients and the rapid detection of oral signs produced by smoking. Unfortunately, there are few dentists actively involved in smoking control. The aim of this study was to investigate various aspects of dentists' beliefs and practices with respect to smoking cessation. Materials

  2. Predicted reduction in lung cancer risk following cessation of smoking and radon exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been considerable public and regulatory concern that radon, produced by the decay of naturally occurring uranium, can accumulate in homes, offices, and schools at levels that may substantially increase the risk of lung cancer. The major cause of lung cancer is smoking, and radon appears to interact multiplicatively with smoking in causing lung cancer. Thus, the most effective way to reduce the increased risk of lung cancer resulting from radon exposure is to cease smoking. In this paper, a model for the risks associated with radon exposure that was developed by a committee of the National Academy of Sciences is used to calculate the benefits, in terms of reduction in lifetime risk of lung cancer, of ceasing to smoke, ceasing radon exposure, or ceasing both. Ceasing to smoke is considerably more beneficial than ceasing radon exposure, and thus policymakers addressing the health effects of radon should place priority on encouraging individuals to stop smoking

  3. Real world evaluation of three models of NHS smoking cessation service in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardle Tony

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NHS Stop Smoking Services provide various options for support and counselling. Most services have evolved to suit local needs without any retrospective evaluation of their efficiency. Three local service evaluations were carried out at Bournemouth & Poole Teaching Primary Care Trust (PCT (PCT1, NHS South East Essex (PCT2 and NHS Warwickshire (PCT3 to describe the structure and outcomes associated with different services. Result Standardised interviews with key personnel in addition to analysis of data from 400 clients accessing the service after 1st April 2008 in each PCT. The PCTs varied in geography, population size and quit rate (47%-63%. Services were delivered by PCT-led specialist teams (PCT1, community-based healthcare providers (PCT3 and a combination of the two (PCT2 with varying resources and interventions in each. Group support resulted in the highest quit rates (64.3% for closed groups v 42.6% for one-to-one support (PCT1. Quit rates were higher for PCT (75.0% v GP (62.0% and pharmacist-delivered care (41.0% where all existed in the same model (PCT2. The most-prescribed therapy was NRT (55.8%-65.0%, followed by varenicline (24.5%-34.3%, counselling alone (6.0%-7.8% and bupropion (2.0%-4.0%. Conclusion The results suggest that service structure, method of support, healthcare professional involved and pharmacotherapy all play a role in a successful quit. Services must be tailored to support individual needs with patient choice and access to varied services being key factors.

  4. Could 'Aunties' Recruit Pregnant Indigenous Women Who Smoke Into a Trial and Deliver a Cessation Intervention? A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Cornell, Tracey; Smith, Ces

    2016-06-01

    Objective Māori (indigenous New Zealand) women have the highest smoking prevalence rates in New Zealand and whilst pregnant. We hypothesized that community health workers ('Aunties') could find pregnant Māori women who smoke, recruit them into a study and deliver an acceptable cessation intervention. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of such an intervention. Method A community health organization was engaged to, using a participatory approach, conduct a feasibility study. Participants were ten Aunties and the pregnant women the Aunties recruited. The Aunties advised their participants to abstain from smoking, offered a Quitcard (for subsidized nicotine replacement) or referral to local cessation providers. A booklet on healthy eating for pregnancy was given and discussed and the Aunties offered help if needed to register with a lead maternity carer (LMC). All women completed a baseline questionnaire. Semi-structured follow up face-to-face interviews were conducted with a subsample of women and hospital birth records were examined. Descriptive statistics were produced using quantitative data. Qualitative data was deductively analysed. Results During 4 months eight Aunties recruited 67 pregnant women who smoked, 88 % were Māori, 84 % were of low socio economic status and 73 % had up to high school education. Only 36 % of the recruited women had registered with an LMC. The participants described the Aunties as supportive, nice and non-judgmental. The only criticism was a lack of follow up. Aspects of the intervention that the Aunties thought worked well were knowing and being involved with their community, and being able to give a gift pack to the participating women. Insufficient follow up was one aspect that didn't work well. The infant's birth record was found for 54 % of the participants. Conclusion Aunties were able to identify and recruit pregnant Māori women who smoked. The study method and intervention were acceptable to Aunties and

  5. Comparison of the effectiveness of varenicline, extended-release bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy on the success and the maintenance of a smoking cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    selma bozkurt zincir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The most effective approach for individuals who decide to stop tobacco smoking is behavioral training complemented with motivational support and pharmacological therapy. This study aims to compare the effects of varenicline, extended-release bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT on the success and the maintenance of a smoking cessation program. Methods: 300 consecutive patients from a smoking cessation clinic, whose nicotine dependence was confirmed, were evaluated in a randomized manner. 251 patients completed the study. In this study, we used the Fagerström nicotine dependence test, a semi-structured clinic interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD for clinical follow-up. Carbonmonoxide (CO levels of the patients were measured with a carboxymeter. Patients had used the determined randomised pharmacological treatment option for 12 weeks. Results: There were no significant differences between the therapy groups according to age, gender and education levels (p > 0.05. Smoking cessation rates were 57.1% in the bupropion group (n= 77, 54.8% in the NRT group (n=73 and 72.3% in the varenicline group (n=101. Fagerstöm scores and the number of cigarettes consumed per day in the NRT group were significantly lower than those of the other therapy groups (p =0.002. There was a significant decrease compared with the initial measurements in the HAD-A 12-week scores in the bupropion and NRT groups (p=0.001 and p=0.003, respectively. Conclusions: According to our findings, 61.8% of all patients participating in this study continued the smoking cessation behavior during the 12 week follow-up period. It seems that varenicline is better than the other pharmacological therapy modalities for smoking cessation programs. The lower anxiety scores in the bupropion and NRT groups might have increased their success rates.

  6. Rates of cardiovascular disease following smoking cessation in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Worm, S; Reiss, P;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events after stopping smoking in patients with HIV infection.......The aim of the study was to estimate the rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events after stopping smoking in patients with HIV infection....

  7. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Catherine B

    2013-05-01

    Systematic assessments of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking behavior have been rare to date. This study aimed to determine whether an integrated approach, involving staff training in MI techniques, was sufficient to affect change in smoking status or intensity in low-income pregnant and postpartum women.

