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Sample records for cardiovascular risk profiles

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboix, Adrià

    2015-05-16

    Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients. PMID:25984516

  2. BENEFICIAL IMPACT ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK PROFILE OF WATER BUFFALO MEAT CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Giordano, Gabriele; Guarini, Pasquale; Ferrari, Patrizio; Schiavone, Beniamino; Giordano, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES : Meat is a good source of proteins and irons, yet its consumption has been associated with unfavorable cardiovascular effects. Whether this applies to all types of meat is unclear. We thus aimed to appraise the impact of water buffalo meat consumption on car?diovascular risk profile with an observational longitudinal study. METHODS: Several key cardiovascular risk features were appraised at baseline and at 12-month follow-up in 300 adult subjects ...

  3. Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists (from the SOCRATES Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2013-07-15

    Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) was undertaken. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated Web site, was used for data entry, and data were transferred through the Web to a central database. The survey was divided into 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits, and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of 3 national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1,770 of the 5,240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned ≥1 sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 of the 5 classic risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes, and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors, and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and gender, could be considered at low to intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, >90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. In conclusion, the average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk.

  4. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured...... weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL...... improved by weight reduction....

  5. Lipid profile of nutrition students and its association with cardiovascular disease risk factors

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    Regina Mara Fisberg

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the lipid profile and to verify its relationship with cardiovascular disease risk factors in students at a public university in São Paulo. METHODS: After obtaining clinical, anthropomorphic, and lipid profile data from 118 students, variables of the lipid profile were related to other risk factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the students was 20.3 years (SD=1.5. The risk of cardiovascular disease was characterized by a positive family history of ischemic heart disease in 38.9%; sedentariness in 35.6%; limiting and increased total and LDL-C cholesterol levels in 17.7% and 10.2%, respectively; decreased HDL-C levels in 11.1%; increased triglyceride levels in 11.1%; body mass index >25 in 8.5%, and smoking in 6.7% of the subjects. Students' diet was found to be inadequate regarding protein, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, and fiber contents. A statistically significant association between cholesterol and contraceptive use, between HDL-C and contraceptive use, age and percent body fat, and triglycerides and percent lean weight was observed. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of some risk factors of cardiovascular disease as well as the association between these factors with altered lipid profiles was observed in the young population studied.

  6. LEADER 7 : Cardiovascular risk profiles of US and European participants in the LEADER diabetes trial differ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Guy E H M; Tack, Cees J.; Pieber, Thomas R.; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Baeres, Florian M M; Marso, Steven P.; Buse, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether US and European participants in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial differ regarding risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Methods: Baseline data, stratified for prior cardiovascular

  7. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

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    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  8. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

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    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  9. Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and prenatal pesticide exposure associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profiles at school age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle R Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. METHODS: Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed. Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3, insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. RESULTS: Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele.

  10. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Main, Katharina M.; Nellemann, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Jensen, Tina K.; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Grandjean, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate pesticides. A common polymorphism, PON1 Q192R, affects both properties, but a potential interaction between PON1 genotype and pesticide exposure on cardiovascular risk factors has not been investigated. We explored if the PON1 Q192R genotype affects cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex specific Z-scores. Results Prenatally pesticide exposed children carrying the PON1 192R-allele had higher abdominal circumference, body fat content, BMI Z-scores, blood pressure, and serum concentrations of leptin and IGF-I at school age than unexposed children. The effects were related to the prenatal exposure level. For children with the PON1 192QQ genotype, none of the variables was affected by prenatal pesticide exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate a gene-environment interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and the PON1 gene. Only exposed children with the R-allele developed adverse cardiovascular risk profiles thought to be associated with the R-allele. PMID:22615820

  11. Is an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile a risk factor for vasomotor menopausal symptoms? Results of a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, M. J.; Herber-Gast, G. C M; Van Der Schouw, Y. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests an association between vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMSs), i.e. hot flushes and night sweats, and cardiovascular disease. However, the causal pathway is unclear. We investigated whether an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile is a risk factor for VMS later in life.

