Sample records for cardiva boomerang catalyst

  1. Genetics Home Reference: boomerang dysplasia (United States)

    ... is later converted to bone (a process called ossification), except for the cartilage that continues to cover ... and maturation (differentiation) of chondrocytes and for the ossification of cartilage. FLNB gene mutations that cause boomerang ...

  2. Boomerang mobile counter shooter detection system (United States)

    Mazurek, Jeffrey A.; Barger, James E.; Brinn, Marshall; Mullen, Richard J.; Price, David; Ritter, Scott E.; Schmitt, Dave


    Boomerang is an acoustic system installed on military vehicles that is designed to detect relative shooter azimuth/range/elevation from incoming small arms fire. It performs passive acoustic detection and computer-based signal processing. Aural and visual alerts are used to 1) inform vehicle occupants that a bullet has passed within close proximity to the vehicle and 2) indicate the position of the shooter relative to the vehicle"s direction of travel. Boomerang operates when the vehicle is stationary or moving (no motion compensation) using a single, compact, mast-mounted array of microphones. The system is calibrated to detect infantry small arms. This calibration, however, does not preclude the system from detecting larger and smaller supersonic rounds. In this paper, we discuss the design, development, testing and production of 50 Boomerang I systems over a 65-day period in late 2003/early 2004. These systems were deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom II with Marine and Army units. Feedback from operational units identified specific deficiencies and desired improvements that were incorporated into a system re-design effort, Boomerang II. The Boomerang II system has been extensively tested for performance and environmental fitness regarding RF compatibility with tactical radios (SINCGARS), heat, cold, shock and vibration. The US Army Aberdeen Proving Grounds conducted successful RF compatibility tests, road tests and 'live fire' testing. Summary results of open field 'live fire' static tests are presented as well as performance results on a remote-controlled HMMWV operating at 45 MPH.

  3. Straight boomerang of balsa wood and its physics (United States)

    Vos, Henk


    Construction of a light straight boomerang of balsa wood and the method of throwing it are described. The physical explanation of its return flight is given. The theory is entirely different from the usual one for boomerang flight. A reproducible transition from an unstable rotation to a stable, longitudinal spin plays an essential role.

  4. The boomerang age: transitions to adulthood in families

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Barbara Ann


    ... that meets the American National Standard for Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. Library of Congress Catalog Number: 2005053552 ISBN: 978-0-202-30978-1 Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mitchell, Barbara Ann, 19 61 - The boomerang age : transitions to adulthood i...

  5. Alar base reduction: the boomerang-shaped excision. (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T


    A boomerang-shaped alar base excision is described to narrow the nasal base and correct the excessive alar flare. The boomerang excision combined the external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. The internal excision was inclined 30 to 45 degrees laterally to form the inner limb of the boomerang. The study included 46 patients presenting with wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. All cases were followed for a mean period of 18 months (range, 8 to 36 months). The laterally oriented vestibular floor excision allowed for maximum preservation of the natural curvature of the alar rim where it meets the nostril floor and upon its closure resulted in a considerable medialization of alar lobule, which significantly reduced the amount of alar flare and the amount of external alar excision needed. This external alar excision measured, on average, 3.8 mm (range, 2 to 8 mm), which is significantly less than that needed when a standard vertical internal excision was used ( P < 0.0001). Such conservative external excisions eliminated the risk of obliterating the natural alar-facial crease, which did not occur in any of our cases. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or vestibular stenosis were encountered. Keloid or hypertrophic scar formation was not encountered; however, dermabrasion of the scars was needed in three (6.5%) cases to eliminate apparent suture track marks. The boomerang alar base excision proved to be a safe and effective technique for narrowing the nasal base and elimination of the excessive flaring and resulted in a natural, well-proportioned nasal base with no obvious scarring. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. Employees on the rebound: Extending the careers literature to include boomerang employment. (United States)

    Swider, Brian W; Liu, Joseph T; Harris, T Brad; Gardner, Richard G


    As employee careers have evolved from linear trajectories confined within 1 organization to more dynamic and boundaryless paths, organizations and individuals alike have increasingly considered reestablishing prior employment relationships. These "boomerang employees" follow career paths that feature 2 or more temporally separated tenures in particular organizations ("boomerang organizations"). Yet, research to date is mute on how or to what extent differences across boomerang employees' career experiences, and the learning and knowledge developed at and away from boomerang organizations, meaningfully impact their performance following their return. Addressing this omission, we extend a careers-based learning perspective to construct a theoretical framework of a parsimonious, yet generalizable, set of factors that influence boomerang employee return performance. Results based on a sample of boomerang employees and employers in the same industry (professional basketball) indicate that intra- and extraorganizational knowledge construction and disruptions, as well as transition events, are significantly predictive of boomerangs' return performance. Comparisons with 2 matched samples of nonboomerang employees likewise suggest distinctive patterns in the performance of boomerang employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Spinning Flight Dynamics of Frisbees, Boomerangs, Samaras, and Skipping Stones

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenz, Ralph D


    More frisbees are sold each year than baseballs, basketballs, and footballs combined. Yet these familiar flying objects have subtle and clever aerodynamic and gyrodynamic properties which are only recently being documented by wind tunnel and other studies. In common with other rotating bodies discussed in this readily accessible book, they are typically not treated in textbooks of aeronautics and the literature is scattered in a variety of places. This book develops the theme of disc-wings and spinning aerospace vehicles in parallel. Many readers will have enjoyed these vehicles and their dynamics in recreational settings, so this book will be of wide interest. In addition to spinning objects of various shapes, several exotic manned aircraft with disc platforms have been proposed and prototypes built - these include a Nazi ‘secret weapon’ and the De Havilland Avrocar, also discussed in the book. Boomerangs represent another category of spinning aerodynamic body whose behavior can only be understood by cou...

  8. PMO-immobilized Au(I)-NHC complexes: Heterogeneous catalysts for sustainable processes

    KAUST Repository

    van der Voort, Pascal


    A stable Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica (PMO) with accessible sulfonic acid functionalities is prepared via a one-pot-synthesis and is used as solid support for highly active catalysts, consisting of gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes. The gold complexes are successfully immobilized on the nanoporous hybrid material via a straightforward acid-base reaction with the corresponding [Au(OH)(NHC)] synthon. This catalyst design strategy results in a boomerang-type catalyst, allowing the active species to detach from the surface to perform the catalysis and then to recombine with the solid after all the starting material is consumed. This boomerang behavior is assessed in the hydration of alkynes. The tested catalysts were found to be active in the latter reaction, and after an acidic work-up, the IPr*-based gold catalyst can be recovered and then reused several times without any loss in efficiency

  9. Boomerang sign: Clinical significance of transient lesion in splenium of corpus callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Singh Malhotra


    Full Text Available Transient signal abnormality in the splenium of corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is occasionally encountered in clinical practice. It has been reported in various clinical conditions apart from patients with epilepsy. We describe 4 patients with different etiologies presenting with signal changes in the splenium of corpus callosum. They were diagnosed as having progressive myoclonic epilepsy (case 1, localization-related epilepsy (case 2, hemicrania continua (case 3, and postinfectious parkinsonism (case 4. While three patients had complete involvement of the splenium on diffusion-weighted image ("boomerang sign", the patient having hemicrania continua showed semilunar involvement ("mini-boomerang" on T2-weighted and FLAIR image. All the cases had noncontiguous involvement of the splenium. We herein, discuss these cases with transient splenial involvement and stress that such patients do not need aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. An attempt has been made to review the literature regarding the pathophysiology, etiology, and outcome of such lesions.

  10. β-Boomerang Antimicrobial and Antiendotoxic Peptides: Lipidation and Disulfide Bond Effects on Activity and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Mohanram


    Full Text Available Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and endotoxin- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS-mediated inflammations are among some of the most  prominent health issues globally. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are eminent molecules that can kill drug-resistant strains and neutralize LPS toxicity. LPS, the outer layer of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria safeguards cell integrity against hydrophobic compounds, including antibiotics and AMPs. Apart from maintaining structural integrity, LPS, when released into the blood stream, also induces inflammatory pathways leading to septic shock. In previous works, we have reported the de novo design of a set of 12-amino acid long cationic/hydrophobic peptides for LPS binding and activity. These peptides adopt β-boomerang like conformations in complex with LPS. Structure-activity studies demonstrated some critical features of the β-boomerang scaffold that may be utilized for the further development of potent analogs. In this work, β-boomerang lipopeptides were designed and structure-activity correlation studies were carried out. These lipopeptides were homo-dimerized through a disulfide bridge to stabilize conformations and for improved activity. The designed peptides exhibited potent antibacterial activity and efficiently neutralized LPS toxicity under in vitro assays. NMR structure of C4YI13C in aqueous solution demonstrated the conserved folding of the lipopeptide with a boomerang aromatic lock stabilized with disulfide bond at the C-terminus and acylation at the N-terminus. These lipo-peptides displaying bacterial sterilization and low hemolytic activity may be useful for future applications as antimicrobial and antiendotoxin molecules.

  11. Riesgo de aparición del efecto boomerang en las comunicaciones contra la violencia The Risk of Emergence of Boomerang Effect in Communication against Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ruiz San Román


    Full Text Available Los comportamientos violentos causan inquietud entre los responsables públicos (políticos, educadores, asistentes sociales, asociaciones de madres y padres, etc. que, desde diversos ámbitos, toman medidas que tratan de dar solución al problema de la violencia. La difusión de campañas institucionales de comunicación en contra de la violencia y el fomento de la publicación de noticias relacionadas con sucesos violentos suelen ser algunas de las acciones utilizadas. No obstante, parte de los datos y de la literatura disponible han demostrado que su eficacia no siempre es la esperada e, incluso, dichas acciones pueden llegar a tener efectos contrarios al deseado y reforzar las actitudes de los que piensan que la violencia es necesaria. Se sostiene la hipótesis de que la mayoría de la población asumiría como propios los mensajes contrarios a la violencia. Sin embargo –y esto es la cuestión clave y más problemática– son justo aquellos individuos con mayor propensión a la violencia (precisamente aquellos a quienes deberían dirigirse tales comunicaciones quienes podrían reaccionar ante el mensaje antiviolencia de un modo no deseado. Se da una dramática paradoja: el mensaje antiviolencia podría aumentar la predisposición a desarrollar comportamientos violentos. Estaríamos ante un caso de lo que cierta literatura denomina efecto boomerang. Por último, se señala la necesidad de un estudio detallado sobre determinados efectos de los medios de comunicación (insensibilización, imitación, accesibilidad y reactancia, que podrían ayudar a explicar la aparición de dicho efecto boomerang.Violent behaviors cause concern among people, policy makers, politicians, educators, social workers, parents associations, etc. From different fields and perspectives, measures are taken to try to solve the problem of violence. Institutional communication campaigns against violence and the publication of news related to violent events are often

  12. The Boomerangs Parenting Program for Aboriginal parents and their young children. (United States)

    Lee, Lily; Griffiths, Chryne; Glossop, Patricia; Eapen, Valsamma


    Using three case studies, this paper describes the development and evaluation of 'The Boomerangs Aboriginal Circle of Security Parenting Camp Program', which is a clinical intervention based on an attachment framework using the Circle of Security and Marte Meo, and drawing on traditional Aboriginal culture. Three mothers from an Aboriginal Australian background with preschool age children attended the 20-session Boomerangs Program, including an initial camp and a second camp after 6 weeks. The camp provided the opportunity for parent empowerment and to explore the strengths and resources of the mother to facilitate better mother-child interactions and relationship, in a naturalistic setting. All three mothers gave positive feedback on the program in increasing the awareness, sensitivity and responsiveness of their interactions with their children, and this was reflected in the results of the questionnaires and observation of the mother-child interactions during play. This program offers the first ever evaluation of an intense parenting program using camps for Aboriginal Australians. This study is to be considered as an exploratory exercise - a first step in a process of exploring applicability and adapting parenting camps for Aboriginal families.

  13. BOOMERanG: a scanning telescope for 10 arcminutes resolution CMB maps (United States)

    Masi, S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Artusa, R.; Bock, J. J.; Boscaleri, A.; Crill, B. P.; de Bernardis, P.; de Troia, G.; Farese, P. C.; Giacometti, M.; Hristov, V. V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Martinis, L.; Mason, P. V.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Melchiorri, F.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield, C. B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Richards, P. L.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J. E.; Scaramuzzi, F.


    The BOOMERanG experiment is a stratospheric balloon telescope intended to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy at angular scales between a few degrees and ten arcminutes. The experiment features a wide focal plane with 16 detectors in the frequency bands centered at 90, 150, 220, 400 GHz, with FWHM ranging between 18 and 10 arcmin. It will be flown on a long duration (7-14 days) flight circumnavigating Antarctica at the end of 1998. The instrument was flown with a reduced focal plane (6 detectors, 90 and 150 GHz bands, 25 to 15 arcmin FWHM) on a qualification flight from Texas, in August 1997. A wide (~300 deg2, i.e. about 5000 independent beams at 150 GHz) sky area was mapped in the constellations of Capricornus, Aquarius, Cetus, with very low foreground contamination. The instrument was calibrated using the CMB dipole and observations of Jupiter. The LDB version of the instrument has been qualified and shipped to Antarctica.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Vlemmings, W. H. T. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Huggins, P. J. [Physics Department, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Nyman, L.-Å. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Gonidakis, I., E-mail: [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield NSW 2122 (Australia)


    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, and an extreme member of the class of pre-planetary nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch and planetary nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J = 1-0) observations (with a 45'' beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang Nebula with ALMA in the CO J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter and visible wavelengths. The large diffuse biconical shape of the nebula seen in the visible wavelength range is likely due to preferential illumination of the cold, high-velocity outflow. We find a compact source of millimeter-wave continuum in the nebular waist—these data, together with sensitive upper limits on the radio continuum using observations with ATCA, indicate the presence of a substantial mass of very large (millimeter-sized) grains in the waist of the nebula. Another unanticipated result is the detection of CO emission regions beyond the ultra-cold region which indicate the re-warming of the cold gas, most likely due to photoelectric grain heating.

  15. Boomerang Satellites (United States)

    Hesselbrock, Andrew; Minton, David A.


    We recently reported that the orbital architecture of the Martian environment allows for material in orbit around the planet to ``cycle'' between orbiting the planet as a ring, or as coherent satellites. Here we generalize our previous analysis to examine several factors that determine whether satellites accreting at the edge of planetary rings will cycle. In order for the orbiting material to cycle, tidal evolution must decrease the semi-major axis of any accreting satellites. In some systems, the density of the ring/satellite material, the surface mass density of the ring, the tidal parameters of the system, and the rotation rate of the primary body contribute to a competition between resonant ring torques and tidal dissipation that prevent this from occurring, either permanently or temporarily. Analyzing these criteria, we examine various bodies in our solar system (such as Saturn, Uranus, and Eris) to identify systems where cycling may occur. We find that a ring-satellite cycle may give rise to the current Uranian ring-satellite system, and suggest that Miranda may have formed from an early, more massive Uranian ring.

  16. Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions (United States)

    Hao, Y. X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, Y.; Fu, S. Y.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.


    We present an analysis of "boomerang-shaped" pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on 7 June 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90° pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180° and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of the arrival time of particles of different pitch angles at the spacecraft location, a scenario is investigated in which shock-induced ULF waves interact with electrons through the drift resonance mechanism in a localized region westward of the spacecraft. Numerical calculations on particle energy gain with the modified ULF wavefield reproduce the observed boomerang stripes and modulations in the electron energy spectrogram. The study of boomerang stripes and their relationship to drift resonance taking place at a location different from the observation point adds new understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.

  17. A dangerous boomerang: Injunctive norms, hostile sexist attitudes, and male-to-female sexual aggression. (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T


    This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mini-invasive boomerang-plasty for esthetic restoration of lower third face aging. (United States)

    Castro-Govea, Yanko; Cervantes-Kardasch, Victor H; Phillips, Erick; Salazar-Lozano, Abel; Vázquez-Costilla, Osvaldo


    There is an increased demand to improve facial appearance and preserve a youthful appearance for as long as possible. Minimally invasive facial procedures have boomed among young patients with less evidence of scars, low risk, and rapid recovery being some of the attractions. Some patients are even only interested in the treatment of specific units of the face. We present an alternative technique to treat jowls through truly limited incisions. The surgical protocol included a complete medical history, analysis of the degree of prominence of jowls, and development of a surgical plan. We obtained pre- and postoperative medium and long-term photographs and evaluated the results. The procedure is complemented with neck liposuction and platysmoplasty. In general, edema and ecchymosis disappeared within 2 weeks. The recovery period was 2 to 3 weeks. The pre- and retroauricular scars over time were nearly imperceptible. Permanence of the results has been demonstrated in a follow-up period of 4 years. Our philosophical concept lies in the preventive benefit because it is mostly performed in relatively young patients. Boomerang-plasty anatomically restores the mandibular contour from the angle to the chin by eliminating jowls and establishes an esthetically harmonious visual difference between the face and neck. It is a simple procedure with highly satisfactory and stable effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidation catalyst (United States)

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.


    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  20. The Coldest Object in the Universe: Probing the Mass Distribution of the Ultra-Cold Outflow and Dusty Disk in the Boomerang Nebula (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Nyman, L. A.


    Our Cycle 0 ALMA observations confirmed that the Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, with a massive high-speed outflow that has cooled significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background (CMB). The Boomerang's prodigious mass-loss rate (0.001 solar mass M yr (exp -1) and low-luminosity (300L ) make it a key object for understanding the remarkable transition of the circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars into bipolar planetary nebulae. We have obtained new ACA CO 1-0 data that recover much of the flux lost in the Cycle O data, and reveal heretofore unseen distant regions of the ultra-cold outflow reheated to temperatures above the CMB. Our CO J=3-2 data reveal the precise, highly collimated shape of an inner bipolar structure and its dense central waist, with unprecedented angular resolution (0.4 in). The waist shows a core-halo structure in the thermal dust emission at 0.88 millimeter, and its derived flux at this wavelength, compared with the 3.3, 2.6, and 1.3 millimeter fluxes support the presence of about 5 x 10 (exp -4) solar mass of very large (approximately millimeter-sized), cold (approximately 30K) grains. We also find the unexpected presence of weak SO emission, possibly resulting from the release of S from grains due to high-speed shocks.

  1. Catalyst mixtures (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Rosen, Brian A.


    Catalysts that include at least one catalytically active element and one helper catalyst can be used to increase the rate or lower the overpotential of chemical reactions. The helper catalyst can simultaneously act as a director molecule, suppressing undesired reactions and thus increasing selectivity toward the desired reaction. These catalysts can be useful for a variety of chemical reactions including, in particular, the electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2 or formic acid. The catalysts can also suppress H.sub.2 evolution, permitting electrochemical cell operation at potentials below RHE. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts are also disclosed, including processes to produce CO, OH.sup.-, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, O.sub.2, H.sub.2, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  2. Highly dispersed metal catalyst (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; West, William L.; Rhodes, William D.


    A supported catalyst having an atomic level single atom structure is provided such that substantially all the catalyst is available for catalytic function. A process of forming a single atom catalyst unto a porous catalyst support is also provided.

  3. Bimetal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K. Y. Simon; Salley, Steve O.; Wang, Huali


    A catalyst comprises a carbide or nitride of a metal and a promoter element. The metal is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, Co, Fe, Rh or Mn, and the promoter element is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Al, Si, S or P, provided that the metal and the promoter element are different. The catalyst also comprises a mesoporous support having a surface area of at least about 170 m.sup.2 g.sup.-1, wherein the carbide or nitride of the metal and the promoter element is supported by the mesoporous support, and is in a non-sulfided form and in an amorphous form.

  4. Catalyst Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans; Marling, Gitte; Hansen, Peter Mandal


    How can architecture promote the enriching experiences of the tolerant, the democratic, and the learning city - a city worth living in, worth supporting and worth investing in? Catalyst Architecture comprises architectural projects, which, by virtue of their location, context and their combination...... of programs, have a role in mediating positive social and/or cultural development. In this sense, we talk about architecture as a catalyst for: sustainable adaptation of the city’s infrastructure appropriate renovation of dilapidated urban districts strengthening of social cohesiveness in the city development...

  5. New 'Foucaultdian Boomerangs'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary drone technology (here defined as unmanned and remote controlled flying devices capable of transmitting long-distance surveillance information as well as carrying weapons) raises international debate about ethical issues related to ’kills at a distance’ policies carried out by US......, drones might become tools in the urban planners ‘toolbox’ in the future (already urban planners are utilizing these technologies to measure and survey large urban agglomerations). The point of departure being that these technologies might be ‘tested’ in warzones but only to be ‘imported back’ to urban...... and what will such mobile surveillance mean to urban life? Will mobile drone surveillance be confined to state agencies or will private businesses and citizen also become able to apply these technologies? These are some of the issues related to empirical dimension of the paper. The second dimension...

  6. New 'Foucaultdian Boomerangs'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.


    This paper uses the metaphor of ‘boomerangs’ articulated by Michel Foucault to discuss the potential for drones to become the ‘next layer’ of urban surveillance in our cities. Like earlier Western technologies and techniques of government that were ‘tested out’ in foreign warzones and then ‘brought...... to Western cities. The paper explores how a nexus of Surveillance Studies and mobilities research may be a fruitful way into comprehending this new phenomenon. En route the practical applications of drones as well as the historical importance of aerial power are connected to a situational understanding...

  7. Exploring the Boomerang Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Leone, M. Isabella; Moreira, Solon

    Licensing is one of the most commonly observed inter-firm contractual agreements.Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm and contract economics, we argue that the inclusion of a grant-back clause in licensing agreements emerges as a consequence of the licensor and licensee firms’ requireme......Licensing is one of the most commonly observed inter-firm contractual agreements.Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm and contract economics, we argue that the inclusion of a grant-back clause in licensing agreements emerges as a consequence of the licensor and licensee firms......’ requirements to balance the need to protect their technological resources with the need to learn through internal and external processes. We argue that licensing agreements are increasingly likely to contain a grant-back clause (i) the closer the licensed technology is to the core of the licensor’s patent...

  8. Evading the Boomerang Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke


    Technology licensing agreements potentially can create future appropriability problems. Drawing on the appropriability literature, we argue that the inclusion of a grant-back clause in technology licensing agreements is an attempt to balance the gains from and protection of the focal firms’ techn...

  9. Coal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroenig, W.


    Some considerations in the selection of a catalyst for the liquid phase of coal hydrogenation are discussed. Some of the previous history of such selections is mentioned. At one stage of the development, the principal catalyst had been iron sulfate (FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O). Later, for reasons of cost and availability of large supplies, selections had turned to mixtures of iron sulfate and one or another of some iron oxide- and aluminum oxide-containing byproducts of aluminum manufacture, namely Bayermasse, Luxamsse, or Lautamasse. Much of the discussion centered on optimal proportions for such mixtures, particularly as related to pH values of resulting coal pastes. Upper Silesian coal was more alkaline than Ruhr coal, and Bayermasse, etc., were quite alkaline. Thus, since the iron sulfate served as a partial neutralizer for the coal as well as a catalyst, it seemed necessary to increase the proportions of iron sulfate in the catalyst mixture when processing coal of greater alkalinity. A further reason for a greater proportion of iron sulfate seemed to be that most of the catalytic activity of the iron came from the ferrous iron of iron sulfate rather than from the ferric iron of the other materials. Ferrous-ferric ratios also seemed to indicate that Luxmasse or Lautamasse might be better catalyst components than Bayermasse but their water content sometimes caused handling problems, so Bayermasse had been more widely used. Formation of deposits in the preheater was more likely due to the Bayermasse than to the iron sulfate; sodium sulfide could help to prevent them.

  10. Foundation Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Goralski, Greg


    This book offers an introduction to Flash Catalyst for designers with intermediate to advanced skills. It discusses where Catalyst sits within the production process and how it communicates with other programs. It covers all of the features of the Flash Catalyst workspace, teaching you how to create designs from scratch, how to build application designs and add functionality, and how to master the Catalyst/Flex workflow. * Introduces Flash Catalyst * Focuses on production process * Covers the interrelation between Flash Catalyst and Photoshop/Illustrator/Flex/Flash What you'll learn Starting f

  11. Design of heterogeneous catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anne Mette

    was inspired by a computational screening, suggesting that alloys such as Ni-Fe, Co-Ni, and Co-Fe should show superior activity to the industrially used nickel catalyst. Especially the Ni-Fe system was considered to be interesting, since such alloy catalysts should be both more active and cheaper than the Ni....... Previously it has been shown that calcination of cobalt catalyst in a NO/He mixture resulted in improved catalytic activity compared to standard air calcined samples, since more homogenous cobalt particles with a narrow particle size distribution were formed. Unfortunately the C5+ selectivity decreased...... well, and the best catalyst prepared had a C5+ yield almost a factor of two higher than a standard air calcined Co catalyst. In the NH3-SCR reaction it is desirable to develop an active and stable catalyst for NOx removal in automotive applications, since the traditionally used vanadium-based catalyst...

  12. Catalyst Alloys Processing (United States)

    Tan, Xincai


    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  13. Alloy catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel alloy catalyst material for use in the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water. The present invention also relates to a cathode and an electrochemical cell comprising the novel catalyst material, and the process use...... of the novel catalyst material for synthesising hydrogen peroxide from oxygen and hydrogen, or from oxygen and water....

  14. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Biddy, Mary J.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew


    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  15. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization (United States)

    Beckham, Gregg T; Biddy, Mary J.; Kruger, Jacob S.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew


    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  16. Reducible oxide based catalysts (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.


    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  17. Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts (United States)

    White, James H. (Inventor); Taylor, Jesse W. (Inventor)


    Catalyst compositions and methods for F-T synthesis which exhibit high CO conversion with minor levels (preferably less than 35% and more preferably less than 5%) or no measurable carbon dioxide generation. F-T active catalysts are prepared by reduction of certain oxygen deficient mixed metal oxides.

  18. Catalyst for Ammonia Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation, a method for producing a bimetallic catalyst for ammonia oxidation and a method for tuning the catalytic activity of a transition metal. By depositing an overlayer of less catalytic active metal onto a more catalytic...

  19. Nanostructured catalyst supports (United States)

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.


    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  20. Catalyst Deactivation 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivey, J.J. (ed.); Roberts, G.W. (ed.) [Department of Chemical Engineering, 2401 Stinson Avenue, Riddick Engineering Labs, NC State University, Box 7905, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Davis, B.H. (ed.) [University of Kentucky, Centre for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511-8433 (United States)


    Selected Papers: Maxted Award Lecture. Whisker carbon revisited (J.R. Rostrup-Nielsen, J Sehested). Carbon Deposition. Various forms of the carbonaceous deposit on the model cobalt catalyst studied in hydrogenation of ethylene (J. Lojewska). Hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloropropane over Pt-Cu/C catalysts: coke formation determined by a novel technique-TEOM (Weidung. Zhu et al.). Characterization of structure and combustion behavior of the coke formed on a hydroisomerization catalyst (Jin-an Wang et al.). The effects of pore structure on catalyst deactivation by coke formation (L.D.T. Camara et al.). Coke deactivation of acid sites on ZSM-5 zeolite (G.V. Echevsky et al.). Characterization of the Working Catalyst. Deactivation of a zirconia supported chromia aromatization catalyst investigated by in-situ H-D tracer experiments (H. Ehwald et al.). Deactivation/Regeneration in Environmental Processes. Study of the sintering of a DeNOx commercial catalyst (I. Nova et al.). Deactivation of chromium oxide catalyst for the removal of perchloroethylene (PCE) (Sung Dae Yim et al.). Deactivation/Regeneration in Industrial Processes. Deactivation of Pd-based combustion catalysts supported on modified alumina (P.O. Thevenin et al.). Selective acid-base poisoning on bifunctional alkylation reaction (A. Borgna et al.). Processes occurring during deactivation/regeneration of a vanadia/alumina catalyst under propane dehydrogenation conditions (S David Jackson et al.). Regeneration of supported palladium catalyst for selective hydrogenation of acetylene (L.O. Almanza, O.I. Martinez). Quinone mediated stabilization of a palladium catalyst for the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from carbon monoxide, water and oxygen (D. Bianchi et al.). Metals on a novel USY zeolite after hydrothermal aging (Huiping Tian et al.). General Papers. Partial oxidation of toluene to benzaldehyde over vanadium antimonate catalysts doped with titanium: The influence (S. Larrondo et al.). Deactivation and

  1. Catalysts, methods of making catalysts, and methods of use

    KAUST Repository

    Renard, Laetitia


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for catalysts, methods of making catalysts, methods of using catalysts, and the like. In an embodiment, the method of making the catalysts can be performed in a single step with a metal nanoparticle precursor and a metal oxide precursor, where a separate stabilizing agent is not needed.

  2. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty


    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: || or local:


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns the selective removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from gasses. In particular, the invention concerns a process, a catalyst and the use of a catalyst for the selective removal of nitrogen oxides in the presence of ammonia from gases containing a significant amount...... of alkali metal and/or alkali-earth compounds which process comprises using a catalyst combined of (i) a formed porous superacidic support, said superacidic support having an Hammett acidity stronger than Ho=-12, and (ii) a metal oxide catalytic component deposited on said superacidic support selected from...

  4. Epoxidation catalyst and process (United States)

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip


    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  5. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Sopchak, David A [Livermore, CA; Upadhye, Ravindra S [Pleasanton, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA; Satcher, Joseph H [Patterson, CA; Gash, Alex E [Brentwood, CA


    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  6. Latent olefin metathesis catalysts


    Monsaert, Stijn; Lozano Vila, Ana; Drozdzak, Renata; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Verpoort, Francis


    Olefin metathesis is a versatile synthetic tool for the redistribution of alkylidene fragments at carbon-carbon double bonds. This field, and more specifically the development of task-specific, latent catalysts, attracts emerging industrial and academic interest. This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a concise overview of early breakthroughs and recent key developments in the endeavor to develop latent olefin metathesis catalysts, and to illustrate their use by prominent exampl...

  7. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts



    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based silica-containing support, (c) activating the chromium-based silica-containing support, (d) chemically reducing the activated chromium-based silica-containing support to produce a precursor catalyst, (e) r...

  8. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst (United States)

    Angelici, Robert J.; Gao, Hanrong


    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

  9. Mesoporous molecular sieve catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane

    This thesis deals with a very specific class of molecular sieves known as zeolites. Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicates characterised by pores or cavities of molecular dimensions as part of their crystal structure. In this work zeolites were modified for the use and understanding...... of different catalytic applications. Primarily the zeolites were modified regarding the porosity and the introduction of metals to the framework. The obtained materials were used as solid acid catalysts, as an inert matrix for stabilising metal nanoparticles and as an anchoring material for molecular metal...... be used as solid acid catalysts but can also be used as a size-selective matrix. It was shown that it is possible to encapsulate 1-2 nm sized gold nanoparticles by silicalite-1 or ZSM-5 zeolite crystals thereby forming a sintering-stable and substrate size-selective oxidation catalyst. After carrying out...

  10. Dynamics of Catalyst Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Cavalca, Filippo; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    under gas exposure, dynamic phenomena such as sintering and growth can be observed with sub-Ångstrøm resolution. Metal nanoparticles contain the active sites in heterogeneous catalysts, which are important for many industrial applications including the production of clean fuels, chemicals...... and pharmaceuticals, and the cleanup of exhaust from automobiles and stationary power plants. Sintering, or thermal deactivation, is an important mechanism for the loss of catalyst activity. In order to initiate a systematic study of the dynamics and sintering of nanoparticles, various catalytic systems have been...... that particle sintering is not solely governed by the mechanisms previously proposed. These results are divided into the different phases of the catalyst lifetime....

  11. Catalyst, method of making, and reactions using the catalyst (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA


    The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

  12. Olefin metathesis catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S.G.; Banks, R.L.


    A process is described for preparing a disproportionation catalyst comprising admixing a catalytically effective amount of a calcined and activated catalyst consisting essentially of at least one metal oxide selected from molybdenum oxide and tungsten oxide and a support containing a major proportion of silica or alumina with a promoting amount of a methylating agent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl sulfate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethyloxonium tetrafluorborate, methyl iodide, and methyl bromide, and subjecting same to inert atmospheric conditions for the methylating agent to promote the activity of the calcined molybdenum and tungsten oxides for the disproportionation of olefins.

  13. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro


    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  14. Deactivation-resistant catalyst for selective catalyst reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NOx in alkali metal containing flue gas using ammonia as reductant, the catalyst comprising a surface with catalytically active sites, wherein the surface is at least partly coated with a coating comprising at least...... one metal oxide. In another aspect the present invention relates to the use of said catalyst and to a method of producing said catalyst. In addition, the present invention relates to a method of treating an catalyst for conferring thereon an improved resistance to alkali poisoning....

  15. Salesperson, Catalyst, Manager, Leader. (United States)

    Worth, Michael J.; Asp, James W., II


    This article examines four roles of the college or university development officer: salesperson (when direct solicitation is seen as the officer's primary role); catalyst (or sales manager, adviser, expert, facilitator); manager (stressing the importance of the overall office functioning); and leader (who exerts a leadership role in the…

  16. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based

  17. Olefin metathesis and catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S. G.; Banks, R. L.


    Olefins are converted into other olefins having different numbers of carbon atoms by contact with a catalyst comprising an inorganic refractory oxide support containing at least one of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide and a promoting amount of at least one methylating agent under conditions suitable for the methylating agent compounds to promote the activity of tungsten and molybdenum oxides for the disproportionation reaction.

  18. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation (United States)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel


    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  19. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan


    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  20. Synthesis of supported catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Krijn P. de


    Research reports on the synthesis of supported catalysts during the review period (1997-1998) have shown the use of carbon nanotubes and new hetropolyanions as examples of novel supports and of novel precursors of active components, respectively. Studies of absorption and precipitation chemistry

  1. Synthesis of the catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    50 585; Duan Y C, Ma Y C, Zhang E, Shi X J, Wang M M, Ye X W and Liu H M 2013 Design and synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazole-dithiocarbamate hybrids as ... M, Minato T, Bao M and Yamamoto Y 2011 Nanoporous Copper Metal Catalyst in Click Chemistry: Nanoporosity-Dependent Activity without Supports and Bases; ...

  2. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  3. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.


    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  4. Olefin metathesis and catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukes, S. G.; Banks, R. L.


    Olefins are converted into other olefins having different numbers of carbon atoms by contact with a catalyst comprising an inorganic refractory material containing at least one of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide and a promoting amount of at least one treating agent selected from chlorinated silicon compounds, thionyl chloride, and sulfuryl chloride under conditions suitable for the treating agent to promote the activity of tungsten and molybdenum oxides for the disporoportionation reaction.

  5. Exploring Catalyst Behaviours


    Austin, Annie; Cox, Jayne; Barnett, Julia; Thomas, Christine


    The ‘Exploring catalyst behaviours’ project continues Defra’s programme of research designed to develop a deeper understanding of pro-environmental behaviour. The research, conducted by Brook Lyndhurst, Dr Julie Barnett of the University of Surrey and Dr Christine Thomas of the Open University, feeds into the body of evidence that is guiding Defra and other stakeholders in developing policy, communications and other interventions to galvanise public action on the environment.The aim of the pr...

  6. High-Activity Dealloyed Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongkanand, Anusorn [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)


    Reduction of costly Pt usage in proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes is one of the major challenges towards development and commercialization of fuel cell vehicles. Although few have met the initial-kinetic activity requirements in a realistic fuel cell device, no catalyst material has ever met the demanding fuel cell durability targets set by DOE. In this project, a team of 4 universities and 2 companies came together to investigate a concept that appeared promising in preliminary non-fuel cell tests then to further develop the catalyst to a mature level ready for vehicle implementation. The team consists of academia with technical leadership in their respective areas, a catalyst supplier, and a fuel cell system integrator.The tightly collaborative project enabled development of a highly active and durable catalyst with performance that significantly exceeds that of previous catalysts and meets the DOE targets for the first time (Figure 1A). The catalyst was then further evaluated in full-active-area stack in a realistic vehicle operating condition (Figure 1B). This is the first public demonstration that one can realize the performance benefit and Pt cost reduction over a conventional pure Pt catalyst in a long-term realistic PEMFC system. Furthermore, systematic analyses of a range of catalysts with different performance after fuel cell testing allowed for correlation between catalyst microstructure and its electrocatalytic activity and durability. This will in turn aid future catalyst development.

  7. Steam reforming catalyst (United States)

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael


    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  8. Ziegler-Natta Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pircheraghi


    Full Text Available The effects of temperature, time and the strategy of prepolymerization were studied on the morphology of polypropylene particles. propylene polymerization was carried out in slurry phase using 4th generation of Ziegler-Natta Catalyst, cyclohexylmethyl dimethoxysilane as external electron donor, and triethyl aluminum as co-catalyst. Prepolymerizations were carried out based on two strategies: isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Particle imaging using SEM, bulk density, and particle size distribution was used to analyse the particle morphology. It was found that the variation of initial condition together with the change in the mechanism of particle fracture has a dominant effect on particle morphology. Each combination between the temperature and reaction time causes to have a special effect on the product particle morphology. It has become clear that in isothermal prepolymerization, spherical particles with identical properties were produced. In low temperature experiments particles with porous surface were observed. At increasing temperature, however, the pores disappeared. Non-isothermal prepolymerization produced different morphological types. In all experiments coreshell structures were observed that seemed to be related to the structure of catalysts.

  9. Non-PGM cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elvington, M. [Savannah River Consulting, Aiken, SC (United States); Ganesan, P. [Savannah River Consulting, Aiken, SC (United States)


    A unique approach has been developed to probe the non-PGM catalyst active site for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) for PEMFCs. Iron based functionalities have been engineered into a variety of catalysts to evaluate their impact on activity for the ORR. A series of high surface area catalysts were synthesized and the impact of the chemical structure on the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties was investigated. Elemental and surface analyses of the prepared catalysts reveal the incorporation of iron in a targeted and controlled manner. A high surface area framework catalyst was prepared that shows exceptional activity, comparable to state-of-the-art materials. The results of this research project provided critical seed data for the newly awarded ElectroCat project, which focuses on rationally designed framework catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

  10. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benavides, Pahola T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al2O3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  11. Catalyst systems and uses thereof (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S [Worthington, OH; Holmgreen, Erik M [Columbus, OH; Yung, Matthew M [Columbus, OH


    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about C.

  12. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN


    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  13. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.


    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, S.T.


    Abstract of WO 9521691 (A1) Described is a reactor (1) at least partially filled with catalyst granules (11), which is intended for catalytically reacting at least one gas and at least one liquid with each other. According to the invention the catalyst granules (11) are collected in agglomerates

  15. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L


    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  16. A Catalyst for Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte


    into in a process that hinges on new members functioning as tools for management to bring about the desired change. The article shows that while the newcomer is used as a catalyst for increased use of English and for the creation of a 'global mindset,' she is at the same time socialized into the existing Danish...... for changing language practices toward more English, with the ultimate aim of creating a 'global mindset' in the organization. Language socialization in a transient multilingual setting is shown to focus on and assign positive value to new linguistic norms that experienced members are socialized...

  17. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J


    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  18. Shock activation of catalysts (United States)

    Graham, R. A.; Morosin, B.; Richards, P. M.; Stohl, F. V.; Granoff, B.


    Scientists in the Soviet Union have demonstrated that high pressure shock-wave loading can cause significant improvement in the performance of catalysts. This increased catalytic activity is apparently the result of the shock-induced defects, especially vacancies, which act to facilitate atomic migration. We have carried out shock activation experiments on a coal-derived pyrite which has been previously used as a catalyst in coal liquefaction studies. The pyrite powder was packed to a density of about 2.0 Mg/m3 in a copper capsule and explosively loaded to a pressure of about 15 GPa in the copper. The starting and shock-activated samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The diffraction patterns of the shock-activated samples were dominated by broadened pyrite lines indicative of a significant increase in crystal defects. The diffraction patterns also showed the presence of pyrrhotite (Fe1-xS) in quantities of a few percent. An iron carbide found in the shocked material was apparently formed from carbon originating from either the calcite or organic impurities in the starting material. Magnetic properties of the sample were found to be substantially changed by the shock loading. The study has demonstrated that shock loading can significantly alter the crystalline order of pyrite and produce measurable quantities of pyrrhotite. The effects of shock-activated pyrite on the liquefaction of coal are being assessed by means by tubing reactor experiments.