  8. Point-of-care urine tests for smoking status and isoniazid treatment monitoring in adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Nicolau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to isoniazid (INH preventive therapy (IPT is an impediment to effective control of latent tuberculosis (TB infection. TB patients who smoke are at higher risk of latent TB infection, active disease, and TB mortality, and may have lower adherence to their TB medications. The objective of our study was to validate IsoScreen and SmokeScreen (GFC Diagnostics, UK, two point-of-care tests for monitoring INH intake and determining smoking status. The tests could be used together in the same individual to help identify patients with a high-risk profile and provide a tailored treatment plan that includes medication management, adherence interventions, and smoking cessation programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 200 adult outpatients attending the TB and/or the smoking cessation clinic were recruited at the Montreal Chest Institute. Sensitivity and specificity were measured for each test against the corresponding composite reference standard. Test reliability was measured using kappa statistic for intra-rater and inter-rater agreement. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to explore possible covariates that might be related to false-positive and false-negative test results. IsoScreen had a sensitivity of 93.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 80.3, 98.2 and specificity of 98.7% (94.8, 99.8. IsoScreen had intra-rater agreement (kappa of 0.75 (0.48, 0.94 and inter-rater agreement of 0.61 (0.27, 0.90. SmokeScreen had a sensitivity of 69.2% (56.4, 79.8, specificity of 81.6% (73.0, 88.0, intra-rater agreement of 0.77 (0.56, 0.94, and inter-rater agreement of 0.66 (0.42, 0.88. False-positive SmokeScreen tests were strongly associated with INH treatment. CONCLUSIONS: IsoScreen had high validity and reliability, whereas SmokeScreen had modest validity and reliability. SmokeScreen tests did not perform well in a population receiving INH due to the association between INH treatment and false-positive Smoke

  9. Effects of parental smoking on medical care utilization by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T M

    1984-01-01

    A household interview survey of 2,582 adult members of the Kaiser-Permanente Medical Care Program of Oregon conducted in 1970-71 contained detailed questions about cigarette smoking patterns. Detailed, computerized medical records were maintained for all inpatient and outpatient care rendered between 1967 and 1974 to the 1,761 children of the interviewed sample. Adjusted for age, family size, socioeconomic status, and duration of Health Plan membership, children in non-smoking households used significantly more outpatient services than did children in smoking households, a relationship largely accounted for by their use of more preventive medical services than by children in smoking households. There were no significant differences in inpatient medical care use and outpatient care use for respiratory illness by children of smoking and non-smoking households. PMID:6689838

  10. Quitting Smoking

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using in addition to the medications they may use for smoking cessation, so a senior citizen who's ... for hypertension, or the like, and want to use a medication for smoking cessation should see their ...

  11. Within a smoking-cessation program, what impact does genetic information on lung cancer need to have to demonstrate cost-effectiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Louisa G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many smoking-cessation programs and pharmaceutical aids demonstrate substantial health gains for a relatively low allocation of resources. Genetic information represents a type of individualized or personal feedback regarding the risk of developing lung cancer, and hence the potential benefits from stopping smoking, may motivate the person to remain smoke-free. The purpose of this study was to explore what the impact of a genetic test needs to have within a typical smoking-cessation program aimed at heavy smokers in order to be cost-effective. Methods Two strategies were modelled for a hypothetical cohort of heavy smokers aged 50 years; individuals either received or did not receive a genetic test within the course of a usual smoking-cessation intervention comprising nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and counselling. A Markov model was constructed using evidence from published randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses for estimates on 12-month quit rates and long-term relapse rates. Epidemiological data were used for estimates on lung cancer risk stratified by time since quitting and smoking patterns. Extensive sensitivity analyses were used to explore parameter uncertainty. Results The discounted incremental cost per QALY was AU$34,687 (95% CI $12,483, $87,734 over 35 years. At a willingness-to-pay of AU$20,000 per QALY gained, the genetic testing strategy needs to produce a 12-month quit rate of at least 12.4% or a relapse rate 12% lower than NRT and counselling alone for it to be equally cost-effective. The likelihood that adding a genetic test to the usual smoking-cessation intervention is cost-effective was 20.6% however cost-effectiveness ratios were favourable in certain situations (e.g., applied to men only, a 60 year old cohort. Conclusions The findings were sensitive to small changes in critical variables such as the 12-month quit rates and relapse rates. As such, the cost-effectiveness of the genetic testing

  12. Does Acceptance and Relationship Focused Behavior Therapy Contribute to Bupropion Outcomes? A Randomized Controlled Trial of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth V.; Kohlenberg, Barbara S.; Hayes, Steven C.; Pierson, Heather M.; Piasecki, Melissa P.; Antonuccio, David O.; Palm, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a treatment combining bupropion with a novel acceptance and relationship focused behavioral intervention based on the acceptance and relationship context (ARC) model. Three hundred and three smokers from a community sample were randomly assigned to bupropion, a widely used smoking cessation medication, or bupropion plus…

  13. Cessation of smoking after first-ever stroke: a follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Sindrup, Søren Hein; Alslev, Torben;

    2002-01-01

    follow-up were included in the present study. Among 198 patients (38.7%) who were current smokers on admission, 43 patients (21.7%) gave up smoking within 6 months of suffering a stroke. Sex, functional status, and sociodemographic characteristics were independently associated with persistent smoking....... CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that more efficient antismoking counseling is required to reduce the proportion of persistent smokers after stroke. This counseling should take into account the increased risk of persistent smoking in men, patients with no disability, blue-collar workers, and patients living...

  14. Treatment Options in Smoking Cessation: What Place for Bupropion Sustained-Release?

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Danielle E.; Jorenby, Douglas E.; Haruka Minami; Vivian Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Bupropion SR is approved for the treatment of tobacco dependence in adult smokers. Bupropion SR is an atypical antidepressant that has been shown to double the likelihood of quitting smoking (to roughly 19%-24% six months into a quit attempt), perhaps by acting on dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems and by acting as an antagonist of nicotine acetylcholine receptors. Head-to-head comparisons of bupropion SR and other stop-smoking treatments suggest that bupropion SR is as or more efficaciou...

  15. First Toll Free Helpline for Smoking Cessation – Analysis of Results after One Year of Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Posavec, Marija; Čivljak, Marta; Šoškić, Tamara; Soldo, Dragan; Šimić, Zoran; Orešković, Stipe

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prove that there is a strong need among the smoking population for the antismoking telephone helpline, and to describe the structure and dynamics of calls to the Call-center. Basic data on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking habits, and reasons for calling the Center were collected during telephone conversations with smokers. The data were entered into previously prepared tables. Statistical analysis included 7,452 telephone calls; most calls ...

  16. An Internet-Based Abstinence Reinforcement Smoking Cessation Intervention in Rural Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Stoops, William W.; Dallery, Jesse; Fields, Nell M.; Nuzzo, Paul A.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Martin, Catherine A.; Casey, Baretta; Wong, Conrad J

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of cigarette smoking abstinence reinforcement programs may be hindered by the time intensive burden placed on patients and treatment providers. The use of remote monitoring and reinforcement of smoking abstinence may enhance the accessibility and acceptability of this intervention, particularly in rural areas where transportation can be unreliable and treatment providers distant. This study determined the effectiveness of an Internet-based abstinence reinforcement intervent...

  17. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Robert; Antić Ruza; Spasojević-Tišma Vera; Joksić Gordana; Rutqvist Lars E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enr...