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS & LIPID PROFILE IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS

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    Rupali S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is now a global epidemic called as “globesity”. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension is the important cardiovascular disease risk factors that are associated with obesity. Cardiovascular risk is counted partly by metabolic alterations associated with abdominal obesity, disturbances in plasma glucose homeostasis and lipoprotein metabolism. AIM: To determine the level risk of coronary artery disease (CAD in the study group depending on waist circumference (WC & Body mass index (BMI. Secondly, to compare the anthropometric measurements and lipid profile in the three groups. MATERIALS & METHODS: Study comprised of three groups: group I (n=30 type II diabetes mellitus, group II (n=30 primary essential hypertension, group III (n=30 hypertensive diabetics. WC, Weight & Height were measured. Lipid profile was estimated. Blood pressure was recorded. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS. RESULTS: The Mean & Standard Deviations (SD values for WC & BMI in Group I were seen to be highest in group II 88.1±15.06 & 28.69±4.7 respectively. Statistically significant difference seen in systolic blood pressure between three groups with F value of 18.29 & p value of <0.001. Diastolic blood pressure also showed statistically significant difference in the three groups with F value 21.92 of & p value of < 0.001. statistically significant difference in HDL levels with p value of <0.05, serum cholesterol/ HDL ratio with p value of <0.05 and highly significant difference in triglyceride levels between three groups with p value of <0.001. Conclusion: Waist circumference is a better anthropometric marker as compared to BMI to assess the CAD risk. All the three groups had risk of CAD, but Hypertensive diabetics had highest predisposition for CAD

  13. The Cardiovascular Risk Profile of Atherosclerotic Gastrointestinal Ischemia Is Different from Other Vascular Beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Renzo P.; ter Steege, Rinze W. F.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Huisman, Ad B.; Kolkman, Jeroen J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic gastrointestinal ischemia due to atherosclerosis of the splanchnic vessels (chronic splanchnic syndrome) is not well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk factor pattern in patients

  14. Plasma lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Idumebor Florence; Ugbaja Regina; Ademuyiwa Oladipo; Adebawo Olugbenga

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In order to investigate the effects of lead exposure on risk of cardiovascular disease during occupational exposure to this metal, plasma cholesterol and its fractions as high-density liporotein (HDL), low-density liporotein (LDL) and triglyceride were determined in various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria who have been shown to be occupationally exposed to lead and these were related to blood lead levels. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease was observed in the artisans. Total chol...

  15. Conversion from cyclosporine to tacrolimus improves quality-of-life indices, renal graft function and cardiovascular risk profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artz, MA; Boots, JMM; Ligtenberg, G; Roodnat, JI; Christiaans, MHL; Vos, PF; Moons, P; Borm, G; Hilbrands, LB

    2004-01-01

    Long-term use of cyclosporine after renal transplantation results in nephrotoxicity and an increased cardiovascular risk profile. Tacrolimus may be more favorable in this respect. In this randomized controlled study in 124 renal transplant patients, the effects of conversion from cyclosporine to tac

  16. Approach to the treatment of atrial fibrillation in patients with cardiovascular risk profile: Multicentric international study

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    Pavlović Siniša U.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF, the most common arrhythmia that requires treatment, does not come out of the focus of researchers. Monitoring its prevalence and effects of therapy is a good guideline approach to the growing population of patients in which this arrhythmia occurs. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of AF and cardiovascular profiles in the observed population. Methods. In this observational, cross-sectional, multicenter, international study, 584 patients in 30 centers in Serbia and Slovenia, older than 18 years and with AF or in sinus rhythm with a history of AF, were included. The assessment of the efficacy of treatment of AF was performed by analyzing the frequency of adequate therapeutic effect of medication in rhythm or frequency control in patients with AF. Results. The results confirmed that the highest incidence of AF duration is more than seven days, and is accompanied by symptoms. Inadequate frequency regulation was registered at 8.9% of patients. Hypertension was registered in two-thirds of all patients, while other cardiovascular risk factors were registered in about one-third of patients. An echocardiographic finding in the group of patients with AF confirms generally adequate left ventricular function with a slightly enlarged left atrium (4.6±0.8 cm. Increasing age and time from the first episode of AF decreases the probability of maintaining sinus rhythm, while symptomatic AF had a positive impact on the presence of sinus rhythm. Propafenone, sotalol and amiodarone showed a statistically significant connection with a positive therapeutic response, while β-blockers had a negative impact on the probability of establishing and maintaining sinus rhythm. Conclusion. Characteristics of therapeutic approaches, risks, comorbidity of patient populations in Slovenia and Serbia correspond to the fullest extent with the recommendations for good clinical practice, which further

  17. Abdominal obesity is associated with microalbuminuria and an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in patients with hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Thoenes, Martin; Reil, Jan-Christian; Khan, Bobby Varkey; Bramlage, Peter; Volpe, Massimo; Kirch, Wilhelm; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are frequently associated with preventable death and have emerged as a major challenge to public health. There is an ongoing debate on the role of abdominal obesity and its value in predicting cardiovascular and renal outcomes. The present analysis evaluates the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in relation to measures of general and abdominal obesity. Methods In this multinational, observational study, 20828 hy...