  19. Ceramic catalyst materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sault, A.G.; Gardner, T.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanprasopwattanna, A.; Reardon, J.; Datye, A.K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) ion-exchange materials show great potential as ceramic catalyst supports due to an inherently high ion-exchange capacity which allows facile loading of catalytically active transition metal ions, and an ability to be cast as thin films on virtually any substrate. By coating titania and HTO materials onto inexpensive, high surface area substrates such as silica and alumina, the economics of using these materials is greatly improved, particularly for the HTO materials, which are substantially more expensive in the bulk form than other oxide supports. In addition, the development of thin film forms of these materials allows the catalytic and mechanical properties of the final catalyst formulation to be separately engineered. In order to fully realize the potential of thin film forms of titania and HTO, improved methods for the deposition and characterization of titania and HTO films on high surface area substrates are being developed. By varying deposition procedures, titania film thickness and substrate coverage can be varied from the submonolayer range to multilayer thicknesses on both silica and alumina. HTO films can also be formed, but the quality and reproducibility of these films is not nearly as good as for pure titania films. The films are characterized using a combination of isopropanol dehydration rate measurements, point of zero charge (PZC) measurements, BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and elemental analysis. In order to assess the effects of changes in film morphology on catalytic activity, the films are being loaded with MoO{sub 3} using either incipient wetness impregnation or ion-exchange of heptamolybdate anions followed by calcining. The MoO{sub 3} is then sulfided to form MOS{sub 2}, and tested for catalytic activity using pyrene hydrogenation and dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulfurization, model reactions that simulate reactions occurring during coal liquefaction.

  20. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Cronauer, Donald C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division


    Catalysts are critical inputs for many pathways that convert biomass into biofuels. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the production of catalysts and chemical inputs influence the life-cycle energy consumption, and GHG emissions of biofuels and need to be considered in biofuel life-cycle analysis (LCA). In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of three different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5]) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module. They were selected because they are consumed in existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyses of biofuel processes. For example, a thermochemical ethanol production pathway (indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses olivine, DEPG, and tar reforming and alcohol synthesis catalysts (Dutta et al., 2011). ZSM-5 can be used in biofuel production pathways such as catalytic upgrading of sugars into hydrocarbons (Biddy and Jones, 2013). Other uses for these compounds and catalysts are certainly possible. In this report, we document the data sources and methodology we used to develop material and energy flows for the catalysts and compounds in the GREET catalyst module. In Section 2 we focus on compounds used in the model Dutta et al. (2011) developed. In Section 3, we report material and energy flows associated with ZSM-5 production. Finally, in Section 4, we report results.

  1. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell (United States)

    Alonso-Vante, Nicolas [Buxerolles, FR; Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos, NM; Choi, Jong-Ho [Los Alamos, NM; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL; Cao, Dianxue [Urbana, IL


    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  2. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.


    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  3. Impeded solid state reactions and transformations in ceramic catalysts supports and catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernő E. Kiss


    Full Text Available Impeded chemical reactions and impeded polymorphous transformation in materials are discussed, as desired effects, for stabilization of ceramic catalyst supports and ceramic based catalysts. This paper gives a short overview about the possibilities of slowing down the aging processes in ceramic catalyst supports and catalysts. Special attention is given to alumina and titania based catalysts.

  4. Biomass processing over gold catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Simakova, Olga A; Murzin, Dmitry Yu


    The book describes the valorization of biomass-derived compounds over gold catalysts. Since biomass is a rich renewable feedstock for diverse platform molecules, including those currently derived from petroleum, the interest in various transformation routes has become intense. Catalytic conversion of biomass is one of the main approaches to improving the economic viability of biorefineries.  In addition, Gold catalysts were found to have outstanding activity and selectivity in many key reactions. This book collects information about transformations of the most promising and important compounds derived from cellulose, hemicelluloses, and woody biomass extractives. Since gold catalysts possess high stability under oxidative conditions, selective oxidation reactions were discussed more thoroughly than other critical reactions such as partial hydrogenation, acetalization, and isomerization. The influence of reaction conditions, the role of the catalyst, and the advantages and disadvantages of using gold are pre...

  5. Waste catalysts for waste polymer. (United States)

    Salmiaton, A; Garforth, A


    Catalytic cracking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts (1:6 ratio) was carried out using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operating at 450 degrees C. Two fresh and two steam deactivated commercial FCC catalysts with different levels of rare earth oxide (REO) were compared as well as two used FCC catalysts (E-Cats) with different levels of metal poisoning. Also, inert microspheres (MS3) were used as a fluidizing agent to compare with thermal cracking process at BP pilot plant at Grangemouth, Scotland, which used sand as its fluidizing agent. The results of HDPE degradation in terms of yield of volatile hydrocarbon product are fresh FCC catalysts>steamed FCC catalysts approximately used FCC catalysts. The thermal cracking process using MS3 showed that at 450 degrees C, the product distribution gave 46 wt% wax, 14% hydrocarbon gases, 8% gasoline, 0.1% coke and 32% nonvolatile product. In general, the product yields from HDPE cracking showed that the level of metal contamination (nickel and vanadium) did not affect the product stream generated from polymer cracking. This study gives promising results as an alternative technique for the cracking and recycling of polymer waste.

  6. The innovation catalysts. (United States)

    Martin, Roger L


    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them.

  7. The disastrous boomerang effects of "citation mania". (United States)

    Perbal, Annick


    The recent publication of a commentary article by Dadkhah et al. (J Cell Commun Signal 11:181-185, 2017) which addressed issues raised by the citation of questionable scientific papers in current databases and the recent retraction of manuscripts dealing with the biological properties of the CCN1 protein by Lin et al. (J Biol Chem 291(53):27433, 2016) prompted us to examine how this situation reflects an evolution of the original citation system, endangering scientific communication. We argue that the increasing number of publication retractions that have been witnessed over several years is a direct consequence of the bias created by the inconsistency of citation metrics.

  8. Regeneration of Hydrotreating and FCC Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CM Wai; JG Frye; JL Fulton; LE Bowman; LJ Silva; MA Gerber


    Hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts are important components of petroleum refining processes. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts are used to improve the yield of high-quality light oil fractions from heavier crude oil and petroleum feedstocks containing high levels of impurities. FCC catalysts improve the yield of higher octane gasoline from crude oil. Residuum hydrotreating and cracking catalysts are susceptible to irreversible deactivation caused by adsorption of sulfur and by metals impurities, such as vanadium and nickel. The gradual buildup of these impurities in a hydrotreating catalyst eventually plugs the pores and deactivates it. Nickel and vanadium adversely affect the behavior of cracking catalysts, reducing product yield and quality. Replacing deactivated catalysts represents a significant cost in petroleum refining. Equally important are the costs and potential liabilities associated with treating and disposing spent catalysts. For example, recent US Environmental Protection Agency rulings have listed spent hydrotreating and hydrorefining catalysts as hazardous wastes. FCC catalysts, though more easily disposed of as road-base or as filler in asphalt and cement, are still an economic concern mainly because of the large volumes of spent catalysts generated. New processes are being considered to increase the useful life of catalysts or for meeting more stringent disposal requirements for spent catalysts containing metals. This report discusses a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Phillips Petroleum, Inc., to identify promising chemical processes for removing metals adhered to spent hydrodesulfurization (HDS, a type of hydrotreating catalyst) and FCC catalysts. This study, conducted by PNNL, was funded by the US Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. Fresh and spent catalysts were provided by Phillips Petroleum. The FCC catalyst was a rare

  9. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Jonathan A.; Wilson, Jamie R.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Petigny, Nathalie; Sarantopoulos, Christos


    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a microstructure exhibiting substantially uniform pore size distribution as a result of using PMMA pore forming materials or a bi-modal particle size distribution of the porous support layer materials. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  10. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie


    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  11. Heterogenization of alkene epoxidation catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffon Regina


    Full Text Available This account describes our efforts to heterogenize epoxidation catalysts. Anchored and sol-gel entrapped molybdenum were shown to be very selective, but had a strongly reduced activity. On the other hand, molybdenum silicates were very active and stable as long as no diols were present in the reaction mixture. Heterogenized rhenium catalysts were less active but allowed the use of anhydrous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. However, the high cost and difficult regeneration prevents the industrial use of these catalysts. During these investigations, we found that alumina alone is active in the epoxidation with anhydrous hydrogen peroxide, giving good conversions to epoxides with high selectivity. More research is needed in order to clarify the nature of the hydroxyl groups responsible for its catalytic activity and thus to produce an appropriate material which would allow the obtention of epoxides with high selectivity under industrial conditions.

  12. Rhenium Nanochemistry for Catalyst Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Kessler


    Full Text Available The review presents synthetic approaches to modern rhenium-based catalysts. Creation of an active center is considered as a process of obtaining a nanoparticle or a molecule, immobilized within a matrix of the substrate. Selective chemical routes to preparation of particles of rhenium alloys, rhenium oxides and the molecules of alkyltrioxorhenium, and their insertion into porous structure of zeolites, ordered mesoporous MCM matrices, anodic mesoporous alumina, and porous transition metal oxides are considered. Structure-property relationships are traced for these catalysts in relation to such processes as alkylation and isomerization, olefin metathesis, selective oxidation of olefins, methanol to formaldehyde conversion, etc.

  13. Bismuth catalysts in aqueous media. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shū; Ueno, Masaharu; Kitanosono, Taku


    Several bismuth-catalyzed synthetic reactions, which proceed well in aqueous media, are discussed. Due to increasing demand of water as a solvent in organic synthesis, catalysts that can be used in aqueous media are becoming more and more important. Although bismuth Lewis acids are not very stable in water, it has been revealed that they can be stabilized by basic ligands. Chiral amine and related basic ligands combined with bismuth Lewis acids are particularly useful in asymmetric catalysis in aqueous media. On the other hand, bismuth hydroxide is stable and works as an efficient catalyst for carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions in water.

  14. Quick Guide to Flash Catalyst

    CERN Document Server

    Elmansy, Rafiq


    How do you transform user interface designs created in Photoshop or Illustrator into interactive web pages? It's easier than you think. This guide shows you how to use Adobe Flash Catalyst to create interactive UIs and website wireframes for Rich Internet Applications-without writing a single line of code. Ideal for web designers, this book introduces Flash Catalyst basics with detailed step-by-step instructions and screenshots that illustrate every part of the process. You'll learn hands-on how to turn your static design or artwork into working user interfaces that can be implemented in Fla

  15. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. [DOE patent (United States)

    Vollhardt, K.P.C.; Perkins, P.

    Novel compounds are described which are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO + H/sub 2/ to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  16. Automotive Catalyst State Diagnosis Using Microwaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moos, Ralf; Fischerauer, Gerhard


    .... The soot or ash loading of Diesel particulate filters, the oxygen loading degree in three-way catalysts, the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in NOx storage...

  17. Catalyst for Decomposition of Nitrogen Oxides (United States)

    Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Akyurtlu, Ates (Inventor); Akyurtlu, Jale (Inventor)


    This invention relates generally to a platinized tin oxide-based catalyst. It relates particularly to an improved platinized tin oxide-based catalyst able to decompose nitric oxide to nitrogen and oxygen without the necessity of a reducing gas.

  18. Rare behaviour of a catalyst pellet catalyst dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Loonen, R.A.; Martens, A.


    Temperature overshoots and undershoots were found for a Pd on alumina catalyst pellet in its course towards a new steady state after a change in concentration of one of the reactants ethylene or hydrogen. When cooling the pellet, after heat-up by reaction, with pure hydrogen a sudden temperature

  19. Paraffin Alkylation Using Zeolite Catalysts in a slurry reactor: Chemical Engineering Principles to Extend Catalyst Lifetime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, K.P. de; Mesters, C.M.A.M.; Peferoen, D.G.R.; Brugge, P.T.M. van; Groot, C. de


    The alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene is carried out using a zeolitic catalyst in a well stirred slurry reactor. Whereas application of fixed bed technology using a solid acid alkylation catalyst has in the led to catalysts lifetimes in the range of minutes, in this work we report catalyst

  20. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh; Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy


    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  1. Efficient epoxidation of propene using molecular catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovits, Iulius I. E.; Anthofer, Michael H.; Kolding, Helene


    The epoxidation of propene is performed in homogeneous phase using various molecular catalysts and H2O2 or tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidants. A comparison between some molybdenum catalysts and methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) shows that the well known Re catalyst is the best among the examined...

  2. Low platinum catalyst and method of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Di-Jia; Chong, Lina


    A low platinum catalyst and method for making same. The catalyst comprises platinum-transition metal bimetallic alloy microcrystallites over a transition metal-nitrogen-carbon composite. A method of making a catalyst comprises preparation of transition metal organic frameworks, infusion of platinum, thermal treatment, and reduction to form the microcrystallites and composite.

  3. Novel non-platinum metal catalyst material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a novel non-platinum metal catalyst material for use in low temperature fuel cells and electrolysers and to fuel cells and electrolysers comprising the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material. The present invention also relates to a novel method for synthesizing...... the novel non-platinum metal catalyst material....

  4. Catalysts and methods of using the same (United States)

    Slowing, Igor Ivan; Kandel, Kapil


    The present invention provides a catalyst including a mesoporous silica nanoparticle and a catalytic material comprising iron. In various embodiments, the present invention provides methods of using and making the catalyst. In some examples, the catalyst can be used to hydrotreat fatty acids or to selectively remove fatty acids from feedstocks.

  5. Fundamental investigations of catalyst nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Christian Fink

    of better catalysts. It was found that sintering proceeded via Ostwald ripening, i. e. the migration of atomic species between particles, with a net flow from small to larger particles resulting in an overall growth in particle size. The presence of CO increased the rate of sintering significantly...

  6. Organic Synthesis using Clay Catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Organic Synthesis using Clay Catalysts - Clays for 'Green Chemistry'. Gopalpur Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 64-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Catalyst. Issue 2, Fall 2008 (United States)

    Hawkins, B. Denise, Ed.


    Catalyst, a quarterly newsletter from the Institute's Communications Office, contains news, information, and features about the programs and services of the National Institute for Literacy. Contents of this issue include: (1) Shanahan on the National Early Literacy Panel Report: What's in Store; (2) Director's Message; (3) Representative Fattah to…

  8. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling (United States)

    Campbell, Kenneth D.


    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  9. Industrial production of catalyst 5058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Fuener, W.


    Catalyst 5058 was tungsten sulfide, WS/sub 2/. It was produced from tungstic acid, WO/sub 3/.H/sub 2/O, which was itself produced from concentrated tungsten ores. The formation of tungstic acid from the ore proceeded in two or three cycles of dissolving the substance in a base (sodium hydroxide, ammonia, lime), decomposing the result with acid, and the filtering, washing, and drying the resulting impure tungstic acid. The final tungstic acid had only about 0.2% impurities. The formation of tungsten sulfide from the tungstic acid proceeded in several steps. First, the tungstic acid was reacted with ammonium hydroxide to give ammonium tungstate, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/WO/sub 4/, which was then saturated with hydrogen sulfide to give ammonium sulfotungstate, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/WS/sub 4/, which precipitated out of solution at reduced temperature as monoclinic crystals in an orange-red powder. The saturation itself had to be done at about 70/sup 0/C to prevent formation (and later coprecipitation) of an interfering oxysulfate compound, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/WO/sub 2/S/sub 2/. The ammonium sulfotungstate precipitate was filtered out under suction and dried in hydrogen in a steam-heated vessel. The ammonium sulfotungstate was then decomposed in a stream of hydrogen in a furnace, at high temperature, to give tungsten sulfide in a monoclinic crystalline structure, which was different from the usual hexagonal crystal structure of tungsten sulfide. The resulting porous structure of the crystal lattice contributed to the activity of the catalyst. Finally, the catalyst was powdered into a fine powder and then compressed into cylindrical tablets as the form in which the catalyst was introduced into the hydrogenation ovens for use. Regeneration of the catalyst was necessary after 1 or 2 years of use.

  10. Alternative alkali resistant deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Due-Hansen, Johannes


    potassium doping (250 and 280 µmol of K/g, respectively). The increased poisoning resistance was due to high substrate acidity (sulphated, heteropoly acid promoted and zeolite supports), substituting the active species of the catalyst (other than vanadium species, i.e. Cu, Fe) and new catalyst synthesis...... by onepot sol–gel method. All catalysts were characterized by BET, XRPD and NH3-TPD. Initial SCR activities of 8 out of 9 catalysts showed higher NO conversion at least at one temperature in the temperature range 300–500 ◦C compared to the conventional V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst. After potassium poisoning (100...

  11. Automotive Catalyst State Diagnosis Using Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moos Ralf


    Full Text Available The state of catalysts plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of Diesel particulate filters, the oxygen loading degree in three-way catalysts, the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in NOx storage catalysts are important parameters that are today determined indirectly and in a model-based manner with gas sensors installed upstream and/or downstream of the catalysts. This contribution gives an overview on a novel approach to determine the catalyst state directly by a microwave-based technique. The method exploits the fact that the catalyst housing acts as a microwave cavity resonator. As “sensing” elements, one or two simple antennas are mounted inside the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device (ceramic honeycomb plus coating and storage material can be measured. Preferably, the resonance characteristics, e.g., the resonance frequencies, of selected cavity modes are observed. The information on the catalyst interior obtained in such a contactless manner is very well correlated with the catalyst state as will be demonstrated for different exhaust gas aftertreatment systems.

  12. Operando chemistry of catalyst surfaces during catalysis. (United States)

    Dou, Jian; Sun, Zaicheng; Opalade, Adedamola A; Wang, Nan; Fu, Wensheng; Tao, Franklin Feng


    Chemistry of a catalyst surface during catalysis is crucial for a fundamental understanding of mechanism of a catalytic reaction performed on the catalyst in the gas or liquid phase. Due to the pressure- or molecular density-dependent entropy contribution of gas or liquid phase of the reactants and the potential formation of a catalyst surface during catalysis different from that observed in an ex situ condition, the characterization of the surface of a catalyst under reaction conditions and during catalysis can be significant and even necessary for understanding the catalytic mechanism at a molecular level. Electron-based analytical techniques are challenging for studying catalyst nanoparticles in the gas or liquid phase although they are necessary techniques to employ. Instrumentation and further development of these electron-based techniques have now made in situ/operando studies of catalysts possible. New insights into the chemistry and structure of catalyst nanoparticles have been uncovered over the last decades. Herein, the origin of the differences between ex situ and in situ/operando studies of catalysts, and the technical challenges faced as well as the corresponding instrumentation and innovations utilized for characterizing catalysts under reaction conditions and during catalysis, are discussed. The restructuring of catalyst surfaces driven by the pressure of reactant(s) around a catalyst, restructuring in reactant(s) driven by reaction temperature and restructuring during catalysis are also reviewed herein. The remaining challenges and possible solutions are briefly discussed.

  13. Semisynthetic and Biomolecular Hydrogen Evolution Catalysts. (United States)

    Kandemir, Banu; Chakraborty, Saikat; Guo, Yixing; Bren, Kara L


    There has been great interest in the development of stable, inexpensive, efficient catalysts capable of reducing aqueous protons to hydrogen (H2), an alternative to fossil fuels. While synthetic H2 evolution catalysts have been in development for decades, recently there has been great progress in engineering biomolecular catalysts and assemblies of synthetic catalysts and biomolecules. In this Forum Article, progress in engineering proteins to catalyze H2 evolution from water is discussed. The artificial enzymes described include assemblies of synthetic catalysts and photosynthetic proteins, proteins with cofactors replaced with synthetic catalysts, and derivatives of electron-transfer proteins. In addition, a new catalyst consisting of a thermophilic cobalt-substituted cytochrome c is reported. As an electrocatalyst, the cobalt cytochrome shows nearly quantitative Faradaic efficiency and excellent longevity with a turnover number of >270000.

  14. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure (United States)

    Krumpel, Michael [Naperville, IL; Liu, Di-Jia [Naperville, IL


    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  15. Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth; VanNorman, John; Brown, David; Upchurch, Billy; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin


    In many applications, it is highly desirable to operate a CO2 laser in a sealed condition, for in an open system the laser requires a continuous flow of laser gas to remove the dissociation products that occur in the discharge zone of the laser, in order to maintain a stable power output. This adds to the operating cost of the laser, and in airborne or space applications, it also adds to the weight penalty of the laser. In a sealed CO2 laser, a small amount of CO2 gas is decomposed in the electrical discharge zone into corresponding quantities of CO and O2. As the laser continues to operate, the concentration of CO2 decreases, while the concentrations of CO and O2 correspondingly increase. The increasing concentration of O2 reduces laser power, because O2 scavenges electrons in the electrical discharge, thereby causing arcing in the electric discharge and a loss of the energetic electrons required to boost CO2 molecules to lasing energy levels. As a result, laser power decreases rapidly. The primary object of this invention is to provide a catalyst that, by composition of matter alone, contains chemisorbed water within and upon its structure. Such bound moisture renders the catalyst highly active and very long-lived, such that only a small quantity of it needs to be used with a CO2 laser under ambient operating conditions. This object is achieved by a catalyst that consists essentially of about 1 to 40 percent by weight of one or more platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os, Pt being preferred); about 1 to 90 percent by weight of one or more oxides of reducible metals having multiple valence states (such as Sn, Ti, Mn, Cu, and Ce, with SnO2 being preferred); and about 1 to 90 percent by weight of a compound that can bind water to its structure (such as silica gel, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hydrated alumina, and magnesium perchlorate, with silica gel being preferred). Especially beneficial results are obtained when platinum is present in the

  16. Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst (United States)

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald; Withers, Howard P.


    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  17. Catalysts, Protection Layers, and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorkendorff, Ib


    acid or alkaline conditions. Since most relevant semiconductors are very prone to corrosion the advantage of using buried junctions and using protection layers offering shall be discussed [2-4]. Next we shall discuss the availability of various catalysts for being coupled to these protections layers...... and how their stability may be evaluated [5, 6]. Examples of half-cell reaction using protection layers for both cathode and anode will be discussed though some of recent examples under both alkaline and acidic conditions. Si is a very good low band gap semiconductor and by using TiO2 as a protection...... layer we can stabilize it for both H2 and O2 evolution [7, 8, 9, 10]. Notably NiOx promoted by iron is a material that is transparent, providing protection, and is a good catalyst for O2 evolution. We have also recently started searching for large band gap semicondutors like III-V based or pervoskite...

  18. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts (United States)

    Price, Geoffrey L.; Kanazirev, Vladislav


    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  19. Catalyst for Expanding Human Spaceflight (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.


    History supplies us with many models of how and how not to commercialize an industry. This presentation draws parallels between industries with government roots, like the railroad, air transport, communications and the internet, and NASAs Commercial Crew Program. In these examples, government served as a catalyst for what became a booming industry. The building block approach the Commercial Crew Program is taking is very simple -- establish a need, laying the groundwork, enabling industry and legal framework.

  20. Core-shell nanostructured catalysts. (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao; Lee, Ilkeun; Joo, Ji Bong; Zaera, Francisco; Yin, Yadong


    Novel nanotechnologies have allowed great improvements in the syn-thesis of catalysts with well-controlled size, shape, and surface properties. Transition metal nanostructures with specific sizes and shapes, for instance, have shown great promise as catalysts with high selectivities and relative ease of recycling. Researchers have already demonstrated new selective catalysis with solution-dispersed or supported-metal nanocatalysts, in some cases applied to new types of reactions. Several challenges remain, however, particularly in improving the structural stability of the catalytic active phase. Core-shell nanostructures are nanoparticles encapsulated and protected by an outer shell that isolates the nanoparticles and prevents their migration and coalescence during the catalytic reactions. The synthesis and characterization of effective core-shell catalysts has been at the center of our research efforts and is the focus of this Account. Efficient core-shell catalysts require porous shells that allow free access of chemical species from the outside to the surface of nanocatalysts. For this purpose, we have developed a surface-protected etching process to prepare mesoporous silica and titania shells with controllable porosity. In certain cases, we can tune catalytic reaction rates by adjusting the porosity of the outer shell. We also designed and successfully applied a silica-protected calcination method to prepare crystalline shells with high surface area, using anatase titania as a model system. We achieved a high degree of control over the crystallinity and porosity of the anatase shells, allowing for the systematic optimization of their photocatalytic activity. Core-shell nanostructures also provide a great opportunity for controlling the interaction among the different components in ways that might boost structural stability or catalytic activity. For example, we fabricated a SiO₂/Au/N-doped TiO₂ core-shell photocatalyst with a sandwich structure that showed

  1. Organic synthesis with olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, R.H. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Over the past nine years, early transition metal catalysts for the ring opening metathesis polymerization of cyclic olefins have been developed. These catalysts are simple organometallic complexes containing metal carbon multiple bonds that in most cases polymerize olefins by a living process. These catalysts have been used to prepare a family of near monodispersed and structurally homogeneous polymers. A series of group VII ROMP catalysts that allow a wide range of functionality to be incorporated into the polymer side chains have been prepared. The most important member of this family of complexes are the bisphosphinedihalo-ruthenium carbene complexes. These polymerization catalysts can also be used in the synthesis of fine chemicals by ring closing (RCM) and vinyl coupling reactions. The availability of the group VII catalysts allow metathesis to be carried out on highly functionalized substrates such as polypeptides and in unusual environments such as in aqueous emulsions.

  2. Controlling the catalyst during carbon nanotube growth. (United States)

    Robertson, J; Hofmann, S; Cantoro, M; Parvez, A; Ducati, C; Zhong, G; Sharma, R; Mattevi, C


    We have recently been able to grow single-walled carbon nanotubes by purely thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at temperatures as low as 400 degrees C. This has been achieved by separating the catalyst pre-treatment step from the growth step. In the pre-treatment step, a thin film catalyst is re-arranged into a series of nano-droplets, which are then the active catalysts. Both steps have been studied by in-situ environmental transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We have also studied the catalyst yield, the weight of nanotubes grown per weight of transition metal catalyst. Using very thin layers of Fe on Al2O3 support in a remote plasma-assisted CVD, we have achieved yields of order 100,000. This may be due to control of catalyst poisoning by ensuring an etching path.

  3. Oxidation catalysts on alkaline earth supports (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid


    An oxidation catalyst includes a support including particles of an alkaline earth salt, and first particles including a palladium compound on the support. The oxidation catalyst can also include precious metal group (PMG) metal particles in addition to the first particles intermixed together on the support. A gas permeable polymer that provides a continuous phase can completely encapsulate the particles and the support. The oxidation catalyst may be used as a gas sensor, where the first particles are chemochromic particles.

  4. Molecular catalysts structure and functional design

    CERN Document Server

    Gade, Lutz H


    Highlighting the key aspects and latest advances in the rapidly developing field of molecular catalysis, this book covers new strategies to investigate reaction mechanisms, the enhancement of the catalysts' selectivity and efficiency, as well as the rational design of well-defined molecular catalysts. The interdisciplinary author team with an excellent reputation within the community discusses experimental and theoretical studies, along with examples of improved catalysts, and their application in organic synthesis, biocatalysis, and supported organometallic catalysis. As a result, readers wil

  5. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts


    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.


    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to i...

  6. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt (United States)

    Lauterbach, Jochen; Snively, Christopher M.; Vijay, Rohit; Hendershot, Reed; Feist, Ben


    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  7. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst (United States)

    Parent, Yves O [Golden, CO; Magrini, Kim [Golden, CO; Landin, Steven M [Conifer, CO; Ritland, Marcus A [Palm Beach Shores, FL


    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  8. New Trends in Gold Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonarda F. Liotta


    Full Text Available Gold is an element that has fascinated mankind for millennia. The catalytic properties of gold have been a source of debate, due to its complete chemical inertness when in a bulk form, while it can oxidize CO at temperatures as low as ~200 K when in a nanocrystalline state, as discovered by Haruta in the late 1980s [1]. Since then, extensive activity in both applied and fundamental research on gold has been initiated. The importance of the catalysis by gold represents one of the fasted growing fields in science and is proven by the promising applications in several fields, such as green chemistry and environmental catalysis, in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, as modifiers of Ni catalysts for methane steam and dry reforming reactions and in biological and electrochemistry applications. The range of reactions catalyzed by gold, as well as the suitability of different supports and the influence of the preparation conditions have been widely explored and optimized in applied research [2]. Gold catalysts appeared to be very different from the other noble metal-based catalysts, due to their marked dependence on the preparation method, which is crucial for the genesis of the catalytic activity. Several methods, including deposition-precipitation, chemical vapor deposition and cation adsorption, have been applied for the preparation of gold catalysts over reducible oxides, like TiO2. Among these methods, deposition-precipitation has been the most frequently employed method for Au loading, and it involves the use of tetrachloroauric (III acid as a precursor. On the other hand, the number of articles dealing with Au-loaded acidic supports is smaller than that on basic supports, possibly because the deposition of [AuCl4]− or [AuOHxCl4−x]− species on acidic supports is difficult, due to their very low point of zero charge. Despite this challenge, several groups have reported the use of acidic zeolites as supports for gold. Zeolites

  9. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions (United States)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.


    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  10. New catalysts for clean environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijanen, A.; Hase, A. [eds.] [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    VTT launched a Research Programme on Chemical Reaction Mechanisms (CREAM) in 1993. The three-year programme (1993-1995) has focused on reaction mechanisms relevant to process industries and aimed at developing novel catalysts and biocatalysts for forest, food, and specialty chemicals industries as well as for energy production. The preliminary results of this programme have already been presented in the first symposium organized in Espoo in September 1994. To conclude the programme the second symposium is organized in Otaniemi, Espoo on January 29 - 30, 1996. Papers by 19 speakers and 17 poster presentations of the 1996 Symposium are included in this book. The Symposium consists of four sessions: Biotechnology for Natural Fibers Processing, New Biocatalysts, Catalysts for Clean Energy, and New Opportunities for Chemical Industry. The CREAM programme has tried to foresee solutions for the problems challenged by the public concern on environmental aspects, especially dealing with industrial processes and novel use of raw materials and energy. The programme has followed the basic routes that can lead to natural and simple solutions to develop processes in the fields of forest, food fine chemicals, and energy industry. This symposium presents the results of the programme to learn and further discuss together with the international experts that have been invited as keynote speakers. (author)

  11. Synthesis of copper chromite catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, A.M.; Claudio Rezende, L. [Space Aeronautical Institute/Aerospace Center, Chemistry Div., Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Claudio Pardini, L. [Space Aeronautical Institute/Aerospace Center, Materials Div., Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    The present work has the objective to investigate the catalytic behaviour of copper chromite (CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}) in the burning rate of poly-butadiene hydroxyl terminated (HTPB) which is an ammonium perchlorate propellant for solid fueled rockets. Copper chromite catalysts were prepared by ceramic and coprecipitation methods and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental, differential calorimetric (DSC), thermogravimetric and granulometric analysis, mass spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Elemental and IR analysis have shown similarities among the samples for both synthetic methods. However, DSC, SEM and X-ray analysis of the samples synthesized by coprecipitation method presented different physical properties. For those samples, DSC could identify a tetragonal {yields} cubic phase transition, SEM showed particles with defined crystalline shapes and X-ray analysis contains the main assignments which identify the formation of CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. HTPB propellants containing CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples were manufactured, then burning rate and mechanical properties have been measured. The results were compared with HTPB propellants containing iron (III) oxide as catalyst. The highest burning rate values were obtained with samples which present a more defined crystalline shape, i.e., the ones synthesized by the coprecipitation method. (authors)

  12. Olefin polymerization over supported chromium oxide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.


    Cr/SiO2 or Phillips-type catalysts are nowadays responsible for a large fraction of all polyethylene (HDPE and LLDPE) worldwide produced. In this review, several key-properties of Cr/SiO2 catalysts will be discussed in relation to their polymerization characteristics. It will be shown how the

  13. Solid acid catalysts: Stain and shine (United States)

    Chen, Peng


    Catalyst particles for fluid catalytic cracking are vital for the oil-refinery industry, but their activity is hard to diagnose because of their inter- and intra-particle structural inhomogeneity. With fluorescence confocal microscopy and selective staining, one can now pinpoint the catalytic activity within single catalyst particles from an industrial reactor.

  14. Chemical engineering design of CO oxidation catalysts (United States)

    Herz, Richard K.


    How a chemical reaction engineer would approach the challenge of designing a CO oxidation catalyst for pulsed CO2 lasers is described. CO oxidation catalysts have a long history of application, of course, so it is instructive to first consider the special requirements of the laser application and then to compare them to the characteristics of existing processes which utilize CO oxidation catalysts. All CO2 laser applications require a CO oxidation catalyst with the following characteristics: (1) active at stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO, (2) no inhibition by CO2 or other components of the laser environment, (3) releases no particulates during vibration or thermal cycling, and (4) long lifetime with a stable activity. In all applications, low consumption of power is desirable, a characteristic especially critical in aerospace applications and, thus, catalyst activity at low temperatures is highly desirable. High power lasers with high pulse repetition rates inherently require circulation of the gas mixture and this forced circulation is available for moving gas past the catalyst. Low repetition rate lasers, however, do not inherently require gas circulation, so a catalyst that did not require such circulation would be favorable from the standpoint of minimum power consumption. Lasers designed for atmospheric penetration of their infrared radiation utilize CO2 formed from rare isotopes of oxygen and this application has the additional constraint that normal abundance oxygen isotopes in the catalyst must not exchange with rare isotopes in the gas mixture.

  15. Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.


    A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

  16. The strange case of the "oscillating" catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busico, [No Value; Cipullo, R; Kretschmer, W; Talarico, G; Vacatello, M; Castelli, VV


    The field of stereoselective propene polymerization has been dramatically innovated by the discovery of homogeneous metallocene-based catalysts with well-defined and tunable molecular structure. Of all, "oscillating" metallocenes are probably the most ingenious and challenging example of catalyst

  17. Catalyst and method for production of methylamines (United States)

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G.; Vedage, Gamini A.


    This invention relates to an improved catalyst and method for the selective production of methylamines. More particularly, it is concerned with the preparation of stable highly active catalysts for producing methylamines by a catalytic reaction of ammonia or substituted amines and binary synthesis gas (CO+H.sub.2).

  18. Chemical engineering design of CO oxidation catalysts (United States)

    Herz, Richard K.


    How a chemical reaction engineer would approach the challenge of designing a CO oxidation catalyst for pulsed CO2 lasers is described. CO oxidation catalysts have a long history of application, of course, so it is instructive to first consider the special requirements of the laser application and then to compare them to the characteristics of existing processes which utilize CO oxidation catalysts. All CO2 laser applications require a CO oxidation catalyst with the following characteristics: (1) active at stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO, (2) no inhibition by CO2 or other components of the laser environment, (3) releases no particulates during vibration or thermal cycling, and (4) long lifetime with a stable activity. In all applications, low consumption of power is desirable, a characteristic especially critical in aerospace applications and, thus, catalyst activity at low temperatures is highly desirable. High power lasers with high pulse repetition rates inherently require circulation of the gas mixture and this forced circulation is available for moving gas past the catalyst. Low repetition rate lasers, however, do not inherently require gas circulation, so a catalyst that did not require such circulation would be favorable from the standpoint of minimum power consumption. Lasers designed for atmospheric penetration of their infrared radiation utilize CO2 formed from rare isotopes of oxygen and this application has the additional constraint that normal abundance oxygen isotopes in the catalyst must not exchange with rare isotopes in the gas mixture.

  19. European workshop on spent catalysts. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In 1999 and 2002 two well attended workshops on recycling, regeneration, reuse and disposal of spent catalysts took place in Frankfurt. This series has been continued in Berlin. The workshop was organized in collaboration with DGMK, the German Society for Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology. Contributions were in the following areas of catalyst deactivation: recycling of spent catalysts in chemical and petrochemical industry, recycling of precious metal catalysts and heterogenous base metal catalysts, legal aspects of transboundary movements, catalyst regeneration, quality control, slurry catalysts, commercial reactivation of hydrotreating catalysts. (uke)

  20. Novel metalloporphyrin catalysts for the oxidation of hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, M.C.; Nenoff, T.M.; Shelnutt, J.A.


    Work was done for developing biomimetic oxidation catalysts. Two classes of metalloporphyrin catalysts were studied. The first class of catalysts studied were a novel series of highly substituted metalloporphyrins, the fluorinated iron dodecaphenylporphyrins. These homogeneous metalloporphyrin catalysts were screened for activity as catalysts in the oxidation of hydrocarbons by dioxygen. Results are discussed with respect to catalyst structural features. The second type of catalysts studied were heterogeneous catalysts consisting of metalloporphyrins applied to inorganic supports. Preliminary catalytic testing results with these materials are presented.

  1. Theoretical investigations of olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cundari, T.R.; Gordon, M.S. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States)


    An ab initio analysis of the electronic structure of high-valent, transition-metal alkylidenes as models for olefin metathesis catalysts is presented. The catalyst models studied fall into three categories: {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} metathesis catalyst models-tetrahedral M(OH){sup 2}(XH)(CH{sub 2}) complexes; {open_quotes}old{close_quotes} metathesis catalyst models-tetrahedral MCl{sub 2}(Y)(CH{sub 2}) complexes and alkylidene-substituted Mo metathesis catalysts, Mo(OH){sub 2}(NH)(=C(H)Z). The effect on the bonding caused by modification of either the metal, ligands, or alkylidene substitutents is considered. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott


    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  3. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols (United States)

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Heiberger, John J.


    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  4. Dates in the development of catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A chronological listing is presented of the dates on which various I. G. Farbenindustrie catalysts were first used. In most cases the entries gave compositions and some hints at the methods of preparation of the catalysts as well as the code numbers for the catalysts. The listing started in December, 1924, and extended throught August, 1941. Some of the more important catalysts were the following: 5058, tungsten disulfide (WS/sub 2/), produced from the thio salt by dry decomposition (1930); 6434, a diluted mixture of hydrogen fluoride-treated ''Terrana'' and 10% WS/sub 2/ (1935); 6719, a prehydrogenation catalyst of 75 parts ferrous sulfide (FeS), 22 parts WS/sub 2/, and 3 parts nickel monosulfide (NiS) (1937); 7019, an aromatization catalyst of 100 parts primry coal, 15 parts chromic oxide (Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/), and 5 parts vanadium sesquioxide (V/sub 2/O/sub 3/) (1938); 7360, a DHD catalyst of activated alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) and 55 g/l molybdenum trioxide (MoO/sub 3/) (1939); 7846, a prehydrogenated catalyst, a sulfonated mixture of activated alumina, 100 g/l MoO/sub 3/, and 30 g/l nickel sesquioxide (Ni/sub 2/O/sub 3/) (1940); and 8376 W, a prehydrogenation catalyst, a sulfonated mixture of activated alumina, 250 g/l tungsten trioxide (WO/sub 3/), and 50 g/l Ni/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (1941). Other caalysts given included numbers 1724, 2365, 2473, 2500, 3510, 3884, 5053, 5676, 6525, and 6561. Compounds used other than those mentioned above included molybdenum disulfide (MoS/sub 2/), zinc sulfide (ZnS), zinc oxide (ZnO), and magnesium oxide (MgO).

  5. Effects of Catalyst Variation on Biodiesel Yield


    A. O. Adeodu


    The type, purity and amount of catalyst used affect the conversion efficiency of the transesterification process of converting oil to biodiesel. In this study, the effect of alkali and acid catalysts variation was examined on biodiesel yield. Sodium hydroxide at different concentration of 0.6-1.6% to unused oil was used as a catalyst for transesesterifying unused oil to biodiesel. The optimum biodiesel yield was achieved using 1.4 wt. % of NaOH to oil weight, which produced an 88.0% yield of ...

  6. 40 CFR 90.427 - Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress resistance... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (a) The purpose of... catalyst conversion efficiency for Phase 1 engines. The thermal stress is imposed on the test catalyst by...