  18. Tobacco Smoking in Individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Epidemiology and Pharmacological Approaches to Cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Kevin M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2009-01-01

    The co-occurrence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Nicotine Dependence is common. Individuals with ADHD are more likely to initiate smoking and become dependent on nicotine than their non-ADHD counterparts, and recent evidence suggests that they may have more difficulty quitting smoking. Little is known about how to best approach treating these co-morbidities to optimize clinical outcome. Clinicians treating individuals with either ADHD or Nicotine Dependence should be a...

  19. Commitment contracts and team incentives: A randomized controlled trial for smoking cessation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    White, JS; Dow, WH; Rungruanghiranya, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Treatment for tobacco dependence is not available in many low-resource settings, especially in developing countries. Purpose To test the impact of a novel mix of monetary and social incentives on smoking abstinence in rural communities of Thailand. Design An RCT of commitment contracts and team incentives for rural smokers to quit smoking. Smokers were not blinded to treatment status, although the assessor of the biochemical urine test was. Setting/participants All adult smokers li...

  20. Pairing smoking-cessation services with lung cancer screening: A clinical guideline from the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence and the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M; Czabafy, Sharon; Hendricks, Peter S; Kotsen, Chris; Richardson, Donna; Toll, Benjamin A

    2016-04-15

    Smoking cessation is crucial for reducing cancer risk and premature mortality. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended annual lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services recently approved lung screening as a benefit for patients ages 55 to 77 years who have a 30 pack-year history. The Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco (SRNT) and the Association for the Treatment of Tobacco Use and Dependence (ATTUD) developed the guideline described in this commentary based on an illustrative literature review to present the evidence for smoking-cessation health benefits in this high-risk group and to provide clinical recommendations for integrating evidence-based smoking-cessation treatment with lung cancer screening. Unfortunately, extant data on lung cancer screening participants were scarce at the time this guideline was written. However, in this review, the authors summarize the sufficient evidence on the benefits of smoking cessation and the efficacy of smoking-cessation interventions for smokers ages 55 to 77 years to provide smoking-cessation interventions for smokers who seek lung cancer screening. It is concluded that smokers who present for lung cancer screening should be encouraged to quit smoking at each visit. Access to evidence-based smoking-cessation interventions should be provided to all smokers regardless of scan results, and motivation to quit should not be a necessary precondition for treatment. Follow-up contacts to support smoking-cessation efforts should be arranged for smokers. Evidence-based behavioral strategies should be used at each visit to motivate smokers who are unwilling to try quitting/reducing smoking or to try evidence-based treatments that may lead to eventual cessation. Cancer 2016;122:1150-9. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26916412

  1. Does the duration of smoking cessation have an impact on hospital admission and health-related quality of life amongst COPD patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan HA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hazlinda Abu Hassan,1,3 Noorizan Abd Aziz,2,* Yahaya Hassan,2,* Fahmi Hassan2,* 1Malacca Pharmaceutical Services Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Ayer Keroh, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam, Malaysia; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Malacca Hospital, Jalan Mufti Haji Khalil, Malaysia *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Lack of awareness among ex-smokers on the benefits of sustaining smoking cessation may be the main cause of their smoking relapse. This study explored health-related quality of life (HRQoL and hospital admission amongst chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients according to the duration of smoking cessation. Materials and methods: This study recruited COPD patients from a chest clinic who agreed to participate in a medication therapy-adherence program from January to June 2013. They were interviewed during their visits to obtain information regarding their smoking history and HRQoL. They were divided into three groups according to smoking status (sustained quitters, quit ≥5 years; quitters, quit <5 years; and smokers, smoking at least one cigarette/day. The effects of the duration of cessation on HRQoL and hospital admission were analyzed using a multinomial logistic model. Results: A total of 117 participants with moderate COPD met the inclusion criteria, who were comprised of 41 sustained quitters, 40 quitters, and 36 smokers. Several features were similar across the groups. Most of them were married elderly men (aged >64 years with low-to-middle level of education, who smoked more than 33 cigarettes per day and had high levels of adherence to the medication regimen. The results showed that sustained quitters were less likely to have respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm and dyspnea than smokers (odds ratio 0.02, confidence interval 0–0.12; P<0.001. The hospital admission rate per year was increased in quitters compared to smokers (odds ratio

  2. Clinicians' awareness of the Affordable Care Act mandate to provide comprehensive tobacco cessation treatment for pregnant women covered by Medicaid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van T. Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act (ACA requires states to provide tobacco-cessation services without cost-sharing for pregnant traditional Medicaid-beneficiaries effective October 2010. It is unknown the extent to which obstetricians–gynecologists are aware of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit. We sought to examine the awareness of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit in a national sample of obstetricians–gynecologists and assessed whether reimbursement would influence their tobacco cessation practice. In 2012, a survey was administered to a national stratified-random sample of obstetricians–gynecologists (n = 252 regarding awareness of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit. Results were stratified by the percentage of pregnant Medicaid patients. Chi-squared tests (p < 0.05 were used to assess significant associations. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Eighty-three percent of respondents were unaware of the benefit. Lack of awareness increased as the percentage of pregnant Medicaid patients in their practices decreased (range = 71.9%–96.8%; P = 0.02. One-third (36.1% of respondents serving pregnant Medicaid patients reported that reimbursement would influence them to increase their cessation services. Four out of five obstetricians–gynecologists surveyed in 2012 were unaware of the ACA provision that required states to provide tobacco cessation coverage for pregnant traditional Medicaid beneficiaries as of October 2010. Broad promotion of the Medicaid tobacco-cessation benefit could reduce treatment barriers.

  3. Interpersonal Communication and Smoking Cessation in the Context of an Incentive-Based Program: Survey Evidence From a Telehealth Intervention in a Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michael J; Slater, Jonathan S; Rothman, Alexander J; Nelson, Christina L

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic disproportionately affects low-income populations, and telehealth is an evidence-based strategy for extending tobacco cessation services to underserved populations. A public health priority is to establish incentive-based interventions at the population level in order to promote long-term smoking cessation in low-income populations. Yet randomized clinical trials show that financial incentives tend to encourage only short-term steps of cessation, not continuous smoking abstinence. One potential mechanism for increasing long-term cessation is interpersonal communication (IPC) in response to population-level interventions. However, more research is needed on IPC and its influence on health behavior change, particularly in the context of incentive-based, population-level programs. This study used survey data gathered after a population-level telehealth intervention that offered $20 incentives to low-income smokers for being connected to Minnesota's free quitline in order to examine how perceived incentive importance and IPC about the incentive-based program relate to both short-term and long-term health behavior change. Results showed that IPC was strongly associated with initial quitline utilization and continuous smoking abstinence as measured by 30-day point prevalence rates at 7-month follow-up. Perceived incentive importance had weak associations with both measures of cessation, and all associations were nonsignificant in models adjusting for IPC. These results were found in descriptive analyses, logistic regression models, and Heckman probit models that adjusted for participant recruitment. In sum, a behavioral telehealth intervention targeting low-income smokers that offered a financial incentive inspired IPC, and this social response was strongly related to utilization of intervention services as well as continuous smoking abstinence. PMID:26166678

  4. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Presynaptic Dopamine Function of Addicted Male Smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rademacher, Lena; Prinz, Susanne; Winz, Oliver;

    2016-01-01

    ventral putamen of consuming smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a lower dopamine synthesis capacity in nicotine-dependent smokers that appears to normalize with abstinence. Further investigations are needed to clarify the role of dopamine in nicotine addiction to help develop smoking prevention and...

