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Sample records for cardo onopordum nervosum

  1. Hydrolysis of Lignocellulose Biomass of Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Hidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Diaz Palma, A.; Paz, M. D.

    1985-07-01

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs.

  2. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss; Prehidrolisis acida de la Biomasa Lignocelulosica del Cardo Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Contreras, C.; Paz Saa, D.; Diaz Palma, A.

    1983-07-01

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs.

  3. Acid hydrolysis of Biomass lignocellulose Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of Onopordum nervosum Boiss (thistle) to reducing sugars in dilute sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times has been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data it can be pre ducted the yield and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 degree centigree, 1,6% acid and 6,1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (Author) 18 refs

  4. Acid hydrolysis of the biomass of resistant cellulose of thistle ''Onopordum nervosum boiss''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrolysis of resistant cellulose of ''Onopordum nervosum boiss'' (thistle) to reduce sugar in diluted sulfuric acid in glass ampoules and long residence times have been studied and kinetic parameters determined. The rate of hydrolysis is similar to that of the cellulose of Douglas fir, but comparatively the effect of the acid is more pronounced than temperature. From kinetic data the yield can be predicted and since it can be obtained at least 45% of the potential glucose (48% as reducing sugars) at 190 deg C, 1.6% acid and 6.1 min. residence time, it indicates that the continuous acid hydrolysis of thistle may be a process of commercial interest. (author)

  5. Acid Pre hydrolysis of the Lignocellulose biomass from thistle Onopordum nervosum Boiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acid pre hydrolysis of the lignocellulose biomass from thistle O. nervosum has been conducted to determine the conditions for maximum yield of pentoses with minimum yield of hexoses. Variables studied were acid concentration (H2SO4, 1 , 3, 4 and 5%) , temperature (1000 and 120 degree centigree) time, solid to liquid ratio and degree of fineness of thistle (1 to 65 mesh). (Author) 15 refs

  6. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle; Efecto de la irradiacion gamma en la hidrolisis acida de cardo exento de pentosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C.; Paz, M. D.; Diaz, A.

    1983-07-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses). At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs.

  7. Positron annihilation in cardo-based polymer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Kazama, Shingo; Inoue, K; Toyama, T; Nagai, Y; Haraya, K; Mohamed, Hamdy F M; O'Rouke, B E; Oshima, N; Kinomura, A; Suzuki, R

    2014-06-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is applied to a series of bis(aniline)fluorene and bis(xylidine)fluorene-based cardo polyimide and bis(phenol)fluorene-based polysulfone membranes. It was found that favorable amounts of positronium (Ps, the positron-electron bound state) form in cardo polyimides with the 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) moiety and bis(phenol)fluorene-based cardo polysulfone, but no Ps forms in most of the polyimides with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) moieties. A bis(xylidine)fluorene-based polyimide membrane containing PMDA and BTDA moieties exhibits a little Ps formation but the ortho-positronium (o-Ps, the triplet state of Ps) lifetime of this membrane anomalously shortens with increasing temperature, which we attribute to chemical reaction of o-Ps. Correlation between the hole size (V(h)) deduced from the o-Ps lifetime and diffusion coefficients of O2 and N2 for polyimides with the 6FDA moiety and cardo polysulfone showing favorable Ps formation is discussed based on free volume theory of gas diffusion. It is suggested that o-Ps has a strong tendency to probe larger holes in rigid chain polymers with wide hole size distributions such as those containing cardo moieties, resulting in deviations from the previously reported correlations for common polymers such as polystyrene, polycarbonate, polysulfone, and so forth. PMID:24815092

  8. The Research of Antioxidant Activity of the Endemic Species of Onopordum Anatolicum

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    G. TAŞDELEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, Turkish people have long utilized plants as remedies, food, fuel, and dye, as well as for furniture, ornamentation, agricultural tools, and construction materials. Onopordum is a valuable medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional medicine in Europe. The application of Onopordum as food is limited and its main importance is due to medicine utilization. Because of having flavonoid compositions, Onopordum is an important plant. The Genus Onopordum L. (Asteraceae includes about 38 species. The representatives of the genus are native to Europe, Northern Africa, the Canary Island, the Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia. In Turkey, this genus is represented with 20 species, 6 of which are endemic. Onopordum (cotton thistle, also known as Scots or Scotch thistle species are biennials herbaceous plants with branched, spinose winged stems. They have application in medical practice as a bactericide, cardiotonic, and hemostatic agent and are used against hypotonicity. In this study antioxidant activities of ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzen extracts of some endemic Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss. Boiss. & Heldr. ex Eig seeds which are in Denizli were examined. DPPH and β-carotene-Linoleic acid methods were used in order to determinethe antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity (77% was seenin the extract which is obtained by using methanol catalyst. The lowest activity of antioxidant of the extracts is acetone (5%. In terms of impact, the strenght of antioxidant depends on the phenolic amount of it. For that purpose, O. anatolicum total fenolic content was calculated in terms of mg/ml gallic acid in the experiment performed by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu medhod. According to these values, the highest amount of phenolic compounds are in methanol and the lowest amount of phenolic compounds are in benzen. According to the results of the experiment performed by using DPPH method, it is obvious that the

  9. Thermal Study of Anhydrides Cured Tetrafunctional Cardo Epoxy Resin

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    Jignesh P. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrafunctional cardo epoxy resin (EBCF was cured by using 10 wt% maleic anhydride (MA, pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA, phthalic anhydride (PA, tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA, tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA, and tetrachlorophthalic anhydride (TCPA as hardeners at 120°C for 40–105 min (gel time and then postcured 1 h at 130°C. Gel time is found to depend on the structure of the anhydrides used. Cured samples were found insoluble in common solvents. Cured and uncured EBCF were characterized by FTIR, DSC, and TGA techniques. Cured and uncured resins followed multistep degradation reactions. Kinetic parameters, namely, order of degradation, energy of activation, frequency factor, and entropy change, were determined according to the Anderson-Freeman method and interpreted in light of the nature of hardeners used for curing purpose. The resins followed integral or fractional order degradation kinetics. Complex degradation reactions are due to different types of linkages in cured resins. Both nature and structure of resin and hardeners affected the curing behavior and the resultant thermal properties of the cured resins.