  7. Investigation of activity and selectivity of redox catalysts in oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, oxidative coupling of methane on Redox catalysts in fluidized bed reactor was investigated. For this purpose, the catalyst Mn-Na2WO4/SiO2 was selected as a Redox catalyst. In order to investigate this catalyst, transient state experiments were designed and performed. Then, the different reaction conditions on ...

  8. Bio-oil hydrodeoxygenation catalysts produced using strong electrostatic adsorption (United States)

    We synthesized hydrothermally stable metal catalysts with controlled particle size and distribution, with the goal of determining which catalyst(s) can selectively catalyze the production of aromatics from bio-oil (from pyrolysis of biomass). Both precious and base transition metal catalysts (Ru, Pt...

  9. Supported catalyst systems and method of making biodiesel products using such catalysts (United States)

    Kim, Manhoe; Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O.; Ng, K. Y. Simon


    A heterogeneous catalyst system, a method of preparing the catalyst system and a method of forming a biodiesel product via transesterification reactions using the catalyst system is disclosed. The catalyst system according to one aspect of the present disclosure represents a class of supported mixed metal oxides that include at least calcium oxide and another metal oxide deposited on a lanthanum oxide or cerium oxide support. Preferably, the catalysts include CaO--CeO.sub.2ZLa.sub.2O.sub.3 or CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3/CeO.sub.2. Optionally, the catalyst may further include additional metal oxides, such as CaO--La.sub.2O.sub.3--GdOxZLa.sub.2O.sub.3.

  10. Eggshell waste as catalyst: A review. (United States)

    Laca, Amanda; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario


    Agricultural wastes are some of the most emerging problems in food industries because of their disposal cost. However, it is also an opportunity for the bioeconomy society if new uses for these residual materials can be found. Eggshells, considered a hazardous waste by UE regulations, are discarded, amounting hundreds of thousands of tonnes worldwide. This egg processing waste is a valuable source material, which can be used in different fields such as fodder or fertilizer production. Additionally, this residue offers interesting characteristics to be used in other applications, like its employment as an environment-friendly catalyst. In the present review we provide a global view of eggshell waste uses as catalyst in different processes. According to reviewed researching works, a huge variety of added value products can be obtained by using this catalyst which emphasised the interest of further investigations in order to widen the possible uses of this cheap green catalyst. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Eaqub Ali


    Full Text Available Oxidation reactions may be considered as the heart of chemical synthesis. However, the indiscriminate uses of harsh and corrosive chemicals in this endeavor are threating to the ecosystems, public health, and terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial flora and fauna. Heterogeneous catalysts with various supports are brought to the spotlight because of their excellent capabilities to accelerate the rate of chemical reactions with low cost. They also minimize the use of chemicals in industries and thus are friendly and green to the environment. However, heterogeneous oxidation catalysis are not comprehensively presented in literature. In this short review, we clearly depicted the current state of catalytic oxidation reactions in chemical industries with specific emphasis on heterogeneous catalysts. We outlined here both the synthesis and applications of important oxidation catalysts. We believe it would serve as a reference guide for the selection of oxidation catalysts for both industries and academics.

  12. Design of porous nanostructured solid catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar

    This thesis aims at developing and characterize novel porous nanostructered materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The catalysts are prepared with the goals of increased activity and stability in mind. This will result in lessened waste of precious elements, starting materials, and energy, for a ...... of reactants. The catalyst is extensively characterize with respect to both the platinum nanoparticles and the carbon shell. Lastly the catalyst is employed in the electrooxidations of methanol, ethanol, and formic acid.......This thesis aims at developing and characterize novel porous nanostructered materials for heterogeneous catalysis. The catalysts are prepared with the goals of increased activity and stability in mind. This will result in lessened waste of precious elements, starting materials, and energy...... conventional counterpart in terms of crystallinity and acidity. Samples of conventional and mesoporous zeolites were tested in a model catalytic reaction. Here, the mesoporous zeolite exhibited much higher conversion, which is contributed to the enhanced diffusion. Chapter 5 explains the fundamentals of fuel...

  13. Environmentally benign catalysts for clean organic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Anjali


    Heterogeneous catalysis attracts researchers and industry because it satisfies most of green chemistry's requirements. Emphasizing the development of third generation catalysts, this book surveys trends and opportunities in academic and industrial research.

  14. Highly sensitive silicon microreactor for catalyst testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Toke Riishøj; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    by directing the entire gas flow through the catalyst bed to a mass spectrometer, thus ensuring that nearly all reaction products are present in the analyzed gas flow. Although the device can be employed for testing a wide range of catalysts, the primary aim of the design is to allow characterization of model...... catalysts which can only be obtained in small quantities. Such measurements are of significant fundamental interest but are challenging because of the low surface areas involved. The relationship between the reaction zone gas flow and the pressure in the reaction zone is investigated experimentally......, it is found that platinum catalysts with areas as small as 15 mu m(2) are conveniently characterized with the device. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3270191]...

  15. Novel Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells


    Basri, S.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Daud, W. R. W.; Yaakob, Z.; Kadhum, A. A. H.


    PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffracti...

  16. Platinum-Bismuth Bimetallic Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications


    Saucedo, Jose A, Jr; Xiao, Yang; Varma, Arvind


    Bimetallic catalysts have been explored and shown to exhibit unique characteristics which are not present in monometallic catalysts. Platinum is well known as an effective catalyst for oxidation and reduction reactions, and it can be made more effective when bismuth is introduced as a promotor. Thus, the effectiveness of the Pt-Bi catalyst was demonstrated in prior work. What is not clear, however, is the mechanism behind the catalyst function; why addition of bismuth to platinum decreases de...

  17. Bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie


    Provided herein are bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof. In some embodiments, the bi-metallic catalyst contains two different metal catalysts that can be used in hydrocarbon metathesis reactions, in some embodiments, the methods of making the bi-metallic catalysts can include two steps utilizing a surface organometallic chemistry approach in which the two different metal catalysts are sequentially grafted onto a support.

  18. Influence of hydrogen treatment on SCR catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    reduction (SCR) process, i.e. the catalytic removal of NOx from the flue gas. A series of experiments was conducted to reveal the impact on the NO SCR activity of a industrial DeNOX catalyst (3%V2O5-7%WO3/TiO2) by treatment of H2. Standard conditions were treatment of the SCR catalyst for 60 min with three...

  19. Coating powdered copper catalyst with yttria sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kuan-Ying [Department of Chemical and Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Shen, Chia-Chieh, E-mail: [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Renewable Energy Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Renewable Energy Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Leu, Chih-Hsing [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jung-Hui [Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Yeh, Chuin-Tih [Department of Chemical and Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Fuel Cell Center, Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} The neutral Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sol is an effective binder for coating powders of CuZnAl catalyst. {yields} A particle size ratio of 15 for catalyst to binder is suggested for stable coating. {yields} Sufficient stirring is an important step in the catalyst slurry preparation. - Abstract: A commercial Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sol was tested as a binder for coating CuZnAl catalyst powder onto microchannels of a stainless steel plate (SSP). Coated plates were used to fabricate microchannel reactors that generate hydrogen via the steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Washcoating slurries were prepared by suspending catalyst powders into the sol. Slurry parameters, such as solid content, binder content, pH value, and stir time, were optimized to achieve a stable catalyst coating and good SRM performance. The expected stable coating could be obtained from neutral (pH 7) Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} slurry that is required for a negligible dissolution of the copper component of the catalyst. The experimental coating stability generally improved with the slurry stir time. Observed improvements were attributed to a dispersion of catalyst powders in the slurry through a two-step mechanism: the mechanical disassembly of agglomerated CuZnAl powders into primary particles, and the repelling of dissembled particles through adsorption of positively charged Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} binders. A reasonable reaction temperature of 280 deg. C was found for 95% conversion of methanol in SRM from the resulted microchannel reactors. A low CO fraction of 0.3% was also found in the hydrogen-rich gas reformed.

  20. Oxidation Catalyst Studies on a Diesel Engine


    Ye, Shifei


    In this thesis, the experimental test facilities consisted of a well instrumented live Ford 2.0 litre turbocharged diesel engine connected to a specially made exhaust can, which contained a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Experiments were performed on DOCs, which were specially prepared by Johnson Matthey, and had thermocouples mounted in their walls to measure axial temperature profiles. These DOCs consisted of a Pt catalyst dispersed in an alumina washcoat on a cordierite monolith supports...

  1. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...... of nitrogen oxides with ammonia or urea as reductant, oxidations of alcohols or aldehydes with dioxygen or air to provide aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids, and photocatalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)....

  2. Catalysts for the Selective Oxidation of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Brookes


    Full Text Available In industry, one of the main catalysts typically employed for the selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde is a multi-component oxide containing both bulk Fe2(MoO43 and excess MoO3. It is thought that the excess MoO3 primarily acts to replace any molybdenum lost through sublimation at elevated temperatures, therefore preventing the formation of an unselective Fe2O3 phase. With both oxide phases present however, debate has arisen regarding the active component of the catalyst. Work here highlights how catalyst surfaces are significantly different from bulk structures, a difference crucial for catalyst performance. Specifically, Mo has been isolated at the surface as the active surface species. This leaves the role of the Fe in the catalyst enigmatic, with many theories postulated for its requirement. It has been suggested that the supporting Fe molybdate phase enables lattice oxygen transfer to the surface, to help prevent the selectivity loss which would occur in the resulting oxygen deficit environment. To assess this phenomenon in further detail, anaerobic reaction with methanol has been adopted to evaluate the performance of the catalyst under reducing conditions.

  3. Germanium nanowires grown using different catalyst metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, R.C., E-mail: [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Área de Ciências, Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, Rua Américo Ambrósio, 269, Jd. Canaã, Sertãozinho, CEP 14169-263 (Brazil); Kamimura, H.; Munhoz, R.; Rodrigues, A.D. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Leite, E.R. [Departamento de Química – LIEC, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil); Chiquito, A.J. [Departamento de Física – NanO Lab, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rod. Washington Luís, Km 235 – SP 310, São Carlos, CEP 13565-905 (Brazil)


    Germanium nanowires have been synthesized by the well known vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism using gold, silver, cooper, indium and nickel as catalyst metals. The influence of metal seeds on nanowires structural and electronic transport properties was also investigated. Electron microscopy images demonstrated that, despite differences in diameters, all nanowires obtained presented single crystalline structures. X-ray patterns showed that all nanowires were composed by germanium with a small amount of germanium oxide, and the catalyst metal was restricted at the nanowires' tips. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the long range order in the crystalline structure of each sample. Electrical measurements indicated that variable range hopping was the dominant mechanism in carrier transport for all devices, with similar hopping distance, regardless the material used as catalyst. Then, in spite of the differences in synthesis temperatures and nanowires diameters, the catalyst metals have not affected the composition and crystalline quality of the germanium nanowires nor the carrier transport in the germanium nanowire network devices. - Highlights: • Ge nanowires were grown by VLS method using Au, Ag, Cu, In and Ni as catalysts. • All nanowires presented high single crystalline quality and long range order. • Devices showed semiconducting behavior having VRH as dominant transport mechanism. • The metal catalyst did not influence structural properties or the transport mechanism.

  4. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production (United States)

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.; Mahajan, Devinder


    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about C.) and preferably in the range C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  5. Turning a Cr-based heterogeneous ethylene polymerisation catalyst into a selective ethylene trimerisation catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nenu, N.C.; Bodart, P.; Weckhuysen, B.M.


    A Phillips Cr/SiO2 polymerisation catalyst was converted into an ethylene trimerisation catalyst after assembling new active sites on the silica surface in the presence of TAC (1,3,5-triphenylhexahydro 1,3,5-triazacyclohexane) as ligand and CH2Cl2 as solvent. The reaction conditions play a role in

  6. CO methanation over supported bimetallic Ni-Fe catalysts: From computational studies towards catalyst optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kustov, Arkadii; Frey, Anne Mette; Larsen, Kasper Emil


    200-300 degrees C, and characterized using elemental analysis, N-2 physisorption measurements, XRD and TEM. Optimization of the catalyst performance was made by varying the Ni:Fe ratio, the total metal loading and the support material. For both support materials, the bimetallic catalysts...

  7. The capacity of modified nickel catalysts derived from discharged catalyst of fertilizer plants for NOx treatment (United States)

    Ha, T. M. P.; Luong, N. T.; Le, P. N.


    In Vietnam for recent years, a large amount of hazardous waste containing nickel (Ni) derived from discharged catalyst of fertilizer plants has caused environmental problems in landfill overloading and the risk of soil or surface water sources pollution. Taking advantage of discharged catalyst, recycling Ni components and then synthesizing new catalysts apply for mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) treatments is an approach to bring about both economic and environmental benefits. This study was carried out with the main objective: Evaluate the performance of modified catalysts (using recovered Ni from the discharged RKS-2-7H catalyst of Phu My Fertilizer Plant) on NOx treatment. The catalysts was synthesized and modified with active phases consist of recovered Ni and commercial Barium oxide (BaO), Manganese dioxide (MnO2) / Cerium (IV) oxide (CeO2) on the support Aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3). The results show that the modified catalysts with Ni, Ba, Ce was not more beneficial for NOx removal than which with Ni, Ba, Mn. 98% NOx removal at 350°C with the start temperature at 115°C and the T60 value at 307°C can be obtained with 10Ni10Ba10Mn/Al catalyst.

  8. Interaction between Nafion ionomer and noble metal catalyst for PEMFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    The implement of polymer impregnation in electrode structure (catalyst layer) decreasing the noble metal catalyst loading by a factor of ten , , is one of the essential mile stones in the evolution of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells’ development among the application of catalyst support...... and electrode deposition etc. In fuel cell reactions, both electrons and protons are involved. Impregnation of Nafion ionomer in catalyst layer effectively increases the proton-electron contact, enlarge the reaction zone, extend the reaction from the surface to the entire electrode. Therefore, the entire...... catalyst layer conducts both electrons and protons so that catalyst utilization in the layer is improved dramatically. The catalyst layer will in turn generate and sustain a higher current density. One of the generally adapted methods to impregnate Nafion into the catalyst layer is to mix the catalysts...

  9. Catalytic Transformation of Ethylbenzene over Y-Zeolite-based Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman


    Catalytic transformation of ethylbenzene (EB) has been investigated over ultrastable Y (USY)-zeolite-based catalysts in a novel riser simulator at different operating conditions. The effect of reaction conditions on EB conversion is reported. The USY catalyst (FCC-Y) was modified by steaming to form a significantly lower acidity catalyst (FCC-SY). The current study shows that the FCC-SY catalyst favors EB disproportionation more than cracking. A comparison has been made between the results of EB conversion over the lowly acidic catalyst (FCC-SY) and the highly acidic catalyst (FCC-Y) under identical conditions. It was observed that increase in catalyst acidity favored cracking of EB at the expense of disproportionation. Kinetic parameters for EB disappearance during disproportionation reaction over the FCC-SY catalyst were calculated using the catalyst activity decay function based on time on stream (TOS). © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  10. Zircon Supported Copper Catalysts for the Steam Reforming of Methanol (United States)

    Widiastri, M.; Fendy, Marsih, I. N.


    Steam reforming of methanol (SRM) is known as one of the most favorable catalytic processes for producing hydrogen. Current research on zirconia, ZrO2 supported copper catalyst revealed that CuO/ZrO2 as an active catalyst for the SRM. Zircon, ZrSiO4 is available from the by-product of tin mining. In the work presented here, the catalytic properties of CuO/ZrSiO4 with various copper oxide compositions ranging from 2.70% (catalyst I), 4.12% (catalyst II), and 7.12%-mass (catalyst III), synthesized by an incipient wetness impregnation technique, were investigated to methanol conversion, selectivity towards CO formation, and effect of ZnO addition (7.83%CuO/8.01%ZnO/ZrSiO4 = catalyst V). The catalytic activity was obtained using a fixed bed reactor and the zircon supported catalyst activity was compared to those of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst (catalyst IV) and commercial Kujang LTSC catalyst. An X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the abundant phases of the catalysts. The catalysts topography and particle diameter were measured with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and composition of the catalysts was measured by SEM-EDX, scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive using X-ray analysis. The results of this research provide information on the possibility of using zircon (ZrSiO4) as solid support for SRM catalysts.

  11. Biomimetic Water-Oxidation Catalysts: Manganese Oxides. (United States)

    Kurz, Philipp


    The catalytic oxidation of water to molecular oxygen is a key process for the production of solar fuels. Inspired by the biological manganese-based active site for this reaction in the enzyme Photosystem II, researchers have made impressive progress in the last decades regarding the development of synthetic manganese catalysts for water oxidation. For this, it has been especially fruitful to explore the many different types of known manganese oxides MnOx. This chapter first offers an overview of the structural, thermodynamic, and mechanistic aspects of water-oxidation catalysis by MnOx. The different test systems used for catalytic studies are then presented together with general reactivity trends. As a result, it has been possible to identify layered, mixed Mn (III/IV)-oxides as an especially promising class of bio-inspired catalysts and an attempt is made to give structure-based reasons for the good performances of these materials. In the outlook, the challenges of catalyst screenings (and hence the identification of a "best MnOx catalyst") are discussed. There is a great variety of reaction conditions which might be relevant for the application of manganese oxide catalysts in technological solar fuel-producing devices, and thus catalyst improvements are currently still addressing a very large parameter space. Nonetheless, detailed knowledge about the biological catalyst and a solid experimental basis concerning the syntheses and water-oxidation reactivities of MnOx materials have been established in the last decade and thus this research field is well positioned to make important contributions to solar fuel research in the future.

  12. Study on MEA preparation with CoTETA/C catalysts as ORR catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, T.; Zhang, H.J.; Jiang, Q.Z.; Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    Although carbon platinum is the most common cathode catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and zinc-air fuel cells, platinum is rare and costly. As such, there is a need to substitute platinum with a new and inexpensive catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This paper presented a study in which a new non-platinum ORR catalysts was developed, notably the CoTETA/C. Although it demonstrated good performance, it had lower current density. Because of the conductivity and surface wetting properties of CoTETA/C, there was a poor contact between the catalyst layer and membrane of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) prepared by the traditional method, which resulted in higher contact resistance and lower current density. The study showed that the performance of a single cell can be improved by adjusting the ratio of Nafion and catalyst in ink and adding a specified amount of additives to the ink. 1 ref.

  13. Synthesis H-Zeolite catalyst by impregnation KI/KIO3 and performance test catalyst for biodiesel production (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Rizky Wicaksono, Adit; Hakim Firdaus, Lukman; Okvitarini, Ndaru


    The objective of this research is to produce H-catalyst catalyst that was impregnated with KI/KIO3. The catalyst was analyzed about surface area, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and performance test of catalyst for biodiesel production. An H-Zeolite catalyst was synthesized from natural zeolite with chemical treatment processing, impregnation KI/KIO3 and physical treatment. The results shows that the surface area of the catalyst by 27.236 m2/g at a concentration of 5% KI. XRD analysis shows peak 2-θ at 23.627o indicating that KI was impregnated on H-zeolite catalyst. The catalyst was tested in production of biodiesel using palm oil with conventional methods for 3 hour at temperature of 70-80 oC. The result for conversion Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) reached maximum value on 87.91% under production process using catalyst 5% KIO3-H zeolite.

  14. Catalyst and electrode research for phosphoric acid fuel cells (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.; King, R. B.


    An account is given of the development status of phosphoric acid fuel cells' high performance catalyst and electrode materials. Binary alloys have been identified which outperform the baseline platinum catalyst; it has also become apparent that pressurized operation is required to reach the desired efficiencies, calling in turn for the use of graphitized carbon blacks in the role of catalyst supports. Efforts to improve cell performance and reduce catalyst costs have led to the investigation of a class of organometallic cathode catalysts represented by the tetraazaannulenes, and a mixed catalyst which is a mixture of carbons catalyzed with an organometallic and a noble metal.

  15. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [Delphi Automotive Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others


    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

  16. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)


    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  17. Catalyst cartridge for carbon dioxide reduction unit (United States)

    Holmes, R. F. (Inventor)


    A catalyst cartridge, for use in a carbon dioxide reducing apparatus in a life support system for space vehicles, is described. The catalyst cartridge includes an inner perforated metal wall, an outer perforated wall space outwardly from the inner wall, a base plate closing one end of the cartridge, and a cover plate closing the other end of the cartridge. The cover plate has a central aperture through which a supply line with a heater feeds a gaseous reaction mixture comprising hydrogen and carbon dioxide at a temperature from about 1000 to about 1400 F. The outer surfaces of the internal wall and the inner surfaces of the outer wall are lined with a ceramic fiber batting material of sufficient thickness to prevent carbon formed in the reaction from passing through it. The portion of the surfaces of the base and cover plates defined within the inner and outer walls are also lined with ceramic batting. The heated reaction mixture passes outwardly through the inner perforated wall and ceramic batting and over the catalyst. The solid carbon product formes is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The solid carbon product formed is retained within the enclosure containing the catalyst. The water vapor and unreacted carbon dioxide and any intermediate products pass through the perforations of the outer wall.

  18. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts. (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K; Grubbs, Robert H


    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to induce latent behavior toward cross-metathesis reactions, and exchange of the chloride ligands for iodide ligands was necessary to attain latent behavior during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Iodide-based catalysts showed no reactivity toward ROMP of norbornene-derived monomers at 25 °C, and upon heating to 85 °C gave complete conversion of monomer to polymer in less than 2 hours. All of the complexes were very stable to air, moisture, and elevated temperatures up to at least 90 °C, and exhibited a long catalyst lifetime in solution at elevated temperatures.

  19. Selective Oxidations using Nanostructured Heterogeneous Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen

    and because they produce H2O as the only by-product. Chapter 1 gives a short introduction to basic concepts in heterogeneous catalysis and green chemistry. Furthermore, the chapter gives an overview of the most important strategies to synthesise functional nanostructured materials and highlights how detailed......The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop new efficient methods to oxidise alcohols and amines using heterogeneous catalysts and either O2 or H2O2 as oxidants. From an economic and environmental point of view, these oxidants are ideal, because they are cheap and readily available...... understanding of size, shape and structure can help in the development of new and more efficient heterogeneous catalysts. The chapter is not intended to give a complete survey, but rather to introduce some of the recent developments in the synthesis of nanostructured heterogeneous catalysts. Finally...

  20. Heterogeneous Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris D. Argyle


    Full Text Available Deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts is a ubiquitous problem that causes loss of catalytic rate with time. This review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing. The key features and considerations for each of these deactivation types is reviewed in detail with reference to the latest literature reports in these areas. Two case studies on the deactivation mechanisms of catalysts used for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch and selective catalytic reduction are considered to provide additional depth in the topics of sintering, coking, poisoning, and fouling. Regeneration considerations and options are also briefly discussed for each deactivation mechanism.

  1. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos


    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  2. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...... demonstrated by the Danish Technological Institute; however, for the technology to become more widely adapted, the power density of the fuel cell must be increased. It is well known that a considerable part of the energy from the methanol is lost in the fuel cell during the conversion due to poor kinetics....... The kinetics can however be improved by using a superior catalyst. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to identify new catalyst material for methanol fuel cells. By analysing the performance of the standard catalysts (PtRu and Pt) currently being applied in methanol fuel cells as anode and cathode...

  3. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming (United States)

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.


    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  4. Low temperature catalyst system for methanol production (United States)

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.


    This patent discloses a catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (150/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The catalyst components are used in slurry form and comprise (1) a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-ROH-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and (2) a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. For the first component, Nic is preferred (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). For the second component, Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is preferred. The mixture is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  5. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production (United States)

    Mahajan, Devinder; Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; O'Hare, Thomas E.


    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  6. Pt/C Fuel Cell Catalyst Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zana, Alessandro

    This thesis investigates the degradation behavior of Pt/C catalysts under simulated automotive conditions. By using the “tool box” synthesis method the Pt loading has been changed from low to high Pt loadings, therefore permitting to study the role of Pt on the degradation of high surface area (HSA......) Pt/C catalyst. Diverse degradation mechanisms have been found to be responsible for the electrochemical surface area loss (ECSA). The different degradation mechanisms have been found to be dependent from the diverse potential windows applied during the stress test. Furthermore the synthesis approach......, i.e. Vulcan XC72R and Ketjenblack EC-300J. The ECSA loss measured for Vulcan XC72R was significantly higher after start/stop than for Ketjenblack EC-300J. To this concern the Pt loaded Vulcan XC72R and Ketjenblack EC- 300J has been studied by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of the catalysts...

  7. Protein Scaffolding for Small Molecule Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    We aim to design hybrid catalysts for energy production and storage that combine the high specificity, affinity, and tunability of proteins with the potent chemical reactivities of small organometallic molecules. The widely used Rosetta and RosettaDesign methodologies will be extended to model novel protein / small molecule catalysts in which one or many small molecule active centers are supported and coordinated by protein scaffolding. The promise of such hybrid molecular systems will be demonstrated with the nickel-phosphine hydrogenase of DuBois et. al.We will enhance the hydrogenase activity of the catalyst by designing protein scaffolds that incorporate proton relays and systematically modulate the local environment of the catalyticcenter. In collaboration with DuBois and Shaw, the designs will be experimentally synthesized and characterized.

  8. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material (United States)

    Utz, Bruce R.; Cugini, Anthony V.


    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  9. Homogeneous and heterogenized iridium water oxidation catalysts (United States)

    Macchioni, Alceo


    The development of an efficient catalyst for the oxidative splitting of water into molecular oxygen, protons and electrons is of key importance for producing solar fuels through artificial photosynthesis. We are facing the problem by means of a rational approach aimed at understanding how catalytic performance may be optimized by the knowledge of the reaction mechanism of water oxidation and the fate of the catalytic site under the inevitably harsh oxidative conditions. For the purposes of our study we selected iridium water oxidation catalysts, exhibiting remarkable performance (TOF > 5 s-1 and TON > 20000). In particular, we recently focused our attention on [Cp*Ir(N,O)X] (N,O = 2-pyridincarboxylate; X = Cl or NO3) and [IrCl(Hedta)]Na water oxidation catalysts. The former exhibited a remarkable TOF whereas the latter showed a very high TON. Furthermore, [IrCl(Hedta)]Na was heterogenized onto TiO2 taking advantage of the presence of a dandling -COOH functionality. The heterogenized catalyst maintained approximately the same catalytic activity of the homogeneous analogous with the advantage that could be reused many times. Mechanistic studies were performed in order to shed some light on the rate-determining step and the transformation of catalysts when exposed to "oxidative stress". It was found that the last oxidative step, preceding oxygen liberation, is the rate-determining step when a small excess of sacrificial oxidant is used. In addition, several intermediates of the oxidative transformation of the catalyst were intercepted and characterized by NMR, X-Ray diffractometry and ESI-MS.

  10. Preliminary toxicological study of Silastic 386 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Drake, G.A.; Holland, L.M.; Jackson, D.E.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Thomas, R.G.


    The calculated acute oral LD/sub 50//sup 30/ values for Silastic 386 catalyst were 1225 mg/kg in mice and 4350 mg/kg in rats. According to classical guidelines, the compound would be slightly to moderately toxic in both species. Skin application studies in the rabbit demonstrated the compound to be mildly irritating. The eye irritation study disclosed the compound to be a severe irritant causing conjunctivitis, photophobia, corneal edema, corneal ulceration, anterior uveitis, and keratitis. The sensitization study in the guinea pig did not show Silastic 386 catalyst to be deleterious in this regard.

  11. Catalysis by nonmetals rules for catalyst selection

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Oleg V


    Catalysis by Non-metals: Rules of Catalyst Selection presents the development of scientific principles for the collection of catalysts. It discusses the investigation of the mechanism of chemosorption and catalysis. It addresses a series of properties of solid with catalytic activity. Some of the topics covered in the book are the properties of a solid and catalytic activity in oxidation-reduction reactions; the difference of electronegativities and the effective charges of atoms; the role of d-electrons in the catalytic properties of a solid; the color of solids; and proton-acid and proton-ba

  12. Resin catalysts and method of preparation (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.


    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  13. Ruthenium-Aryloxide Catalysts for Olefin Metathesis (United States)

    Monfette, Sebastien; Blacquiere, Johanna M.; Conrad, Jay C.; Beach, Nicholas J.; Fogg, Deryn E.

    : Advances in design of ruthenium aryloxide catalysts for olefin metathesis are described. The target complexes are accessible on reaction of RuCl2(NHC)(py)2 (CHPh) (NHC - N-heterocyclic carbene) with electron-deficient, monodentate aryl- oxides, or aryloxides that yield small, rigid chelate rings. The best of these catalysts offer activity comparable to or greater than that of the parent chloride (Grubbs) systems in ring-closing metathesis (RCM). Preliminary studies of the electronic nature of the Ru-X bond suggest that the metal center is more electropositive in the aryloxide complexes than in the Grubbs systems.

  14. Asymptotic stability of a catalyst particle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedel, Stig; Michelsen, Michael L.; Villadsen, John


    The catalyst asymptotic stability problem is studied by means of several new methods that allow accurate solutions to be calculated where other methods have given qualitatively erroneous results. The underlying eigenvalue problem is considered in three limiting situations Le = ∞, 1 and 0. These a......The catalyst asymptotic stability problem is studied by means of several new methods that allow accurate solutions to be calculated where other methods have given qualitatively erroneous results. The underlying eigenvalue problem is considered in three limiting situations Le = ∞, 1 and 0...

  15. Silver Cluster Catalysts for Green Organic Synthesis


    Shimizu, Ken-ichi; Satsuma, Atsushi


    Development of platinum-group-metal (PGM)-free  catalysts for green chemical synthesis is an important topic in synthetic catalysis, because PGM will soon be in short supply in the near future. Our group has paid attention to the catalytic functions of Ag clusters. Here, we summarize our recent work on size- and support-specific catalysis of Ag clusters for green organic synthesis. Ag clusters supported on Al2O3 act as effective heterogeneous catalysts for (1) oxidant-free dehydrogenation of ...

  16. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monopropellants are readily ignited or decomposed over a bed of solid catalyst. A serious limitation of existing catalysts in the ignition of advanced...

  17. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA


    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  18. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  19. Preparation of Heterogeneous CaO Catalysts for Biodiesel Production (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Darmawan, T.; Hadiyanto, H.; Rosyid, R. Ar


    The objective of this research was to develop heterogeneous catalysts from three CaO sources for biodiesel synthesis. The CaO catalyst were prepared from limestone, calcium hydroxide and calciun carbonate with thermal processing in a muffle furnace at 900°C.. The results showed that CaO catalyst from limestone has better characteristic than catalyst from Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. From morphology testing, the CaO catalyst derived from limestone formed a crystal, while The X-ray difraction analysis showed that the amount of CaO contained in limestone was the highest among the others. The yield of biodiesel obtained from the experiment was 89.98% for the catalyst from limestone; 85.15% for the catalyst Ca (OH)2; and 78.71% for CaCO3 catalyst.

  20. Ruthenium-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH-responsive ligands: External control of catalyst solubility and activity (United States)

    Balof, Shawna Lynn


    Sixteen novel, Ru-based olefin metathesis catalysts bearing pH responsive ligands were synthesized. The pH-responsive groups employed with these catalysts included dimethylamino (NMe2) modified NHC ligands as well as N-donor dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and 3-(o-pyridyl)propylidene ligands. These pH-responsive ligands provided the means by which the solubility and/or activity profiles of the catalysts produced could be controlled via acid addition. The main goal of this dissertation was to design catalyst systems capable of performing ring opening metathesis (ROMP) and ring closing metathesis (RCM) reactions in both organic and aqueous media. In an effort to quickly gain access to new catalyst structures, a template synthesis for functionalized NHC ligand precursors was designed, in addition to other strategies, to obtain ligand precursors with ancillary NMe2 groups. Kinetic studies for the catalysts produced from these precursors showed external control of catalyst solubility was afforded via protonation of the NMe2 groups of their NHC ligands. Additionally, this protonation afforded external control of catalyst propagation rates for several catalysts. This is the first known independent external control for the propagation rates of ROMP catalysts. The incorporation of pH-responsive N-donor ligands into catalyst structures also provided the means for the external control of metathesis activity, as the protonation of these ligands resulted in an increased initiation rate based on their fast and irreversible dissociation from the metal center. The enhanced external control makes these catalysts applicable to a wide range of applications, some of which have been explored by us and/or through collaboration. Three of the catalysts designed showed remarkable metathesis activity in aqueous media. These catalysts displayed comparable RCM activity in aqueous media to a class of water-soluble catalysts reported by Grubbs et al., considered to be the most active catalyst for

  1. Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K


    A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

  2. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream (United States)

    Granite, Evan J [Wexford, PA; Pennline, Henry W [Bethel Park, PA


    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  3. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe


    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  4. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL


    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging

  5. Electron microscopic studies of natural gas oxidation catalyst – Effects of thermally accelerated aging on catalyst microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honkanen, Mari; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Jiang, Hua


    Structural changes of PtPd nanoparticles in a natural gas oxidation catalyst were studied at elevated temperatures in air and low-oxygen conditions and in situ using environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). The fresh catalyst shows

  6. An overview on the applications of 'Doyle catalysts' in asymmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Johnson Matthey has recently obtained a worldwide exclusive licence to manufacture and sell a unique class of chiral dirhodium(II) carboxamidate catalysts called 'Doyle catalysts'. These homogeneous catalysts are capable of producing chiral cyclopropanes, cyclopropenes and C–H insertion products of very high ...

  7. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming. (United States)

    Davidson, Stephen D; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong


    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  8. Calcined eggshell (CES): An efficient natural catalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    juice as a natural acid catalyst.27. In continuation with our research program concern- ing the development of natural catalysts, we are report- ing here CES as an efficient natural base catalyst for. Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes and active methylene compounds (scheme 1). To optimize the reaction ...

  9. Attrition resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and support (United States)

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.


    A catalyst support having improved attrition resistance and a catalyst produced therefrom. The catalyst support is produced by a method comprising the step of treating calcined .gamma.-alumina having no catalytic material added thereto with an acidic aqueous solution having an acidity level effective for increasing the attrition resistance of the calcined .gamma.-alumina.

  10. 40 CFR 91.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 91.329....329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for termally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10 °C. (b) Evaluation...

  11. 40 CFR 91.427 - Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress resistance... Procedures § 91.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation. (a)(1) The purpose of the evaluation procedure specified in this section is to determine the effect of thermal stress on catalyst conversion...

  12. 40 CFR 90.329 - Catalyst thermal stress test. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Catalyst thermal stress test. 90.329... Equipment Provisions § 90.329 Catalyst thermal stress test. (a) Oven characteristics. The oven used for thermally stressing the test catalyst must be capable of maintaining a temperature of 500 ±5 °C and 1000 ±10...

  13. Energetic Mapping of Ni Catalysts by Detailed Kinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørgum, Erlend; Chen, De; Bakken, Mari G.


    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO has been performed on supported and unsupported nickel catalysts. The unsupported Ni catalyst consists of a Ni(14 13 13) single crystal which has been studied under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The desorption energy for CO at low CO surface coverage w...... nicely with literature values, providing useful information for identifying active sites on supported Ni catalysts....

  14. Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.


    This paper describes a process for the separation of catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The separation is accomplished by extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic. The purified catalyst can be upgraded by various methods.

  15. Catalyst. Volume 10, Number 3, Spring 2009 (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.


    "Catalyst" is a publication of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) The National Study of Student Hazing Initial Findings; (2) The Social Norms Marketing Research Project--An Update; (3) Message From William…

  16. Pt/C Fuel Cell Catalyst Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zana, Alessandro

    This thesis investigates the degradation behavior of Pt/C catalysts under simulated automotive conditions. By using the “tool box” synthesis method the Pt loading has been changed from low to high Pt loadings, therefore permitting to study the role of Pt on the degradation of high surface area (H...

  17. Sintering of nickel steam reforming catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Niels Wessel; Falsig, Hanne


    . In this paper, particle migration and coalescence in nickel steam reforming catalysts is studied. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Ni-OH dominate nickel transport at nickel surfaces in the presence of steam and hydrogen as Ni-OH has the lowest combined energies of formation and diffusion...

  18. Catalysts by Design: The Power of Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon


    Theoretical design of effective catalysts, in conjunction with the identification of guiding design principles and strategies, is a Holy Grail in Chemistry. Although further progress will benefit from additional computational advances, theoretical studies have already enhanced the design of molecular electrocatalysts, photocatalysts, and enzymes.

  19. Sexual selection studies: A NESCent catalyst meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roughgarden, J.; Adkins-Regan, E.; Akcay, E.; Hinde, C.A.; Hoquet, T.; O'Connor, C.; Prokop, Z.M.; Prum, R.O.; Shafir, S.; Snow, S.S.; Taylor, D.; Cleve, Van J.; Weisberg, M.


    A catalyst meeting on sexual selection studies was held in July 2013 at the facilities of the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent) in Durham, NC. This article by a subcommittee of the participants foregrounds some of the topics discussed at the meeting. Topics mentioned here include the

  20. Catalyst. Volume 11, Number 3, Summer 2010 (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.


    "Catalyst" is a publication of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) From Competition To Collaboration College Alcohol Prevention in an Era of Competing Risks; (2) A Public Health Approach to Mental Health…

  1. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong


    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  2. Attrition resistant gamma-alumina catalyst support (United States)

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.


    A .gamma.-alumina catalyst support having improved attrition resistance produced by a method comprising the steps of treating a particulate .gamma.-alumina material with an acidic aqueous solution comprising water and nitric acid and then, prior to adding any catalytic material thereto, calcining the treated .gamma.-alumina.

  3. Catalyst. Volume 12, Number 1, Winter 2011 (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011


    "Catalyst" is a publication of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What Science Tells Us About Impaired Driving Behavior And Consequences Among U.S. College Students; (2) Message From Kevin Jennings, OSDFS Assistant…

  4. Solid Acid Catalysts in Green Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 10. Solid Acid Catalysts in Green Chemistry - Some Practical Examples. Leena Rao. General Article Volume 12 Issue 10 October 2007 pp 30-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Solid Acid Catalysts in Green Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 8. Solid Acid Catalysts in Green Chemistry - Emerging Eco-Friendly Practices in Chemical Industry. Leena Rao. General Article Volume 12 Issue 8 August 2007 pp 65-75 ...

  6. Catalyst design for clean and efficient fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel

    cobalt promoted MoS2 catalyst. Reactivity of a series of model molecules, found in oil prior to desulfurization, is studied on cobalt promoted MoS2. Such an approach has the potential to explain the underlying processes involved in the removal of sulfur at each specific site of the catalyst. The goal...... is to identify which sites are active towards specific molecules and in getting insight to what the ideal catalyst should look like in terms of morphology. Dimethyl carbonate is an environmentally benign compound that can be used as a solvent and precursor in chemical synthesis or as a fuel and fuel additive...... processes currently used. It is found that noble metals can be used as electrocatalysts for the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate, significantly lowering the potential when using copper instead of gold. Besides being active, copper was found to be selective towards dimethyl carbonate. A non-selective catalyst...

  7. Theoretical studies of homogeneous catalysts mimicking nitrogenase. (United States)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Franco, Duvan; Magistrato, Alessandra


    The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen 'fixation' via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N₂ to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N₂)(HIPTN)₃N with (HIPTN)₃N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N₂. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  8. Theoretical Studies of Homogeneous Catalysts Mimicking Nitrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magistrato


    Full Text Available The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen ‘fixation’ via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N2 to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N2(HIPTN3N with (HIPTN3N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N2. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  9. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej


    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  10. In-situ hydrodeoxygenation of phenol by supported Ni catalyst-explanation for catalyst performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ze; Zeng, Ying; Lin, Weigang


    performance improved. If gaseous hydrogen was used as the hydrogen source the activity of Ni/Al2O3 was pretty high. CO2 was found poisonous to the catalysis, due to the competitive adoption of phenol with CO2. If formic acid was replaced by methanol, the catalyst performance improved remarkably, with major...... products of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. The better effect of methanol enlightened the application of the supported Ni catalyst in in-situ hydrodeoxygenation of phenol....