  5. Ongoing interpretations of accomplishments in smoking cessation : Positive and negative self-efficacy interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Ten Wolde, G

    2005-01-01

    Smokers and ex-smokers are considered to make ongoing interpretations of their accomplishments in terms of their ability to refrain from smoking. We assessed positive self-efficacy interpretations (PSEint) and negative self-efficacy interpretations (NSEint) as the frequencies with which smokers and

  6. Are pharmacists reducing COPD'S impact through smoking cessation and assessing inhaled steroid use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Arpana; Harrison, Annie; Torun, Perihan;

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) COPD 2004 guidelines recommend: * COPD patients who smoke should be encouraged to stop at every opportunity; * Inhaled corticosteroid should be used only among patients with moderate to severe COPD; * Pharmacists should identify smo...

  7. Self-Help Books and Amount of Therapist Contact in Smoking Cessation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Russell E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated two self-help behavior therapy books for stopping smoking against a minimal treatment program. Results indicated under self-administered conditions, the minimal treatment program was as effective as the behavior therapy books. On the self-report measures, therapist contact was associated with improved treatment outcome for the behavior…

  8. Contingency management in the 21st century: Technological innovations to promote smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dallery, Jesse; Raiff, Bethany R.

    2011-01-01

    Information technology represents an excellent medium to deliver contingencies of reinforcement to change behavior. Recently, we have linked the Internet with a science-based, behavioral treatment for cigarette smoking: abstinence reinforcement therapy. Under abstinence reinforcement interventions, incentives are provided for objective evidence of abstinence. Several studies suggest that the intervention is effective in initiating abstinence. The intervention addresses limitations (access, co...

  9. Development of a Conceptual Model for Smoking Cessation: Physical Activity, Neurocognition, and Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Herod, Skyla M.; Walker, Jerome F.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Mahoney, Sara E.; Kane, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has shown adverse neurobiological effects of chronic alcohol use, including long-term and potentially permanent changes in the structure and function of the brain; however, much less is known about the neurobiological consequences of chronic smoking, as it has largely been ignored until recently. In this article, we…

  10. The SmokefreeTXT (SFTXT) Study: Web and Mobile Data Collection to Evaluate Smoking Cessation for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derick; Parvanta, Sarah; Dolina, Suzanne; Kelly, Bridget; Dever, Jill; Southwell, Brian G; Sanders, Amy; Augustson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been shown to be effective in delivering interventions for various diseases and health conditions, including smoking cessation. While there are many published studies regarding smoking cessation text messaging interventions, most do not provide details about the study’s operational methods. As a result, there is a gap in our understanding of how best to design studies of smoking cessation text messaging programs. Objective The purpose of this paper is to detail the operational methods used to conduct a randomized trial comparing three different versions of the National Cancer Institute’s SmokefreeText (SFTXT) program, designed for smokers 18 to 29 years of age. We detail our methods for recruiting participants from the Internet, reducing fraud, conducting online data collection, and retaining panel study participants. Methods Participants were recruited through website advertisements and market research online panels. Screening questions established eligibility for the study (eg, 18 to 29 years of age, current smoker). Antifraud measures screened out participants who could not meet the study requirements. After completing a baseline survey, participants were randomized to one of three study arms, which varied by type and timing of text message delivery. The study offered US $20 gift cards as incentives to complete each of four follow-up surveys. Automated email reminders were sent at designated intervals to increase response rates. Researchers also provided telephone reminders to those who had not completed the survey after multiple email reminders. We calculated participation rates across study arms and compared the final sample characteristics to the Current Population Survey to examine generalizability. Results Recruitment methods drove 153,936 unique visitors to the SFTXT Study landing page and 27,360 began the screener. Based on the screening questions, 15,462 out of 27,360 responders (56.51%) were

  11. Electronic Cigarette Use Among High School Students and Its Association With Cigarette Use And Smoking Cessation, North Carolina Youth Tobacco Surveys, 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Sutfin, Erin L.; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although adolescent cigarette use continues to decline in the United States, electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette) use among adolescents has escalated rapidly. This study assessed trends and patterns of e‑cigarette use and concurrent cigarette smoking and the relationships between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation intentions and behaviors among high school students in North Carolina. Methods Data came from high school students who completed the school-based, cross-sectional North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey in 2011 (n = 4,791) and 2013 (n = 4,092). This study assessed changes in prevalence of e-cigarette and cigarette use from 2011 through 2013, and cessation-related factors associated with those students’ current and past use of e‑cigarettes in 2013. Results The prevalence of current e-cigarette use (use in the past 30 days) significantly increased from 1.7% (95% CI, 1.3%–2.2%) in 2011 to 7.7% (95% CI, 5.9%–10.0%) in 2013. Among dual users, current e-cigarette use was negatively associated with intention to quit cigarette smoking for good (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29–0.87) and with attempts to quit cigarette smoking in the past 12 months (RRR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49–0.97). Current e-cigarette smokers were less likely than those who only smoked cigarettes to have ever abstained from cigarette smoking for 6 months (RRR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21–0.82) or 1 year (RRR = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09–0.51) and to have used any kind of aids for smoking cessation (RRR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29–0.74). Conclusion Public health practitioners and cessation clinic service providers should educate adolescents about the risks of using any nicotine-containing products, including e-cigarettes, and provide adequate tobacco cessation resources and counseling to adolescent tobacco users. PMID:27490368

  12. Increases in quitline calls and smoking cessation website visitors during a national tobacco education campaign--March 19-June 10, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Mass media campaigns and telephone quitlines are effective in increasing cessation rates among cigarette smokers. During March 19-June 10, 2012, CDC aired Tips from Former Smokers (TIPS), the first federally funded, nationwide, paid-media tobacco education campaign in the United States. The TIPS campaign featured former smokers talking about their experiences living with diseases caused by smoking. The campaign was primarily intended to encourage adult smokers aged 18-54 years to quit by making them aware of the health damage caused by smoking and letting them know that they could call the telephone quitline portal 1-800-QUIT-NOW or visit the National Cancer Institute (NCI) smoking cessation website (http://www.smokefree.gov) if they needed free help to quit. The campaign included advertising on national and local cable television, local radio, online media, and billboards, and in movie theaters, transit venues, and print media. To determine the effects of the TIPS campaign on weekly quitline call volume and weekly unique visitors to the cessation website, CDC analyzed call and visitor data immediately before, during, and immediately after the campaign period and compared them with data from the corresponding weeks in 2011. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which found that the number of weekly calls to the quitline from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico increased 132% (207,519 additional calls) during the TIPS campaign, and the number of unique visitors to the cessation website increased 428% (510,571 additional unique visitors). These results indicate that many smokers are interested in quitting and learning more about cessation assistance, and will respond to motivational messages that include an offer of help. PMID:22932300