  10. Protective Effect of Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala Fruit Extract against Oxidative Renal Damage Caused by Cadmium

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    Warut Poontawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium nephrotoxicity is a serious environmental health problem as it will eventually end up with end stage renal disease. The pathobiochemical mechanism of this toxic heavy metal is related to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether Cleistocalyx nervosum var. paniala fruit extract (CNFE could protect the kidney against oxidative injury caused by cadmium. Initial analysis of the extract revealed antioxidant abilities and high levels of polyphenols, particularly catechin. Its potential renal benefits was further explored in rats treated with vehicle, CNFE, cadmium (2 mg/kg, and cadmium plus CNFE (0.5, 1, 2 g/kg for four weeks. Oxidative renal injury was developed after cadmium exposure as evidenced by blood urea nitrogen and creatinine retention, glomerular filtration reduction, renal structural damage, together with increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde, but decreased antioxidant thiols, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in renal tissues. Cadmium-induced nephrotoxicity was diminished in rats supplemented with CNFE, particularly at the doses of 1 and 2 g/kg. It is concluded that CNFE is able to protect against the progression of cadmium nephrotoxicity, mostly via its antioxidant power. The results also point towards a promising role for this naturally-occurring antioxidant to combat other human disorders elicited by disruption of redox homeostasis.

  11. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour

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    Wei, Xiangyong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Guangxi traditional Chinese Medical University Universidad de Medicina Tradicional China de Guangxi This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of the extracts of Jasminum nervosum Lour. stems along with the effects of different extract solvents on total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF, and antioxidant potential. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the following methods: DPPH, ABTS+ both free radicals scavenging assays, and reducing assays. TP and TF were detected by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. In former methods, the highest amount of TP content was ethy lacetate extract (EAE, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The greatest TF content was in the n-butanol extract (BE, expressed as lutin equivalents. No significant difference was observed in the TP/TF content between these two extracts. The antioxidant activity and TP/TF content of three extracts seemed to follow the same trend. This implied that there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP/TF content. But in HPLC methods, EAE contained the highest content of lutin and gallic acid, which decreased in the same order of EAE > BE > PE, the rank order of TP/TF content of EAE and BE were different according to antioxidant ability. The overall results showed that the EAE and BE were richer in phenolics and flavonoids than petroleum ether extract (PE, and may represent a good source of antioxidants.Este estudio evaluó las actividades antioxidantes de extractos de tallos de Jasminum nervosum Lour., y el efecto de diferentes disolventes de extracción en los fenoles totales (TP y flavonoides totales (TF, y su potencial antioxidante. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos fue evaluada usando los siguientes métodos: DPPH, ABTS+ y ensayos reductores. TP y TF fueron detectados por métodos espectroscópicos y por HPLC. Con el primer método, el contenido más alto de TP se obtuvo en el extracto con acetato de etilo (EAE, expresado como

  12. Reproductive Dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831 in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Hélio Augusto Alves Fracasso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we intend to describe the reproductive dynamics of Sterna hirundinacea in an island from South Brazil. We studied the reproductive biology of this species in its natural environment and provide data on their growth, survival, and reproductive success in Ilha dos Cardos, Santa Catarina, South Brazil. Samplings were carried out daily on the island throughout the reproductive seasons of 2003, 2005, and 2006 and the different stages of development of the chicks were characterized according to age, length of the beak, and plumage characteristics. We provide a basic equation Lm=167.91 (1-e-0.062t--0.23 to determine the approximate age of individuals using their body mass. The main cause of chick mortality on the island was natural (63.17% in 2003, 81.41% in 2005, and 79.96% in 2006, whereas predation contributed to mortality in a proportion of 38.83% in 2003, 18.59% in 2005, and 20.04% in 2006. The absence in the area of the chicks’ main predator, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, the large number of chicks that reached the final stages of development, and their reproductive success demonstrate that Ilha dos Cardos is an important breeding site for the species in southern Brazil.

  13. Preliminary Results on the Phytophagous Insect Fauna on Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae in Bulgaria

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    Vili Harizanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Scotch thistle, Onopordum acanthium (Asteraceae has the Eurasian origin and represents an invasive weed in the USA and Australia. It is a serious problem in pastures,along roadsides, rangeland, etc. The weed is very common in Bulgaria and in 2009-2010several sites with large populations of O. acanthium have been located. The weekly surveys of some of the sites, mainly in the region of Plovdiv, revealed a significant diversity of phytophagous insect species, some of which had very high population density.More than 30 species have already been identified and observations on the phenology and biology of some of them have been conducted. For some of the species, such as endophagous Larinus latus, Lixus cardui, Eublemma amoena, Trichosirocalus briesei, or ectophagous Cassida rubiginosa etc. found during our surveys, there are reports in the literature describing them as having been already introduced as successful biocontrol agents in Australia. Endophagous species like lepidopteran Myelois circumvoluta and Pyroderces argyrogrammos which feed on the stems and the head, and the tephritid flies ephritis postica and Chaetostomella cylindrica which feed on the capitula, seem quite destructive for the weed, but need to be further studied regarding host specificity. Species like Vanessacardui and Brachycaudus cardui were found regularly, but in low population density, mainly due to the high rate of parasitism.

  14. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

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    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  15. Aprovechamiento del cardo (Cynara cardunculus L.) para la producción de biomasa lignocelulósica, aceite y forraje verde

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, J.; Hidalgo, M; Monte Diaz de Guereñu, Juan Pablo del; Curt Fernández de la Mora, Mª Dolores