  11. On the degradation of fuel cell catalyst. From model systems to high surface area catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenz, M. [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Chemistry


    In the presented work, as an alternative accelerated degradation tests in the form of half-cell measurements combined with identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM){sup 10,} {sup 11} are presented. It is demonstrated that for different catalysts the degradation mechanism can be scrutinized in detail. Thus this approach enables the systematic investigation of fuel cell catalyst degradation in a reduced period of time. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU Ionuţ Valentin


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the existence of fractal and pollution prevention methods. One way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from motor vehicles is to systematically collect and dispose of any waste (high emissions. This paper treats a new type of catalyst, the catalytic oxidation process improvement. This new type of catalyst can be produced at sizes much smaller than those on the market because the surface of monolithic spiral have introduced a series of fractals.

  13. Catalysts for biobased fuels. New catalyst formulations for vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology


    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by biobased motor fuels operating in urban traffic. In this report an experimental study of catalytic oxidation of ethanol in a laboratory flow reactor is presented. The miniature catalyst samples consisted of monolithic cordierite substrates onto which various combinations of washcoat material and active material were applied. Oxides of Cu and Cu-Mn, as well as different combinations of precious metals were evaluated as active material supported on various washcoat materials. The experimental conditions were chosen in order to simulate the exhaust from a diesel engine fuelled by neat ethanol. Catalyst characterization included measurements of BET surface area and pore size distribution as well as temperature programmed reduction (TPR) analysis. When comparing the TPR profiles with the light-off curves from the ethanol oxidation experiments, we have found an indication of a correlation between activity and reducibility of the catalyst. There also seems to be a correlation between TPR profile and pore size distribution for titania-supported catalysts. When combining two precious metals as active material, a positive synergistic effect has been observed. The light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) is considerably lower for some of these combinations than for the corresponding monometallic catalysts. The base metal oxide catalysts tested were more selective for oxidation of ethanol to carbon dioxide and water than the precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate that the oxidation of nitric oxide to the more hazardous nitrogen dioxide can be suppressed by using a suitable combination of active material and washcoat material 45 refs, 97 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Precious metal compounds and recovery. Fischer-Tropsch catalysts and catalysts for hydroformylation and oxo processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapp, J.; Arndt, M. [W.C. Heraeus GmbH, Hanau (Germany); Meyer, H. [Heraeus Metal Processing Inc., Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States)


    Solid-phase Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, which are used in the emerging field of interest known as ''Gas-to-Liquid'' (GTL), consist to a high percentage of cobalt. In addition, they contain on a value basis, a considerable amount of platinum group metals or rhenium as promoters. Therefore, there is an imperative need for economically feasible recycling processes triggered not only by the value of the metals in spent Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, but also by the potentially limited availability of promoters like rhenium. Heraeus, as a precious metal expert, is supporting this important technology with its profound know-how in developing tailor-made hydrometallurgical recycling processes for all kinds of catalyst systems. Besides giving an overview of state-of-the-art recovery processes, this paper will clarify the economic and environmental aspects involved. Hydroformylation and oxo processes are technologies which consume a major percentage of homogeneous catalysts worldwide. The focus lies on organometallic compounds with rhodium as the catalytic center. With significant rises of the rhodium price, many companies are being pushed to look more closely at the involved recycling terms. Accordingly, Heraeus is proud to offer its HeraCYCLE {sup registered} recovery process recently developed for homogeneous catalysts in particular. Furthermore, Heraeus manufactures the required quantities of fresh homogeneous catalysts ensuring highest quality standards. Key economic, technical, and environmental aspects of the precious metal loops will be covered by this paper. (orig.)

  15. Simulation three-way catalyst ageing. Analysis of two conventional catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.; Arranz, J.L.; Galan, M.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Textil, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Prieto, O.; Trujillano, R.; Holgado, M.J.; Rives, V. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n 1-5, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)


    Two commercial automobile three-way catalysts (RENAULT) of different configuration: (I) Pt, Rh active phase supported on ceria-promoted alumina washcoat, and (II) Pd, Rh active phase supported on zirconia-ceria-promoted alumina washcoat on cordierite supports, have been compared fresh and aged in a conventional automobile for 100,000km in order to design and to adjust a catalyst ageing method suitable to imitate most relevant conditions of real tests. The characterization techniques were N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, powder X-Ray diffraction, elemental chemical analysis and activity tests. Activity tests were: (1) CO, NO and CH{sub 4} conversion versus temperature (from 120 to 500C), and (2) CO, NO and CH{sub 4} conversion versus the ratio between the concentrations of the oxidant and reducing species ({lambda}) at 500C (normal running temperature). Gas composition was close to conventional engine exhaust composition with and without water vapour. A strong deactivation has been observed as a consequence of thermal processes and loss of catalyst washcoat mainly for catalyst (II). Poison concentration along the catalyst has also been shown, however, its influence on catalyst deactivation was not as important as thermal processes were.

  16. Catalysts for Efficient Production of Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Dong, Yi


    Several metal alloys have shown promise as improved catalysts for catalytic thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon gases to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Heretofore almost every experiment on the production of carbon nanotubes by this method has involved the use of iron, nickel, or cobalt as the catalyst. However, the catalytic-conversion efficiencies of these metals have been observed to be limited. The identification of better catalysts is part of a continuing program to develop means of mass production of high-quality carbon nanotubes at costs lower than those achieved thus far (as much as $100/g for purified multi-wall CNTs or $1,000/g for single-wall CNTs in year 2002). The main effort thus far in this program has been the design and implementation of a process tailored specifically for high-throughput screening of alloys for catalyzing the growth of CNTs. The process includes an integral combination of (1) formulation of libraries of catalysts, (2) synthesis of CNTs from decomposition of ethylene on powders of the alloys in a pyrolytic chemical-vapor-decomposition reactor, and (3) scanning- electron-microscope screening of the CNTs thus synthesized to evaluate the catalytic efficiencies of the alloys. Information gained in this process is put into a database and analyzed to identify promising alloy compositions, which are to be subjected to further evaluation in a subsequent round of testing. Some of these alloys have been found to catalyze the formation of carbon nano tubes from ethylene at temperatures as low as 350 to 400 C. In contrast, the temperatures typically required for prior catalysts range from 550 to 750 C.

  17. Nitroaldol reaction over solid base catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutu, Kazumasa; Kabashima, Hajime; Seki, Tsunetake; Hattori, Hideshi [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)


    Nitroaldol reaction of a nitro compound with a carbonyl compound was carried out over a variety of solid base catalysts to elucidate the activity-determining factors in the nature of the catalysts and in the nature of nitro and carbonyl compounds. Among the catalysts examined, MgO, CaO, Ba(OH){sub 2}, KOH/alumina, KF/alumina, Sr(OH){sub 2}, hydrotalcite, and MgCO{sub 3} exhibited high activity for nitroaldol reaction of nitromethane with propionaldehyde, the activities being in this order. Over these catalysts, the yields exceeded 20% at a reaction temperature of 313K and a reaction time of 1h. Mg(OH){sub 2}, {gamma}-alumina, SrO, Ca(OH){sub 2}, BaCO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3}, BaO, and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibited moderate activites; the yield were in the range 20-2%. CaCO{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, and ZnO scarcely showed the activity. It is suggested that strongly basic sites are not required for the reaction because the abstraction of a proton from a nitro compound is easy. The reactivities of the nitro compounds were nitroethane > nitromethane > 2-nitropropane, and those of carbonyl compounds were propionaldehyde>isobutyraldehyde>pivalaldehyde>acetone>benzaldehyde>methylpro pionate. On the basis of IR study of adsorbed reactants and the reactivities of the reactants, the reaction mechanisms are proposed. The reaction proceeds by the nucleophilic addition of the carbanion formed by the abstraction of a proton from nitro compounds to the cationic species formed by the adsorption of carbonyl compounds on the acidic sites (metal cations). The nitroaldol reaction of nitromethane with propionaldehyde over MgO was scarcely poisoned by carbon dioxide and water; nitromethane is so acidic that it is able to be adsorbed on the catalyst on which carbon dioxide or water was preadsorbed.

  18. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly [Orlando, FL; Rossin, Joseph A [Columbus, OH; Knapke, Michael J [Columbus, OH


    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least C. at a heating rate of from Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  19. Pre-treatment of biomasses using magnetised sulfonic acid catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Ansanay


    Full Text Available There is a significant interest in employing solid acid catalysts for pre-treatment of biomasses for subsequent hydrolysis into sugars, because solid acid catalysts facilitate reusability, high activity, and easier separation. Hence the present research investigated pretreatment of four lignocellulosic biomasses, namely Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L ‘Alamo’, Gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus and Triticale hay (Triticale hexaploide Lart. at 90°C for 2 h using three carbon-supported sulfonic acid catalysts. The catalysts were synthesized via impregnating p-Toluenesulfonic acid on carbon (regular and further impregnated with iron nitrate via two methods to obtain magnetic A and magnetic B catalysts. When tested as pre-treatment agents, a maximum total lignin reduction of 17.73±0.63% was observed for Triticale hay treated with magnetic A catalyst. Furthermore, maximum glucose yield after enzymatic hydrolysis was observed to be 203.47±5.09 mg g–1 (conversion of 65.07±1.63% from Switchgrass treated with magnetic A catalyst. When reusability of magnetised catalysts were tested, it was observed that magnetic A catalyst was consistent for Gamagrass, Miscanthus × Giganteus and Triticale hay, while magnetic B catalyst was found to maintain consistent yield for switchgrass feedstock. Our results suggested that magnetised solid acid catalyst could pre-treat various biomass stocks and also can potentially reduce the use of harsh chemicals and make bioenergy processes environment friendly.

  20. FY 1997 report on the development of excellent catalysts for creation of new industries. New frontier catalyst 21; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (shinsangyo sosei no tame no excellence catalyst no kaihatsu). New frontier catalyst 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Survey was made for establishment of an effective fast search technique of practical catalysts. Catalyst technology is an important basic technology for industrial fields such as energy and environment fields. In many cases, catalysts have been developed by trial and error consuming a long time and huge research cost. Study was made on efficient analysis and measurement techniques, and systematic production technique of advanced catalysts based on these techniques. This survey was effective in finding a guidance for improving catalysts used in the previous processes, and facilitating searches for fields previously slow in development of catalysts. Advanced catalysts possible to actively selectively produce target products under high pressure/temperature conditions are much in demand. Recently in-situ analysis technology for observing molecules and material surfaces under ultrahigh-pressure/temperature conditions has been studied. Observational study was made on catalytic behavior under catalytic reaction condition using partial oxidation, selective hydrogenation and isomerization as model reactions. 111 refs., 103 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Phosphine-Free EWG-Activated Ruthenium Olefin Metathesis Catalysts (United States)

    Grela, Karol; Szadkowska, Anna; Michrowska, Anna; Bieniek, Michal; Sashuk, Volodymyr

    Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst has been successfully fine-tuned by us in order to increase its activity and applicability by the introduction of electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs) to diminish donor properties of the oxygen atom. As a result, the stable and easily accessible nitro-substituted Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst has found a number of successful applications in various research and industrial laboratories. Some other EWG-activated Hoveyda-type catalysts are commercially available. The results described herewith demonstrate that the activity of ruthenium (Ru) metathesis catalysts can be enhanced by introduction of EWGs without detriment to catalysts stability. Equally noteworthy is the observation that different Ru catalysts turned out to be optimal for different applications. This shows that no single catalyst outperforms all others in all possible applications.

  2. New Claus catalyst tests accurately reflect process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglio, A.; Schubert, P.F.


    Methods for testing Claus catalysts are developed that more accurately represent the actual operating conditions in commercial sulfur recovery units. For measuring catalyst activity, an aging method has been developed that results in more meaningful activity data after the catalyst has been aged, because all catalysts undergo rapid initial deactivation in commercial units. An activity test method has been developed where catalysts can be compared at less than equilibrium conversion. A test has also been developed to characterize abrasion loss of Claus catalysts, in contrast to the traditional method of determining physical properties by measuring crush strengths. Test results from a wide range of materials correlated well with actual pneumatic conveyance attrition. Substantial differences in Claus catalyst properties were observed as a result of using these tests.

  3. Catalyst deposition for the preparation of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Disclosed is a method of depositing islands of catalyst with a predetermined density, wherein in said method comprises the steps of: obtaining a diffusion barrier covered nano patterned surface comprising a plurality of plateaus, having a density of plateaus dependent on the predetermined density...... of islands of catalyst; depositing catalyst on said diffusion barrier covered nano patterned surface; and heating the diffusion barrier covered nano patterned surface after catalyst has been deposited, to anneal the catalyst, whereby islands of catalyst is formed. Wherein said diffusion barrier covered nano...... patterned surface is configured to ensure that no more than a single island of catalyst is formed on each plateau, so that a sub sequent growth of carbon nanotubes from the deposited islands result in that no more than a single carbon nanotube is grown from each plateau....

  4. Novel Attrition-Resistant Fischer Tropsch Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weast, Logan, E.; Staats, William, R.


    There is a strong national interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process because it offers the possibility of making liquid hydrocarbon fuels from reformed natural gas or coal and biomass gasification products. This project explored a new approach that had been developed to produce active, attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that are based on glass-ceramic materials and technology. This novel approach represented a promising solution to the problem of reducing or eliminating catalyst attrition and maximizing catalytic activity, thus reducing costs. The technical objective of the Phase I work was to demonstrate that glass-ceramic based catalytic materials for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis have resistance to catalytic deactivation and reduction of particle size superior to traditional supported Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials. Additionally, these novel glass-ceramic-based materials were expected to exhibit catalytic activity similar to the traditional materials. If successfully developed, the attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials would be expected to result in significant technical, economic, and social benefits for both producers and public consumers of Fischer-Tropsch products such as liquid fuels from coal or biomass gasification. This program demonstrated the anticipated high attrition resistance of the glass-ceramic materials. However, the observed catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient to justify further development at this time. Additional testing documented that a lack of pore volume in the glass-ceramic materials limited the amount of surface area available for catalysis and consequently limited catalytic activity. However, previous work on glass-ceramic catalysts to promote other reactions demonstrated that commercial levels of activity can be achieved, at least for those reactions. Therefore, we recommend that glass-ceramic materials be considered again as potential Fischer-Tropsch catalysts if it can be

  5. Controlling Proton Delivery through Catalyst Structural Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Allan J.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Kumar, Neeraj; Hou, Jianbo; Raugei, Simone; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.; Bullock, R. Morris; O' Hagan, Molly J.


    The fastest synthetic molecular catalysts for production and oxidation of H2 emulate components of the active site of natural hydrogenases. The role of controlled structural dynamics is recognized as a critical component in the catalytic performance of many enzymes, including hydrogenases, but is largely neglected in the design of synthetic molecular cata-lysts. In this work, the impact of controlling structural dynamics on the rate of production of H2 was studied for a series of [Ni(PPh2NC6H4-R2)2]2+ catalysts including R = n-hexyl, n-decyl, n-tetradecyl, n-octadecyl, phenyl, or cyclohexyl. A strong correlation was observed between the ligand structural dynamics and the rates of electrocatalytic hydrogen production in acetonitrile, acetonitrile-water, and protic ionic liquid-water mixtures. Specifically, the turnover frequencies correlate inversely with the rates of ring inversion of the amine-containing ligand, as this dynamic process dictates the positioning of the proton relay in the second coordination sphere and therefore governs protonation at either catalytically productive or non-productive sites. This study demonstrates that the dynamic processes involved in proton delivery can be controlled through modifications of the outer coordination sphere of the catalyst, similar to the role of the protein architecture in many enzymes. The present work provides new mechanistic insight into the large rate enhancements observed in aqueous protic ionic liquid media for the [Ni(PPh2NR2)]2+ family of catalysts. The incorporation of controlled structural dynamics as a design parameter to modulate proton delivery in molecular catalysts has enabled H2 production rates that are up to three orders of magnitude faster than the [Ni(PPh2NPh2)]2+complex. The observed turnover frequencies are up to 106 s-1 in acetonitrile-water, and over 107 s-1 in protic ionic liquid-water mixtures, with a minimal increase in overpotential. This material is based upon work supported as part of

  6. Alternative deNOx catalysts and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Johannes

    in the formation of acid rain and photochemical smog. Some basic concepts and reactions regarding the formation and removal of NOx are presented in chapter 1 and 2. Two approaches are undertaken in the present work to reduce the emission of NOx: by means of catalytic removal, and by NO absorption in ionic liquids...... a catalyst less susceptible to the poisons present in the flue gas, a number of catalysts have been synthesized and tested in the present work, all based on commercially available supports. A highly acidic support consisting of sulfated zirconia was chosen based on preliminary studies. A number of different...... permolecule ionic liquid. However, [BMIM]OTf exhibited promising behavior due to its reversible absorption/desorption properties. This in principle allows recycling of the ionic liquid as well as harvesting the NO. The accumulated NO could hereby be used in e.g. the synthesis of nitric acid allowing...

  7. Improving performance of catalysts for water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus

    This Ph.D. thesis presents work on non-noble metal oxide catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction, OER. This reaction is currently a bottleneck in electrolyzer technologies, which are promising for energy storage purposes. In particular, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane, PEM, cells are attractive...... for decentralised hydrogen stations. PEM electrolyzers rely on scarce noble metals to achieve high effciency and durability, which limits the scalability of the technology. Finding new catalysts for OER is therefore a thriving research field with new materials being reported frequently. However, many of these new...... was evaluated with Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance measurements combined with Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that a stable electrochemical performance can be achieved, while a constant mass loss is occurring. The proposed protocol can guide future research efforts...

  8. Catalyst Deactivation: Control Relevance of Model Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Lie


    Full Text Available Two principles for describing catalyst deactivation are discussed, one based on the deactivation mechanism, the other based on the activity and catalyst age distribution. When the model is based upon activity decay, it is common to use a mean activity developed from the steady-state residence time distribution. We compare control-relevant properties of such an approach with those of a model based upon the deactivation mechanism. Using a continuous stirred tank reactor as an example, we show that the mechanistic approach and the population balance approach lead to identical models. However, common additional assumptions used for activity-based models lead to model properties that may deviate considerably from the correct one.

  9. Spheroidal catalyst for oxidation of sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhlenov, I.P.; Safonov, I.S.; Khripunov, N.F.


    Fluidized beds have proven useful in a number of oxidation processes, including the oxidation of sulfur dioxide. However, oxidation of SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 3/ under fluidized bed conditions is a fairly difficult task which involves solving a number of problems of various character. A fluidized bed catalyst (KS catalyst) was developed using the recipes proposed by F.F. Zamyatina and N.S. Gol'derbiter. The support, which permitted the problem of wear resistance to be solved, was spherical aluminosilicate to which a sufficient amount of active component could be applied and whose structure could be easily modified in the synthesis process, thereby creating a specific range of pore sizes providing high activity.

  10. Relating FTS Catalyst Properties to Performance (United States)

    Ma, Wenping; Ramana Rao Pendyala, Venkat; Gao, Pei; Jermwongratanachai, Thani; Jacobs, Gary; Davis, Burton H.


    During the reporting period June 23, 2011 to August 31, 2013, CAER researchers carried out research in two areas of fundamental importance to the topic of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS): promoters and stability. The first area was research into possible substitute promoters that might be used to replace the expensive promoters (e.g., Pt, Re, and Ru) that are commonly used. To that end, three separate investigations were carried out. Due to the strong support interaction of ?-Al2O3 with cobalt, metal promoters are commonly added to commercial FTS catalysts to facilitate the reduction of cobalt oxides and thereby boost active surface cobalt metal sites. To date, the metal promoters examined have been those up to and including Group 11. Because two Group 11 promoters (i.e., Ag and Au) were identified to exhibit positive impacts on conversion, selectivity, or both, research was undertaken to explore metals in Groups 12 - 14. The three metals selected for this purpose were Cd, In, and Sn. At a higher loading of 25%Co on alumina, 1% addition of Cd, In, or Sn was found to-on average-facilitate reduction by promoting a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt consisting of larger lesser interacting cobalt clusters and smaller strongly interacting cobalt species. The lesser interacting species were identified in TPR profiles, where a sharp low temperature peak occurred for the reduction of larger, weakly interacting, CoO species. In XANES, the Cd, In, and Sn promoters were found to exist as oxides, whereas typical promoters (e.g., Re, Ru, Pt) were previously determined to exist in an metallic state in atomic coordination with cobalt. The larger cobalt clusters significantly decreased the active site density relative to the unpromoted 25%Co/Al2O3 catalyst. Decreasing the cobalt loading to 15%Co eliminated the large non-interacting species. The TPR peak for reduction of strongly interacting CoO in the Cd promoted catalyst occurred at a measurably lower temperature

  11. Catalyst for reduction of nitrogen oxides (United States)

    Ott, Kevin C.


    A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

  12. Optimization of catalyst layer composition for PEMFC using graphene-based oxygen reduction reaction catalysts (United States)

    Park, Jong Cheol; Park, Sung Hyeon; Chung, Min Wook; Choi, Chang Hyuck; Kho, Back Kyun; Woo, Seong Ihl


    The focus in recent years is on developing high performance non-precious metal catalysts (NPMCs) to reduce the catalyst cost in fuel cells. However, little attention has been paid to improve the utilization of NPMCs. Thus, this study focuses on the optimization of electrode component, particularly the Nafion content. With the synthesized graphene based oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst, the catalyst inks were prepared at various Nafion contents with suitable amounts of catalysts sprayed on the gas diffusion media. Twenty different single cells were assembled and measured for polarization, resistance and electrochemical impedance. Electrodes of 66.7 and 50.0% Nafion contents showed the highest performance for hydrogen/oxygen and hydrogen/air operation, respectively. These results were explained using the electrochemical impedance spectra, where the highest performance electrode resulted with the lowest charge transfer resistance. Moreover, negligible change in performance was observed during the 80 h of stability test. The optimization compositions of NPMC-based MEAs were very different to Pt-based MEAs, indicating the importance of optimization studies for the practical use of NPMCs.

  13. Transformation of methylcyclohexane on an FCC catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabeharitsara A.


    Full Text Available The transformation of methylcyclohexane at 723 K over on a USHY sample and on an FCC catalyst composed of 30% USHY and 70% matrix containing 25% Al2O3 was studied. With both samples, C2-C7 alkenes and alkanes, cyclopentane and methylcyclopentane (cracking products, dimethylcyclopentanes and ethylcyclopentane (isomers and aromatics appeared as primary products. The activity and selectivity of fresh samples as well as the influence of coke deposits on porosity and selectivity are discussed.

  14. Rape oil transesterification over heterogeneous catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinar, J.M.; Martinez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, UEX, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Gonzalez, J.F. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, UEX, Avda Elvas s/n, 06071-Badajoz (Spain); Pardal, A. [Dpto. Ciencias do Ambiente, ESAB, IPBeja, Rua Pedro Soares s/n, 7800-Beja (Portugal)


    This work studies the application of KNO{sub 3}/CaO catalyst in the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with methanol. The objective of the work was characterizing the methyl esters for its use as biodiesel in compression ignition motors. The variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction, such as, amount of KNO{sub 3} impregnated in CaO, the total catalyst content, reaction temperature, agitation rate, and the methanol/oil molar ratio, were investigated to optimize the reaction conditions. The evolution of the process was followed by gas chromatography, determining the concentration of the methyl esters at different reaction times. The biodiesel was characterized by its density, viscosity, cetane index, saponification value, iodine value, acidity index, CFPP (cold filter plugging point), flash point and combustion point, according to ISO norms. The results showed that calcium oxide, impregnated with KNO{sub 3}, have a strong basicity and high catalytic activity as a heterogeneous solid base catalyst. The biodiesel with the best properties was obtained using an amount of KNO{sub 3} of 10% impregnated in CaO, a methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, a reaction temperature of 65 C, a reaction time of 3.0 h, and a catalyst total content of 1.0%. In these conditions, the oil conversion was 98% and the final product obtained had very similar characteristics to a no. 2 diesel, and therefore, these methyl esters might be used as an alternative to fossil fuels. (author)

  15. Fuel cell applications for novel metalloporphyrin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Doddapaneni, N.; Zavadil, K.


    This project utilized Computer-Aided Molecular Design (CAMD) to develop a new class of metalloporphyrin materials for use as catalysts for two fuel cell reactions. The first reaction is the reduction of oxygen at the fuel cell cathode, and this reaction was the main focus of the research. The second reaction we attempted to catalyze was the oxidation of methanol at the anode. Two classes of novel metalloporphyrins were developed. The first class comprised the dodecaphenylporphyrins whose steric bulk forces them into a non-planar geometry having a pocket where oxygen or methanol is more tightly bound to the porphyrin than it is in the case of planar porphyrins. Significant improvements in the catalytic reduction of oxygen by the dodecaphenyl porphyrins were measured in electrochemical cells. The dodecaphenylporphyrins were further modified by fluorinating the peripheral phenyl groups to varying degrees. The fluorination strongly affected their redox potential, but no effect on their catalytic activity towards oxygen was observed. The second class of porphyrin catalysts was a series of hydrogen-bonding porphyrins whose interaction with oxygen is enhanced. Enhancements in the interaction of oxygen with the porphyrins having hydrogen bonding groups were observed spectroscopically. Computer modeling was performed using Molecular Simulations new CERIUS2 Version 1.6 and a research version of POLYGRAF from Bill Goddard`s research group at the California Institute of Technology. We reoptimized the force field because of an error that was in POLYGRAF and corrected a problem in treatment of the metal in early versions of the program. This improved force field was reported in a J. Am. Chem. Soc. manuscript. Experimental measurements made on the newly developed catalysts included the electrochemical testing in a fuel cell configuration and spectroscopic measurements (UV-Vis, Raman and XPS) to characterize the catalysts.

  16. Bifunctional Catalysts for CO2 Reduction (United States)


    product distribution as a function of catalyst composition (ligand, metal ions), electrolyte, acid and CO2 pressure. 4. Examine reaction chemistry ...alternative ligand platforms to seek transition metal complexes that would feature inner-sphere reduction chemistry with CO2 and promote the desired multi...into these polyamine based-ligands typically involves a transamination reaction with metal-amide or organometallic starting materials (e.g., M2(N

  17. Cationic surfactants as the hydrolytic micellar catalysts


    Janošcová, Petra


    Cationic surfactants as the hydrolytic micellar catalysts Petra Janošcová The effectiveness of hydrolytic cleavage of the pesticide fenitrothionin cationic surfactants micellar media has been tested. All used surfactants increased the rate of fenitrothionhydrolysis, which was the evidence of micellar catalysis. For some surfactants decreases has been evident at the highest rate of hydrolysis concentrations. It has been the result of a phenomenon called the effect of empty micelles. High hydro...

  18. Car Catalysts Impact on Anthropogenic Osmium Budget (United States)

    Poirier, A.; Gariepy, C.


    A few sources of anthropogenic osmium have been identified that clearly contribute to the observed increase in unradiogenic osmium in recent urban sediments (a major one being biomedical use of OsO4 as a lipid stain used to enhance cell structures for optical and electron microscopy (1,2,3,4)). Previous studies suggested the possibility that automobile catalytic converters might also contribute to this Os pollution, even though this metal is not directly employed in car catalysts (1,4). The importance of this potential source has never been quantitatively tested. Here, we present results for the Os isotope analysis of 4 new catalytic converters. The unradiogenic 187Os/188Os composition of all catalytic converters is similar to typical platinum group elements ore (5). The measured Os concentrations are in the pg/g range (6-228 pg/g). The physical conditions in catalysts (oxidising environment and 300 \\deg C) are effective in promoting the oxidation of osmium to its gaseous form. We therefore expect that osmium volatility plays an important role in releasing Os from the catalysts. Based on measured concentrations, we estimate that car catalysts could be responsible for up to several picograms of anthropogenic osmium deposited per square meter in urban areas every year. Our results strengthen the idea that automobile catalytic converters might be a significant source of Os pollution. 1.Ravizza, G. E. and Bothner, M. H. (1996) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60; 15, 2753-2763. 2.Smith, I. C., Carson, B. L., and Ferguson T.L. (1974) Environmental Health Perspectives, 8, 201-213. 3.Esser, B. K. and Turekian, K. K. (1993) Environmental Science and Technology, 27; 13, 2719-2724. 4.Rauch S., Hemond H.F., and Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B. (2004) Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 396-402. 5.McCandless, T. and Ruiz, J. (1991) Geology, 19, 1225-1228.

  19. Next Generation Catalyst Engineering via Support Modification (United States)


    The second review paper focuses on the current scientific and commercial status of direct methanol fuel cell technology as a whole. This benchmark... methanol fuel cells - in the perspective of energy and sustainability”, MRS Energy and Sustainability, 2, E3 (2015) Collaborations and Technology ...Our effort focuses on identifying dopant/catalyst combinations to enhance the performance of direct methanol fuel cells. We are specifically

  20. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu


    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  1. Hydrolysis of isocyanic acid on SCR catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsener, M.; Kleemann, M.; Koebel, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Standard SCR catalysts possess high activity for the hydrolysis of HNCO and thus explain the suitability of urea as a selective reducing agent for NO{sub x}. At high space velocities HNCO-slip can get perceptible over the entire temperature range. This can be attributed to the fact that the temperature dependence is strong for the SCR reaction, but weak for the hydrolysis reaction. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  2. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  3. Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.


    Efforts to synthesize bimetallic cluster-derived Rh-Mo catalysts for CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation to preferentially produce oxygenates. The rhodium-molybdenum cluster, (PPh[sub 3])[sub 2]RhMO(CO)([mu]-CO)[sub 2]Cp, was employed as a precursor to alumina- and silica-supported catalysts which were in CO hydrogenation. When compared to catalysts made from the distinct organometallic complexes, RhH(CO)(PPh[sub 3])[sub 3] and [MO(CO)[sub 3]Cp][sub 2], the catalysts derived from a binuclear precursor show higher activities for CO hydrogenation and superior selectivities towards oxygenates, namely, methanol, dimethyl ether and ethanol. Their product distributions depend on the support. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate that CO chemisorbs on cluster-derived catalysts as gem-dicarbonyls while it is chemisorbed only in the linear-carbonyl configuration on catalysts made from separate rhodium and molybdenum complexes. The particular oxygenate selectivity of the cluster-derived catalysts may be correlated to the strong electronic interaction between Rh and Mo. Carbon dioxide hydrogenation has also been carried out on the catalysts mentioned above. Again, the cluster-derived catalysts show higher oxygenate selectivities. Finally, the catalysts were studied with regard to both CO and CO[sub 2] hydrogenation kinetics, apparent activation energies inferred.

  4. Optimal Catalyst and Cocatalyst Precontacting in Industrial Ethylene Copolymerization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aigner


    Full Text Available In industrial-scale catalytic olefin copolymerization processes, catalyst and cocatalyst precontacting before being introduced in the polymerization reactor is of profound significance in terms of catalyst kinetics and morphology control. The precontacting process takes place under either well-mixing (e.g., static mixers or plug-flow (e.g., pipes conditions. The scope of this work is to study the influence of mixing on catalyst/cocatalyst precontacting for a heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalyst system under different polymerization conditions. Slurry ethylene homopolymerization and ethylene copolymerization experiments with 1-butene are performed in a 0.5 L reactor. In addition, the effect of several key parameters (e.g., precontacting time, and ethylene/hydrogen concentration on catalyst activity is analyzed. Moreover, a comprehensive mass transfer model is employed to provide insight on the mass transfer process and support the experimental findings. The model is capable of assessing the external and internal mass transfer limitations during catalyst/cocatalyst precontacting process. It is shown that catalyst/cocatalyst precontacting is very important for the catalyst activation as well as for the overall catalyst kinetic behavior. The study reveals that there is an optimum precontacting time before and after which the catalyst activity decreases, while this optimum time depends on the precontacting mixing conditions.

  5. Novel anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells. (United States)

    Basri, S; Kamarudin, S K; Daud, W R W; Yaakob, Z; Kadhum, A A H


    PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2-5 nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g(-1) catalyst.

  6. Novel Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basri


    Full Text Available PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni and iron (Fe. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR. The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2–5 nm PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g−1 catalyst.

  7. Ni Catalysts Supported on Modified Alumina for Diesel Steam Reforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Tribalis


    Full Text Available Nickel catalysts are the most popular for steam reforming, however, they have a number of drawbacks, such as high propensity toward coke formation and intolerance to sulfur. In an effort to improve their behavior, a series of Ni-catalysts supported on pure and La-, Ba-, (La+Ba- and Ce-doped γ-alumina has been prepared. The doped supports and the catalysts have been extensively characterized. The catalysts performance was evaluated for steam reforming of n-hexadecane pure or doped with dibenzothiophene as surrogate for sulphur-free or commercial diesel, respectively. The undoped catalyst lost its activity after 1.5 h on stream. Doping of the support with La improved the initial catalyst activity. However, this catalyst was completely deactivated after 2 h on stream. Doping with Ba or La+Ba improved the stability of the catalysts. This improvement is attributed to the increase of the dispersion of the nickel phase, the decrease of the support acidity and the increase of Ni-phase reducibility. The best catalyst of the series doped with La+Ba proved to be sulphur tolerant and stable for more than 160 h on stream. Doping of the support with Ce also improved the catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst, but more work is needed to explain this behavior.

  8. Novel Mesoporous Carbon Supports for PEMFC Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin Banham


    Full Text Available Over the past decade; a significant amount of research has been performed on novel carbon supports for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. Specifically, carbon nanotubes, ordered mesoporous carbon, and colloid imprinted carbons have shown great promise for improving the activity and/or stability of Pt-based nanoparticle catalysts. In this work, a brief overview of these materials is given, followed by an in-depth discussion of our recent work highlighting the importance of carbon wall thickness when designing novel carbon supports for PEMFC applications. Four colloid imprinted carbons (CICs were synthesized using a silica colloid imprinting method, with the resulting CICs having pores of 15 (CIC-15, 26 (CIC-26, 50 (CIC-50 and 80 (CIC-80 nm. These four CICs were loaded with 10 wt. % Pt and then evaluated as oxygen reduction (ORR catalysts for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To gain insight into the poorer performance of Pt/CIC-26 vs. the other three Pt/CICs, TEM tomography was performed, indicating that CIC-26 had much thinner walls (0–3 nm than the other CICs and resulting in a higher resistance (leading to distributed potentials through the catalyst layer during operation. This explanation for the poorer performance of Pt/CIC-26 was supported by theoretical calculations, suggesting that the internal wall thickness of these nanoporous CICs is critical to the future design of porous carbon supports.

  9. Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthi, Vivek S.; Izzo, Elise; Bi, Wu; Guerrero, Sandra; Protsailo, Lesia


    Achieving DOE's stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

  10. Development of radioactive platinum group metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kim, Y.E. [and others


    The fission product nuclides generated during the irradiation of reactor fuel include many useful elements, among them platinum group metals such as ruthenium, rhodium and palladium which are of great industrial importance, occur rarely in nature and are highly valuable. In this research, the authors reviewed various PGM recovery methods. Recovery of palladium from seven-component simulated waste solutions was conducted by selective precipitation method. The recovery yield was more than 99.5% and the purity of the product was more than 99%. Wet-proof catalyst was prepared with the recovered palladium. The specific surface area of the catalyst support was more than 400m{sup 2}/g.The content of palladium impregnated on the support was 1 to 10 wt. %. Hydrogen isotope exchange efficiency of more than 93% to equilibrium with small amount of the catalyst was obtained. It was turned out possible to consider using such palladium or other very low active PGM materials in applications where its activity is unimportant as in nuclear industries. (author). 86 refs., 44 tabs., 88 figs.

  11. Nanoporous Au: an unsupported pure gold catalyst?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittstock, A; Neumann, B; Schaefer, A; Dumbuya, K; Kuebel, C; Biener, M; Zielasek, V; Steinrueck, H; Gottfried, M; Biener, J; Hamza, A; B?umer, M


    The unique properties of gold especially in low temperature CO oxidation have been ascribed to a combination of various effects. In particular, particle sizes below a few nm and specific particle-support interactions have been shown to play important roles. On the contrary, recent reports revealed that monolithic nanoporous gold (npAu) prepared by leaching a less noble metal, such as Ag, out of the corresponding alloy can also exhibit remarkably high catalytic activity for CO oxidation, even though no support is present. Therefore, it was claimed to be a pure and unsupported gold catalyst. We investigated npAu with respect to its morphology, surface composition and catalytic properties. In particular, we studied the reaction kinetics for low temperature CO oxidation in detail taking mass transport limitation due to the porous structure of the material into account. Our results reveal that Ag, even if removed almost completely from the bulk, segregates to the surface resulting in surface concentrations of up to 10 at%. Our data suggest that this Ag plays a significant role in activation of molecular oxygen. Therefore, npAu should be considered as a bimetallic catalyst rather than a pure Au catalyst.

  12. Low Temperature Catalyst for NH3 Removal (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Melendez, Orlando


    Air revitalization technologies maintain a safe atmosphere inside spacecraft by the removal of C02, ammonia (NH3), and trace contaminants. NH3 onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is produced by crew metabolism, payloads, or during an accidental release of thermal control refrigerant. Currently, the ISS relies on removing NH3 via humidity condensate and the crew wears hooded respirators during emergencies. A different approach to cabin NH3 removal is to use selective catalytic oxidation (SCO), which builds on thermal catalytic oxidation concepts that could be incorporated into the existing TCCS process equipment architecture on ISS. A low temperature platinum-based catalyst (LTP-Catalyst) developed at KSC was used for converting NH3 to H20 and N2 gas by SCO. The challenge of implementing SCO is to reduce formation of undesirable byproducts like NOx (N20 and NO). Gas mixture analysis was conducted using FTIR spectrometry in the Regenerable VOC Control System (RVCS) Testbed. The RVCS was modified by adding a 66 L semi-sealed chamber, and a custom NH3 generator. The effect of temperature on NH3 removal using the LTP-Catalyst was examined. A suitable temperature was found where NH3 removal did not produce toxic NO, (NO, N02) and N20 formation was reduced.

  13. Catalyst preactivation using EURECAT TOTSUCAT CFP technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahma, N.; Alexander, R.; Robinson, J. [Eurecat US Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    This presentation described EURECAT's newly developed and patented technology that allows the start up of a hydrotreating process without the introduction of sulphur containing chemicals. This ex-situ process known as TOTSUCAT ensures complete activation and sulphiding of the catalyst prior to loading in the reactor. The benefits of TOTSUCAT include the elimination of sour water formation; the prevention of potential exotherms; minimal hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}) pressure; and no need for additional hydrogen. TOTSUCAT can be used in cases where the unit has temperature limitations that prevent a complete activation of the catalyst. The TOTSUCAT cracked feed protection (CFP) is an enhanced treatment that combines the advantages of preactivation with the ability to start up a unit with cracked stocks. It eliminates the need to delay the introduction of cracked feeds for 3 to 5 days after start-up, as is typical in commercial hydroprocessing units. The acidity of the catalyst is reduced in the CFP treatment, making it suitable for early introduction of cracked stocks. As such, the technology has potential use in the field of residual hydrocracking. The technology has been successfully applied in several commercial refineries in North America. tabs., figs.

  14. Developing physicians as catalysts for change. (United States)

    George, Aaron E; Frush, Karen; Michener, J Lloyd


    Failures in care coordination are a reflection of larger systemic shortcomings in communication and in physician engagement in shared team leadership. Traditional medical care and medical education neither focus on nor inspire responses to the challenges of coordinating care across episodes and sites. The authors suggest that the absence of attention to gaps in the continuum of care has led physicians to attempt to function as the glue that holds the health care system together. Further, medical students and residents have little opportunity to provide feedback on care processes and rarely receive the training and support they need to assess and suggest possible improvements.The authors argue that this absence of opportunity has driven cynicism, apathy, and burnout among physicians. They support a shift in culture and medical education such that students and residents are trained and inspired to act as catalysts who initiate and expedite positive changes. To become catalyst physicians, trainees require tools to partner with patients, staff, and faculty; training in implementing change; and the perception of this work as inherent to the role of the physician.The authors recommend that medical schools consider interprofessional training to be a necessary component of medical education and that future physicians be encouraged to grow in areas outside the "purely clinical" realm. They conclude that both physician catalysts and teamwork are essential for improving care coordination, reducing apathy and burnout, and supporting optimal patient outcomes.