  13. Clinicians’ panel management self-efficacy to support their patients’ smoking cessation and hypertension control needs

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Jensen, Ashley E; Bennett, Katelyn; Skursky, Nicole; Sherman, Scott E; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Panel management, a set of tools and processes for proactively caring for patient populations, has potential to reduce morbidity and improve outcomes between office visits. We examined primary care staff’s self-efficacy in implementing panel management, its correlates, and an intervention’s impact on this self-efficacy. Primary care teams at two Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals were assigned to control or intervention conditions. Staff were surveyed at baseline and post-intervent...

  14. Smoking cessation, physicians, and medical office staff. Clinical tobacco intervention in Prince Edward Island.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowan, M S; Coambs, R. B.; Jensen, P.; Balderston, M.; MacKenzie, D; Kothari, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess attitudes and self-reported behaviours of physicians and medical office staff in Prince Edward Island concerning clinical tobacco intervention (CTI). DESIGN: Mail survey of PEI primary care physicians and their medical office staff. Most surveys were not mailed back but picked up in person by research staff. SETTING: Primary care settings in PEI. PARTICIPANTS: All active primary care physicians in PEI identified in the Canadian Medical Association database and medical off...

  15. Smoking cessation in COPD patients : (cost-)effectiveness of the smokestoptherapy and validation of abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Christenhusz, Lieke Cornelia Anna

    2006-01-01

    The prescribed cut-off points for all three CO monitors generate misleading results concerning the determination of the smoking status in both populations after a 12-hour period of abstinence. For the measurement of CO over time, it can be concluded that smokers are able to deceive CO monitors by short-time abstinence, unless the cut-off points are being adjusted properly. The optimal cut-off points depend upon the goal of the study but salivary cotinine measurements outperforms the CO measur...

  16. Participación y opiniones de farmacéuticos costarricenses en la cesación del uso del tabaco Costa Rican pharmacists’ participation and opinions on smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie León Salas

    2012-06-01

    -line survey was distributed among all Costa Rican pharmacists. This analysis includes responses of those reporting having direct contact with patients. Results: A total of 245 (11,4 % pharmacists contacted via e-mail completed the survey. Approximately half reported they had asked about smoking status and provided advice to quit smoking to at least one patient in the previous 30 days. However, few had referred a smoker for cessation treatment. Most pharmacists (53,2 % believed cessation counseling was effective; however, only half discussed smoking in response to questions from patients. Nearly all participants were interested in receiving training in smoking cessation treatment. Conclusion: Costa Rican pharmacists support, but most do not implement, smoking cessation assistance among patients. Qualitative and quantitative research could help identify the best role for Costa Rican pharmacists to fill in treating smokers. Pharmacist intervention could be facilitated by culturally adapted guidelines that take into account existing treatment options and the structure of the Costa Rican health care system.

  17. Gene Variants in CYP2C19 Are Associated with Altered In Vivo Bupropion Pharmacokinetics but Not Bupropion-Assisted Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Andy Z.X.; Zhou, Qian; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.

    2014-01-01

    Bupropion is used clinically to treat depression and to promote smoking cessation. It is metabolized by CYP2B6 to its active metabolite hydroxybupropion, yet alterations in CYP2B6 activity have little impact on bupropion plasma levels. Furthermore, less than 10% of a bupropion dose is excreted as urinary bupropion and its characterized metabolites hydroxybupropion, threohydrobupropion, and erythrohydrobupropion, suggesting that alternative metabolic pathways may exist. In vitro data suggested...

  18. How pragmatic or explanatory is the randomized, controlled trial? The application and enhancement of the PRECIS tool to the evaluation of a smoking cessation trial

    OpenAIRE

    Selby Peter; Brosky Gerald; Oh Paul I; Raymond Vincent; Ranger Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous explanatory randomized trials support the efficacy of chronic disease interventions, including smoking cessation treatments. However, there is often inadequate adoption of these interventions for various reasons, one being the limitation of generalizability of the explanatory studies in real-world settings. Randomized controlled trials can be rated as more explanatory versus pragmatic along 10 dimensions. Pragmatic randomized clinical trials generate more realisti...

  19. A randomised controlled trial of a theory-based interactive internet-based smoking cessation intervention ('StopAdvisor'): Study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Michie, S.; Brown, J.; Geraghty, A.W.A.; Miller, S.; Yardley, L; Gardner, B.; Shahab, L; Stapleton, J A; West, R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Internet-based interventions can help smokers to quit compared with brief written materials or no intervention. However, they are not widely used, particularly by more disadvantaged smokers, and there is significant variation in their effectiveness. A new smoking cessation website ('StopAdvisor') has been systematically developed on the basis of PRIME theory, empirical evidence, web-design expertise and user-testing with socio-economically disadvantaged smokers. This paper reports...

  20. Time trends of smoking cessation: a micro-population computer simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elketroussi, M; Fan, D P

    1992-10-01

    The Micro-population model of Risk-group Dynamics (MRD) approaches smoking behavior at the level of the individual and integrates physiological and social factors to describe the evolution of behavior change in the population. MRD is innovative in several ways: (1) the model describes mathematically the interactions among these behavioral factors; (2) the model accounts for both the variability of these factors among different persons and the universality of basic rules describing these factors in all individuals; and (3) the model can be applied to various types of populations and a wide range of intervention strategies. MRD combines the physiological, psychological and social determinants into a hazard function for relapse to smoking. This hazard function is then organized into a three term expression incorporating: a baseline hazard characteristic to each individual, a decreasing term for the diminishing aspect of the initial hazard and an effect of external interventions. The model gives promising results when applied to the Multiple Risk Factors Intervention Trial (MRFIT) data using the assumptions of a Weibull distribution for the baseline hazard, a negative exponential for the decrease in the initial hazard and a constant intensity for the external intervention. PMID:1428217