    1996-01-01

    Aprovechamiento del cardo (Cynara cardunculus L.) es una especie perteneciente a la familia de las Compuestas (Asteraceae) lo mismo que el cártamo o el girasol. es una especie vivaz gracias a sus yemas de recambio que posee en el cuello de la raíz estando muy bien adaptada a las condiciones del clima mediterráneo de veranos secos y calurosos.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s for fuel cell proton exchange membrane application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Jang, H.H.; Lim, Y.D.; Seo, D.W.; Kim, W.G. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.H.; Hong, Y.T. [Energy Material Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D.M. [Material Engineering and Science, Hongik Univ, Jochiwon-eup, Yeongi-gun, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Sulfonated cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (SPPA-PES) with various degrees of sulfonation (DS) were prepared by post-sulfonation of synthesized phenolphthalein anilide (PPA; N-phenyl-3,3'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-isobenzopyrolidone) poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PPA-PES) by using concentrated sulfuric acid. PPA-PES copolymers were synthesized by direct polycondensation of PPA with bis-(4-fluorophenyl)-sulfone and 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol. The DS was varied with different mole ratios of PPA (24, 30, 40, 50 mol.%) in the polymer. The structure of the resulting SPPA-PES copolymers and the different contents of the sulfonated unit were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sorption experiments were conducted to observe the interaction of sulfonated polymer with water. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity of SPPA-PES were evaluated according to the increase of DS. The water uptake (WU) of the resulting SPPA-PES membranes was in the range of 20-72%, compared with 28% for Nafion 211 registered. The SPPA-PES membranes showed proton conductivities of 23-82 mS cm{sup -1}, compared with 194 mS cm{sup -1} for Nafion 211 registered, under 100% relative humidity (RH) at 80 C. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Proton exchange membranes from sulfonated polyetheretherketone and sulfonated polyethersulfone-cardo blends: Conductivity, water sorption and permeation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five blend membranes were prepared by solvent evaporation from solutions of the synthesized sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK) and sulfonated polyethersulfone-cardo (SPESc). Their ion exchange capacity and degree of sulfonation determined by acid–base titration and by thermogravimetric analysis were consistent. The blends glass transition behavior obtained by differential scanning calorimetry suggests that the two sulfonated polymers are compatible in the whole composition range. The values of the activation energy for proton transport determined by conductivity measurements on the SPEEK-based blend membranes were in the range of 13–34 kJ mol−1, which suggest a mixed transport mechanism that involves both proton jumps on ionic sites and water of hydration and diffusion of proton–water complex in hydrophilic domains. The water vapor sorption in the membranes exhibits sigmoid-shape isotherms which were well fitted by the “new dual mode sorption” model, and the fitted parameters values were successfully used to model the change in the water permeation flux with the upstream water activity using the first Fick's diffusion equation. The fast increase in the permeation flux beyond a critical value of activity (0.5) was owing to the exponential concentration-dependent diffusion coefficient. These modelings allowed us to show a strong increase in the limit diffusion coefficient of water and a decrease in the water-diffusion plasticization coefficient with the SPEEK content in the polymer blends

  18. La avalancha de rocas del cerro Los Cardos (37°10´S,70°53´O) en la región norte de la provincia del Neuquén

    OpenAIRE

    E.F. González Díaz; Folguera, A.; Hermanns, R.

    2005-01-01

    Se describe una nueva e importante avalancha de rocas, no reconocida hasta ahora, localizada a unos 25 km al oeste de la población de Andacollo. Muestra dos cicatrices o muescas de desprendimiento, de las cuales la austral es interpretada como la muesca principal de su desprendimiento y se halla al pie del borde occidental de una planicie estructural lávica, sobre cuyo extremo norte se ubica el cerro Los Cardos. Es un complejo movimiento, con numerosas escarpas de arranque internas en la masa...

  19. La avalancha de rocas del cerro Los Cardos (37°10´S,70°53´O) en la región norte de la provincia del Neuquén The rock avalanche of Cerro Los Cardos (37° 10´S, 70° 53´ W) in the northern region of the province of Neuquén

    OpenAIRE

    E.F. González Díaz; Folguera, A.; Hermanns, R.

    2005-01-01

    Se describe una nueva e importante avalancha de rocas, no reconocida hasta ahora, localizada a unos 25 km al oeste de la población de Andacollo. Muestra dos cicatrices o muescas de desprendimiento, de las cuales la austral es interpretada como la muesca principal de su desprendimiento y se halla al pie del borde occidental de una planicie estructural lávica, sobre cuyo extremo norte se ubica el cerro Los Cardos. Es un complejo movimiento, con numerosas escarpas de arranque internas en la masa...

  20. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reese QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars productions, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of O. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (author). 10 figs.; 10 refs

  1. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs

  2. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 and Rut C30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. longibrachiatum Rut C30 on 55% (W/V) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the fermentor.(author)

  3. Enzymatic activity of the cellulolytic complex produced by Trichoderma reesei. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Actividad enzimatica del complejo celulolitico producido por Trichoderma reesei. Hidrolisis enzimatica de la celulosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonsel, M.; Negro, M. J.; Saez, R.; Martin, C.

    1986-07-01

    The enzymatic activity characterization of the cellulolytic complex obtained from Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 and the influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolysis yield are studied. Pure cellulose and native or alkali pretreated biomass Onopordum nervosum have been used as substrates. The values of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and enzyme-substrate ratio for the optimum activity of that complex, evaluated as glucose and reducing sugars production, have been selected. Previous studies on enzymatic hydrolysis of 0. nervosum have shown a remarkable effect of the alkaline pretreatments on the final hydrolysis yield. (Author) 10 refs.

  4. La avalancha de rocas del cerro Los Cardos (37°10´S,70°53´O en la región norte de la provincia del Neuquén The rock avalanche of Cerro Los Cardos (37° 10´S, 70° 53´ W in the northern region of the province of Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. González Díaz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva e importante avalancha de rocas, no reconocida hasta ahora, localizada a unos 25 km al oeste de la población de Andacollo. Muestra dos cicatrices o muescas de desprendimiento, de las cuales la austral es interpretada como la muesca principal de su desprendimiento y se halla al pie del borde occidental de una planicie estructural lávica, sobre cuyo extremo norte se ubica el cerro Los Cardos. Es un complejo movimiento, con numerosas escarpas de arranque internas en la masa movilizada, consideradas secundarias, las que al igual que la principal, tienen una general orientación noroeste-sureste. Su mecánica aparenta haberse iniciado como un movimiento translacional (planar a favor de la disposición casi vertical, con fuerte buzamiento hacia el oeste de las capas de la Formación Lileo. Sin embargo, la disposición espacial (cóncavas que adoptan las distintas muescas de arranque (tanto principales como secundarias, permite sugerir un desarrollo y continuación del movimiento como afín a un deslizamiento rotacional. A partir del desprendimiento austral el movimiento general se orientó hacia el sur, hacia el valle del arroyo Lileo, presumiblemente en sucesivos pulsos, identificables por escarpas de arranque internas. En el correspondiente al septentrional el desplazamiento se dirigió hacia el oeste hacia el valle del arroyo Palao. Con posterioridad el movimiento parece estar controlado por la pendiente de dicho valle hacia la afluencia al arroyo Lileo. La porción distal de sus acumulaciones alcanzó a trepar (run-up, el lateral opuesto del valle del arroyo Palao. La laguna de los Rojos se halla en una depresión supuestamente generada por el deslizamiento y fracturamiento de un bloque rocoso desprendido de la planicie estructural lávica de Los Cardos. Diversos factores intrínsecos, establecieron previamente al fenómeno condiciones favorables para el desprendimiento. Se propone como promotor de la avalancha de rocas a

  5. La avalancha de rocas del cerro Los Cardos (37°10´S,70°53´O en la región norte de la provincia del Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. González Díaz