  15. Raney copper catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction - II. Initial catalyst optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mellor, JR


    Full Text Available -Zn-A1 catalyst. During the controlled passivation Table 2 Crystalline phase of alloys B, C and D and their product Raney copper catalysts before and after reaction Alloy Precursor alloy phases Cat. phases before reaction a Cat. phases after reaction a... L; dry gas composition=10% CO/90% N2; CO : H20=I : 22.5; catalyst volume=2i0.1 ml): (O)=Cat. A Cu(69.3)Zn(6.9)Al( 19.5); (~)=cat. B Cu(73.6)Zn(10.9)AI(14.8); (W1)=cat. C Cu(72.4)Zn(13.3)Al(12.9); ({))=cat. D Cu(61.5)Zn(15.1)AI(19.1). It can...

  16. High temperature catalyst combustion method and catalyst material; Koonshokubai nenshoho to shokubai zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Koichi [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)


    The high temperature catalyst combustion has not yet come to the practical stage. However, the application to gas turbine combustion machine, etc. is expected. The high temperature catalyst combustion has next features further than the combustion reaction of homogeneous system, which generates present flame. (1) The burning rate is big, and the combustion efficiency is also high. Stabilized combustion is obtained, because it not becomes partially a high temperature. (2) Thermal The generation of NOx is dependent on the temperature resistant, and over 1500 degrees C , the speed of the NOx generation consists in the anther. (3) It can be correspondent to air and fuel ratio such as the exhaust gas including thin organic compounds. (4) Since the reaction progresses in the catalyst surface, the surface is maintained in comparison with the gas phase reaction in high temperature. Therefore, the furnace volume can be miniaturized. (5) In case of the adiabatic reactor, heat recovery and energy recovery as a power become possible. (NEDO)

  17. deNO{sub x} catalysts for biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buus Kristensen, S.


    The present thesis revolves around the challenges involved in removal of nitrogen oxides in biomass fired power plants. Nitrogen oxides are unwanted byproducts formed to some extent during almost any combustion. In coal fired plants these byproducts are removed by selective catalytic reduction, however the alkali in biomass complicate matters. Alkali in biomass severely deactivates the catalyst used for the selective catalytic reduction in matter of weeks, hence a more alkali resistant catalyst is needed. In the thesis a solution to the problem is presented, the nano particle deNO{sub x} catalyst. Through the thesis the one-pot sol-gel synthesis of this nano particle catalyst, have been optimised by evaluation of each synthesis step. Resulting in a highly active catalyst comprising amorphous vanadia on a high surface area crystalline anatase carrier. Due to the high surface area, loadings of 20 wt.% vanadia could be obtained without exceeding the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} monolayer coverage. Explaining the very high activity corresponding to a factor of 2, compared to an industrial reference. Even at high vanadia loadings the catalyst did not show any sign of increased SO{sub 2} oxidation, compared with a low vanadia industrial reference catalyst. Furthermore long-term activity measurements at normal operating temperature revealed that the catalyst did not display any sign of deactivation. The catalyst showed very high resistance towards potassium poisoning maintaining a 16 times higher activity than the equally poisoned industrial reference catalyst, after impregnation of 225 mole potassium/g of catalyst. A catalyst plate was synthesised using 20 wt.% sepiolite mixed with nano catalyst, supported by a SiO{sub 2}-fibre mesh. Realistic potassium poisoning was performed on the catalyst plate, by exposure in a potassium aerosol for 632 hours at 350 deg. C. Owing to physical blocking of potassium by sepiolite fibres the composite catalyst showed a further increase in potassium

  18. Production Hydrogen And Nanocarbon Via Methane Decomposition Using Ni-Based Catalysts. Effect Of Acidity And Catalyst Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Purwanto


    Full Text Available Objectives of this research are mainly to study impacts of acidity strength (by varying amount of precipitant and loading Al-Si and the effect of nickel particle size (by varying calcinations temperature on decomposition reaction performances. In this research, high-nickel-loaded catalyst is prepared with two methods. Ni-Cu/Al catalysts were prepared with co-precipitation method. While the Ni-Cu/Al-Si catalyst were prepared by combined co-precipitation and sol-gel method. The direct cracking of methane was performed in 8mm quartz fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure and 500-700°C. The main  results showed that the Al content of catalyst increases with the increasing amount of precipitant. The activity of catalyst increases with the increasing of catalyst's acidity to the best possible point, and then increasing of acidity will reduce the activity of catalyst. Ni-Cu/4Al and Ni-Cu/11Al deactivated in a  very short time hence produced fewer amount of nanocarbon, while Ni-Cu/15Al was active in a very  long period. The most effective catalyst is Ni-Cu/22Al, which produced the biggest amount of nanocarbon (4.15 g C/g catalyst. Ni catalyst diameter has significant effect on reaction performances mainly  methane conversion and product yield. A small Ni crystal size gave a high methane conversion, a fast deactivation and a low carbon yield. Large Ni particle  diameter yielded a slow decomposition and low methane conversion. The highest methane  conversion was produced by catalyst diameter of 4 nm and maximum yield of carbon of 4.08 g C/ g catalyst was achieved by 15.5 nm diameter of Ni catalyst.

  19. Recycling of polymer waste with fluid catalytic cracking catalysts. (United States)

    Ali, Salmiaton; Garforth, Arthur; Fakhru'l-Razi, A


    Feedstock recycling of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts (1:6 ratio) was carried out using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operating at 450 degrees C. Fresh and steam deactivated commercial FCC catalysts with different levels of rare earth oxide (REO) were compared as well as used FCC catalysts (E-Cats) with different levels of metal poisoning. Fresh FCC catalysts gave the highest results of HDPE degradation in terms of yield of volatile hydrocarbon product. Meanwhile, steamed FCC catalysts and used FCC catalysts showed similar but lower yields. Overall, the product yields from HDPE cracking showed that the level of metal contamination (nickel and vanadium) did not affect the product stream generated from polymer cracking. This study gives promising results as an alternative technique for the cracking and recycling of polymer waste.

  20. Thin Film Catalyst Layers for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (United States)

    Witham, C. K.; Chun, W.; Ruiz, R.; Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.


    One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is the high cost of the catalyst. Therefore, reducing the catalyst loading well below the current level of 8-12 mg/cm 2 would be important to commercialization. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes. Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoard, J; Schmieg, S; Brooks, D; Peden, C; Barlow, S; Tonkyn, R


    A three-stage plasma-catalyst system was developed and tested on an engine dynamometer. Previous laboratory testing suggested high NOx efficiency could be obtained. With hexene reductant added to the exhaust, over 90% NOx reduction was observed. However, with diesel or Fischer-Tropsch reductant the catalyst efficiency rapidly dropped off. Heating the catalyst in air removed brown deposit from the surface and restored conversion efficiency. Following the engine tests, the used catalysts were evaluated. BET surface area decreased, and TPD revealed significant storage. This storage appears to be partly unburned diesel fuel that can be removed by heating to around 250-300 C, and partly hydrocarbons bonded to the surface that remain in place until 450-500 C. Laboratory testing with propene reductant demonstrated that the catalyst regains efficiency slowly even when operating temperature does not exceed 300 C. This suggests that control strategies may be able to regenerate the catalyst by occasional moderate heating.

  2. Hydrogenation of artemisinin to dihydroartemisinin over heterogeneous metal catalysts (United States)

    Kristiani, Anis; Pertiwi, Ralentri; Adilina, Indri Badria


    A series of heterogeneous metal catalysts of Ni, Pd, and Pt, both of synthesized and commercial catalysts were used for hydrogenation of artemisinin to dihydroartemisinin. Their catalytic properties were determsined by Surface Area Analyzer and Thermogravimetry Analyzer. The catalytic properties in various reaction conditions in terms of temperature, pressure, reaction time and reactant/catalyst ratio were also studied. The results catalytic activity tests showed that synthesized catalysts of Ni/zeolite, Ni-Sn/zeolite, Ni/bentonite and Ni-Sn/bentonite were not able to produced dihydroartemisinin and deoxyartemisinin was mainly formed. Meanwhile, commercial catalysts of Ni skeletal, Pd/activated charcoal and Pt/activated charcoal yielded the desired dihydroartemisinin product. Ni skeletal commercial catalyst gave the best performance of hydrogenation artemisinin to dihydroartemisinin in room temperature and low H2 pressure.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.H.


    The goal of the proposed work described in this Final Report was the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The work described here has optimized the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for a low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work has been conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies have been conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors have been studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance has been determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  4. The boomerang affect of the war on terror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Goerzig


    Full Text Available Este artículo escruta las reacciones legislativas a los atentados en la ciudad de Oklahoma y los de Londres en 2005 para intentar descifrar como la legislación antiterrorista ha sustancialmente bloqueado estos ataques. Se intenta mostrar como la resistencia de los gobiernos y los ejecutivos aprueba índices críticos en las leyes antiterroristas. A la luz de una reciente encuesta sobre legislación antiterrorista mundial, los casos donde la legislación antiterrorista ha sido bloqueada ha llegado a ser verdaderamente crítica. A este fin, este artículo se pregunta por qué la legislación antiterrorista se bloquea cuando esto sucede. Para responder a esta cuestión, se han testado tres variables: la composición de los gobiernos, la opinión pública-basada en los niveles de terror en sus medios, y el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos. Para testar estas variables, se han evaluado dos casos: la evolución de la legislación antiterrorista antes de los ataques de la ciudad de Oklahoma en 1995 y antes de los atentados de Londres de 2005. En la evaluación de los casos, los debates legislativos y ejecutivos han ocurrido antes de los ataques terroristas examinados y luego se han comparado los dos casos con el Reino Unido en 1974 y los Estados Unidos en 2001 cuando la legislación antiterrorista inicia su camino. Este artículo concluye que el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos y la composición de los gobiernos tiene el mayor poder de explicación en determinadas decisiones antiterroristas que llevarán a secundar la legislación antiterrorista o no.Palabras clave: ataques terroristas a Londres, legislación antiterrorista, Estados Unidos, Reino Unido___________________________ABSTRACT:The goal of the war on terror is to prevent a new 9/11. In order to achieve this, the preemptive strike has been introduced to tackle the terrorism risk. However, this precisely leads to the increasing unpredictability of terrorism and hence the likelihood of a new 9/11.Preemption does not help to reduce the terrorism risk, but on the very contrary leads to its increase. The argument will be taken a step further by claiming that, in fact, the war on terror increases the likelihood of catastrophic terrorism, because the risk of terrorism increases as such that terrorists might seek indiscriminate violence not shying away to use weapons of mass destruction. The war on terror therewith turns into a risk paradox - carrying consequences which, arguably, are even more risky than the original risk itself. In order to demonstrate this point, this article applies the concept of risk to terrorist groups and relates it to the paradox implications of the war on terror.Keywords: war on terror; terrorism risk; risk paradox; catastrophic terrorism; 9/11

  5. Interns shall not sleep: the duty hours boomerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. On March 10, 2017, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME announced revisions to its common program requirements related to duty hours (1. Effective on July 1, 2017, the most important change will be an increase in the maximum consecutive hours that an intern may work. Interns will now be able to continuously perform patient care work up to a maximum of 24 hours with an additional 4 hours for managing care transitions. This reverses the controversial reduction to 16 hours that occurred in 2011 (2. The regulation of house staff duty hours formally began in the late 1980s. It was precipitated largely because of the publicity resulting from the 1984 death of Libby Zion in a New York teaching hospital that was attributed partly to poor decisions made by fatigued and overworked house staff (3. Consequently, the state of New York in 1989 passed laws restricting the …

  6. Media Literacy Interventions: What Makes Them Boom or Boomerang? (United States)

    Byrne, Sahara


    This study advances research on media literacy by comparing the effectiveness of two versions of a media literacy intervention over time. Participants (156 children in 4th or 5th grade) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups or a control group. Both treatment groups were exposed to an instructional intervention designed to reduce…

  7. Regeneration of LOHC dehydrogenation catalysts: In-situ IR spectroscopy on single crystals, model catalysts, and real catalysts from UHV to near ambient pressure (United States)

    Amende, Max; Kaftan, Andre; Bachmann, Philipp; Brehmer, Richard; Preuster, Patrick; Koch, Marcus; Wasserscheid, Peter; Libuda, Jörg


    The Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) concept offers an efficient route to store hydrogen using organic compounds that are reversibly hydrogenated and dehydrogenated. One important challenge towards application of the LOHC technology at a larger scale is to minimize degradation of Pt-based dehydrogenation catalysts during long-term operation. Herein, we investigate the regeneration of Pt/alumina catalysts poisoned by LOHC degradation. We combine ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) studies on Pt(111), investigations on well-defined Pt/Al2O3 model catalysts, and near-ambient pressure (NAP) measurements on real core⿿shell Pt/Al2O3 catalyst pellets. The catalysts were purposely poisoned by reaction with the LOHC perhydro-dibenzyltoluene (H18-MSH) and with dicyclohexylmethane (DCHM) as a simpler model compound. We focus on oxidative regeneration under conditions that may be applied in real dehydrogenation reactors. The degree of poisoning and regeneration under oxidative reaction conditions was quantified using CO as a probe molecule and measured by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for planar model systems and real catalysts, respectively. We find that regeneration strongly depends on the composition of the catalyst surface. While the clean surface of a poisoned Pt(111) single crystal is fully restored upon thermal treatment in oxygen up to 700 K, contaminated Pt/Al2O3 model catalyst and core⿿shell pellet were only partially restored under the applied reaction conditions. Whereas partial regeneration on facet-like sites on supported catalysts is more facile than on Pt(111), carbonaceous deposits adsorbed at low-coordinated defect sites impede full regeneration of the Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

  8. An improved method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention concerns an improved method of preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalyst precursors comprising...... combustible crystallization seeds upon which the catalyst metal oxide is coprecipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step....

  9. Mesoporous Molecular Sieves as Supports for Metathesis Catalysts (United States)

    Balcar, Hynek; Cejka, Jirí

    Mesoporous molecular sieves represent a new family of inorganic oxides with regular nanostructure, large surface areas, large void volumes, and narrow pore size distribution of mesopores. These materials offer new possibilities for designing highly active and selective catalysts for olefin metathesis and metathesis polymerization. Siliceous sieves MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15, and organized mesoporous alumina (OMA) were used as supports for preparation of new molybdenum and rhenium oxide catalysts, as well as for heterogenization of well-defined homogeneous catalysts.

  10. Method for filling a reactor with a catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a method for filling a reactor with a catalyst for the carbonylation of carbonylated compounds in the gas phase. According to said method, a SILP catalyst is covered with a filling agent which is liquid under normal conditions and is volatile under carbonylation reaction...... conditions, and a thus-treated catalyst is introduced into the reactor and the reactor is sealed....

  11. High Throughput Spectroscopic Catalyst Screening via Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy (United States)


    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 26-June-2014 to 25-March-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Throughput Catalyst Screening via Surface...TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Throughput Catalyst Screening via Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4064 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...AOARD Grant 144064 FA2386-14-1-4064 “High Throughput Spectroscopic Catalyst Screening by Surface Plasmon Spectroscopy” Date July 15, 2015

  12. Catalyst and Fuel Interactions to Optimize Endothermic Cooling (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0315 Catalyst and Fuel Interactions to Optimize Endothermic Cooling Scott Anderson UNIVERSITY OF UTAH SALT LAKE CITY 201...Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30-09-2012 to 31-05-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Catalyst and Fuel Interactions to Optimize Endothermic...developing improved catalysts to enhance and control endothermic fuel reactions, to enhance cooling capacity for aircraft. In addition there was

  13. Alcohol selective oxidation over modified foam-silver catalysts


    Pestryakov, Alexeij N.; Bogdanchikova, Nina. E.; Knop-Gericke, Axel


    Catalysts based on silver supported on foam ceramics and modified by Zr, Ce and La oxides have been studied in the process of partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. The foam catalysts exhibit high catalytic, mechanical and gas-dynamic properties exceeding the characteristics of conventional crystalline and supported silver samples. Modifying additives of Zr and Ce oxides raise activity and selectivity of the supported foam-silver catalyst as well as its stability during the prolonged ...

  14. Optimal Catalyst and Cocatalyst Precontacting in Industrial Ethylene Copolymerization Processes


    Paul Aigner; Christian Paulik; Apostolos Krallis; Vasileios Kanellopoulos


    In industrial-scale catalytic olefin copolymerization processes, catalyst and cocatalyst precontacting before being introduced in the polymerization reactor is of profound significance in terms of catalyst kinetics and morphology control. The precontacting process takes place under either well-mixing (e.g., static mixers) or plug-flow (e.g., pipes) conditions. The scope of this work is to study the influence of mixing on catalyst/cocatalyst precontacting for a heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta cata...

  15. In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of catalyst sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeLaRiva, Andrew T.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Challa, Sivakumar R.


    along with our recent in situ TEM studies on the sintering of Ni/MgAl2O4 catalysts. These results suggest that the rapid loss of catalyst activity in the earliest stages of catalyst sintering could result from Ostwald ripening rather than through particle migration and coalescence. The smallest...... of Ostwald ripening as well as atomistic Monte Carlo simulations are both in good agreement with these experimental observations, predicting a steep loss in catalyst activity at short times on stream. The in situ studies show the importance of direct observations to deduce mechanisms and show the important...

  16. Preparation of biodiesel from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferdous, Kaniz; Rakib Uddin, M.; Islam, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Khan, Maksudur R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science, Shah Jalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet 3114 (Bangladesh); Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)


    The predicted shortage of fossil fuels and related environmental concerns has recently attracted significant attention to search alternative fuel. Biodiesel is one of the alternatives to fossil fuel. Now-a-days, most biodiesel is produced by the transesterification of oils using methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. The use of homogeneous catalysts is normally limited to batch mode processing followed by a catalyst separation step. The immiscible glycerol phase, which accumulates during the course of the reaction, solubilizes the homogeneous base catalyst and therefore, withdraws from the reaction medium. Moreover, other difficulties of using homogeneous base catalysts relate to their sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) and water and resulting saponification phenomenon. High energy consumption and costly separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture have inspired the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The use of heterogeneous catalysts does not lead to the formation of soaps through neutralization of FFA and saponification of oil. In the present paper, biodiesel was prepared from crude (soybean) oil by transesterification reaction using heterogeneous base catalyst name calcium oxide (CaO). Various reaction parameters were optimized and the biodiesel properties were evaluated.

  17. Attrition Resistant Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Based on FCC Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeyiga, Adeyinka


    Commercial spent fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts provided by Engelhard and Albemarle were used as supports for Fe-based catalysts with the goal of improving the attrition resistance of typical F-T catalysts. Catalysts with the Ruhrchemie composition (100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/25 spent FCC on mass basis) were prepared by wet impregnation. XRD and XANES analysis showed the presence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in calcined catalysts. FeC{sub x} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were present in the activated catalysts. The metal composition of the catalysts was analyzed by ICP-MS. F-T activity of the catalysts activated in situ in CO at the same conditions as used prior to the attrition tests was measured using a fixed bed reactor at T = 573 K, P = 1.38 MPa and H{sub 2}:CO ratio of 0.67. Cu and K promoted Fe supported over Engelhard provided spent FCC catalyst shows relatively good attrition resistance (8.2 wt% fines lost), high CO conversion (81%) and C{sub 5}+ hydrocarbons selectivity (18.3%).

  18. Activation of molecular catalysts using semiconductor quantum dots (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas J [Chapel Hill, NC; Sykora, Milan [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM


    Photocatalytic materials based on coupling of semiconductor nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQD) and molecular catalysts. These materials have capability to drive or catalyze non-spontaneous chemical reactions in the presence of visible radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or both. The NQD functions in these materials as a light absorber and charge generator. Following light absorption, the NQD activates a molecular catalyst adsorbed on the surface of the NQD via transfer of one or more charges (either electrons or electron-holes) from the NQD to the molecular catalyst. The activated molecular catalyst can then drive a chemical reaction. A photoelectrolytic device that includes such photocatalytic materials is also described.

  19. High pressure CO hydrogenation over bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Medford, Andrew James; Studt, Felix


    The potential of bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts for production of higher alcohols in high pressure CO hydrogenation has been assessed. Two catalysts (Pt3Co/SiO2 and PtCo/SiO2) were tested, and the existing literature on CO hydrogenation over Pt-Co catalysts was reviewed. It is found that the catalysts...... produce mainly methanol in the Pt-rich composition range andmainly hydrocarbons (and to a modest extent higher alcohols) in the Co-rich composition range. The transition between the two types of behavior occurs in a narrow composition range around a molar Pt:Co ratio of 1:1....

  20. Catalyst characterization science: surface and solid state chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviney, M.L.; Gland, J.L. (eds.)


    The large number of typescript papers in this volume derive from a symposium held at the ACS meeting in Philadelphia in 1984. They are grouped in these categories: Spectral Surface Techniques on Complex Catalyst Systems; Multiple Surface Techniques on Model Catalyst Systems; Catalytic Mechanisms on Well-Defined Surfaces; Characterization of Bimetallic Catalysts; New Perspectives in Catalysis via Electron Microscopy and X-ray Scattering; Vibrational Characterization of Catalytic Reactions; Magnetic Methods in Catalyst Research; and New Techniques in Electrocatalysis. Both an author and a subject index are included.

  1. Preparation of alveolate hydrophobic catalyst for tritium waste gas treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong; Peng, Shuming, E-mail:; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang; Li, Jiamao


    Highlights: • The catalyst is hydrophobic, it will not be poisoned by steam in room air at room temperature which is better than Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • At room temperature, the conversion of low concentration of H2 and tritium gas in room air over the catalyst is high. • The air resistance of catalyst is much lower than graininess Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • It is inorganic and will not burn. - Abstract: To prepare a catalyst for the detritiation of waste gases at high flow rates, a heat-resistant hydrophobic zeolitic molecular sieve coating was synthesized on the surface of alveolate cordierite by hydrothermal processing. The alveolate hydrophobic catalyst prepared from the support was essentially waterproof and not easily poisoned by moisture. At room temperature, the conversion of low concentrations of H{sub 2} in humid air over the catalyst was higher than 95% at different space velocities (0–16,000 h{sup −1}) and different relative humidities. The reaction rate constant of the oxidation of tritium over alveolate hydrophobic catalyst is 0.182 s{sup −1} at 293.3 K–293.7 K and 59%–60% RH, it is much higher than the catalyst of reference honeycomb catalyst.

  2. Multi-stage catalyst systems and uses thereof (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S [Worthington, OH; Holmgreen, Erik M [Columbus, OH; Yung, Matthew M [Columbus, OH


    Catalyst systems and methods provide benefits in reducing the content of nitrogen oxides in a gaseous stream containing nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O.sub.2). The catalyst system comprises an oxidation catalyst comprising a first metal supported on a first inorganic oxide for catalyzing the oxidation of NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2), and a reduction catalyst comprising a second metal supported on a second inorganic oxide for catalyzing the reduction of NO.sub.2 to nitrogen (N.sub.2).

  3. Highly Durable Catalysts for Ignition of Advanced Monopropellants Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed SBIR Phase I addresses the development of catalysts and technology for the ignition of advanced monopropellants consisting of mixtures of...

  4. Fundamental studies of supported bimetallic catalysts by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savargaonkar, Nilesh [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Various hydrogenation reactions on transition metals are important commercially whereas certain hydrogenolysis reactions are useful from fundamental point of view. Understanding the hydrogen mobility and kinetics of adsorption-desorption of hydrogen is important in understanding the mechanisms of such reactions involving hydrogen. The kinetics of hydrogen chemisorption was studied by means of selective excitation NMR on silica supported Pt, Rh and Pt-Rh catalysts. The activation energy of hydrogen desorption was found to be lower on silica supported Pt catalysts as compared to Rh and Pt-Rh catalysts. It was found that the rates of hydrogen adsorption and desorption on Pt-Rh catalyst were similar to those on Rh catalyst and much higher as compared to Pt catalyst. The Ru-Ag bimetallic system is much simpler to study than the Pt-Rh system and serves as a model system to characterize more complicated systems such as the K/Ru system. Ag was found to decrease the amounts of adsorbed hydrogen and the hydrogen-to-ruthenium stoichiometry. Ag reduced the populations of states with low and intermediate binding energies of hydrogen on silica supported Ru catalyst. The rates of hydrogen adsorption and desorption were also lower on silica supported Ru-Ag catalyst as compared to Ru catalyst. This report contains introductory information, the literature review, general conclusions, and four appendices. An additional four chapters and one appendix have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  6. Hydrogen production from bio-fuels using precious metal catalysts (United States)

    Pasel, Joachim; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Rotov, Mikhail; Löhken, Katrin; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef


    Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming unit require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. Thus, an experimental screening of catalysts for autothermal reforming of commercial biodiesel fuel was performed. Catalysts consisted of a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3) and Pt, Ru, Ni, PtRh and PtRu as active phase. Experiments were run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. Fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed methods and thermogravimetry to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability.

  7. Hydrogen production from bio-fuels using precious metal catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasel Joachim


    Full Text Available Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming unit require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. Thus, an experimental screening of catalysts for autothermal reforming of commercial biodiesel fuel was performed. Catalysts consisted of a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3 and Pt, Ru, Ni, PtRh and PtRu as active phase. Experiments were run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. Fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed methods and thermogravimetry to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability.

  8. Functionalized Graphitic Supports for Improved Fuel Cell Catalyst Stability Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) together with the University of Connecticut (UCONN) proposes to demonstrate the improved fuel cell catalyst support durability offered...

  9. Synthesis and characterization of MCM-41-supported nano zirconia catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Abdel Salam


    Full Text Available Series of MCM-41 supported sulfated Zirconia (SZ catalysts with different loadings (2.5–7.5% wt. were prepared using direct impregnation method. The acquired solid catalysts were characterized structurally and chemically using X-RD, HRTEM, BET, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and TPD analysis. The acidity of the solid catalysts was investigated through cumene cracking and isopropanol dehydration at different temperatures. As the SZ loading increases, the surface acidity of the mesoporous catalysts was enhanced, this was reflected by the higher catalytic activity toward cumene cracking and isopropanol dehydration.

  10. High-temperature catalyst for catalytic combustion and decomposition (United States)

    Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor); Jensen, Jeff J. (Inventor)


    A robust, high temperature mixed metal oxide catalyst for propellant composition, including high concentration hydrogen peroxide, and catalytic combustion, including methane air mixtures. The uses include target, space, and on-orbit propulsion systems and low-emission terrestrial power and gas generation. The catalyst system requires no special preheat apparatus or special sequencing to meet start-up requirements, enabling a fast overall response time. Start-up transients of less than 1 second have been demonstrated with catalyst bed and propellant temperatures as low as 50 degrees Fahrenheit. The catalyst system has consistently demonstrated high decomposition effeciency, extremely low decomposition roughness, and long operating life on multiple test particles.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts


    During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following operating conditions: Temperature - 375 C and 400 C; Total Pressure--13.6 MPa (2000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr; and H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for twelve days of continuous operation. Unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst then was re-examined under the same operating conditions. Reproducible data was achieved with a continuous liquid make-up. Compared with unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst, 6 wt.% Cs-promoted catalyst shifted the product distribution from methanol to higher alcohols, even though methanol was still the major product. The effect of operating conditions was less important than the addition of promoter. However, it was observed that higher temperature favors higher alcohol synthesis, and that a higher H{sub 2}/CO ratio leads to lower oxygenates selectivity and higher hydrocarbons selectivity. These trends showed clearly with the Cs-promoted catalyst, but were not as prominent with the unpromoted catalyst. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during either continuous, 12 - day experiment, even with the higher reactor temperature (400 C). There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment with the promoted catalyst, but not with the unpromoted catalyst.

  12. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Iron Manganese Catalysts: Effect of Preparation and Operating Conditions on Catalyst Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Mirzaei


    molar basis which is the most active catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas to light olefins. The effects of different promoters and supports with loading of optimum support on the catalytic performance of catalysts are also studied. It was found that the catalyst containing 50%Fe/50%Mn/5 wt.%Al2O3 is an optimum-modified catalyst. The catalytic performance of optimal catalyst has been studied in operation conditions such as a range of reaction temperatures, H2/CO molar feed ratios and a range of total pressures. Characterization of both precursors and calcined catalysts is carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, BET specific surface area and thermal analysis methods such as TGA and DSC.

  13. Shape modification of Si nanowires by using faceted silicide catalysts nucleated in Au-Si catalyst solution during the growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erchao Meng


    Full Text Available The shape modification of Si nanowires is demonstrated using faceted solid silicide catalysts. The Si nanowires were grown on Si(111 substrates covered with Au as a catalyst using MnCl2 and Si powders as source materials. The solid silicide catalysts were nucleated and formed in the Au-Si catalyst solution at the top of the nanowires during the growth. The faceted solid silicides grew larger with increased growth time and played a role as a solid catalyst. The faceted shape of the catalyst defines the shape of the faceted Si nanowire. The squared Si nanowires were grown with the growth direction of Si[111] and the sidewalls of {110} and {211} planes. The growth evolution of the faceted Si nanowires occurs by a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism followed by the silicide vapor-solid-solid mechanism.

  14. Regeneration of LOHC dehydrogenation catalysts: In-situ IR spectroscopy on single crystals, model catalysts, and real catalysts from UHV to near ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amende, Max, E-mail: [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kaftan, Andre, E-mail: [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bachmann, Philipp, E-mail: [Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie II, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Brehmer, Richard, E-mail: [Lehrstuhl für Chemische Reaktionstechnik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Preuster, Patrick, E-mail: [Lehrstuhl für Chemische Reaktionstechnik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Koch, Marcus, E-mail: [Lehrstuhl für Chemische Reaktionstechnik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Egerlandstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); and others


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We examine the regeneration of Pt-based catalysts poisoned by LOHC degradation. • A microscopic mechanism of the removal of degradation products from Pt is proposed. • Results of our UHV studies on model catalysts are transferred to real catalysis. • Oxidative regeneration of Pt/alumina is possible under mild conditions (600 K). • The degree and temperature regime of regeneration depends on the catalyst morphology. - Abstract: The Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) concept offers an efficient route to store hydrogen using organic compounds that are reversibly hydrogenated and dehydrogenated. One important challenge towards application of the LOHC technology at a larger scale is to minimize degradation of Pt-based dehydrogenation catalysts during long-term operation. Herein, we investigate the regeneration of Pt/alumina catalysts poisoned by LOHC degradation. We combine ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) studies on Pt(111), investigations on well-defined Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} model catalysts, and near-ambient pressure (NAP) measurements on real core–shell Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst pellets. The catalysts were purposely poisoned by reaction with the LOHC perhydro-dibenzyltoluene (H18-MSH) and with dicyclohexylmethane (DCHM) as a simpler model compound. We focus on oxidative regeneration under conditions that may be applied in real dehydrogenation reactors. The degree of poisoning and regeneration under oxidative reaction conditions was quantified using CO as a probe molecule and measured by infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for planar model systems and real catalysts, respectively. We find that regeneration strongly depends on the composition of the catalyst surface. While the clean surface of a poisoned Pt(111) single crystal is fully restored upon thermal treatment in oxygen up to 700 K, contaminated Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} model catalyst and

  15. The Dependence of CNT Aerogel Synthesis on Sulfur-driven Catalyst Nucleation Processes and a Critical Catalyst Particle Mass Concentration


    Hoecker, Christian; Smail, Fiona; Pick, Martin; Weller, Lee; Boies, Adam M.


    The floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) process permits macro-scale assembly of nanoscale materials, enabling continuous production of carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogels. Despite the intensive research in the field, fundamental uncertainties remain regarding how catalyst particle dynamics within the system influence the CNT aerogel formation, thus limiting effective scale-up. While aerogel formation in FC-CVD reactors requires a catalyst (typically iron, Fe) and a promotor (typic...

  16. Production Hydrogen and Nanocarbon Via Methane Decomposition Using Ni-based Catalysts. Effect of Acidity and Catalyst Diameter


    Widodo W. Purwanto; M Nasikin; E Saputra; Song, L.


    Objectives of this research are mainly to study impacts of acidity strength (by varying amount of precipitant and loadingAl-Si) and the effect of nickel particle size (by varying calcinations temperature) on decomposition reactionperformances. In this research, high-nickel-loaded catalyst is prepared with two methods. Ni-Cu/Al catalysts wereprepared with co-precipitation method. While the Ni-Cu/Al-Si catalyst were prepared by combined co-precipitation andsol-gel method. The direct cracking of...

  17. Chemical interactions in multimetal/zeolite catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachtler, W.M.H.


    For Pt/NaY catalysts our analysis of the mechanism of metal particle formation has enabled us to produce at will samples which contain either the majority of the Pt particles in supercages, without filling these cages completely, or the Pt particles bulge into neighboring cages. The catalytic selectivity is distinctly different for these preparations, in the former case molecules can enter a supercage which is partially filled by the Pt cluster, in the second case adsorption takes place through the cage window. Applying the same principles of catalyst preparation of bimetallic catalysts enables us to produce PtCu particles in supercages of NaY, which contain, initially a Pt core, surrounded by a Cu mantle. Earlier we have found that Ni ions migrate into hexagonal prisms during calcination of Ni/NaY; this process can be partially suppressed by first filling these prisms with Mn or Cr ions. In more recent work we found that addition of Pt strongly lowers the temperature of Ni reduction. Part of the Ni ions is reduced by hydrogen while still inside the smaller cages. This reduction process is, however, reversible; at elevated temperature and in an inert atmosphere protons re-oxidize the Ni atoms and dihydrogen gas is developed. In this way it seems possible to count the Ni atoms in small cages. The calcination stage in the preparation of zeolite supported metals has been studied in considerable detail for Pd/NaY. The Pd is introduced as a tetrammin complex; during calcination the ammine ligands are successively oxidized. Once three ammine ligands are destroyed, the Pd ions which carry only one ligand, surprisingly jump from the supercages to the sodalite cage.

  18. Optimal catalyst curves: Connecting density functional theory calculations with industrial reactor design and catalyst selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, C.J.H.; Dahl, Søren; Boisen, A.


    For ammonia synthesis catalysts a volcano-type relationship has been found experimentally. We demonstrate that by combining density functional theory calculations with a microkinetic model the position of the maximum of the volcano curve is sensitive to the reaction conditions. The catalytic...

  19. Monitoring catalysts at work in their final form: spectroscopic investigations on a monolithic catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren B.; Bañares, Miguel A.; Bazin, Philippe


    A monolithic vanadia–titania based catalyst has been subjected to studies with in situ FTIR spectroscopy coupled with mass spectrometry, during the SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) reaction. A device based on a transmission reactor cell for monolithic samples was constructed, dedicated...

  20. Catalyst Schools' Implementation of the Learning School Approach. Catalyst Schools Research Study Report (United States)

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape


    "Catalyst schools" were 28 elementary and secondary schools selected to participate in a pilot project begun in July 2014, which explored how best to support teacher professional learning through decentralization of decision making and implementation of the Learning School approach. The pilot project was the first phase in a statewide…

  1. Self-healing catalysts: Co(3)O(4) nanorods for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. (United States)

    Wen, Cun; Dunbar, Darrius; Zhang, Xin; Lauterbach, Jochen; Hattrick-Simpers, Jason


    We combine kinetic and spectroscopic data to demonstrate the concept of a self-healing catalyst, which effectively eliminates the need for catalyst regeneration. The observed self-healing is triggered by controlling the crystallographic orientation at the catalyst surface.

  2. Peptides as catalysts in the RNA world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Rafal; Dörr, Mark; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    peptides, which in turn shifted the equilibrium to produce even more product. In the present work we describe a prebiotically plausible system in which the SerHis dipeptide acts as catalyst for the formation of RNA oligomers from imidazole derivatives of mononucleotides. The thermodynamic shift towards...... was sequestered into ice crystals and the other reactants were up-concentrated in the remaining liquid microinclusions, thus creating an environment with low water activity in which condensation reactions can occur. The ability of simple peptides to catalyze RNA synthesis could represent a link between prebiotic...

  3. Cooperative catalysis designing efficient catalysts for synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, René


    Written by experts in the field, this is a much-needed overview of the rapidly emerging field of cooperative catalysis. The authors focus on the design and development of novel high-performance catalysts for applications in organic synthesis (particularly asymmetric synthesis), covering a broad range of topics, from the latest progress in Lewis acid / Br?nsted base catalysis to e.g. metal-assisted organocatalysis, cooperative metal/enzyme catalysis, and cooperative catalysis in polymerization reactions and on solid surfaces. The chapters are classified according to the type of cooperating acti

  4. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun


    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  5. Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI


    An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

  6. Methyltrioxorhenium as catalyst for olefin metathesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, W.A. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Anorganisch-Chemisches Inst.); Wagner, W. (Consortium fuer Elektrochemische Industrie GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)); Flessner, U.N.; Volkhardt, U.; Komber, H. (Institut fuer Technologie der Polymere, Dresden (Germany))


    No cocatalysts are needed as additives when methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) supported on acidic carriers is employed to catalyze the metathesis of functionalized olefins. A typical system is MTO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}, which is active, for instance, in the metathesis of allyl halides, allylsilanes, unsaturated carboxylates, and nitriles. MTO in combination with R{sub n}AlCl{sub 3-n} is a homogeneous catalyst in ring-opening polymerizations (R = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}; n = 1,2). (orig.).

  7. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing (United States)


    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  8. Hydrogen recombiner catalyst test supporting data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.


    This is a data package supporting the Hydrogen Recombiner Catalyst Performance and Carbon Monoxide Sorption Capacity Test Report, WHC-SD-WM-TRP-211, Rev 0. This report contains 10 appendices which consist of the following: Mass spectrometer analysis reports: HRC samples 93-001 through 93-157; Gas spectrometry analysis reports: HRC samples 93-141 through 93-658; Mass spectrometer procedure PNL-MA-299 ALO-284; Alternate analytical method for ammonia and water vapor; Sample log sheets; Job Safety analysis; Certificate of mixture analysis for feed gases; Flow controller calibration check; Westinghouse Standards Laboratory report on Bois flow calibrator; and Sorption capacity test data, tables, and graphs.

  9. Catalyst-referred etching of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Hara et al


    Full Text Available A Si wafer and polysilicon deposited on a Si wafer were planarized using catalyst-referred etching (CARE. Two apparatuses were produced for local etching and for planarization. The local etching apparatus was used to planarize polysilicon and the planarization apparatus was used to planarize Si wafers. Platinum and hydrofluoric acid were used as the catalytic plate and the source of reactive species, respectively. The processed surfaces were observed by optical interferometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicate that the CARE-processed surface is flat and undamaged.

  10. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    The Emerson & Cuming technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 9 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation uses one of the schedules within the TDS and adds a “post cure” to obtain full reaction.

  11. CATALYSTS NHI Thermochemical Systems FY 2009 Year-End Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel M. Ginosar


    Fiscal Year 2009 work in the Catalysts project focused on advanced catalysts for the decomposition of sulfuric acid, a reaction common to both the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) cycle and the Hybrid Sulfur cycle. Prior years’ effort in this project has found that although platinum supported on titanium oxide will be an acceptable catalyst for sulfuric acid decomposition in the integrated laboratory scale (ILS) project, the material has short comings, including significant cost and high deactivation rates due to sintering and platinum evaporation. For pilot and larger scale systems, the catalyst stability needs to be improved significantly. In Fiscal Year 2008 it was found that at atmospheric pressure, deactivation rates of a 1 wt% platinum catalyst could be reduced by 300% by adding either 0.3 wt% iridium (Ir) or 0.3 wt% ruthenium (Ru) to the catalyst. In Fiscal Year 2009, work focused on examining the platinum group metal catalysts activity and stability at elevated pressures. In addition, simple and complex metal oxides are known to catalyze the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. These metal oxides could offer activities comparable to platinum but at significantly reduced cost. Thus a second focus for Fiscal Year 2009 was to explore metal oxide catalysts for the sulfuric acid decomposition reaction. In Fiscal Year 2007 several commercial activated carbons had been identified for the HI decomposition reaction; a reaction specific to the S-I cycle. Those materials should be acceptable for the pilot scale project. The activated carbon catalysts have some disadvantages including low activity at the lower range of reactor operating temperature (350 to 400°C) and a propensity to generate carbon monoxide in the presence of water that could contaminate the hydrogen product, but due to limited funding, this area had low priority in Fiscal Year 2009. Fiscal Year 2009 catalyst work included five tasks: development, and testing of stabilized platinum based H2SO4 catalysts

  12. X-ray characterization of platinum group metal catalysts (United States)

    Peterson, Eric J.