  1. TEXT CLASSIFICATION FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF E-CIGARETTE USE AND USE FOR SMOKING CESSATION FROM TWITTER: A FEASIBILITY PILOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphinyanaphongs, Yin; Lulejian, Armine; Brown, Duncan Penfold; Bonneau, Richard; Krebs, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Rapid increases in e-cigarette use and potential exposure to harmful byproducts have shifted public health focus to e-cigarettes as a possible drug of abuse. Effective surveillance of use and prevalence would allow appropriate regulatory responses. An ideal surveillance system would collect usage data in real time, focus on populations of interest, include populations unable to take the survey, allow a breadth of questions to answer, and enable geo-location analysis. Social media streams may provide this ideal system. To realize this use case, a foundational question is whether we can detect e-cigarette use at all. This work reports two pilot tasks using text classification to identify automatically Tweets that indicate e-cigarette use and/or e-cigarette use for smoking cessation. We build and define both datasets and compare performance of 4 state of the art classifiers and a keyword search for each task. Our results demonstrate excellent classifier performance of up to 0.90 and 0.94 area under the curve in each category. These promising initial results form the foundation for further studies to realize the ideal surveillance solution. PMID:26776211

  2. A Smoking Cessation Campaign on Twitter: Understanding the Use of Twitter and Identifying Major Players in a Health Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2016-05-01

    The current study examined the use of online social media for a health campaign. Collecting tweets (N = 1,790) about the recent smoking cessation campaign by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the current study investigated the dissemination of health campaign messages on Twitter and answered questions from the process evaluation of health campaigns: who tweeted about the campaign, who played central roles in disseminating health campaign messages, and how various features of Twitter were used for sharing of campaign messages. Results showed that individuals and nonprofit organizations posted frequently about the campaign: Individuals and nonprofit organizations posted about 40% and 30% of campaign-related tweets, respectively. Although the campaign under investigation was steered by a government agency, nonprofit organizations played a vital role as mediators who disseminated campaign messages. The culture of retweeting demonstrated its particular usefulness for the dissemination of campaign messages. Despite the expectation that the use of social media would expand opportunities for engagement, actual two-way interactions were few or minimal. Drawn from the results, practical suggestions on how to strategize the use of Twitter for future health campaigns are discussed. PMID:27115179

  3. COSTS OF THE HEALTH CARE IN RUSSIA ASSOCIATED WITH SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kontsevaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze costs of health care in Russia associated with smoking in 2009. Material and methods. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD were included in the analysis. Calculation was performed on the basis of the relative risks of diseases associated with smoking, and obtained from foreign surveys, official statistics on morbidity and health system resources expenditure, and costs of health-seeking in line with state program of guaranteed free medical care.  Results. In 2009 total costs of the health care system associated with smoking exceeded RUR 35.8 bln. It corresponded to 0.1% of gross domestic product in Russia in 2009. The costs structure was the following: hospitalization – RUR 26.2 bln, emergency calls – RUR 1.4 bln, and outpatient health-seeking – RUR 8.2 bln. Costs of outpatient pharmacotherapy were not included into analysis because of lack of baseline data needed for calculations. Cardiovascular diseases caused 62% of the health care costs associated with smoking, cancers – 20.2%, and COPD – 17.8%. Conclusion. The smoking in Russia is associated with significant health care costs. It makes needed resources investment in preventive programs to reduce smoking prevalence.

  4. Health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation:A review of efficacy, effectiveness and affordability for use in national guideline development

    OpenAIRE

    West, Robert; Raw, Martin; McNeill, Ann; Stead, Lindsay; Aveyard, Paul; Bitton, John; Stapleton, John; McRobbie, Hayden; Pokhrel, Subhash; Lester-George, Adam; Borland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This paper provides a concise review of the efficacy, effectiveness and affordability of health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation, in order to inform national guideline development and assist countries in planning their provision of tobacco cessation support. Methods: Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of major health-care tobacco cessation interventions were used to derive efficacy estimates in terms of percentage-point increases relative t...

  5. The SCIDOTS Project: Evidence of benefits of an integrated tobacco cessation intervention in tuberculosis care on treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sulaiman Syed Azhar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial evidence to support the association between tuberculosis (TB and tobacco smoking and that the smoking-related immunological abnormalities in TB are reversible within six weeks of cessation. Therefore, connecting TB and tobacco cessation interventions may produce significant benefits and positively impact TB treatment outcomes. However, no study has extensively documented the evidence of benefits of such integration. SCIDOTS Project is a study from the context of a developing nation aimed to determine this. Methods An integrated TB-tobacco intervention was provided by trained TB directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS providers at five chest clinics in Malaysia. The study was a prospective non-randomized controlled intervention using quasi-experimental design. Using Transtheoretical Model approach, 120 eligible participants who were current smokers at the time of TB diagnosis were assigned to either of two treatment groups: conventional TB DOTS plus smoking cessation intervention (integrated intervention or SCIDOTS group or conventional TB DOTS alone (comparison or DOTS group. At baseline, newly diagnosed TB patients considering quitting smoking within the next 30 days were placed in the integrated intervention group, while those who were contemplating quitting were assigned to the comparison group. Eleven sessions of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy with or without nicotine replacement therapy were provided to each participant in the integrated intervention group. The impacts of the novel approach on biochemically validated smoking cessation and TB treatment outcomes were measured periodically as appropriate. Results A linear effect on both 7-day point prevalence abstinence and continuous abstinence was observed over time in the intervention group. At the end of 6 months, patients who received the integrated intervention had significantly higher rate of success in quitting smoking when

  6. Effectiveness of a Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Support Programme (McSCSP for Patients with Severe Mental Disorders: Study Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paz Garcia-Portilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have examined the efficacy and safety of smoking cessation programmes in patients with mental disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe in detail the methodology used in the study as well as the Multi-component Smoking Cessation Support Programme in terms of pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions. An open-label 9-month follow-up study was conducted in Spain. A total of 82 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder were enrolled. Treatment consisted of a programme specifically developed by the research team for individuals with severe mental disorders. The programme consisted of two phases: (1 weekly individual motivational therapy for 4–12 weeks, and (2 a 12-week active treatment phase. During this phase, at each study visit patients received a one- or two-week supply of medication (transdermal nicotine patches, varenicline or bupropion with instructions on how to take it, in addition to group psychotherapy for smoking cessation. Evaluations were performed: (1 at the time of enrolment in the study, (2 during the 12-week active treatment phase of the study (weekly for the first 4 weeks and then biweekly, and (3 after the end of this phase (two follow-up assessments at weeks 12 and 24. Evaluations included: (1 smoking history, (2 substance use, (3 psychopathology, (4 adverse events, and (5 laboratory tests. The importance of this study lies in addressing a topical issue often ignored by psychiatrists: the unacceptably high rates of tobacco use in patients with severe mental disorders.