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva e importante avalancha de rocas, no reconocida hasta ahora, localizada a unos 25 km al oeste de la población de Andacollo. Muestra dos cicatrices o muescas de desprendimiento, de las cuales la austral es interpretada como la muesca principal de su desprendimiento y se halla al pie del borde occidental de una planicie estructural lávica, sobre cuyo extremo norte se ubica el cerro Los Cardos. Es un complejo movimiento, con numerosas escarpas de arranque internas en la masa movilizada, consideradas secundarias, las que al igual que la principal, tienen una general orientación noroeste-sureste. Su mecánica aparenta haberse iniciado como un movimiento translacional (planar a favor de la disposición casi vertical, con fuerte buzamiento hacia el oeste de las capas de la Formación Lileo. Sin embargo, la disposición espacial (cóncavas que adoptan las distintas muescas de arranque (tanto principales como secundarias, permite sugerir un desarrollo y continuación del movimiento como afín a un deslizamiento rotacional. A partir del desprendimiento austral el movimiento general se orientó hacia el sur, hacia el valle del arroyo Lileo, presumiblemente en sucesivos pulsos, identificables por escarpas de arranque internas. En el correspondiente al septentrional el desplazamiento se dirigió hacia el oeste hacia el valle del arroyo Palao. Con posterioridad el movimiento parece estar controlado por la pendiente de dicho valle hacia la afluencia al arroyo Lileo. La porción distal de sus acumulaciones alcanzó a trepar (run-up, el lateral opuesto del valle del arroyo Palao. La laguna de los Rojos se halla en una depresión supuestamente generada por el deslizamiento y fracturamiento de un bloque rocoso desprendido de la planicie estructural lávica de Los Cardos. Diversos factores intrínsecos, establecieron previamente al fenómeno condiciones favorables para el desprendimiento. Se propone como promotor de la avalancha de rocas a

  6. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM9414 and Rut C30; Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibranchiatum Qm9-41 4 y Rut C30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M. J.

    1991-07-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs.

  7. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM 9414 and Rut C30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs

  8. Effect of gamma Irradiation on the acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose thistle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the subsequent acidic hydrolysis of free-hemi cellulose Onopordum Nervosum Boiss thistle Ls determined. Its shown the influence of gamma-irradiation on the yield of sugar obtained flora the batch wise hydrol isis of the call ulose (1% H2SO4 and 180 degree centigree at increasing doses. At all irradiation levels studied, the rate of hydrolysis of thistle samples was higher than the rate of hydrolysis of the cellulose from paper treated similarly. The maximum over-all yield of sugar in the irradiated lignocellulose material was about 66o at 100 MRad, less than two times the yield obtainable from the control. The corresponding yield from papel was 53%, 2'3 times that of the control. Irradiation under 1% H2SO4 doesn't enhance the yield anyway. (Author) 21 refs

  9. ВОПРОСЫ ДИАГНОСТИКИ ПЛОДОВ ТАТАРНИКА КОЛЮЧЕГО ( ONOPORDUM AKANTHIUM L.) КАК ПЕРСПЕКТИВНОГО ЛЕКАРСТВЕННОГО РАСТИТЕЛЬНОГО СЫРЬЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Рыжов, Виталий; Бельченко, Анастасия

    2014-01-01

    Предварительные исследования позволили выявить перспективность плодов татарника колючего Onopordum acanthium L. в качестве источника биологически активных соединений фенольной и тритерпеновой природы. В виду ценности плодов как возможного лекарственного растительного сырья возникла необходимость разработки нормативной документации, регламентирующей его качество. Проведены морфолого-анатомические исследования плодов татарника, заготовленного в Самарской области. Изучены особенности морфологии ...

  10. Antioxidant, antiradical, and anticholinergic properties of cynarin purified from the Illyrian thistle (Onopordum illyricum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Meryem; Gocer, Hulya; Topal, Fevzi; Kalin, Pınar; Köse, Leyla Polat; Gülçin, İlhami; Çakmak, Kader C; Küçük, Murat; Durmaz, Lokman; Gören, Ahmet C; Alwasel, Saleh H

    2016-01-01

    Cynarin is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and it has biologically active functional groups constituent of some plants and food. We elucidated the antioxidant activity of cynarin by using different in vitro condition bioanalytical antioxidant assays like DMPD(•+), ABTS(•+), O2(•-), DPPH(•) and H2O2 scavenging effects, the total antioxidant influence, reducing capabilities, Fe(2+) chelating and anticholinergic activities. Cynarin demonstrated 87.72% inhibition of linoleic acid lipid peroxidation at 30 µg/mL concentration. Conversely, some standard antioxidants like trolox, α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) exhibited inhibitions of 90.32, 75.26, 97.61, 87.30%, and opponent peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the identical concentration, seriatim. Also, cynarin exhibited effective DMPD(•+), ABTS(•+), O2(•-), DPPH(•), and H2O2 scavenging effects, reducing capabilities and Fe(2+) chelating effects. On the contrary, IC50 and K(i) parameters of cynarin for acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition were determined as 243.67 nM (r(2): 0.9444) and 39.34 ± 13.88 nM, respectively. This study clearly showed that cynarin had marked antioxidant, anticholinergic, reducing ability, radical-scavenging, and metal-binding activities. PMID:25792498

  11. EL ERYNGIUM ("CARDO" GIGANTE DEL DELTA DEL PARANA Y DE LA MESOPOTAMIA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troels Myndel Pedersen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Un Eryngium gigante, espectacular por su tamaño y la abundancia donde se presenta, muy común a lo largo de la Mesopotamia argentina, el delta del Río Paraná, y la orilla sur del Río de la Plata, cuya identidad ha sido interpretada de diversas maneras, se describe como una nueva especie, Eryngium mesopotamicum Pedersen

  12. Produção de biodiesel a partir de óleo de sementes de cardo

    OpenAIRE

    Sengo, Inês de Castro e

    2008-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Alimentar - Instituto Superior de Agronomia In this work, was investigated the use of oil from cardoon seeds (Cynara cardunculus, L.), for biodiesel production. The cardoon seeds contain 24% of oil, and 7.8% dry matter (dry basis). The oil had a free fatty acid content of 0.6%, an iodine index of 122, saponification value of 200, and cetane number of 46.14. The production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) was obtained by transesterification of crud...