    Platinum group metals (PGMs) are used extensively as catalysts, employed in several sectors of the world energy economy. Fuel cells employing PGM catalysts show promise as power sources in the proposed hydrogen economy, using alcohols as hydrogen storage media. Currently, the most economically important application for PGMs is for the mitigation of emissions from internal combustion engines via catalytic converters. In all applications, efficient use of these expensive metals to fabricate robust catalysts is of the utmost importance. Understanding the catalyst structure/property relationship is the key to the improvement of existing catalysts and the discovery of new catalysts. For example, catalyst particle size can have profound effects on catalyst activity, as in the case of gold nanoparticles. Catalyst particle size control and stability is also important for the efficient use of PGM metals and catalyst deactivation prevention. The challenge is to identify and characterize structural features and determine if and how these features may relate to catalytic properties. The ultimate goal is to simultaneously measure catalyst structural characteristics and catalytic properties under operando conditions, unambiguously establishing the structure/property link. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are important techniques used for the characterization of PGM catalysts. Microstructural information such as crystallite size, as small as ~ 1 nm, and microstrain can be obtained from Bragg diffraction peak shapes in X-ray diffraction patterns, and long range crystal structure information is found in the intensities and positions of these peaks. In contrast, X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides information about the chemical state and local structure of selected atoms. From the average nearest neighbor coordination numbers, crystallite sizes can also be inferred, with particularly high sensitivity in the sub-nm size range. Electron microscopy

  13. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on ALD-synthesized Catalysts (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.

    Cobalt catalysts were prepared on porous Al2O 3 and W/Al2O3 supports by atomic layer deposition (ALD) that used sequential reactions of cobaltocene (CoCp2) and H 2 at 483 to 523 K. This preparation method avoided formation of an intermediate oxide, so the catalysts could be activated at lower temperatures. Some of these catalysts had CO reaction rates per g of Co in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) that were three times those reported for Co catalysts prepared by incipient wetness. The FTS reacts CO and H2 to form hydrocarbon liquids that can used as synthetic fuels. The rate of FTS depended on the number of ALD cycles, and catalysts prepared with one cycle had activities equivalent to incipient wetness Co catalysts; the highest reaction rate per g of catalyst was obtained for catalysts prepared using four ALD cycles. Two types of Co were observed on the alumina surface using TEM: Co particles with diameters between 0.6 and 1.8 nm (75% were smaller than 1 nm), and Co crystalline planes that were as large as 35 nm. Cobalt catalysts prepared by ALD retained adsorbed ligands that appeared to be stable for at least eight months at room temperature. Tungsten was deposited onto porous Al2O 3 by ALD to provide a catalyst support with higher thermal conductivity because the FTS reaction is highly exothermic. The W indeed increased thermal conductivity, and the resulting supports were used for Co ALD following deposition of an Al2O3 ALD layer. However, although Co deposits on ALD Al2O3, the Co had no activity for FTS, apparently because the ALD Al2O3 was amorphous. In contrast ALD Al 2O3 that was heat treated at high temperature was partially crystalline and served as a support for an active FTS catalyst.

  14. Characterization of Deactivated Bio-oil Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong


    Deactivation of bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts remains a significant challenge because of the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil input for hydrotreating and understanding their deactivation mode is critical to developing improved catalysts and processes. In this research, we developed an understanding of the deactivation of two-step bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided Ru/C and sulfided CoMo/C) through detailed characterization of the catalysts using various complimentary analytical techniques. Severe fouling of both catalysts by carbonaceous species was the major form of deactivation, which is consistent with the significant loss of surface area and pore volume of both deactivated catalysts and the significant increase of the bulk density. Further analysis of the carbonaceous species by thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the carbonaceous species was formed by condensation reaction of active species such as sugars and sugar derivatives (aldehydes and ketones) in bio-oil feedstock during bio-oil hydrotreating under the conditions and catalysts used. Microscopy results did not show metal sintering of the Ru/C catalyst. However, X-ray diffraction indicated a probable transformation of the highly-active CoMoS phase in the sulfided CoMo/C catalyst to Co8S9 and MoS2 phase with low activity. Loss of the active site by transport of inorganic elements from the bio-oil and the reactor construction material onto the catalyst surface also might be a cause of deactivation as indicated by elemental analysis of spent catalysts.

  15. Zeolites as catalysts in oil refining. (United States)

    Primo, Ana; Garcia, Hermenegildo


    Oil is nowadays the main energy source and this prevalent position most probably will continue in the next decades. This situation is largely due to the degree of maturity that has been achieved in oil refining and petrochemistry as a consequence of the large effort in research and innovation. The remarkable efficiency of oil refining is largely based on the use of zeolites as catalysts. The use of zeolites as catalysts in refining and petrochemistry has been considered as one of the major accomplishments in the chemistry of the XXth century. In this tutorial review, the introductory part describes the main features of zeolites in connection with their use as solid acids. The main body of the review describes important refining processes in which zeolites are used including light naphtha isomerization, olefin alkylation, reforming, cracking and hydrocracking. The final section contains our view on future developments in the field such as the increase in the quality of the transportation fuels and the coprocessing of increasing percentage of biofuels together with oil streams. This review is intended to provide the rudiments of zeolite science applied to refining catalysis.

  16. Silica-supported Preyssler Nanoparticles as New Catalysts in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new and efficient method for the preparation of 4(3H)-quinazolinones from the condensation of anthranilic acid, orthoester and substituted anilines, in the presence of catalytic amounts of silica-supported Preyssler nanoparticles is reported. The catalyst performs very well in comparison with other catalysts reported before.

  17. Calcined eggshell (CES): An efficient natural catalyst for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A convenient, eco-friendly and economic method for Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with active methylene compounds using calcined eggshell (CES) as an efficient natural catalyst in aqueous medium has been reported. CES is a new, ecologically safe and inexpensive green catalyst obtained from ...

  18. IN SITU Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossil Energy Research


    SCR catalyst management has become an important operations and maintenance activity for coal-fired utility boilers in the United States. To facilitate this activity, a method to determine Catalyst Activity in situ is being developed. This report describes the methodology and presents the results of a two ozone season demonstration conducted at Alabama Power Company's Gorgas Unit 10 during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons. The results showed that the in situ measurements are in good agreement with the laboratory measurements and the technique has some advantages over the traditional laboratory method of determining Catalyst Activity and Reactor Potential. SCR Performance is determined by the overall Reactor Potential (the product of the Catalyst Activity and the available surface area per unit of flue gas). The in situ approach provides a direct measurement of Reactor Potential under actual operating conditions, whereas laboratory measurements of Catalyst Activity need to be coupled with estimates of catalyst pluggage and flue gas flowrate in order to assess Reactor Potential. The project also showed that the in situ activity results can easily be integrated into catalyst management software to aid in making informed catalyst decisions.

  19. Ammonia treated Mo/AC catalysts for CO hydrogenation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A series of ammonia treated Mo/Activated Carbon (AC) catalysts were synthesized by wet impregnation method by nominal incorporation of 5, 10 and 15 wt% of molybdenum. The calcined catalysts (500◦C, 4 h, N₂ flow) were subjected to a stepwise ammonia treatment at temperatures from 25 up to 700◦C. This work ...

  20. Discovery of technical methanation catalysts based on computational screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Jens; Larsen, Kasper Emil; Kustov, Arkadii


    Methanation is a classical reaction in heterogeneous catalysis and significant effort has been put into improving the industrially preferred nickel-based catalysts. Recently, a computational screening study showed that nickel-iron alloys should be more active than the pure nickel catalyst and at ...

  1. Titanium dioxide as a catalyst support in heterogeneous catalysis. (United States)

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah


    The lack of stability is a challenge for most heterogeneous catalysts. During operations, the agglomeration of particles may block the active sites of the catalyst, which is believed to contribute to its instability. Recently, titanium oxide (TiO2) was introduced as an alternative support material for heterogeneous catalyst due to the effect of its high surface area stabilizing the catalysts in its mesoporous structure. TiO2 supported metal catalysts have attracted interest due to TiO2 nanoparticles high activity for various reduction and oxidation reactions at low pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, TiO2 was found to be a good metal oxide catalyst support due to the strong metal support interaction, chemical stability, and acid-base property. The aforementioned properties make heterogeneous TiO2 supported catalysts show a high potential in photocatalyst-related applications, electrodes for wet solar cells, synthesis of fine chemicals, and others. This review focuses on TiO2 as a support material for heterogeneous catalysts and its potential applications.

  2. Role of clay as catalyst in Friedel–Craft alkylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid acids have become increasingly important for many liquid-phase industrial reactions these days. Montmorillonite clays (2:1 clay mineral) have been used as efficient solid acid catalysts for a number of organic and liquid phase reactions and offer several advantages over classic acids. Tailor made catalysts can be ...

  3. Role of clay as catalyst in Friedel–Craft alkylation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    solid catalysts in a test Friedel–Craft alkylation reaction of benzyl chloride with toluene using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) are reported. Product formation has been analysed by FTIR spectroscopy. The main objective of this work is to show how clay as a solid catalyst affects reaction rates and activation energies.

  4. Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanostructures (CNS) are often grown using oxide nanoparticles as catalyst in chemical vapour deposition and these oxides are not expected to survive as such during growth. In the present study, the catalysts of cobalt- and nickel oxide-based nanoparticles of sizes varying over a range have been reduced at 575 ...

  5. Cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts having improved selectivity (United States)

    Miller, James G.; Rabo, Jule A.


    A cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst having an improved steam treated, acid extracted LZ-210 support is taught. The new catalyst system demonstrates improved product selectivity at Fischer-Tropsch reaction conditions evidenced by lower methane production, higher C.sub.5.sup.+ yield and increased olefin production.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu


    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  7. Highly Active Water-Soluble Olefin Metathesis Catalyst


    Hong, Soon Hyeok; Grubbs, Robert H


    A novel water-soluble ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst supported by a poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated saturated 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene ligand is reported. The catalyst displays improved activity in ring-opening metathesis polymerization, ring-closing metathesis, and cross-metathesis reactions in aqueous media.

  8. Chelated ruthenium catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis. (United States)

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H


    We report the development of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts with chelating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands that catalyze highly Z-selective olefin metathesis. A very simple and convenient procedure for the synthesis of such catalysts has been developed. Intramolecular C-H bond activation of the NHC ligand, promoted by anion ligand substitution, forms the appropriate chelate for stereocontrolled olefin metathesis.

  9. Supported organometallic catalysts for hydrogenation and Olefin Polymerization (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Ahn, Hongsang


    Novel heterogeneous catalysts for the which hydrogenation of olefins and arenes with high conversion rates under ambient conditions and the polymerization of olefins have been developed. The catalysts are synthesized from Ziegler-type precatalysts by supporting them on sulfate-modified zirconia.

  10. Hysteresis Phenomena in Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation over Supported Vanadium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Catalyst deactivation and hysteresis behavior in industrial SO2-oxidation catalysts have been studied in the temperature region 350-480 C by combined in situ EPR spectroscopy and catalytic activity measurements. The feed gas composition simulated sulfuric acid synthesis gas and wet/dry de...

  11. Sulfated polyborate: A mild, efficient catalyst for synthesis of N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid, efficient and inexpensive method for synthesis of N-tert-butyl/N-trityl protected amides via Ritter reaction of nitriles with tertiary alcohols in the presence of a sulfated polyborate catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described. The catalyst has the advantage of Lewis as well as Bronsted acidity and recyclability ...

  12. Studies of Deactivation of Methanol to Formaldehyde Selective Oxidation Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Kristian Viegaard; Schumann, Max; Høj, Martin

    This work presents a study of the deactivation behavior of Fe-Mo oxide catalyst during selective oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in a period of 5 days. The structural changes in the catalyst have been investigated in situ for the initial 10 h by Raman spectroscopy, and the structure after 5...

  13. An overview on the applications of 'Doyle catalysts' in asymmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chiral dirhodium(II) carboxamidates are a unique class of chiral catalysts useful for asymmetric inter- and intramolecular cyclopropanation, cyclopropenation and C-H insertion reactions with excellent enantioselectivities. The broad applications of these catalysts in organic syntheses are briefly reviewed.

  14. Polyaromatic polymers as binders in PEMFC catalyst layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peron, J.M.; Edwards, D.; Le Marquand, P.; Shi, Z.; Holdcroft, S. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation


    The catalyst layers in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are typically composed of platinum as the catalyst and carbon as the electron conductor. The binder that ensures the ionic pathway between catalyst particles and the electrolyte membrane is a perfluorinated polymer that brings the electrolyte, gaseous reactants, electrocatalyst and current collector into close contact within a confined spatial region known as the triple-phase-boundary. New non-fluorinated polymers have been developed in an effort to lower the cost and improve the stability of fuel cells. Although polyaromatic polymers have been extensively presented in the literature for membrane preparation, these new materials have been mainly characterized in presence of Nafion as a binder in the catalyst layer. This paper discussed the incorporation of polyaromatic polymers, such as sulfonated-PEEK (sPEEK), and its properties as a binder. sPEEK-based catalyst ink solutions, using different sPEEK/Pt ratios and preparation methods, have been deposited on membranes to form catalyst-coated-membranes (CCM). Initial catalyst ink were characterized using dynamic light scattering to determine agglomerate size. Catalyst layers were examined using SEM and TEM and their porosity was determined by Hg porosimetry. Various electrochemical techniques were used for in-situ characterization of prepared sPEEK CCMs.

  15. Transition metal oxide loaded MCM catalysts for photocatalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanoporous, high surface area compounds were obtained after calcination of the compounds. The catalysts were characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS, UV-vis and BET surface area analysis. The catalysts showed high activity for the photocatalytic degradation of both anionic and cationic dyes. The degradation of the dyes was ...

  16. Alkali resistivity of Cu based selective catalytic reduction catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Jensen, Anker Degn; Riisager, Anders


    The deactivation of V2O5–WO3–TiO2, Cu–HZSM5 and Cu–HMOR plate type monolithic catalysts was investigated when exposed to KCl aerosols in a bench-scale reactor. Fresh and exposed catalysts were characterized by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) activity measurements, scanning electron microscope...

  17. Synthesis of substituted guanidines using Zn–Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). The heterogeneous catalyst afforded moderate to good yields (∼50–60 %) of substituted guanidines in toluene at 110. ◦. C in 12 h. The catalyst was recov- ered quantitatively by simple filtration and reused for three cycles with consistent activity. The XRD and FTIR.

  18. Titanium Dioxide as a Catalyst Support in Heterogeneous Catalysis (United States)

    Bagheri, Samira; Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah


    The lack of stability is a challenge for most heterogeneous catalysts. During operations, the agglomeration of particles may block the active sites of the catalyst, which is believed to contribute to its instability. Recently, titanium oxide (TiO2) was introduced as an alternative support material for heterogeneous catalyst due to the effect of its high surface area stabilizing the catalysts in its mesoporous structure. TiO2 supported metal catalysts have attracted interest due to TiO2 nanoparticles high activity for various reduction and oxidation reactions at low pressures and temperatures. Furthermore, TiO2 was found to be a good metal oxide catalyst support due to the strong metal support interaction, chemical stability, and acid-base property. The aforementioned properties make heterogeneous TiO2 supported catalysts show a high potential in photocatalyst-related applications, electrodes for wet solar cells, synthesis of fine chemicals, and others. This review focuses on TiO2 as a support material for heterogeneous catalysts and its potential applications. PMID:25383380

  19. Sodium sesquicarbonate (Akang) and limestone as catalysts for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of monoglycerides from palm and palm kernel oils were carried out using sodium sesquicarbonate (akang) and lime stone as catalysts.The results showed that the maximum monoglyceride formed is in the range of 49–57% of the fatty product for the limestone catalyst and 78 – 92% for the sodium ...

  20. A clamp-like biohybrid catalyst for DNA oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, S.F.M.; Clerx, J.; Norgaard, K.; Bloemberg, T.G.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Trakselis, M.A.; Nelson, S.W.; Benkovic, S.J.; Rowan, A.E.; Nolte, R.J.M.


    In processive catalysis, a catalyst binds to a substrate and remains bound as it performs several consecutive reactions, as exemplified by DNA polymerases. Processivity is essential in nature and is often mediated by a clamp-like structure that physically tethers the catalyst to its (polymeric)

  1. A Catalyst-for-Change Approach to Evaluation Capacity Building (United States)

    Garcia-Iriarte, Edurne; Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina; Luna, Maria


    Evaluation capacity building (ECB) has become a popular approach for helping community-based organizations (CBOs) to meet their funders' demands for accountability. This case study reports the ECB process with one staff member using a catalyst-for-change approach. The authors analyzed the role of the catalyst in diffusing evaluation knowledge and…

  2. Co-catalyst free Titanate Nanorods for improved Hydrogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Harnessing solar energy for water splitting into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases in the pres- ence of semiconductor catalyst is one of the most promising and cleaner methods of chemical fuel (H2) pro- duction. Herein, we report a simplified method for the preparation of photo-active titanate nanorods catalyst.

  3. Recent developments on ultrasound assisted catalyst-free organic synthesis. (United States)

    Banerjee, Bubun


    Mother Nature needs to be protected from ever increasing chemical pollutions associated with synthetic organic processes. The fundamental challenge for today's methodologists is to make their protocols more environmentally benign and sustainable by avoiding the extensive use of hazardous reagents and solvents, harsh reaction conditions, and toxic metal catalysts. However, the people of the twenty-first century are well aware about the side effects of those hazardous substances used and generated by the chemical processes. As a result, the last decade has seen a tremendous outburst in modifying chemical processes to make them 'sustainable' for the betterment of our environment. Catalysts play a crucial role in organic synthesis and thus they find huge applications and uses. Scientists' continuously trying to modify the catalysts to reduce their toxicity level, but the most benign way is to design an organic reaction without catalyst(s), if possible. It is worthy to mention that the involvement of ultrasound in organic synthesis is sometimes fulfilling this goal. In many occasions the applications of ultrasound can avoid the use of catalysts in organic reactions. Such beneficial features as a whole have motivated the organic chemists to apply ultrasonic irradiation in more heights and as a results, in recent past, there were immense applications of ultrasound in organic reactions for the synthesis of diverse organic scaffolds under catalyst-free condition. The present review summarizes the latest developments on ultrasound assisted catalyst-free organic synthesis reported so far. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nickel catalysts for internal reforming in molten carbonate fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, R.J.; Berger, R.J.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; Doesburg, E.B.M.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.; Ross, J.R.H.


    Natural gas may be used instead of hydrogen as fuel for the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by steam reforming the natural gas inside the MCFC, using a nickel catalyst (internal reforming). The severe conditions inside the MCFC, however, require that the catalyst has a very high stability. In

  5. Nanoscale intimacy in bifunctional catalysts for selective conversion of hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zecevic, Jovana|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341386715; Vanbutsele, Gina; de Jong, Krijn P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X; Martens, Johan A.


    The ability to control nanoscale features precisely is increasingly being exploited to develop and improve monofunctional catalysts(1-4). Striking effects might also be expected in the case of bifunctional catalysts, which are important in the hydrocracking of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon

  6. Adsorption, Diffusion and Reaction Studies of Hydrocarbons on Zeolite Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, Sander van


    Zeolites are crystalline microporous materials that are widely applied as catalysts in industries like oil refining, basic petrochemistry and fine chemistry. The major benefit of the use of zeolites as catalysts lies in their unique microporous structures. However, in some cases the presence of

  7. The asymmetric Schrock olefin metathesis catalysts. A computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goumans, T.P.M.; Ehlers, A.W.; Lammertsma, K.


    The mechanism of the transition metal catalyzed olefin metathesis reaction with the Schrock catalyst is investigated with pure (BP86) and hybrid (B3LYP) density functional theory. On the free-energy surface there is no adduct between ethylene and model catalyst (MeO)

  8. An attempt to selectively oxidize methane over supported gold catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hereijgers, B.P.C.; Weckhuysen, B.M.


    The potential of supported gold catalysts for the selective gas-phase oxidation of methane to methanol with molecular oxygen was investigated. A broad range of supported gold-based catalyst materials was synthesized using reducible and non-reducible support materials. Although the formation of small

  9. Efficient utilization of bimetallic catalyst in low environment syngas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Oct 26, 2017 ... C, 72% CO conversion, and 60% C5+ selectivity show that the catalyst efficiently utilizes the increased H2/CO ratio in the production of liquid hydrocarbon. Keywords. H2/CO usage ratio; bimetallic catalyst; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis; WGS reaction. 1. Introduction. In the search of cleaner fuel production via ...

  10. Mordenite - Type Zeolite SCR Catalysts with Iron or Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    much higher alkali resistivity than that of commercial V2O5/WO3-TiO2 (VWT) SCR catalyst which is currently used for NOx abatement in stationary installations. Unique support properties like high surface area and surface acidity, which are not available in the commercial VWT catalyst, seem...

  11. The epoxidation of propene over gold nanoparticle catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, T.A.; Sacaliuc, E.; Weckhuysen, B.M.


    Different gold nanoparticle catalysts on titania, silica, and titanosilicate supports are compared in the hydro-epoxidation of propene. All catalysts tested were active in the propene epoxidation, with Au/TiO2 showing the highest activity at low temperature, but also a high rate of deactivation. It

  12. Solid acid catalysts in heterogeneous n-alkanes hydroisomerisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both solid and gaseous acid modifiers could similarly modify their textural characteristics. The activities of all catalysts could under uncontrolled conditions lead to side reactions such as cracking, aromatisation and dehydrogenation. Keywords; Solid acids, n-alkanes, hydroisomerisation catalysts, gasoline, octane number.

  13. Reactivation of a Tin-Oxide-Containing Catalyst (United States)

    Hess, Robert; Sidney, Barry; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin; Miller, George; Upchurch, Bill; Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth


    The electrons in electric-discharge CO2 lasers cause dissociation of some CO2 into O2 and CO, and attach themselves to electronegative molecules such as O2, forming negative O2 ions, as well as larger negative ion clusters by collisions with CO or other molecules. The decrease in CO2 concentration due to dissociation into CO and O2 will reduce the average repetitively pulsed or continuous wave laser power, even if no disruptive negative ion instabilities occur. Accordingly, it is the primary object of this invention to extend the lifetime of a catalyst used to combine the CO and O2 products formed in a laser discharge. A promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide (Pt/SnO2). First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. The pretreatment is considered complete when no measurable quantity of CO2 is given off by the catalyst. After this standard pretreatment, the catalyst is ready for its low-temperature use in the sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser. However, after about 3,000 minutes of operation, the activity of the catalyst begins to slowly diminish. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during exposure to the circulating gas stream inside or external to the laser, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature between 100 and 400 C. A temperature of 225 C was experimentally found to provide an adequate temperature for reactivation. During this period, the catalyst is still exposed to the circulating gas inside or external to the laser. This constant heating and exposing the catalyst to the laser gas mixture is maintained for an hour. After heating and exposing for an appropriate amount of time, the heated zone around the catalyst is allowed to return to the nominal operating temperature of the CO2 laser. This temperature normally resides in the range of 23 to 100 C. Catalyst activity can be measured as the percentage conversion of CO to CO2. In the specific embodiment

  14. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Supported Catalysts for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (United States)


    Graphitic carbon nitrides are investigated for developing highly durable Pt electrocatalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Three different graphitic carbon nitride materials were synthesized with the aim to address the effect of crystallinity, porosity, and composition on the catalyst support properties: polymeric carbon nitride (gCNM), poly(triazine) imide carbon nitride (PTI/Li+Cl–), and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride materials are found to be more electrochemically stable compared to conventional carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) with B-gCNM support showing the best stability. For the supported catalysts, Pt/PTI-Li+Cl– catalyst exhibits better durability with only 19% electrochemical surface area (ECSA) loss versus 36% for Pt/Vulcan after 2000 scans. Superior methanol oxidation activity is observed for all graphitic carbon nitride supported Pt catalysts on the basis of the catalyst ECSA. PMID:24748912

  15. Catalysts Efficiency Evaluation by using CC Analysis Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu


    Full Text Available The study emphasizes the necessity of the catalysts efficiency testing. Diagnosis systems using lambda probes are based on the capacity of the catalyst oxygen storage. Comparing the lambda probe signals upstream and downstream of catalyst provides an indication on catalyst activity, although the correlation between oxygen storage capacity and catalyst efficiency is still difficult. Diagnosis for the 1.4 Renault Clio Symbol was accomplished in the Road Vehicles Lab at the Politehnica University of Timisoara using AVL Dicom 4000. The tests showed that the engine worked with lean mixture being necessary a fuel mixture correction calculated by the control unit ECU. A compensation of 0.14 % vol is required for the engine correct operation and emissions integration within permissible limits

  16. Waste shells of mollusk and egg as biodiesel production catalysts. (United States)

    Viriya-Empikul, N; Krasae, P; Puttasawat, B; Yoosuk, B; Chollacoop, N; Faungnawakij, K


    The solid oxide catalysts derived from waste shells of egg, golden apple snail, and meretrix venus were employed to produce biodiesel from transesterification of palm olein oil. The shell materials were calcined in air at 800 degrees C with optimum time of 2-4h to transform calcium species in the shells into active CaO catalysts. All catalysts showed the high biodiesel production activity over 90% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in 2h, whilst the eggshell-derived catalyst showed comparable activity to the one derived from commercial CaCO(3). The catalytic activity was in accordance with the surface area of and the Ca content in the catalysts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methane decomposition on Fe-Cu Raney-type catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, A.F.; Orfao, J.J.M.; Figueiredo, J.L. [Laboratorio de Catalise e Materiais, Laboratorio Associado LSRE/LCM, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)


    The decomposition of methane into hydrogen and carbon was studied on Fe-Cu catalysts of Raney-type. The activity of the catalysts was assessed by comparing the experimental conversions with the calculated equilibrium conversions for each set of experimental conditions. The stability of the catalysts was assessed by comparing the maximum conversions with the conversions at the end of 5-hour tests. The carbon deposits obtained consist mostly of carbon nanofibers. Good results were obtained when the Fe-Cu Raney-type systems were thermally treated in situ at 600 C, as a result of incipient alloy formation. These catalysts showed higher stability than the monometallic Raney-Fe catalysts. (author)

  18. Hydrogen production via methane decomposition on Raney-type catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J.L.; Orfao, J.J.M.; Cunha, A.F. [Laboratorio de Catalise e Materiais, Laboratorio Associado LSRE/LCM, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)


    The catalytic decomposition of methane into hydrogen and carbon was studied on La{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped Ni and Ni-Cu Raney-type catalysts. The activity and stability of the catalysts were assessed by comparing the experimental conversions with the calculated equilibrium conversions for each set of experimental conditions, and the maximum conversions with the conversions at the end of (at least) 5 h tests, respectively. Improved stability of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped catalysts was ascribed to an electronic promotion effect. There is an optimum load of the promoter, which provides for extended periods of stable catalyst operation. The carbon deposits consist of carbon nanofibers and multiwall carbon nanotubes. The La{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped Ni-Cu Raney-type catalysts presented in this work are remarkably efficient for the production of hydrogen by methane decomposition. (author)

  19. Hydrogenation of Tetralin over Supported Ni and Ir Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipali P. Upare


    Full Text Available Selective hydrogenation and ring opening (SRO of tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin was studied over nickel and iridium supported catalysts in the context of the removal of polynuclear aromatics from diesel fuel. The tetralin hydrogenation was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 270°C, using H2 pressure of 30 bars, WHSV of 2.3 h−1, and H2/feed molar ratio of 40; the resultant products were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The Ir/SiO2 catalyst gave 85% of tetralin conversion and 75.1% of decalin products selectivity whereas Ni/SiO2 catalyst showed an unprecedented high catalytic performance with 88.3% of tetralin conversion and 93% of decalin products selectivity. The catalysts were characterized by using different characterization techniques such as XRD, TPR, and HR-TEM to know the physicochemical properties as well as active sites in the catalysts.

  20. Comparison of the activities of fine-particle size catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.


    The objectives of Sandia`s fine-particle size catalyst testing project are to evaluate and compare the activities of the fine-particle size catalysts being developed in DOE/PETCs Advanced Research Coal Liquefaction Program by using standard coal liquefaction test procedures. The standard procedures use Blind Canyon coal, phenanthrene as the reaction solvent, and a factorial experimental design with temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 400{degrees}C, reaction times from 20 to 60 minutes, and catalyst loadings up to 1 wt%. Catalytic activity is measured in terms of tetrahydrofuran conversion, heptane conversion, the amount of 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene in the product, and the gas yield. Several catalysts have been evaluated including a commercially available pyrite, a sulfated iron oxide from the University of Pittsburgh, and several preparations of 6-line ferrihydrites from Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Results have demonstrated that significant differences in activity can be detected among these catalysts.

  1. Apparatus and Process for Controlled Nanomanufacturing Using Catalyst Retaining Structures (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien (Inventor)


    An apparatus and method for the controlled fabrication of nanostructures using catalyst retaining structures is disclosed. The apparatus includes one or more modified force microscopes having a nanotube attached to the tip portion of the microscopes. An electric current is passed from the nanotube to a catalyst layer of a substrate, thereby causing a localized chemical reaction to occur in a resist layer adjacent the catalyst layer. The region of the resist layer where the chemical reaction occurred is etched, thereby exposing a catalyst particle or particles in the catalyst layer surrounded by a wall of unetched resist material. Subsequent chemical vapor deposition causes growth of a nanostructure to occur upward through the wall of unetched resist material having controlled characteristics of height and diameter and, for parallel systems, number density.

  2. Studies on PEM fuel cell noble metal catalyst dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.; Grahl-Madsen, L.; Skou, E. M.


    A combination of electrochemical, spectroscopic and gravimetric methods was carried out on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with the focus on platinum and ruthenium catalysts dissolution, and the membrane degradation. In cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, the noble metals were...... found to dissolve in 1 M sulfuric acid solution and the dissolution increased exponentially with the upper potential limit (UPL) between 0.6 and 1.6 vs. RHE. 2-20% of the Pt (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved during the experiments. Under the same conditions, 30-100% of the Ru...... (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved. The faster dissolution of ruthenium compared to platinum in the alloy type catalysts was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The dissolution of the carbon supported catalyst was found one order of magnitude higher than the unsupported...

  3. Recent Advancements in Stereoselective Olefin Metathesis Using Ruthenium Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Patrick Montgomery


    Full Text Available Olefin metathesis is a prevailing method for the construction of organic molecules. Recent advancements in olefin metathesis have focused on stereoselective transformations. Ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts have had a particularly pronounced impact in the area of stereoselective olefin metathesis. The development of three categories of Z-selective olefin metathesis catalysts has made Z-olefins easily accessible to both laboratory and industrial chemists. Further design enhancements to asymmetric olefin metathesis catalysts have streamlined the construction of complex molecules. The understanding gained in these areas has extended to the employment of ruthenium catalysts to stereoretentive olefin metathesis, the first example of a kinetically E-selective process. These advancements, as well as synthetic applications of the newly developed catalysts, are discussed.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles conjugated to chiral imidazolidinone as recoverable catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondini, Sara [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (Italy); Puglisi, Alessandra; Benaglia, Maurizio, E-mail:; Ramella, Daniela [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy); Drago, Carmelo [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare (Italy); Ferretti, Anna M.; Ponti, Alessandro, E-mail: [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Laboratorio di Nanotecnologie, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari (Italy)


    The immobilization of an ad hoc designed chiral imidazolidin-4-one onto iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is described, to afford MNP-supported MacMillan’s catalyst. Morphological and structural analysis of the materials, during preparation, use, and recycle, has been carried out by transmission electron microscopy. The supported catalyst was tested in the Diels–Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene with cinnamic aldehyde, affording the products in good yields and enantiomeric excesses up to 93 %, comparable to those observed with the non-supported catalyst. Recovery of the chiral catalyst has been successfully performed by simply applying an external magnet to achieve a perfect separation of the MNPs from the reaction product. The recycle of the catalytic system has been also investigated. Noteworthy, this immobilized MacMillan’s catalyst proved to be able to efficiently promote the reaction in pure water.

  5. Supported Molten Metal Catalysis. A New Class of Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra Datta; Ajeet Singh; Manuela Serban; Istvan Halasz


    We describe a new class of heterogeneous catalysts called supported molten metal catalysis (SMMC), in which molten metal catalysts are dispersed as nanodroplets on the surface of porous supports, allowing much larger active surface area than is possible in conventional contacting techniques for catalytic metals that are molten under reaction conditions, thus greatly enhancing their activity and potential utility. Specific examples of different types of reactions are provided to demonstrate the broad applicability of the technique in designing active, selective, and stable new catalysts. It is shown that dispersing the molten metal on a support in the suggested manner can enhance the rate of a reaction by three to four orders of magnitude as a result of the concomitant increase in the active surface area. New reaction examples include {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported molten Te (melting point 450 C) and Ga (MP 30 C) catalysts for bifunctional methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation. These catalysts provide activity similar to conventional Pt-based catalysts for this with better resistance to coking. In addition, results are described for a controlled pore glass supported molten In (MP 157 C) catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol in the presence of water, demonstrating activities superior to conventional catalysts for this reaction. A discussion is also provided on the characterization of the active surface area and dispersion of these novel supported catalysts. It is clear based on the results described that the development of new active and selective supported molten metal catalysts for practical applications is entirely plausible.

  6. Method of Heating a Foam-Based Catalyst Bed (United States)

    Fortini, Arthur J.; Williams, Brian E.; McNeal, Shawn R.


    A method of heating a foam-based catalyst bed has been developed using silicon carbide as the catalyst support due to its readily accessible, high surface area that is oxidation-resistant and is electrically conductive. The foam support may be resistively heated by passing an electric current through it. This allows the catalyst bed to be heated directly, requiring less power to reach the desired temperature more quickly. Designed for heterogeneous catalysis, the method can be used by the petrochemical, chemical processing, and power-generating industries, as well as automotive catalytic converters. Catalyst beds must be heated to a light-off temperature before they catalyze the desired reactions. This typically is done by heating the assembly that contains the catalyst bed, which results in much of the power being wasted and/or lost to the surrounding environment. The catalyst bed is heated indirectly, thus requiring excessive power. With the electrically heated catalyst bed, virtually all of the power is used to heat the support, and only a small fraction is lost to the surroundings. Although the light-off temperature of most catalysts is only a few hundred degrees Celsius, the electrically heated foam is able to achieve temperatures of 1,200 C. Lower temperatures are achievable by supplying less electrical power to the foam. Furthermore, because of the foam s open-cell structure, the catalyst can be applied either directly to the foam ligaments or in the form of a catalyst- containing washcoat. This innovation would be very useful for heterogeneous catalysis where elevated temperatures are needed to drive the reaction.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A catalyst comprising a mixture of metal A selected from the group of Fe, Co and Ni and metal B selected from the group of Zn and Ga, and a support material, wherein the two metals are present in an intermetallic composition; A method for the manufacture of the catalyst; and the use of above...

  8. Applying Topological and Economical Principles in Catalyst Design: New Alumina-​Cobalt Core-​Shell Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calderone, V.R.; Shiju, N.R.; Curulla Ferré, D.; Rose, A.; Thiessen, J.; Jess, A.; van der Roest, E.; Wiewel, B.V.; Rothenberg, G.


    Designing new and effective catalysts may be an art, but its consequences are very real and pragmatic. That said, chemists often build designs on ideal systems, whereas the manufg. of chems. requires catalysts that withstand varied feeds, harsh conditions and long exposure times. Moreover,

  9. The Dependence of CNT Aerogel Synthesis on Sulfur-driven Catalyst Nucleation Processes and a Critical Catalyst Particle Mass Concentration. (United States)

    Hoecker, Christian; Smail, Fiona; Pick, Martin; Weller, Lee; Boies, Adam M


    The floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (FC-CVD) process permits macro-scale assembly of nanoscale materials, enabling continuous production of carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogels. Despite the intensive research in the field, fundamental uncertainties remain regarding how catalyst particle dynamics within the system influence the CNT aerogel formation, thus limiting effective scale-up. While aerogel formation in FC-CVD reactors requires a catalyst (typically iron, Fe) and a promotor (typically sulfur, S), their synergistic roles are not fully understood. This paper presents a paradigm shift in the understanding of the role of S in the process with new experimental studies identifying that S lowers the nucleation barrier of the catalyst nanoparticles. Furthermore, CNT aerogel formation requires a critical threshold of Fe x C y  > 160 mg/m 3 , but is surprisingly independent of the initial catalyst diameter or number concentration. The robustness of the critical catalyst mass concentration principle is proved further by producing CNTs using alternative catalyst systems; Fe nanoparticles from a plasma spark generator and cobaltocene and nickelocene precursors. This finding provides evidence that low-cost and high throughput CNT aerogel routes may be achieved by decoupled and enhanced catalyst production and control, opening up new possibilities for large-scale CNT synthesis.

  10. Biomimetic catalysts responsive to specific chemical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Part 1. Design of Biomimetic Catalysts Based on Amphiphilic Systems The overall objective of our research is to create biomimetic catalysts from amphiphilic molecules. More specifically, we aim to create supramolecular systems that can be used to control the microenvironment around a catalytic center in a biomimetic fashion and apply the learning to construct supramolecular catalysts with novel functions found in enzymatic catalysts. We have prepared synthetic molecules (i.e., foldamers) that could fold into helical structures with nanometer-sized internal hydrophilic cavities. Cavities of this size are typically observed only in the tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins but were formed in our foldamer prepared in just a few steps from the monomer. Similar to many proteins, our foldamers displayed cooperativity in the folding/unfolding equilibrium and followed a two-state conformational transition. In addition, their conformational change could be triggered by solvent polarity, pH, or presence of metal ions and certain organic molecules. We studied their environmentally dependent conformational changes in solutions, surfactant micelles, and lipid bilayer membranes. Unlike conventional rigid supramolecular host, a foldamer undergoes conformational change during guest binding. Our study in the molecular recognition of an oligocholate host yielded some extremely exciting results. Cooperativity between host conformation and host–guest interactions was found to “magnify” weak binding interactions. In other words, since binding affinity is determined by the overall change of free energy during the binding, guest-induced conformational change of the host, whether near or far from the binding site, affects the binding. This study has strong implications in catalysis because enzymes have been hypothesized to harvest similar intramolecular forces to strengthen their binding with the transition state of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. The supramolecular and

  11. Hydrogenation of xylose to xylitol on sponge nickel catalyst: a study of the process and catalyst deactivation kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkola J.-P.


    Full Text Available The kinetics of hydrogenation of xylose to xylitol on a sponge nickel catalyst (commonly referred to as Raney Ni catalyst and of catalyst deactivation were studied. Plausible explanations for the decrease in catalytic activity by means of surface studies, nitrogen adsorption and thermogravimetric analyses of the fresh and spent catalysts are presented. The kinetic parameters of the process were estimated by the use of a semi-competitive model, which allows full competition between the organic species and the hydrogen atoms for the adsorption sites on the catalyst surface (competitive case. In the model, a competitiveness factor (alpha is introduced to take into account that even after complete coverage of the surface by the organic species, interstitial sites remain for the adsorption of the hydrogen atoms.