  7. Language of motivation and emotion in an Internet support group for smoking cessation: explorative use of automated content analysis to measure regulatory focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen JAK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jan-Are K Johnsen,1 Sara M Vambheim,2 Rolf Wynn,3,4 Silje C Wangberg3,51Department of Clinical Dentistry, University of Tromsø, 2Department of Psychology, University of Tromsø, 3Division of Addiction and Specialized Psychiatry, University Hospital of North-Norway, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, 5Narvik University College, Narvik, NorwayAbstract: The present study describes a novel approach to the identification of the motivational processes in text data extracted from an Internet support group (ISG for smoking cessation. Based on the previous findings that a “prevention” focus might be more relevant for maintaining behavior change, it was hypothesized that 1 language use (ie, the use of emotional words signaling a “promotion” focus would be dominant in the initiating stages of the ISG, and 2 that the proportion of words signaling a prevention focus would increase over time. The data were collected from the ISG site, spanning 4 years of forum activity. The data were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count application. The first hypothesis – of promotion focus dominance in the initiating stages – was not supported during year 1. However, for all the other years measured, the data showed that a prevention failure was more dominant compared with a promotion failure. The results indicate that content analysis could be used to investigate motivational and language-driven processes in ISGs. Understanding the interplay between self-regulation, lifestyle change, and modern communication channels could be of vital importance in providing the public with better health care services and interventions.Keywords: self-regulation, behavior change, emotion, prevention

  8. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk of...... postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  9. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual......Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk of...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  10. 戒烟对慢性阻塞性肺疾病的治疗作用%Effects of smoking cessation in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建红; 周新

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease with significant disability rate and mortality. Smoking continues to be a major cause of COPD. As a simple way to reduce exposure to COPD risk factors,smoking cessation can prevent the development of COPD effectively. This review summarizes the effects of smoking cessation in the treatment of COPD and smoking cessation drugs.%慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)是一种致残率和死亡率较高的常见病.吸烟是引起COPD的主要病因之一.戒烟可预防COPD和减缓疾病进展,是减少COPD危险因素的有效方法.本文综述戒烟在COPD治疗中的作用及戒烟药物的相关临床疗效评价.

  11. Study of order effects in the search for information on the Web: the case of an experiment about smoking cessation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane AMATO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with cognitive biases that could affect the judgment of net surfers while reading a list of answers, after a query in a search engine. The hypothesis is made that order effects i.e primacy and/or recency could be observed in such contexts. The authors choose to test it by doing an experiment in controlled-environment. So they decide to focus more particularly on the field of smoking cessation techniques and refine their questioning as follows: After a query into a search engine, does the place of a medication in a list determines the idea of its relevance, for a student population? By comparing three different groups, the authors demonstrate a primacy effect and no recency effect. In addition, they highlight five moderating variables: sex of the individual, the fact that he is a smoker or not, the fact that he had, or not, originally any opinion about methods of smoking cessation, the fact whether or not he is affected by health problems related to smoking, speed reading on the Web interface. The authors conclude speaking in favour of information literacy education. For them, in the case presented, it would be relevant as a medical point of view, in terms of public health, as a point of socio-economic development.

  12. Tobacco chippers seeking assistance for smoking cessation: a case series Tobacco chippers em busca de auxílio para parar de fumar: série de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Natan Pires; Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró; Maristela Ferigolo; Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros; Denise Conceição Mesquita Dantas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of cases of tobacco chippers (TCs) who sought assistance for smoking cessation. DESCRIPTION OF CASES: We describe the case of three TCs who participated in a free quit-smoking support group. Smokers answered self-administered questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, smoking history, nicotine dependence, perceived health status, and motivational stages. Of the 183 smokers enrolled in the program, three (1.6%) were considered TCs. All three were women and r...

  13. Assessment of the Efficiency of Tobacco Cessation Counseling in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawy, Omar; Shires, Deirdre A; Elston Lafata, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence advocate for using counseling targeted at tobacco users' motivation to quit during each office visit. We evaluate tobacco use screening and counseling interventions delivered during routine periodic health examinations by 44 adult primary care physicians practicing in 22 clinics of a large health system in southeast Michigan. 484 office visits were audio-recorded and transcribed. For this study, current tobacco users (N = 91) were identified using pre-visit surveys and audio-recordings. Transcripts were coded for the delivery of tobacco-related counseling interventions. The extent to which counseling interventions were used and/or targeted to the patients' readiness to quit was the main outcome measure. The majority of tobacco users (n = 77) had their tobacco use status assessed, and most received some sort of tobacco-related counseling (n = 74). However, only 15% received the recommended counseling targeted to their readiness to quit. On the other hand, 19% received less counseling than recommended given their readiness to quit, 7% received only nonindicated counseling, and 59% received nonindicated counseling in addition to indicated counseling. Results illustrate physicians' commitment to cessation counseling and also identify potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of tobacco-related counseling in primary care. PMID:26290271

  14. The expression of HDAC2 in lung of smoke cessation and smoking cessation rats%香烟暴露与戒烟对大鼠肺组织组蛋白去乙酰化酶2的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉梅; 钱福永; 罗鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of HDAC2 in lung of smoke cessation and smoking cessation rats,Methods Forty SD rats were divided into five groups randomly:normal control group (group A),1-month smoking group (group B,),2-month smoking group (group C),1-month smokingcessation group(group D),2-month smoking-cessation group(group E).Group B rats were exposured to cigarettes for 1 month,C,D,E were exposured to cigarettes for 2 months.At 1 month,group B were sacrificed,at 2 month,group C were sacrificed,group D was smoking cessation for 1 month and group E for 2 months.Pathomorphological changes of the small airway were analyzed,and then study the HDAC2 in rats'lung tissue.Results Compared with group A,the levels of HDAC2 in group B,group C,group D,group E were decreased (P < 0.01),but smoking groups levels were lower than smoking-cessation groups.In smoking groups,group C was lower than group B.In smoking-cessation groups,group D was lower than group E.Conclusion It shows that the levels of HDAC2 in rats' lung tissue decrease after smoking exposure.It can recrease after quitting,but still cant back to normal.%目的 探讨香烟暴露及戒烟对大鼠肺组织组蛋白去乙酰化酶2(histone deacetylase2,HDAC2)的影响.方法 将40只健康雄性SD大鼠按随机数字表法分为5组,每组8只,对照组(A组)、吸烟1个月组(B组)、吸烟2个月组(C组)、戒烟1个月组(D组)、戒烟2个月组(E组).吸烟组及戒烟组大鼠每天上午、下午在自制熏烟盒中给予烟熏两次,吸烟组分别在吸烟1、2个月后取材;戒烟组在给予两个月烟熏后停止,分别正常饲养1、2个月取肺组织标本.正常对照组在正常饲养四个月后取肺组织标本.肺组织标本采用HE染色在镜下观察气道炎症改变、收集支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF),用免疫组化方法检测肺组织HDAC2的表达.结果 与正常对照组相比,吸烟组肺组织HDAC2含量逐渐降低(吸烟2个月组<吸烟1

  15. Implementing a fax referral program for quitline smoking cessation services in urban health centers: a qualitative study