  13. Potencial de redução de emissões de GEE do bioetanol: contributo da análise de ciclo de vida da beterraba sacarina e do cardo como fontes de biomassa nacionais

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Bruno Miguel da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Actualmente, os biocombustíveis têm sido apontados como uma alternativa promissora aos combustíveis fósseis na actividade de transporte de passageiros e mercadorias, principalmente no quadro de controlo e redução de emissões de gases com efeito de estufa. Com o objectivo de redução da dependência energética do exterior, Portugal deve garantir a inclusão de 10% de biocombustíveis no sector dos transportes, usando como fontes de biomassa culturas energéticas de origem nacional. A...

  14. Produção de biodiesel por catálise enzimática em sistemas descontínuo e contínuo a partir de óleo de cardo

    OpenAIRE

    Bule, Maria João Galvão Morgado

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the biodiesel production from cardoon seed oil (Cynara cardunculus, L.) by enzymatic catalysis in batch and continuous systems. The biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters - FAME) was obtained by transesterification of the crude cardoon oil with methanol, in a biphasic organic/aqueous system, catalyzed by the lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis immobilized in synthetic resins (Accurel MP1000 and Lewatit VP OC 1600). This enzyme, when biphasic media, cat...

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the ferredoxin reductase component in the Rieske nonhaem iron oxygenase system carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NAD(P)H:ferredoxin oxidoreductase in carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Janthinobacterium sp. J3 was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.60 Å resolution. Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO), which consists of an oxygenase component (CARDO-O) and the electron-transport components ferredoxin (CARDO-F) and ferredoxin reductase (CARDO-R), catalyzes dihydroxylation at the C1 and C9a positions of carbazole. CARDO-R was crystallized at 277 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with the precipitant PEG 8000. Two crystal types (types I and II) were obtained. The type I crystal diffracted to a maximum resolution of 2.80 Å and belonged to space group P42212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 158.7, c = 81.4 Å. The type II crystal was obtained in drops from which type I crystals had been removed; it diffracted to 2.60 Å resolution and belonged to the same space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 161.8, c = 79.5 Å

  16. Purification and Characterization of Carbazole 1,9a-Dioxygenase, a Three-Component Dioxygenase System of Pseudomonas resinovorans Strain CA10

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Jeong-Won; Nojiri, Hideaki; Noguchi, Haruko; Uchimura, Hiromasa; Yoshida, Takako; Habe, Hiroshi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Omori, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    The carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) system of Pseudomonas resinovorans strain CA10 consists of terminal oxygenase (CarAa), ferredoxin (CarAc), and ferredoxin reductase (CarAd). Each component of CARDO was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) as a native form (CarAa) or a His-tagged form (CarAc and CarAd) and was purified to apparent homogeneity. CarAa was found to be trimeric and to have one Rieske type [2Fe-2S] cluster and one mononuclear iron center in each monomer. Both His-ta...

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a terminal oxygenase of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Novosphingobium sp. KA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terminal oxygenase component (Oxy) of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) catalyzes dihydroxylation of the aromatic ring. The Oxy of CARDO from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized and the crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.1 Å. Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) is the initial dioxygenase in the carbazole-degradation pathway of Novosphingobium sp. KA1. The CARDO from KA1 consists of a terminal oxygenase (Oxy), a putidaredoxin-type ferredoxin and a ferredoxin reductase. The Oxy from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized at 277 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as the precipitant. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.1 Å. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P21. Self-rotation function analysis suggested that the asymmetric unit contained two Oxy trimers; the Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 5.9 Å3 Da−1 and 79.1%, respectively

  18. Euroliit jagab kirjanduspreemiaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjon kuulutas välja esimesed Euroopa kirjanduspreemia laureaadid: Paulus Hochgatterer (Austria), Mila Pavicevic (Horvaatia), Emmanuelle Pagano (Prantsusmaa), Szécsi Noémi (Ungari), Karen Gillece (Iirimaa), Daniele Del Giudice (Itaalia), Laura Sintija Černiauskaitė (Leedu), Carl Frode Tiller (Norra), Jacek Dukaj (Poola), Dulce Maria Cardos (Portugal), Pavol Rankov (Slovakkia), Helena Henschen (Rootsi)

  19. The genus Myxopyrum L. (Oleaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kiew, R.

    1984-01-01

    The morphology and leaf anatomy of Myxopyrum is described and a key to the species is given. Of the 15 species previously described four species and two subspecies are recognised: M. nervosum Bl. (synonyms M. horsfieldii, M. zippelii) with one subspecies coriaceum (Bl.) Kiew (synonym M. ellipticum), M. ovatum Hill (synonyms M. macrolobum, M. cordatum, M. philippinensis), M. pierrei Gagnep. (synonym M. hainanense) and M. smilacifolium Bl. (synonym M. serrulatum) with one subspecies confertum (...

  20. 76 FR 14972 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    .... 20110481 G Thomas H. Lee Equity Fund VI, L.P.; John J. Campbell and Ann L. Campbell; Thomas H. Lee Equity Fund VI, L.P. 20110502 G L'Oreal S.A.; Q-Med AB; L'Oreal S.A. 20110506 G ASSA ABLOY AB; Cardo AB; ASSA... ET date Trans. No. ET req. status Party name 02/01/2011 20110449 G Baker Brothers Life Sciences,...

  1. Analyses of the mouthpart kinematics in Periplaneta americana (Blattodea, Blattidae) using synchrotron-based X-ray cineradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christian; Rack, Alexander; Betz, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    The kinematics of the biting and chewing mouthparts of insects is a complex interaction of various components forming multiple jointed chains. The non-invasive technique of in vivo cineradiography by means of synchrotron radiation was employed to elucidate the motion cycles of the mouthparts in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Digital X-ray footage sequences were used in order to calculate pre-defined angles and distances, each representing characteristic aspects of the movement pattern. We were able to analyze the interactions of the mouthpart components and to generate a functional model of maxillary movement by integrating kinematic results, morphological dissections and fluorescence microscopy. During the opening and closing cycles, which take about 450-500 ms on average, we found strong correlations between the measured maxillary and mandibular angles, indicating a strong neural coordination of these movements. This is manifested by strong antiphasic courses of the maxillae and the mandibles, antiphasic patterns of the rotation of the cardo about its basic articulation at the head and by the deflection between the cardo and stipes. In our functional model of the maxilla, its movement pattern is explained by the antagonistic activity of four adductor-promotor muscles and two abductor-remotor muscles. However, beyond the observed intersegmental and bilateral stereotypy, certain amounts of variation across subsequent cycles within a sequence were observed with respect to the degree of correlation between the various mouthparts, the maximum, minimum and time course of the angular movements. Although generally correlated with the movement pattern of the mandibles and the maxillary cardo-stipes complex, such plastic behaviour was especially observed in the maxillary palpi and the labium. PMID:24948639

  2. Down-regulation of ATM Protein Sensitizes Human Prostate Cancer Cells to Radiation-induced Apoptosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Truman, Jean-Philip; Gueven, Nuri; Lavin, Martin; Leibel, Steven; Kolesnick, Richard; Fuks, Zvi; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana

    2005-01-01

    Treatment with the protein kinase C activator 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol 12-acetate (TPA) enables radiation-resistant LNCaP human prostate cancer cells to undergo radiation-induced apoptosis, mediated via activation of the enzyme ceramide synthase (CS) and de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid ceramide (Garzotto, M., Haimovitz-Friedman, A., Liao, W. C., White-Jones, M., Huryk, R., Heston, D. W. W., Cardon-Cardo, C., Kolesnick, R., and Fuks, Z. (1999) Cancer Res. 59, 5194-5201). Here, we show t...