  12. Organoiridium Complexes: Anticancer Agents and Catalysts (United States)


    Conspectus Iridium is a relatively rare precious heavy metal, only slightly less dense than osmium. Researchers have long recognized the catalytic properties of square-planar IrI complexes, such as Crabtree’s hydrogenation catalyst, an organometallic complex with cyclooctadiene, phosphane, and pyridine ligands. More recently, chemists have developed half-sandwich pseudo-octahedral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl IrIII complexes containing diamine ligands that efficiently catalyze transfer hydrogenation reactions of ketones and aldehydes in water using H2 or formate as the hydrogen source. Although sometimes assumed to be chemically inert, the reactivity of low-spin 5d6 IrIII centers is highly dependent on the set of ligands. Cp* complexes with strong σ-donor C∧C-chelating ligands can even stabilize IrIV and catalyze the oxidation of water. In comparison with well developed Ir catalysts, Ir-based pharmaceuticals are still in their infancy. In this Account, we review recent developments in organoiridium complexes as both catalysts and anticancer agents. Initial studies of anticancer activity with organoiridium complexes focused on square-planar IrI complexes because of their structural and electronic similarity to PtII anticancer complexes such as cisplatin. Recently, researchers have studied half-sandwich IrIII anticancer complexes. These complexes with the formula [(Cpx)Ir(L∧L′)Z]0/n+ (with Cp* or extended Cp* and L∧L′ = chelated C∧N or N∧N ligands) have a much greater potency (nanomolar) toward a range of cancer cells (especially leukemia, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma) than cisplatin. Their mechanism of action may involve both an attack on DNA and a perturbation of the redox status of cells. Some of these complexes can form IrIII-hydride complexes using coenzyme NAD(P)H as a source of hydride to catalyze the generation of H2 or the reduction of quinones to semiquinones. Intriguingly, relatively unreactive organoiridium

  13. Poisoning of vanadia based SCR catalysts by potassium:influence of catalyst composition and potassium mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Kjærgaard; Kügler, Frauke; Jensen, Anker Degn


    The deactivation of V2O5–(WO3)/TiO2 catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx upon exposure to aerosols of KCl or K2SO4, at different temperatures, has been studied. All samples exposed for more than 240 hours lost a substantial fraction of their initial activity although lower...... aerosol (mass based distribution mode:1.3 μm) compared to that of the KCl aerosol (mass based distribution mode: 0.12 μm). The relative activities of exposed catalysts indicate that promotion with WO3 accelerates the deactivation, likely due to theenhanced Brønsted acidity which appears to promote...

  14. Transesterification Of Kapok Oil Using Calcium Oxide Catalyst Methyl Esters Yield With Catalyst Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunusa Tukur


    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation was necessitated to find other feedstocks for biodiesel production that would not compete with food. Kapok oil with 0.8 FFA was transesterified with methanol using a heterogeneous catalyst CaO to determine its potential for biodiesel production. Methyl esters yields of 70.4 65.6 78.2 71.9 and 72.5 were obtained with catalyst loading of 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0 and 2.4 wt. of oil. The products had high compositions of FFA and alcohols which indicates that the oil require more esterification to reduce the feedstock FFA far below 0.8. Some unsaturated hydrocarbons such as alkenes and alkynes were also formed which could make the products unstable.

  15. Process for the preparation of a sulphided catalyst and use of said catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinerman, J.J.L.; Schoonhoven, J.W.F.M.


    A process is provided for the preparation of a sulfided catalyst for the catalytic hydrotreatment of hydrocarbon-containing feeds. The process comprises the ex-situ presulfidization of a catalyst consisting of a carrier material having one or more catalytically active metals or compounds of metals deposited on it, and contacting the resulting material under sulfiding conditions with hydrogen to which a sulfiding agent has been added. Alternatively, the resulting material can be contacted with hydrogen combined with a hydrocarbon-containing feed containing an added sulfiding agent. The sulfiding agent is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen sulfide and compounds that under the prevailing conditions are decomposable into hydrogen sulfide. Experiments are described to illustrate the process of the invention. 2 tabs.

  16. Asymmetric pair distribution functions in catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, B. S.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet


    of asymmetric pair distribution functions for nano-sized particles and how they influence the structural parameters obtained from the standard data analysis. An alternative method, which takes into account deviations from the Gaussian pair distribution function typically used in the analysis of EXAFS spectra......, will be described. The method is based on an analysis of the pair distribution functions derived from molecular dynamics simulations of small metal particles and its reliability is demonstrated by comparing structural parameters obtained from independent X-ray diffraction experiments.......The structural parameters, i.e., coordination numbers, bond distances and disorder obtained from the analysis of EXAFS spectra may sometimes be significantly influenced by errors introduced due to the inadequacy of the analysis method applied. Especially in the case of heterogeneous catalysts...

  17. The optimally performing Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. (United States)

    Filot, Ivo A W; van Santen, Rutger A; Hensen, Emiel J M


    Microkinetics simulations are presented based on DFT-determined elementary reaction steps of the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction. The formation of long-chain hydrocarbons occurs on stepped Ru surfaces with CH as the inserting monomer, whereas planar Ru only produces methane because of slow CO activation. By varying the metal-carbon and metal-oxygen interaction energy, three reactivity regimes are identified with rates being controlled by CO dissociation, chain-growth termination, or water removal. Predicted surface coverages are dominated by CO, C, or O, respectively. Optimum FT performance occurs at the interphase of the regimes of limited CO dissociation and chain-growth termination. Current FT catalysts are suboptimal, as they are limited by CO activation and/or O removal. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Colors as catalysts in enzymatic reactions. (United States)

    Azeemi, Samina T Yousuf; Raza, Syed Mohsin; Yasinzai, Masoom


    We studied the effects of visible range irradiation (in vitro) on the enzyme solutions (glucose oxidase, cholesterol oxidase + cholesterol esterase and lipase) in order to infer the changes produced in the human body after chromotherapy. The glucose oxidase showed enhanced activity to the color purple (464 nm), while the activity of the other enzymes, cholesterol esterase + cholesterol oxidase and lipase, increased when exposed to dark violet (400 nm). Purple is being used in conventional chromotherapy for diabetes, as supported by the experimental observation in which purple enhanced the activity of enzymes responsible for the oxidation of glucose. Specific wavelengths regulate living processes by acting as catalysts in enzyme activity, while some wavelengths may reduce enzyme activity. The irradiation of specific wavelengths effect enzymatic processes, which as a consequence, accelerated biochemical reactions. This particular frequency when provided to the enzymes (in vitro) lead to changes which may well be occurring in vivo.

  19. Cure Schedule for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropka, Jamie Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCoy, John D. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    The Henkel technical data sheet (TDS) for Stycast 2651/Catalyst 11 lists three alternate cure schedules for the material, each of which would result in a different state of reaction and different material properties. Here, a cure schedule that attains full reaction of the material is defined. The use of this cure schedule will eliminate variance in material properties due to changes in the cure state of the material, and the cure schedule will serve as the method to make material prior to characterizing properties. The following recommendation was motivated by (1) a desire to cure at a single temperature for ease of manufacture and (2) a desire to keep the cure temperature low (to minimize residual stress build-up associated with the cooldown from the cure temperature to room temperature) without excessively limiting the cure reaction due to vitrification (i.e., material glass transition temperature, Tg, exceeding cure temperature).

  20. Selective recovery of catalyst layer from supporting matrix of ceramic-honeycomb-type automobile catalyst. (United States)

    Kim, Wantae; Kim, Boungyoung; Choi, Doyoung; Oki, Tatsuya; Kim, Sangbae


    Natural resources of platinum group metals (PGMs) are limited and their demand is increasing because of their extensive uses in industrial applications. The low rate of production of PGMs due to low concentration in the related natural ores and high cost of production have made the recovery of PGMs from previously discarded catalytic converters a viable proposition. The ceramic-honeycomb-type automobile catalytic converter contains appreciable amount of PGMs. These valuable substances, which are embedded in the catalyst layer and covered on the surface of the supporting matrix, were selectively recovered by attrition scrubbing. The attrition scrubbing was effective for the selective recovery of catalyst layer. The process was convinced as the comminution and separation process by physical impact and shearing action between particles in the scrubbing vessel. The catalyst layer was dislodged from the surface of the supporting matrix into fine particles by attrition scrubbing. The recovery of Al(2)O(3) and total PGMs in the fraction less than 300 μm increased with the residence time whereas their contents in the recovered materials slightly decreased. The interparticle scrubbing became favorable when the initial input size increased. However, the solid/liquid ratio in the mixing vessel was slightly affected by the low density of converter particles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A biomimetic methane-oxidising catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, H. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological Sciences


    The diminishing resources of petroleum oil has meant that there has been considerable efforts in recent years to find a suitable substitute for gasoline as a transportation fuel. Methanol has been identified as a suitable substitute since it is a readily combustible fuel which can be manufactured from a number of different sources. Methane is commonly used as a starting material for the production of synthesis gas (CO + H{sub 2}) and hence methanol. It is well known that the cleavage of the C-H bond of methane is extremely difficult (bond energy is around 104 kcal/mol) and that fairly drastic conditions are required to convert methane into methanol. Temperatures around 1200 deg C and pressures of up to 100 atmospheres over metal catalysts in a series of reactions are required to effect this process. Efforts have been made to reduce the temperature and the number of steps by using lanthanide ruthenium oxide catalyst but such reactions are still thermodynamically endothermic. An energetically more efficient reaction would be the direct conversion of methane to methanol using oxygen as the oxidant: CH{sub 4} + 1/2O{sub 2} -> CH{sub 3}OH {Delta}H deg = - 30.7 kcal/mol. Such a direct oxidation route is manifest in the bacterially-mediated oxidation of methane by methanotrophic bacteria. These organisms effect the direct oxidation of methane to methanol by the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) as part of the reaction sequences to oxidize methane to carbon dioxide. (14 refs.)

  2. Hydrogenation of citral into its derivatives using heterogeneous catalyst (United States)

    Sudiyarmanto, Hidayati, Luthfiana Nurul; Kristiani, Anis; Aulia, Fauzan


    Citral as known as a monoterpene can be found in plants and citrus fruits. The hydrogenation of citral into its derivatives become interesting area for scientist. This compound and its derivatives can be used for many application in pharmaceuticals and food areas. The development of heterogeneous catalysts become an important aspect in catalytic hydrogenation citral process. Nickel supported catalysts are well known as hydrogenation catalyst. These heterogeneous catalysts were tested their catalytic activity in hydrogenation of citral. The effect of various operation conditions, in term of feed concentration, catalyst loading, temperature, and reaction time were also studied. The liquid products produced were analyzed by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The result of catalytic activity tests showed nickel skeletal catalyst exhibits best catalytic activity in hydrogenation of citral. The optimum of operation condition was achieved in citral concentration 0.1 M with nickel skeletal catalyst loading of 10% (w/w) at 80 °C and 20 bar for 2 hours produced the highest conversion as of 64.20% and the dominant product resulted was citronellal as of 56.48%.

  3. Design criteria for stable Pt/C fuel cell catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef C. Meier


    Full Text Available Platinum and Pt alloy nanoparticles supported on carbon are the state of the art electrocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. To develop a better understanding on how material design can influence the degradation processes on the nanoscale, three specific Pt/C catalysts with different structural characteristics were investigated in depth: a conventional Pt/Vulcan catalyst with a particle size of 3–4 nm and two Pt@HGS catalysts with different particle size, 1–2 nm and 3–4 nm. Specifically, Pt@HGS corresponds to platinum nanoparticles incorporated and confined within the pore structure of the nanostructured carbon support, i.e., hollow graphitic spheres (HGS. All three materials are characterized by the same platinum loading, so that the differences in their performance can be correlated to the structural characteristics of each material. The comparison of the activity and stability behavior of the three catalysts, as obtained from thin film rotating disk electrode measurements and identical location electron microscopy, is also extended to commercial materials and used as a basis for a discussion of general fuel cell catalyst design principles. Namely, the effects of particle size, inter-particle distance, certain support characteristics and thermal treatment on the catalyst performance and in particular the catalyst stability are evaluated. Based on our results, a set of design criteria for more stable and active Pt/C and Pt-alloy/C materials is suggested.

  4. The generation of efficient supported (Heterogeneous) olefin metathesis catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubbs, Robert H


    Over the past decade, a new family of homogeneous metathesis catalysts has been developed that will tolerate most organic functionalities as well as water and air. These homogeneous catalysts are finding numerous applications in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in the production of functional polymers. In addition the catalysts are being used to convert seed oils into products that can substitute for those that are now made from petroleum products. Seed oils are unsaturated, contain double bonds, and are a ready source of linear hydrocarbon fragments that are specifically functionalized. To increase the number of applications in the area of biomaterial conversion to petrol chemicals, the activity and efficiency of the catalysts need to be as high as possible. The higher the efficiency of the catalysts, the lower the cost of the conversion and a larger number of practical applications become available. Active supported catalysts were prepared and tested in the conversion of seed oils and other important starting materials. The outcome of the work was successful and the technology has been transferred to a commercial operation to develop viable applications of the discovered systems. A biorefinery that converts seed oils is under construction in Indonesia. The catalysts developed in this study will be considered for the next generation of operations.

  5. Heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for 1-butylpyridinium chloride degradation. (United States)

    Meijide, Jessica; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, Maria Ángeles


    The application of the electro-Fenton process for organic compound mineralisation has been widely reported over the past years. However, operational problems related to the use of soluble iron salt as a homogeneous catalyst involve the development of novel catalysts that are able to operate in a wide pH range. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol-alginate beads, containing goethite as iron, were synthesised and evaluated as heterogeneous electro-Fenton catalyst for 1-butylpyridinium chloride mineralisation. The influence of catalyst dosage and pH solution on ionic liquid degradation was analysed, achieving almost total oxidation after 60 min under optimal conditions (2 g/L catalyst concentration and pH 3). The results showed good catalyst stability and reusability, although its effectiveness decreases slightly after three successive cycles. Furthermore, a plausible mineralisation pathway was proposed based on the oxidation byproducts determined by chromatographic techniques. Finally, the Microtox® test revealed notable detoxification after treatment which demonstrates high catalyst ability for pyridinium-based ionic liquid degradation by the electro-Fenton process.

  6. The black rock series supported SCR catalyst for NOxremoval. (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Luo, Hang; Tang, Qing; Du, Jun; Liu, Zuohua; Tao, Changyuan


    Black rock series (BRS) is of great potential for their plenty of valued oxides which include vanadium, iron, alumina and silica oxides, etc. BRS was used for directly preparing of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst by modifying its surface texture with SiO 2 -TiO 2 sols and regulating its catalytic active constituents with V 2 O 5 and MoO 3 . Consequently, 90% NO removal ratio was obtained within 300-400 °C over the BRS-based catalyst. The structure and properties of the BRS-based catalyst were characterized by the techniques of N 2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H 2 -temperature programmed reduction (H 2 -TPR), and NH 3 -temperature programmed desorption (NH 3 -TPD). The results revealed that the BRS-based catalyst possesses favorable properties for NO x removal, including highly dispersed active components, abundant surface-adsorbed oxygen O α , well redox property, and numerous Brønsted acid sites. Particularly, the BRS-based catalyst exhibited considerable anti-poisoning performance compared with commercial TiO 2 -based catalyst. The former catalyst shows a NO conversion surpassing 80% from 300 to 400 °C for potassium poisoning, and a durability of SO 2 and H 2 O exceeding 85% at temperatures from 300 to 450 °C.

  7. Sulfur tolerant zeolite supported platinum catalysts for aromatics hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergem, Haakon


    The increased demand for transportation fuels at the expence of heavier fuel oil has forced the refinery industry to expand their conversion capacity with hydrotreating as one of the key processes. A shift towards more diesel powered vehicles along with tightening fuel regulations demanding cleaner fuels has lead to increasing interest in catalytic processes for the manufacturing of such environmentally acceptable fuels. This provides the motivation for this thesis. Its main objective was to study possible catalysts active for desulfurization, hydrogenation, and ring-opening of aromatics all in the presence of sulfur. A close examination of the physical properties and kinetical behaviour of the chosen catalysts has been performed. A high pressure reactor setup was designed and built for activity measurements. Zeolite supported platinum catalysts were prepared and both the metal and acid functions were characterized utilizing various experimental techniques. Hydrogenation of toluene was used as a model reaction and the effect of sulfur adsorption on the activity and kinetic behaviour of the catalysts was investigated. The catalyst samples showed hydrogenation activities comparable to a commercial Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. There were no clear differences in the effect of the various sulfur compounds studied. Platinum supported on zeolite Y gave considerably more sulfur tolerant catalysts compared to Al2O3 as support. 155 refs., 58 figs., 36 tabs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jothimurugesan; James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Santosh K. Gangwal


    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of FeFT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction.

  9. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.J.; Raje, A.; Keogh, R.A. [and others


    The objective of this research project is to develop the technology for the production of physically robust iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that have suitable activity, selectivity and stability to be used in the slurry phase synthesis reactor development. The catalysts that are developed shall be suitable for testing in the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas, to produce either low-or high-alpha product distributions. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the {open_quotes}standard-catalyst{close_quotes} developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst this is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.

  10. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)


    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  11. JV 58-Effects of Biomass Combustion on SCR Catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Joshua R. Strege; Donald P. McCollor; Jason D. Laumb; Lingbu Kong


    A portable slipstream selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor was installed at a biomass cofired utility boiler to examine the rates and mechanisms of catalyst deactivation when exposed to biomass combustion products. The catalyst was found to deactivate at a much faster rate than typically found in a coal-fired boiler, although this may have been the result of high ash loading rather than a general property of biomass combustion. Deactivation was mainly the result of alkali and alkaline-earth sulfate formation and growth in catalyst pores, apparently caused by alkaline-earth ash deposition on or near the pore sites. The high proportion of biomass in the fuel contributed to elevated levels of alkali and alkaline-earth material in the ash when compared to coal ash, and these higher levels provided more opportunity for sulfate formation. Based on laboratory tests, neither catalyst material nor ammonia contributed measurably to ash mass gains via sulfation. A model constructed using both field and laboratory data was able to predict catalyst deactivation of catalysts under subbituminous coal firing but performed poorly at predicting catalyst deactivation under cofiring conditions. Because of the typically higher-than coal levels of alkali and alkaline-earth elements present in biomass fuels that are available for sulfation at typical SCR temperatures, the use of SCR technology and biomass cofiring needs to be carefully evaluated prior to implementation.

  12. Investigation and development of heavy oil upgrading catalysts. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.K.; Lee, I.C.; Yoon, W.L.; Lee, H.T.; Chung, H.; Hwang, Y.J.; Park, S.H. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study aimed at the domestic development of HDS catalysts which are most fundamental and wide-used in the petroleum refinery. In this year, some experimental works were conducted for developing the effective utilization technology of the novel dispersed-catalysts in the hydro-desulfurization of heavy oils, and improving the reaction performance of alumina-supported Mo-based hydro-treating catalysts conventionally used in most of refineries. First, it was experimentally proved that the dispersed catalysts of Co-Mo could be employed for the hydro-desulfurization of a heavy atmospheric residual oil excluding the catalyst deactivation. The utilization of a carbon-expanded reactor in combination with this dispersed catalyst system exhibited an enhanced reaction performance and provided an efficient way for the separation and recovery of the dispersed catalytic component from oils. Second, the tungsten-incorporated WCoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst revealed the improved catalytic performance in the various hydro-treating reactions and in the initial deactivation rates for the high pressure hydro-treatment of a heavy oil as compared with the commercial CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. This new experimental finding for the promoting role of the monomeric WO{sub 3} species in CoMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst may be generally applicable to the Mo-based alumina-sulfide phase, higher catalytic activity, and more extended service life. (author). 101 refs., 33 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming with Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Platon, Alex; Wang, Yong; King, David L.


    Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios have been applied to H2 production from ethanol steam reforming at low temperatures. The catalysts all deactivated with time on stream (TOS) at 350 C. The addition of 0.5% K has a beneficial effect on catalyst stability, while 5% K has a negative effect on catalytic activity. The catalyst could be regenerated considerably even at ambient temperature and could recover its initial activity after regeneration above 200 C with 1% O2. The results are most consistent with catalyst deactivation due to carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst.

  14. XAS study of vanadium in fluid cracking catalysts (United States)

    Woolery, G. L.; Chin, A. A.; Kirker, G. W.; Huss, A.


    X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the oxidation state and local environment of vanadium in Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalysts as a function of processing and deactivation conditions. Our results suggest that oxidation of vanadium to V+5 alone is not solely responsible for catalyst deactivation but that other factors such as vanadium location and mobility play a significant role in catalyst performance. Basic alkaline earth oxide passivators such as MgO were found to interact strongly with vanadium during the regeneration period leading to formation of a magnesium vanadate compound.

  15. Building Indenylidene-Ruthenium Catalysts for Metathesis Transformations (United States)

    Clavier, Hervé; Nolan, Steven P.

    Ruthenium-mediated olefin metathesis has emerged as an indispensable tool in organic synthesis for the formation carbon-carbon double bonds, attested by the large number of applications for natural product synthesis. Among the numerous catalysts developed to mediate olefin metathesis transformations, ruthenium-indenylidene complexes are robust and powerful pre-catalysts. The discovery of this catalyst category was slightly muddled due to a first mis-assignment of the compound structure. This report provides an overview of the synthetic routes for the construction of the indenylidene pattern in ruthenium complexes. The parameters relating to the indenylidene moiety construction will be discussed as well as the mechanism of this formation

  16. The activation mechanism of Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts (United States)

    Poater, Albert; Pump, Eva; Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama Chaitanya; Cavallo, Luigi


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to describe the first turnover for olefin metathesis reaction of a homogenous Fe-based catalyst bearing a N-heterocyclic carbene ligand with methoxyethene as a substrate. Equal to conventional Ru-based catalysts, the activation of its Fe congener occurs through a dissociative mechanism, however with a more exothermic reaction energy profile. Predicted upper energy barriers were calculated to be on average ∼2 kcal/mol more beneficial for Fe catalyzed metathesis. Overall, this present computational study emphasises on advantages of Fe-based metathesis and gives a potential recipe for the design of an efficient Fe-based olefin metathesis catalysts.

  17. Benchmarking the Stability of Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Rasmus; Paoli, Elisa Antares; Knudsen, Brian Peter


    coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). We show that a meaningful estimation of the stability cannot be achieved based on purely electrochemical tests. On the catalysts tested, the anodic dissolution current was four orders of magnitude lower than the total current. We propose that even if long......, such as the electrochemical surface area, mass activity and specific activity. Even so, when new and more active catalysts are reported, the catalyst stability tends to play a minor role. In this work, we monitor corrosion on RuO2 and MnOx by combining the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) with inductively...

  18. Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts (United States)

    Li, Zaiwei [Moreno Valley, CA; Tang, Yongchun [Walnut, CA; Cheng,; Jihong, [Arcadia, CA


    Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

  19. Reduction of a Ni/Spinel Catalyst for Methane Reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehres, Jan; Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Fløystad, Jostein Bø


    A nickel/spinel (Ni/MgAl2O4) catalyst, w(Ni) = 22 wt%, was investigated in situ during reduction with wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) in a laboratory setup and with anomalous small angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS) at a synchrotron source. Complementary high resolution transmission electron...... microscopy (HRTEM) was performed on the fresh catalyst sample. The Ni particles in the fresh catalyst sample were observed to exhibit a Ni/NiO core/shell structure. A decrease of the Ni lattice parameter is observed during the reduction in a temperature interval from 413 – 453 K, which can be related...

  20. Wafer scale integration of catalyst dots into nonplanar microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerde, Kjetil; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Gammelgaard, Lauge


    In order to successfully integrate bottom-up fabricated nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes or silicon, germanium, or III-V nanowires into microelectromechanical systems on a wafer scale, reliable ways of integrating catalyst dots are needed. Here, four methods for integrating sub-100-nm...... diameter nickel catalyst dots on a wafer scale are presented and compared. Three of the methods are based on a p-Si layer utilized as an in situ mask, an encapsulating layer, and a sacrificial window mask, respectively. All methods enable precise positioning of nickel catalyst dots at the end...

  1. Using a microwave-induced method to regenerate platinum catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ju G. Jou


    Full Text Available When the catalyst is put under the conditions of microwave energy with oxygen, it absorbs microwave energy and turns the energy into heat to support the combustion process. The oxygen is spread into the catalyst through surface pores which allows coke combustion. The laboratory results show that when air flow rate is at 2 L min−1 and microwave energy is at 450 W with an exposure time of 8 h, the coke removal efficiency was 70% as compared to 15% in the control system (without air. This study provides an innovative technique of using microwave energy to regenerate spent platinum catalysts containing coke.

  2. Monolith catalysts for closed-cycle carbon dioxide lasers (United States)

    Herz, Richard K.


    The general subject area of the project involved the development of solid catalysts that have high activity at low temperature for the oxidation of gases such as CO. The original application considered was CO oxidation in closed-cycle CO2 lasers. The scope of the project was subsequently extended to include oxidation of gases in addition to CO and applications such as air purification and exhaust gas emission control. The primary objective of the final phase grant was to develop design criteria for the formulation of new low-temperature oxidation catalysts utilizing Monte Carlo simulations of reaction over NASA-developed catalysts.

  3. Graphene-supported platinum catalysts for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seselj, Nedjeljko; Engelbrekt, Christian; Zhang, Jingdong


    Increasing concerns with non-renewable energy sources drive research and development of sustainable energy technology. Fuel cells have become a central part in solving challenges associated with energy conversion. This review summarizes recent development of catalysts used for fuel cells over...... the past 15 years. It is focused on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells as an environmentally benign and feasible energy source. Graphene is used as a promising support material for Pt catalysts. It ensures high catalyst loading, good electrocatalysis and stability. Attention has been drawn...

  4. Properties of the FCC Catalyst Additive Prepared from Guizhou Kaoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlun Xu


    Full Text Available The properties of a FCC catalyst additive prepared from Guizhou kaoline were extensively investigated. The samples were characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction, IR spectrometry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that the crystallinity of NaY zeolite synthesized from this kaoline was 25% and the silica alumina ratio was rk/s ˇ m = 5.05. The catalyst additive prepared from above crystallization product exhibited excellent performance of nickel and vanadium passivation, offered 21% lower coke versus base catalyst, while maintaining high bottoms upgrading selectivity.

  5. A bioinspired iron catalyst for nitrate and perchlorate reduction. (United States)

    Ford, Courtney L; Park, Yun Ji; Matson, Ellen M; Gordon, Zachary; Fout, Alison R


    Nitrate and perchlorate have considerable use in technology, synthetic materials, and agriculture; as a result, they have become pervasive water pollutants. Industrial strategies to chemically reduce these oxyanions often require the use of harsh conditions, but microorganisms can efficiently reduce them enzymatically. We developed an iron catalyst inspired by the active sites of nitrate reductase and (per)chlorate reductase enzymes. The catalyst features a secondary coordination sphere that aids in oxyanion deoxygenation. Upon reduction of the oxyanions, an iron(III)-oxo is formed, which in the presence of protons and electrons regenerates the catalyst and releases water. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Development of active, and stable water-gas-shift reaction catalysts for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzam, K.G.H.; Babich, Igor V.; Seshan, Kulathu Iyer; Lefferts, Leon


    Water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction CO + H2O = CO2 + H2, is a key step in the generation of H2 for fuel cells. Noble metal-based catalysts are promising single stage WGS catalysts because they less sensitive than LTS catalysts (Cu based) and more active than the HTS (Ni) catalysts. High activity in CO

  7. New efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis: barium-promoted cobalt on carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Stefan; Barfod, Rasmus; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia......Barium-promoted cobalt catalysts supported on carbon exhibit higher ammonia activities at synthesis temperatures than the commercial, multipromoted iron catalyst and also a lower ammonia...

  8. Re/HZSM-5: a new catalyst for ethane aromatization with improved stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anne; Hansen, Thomas W.; Christensen, Claus Hviid


    Rhenium-impregnated HZSM-5 is found to be a promising catalyst for ethane aromatization. The Re–HZSM-5 catalyst deactivates significantly slower than well-known ethane aromatization Zn–HZSM-5 catalyst. Product selectivities for the two catalysts are similar, indicating that the shape selectivity...

  9. Pt/SnO2-based CO-oxidation catalysts for CO2 lasers (United States)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Schryer, David R.; Hess, Robert V.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Van Norman, John D.


    The activity of Pt/SnO2-based CO-oxidation catalysts has been maximized by optimizing pretreatment conditions and catalyst formulation. The role of H2O in activating these catalysts and of CO2 retention in deactivating them has been determined as has the interaction of these catalysts with rare-isotope C(0-18) and (O-18)2.

  10. Process and device for spent catalyst regeneration with thermal exchange in fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontier, R.; Hoffmann, F.


    Continuous regeneration of a spent catalyst by combustion of coke deposited during hydrocarbon conversion. The catalyst is introduced in a first regeneration reactor in presence of oxygen, partly regenerated catalyst is sent in a second regeneration zone at a temperature equal or higher. The catalyst is cooled and introduced in the first regeneration zone near the dense fluidized bed.

  11. Oxidative conversion of light alkanes to olefins over alkali promoted oxide catalysts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leveles, L.; Fuchs, S.; Fuchs, Stefan; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.; Lefferts, Leonardus


    Alkali promoted mixed oxides were studied as catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) and cracking of butane and propane. Olefin yields as high as 50% were obtained with Li/MgO-based catalysts. Magnesia-based catalysts showed higher activity for olefin production than catalysts based on

  12. Influence of temperature on the results of prehydrogenation (saturation) with concentrated and diluted catalysts. The preparation of such catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In July 1941 systematic tests had been made with the alumina--molybdenum--nickel catalyst 7846. The results of those tests were summarized in this report. A test with catalyst 5058 was underway at this time and a test with alumina--tungsten--nickel catalyst 7846 W250-8376 was planned. In prehydrogenation of bituminous coal middle oils with catalyst 7846, usually done at 434/sup 0/C, the temperature was varied and it was observed that: at 300/sup 0/C, the catalyst began to show hydrogenation effects and to reduce phenols and nitrogen compounds; at 442/sup 0/C maximum hydrogenation effect was obtained; practically no splitting of C-C bonds took place below 434/sup 0/C; and below 434/sup 0/C the catalyst worked fully reversibly with respect to temperature change. The preparation of catalyst 6434 was discussed. Adsorption of hydrogen by tungsten sulfide was also a topic of this report, and it included the preparation of WS/sub 2/. Studies of the adsorption at about 25/sup 0/C showed adsorption increased appreciably up to 48 hours. The final value was fairly constant down to pressures under 100 mm and equaled about 1 ccH/sub 2//gWS/sub 2/. At pressures below 100 mm the quantity adsorbed dropped rapidly and equalled only .45 ccH/sub 2//gWS/sub 2/ at 13 mm Hg.

  13. Recyclable catalyst for conversion of carbon dioxide into formate attributable to an oxyanion on the catalyst ligand. (United States)

    Himeda, Yuichiro; Onozawa-Komatsuzaki, Nobuko; Sugihara, Hideki; Kasuga, Kazuyuki


    The catalyst recycling in the conversion of CO2 into formate using the iridium complex with 4,7-dihydroxy-1,10-phenanthroline as a catalyst precursor is described. The catalyst precursor was dissolved in an aqueous KOH solution under CO2 pressure prior to the reaction, but was precipitated spontaneously at the end of the reaction. The acidification by the generation of formate caused the transformation from the water-soluble deprotonated form into the water-insoluble protonated form. When the reaction was carried out at 60 degrees C for 20 h using 0.1 M KOH solution under 6 MPa of H2:CO2 (1:1), the catalyst precursor was precipitated spontaneously and the added KOH was consumed completely. The catalyst was recovered by filtration, and the product was obtained by the evaporation of the filtrate. Iridium leaching into the filtrate was found to be 0.11 ppm (catalytic activity for four cycles. Consequently, the CO2 conversion using the complex is an environmentally benign process, whose significant features are as follows: (i) catalyst recycling by self-precipitation/filtration, (ii) waste-free process, (iii) the easy isolation of the product, (iv) high efficiency under relatively mild conditions, and (v) aqueous catalysis without the use of organic materials. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the significant roles of the oxyanion generated from the acidic phenolic hydroxyl on the catalyst ligand, which are the catalyst recovery by acid-base equilibrium, as well as the water-solubility by its polarity and the catalyst activation by its electron-donating ability.

  14. An Overview of Recent Development in Composite Catalysts from Porous Materials for Various Reactions and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiku Xie


    Full Text Available Catalysts are important to the chemical industry and environmental remediation due to their effective conversion of one chemical into another. Among them, composite catalysts have attracted continuous attention during the past decades. Nowadays, composite catalysts are being used more and more to meet the practical catalytic performance requirements in the chemical industry of high activity, high selectivity and good stability. In this paper, we reviewed our recent work on development of composite catalysts, mainly focusing on the composite catalysts obtained from porous materials such as zeolites, mesoporous materials, carbon nanotubes (CNT, etc. Six types of porous composite catalysts are discussed, including amorphous oxide modified zeolite composite catalysts, zeolite composites prepared by co-crystallization or overgrowth, hierarchical porous catalysts, host-guest porous composites, inorganic and organic mesoporous composite catalysts, and polymer/CNT composite catalysts.

  15. Pilot plant evaluation of hydrotreating catalysts for heavy gas oil conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y.; Chen, S.; Chen, J. [CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada (Canada)


    As world reserves of oil are depleted, most of the oil remaining is heavy and sour and improvements in the technology are thus required to process it and produce transportation fuels. In terms of catalysts, alumina supported hydrotreating catalysts are commonly used; but activated carbon (AC) could also be a catalyst support option with its high microporosity and surface area combined with its thermal stability and resistance to coke deposition. This paper aims at determining the effect of the catalyst support on heavy crude oil processing. Experiments were conducted using two AC based catalysts, an alumina supported catalyst and two hydrotreating catalysts; results were then analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. Results demonstrated that the AC based catalysts provide a better hydrotreating performance than the other catalysts. This study finds that the use of activated carbon based catalysts can provide better heavy oil conversion than others.

  16. Boron-containing catalysts for dry reforming of methane to synthesis gas

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro


    The present invention uses a cobalt catalyst for carbon dioxide reforming of lower alkanes to synthesis gas having a cobalt catalyst on an oxide support where the supported cobalt catalyst has been modified with a boron precursor. The boron-treated cobalt catalyst systems as described herein show significant increases in the conversion of CH4 and CO2 during the dry reforming of methane (DRM) reaction as compared to traditional catalysts. Described herein are supported catalysts and methods of using the catalysts for the dry reforming of methane to synthesis gas, with the supported catalysts in the present invention include a boron-treated cobalt catalyst disposed on an oxide support. Also described herein are processes for preparing the supported catalysts.

  17. First-row transition metal hydrogenation and hydrosilylation catalysts (United States)

    Trovitch, Ryan J.; Mukhopadhyay, Tufan K.; Pal, Raja; Levin, Hagit Ben-Daat; Porter, Tyler M.; Ghosh, Chandrani


    Transition metal compounds, and specifically transition metal compounds having a tetradentate and/or pentadentate supporting ligand are described, together with methods for the preparation thereof and the use of such compounds as hydrogenation and/or hydrosilylation catalysts.

  18. The use of niobium based catalysts for liquid fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Martin Reguera


    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of niobium based catalysts were investigated in the conversion of oleic acid to liquid fuels at atmospheric pressure and at 623 K. The catalytic tests were performed in a fixed bed and continuous flow reactor using an acid to catalyst ratio equal to 4 and N2 as carrier gas. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography and acidity measurements. NH3 temperature programmed desorption, N2 adsorption-desorption (BET method and Xray diffraction were also performed in order to determine the structural and acidic properties of the catalysts. From the catalytic tests, it was detected the formation of compounds in the range of gasoline, diesel and lubricant oils. Higher catalytic activity and selectivity for diesel fuel were observed for the catalysts NbOPO4 and H3PO4/Nb2O5 that possesses higher acidities and surface areas.

  19. Catalytic Membranes Embedding Selective Catalysts: Preparation and Applications (United States)

    Drioli, Enrico; Fontananova, Enrica

    The embedding of a catalyst in membranes is today recognized as a promising strategy to develop highly efficient and eco-friendly heterogeneous catalytic chemical processes. When a catalyst is heterogenized within or on the surface of a membrane, the membrane composition (characteristics of the membrane material: hydrophobic or hydrophilic, presence of chemical groups with specific functionality, etc.) and the membrane structure (dense or porous, symmetric or asymmetric), can positively influence the catalyst performance, not only by the selective sorption and diffusion of reagents and/or products, but also influencing the catalyst activity by electronic and conformational effect. These effects are similar to those occurring in biological membranes. In this chapter, after a preliminary presentation of the basic principles of membrane reactors and polymer membranes, the preparation, characterization and applications of polymeric catalytic membranes, will be discussed.

  20. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications Using Nanofabricated Catalysts Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and USRA propose to develop microchannel reactors for In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU) using nanofabricated catalysts. The proposed...

  1. Atomic Layer Deposited Catalysts for Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Anne-Charlotte Elisabeth Birgitta

    The micro direct methanol fuel cell (µDMFC) has been proposed as a candidate to power portable applications. The device can operate at room temperature on inexpensive, energy-dense methanol fuel, and it can be easily "recharged" by fuel refilling. Microfabrication techniques could be one route...... catalyst toward the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). In the work described in this PhD dissertation, two series of Pt-Ru ALD catalysts supported on nitrogen-doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) have been evaluated toward the CO oxidation and MOR at room temperature in a three...... (1, 2, 5, 10 and 20), were investigated. The Pt nanoparticles decorated with 2 Ru ALD cycles exhibited highest catalytic activity, which also outperformed the best catalyst of the first series. In addition, a Si-based fuel cell design with ALD catalysts is presented, and its anode was evaluated...

  2. Stimulated-healing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.; Negro, E.; Koper, G.J.M.


    Platinum nanoparticles, which are used as catalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), tend to degrade after long-term operation. We discriminate the following mechanisms of the degradation: poisoning, migration and coalescence, dissolution, and electrochemical Ostwald ripening. There

  3. Polymer-Supported Raney Nickel Catalysts for Sustainable Reduction Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Jiang


    Full Text Available Green is the future of chemistry. Catalysts with high selectivity are the key to green chemistry. Polymer-supported Raney catalysts have been found to have outstanding performance in the clean preparation of some chemicals. For example, a polyamide 6-supported Raney nickel catalyst provided a 100.0% conversion of n-butyraldehyde without producing any detectable n-butyl ether, the main byproduct in industry, and eliminated the two main byproducts (isopropyl ether and methyl-iso-butylcarbinol in the hydrogenation of acetone to isopropanol. Meanwhile, a model for how the polymer support brought about the elimination of byproducts is proposed and confirmed. In this account the preparation and applications of polymer-supported Raney catalysts along with the corresponding models will be reviewed.

  4. Acetone production using silicon nanoparticles and catalyst compositions

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Sahraoui


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a catalytic reaction to produce acetone, a catalyst that include a mixture of silicon particles (e.g., about 1 to 20 nm in diameter) and a solvent, and the like.

  5. Preparation of odour removal catalysts with self-regeneration capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Yongxiang; Zhao, Lili; Huang, Yu; Chen, Haoyi; Xiao, Tiancun


    .... Here, for the first time, we have developed an activated carbon-alumina composite-supported ZnCu bimetallic metal oxide catalyst, which not only has very high capacity to absorb the strong smell...

  6. Perovskite Catalysts—A Special Issue on Versatile Oxide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuan Lin


    Full Text Available Perovskite-type catalysts have been prominent oxide catalysts for many years due to attributes such as flexibility in choosing cations, significant thermal stability, and the unique nature of lattice oxygen. Nearly 90% metallic elements of the Periodic Table can be stabilized in perovskite’s crystalline framework [1]. Moreover, by following the Goldschmidt rule [2], the A- and/or B-site elements can be partially substituted, making perovskites extremely flexible in catalyst design. One successful example is the commercialization of noble metal-incorporated perovskites (e.g., LaFe0.57Co0.38Pd0.05O3 for automotive emission control used by Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd. [3]. Thus, growing interest in, and application of perovskites in the fields of material sciences, heterogeneous catalysis, and energy storage have prompted this Special Issue on perovskite catalysts. [...

  7. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles: A novel heterogeneous catalyst support (United States)

    Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles have emerged as viable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust, high-surface-area heterogeneous catalyst supports. Post-synthetic surface modification protocol for magnetic nanoparticles has been developed that imparts desirable che...

  8. silica nanoparticles as a highly efficient catalyst for the one

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    )-2-aryl acetamide derivatives via a three-component reaction of an isocyanide, dibenzylamine and a phthalaldehyde derivative in the presence of silica nanoparticles (silica NPs, ca. 42 nm) as a catalyst under solvent free conditions at room.

  9. Water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan


    Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

  10. Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle (United States)

    Halow, John S.