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    Cantrell Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fax referral services that connect smokers to state quitlines have been implemented in 49 U.S. states and territories and promoted as a simple solution to improving smoker assistance in medical practice. This study is an in-depth examination of the systems-level changes needed to implement and sustain a fax referral program in primary care. Methods The study involved implementation of a fax referral system paired with a chart stamp prompting providers to identify smoking patients, provide advice to quit and refer interested smokers to a state-based fax quitline. Three focus groups (n = 26 and eight key informant interviews were conducted with staff and physicians at two clinics after the intervention. We used the Chronic Care Model as a framework to analyze the data, examining how well the systems changes were implemented and the impact of these changes on care processes, and to develop recommendations for improvement. Results Physicians and staff described numerous benefits of the fax referral program for providers and patients but pointed out significant barriers to full implementation, including the time-consuming process of referring patients to the Quitline, substantial patient resistance, and limitations in information and care delivery systems for referring and tracking smokers. Respondents identified several strategies for improving integration, including simplification of the referral form, enhanced teamwork, formal assignment of responsibility for referrals, ongoing staff training and patient education. Improvements in Quitline feedback were needed to compensate for clinics' limited internal information systems for tracking smokers. Conclusions Establishing sustainable linkages to quitline services in clinical sites requires knowledge of existing patterns of care and tailored organizational changes to ensure new systems are prioritized, easily integrated into current office routines, formally assigned to specific

  16. Um novo escore para dependência a nicotina e uma nova escala de conforto do paciente durante o tratamento do tabagismo A new nicotine dependence score and a new scale assessing patient comfort during smoking cessation treatment

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    Jaqueline Scholz Issa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é considerado a maior causa evitável de morbidade e mortalidade. O manuseio farmacológico da síndrome de abstinência de nicotina possibilita melhores taxas de cessação. Desenvolvemos um sistema de coleta de dados em nosso programa de assistência ao fumante, que inclui dois instrumentos novos: um escore para dependência de nicotina em fumantes de Smoking is considered the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. The pharmacological management of nicotine withdrawal syndrome enables better cessation rates. In our smoking cessation program, we have developed a data collection system, which includes two new instruments: a score that assesses nicotine dependence in smokers of < 10 cigarettes/day; and a patient comfort scale to be used during smoking cessation treatment. Here, we describe the two instruments, both of which are still undergoing validation.

  17. Stages of smoking acquisition versus susceptibility as predictors of smoking initiation in adolescents in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minnie; Hollis, Jack; Polen, Michael; Lapidus, Jodi; Austin, Donald

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated whether susceptibility, the stages of smoking acquisition, and socio-environmental factors can identify adolescents who will become smokers. Our data came from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to prevent adolescent smoking. Subjects were adolescents (n=1955) ages 14-17 being seen for routine medical care. The dependent variable was 30-day smoking status at 2-year follow-up (89.6% response rate). Independent variables included susceptibility, the stages of acquisition, and socio-environmental factors. Susceptible adolescents were two to three times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible adolescents. Compared to acquisition precontemplators, acquisition contemplators were three to five times more likely, and acquisition preparers were five to eight times more likely, to be smokers. When combined into a single measure, susceptible precontemplators were two times, contemplators were six times, and preparers were nine times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible precontemplators. Our findings suggest that acquisition stage and susceptibility can independently predict smoking onset. They may be used together to target teens for smoking prevention efforts in the clinical setting. PMID:15925127

  18. CYP2B6 Non-Coding Variation Associated with Smoking Cessation Is Also Associated with Differences in Allelic Expression, Splicing, and Nicotine Metabolism Independent of Common Amino-Acid Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, A. Joseph; Martinez, Maribel; Chen, Li-Shiun; Bierut, Laura J; Murphy, Sharon E.; Goate, Alison

    2013-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) enzyme makes a small contribution to hepatic nicotine metabolism relative to CYP2A6, but CYP2B6 is the primary enzyme responsible for metabolism of the smoking cessation drug bupropion. Using CYP2A6 genotype as a covariate, we find that a non-coding polymorphism in CYP2B6 previously associated with smoking cessation (rs8109525) is also significantly associated with nicotine metabolism. The association is independent of the well-studied non-synonymous variants ...

  19. A real-life study of the effectiveness of different pharmacological approaches to the treatment of smoking cessation: re-discussing the predictors of success

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    Gustavo Faibischew Prado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline and combination therapy and describe factors associated with treatment success. INTRODUCTION: Clinical trials clearly demonstrate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in smoking cessation. However, it is only after its use in real-life settings that clinical effectiveness and limitations of a treatment are fully known. METHODS: Patients attended a four-session cognitive-behavioral program and received medicines free of charge. Abstinence from smoking was assessed at each visit. RESULTS: A total of 868 smokers (68.8% women were included. Their mean age was 49.6 years; the amount smoked was 25 cigarettes/day and the Fagerströ m Score was 6.6. Abstinence rates after 6 months and 1 year were 36.5% and 33.6%. In univariate analysis, male gender, age (>50, higher number of cigarettes smoked, cardiovascular comorbidities, longer interval from the last cigarette and combined treatment of nortriptyline plus NRT were predictive of abstinence, while neuropsychiatric comorbidities and the answer ''yes'' to the question ''Do you smoke more often during the first hours after waking'' were correlated with failure. In a multivariate model, predictors of abstinence were neuropsychiatric comorbidities, the answer ''yes'' to the question ''Do you smoke more often during the first hours after waking'' and combined treatment of nortriptyline plus NRT. Male gender and a longer period from the last cigarette were correlated with lower abstinence rate. CONCLUSION: Satisfactory success rates were obtained in a teaching hospital. Factors such as age, daily cigarette consumption, number of pack-years and dependency score were not reliable markers of abstinence. The combination nortriptyline+NRT was independently associated with higher abstinence rates.

  20. Dose- and time-dependent association of smoking and its cessation with glycemic control and insulin resistance in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohkuma

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of smoking and its cessation on glycemic control in diabetic patients has not been fully examined yet. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of smoking status with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.A total of 2,490 Japanese male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ≥20 years were divided according to smoking status, amount of cigarettes smoked and years since quitting. The associations with glycemic level and markers of insulin resistance and secretion were examined cross-sectionally.HbA1c levels increased progressively with increases in both number of cigarettes per day and pack-years of cigarette smoking compared with never smokers (P for trend = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively, whereas fasting plasma glucose did not. On the other hand, HbA1c, but not fasting plasma glucose, decreased linearly with increase in years after smoking cessation (P for trend <0.001. These graded relationships persisted significantly after controlling for the confounders, including total energy intake, current drinking, regular exercise, depressive symptoms, and BMI. In addition, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein also showed similar trends.Smoking and its cessation showed dose- and time-dependent relationship with glycemic control and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings may highlight the importance of smoking cessation in the clinical management of diabetes mellitus.