  3. “Usare strumenti": la cause constructionnelle de l’instrumentalité en italien

    OpenAIRE

    Sambre, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Contexte – La relation conceptuelle d’instrumentalité est peu étudiée en sémantique et ce même sous un angle fonctionnel (Proudfoot et Cardo 20052). Les formes de l’instrumental relèvent tout d’abord du groupe prépositionnel, comme l’entend une certaine tradition américaine, mais peuvent tout comme c’est le cas pour la construction causative (Nazarenko 2000) aussi bien être encodées dans les structures lexicales, valentielles et/ou syntaxiques de la phrase (Sambre et Wermuth 2009, 2010). Nous...

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a ferredoxin reductase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase from Novosphingobium sp. KA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ferredoxin reductase component of carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (Red) is involved in electron transfer from NAD(P)H to ferredoxin. The class IIA Red from Novosphingobium sp. KA1 was crystallized and the crystal diffracted to a resolution of 1.58 Å. Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) is the initial enzyme of the carbazole-degradation pathway. The CARDO of Novosphingobium sp. KA1 consists of a terminal oxygenase, a putidaredoxin-type ferredoxin and a ferredoxin-NADH oxidoreductase (Red) and is classified as a class IIA Rieske oxygenase. Red from KA1 was crystallized at 278 K by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000. The crystal diffracted to 1.58 Å resolution and belonged to space group P32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 92.2, c = 78.6 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 120°. Preliminary analysis of the X-ray diffraction data revealed that the asymmetric unit contained two Red monomers. The crystal appeared to be a merohedral twin, with a twin fraction of 0.32 and twin law (−h, −k, l)

  5. [Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

    2001-03-01

    Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis. PMID:11795159

  6. Novelties on taxonomy and nomenclature of Spanish vascular hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo, Manuel B.

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature of some Iberian hybrids is revised and several new combinations are proposed: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii and Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Besides, a new nothosubspecies: Sideritis x paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata, is described for the mountains of Valencia Province (E of Spain.

    Se revisa la nomenclatura de algunos híbridos vasculares ibéricos, proponiéndose algunas nuevas combinaciones: Centaurea X subdecurrens var. segobricensis, C. X subdecurrens notbosubsp. albuferae, Cistus X hybridus nothosubsp. grandiflorus var. secallianus. C. X ledon var. recognitus, C. X nigricans var. longifolius, C. X nigricans nothosubsp. grosii y Onopordum X humile var. turolensis. Además, se describe una nueva notosubespecie de las montañas de la provincia de Valencia: Sideritis X paui nothosubsp. enguerana (S. hirsuta X S. incana subsp. virgata.

  7. Spanish Summary (Nuevos meteoritos encountrados en lmilac)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Desde tiempos prehistoricos han sido coleccionadas piedras que caen dei cielo. Hasta hace poco eran la unica fuente para hacer estudios de laboratorio de la materia extragal, ktica, e incluso en nuestra era espacial, siguen siendo una valiosa fuente de investigacion de la temprana historia dei sistema solar. Se estima que como termine medio cada kilometro cuadrado de la superficie terrestre es golpeada cada millon de aiios por un meteorito con un pese superior a 500 gramos. La mayoria se pierden en los oceanos 0 caen en regiones con escasa poblacion. Como resultado, los museos en el munda reciben anualmente tan solo alrededor de 6 meteoritos cuya caida fuera atestiguada. Otros llegan por hallazgos casuales que en la mayoria de los casos son meteoritos que han cardo en tiempos prehistoricos.

  8. Occurrence and characterization of oils rich in gamma-linolenic acid Part I: Echium seeds from Macaronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil-Guerrero, J L; Gómez-Mercado, F; García-Maroto, F; Campra-Madrid, P

    2000-02-01

    Nineteen species of the genus Echium (Fam. Boraginaceae) collected in Macaronesia were surveyed in a search for new sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3omega6). High amounts of this acid were found in all of them, ranging from 9.15% (E. plantagineum) to 26.31% (E. callithyrsum) of total seed fatty acids. The amounts of GLA related to total seed weight were also significant, ranging from 1.77% (E. sventenii) to 5.02% (E. nervosum). In addition, considerable amounts of stearidonic acid (SA, 18:4omega3) were detected, ranging from 3.03% (E. auberianum) to 12.94% (E. plantagineum) of total fatty acids. These data allow us to consider tile members of the genus Echium from Macaronesia as one of the richest sources of gamma-linolenic acid found so far in nature. The results obtained from multivariable data analysis and the taxonomic relationships among the species is discussed. PMID:10731022

  9. Cytotaxonomy of some species and of interspecific hybrids of Pennisetum (Poaceae, Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytotaxonomic studies were carried out on 26 accessions of Pennisetum spp. originating from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite-Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.This study presents cytogenetics and reproductive morphological data for each one of these accessions, which allowed groupings and suggest botanical identifications to be established. The metaphases of the accessions characterized as P. purpureum confirmed the presence of 2n = 28 chromosomes that have already been described for this species. For the hybrids between P. purpureum and P. glaucum and for the hexaploids, resulting from the chromosome duplication of these hybrids, 2n = 21 and 2n = 42 chromosomes were confirmed, respectively. The wild accession identified as P. setosum showed metaphases with 2n = 54 chromosomes, while those characterized as P. nervosum had cells with 2n = 36 chromosomes. The wild accession 15 was different from the others for the morphological characters, with 2n = 36 chromosomes, and was classified as P. orientale. Two statistical procedures were used (canonical variables and cluster analysis on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance, and the results confirmed the conclusions obtained from the cytogenetic and morphologic analysis.