    The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

  11. Nano copper and cobalt ferrites as heterogeneous catalysts for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trisubstituted imidazoles using magnetic recyclable spinel nano copper and cobalt ferrites by the condensation of benzil, aromatic aldehyde and ammonium acetate in ethanol as solvent. The reaction, with these catalysts was carried out under mild ...

  12. Visible Light Responsive Catalyst for Air Water Purification Project (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.


    Investigate and develop viable approaches to render the normally UV-activated TIO2 catalyst visible light responsive (VLR) and achieve high and sustaining catalytic activity under the visible region of the solar spectrum.

  13. Selective propene oxidation on mixed metal oxide catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    James, D W


    Selective catalytic oxidation processes represent a large segment of the modern chemical industry and a major application of these is the selective partial oxidation of propene to produce acrolein. Mixed metal oxide catalysts are particularly effective in promoting this reaction, and the two primary candidates for the industrial process are based on iron antimonate and bismuth molybdate. Some debate exists in the literature regarding the operation of these materials and the roles of their catalytic components. In particular, iron antimonate catalysts containing excess antimony are known to be highly selective towards acrolein, and a variety of proposals for the enhanced selectivity of such materials have been given. The aim of this work was to provide a direct comparison between the behaviour of bismuth molybdate and iron antimonate catalysts, with additional emphasis being placed on the component single oxide phases of the latter. Studies were also extended to other antimonate-based catalysts, including coba...

  14. Method for producing iron-based acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farcasiu, M.; Kathrein, H.; Kaufman, P.B.; Diehl, J.R.


    A method for preparing an acid catalyst with a long shelf-life is described. Crystalline iron oxides are doped with lattice compatible metals which are heated with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures.

  15. Mapping Reactive Flow Patterns in Monolithic Nanoporous Catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Falcucci, Giacomo; Montessori, Andrea; Melchionna, Simone; Prestininzi, Pietro; Barroo, Cedric; Bell, David C; Biener, Monika M; Biener, Juergen; Zugic, Branko; Kaxiras, Efthimios


    The development of high-efficiency porous catalyst membranes critically depends on our understanding of where the majority of the chemical conversions occur within the porous structure. This requires mapping of chemical reactions and mass transport inside the complex nano-scale architecture of porous catalyst membranes which is a multiscale problem in both the temporal and spatial domain. To address this problem, we developed a multi-scale mass transport computational framework based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) that allows us to account for catalytic reactions at the gas-solid interface by introducing a new boundary condition. In good agreement with experiments, the simulations reveal that most catalytic reactions occur near the gas-flow facing side of the catalyst membrane if chemical reactions are fast compared to mass transport within the porous catalyst membrane.

  16. Mechanical alloying of a hydrogenation catalyst used for the remediation of contaminated compounds (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Aitken, Brian S. (Inventor)


    A hydrogenation catalyst including a base material coated with a catalytic metal is made using mechanical milling techniques. The hydrogenation catalysts are used as an excellent catalyst for the dehalogenation of contaminated compounds and the remediation of other industrial compounds. Preferably, the hydrogenation catalyst is a bimetallic particle including zero-valent metal particles coated with a catalytic material. The mechanical milling technique is simpler and cheaper than previously used methods for producing hydrogenation catalysts.

  17. Accelerated deployment of nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts. Final CRADA Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libera, J.A.; Snyder, S.W.; Mane, A.; Elam, J.W.; Cronauer, D.C.; Muntean, J.A.; Wu, T.; Miller, J.T. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( ES)


    Nanomanufacturing offers an opportunity to create domestic jobs and facilitate economic growth. In response to this need, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy issued a Research Call to develop nanomanufacturing capabilities at the National Laboratories. High performance catalysts represent a unique opportunity to deploy nanomanufacturing technologies. Re-refining of used lube oil offers an opportunity to create manufacturing jobs and decrease dependence on imported petroleum. Improved catalysts are required to produce a better quality product, decrease environmental impact, extend catalyst life, and improve overall economics of lube oil re-refining. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) in cooperation with Universal Lubricants, Inc. (ULI) and Chemical Engineering Partners (CEP) have carried out a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to prepare nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to exhibit superior performance for the re-refining of used lube oil. We investigated the upgrading of recycled lube oil by hydrogenation using commercial, synthetically-modified commercial catalysts, and synthesized catalysts. A down-flow (trickle bed) catalytic unit was used for the hydrogenation experiments. In addition to carrying out elemental analyses of the various feed and product fractions, characterization was undertaken using H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR. Initially commercial were evaluated. Second these commercial catalysts were promoted with precious metals using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Performance improvements were observed that declined with catalyst aging. An alternate approach was undertaken to deeply upgrade ULI product oils. Using a synthesized catalyst, much lower hydrogenation temperatures were required than commercial catalysts. Other performance improvements were also observed. The resulting lube oil fractions were of high purity even at low reaction severity. The

  18. Reactions of synthesis gas on silica supported transition metal catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemelae, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry


    The effect of catalyst precursor and composition on the activation of CO was investigated using CO hydrogenation as a test reaction. The interrelations of preparation, pretreatment, characteristics and activity were clarified. For Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst, MgO promotion increased the CO adsorption capacity and the hydrogen uptake, although the extent of reduction for cobalt remained the same or decreased. The conversion per active metallic cobalt site consequently increased in conjunction with MgO promotion, while the effect on overall performance per 1 g of catalyst remained moderate. The precursor affected the performance of Co/SiO{sub 2} considerably. CO was more strongly adsorbed on catalysts of carbonyl origin than on those derived from cobalt nitrate, the activity thus being higher. Although the nitrate derived Co/SiO{sub 2} appeared both to retain its activity and to regain its adsorption capacity better than the catalysts of carbonyl origin, the performance of the latter was superior with time on stream. For tetranuclear cluster based Co-Ru and Co-Rh catalysts, rhodium or ruthenium was in contact with the support and cobalt was enriched on top. On Co-Ru/SiO{sub 2} ruthenium enhanced deactivation, and no benefits in activity or oxygenate selectivity were achieved relative to the monometallic catalysts of cluster origin. The Co-Rh/SiO{sub 2} catalysts were also less active than those derived from monometallic clusters, but they exhibited higher selectivities to oxygenated compounds due to the presence of active sites on the perimeter of the cobalt particles located on rhodium. The highest selectivity to oxygenates was achieved by changing the decomposition atmosphere of Rh{sub 4}(CO){sub 12}/SiO{sub 2} from hydrogen to carbon monoxide. The results also showed two types of active sites to be operative in the formation of oxygenates - one for ethanol and another for aldehydes. (orig.) 69 refs.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of Ni catalysts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TEM micrographs of nickel catalysts revealed particles in the size range of 10–30 nm. The Ni/Al 2 O 3 –ZrO 2 catalysts were tested in the steam reforming reaction of ethanol (SRE) at 500 ∘ C, and the obtained results suggest that the differences in catalytic activities depended on the content of ZrO 2 . The selectivity towards ...

  20. Direct methanol feed fuel cell with reduced catalyst loading (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)


    Improvements to direct feed methanol fuel cells include new protocols for component formation. Catalyst-water repellent material is applied in formation of electrodes and sintered before application of ionomer. A membrane used in formation of an electrode assembly is specially pre-treated to improve bonding between catalyst and membrane. The improved electrode and the pre-treated membrane are assembled into a membrane electrode assembly.

  1. Catalysts and methods for converting carbonaceous materials to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, Jesse; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Behl, Mayank


    Catalysts and processes designed to convert DME and/or methanol and hydrogen (H.sub.2) to desirable liquid fuels are described. These catalysts produce the fuels efficiently and with a high selectivity and yield, and reduce the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons by incorporating H.sub.2 into the products. Also described are process methods to further upgrade these fuels to higher molecular weight liquid fuel mixtures, which have physical properties comparable with current commercially used liquid fuels.

  2. Catalysts and methods for converting carbonaceous materials to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, Jesse; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Behl, Mayank


    Catalysts and processes designed to convert DME and/or methanol and hydrogen (H.sub.2) to desirable liquid fuels are described. These catalysts produce the fuels efficiently and with a high selectivity and yield, and reduce the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons by incorporating H.sub.2 into the products. Also described are process methods to further upgrade these fuels to higher molecular weight liquid fuel mixtures, which have physical properties comparable with current commercially used liquid fuels.

  3. Catalysts and methods for converting carbonaceous materials to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, Jesse; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Behl, Mayank


    This disclosure relates to catalysts and processes designed to convert DME and/or methanol and hydrogen (H.sub.2) to desirable liquid fuels. These catalysts produce the fuels efficiently and with a high selectivity and yield, and reduce the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons by incorporating H.sub.2 into the products. This disclosure also describes process methods to further upgrade these fuels to higher molecular weight liquid fuel mixtures, which have physical properties comparable with current commercially used liquid fuels.

  4. Chelated Ruthenium Catalysts for Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis


    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H


    We report the development of ruthenium-based metathesis catalysts with chelating N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands which catalyze highly Z-selective olefin metathesis. A very simple and convenient synthetic procedure of such a catalyst has been developed. An intramolecular C-H bond activation of the NHC ligand, which is promoted by anion ligand substitution, forms the appropriate chelate for stereo- controlled olefin metathesis.

  5. Recent Advancements in Stereoselective Olefin Metathesis Using Ruthenium Catalysts


    T. Patrick Montgomery; Johns, Adam M.; Grubbs, Robert H


    Olefin metathesis is a prevailing method for the construction of organic molecules. Recent advancements in olefin metathesis have focused on stereoselective transformations. Ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts have had a particularly pronounced impact in the area of stereoselective olefin metathesis. The development of three categories of Z-selective olefin metathesis catalysts has made Z-olefins easily accessible to both laboratory and industrial chemists. Further design enhancements to as...

  6. synthesis and charact catalyst for the production o thesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    xH2O (Sigma Aldric. ZrO4H4. (Sigma Aldrich) and anhydrous Methanol (Merck 99.7%) we purchased from Fisher Scientific company. Catalyst preparation. The catalyst was prepared ... appropriate amounts of ZrO4H4 (sigma Aldri and H3PO4.12WO3. .... of new metal crystalline phases at 2θ of 18.6,. 48.1 and 2θ for 58.6 for ...

  7. A Polyphenylene Support for Pd Catalysts with Exceptional Catalytic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Feng; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Richter, Felix Herrmann


    We describe a solid polyphenylene support that serves as an excellent platform for metal-catalyzed reactions that are normally carried out under homogeneous conditions. The catalyst is synthesized by palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling which directly results in formation of palladium nanoparticles...... confined to a porous polyphenylene network. The composite solid is in turn highly active for further Suzuki coupling reactions, including non-activated substrates that are challenging even for molecular catalysts....

  8. Allenyl esters as quenching agents for ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts. (United States)

    Roy, Animesh; Silvestri, Maximilian A; Hall, Robert A; Lepore, Salvatore D


    In the attempt to synthesize substituted allenyl esters through a metathesis coupling of unsubstituted allenyl esters and alkenes using a variety of ruthenium catalysts, it was discovered that allenyl esters themselves cleanly arrested the activity of the catalysts. Further studies suggests possible utility of allene esters as general quenching agents for metathesis reactions. To explore this idea, several representative olefin metathesis reactions, including ring closing, were successfully terminated by the addition of simple allenyl esters for more convenient purification.

  9. The nanosize catalysts role in the modern hydroprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irisova, K N; Smirnov, V K; Talisman, E L, E-mail: [Catachem Company Ltd., 20 Narodnaya st., Moscow, 117152 (Russian Federation)


    Introduction of the modern technological procedures operating the catalytic systems with different nanosized characteristics is the only way to fabricate components of commercial oils that meet the current requirements. Specifications to the individual catalysts, which form a catalytic system, differ both in nanostructural features of the support porosity and in distribution of nanosized active site. These specifications are related to the purpose of the process and the role of the catalyst in the process.

  10. Organometallic catalysts for primary phosphoric acid fuel cells (United States)

    Walsh, Fraser


    A continuing effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to improve the competitiveness of the phosphoric acid fuel cell by improving cell performance and/or reducing cell cost is discussed. Cathode improvement, both in performance and cost, available through the use of a class of organometallic cathode catalysts, the tetraazaannulenes (TAAs), was investigated. A new mixed catalyst was identified which provides improved cathode performance without the need for the use of a noble metal. This mixed catalyst was tested under load for 1000 hr. in full cell at 160 to 200 C in phosphoric acid H3PO4, and was shown to provide stable performance. The mixed catalyst contains an organometallic to catalyze electroreduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide and a metal to catalyze further electroreduction of the hydrogen peroxide to water. Cathodes containing an exemplar mixed catalyst (e.g., Co bisphenyl TAA/Mn) operate at approximately 650 mV vs DHE in 160 C, 85% H3PO4 with oxygen as reactant. In developing this mixed catalyst, a broad spectrum of TAAs were prepared, tested in half-cell and in a rotating ring-disk electrode system. TAAs found to facilitate the production of hydrogen peroxide in electroreduction were shown to be preferred TAAs for use in the mixed catalyst. Manganese (Mn) was identified as a preferred metal because it is capable of catalyzing hydrogen peroxide electroreduction, is lower in cost and is of less strategic importance than platinum, the cathode catalyst normally used in the fuel cell.

  11. The selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeb, Ann M. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde has been investigated over a monometallic Pt/SiO2 catalyst and platinum bimetallic catalysts where the second metal was either silver, copper, or tin. The effects of addition of a second metal to the Pt/SiO2 system on the selectivity to crotyl alcohol were investigated. The Pt-Sn bimetallic catalysts were characterized by hydrogen chemisorption, 1H NMR and microcalorimetry. The Pt-Ag/SiO2 and Pt-Cu/SiO2 catalysts were characterized by hydrogen chemisorption. Pt-Sn/SiO2 catalysts selectively hydrogenated crotonaldehyde to crotyl alcohol and the method of preparation of these catalysts affected the selectivity. The most selective Pt-Sn/SiO2 catalysts for the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde to crotyl alcohol were those in which the Sn precursor was dissolved in a HCl solution. Sn increased both the rate of formation of butyraldehyde and the rate of formation of crotyl alcohol. The Pt/SiO2, Pt-Ag/SiO2 and Pt-Cu/SiO2 catalysts produced only butyraldehyde. Initial heats of adsorption (~90 kJ/mol) measured using microcalorimetry were not affected by the presence of Sn on Pt. We can conclude that there is no through metal electronic interaction between Pt and Sn at least with respect to hydrogen surface bonds since the Pt and Pt-Sn at least with respect to hydrogen surface bonds since the Pt and Pt-Sn had similar initial heats of adsorption coupled with the invariance of the 1H NMR Knight shift.

  12. Iridium-Doped Ruthenium Oxide Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Narayan, Sri R.; Billings, Keith J.


    NASA requires a durable and efficient catalyst for the electrolysis of water in a polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) cell. Ruthenium oxide in a slightly reduced form is known to be a very efficient catalyst for the anodic oxidation of water to oxygen, but it degrades rapidly, reducing efficiency. To combat this tendency of ruthenium oxide to change oxidation states, it is combined with iridium, which has a tendency to stabilize ruthenium oxide at oxygen evolution potentials. The novel oxygen evolution catalyst was fabricated under flowing argon in order to allow the iridium to preferentially react with oxygen from the ruthenium oxide, and not oxygen from the environment. Nanoparticulate iridium black and anhydrous ruthenium oxide are weighed out and mixed to 5 18 atomic percent. They are then heat treated at 300 C under flowing argon (in order to create an inert environment) for a minimum of 14 hours. This temperature was chosen because it is approximately the creep temperature of ruthenium oxide, and is below the sintering temperature of both materials. In general, the temperature should always be below the sintering temperature of both materials. The iridium- doped ruthenium oxide catalyst is then fabricated into a PEM-based membrane- electrode assembly (MEA), and then mounted into test cells. The result is an electrolyzer system that can sustain electrolysis at twice the current density, and at the same efficiency as commercial catalysts in the range of 100-200 mA/sq cm. At 200 mA/sq cm, this new system operates at an efficiency of 85 percent, which is 2 percent greater than commercially available catalysts. Testing has shown that this material is as stable as commercially available oxygen evolution catalysts. This means that this new catalyst can be used to regenerate fuel cell systems in space, and as a hydrogen generator on Earth.

  13. Design of a surface alloy catalyst for steam reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Chorkendorff, Ib; Clausen, B.S.


    Detailed studies of elementary chemical processes on well-characterized single crystal surfaces have contributed substantially to the understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. insight into the structure of surface alloys combined with an understanding of the relation between the surface compositi...... and reactivity is shown to lead directly to new ideas for catalyst design, The feasibility of such an approach is illustrated by the synthesis, characterization, and tests of a high-surface area gold-nickel catalyst for steam reforming....

  14. Subnanometer to nanometer transition metal CO oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, Stefan; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Yasumatsu, Hisato


    The present invention provides a catalyst defined in part by a conductive substrate; a film overlaying a surface of the substrate; and a plurality of metal clusters supported by the layer, wherein each cluster comprises between 8 and 11 atoms. Further provided is a catalyst defined in part by a conductive substrate; a layer overlaying a surface of the substrate; and a plurality of metal clusters supported by the layer, wherein each cluster comprises at least two metals.

  15. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G


    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Brnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with

  16. Electrochemical reactions on catalyst particles with three-phase boundaries. (United States)

    Zhdanov, V P


    In fuel cells, electrochemical reactions are often assumed to occur on metal catalyst particles contacting simultaneously the ion-conducting electrolyte and gas phase. Our kinetic Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that in this case the deviations from the Tafel law in the dependence of the reaction rate on the electrode potential may be related to diffusion of one of the adsorbed reactants along catalyst particles.

  17. Co-Assembled Supported Catalysts: Synthesis of Nano-Structured Supported Catalysts with Hierarchic Pores through Combined Flow and Radiation Induced Co-Assembled Nano-Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip Akay


    Full Text Available A novel generic method of silica supported catalyst system generation from a fluid state is presented. The technique is based on the combined flow and radiation (such as microwave, thermal or UV induced co-assembly of the support and catalyst precursors forming nano-reactors, followed by catalyst precursor decomposition. The transformation from the precursor to supported catalyst oxide state can be controlled from a few seconds to several minutes. The resulting nano-structured micro-porous silica supported catalyst system has a surface area approaching 300 m2/g and X-ray Diffraction (XRD-based catalyst size controlled in the range of 1–10 nm in which the catalyst structure appears as lamellar sheets sandwiched between the catalyst support. These catalyst characteristics are dependent primarily on the processing history as well as the catalyst (Fe, Co and Ni studied when the catalyst/support molar ratio is typically 0.1–2. In addition, Ca, Mn and Cu were used as co-catalysts with Fe and Co in the evaluation of the mechanism of catalyst generation. Based on extensive XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM studies, the micro- and nano-structure of the catalyst system were evaluated. It was found that the catalyst and silica support form extensive 0.6–2 nm thick lamellar sheets of 10–100 nm planar dimensions. In these lamellae, the alternate silica support and catalyst layer appear in the form of a bar-code structure. When these lamellae structures pack, they form the walls of a micro-porous catalyst system which typically has a density of 0.2 g/cm3. A tentative mechanism of catalyst nano-structure formation is provided based on the rheology and fluid mechanics of the catalyst/support precursor fluid as well as co-assembly nano-reactor formation during processing. In order to achieve these structures and characteristics, catalyst support must be in the form of silane coated silica nano

  18. Diethyl Ether Production Process with Various Catalyst Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Several H-zeolite and HZSM-5 catalysts was preparated and their characters have also been investigated. H-zeolit Catalyst was preparated from Natural Zeolite that obtained from Malang District and Gunung Kidul District. Diethyl ether was produced by Ethanol with concentration of 95%. This research use fixed bed reactor that 1 gram of catalyst as bed catalyst, atmospheric pressure and temperature 140oC as the operating condition. Ethanol vapor from vaporization tank was driven by 200 ml/min Nitrogen stream. The responds in this research is liquid product concentration; diethyl ether, ethanol, methanol and water concentration. The results showed that the largest ethanol conversion was produced by the use of 56.44% HZSM-5 and the largest yield of diethyl ether diethyl was produced by the use of alumina and H-zeolite catalyst. The larger ratio between natural zeolite with HCl solvent will produce the larger surface area of catalyst and ethanol conversion. The largest ethanol conversion was produced at reactan ratio 1:20.

  19. Hydroformylation of 1-Hexene over Rh/Nano-Oxide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Suvanto


    Full Text Available The effect of nanostructured supports on the activity of Rh catalysts was studied by comparing the catalytic performance of nano- and bulk-oxide supported Rh/ZnO, Rh/SiO2 and Rh/TiO2 systems in 1-hexene hydroformylation. The highest activity with 100% total conversion and 96% yield of aldehydes was obtained with the Rh/nano-ZnO catalyst. The Rh/nano-ZnO catalyst was found to be more stable and active than the corresponding rhodium catalyst supported on bulk ZnO. The favorable morphology of Rh/nano-ZnO particles led to an increased metal content and an increased number of weak acid sites compared to the bulk ZnO supported catalysts. Both these factors favored the improved catalytic performance. Improvements of catalytic properties were obtained also with the nano-SiO2 and nano-TiO2 supports in comparison with the bulk supports. All of the catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, BET, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD and NH3- temperature-programmed desorption (TPD.

  20. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, R.R.


    Objectives are to develop active, stable iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for use in slurry-phase synthesis reactors and to develop a scaleup procedure for large-scale synthesis of such catalysts for process development and long-term testing in slurry bubble-column reactors. For a H[sub 2]-CO in molar ratio of 0.5 to 1.0, catalyst performance target is 88% CO+H[sub 2] conversion at a minimum space velocity of 2.4 NL/hr/gFe, with no more than 4% methane/ethane selectivity and 1% conversion loss per week. During this period, it was found that the performance of the slurry-phase iron and copper oxide-based catalyst depends on the amount of K. Five catalysts with differing K contents were studied. The catalysts with the lowest K were more active than the ones with higher K levels. The one with the middle K level was judged best.

  1. Transient FTIR spectroscopy for probing reaction pathways on Au catalysts (United States)

    Overbury, Steven H.


    Au is now well known to be an active catalyst if the Au particles are sufficiently small, less than about 5 nm. The causes for this structure sensitivity are now beginning to be better understood. Computational modeling and measurements of size dependence on a single catalyst are consistent with activity at sites with low coordination numbers, due in part to flexibility of adsorbate geometry in these sites. Although small size and low coordinate sites are important in catalyzing, e.g. the CO oxidation reaction, there appear to be other factors which control the observed activity as demonstrated by catalyst deactivation and unusual temperature dependence. We have performed studies of CO oxidation over Au/TiO2, Au/SiO2, Au/ZnO/TiO2 and Au/FePO4 catalysts to explore reaction pathways and the causes for activation and deactivation. Three different reactor systems, a fast gas transient FTIR spectrometer, a slower transient DRIFTS cell and a steady state plug flow reactor have been used to correlate activity with surface species. Using this operando approach the elementary steps in the CO oxidation reaction have been explored. Striking differences between the supports are found. The effect of various pre-treatments, the evolution of the surface species during ``steady state'' reaction and the role of carbonate, oxygen storage, water, hydroxyl upon catalyst activation and deactivation have been explored and will be described. Reaction pathways and mechanisms will be proposed and compared for the different catalysts.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron H. Davis


    The impact of activation procedure on the phase composition of precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysts has been studied. Catalyst samples taken during activation and FT synthesis have been characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Formation of iron carbide is necessary for high FT activity. Hydrogen activation of precipitated iron catalysts results in reduction to predominantly metallic iron and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. Metallic iron is not stable under FT 3 4 conditions and is rapidly converted to {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C. Activation with carbon monoxide or syngas 2.2 with low hydrogen partial pressure reduces catalysts to {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and a small amount of 5 2 superparamagnetic carbide. Exposure to FT conditions partially oxidizes iron carbide to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; however, catalysts promoted with potassium or potassium and copper maintain a constant carbide content and activity after the initial oxidation. An unpromoted iron catalyst which was activated with carbon monoxide to produce 94% {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2}, deactivated rapidly as the carbide was oxidized to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. No difference in activity, stability or deactivation rate was found for {chi}-Fe{sub 5}C{sub 2} and {epsilon}{prime}-Fe{sub 2.2}C.

  3. Ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts featuring unsymmetrical N-heterocyclic carbenes. (United States)

    Paradiso, Veronica; Bertolasi, Valerio; Costabile, Chiara; Grisi, Fabia


    New ruthenium Grubbs' and Hoveyda-Grubbs' second generation catalysts bearing N-alkyl/N-isopropylphenyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands with syn or anti backbone configuration were obtained and compared in model olefin metathesis reactions. Different catalytic efficiencies were observed depending on the size of the N-alkyl group (methyl or cyclohexyl) and on the backbone configuration. The presence of an N-cyclohexyl substituent determined the most significant reactivity differences between catalysts with syn or anti phenyl groups on the backbone. In particular, anti catalysts proved highly efficient, especially in the ring-closing metathesis (RCM) of encumbered diolefins, while syn catalysts showed low efficiency in the RCM of less hindered diolefins. This peculiar behavior, rationalized through DFT studies, was found to be related to the high propensity of these catalysts to give nonproductive metathesis events. Enantiopure anti catalysts were also tested in asymmetric metathesis reactions, where moderate enantioselectivities were observed. The steric and electronic properties of unsymmetrical NHCs with the N-cyclohexyl group were then evaluated using the corresponding rhodium complexes. While steric factors proved unimportant for both syn and anti NHCs, a major electron-donating character was found for the unsymmetrical NHC with anti phenyl substituents on the backbone.

  4. Discovery, Development, and Commercialization of Gold Catalysts for Acetylene Hydrochlorination. (United States)

    Johnston, Peter; Carthey, Nicholas; Hutchings, Graham J


    Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a major chemical intermediate for the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is the third most important polymer in use today. Hydrochlorination of acetylene is a major route for the production of vinyl chloride, since production of the monomer is based in regions of the world where coal is abundant. Until now, mercuric chloride supported on carbon is used as the catalyst in the commercial process, and this exhibits severe problems associated with catalyst lifetime and mercury loss. It has been known for over 30 years that gold is a superior catalyst, but it is only now that it is being commercialized. In this Perspective we discuss the use and disadvantages of the mercury catalyst and the advent of the gold catalysts for this important reaction. The nature of the active site and the possible reaction mechanism are discussed. Recent advances in the design and preparation of active gold catalysts containing ultralow levels of gold are described. In the final part, a view to the future of this chemistry will be discussed as well as the possible avenues for the commercial potential of gold catalysis.

  5. Activated Carbon-Supported Tetrapropylammonium Perruthenate Catalysts for Acetylene Hydrochlorination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Li


    Full Text Available The Ru-based catalysts, including Ru/AC (activated carbon, TPAP (tetrapropylammonium perruthenate/AC, TPAP/AC-HNO3, and TPAP/AC-HCl, were prepared and assessed for the direct synthesis of vinyl chloride monomer. The results indicate that the TPAP/AC-HCl catalyst exhibits the best performance with the conversion falling from 97% to 91% in 48 hours’ reaction under the conditions of 180 °C, a GHSV(C2H2 of 180 h−1, and the feed ratio VHCl/VC2H2 of 1.15. The substitution of RuCl3 precursor with high valent TPAP species leads to more ruthenium oxides active species in the catalysts; the acidification treatment of carrier in TPAP/AC catalyst can produce an enhanced interaction between the active species and the modified functional groups on the carrier, and it is beneficial to inhibit the carbon deposition and sintering of ruthenium species in the reaction process, greatly increase the adsorption ability of reactants, and further increase the amount of dominating active species in the catalysts, thus improving the catalytic performance. This also provides a promising strategy to explore high efficient and economic mercury-free catalysts for the hydrochlorination of acetylene.

  6. Full Scale Alternative Catalyst Testing for Bosch Reactor Optimization (United States)

    Barton, Katherine; Abney, Morgan B.


    Current air revitalization technology onboard the International Space Station (ISS) cannot provide complete closure of the oxygen and hydrogen loops. This makes re-supply necessary, which is possible for missions in low Earth orbit (LEO) like the ISS, but unviable for long term space missions outside LEO. In comparison, Bosch technology reduces carbon dioxide with hydrogen, traditionally over a steel wool catalyst, to create water and solid carbon. The Bosch product water can then be fed to the oxygen generation assembly to produce oxygen for crew members and hydrogen necessary to reduce more carbon dioxide. Bosch technology can achieve complete oxygen loop closure, but has many undesirable factors that result in a high energy, mass, and volume system. Finding a different catalyst with an equal reaction rate at lower temperatures with less catalyst mass and longer lifespan would make a Bosch flight system more feasible. Developmental testing of alternative catalysts for the Bosch has been performed using the Horizontal Bosch Test Stand. Nickel foam, nickel shavings, and cobalt shavings were tested at 500 C and compared to the original catalyst, steel wool. This paper presents data and analysis on the performance of each catalyst tested at comparable temperatures and recycle flow rates.

  7. Solid Catalysts and theirs Application in Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramli Mat


    Full Text Available The reduction of oil resources and increasing petroleum price has led to the search for alternative fuel from renewable resources such as biodiesel. Currently biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil using liquid catalysts. Replacement of liquid catalysts with solid catalysts would greatly solve the problems associated with expensive separation methods and corrosion problems, yielding to a cleaner product and greatly decreasing the cost of biodiesel production. In this paper, the development of solid catalysts and its catalytic activity are reviewed. Solid catalysts are able to perform trans-esterification and esterification reactions simultaneously and able to convert low quality oils with high amount of Free Fatty Acids. The parameters that effect the production of biodiesel are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th April 2012, Revised: 24th October 2012, Accepted: 24th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Mat, R.A. Samsudin, M. Mohamed, A. Johari, (2012. Solid Catalysts and Their Application in Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 142-149. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3047.142-149] [How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  8. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others


    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  9. Effect of catalyst deactivation on vacuum residue hydrocracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda S. Ahmed


    Full Text Available Accelerated deactivation tests of the pre-sulfided Mo–W/SiO2–Al2O3 commercial catalyst were performed using heavy vacuum petroleum feedstock. High reaction temperature employed in the accelerated catalyst aging resulted in large amounts of carbonaceous deposition with high aromaticity, which was found to be the principal deactivation cause. The effect of catalyst deactivation on hydrocracking of vacuum residue was studied. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor at 60 bar, feed to catalyst ratio 10:1 and temperature 425 °C. The duration time for a cycle-run was 4 h. On increasing the interval duration times from 4 to 20 h (i.e. five cycles, the quality of the hydrocracked products was decreased. In each cycle-run, a fresh feedstock was used with the same sulfide catalyst. The quality of distillate products, such as hydrodesulfurization (HDS was decreased from 61.50% to 39.52%, while asphaltene contents of the total liquid product were increased from 2.7% to 5.2% and their boiling ranges were increased during these duration times due to the successive catalyst deactivation during the 5 cycle-runs, caused by successive adsorption of coke formation.

  10. Tungsten materials as durable catalyst supports for fuel cell electrodes (United States)

    Perchthaler, M.; Ossiander, T.; Juhart, V.; Mitzel, J.; Heinzl, C.; Scheu, C.; Hacker, V.


    Durable platinum catalyst support materials, e.g. tungsten carbide (WC), tungsten oxide (WOx) and self-synthesized tungsten oxide (WOxs) were evaluated for the use in High-Temperature Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (HT-PEM) based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole as electrolyte. The support materials and the catalyst loaded support materials were characterized ex-situ by cyclic voltammetry in HClO4, potential cycling, CO-stripping, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. The tungsten oxide and tungsten carbide based supported catalysts were compared to High Surface Area Carbon (HSAC), each coated with platinum via the same in-house manufacturing procedures. The in-house manufacturing procedures resulted in catalyst particle sizes on HSAC of 3-4 nm with a uniform distribution. The in-situ Potential Cycling experiments of WOx or WOxs supported catalysts showed much lower degradation rates compared to High Surface Area Carbons. The formation of WOx species on WC was proven by ex- and in-situ cyclic voltammetric studies and thermogravimetric analyses. X-ray diffraction, ex-situ cyclic voltammetry and in-situ cyclic voltammetry showed that WOx is formed from WC as starting material under oxidizing conditions. Finally a 1000 h durability test with WOx as catalyst support material on the anode was done in a HT-PEM fuel cell with reformed methanol on the anode.

  11. Non-noble catalysts and catalyst supports for phosphoric acid fuel cells (United States)

    Mcalister, A. J.


    Tungsten carbide, which is active for hydrogen oxidation, is CO tolerant and has a hexagonal structure is discussed. Titanium carbide is inactive and has a cubic structure. Four different samples of the cubic alloys W sub x-1Ti sub XC sub 1-y were found to be active and CO tolerant. When the activities of these cubic alloys are weighted by the reciprocal of the square to those of highly forms of WC. They offer important insight into the nature of the active sites on W-C anode catalysts for use in phosphoric acid fuel cells.

  12. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst (United States)

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.


    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  13. One-pot, solvent-free synthesis via Biginelli reaction: Catalyst-free and new recyclable catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Kamali


    Full Text Available Free catalyst one-pot three components coupling of aldehydes, β-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea was performed to afford both the corresponding 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-ones (DHPOs, (1–9a and their sulfur analogs 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiones (DHPTs, (1–9b, synthesized in the presence of uranyl acetate (UA and succinimide sulfonic acid (SuSA as catalysts under the same conditions via Biginelli condensation protocol. Interestingly, the free catalyst reactions were performed for 4 h for DHPOs with the yields of high to excellent, while in the cases of DHPTs, the yield was lower. But when the UA or SuSA was used, the yields (both of DHPOs and DHPTs were high to excellent and the reaction times were either 2.5 or 1 h, respectively. Also, these two catalysts were recyclable for four consecutive runs.

  14. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C. [and others


    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Justino

    Full Text Available Abstract The high octane number of pyrolysis gasoline (PYGAS explains its insertion in the gasoline pool. However, its use is troublesome due to the presence of gum-forming chemicals which, in turn, can be removed via hydrogenation. The use of Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic models was evaluated for hydrogenation of styrene, a typical gum monomer, using Pd/9%Nb2O5-Al2O3 as catalyst. Kinetic models accounting for hydrogen dissociative and non-dissociative adsorption were considered. The availability of one or two kinds of catalytic sites was analyzed. Experiments were carried out in a semi-batch reactor at constant temperature and pressure in the absence of transport limitations. The conditions used in each experiment varied between 16 - 56 bar and 60 - 100 ºC for pressure and temperature, respectively. The kinetic models were evaluated using MATLAB and EMSO software. Models using adsorption of hydrogen and organic molecules on the same type of site fitted the data best.

  16. Optimized Heating Rate and Soot-catalyst Ratio for Soot Oxidation over MoO3 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congwei Mei


    Full Text Available MoO3 is now utilized as a promising catalyst due to its high activity and favorable mobility at low temperature. Its spectral data and surface microstructures were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. Thermo-analysis of the carbon black was performed over nano-MoO3 catalyst in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA at various heating rates and soot-catalyst ratios. Through the analysis of kinetic parameters, we found that the heat transfer effect and diffusion effect can be removed by setting lower heating rates and soot-catalyst ratios. Therefore, a strategy for selecting proper thermogravimetric parameters were established, which can contribute to the better understanding of thermo-analytical process. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 4th December 2016; Revised: 13rd June 2017; Accepted: 9th April 2017; Available online: 27th October 2017; Published regularly: December 2017 How to Cite: Mei, C., Mei, D., Yue, S, Chen, Z., Yuan, Y. (2017. Optimized Heating Rate and Soot-catalyst Ratio for Soot Oxidation over MoO3 Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 408-414 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.845.408-414

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Based Catalyst on Various Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidon Adrian Janaun


    Full Text Available A novel structured carbon-based acid catalyst was prepared by depositing the carbon precursor onto glass, ceramic and aluminum supports via dip-coating method, followed by carbonization process for converting the d-glucose layer into black carbon char in an inert nitrogen environment at 400 °C. Then, the –SO3H group was introduced into the framework of the carbon char by multiple vapor phase sulfonation. Four different carbonization methods were carried out (dry pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization with or without pressurized in the catalyst preparation while among the carbonization methods, the samples which prepared from dry pyrolysis without pressurized process showed the strong acidity due to highest adsorption of acid group in the catalyst surface although the catalyst attached onto the support was the least compared to other preparation methods. Among the catalysts, the sulfonated carbon-base catalyst that is attached on the ceramic support exhibited the highest aci-dity (1.327 mmol/g followed by the catalyst deposited on the glass (0.917 mmol/g and aluminum (0.321 mmol/g supports. The porous structure of ceramic surface, allowed a better interaction between reactants and –SO3H site in the carbon. Through the FT-IR analysis, it was observed that the functional groups –COOH, –OH, and –SO3H were present in the active sites of the catalysts. The surface areas of  glass (Si–SC, ceramic (Ce–SC and aluminum (Al–SC catalysts were larger than 1 m2/g, whereas the pore size belongs to macroporous as the average pore size is more than 50 nm. It is also stable within the temperature of 400 °C as there was less than 10% weight loss revealed from the TGA analysis. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 20th April 2016; Revised: 14th October 2016; Accepted: 17th October 2016 How to Cite: Janaun, J.A., Mey, T.J., Bono, A., Krishnaiah, D. (2017. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Based Catalyst on Various

  18. Light Absorbers and Catalysts for Solar to Fuel Conversion (United States)

    Kornienko, Nikolay I.

    Increasing fossil fuel consumption and the resulting consequences to the environment has propelled research into means of utilizing alternative, clean energy sources. Solar power is among the most promising of renewable energy sources but must be converted into an energy dense medium such as chemical bonds to render it useful for transport and energy storage. Photoelectrochemistry (PEC), the splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen fuel or reducing CO 2 to hydrocarbon fuels via sunlight is a promising approach towards this goal. Photoelectrochemical systems are comprised of several components, including light absorbers and catalysts. These parts must all synergistically function in a working device. Therefore, the continual development of each component is crucial for the overall goal. For PEC systems to be practical for large scale use, the must be efficient, stable, and composed of cost effective components. To this end, my work focused on the development of light absorbing and catalyst components of PEC solar to fuel converting systems. In the direction of light absorbers, I focused of utilizing Indium Phosphide (InP) nanowires (NWs) as photocathodes. I first developed synthetic techniques for InP NW solution phase and vapor phase growth. Next, I developed light absorbing photocathodes from my InP NWs towards PEC water splitting cells. I studied cobalt sulfide (CoSx) as an earth abundant catalyst for the reductive hydrogen evolution half reaction. Using in situ spectroscopic techniques, I elucidated the active structure of this catalyst and offered clues to its high activity. In addition to hydrogen evolution catalysts, I established a new generation of earth abundant catalysts for CO2 reduction to CO fuel/chemical feedstock. I first worked with molecularly tunable homogeneous catalysts that exhibited high selectivity for CO2 reduction in non-aqueous media. Next, in order to retain molecular tunability while achieving stability and efficiency in aqueous

  19. Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process (United States)

    Peng, Xiang-Dong; Parris, Gene E.; Toseland, Bernard A.; Battavio, Paula J.


    The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

  20. Glycerol Steam Reforming Over Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 Catalyst: Effect of Cerium. (United States)

    Go, Gwang-Sub; Go, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hong-Joo; Moon, Dong-Ju; Park, Nam-Cook; Kim, Young-Chul


    In this work, hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming was studied using Ni-metal oxide catalysts. Ni-based catalyst becomes deactivated during steam reforming reactions because of coke deposits and sintering. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reduce carbon deposits and sintering on the catalyst surface by adding a promoter. Ni-metal oxide catalysts supported on Al2O3 were prepared via impregnation method, and the calcined catalyst was reduced under H2 flow for 2 h prior to the reaction. The characteristics of the catalysts were examined by XRD, TPR, TGA, and SEM. The Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst, which contained less than 2 wt% Ce, showed the highest hydrogen selectivity and glycerol conversion. Further analysis of the catalysts revealed that the Ni-Fe-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst required a lower reduction temperature and produced minimum carbon deposit.