  10. Energetic evaluation of indigenous tree and shrub species in Basilicata, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todaro L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of energetic characteristics such as high calorific value (on ash-free dry weight basis, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and moisture content of 12 indigenous tree and shrub species of Southern Italy (Basilicata Region was carried out. The studied species are the most abundant in this area: Quercus cerris L., Quercus pubescens Willd., Fraxinus ornus L., Populus canescens (Aiton Smith, Salix alba L., Alnus cordata L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Olea europaea L., Spartium junceum L., Rubus hirtus W., Onopordum illirium L., Arundo donax L. For Q. cerris, Q. pubescens and O. europaea L., the energetic characteristics were measured by separating the wood components from the leaves. Q. cerris leaves contained the greatest high calorific value. F. ornus leaves had a greater ash content than the other samples while the lowest values were measured for S. junceum, Q. pubescens and R. pseudoacacia. The highest content of Carbon was in O. europaea leaves. A. donax and O. illirium had the lower level of high calorific value and Carbon than all the other species. The highest Nitrogen content was measured in Q. cerris leaves and the lowest one in F. ornus wood components.

  11. Antiterrorismo e censura científica: a quem interessa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Souza Barros

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available EM 1989, Michel Paty nos dedicou seu trabalho Parcours à travers la science, la philosophie, son histoire, d'Europe à la terre du Brésil 1965-1987 (Luiz Cláudio Cardos e Guy Martinière [coords.], France-Brésil, vingt ans de coopération - science et téchnologie, Institut des Hautes Études de L'Amerique Latine, Paris, Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 1989, pp. 63-67. Este trabalho, por sua vez, tem como base uma história bem-sucedida de colaborações, iniciada em 1965 na Universidade de Brasília. Éramos (quem?, naquela época, pós-doutorandos recém-chegados do exterior, tendo nossa convivência durado menos de um ano (Roberto Salmeron, A universidade interrompida. Brasília 1964-1965, Brasília, Editora UnB, 1998. Em 2003, no entanto, deparamo-nos (quem? com iniciativas que ferem os princípios que sempre nortearam a conduta de Michel Paty, sempre disposto a iniciar mais uma cooperação "Norte-Sul"; antes no campo da física e depois na da filosofia e história da ciência.IN 1989, Michel Paty dedicated to us his work Parcours à travers la science, la philosophie, son histoire, d'Europe à la terre du Brésil 1965-1987, Luiz Cláudio Cardos and Guy Martinière [orgs.], France-Brésil, Vingt Ans de Coopération - Science et Téchnologie, Institut des Hautes Études de L'Amerique Latine (Paris, Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 1989, pp. 63-67. The present essay, in turn, is based on a successful history of cooperation, which began in 1965, at the University of Brasília. At the time, we were pursuing our postdoctoral studies and had recently arrived from abroad, but our acquaintanceship lasted less than one year (Roberto Salmeron. A universidade interrompida: Brasília 1964-1965, Brasília,Editora UnB, 1998. In 2003, however, we faced initiatives that were at cross-purposes with the principles that had heretofore guided the conduct of Michel Paty, who was always willing to initiate a "North-South" cooperation - firstly in the

  12. Sulfonation of PEEK-WC polymer via chloro-sulfonic acid for potential PEM fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iulianelli, A.; Clarizia, G.; Gugliuzza, A.; Ebrasu, D.; Basile, A. [Institute on Membrane Technology, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 17/C, 87030 Rende (CS) (Italy); Bevilacqua, A. [Research Centre Italsistemi S.r.l., Via Avogadro, 88900 Crotone (KR) (Italy); Trotta, F. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Torino, C.So M. D' Azeglio 48, 10125 Torino (TO) (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The preparation and characterization of thin dense sulfonated poly-ether-ether-ketone with cardo group (PEEK-WC) membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications are described. The sulfonation of PEEK-WC polymer was realized via chloro-sulfonic acid and different kinds of membrane samples were prepared with a sulfonation degree ranging from 67 to 99%. The degree of sulfonation, homogeneity and thickness significantly affect both the membrane transport properties and the electrochemical performances. The dense character of the membranes was confirmed by SEM analysis. Proton conductivity measurements were carried out in a temperature range from 30 to 80 C and at 100% of relative humidity, reaching 5.40 x 10{sup -3} S/cm{sup -1} as best value at 80 C and with a sulfonation degree (DS) of 99%. At the same conditions, a water uptake of 17% was achieved. DSC and TGA characterizations were used in order to determine the thermal stability of the membranes, confirming a T{sub g} ranging between 206 and 216 C depending on the DS, whereas FT-IR yielded indication about intermolecular interactions and water uptake at various sulfonation degrees. (author)

  13. Piezonuclear reactions - do they exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Ericsson, G; Sjöstrand, H; Traneus, E

    2009-01-01

    In a number of recent articles in this journal F. Cardone and collaborators have claimed the observation of several striking nuclear phenomena which they attribute to "piezonuclear reactions". One such claim [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 1956] is that subjecting a solution of 228Th to cavitation leads to a "transformation" of thorium nuclei that is 104 times faster than the normal nuclear decay for this isotope. In a "Comment" [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 3795] to the thorium work, we have criticized the evidence provided for this claim. In a "Reply" [Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 3797] Cardone et al. answer only some minor points but avoid addressing the real issue. The information provided in their Reply displays a worrying lack of control of their experimental situation and the data they put forward as evidence for their claims. We point out several shortcomings and errors in the described experimental preparations, set-up and reporting, as well as in the data analysis. We conclude that the evidence presented by Cardo...

  14. Plasma graft-polymerization for synthesis of highly stable hydroxide exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chengxu; Jiang, Lin; Fang, Shidong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiangke; Meng, Yuedong

    2014-02-01

    A novel plasma graft-polymerization approach is adopted to prepare hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) using cardo polyetherketone powders (PEK-C) and vinylbenzyl chloride. The benzylic chloromethyl groups can be successfully introduced into the PEK-C polymer matrix via plasma graft-polymerization. This approach enables a well preservation in the structure of functional groups and formation of a highly cross-linked structure in the membrane, leading to an improvement on the stability and performance of HEMs. The chemical stabilities, including alkaline and oxidative stability, are evaluated under severe conditions by measuring hydroxide conductivity and weight changes during aging. The obtained PGP-NOH membrane retains 86% of the initial hydroxide conductivity in 6 mol L-1 KOH solution at 60 °C for 120 h, and 94% of the initial weight in 3 wt% H2O2 solution at 60 °C for 262 h. The PGP-NOH membrane also possesses excellent thermal stability (safely used below 120 °C), alcohol resistance (ethanol permeability of 6.6 × 10-11 m2 s-1 and diffusion coefficient of 3.7 × 10-13 m2 s-1), and an acceptable hydroxide conductivity (8.3 mS cm-1 at 20 °C in deionized water), suggesting a good candidate of PGP-NOH membrane for HEMFC applications.

  15. At the Mercy of Gaia: Deep Ecologial Unrest and America's fall as Nature's Nation in Kingdom of the Spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Lillemose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks as the animal horror genre as a way to discuss current notions of ecology in relation to a specific American idea of being "Nature's Nation". The central work for the discussion is the movie Kingdom of the Spiders (1977 by John Cardos, which depicts how a small Arizona town is taken over by a "swarm" of tarantulas. Without any obvious explanation the spiders slowly but steadily invade the town and start killing both other animals and humans until they have completely covered the town in their web. The paper connects the movie to a long tradition of fiction describing how nature turns on humans and reverses the power relation be-tween man and nature that is fundamental to modernity. Moreover, the paper connects the movie to Maurice Maeterlincks ideas of swarm communities as mani-fested by ants and termites to argue that these communities are ecologically superior to the the communities of man-made civilisation. Finally, the paper discusses Kingdom of the Spiders and animal horror in general in relation to recent ideas of non-human ecologies and critiques of anthropocentrism and makes the point that these works of fiction serve as both dramatic and philosophical visions of a world without humans.

  16. Cytogenetic Studies in Four Species of Flax (Linum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Afsanah; Mahmodzadeh, Ahmad; Hasanzadeh Gorttapeh, Abdollah; Torkamani, Mohammad Reza

    This research a karyological investigation which was carried out in three species of Flax, which is a multipurpose and valuable plant. Plants and achenes specimens were collected and identified from different ecological regions in West-Azerbaijan and Markazi Provinces, Iran. Root tip meristems obtained from germinated of achenes were pretreated with saturated solution of α-Brumonaphtalene and fixed in Levitsky solution and stained in Aceto-Iron-Hematoxylin. Stained slides were photographed by camera equipped microscopes and five appropriate metaphase plates were used for analyzing karyotype parameters. A number of statistical parameters were also estimated for all the species to investigate karyotype asymmetry. According to the results of this study L. austeriacum species is diploid that its karyotype consists of 18 chromosomes (2n = 2x = 18) whose size are between 2.246-3.44 micron and chromosome No. 1 includes satellite. All of the chromosomes were metacenteric type. L. nervosum species, as this study explains, is diploid and its karyotype includes of 18 chromosomes (2n = 2x = 18). With size of 2.95-4.291 micron.Also according to the results of this research, L. usitatissimum species is diploied, with 30 chromosomes (2n = 2x = 30), that their size are between 1.292-2.968 micron. Type of all the chromosomes are metacentric except chromosome No. 4 that is submetacentric and its arms ratio is 1.8. The karyotype Linum spp. species consists 30 + 1 chromosome and is Anioploied. That the sizes of the chromosomes are between 1.224- 1.992 micron. Mostly chromosomes of this species are metacentric type except chromosomes No. 1 and 2. that are submetacentric. Based on investigating asymmetry, L. austeriacum is being estimated to be the most developed one among them. It needs more researches to be proved.

  17. ¿Quién parte y reparte? Análisis de la disposición urbana en la Cartago fenicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumadó Ortega, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to highlight the signifi cant architectural regularity which characterizes the pre-Roman archeological remains registered in Carthage. Despite having been repeatedly interpreted from a preconceived logical and spatial point of view, these remains allow us to set out that the Tyrian foundation was established in the Carthaginian peninsula according to a model that is referred to as per strigas in archaeological literature because it was documented better at the Archaic Greek colonies in Sicily. To defend this idea, I will indicate which architectonic remains make up its material basic, paying special attention to the remains found underneath the crossroads of the decumanus maximus and the cardo x-east, and I will try to summarize the state of the current issue on the urban shape of Phoenician Carthage. I will then go over several documentated examples of orthogonal land division in urban spaces from the Ancient Near East. This information will provide insight on the possible technical and practical context of Phoenician societies in the 9th and 8th centuries BC and, more specifically, the socio-political context of the Carthaginian founders. Finally, in light of these elements, I will put forward a proposal of a reconstruction of the urban layout of Phoenician Carthage as a whole.En este artículo quiero llamar la atención sobre la significativa regularidad arquitectónica que caracteriza los restos arqueológicos prerromanos registrados en Cartago. Pese a haber sido repetidas veces interpretados desde un prejuicio lógico-espacial, estos datos permiten proponer que la fundación tiria se implantó en la península cartaginesa según un modelo que, estando mejor documentado en las colonias arcaicas griegas de Sicilia, ha sido denominado per strigas por la historiografía arqueológica. Para defender esta tesis señalaré qué restos arquitectónicos le sirven de base material, con especial atención a los hallados bajo

  18. Cluster-randomized, controlled 12-month trial to evaluate the effect of a parental psychoeducation program on medication persistence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alonso Montoya,1 Amaia Hervás,2 Joaquín Fuentes,3 Esther Cardo,4 Pepa Polavieja,5 Javier Quintero,6 Rosemary Tannock7 1Medical Neurosciences, Lilly Research Laboratories Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit, Hospital Universitari Mutua de Terrassa, and Developmental Disorders Unit, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, 3Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Policlinica Gipuzkoa, San Sebastian, 4Neuropediatric Unit, Hospital Son Llatzer, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca, 5Department of Clinical Research, Lilly Research Laboratories Spain, Alcobendas, 6Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario Infanta Leonor, Madrid, Spain; 7Applied Psychology and Human Development, and Neurosciences and Mental Health Research Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: This multicenter, cluster-randomized, nonblinded study evaluated the effect of parental psychoeducation on medication persistence among children and adolescents with newly diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Methods: Patients received standard medication alone or medication plus a parental psychoeducation program, and were followed for 12 months. The primary endpoint was time to withdrawal or termination of medication due to any cause. Secondary endpoints included change in ADHD symptom severity, functional outcome, program satisfaction, and safety. Results: A total of 208 patients completed the study, which was terminated early because recruitment had ceased. At 12 months, there was no significant difference between the psychoeducation and control groups in the proportion of patients who discontinued pharmacologic treatment (13.2% versus 14.3%, respectively; size effect -0.3, P=0.34; hazard ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.36–1.43. Psychoeducation was associated with a significantly greater improvement in ADHD symptoms but not in functional outcome

  19. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n