  18. Abdominal obesity is associated with microalbuminuria and an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in patients with hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoenes, Martin; Reil, Jan-Christian; Khan, Bobby Varkey; Bramlage, Peter; Volpe, Massimo; Kirch, Wilhelm; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are frequently associated with preventable death and have emerged as a major challenge to public health. There is an ongoing debate on the role of abdominal obesity and its value in predicting cardiovascular and renal outcomes. The present analysis evaluates the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in relation to measures of general and abdominal obesity. Methods In this multinational, observational study, 20828 hypertensive out-patients from 26 countries including Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East, and Asia were analyzed. Urinary dipstick screening for MAU was performed as well as data on patient demographics, anthropometric measures, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbid conditions, and cardiovascular drug therapy collected. MAU prevalence was determined by a stepwise logistic regression analysis with cardiovascular risk factors as univariate. Results In the univariate analysis, MAU prevalence systematically increased with body mass index (BMI) from 54.4% (1st tertial) to 62.1% (3rd tertial) (p < 0.0001), an increase which was also observed for waist circumference (WC). At any level of BMI, MAU increased with WC from 53.5%, 54.8%, and 55.0% (1st tertial of WC in all three BMI tertials) to 61.4%, 62.1%, and 64.0% (3rd tertial of WC in all BMI tertials) (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, WC, but not BMI was independently associated with MAU. Furthermore, overweight/obesity were associated with the presence of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors. Conclusion An abnormal WC, but not BMI appears to be independently associated with MAU, an early marker of cardiovascular and renal risk. Increasing WC confers an incremental risk for MAU at any level of BMI, underlining the prognostic importance of abdominal fat accumulation beyond general obesity. PMID:19649308

  19. Abdominal obesity is associated with microalbuminuria and an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thoenes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Martin Thoenes1,2, Jan-Christian Reil3, Bobby Varkey Khan4, Peter Bramlage1, Massimo Volpe5,6, Wilhelm Kirch1,  Michael Böhm31Institute for Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden, Germany; 2Sanofi Aventis, Global Medical Affairs, Paris, France; 3Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Kardiologie, Angiologie and Internistische Intensivmedizin, Universität des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar, Germany; 4Department of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA; 5University of Rome “Sapienza”, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome; 6IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, italyBackground: Overweight and obesity are frequently associated with preventable death and have emerged as a major challenge to public health. There is an ongoing debate on the role of abdominal obesity and its value in predicting cardiovascular and renal outcomes. The present analysis evaluates the prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU and conventional cardiovascular risk factors in relation to measures of general and abdominal obesity.Methods: In this multinational, observational study, 20,828 hypertensive out-patients from 26 countries including Europe, North and Latin America, Middle East, and Asia were analyzed. Urinary dipstick screening for MAU was performed as well as data on patient demographics, anthropometric measures, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbid conditions, and cardiovascular drug therapy collected. MAU prevalence was determined by a stepwise logistic regression analysis with cardiovascular risk factors as univariate.Results: In the univariate analysis, MAU prevalence systematically increased with body mass index (BMI from 54.4% (1st tertial to 62.1% (3rd tertial (p < 0.0001, an increase which was also observed for waist circumference (WC. At any level of BMI, MAU increased with WC from 53.5%, 54.8%, and 55.0% (1st tertial of WC in all three BMI tertials to 61.4%, 62.1%, and 64.0% (3rd tertial of WC in

  20. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipolito; M. Guadalupe Aguilar-Uscanga; Guadalupe Melo-Santiesteban; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent,...

  1. Impact of a pedometer-based workplace health program on cardiovascular and diabetes risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Wolfe, Rory; Backholer, Kathryn;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health programme results in an improvement in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Adults employed within Australia in primarily sedentary occupations and voluntar......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether participation in a four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace health programme results in an improvement in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Adults employed within Australia in primarily sedentary occupations...... recruited in April/May 2008 with 79% returning. Improvements between baseline and four-months amongst programme participants were observed for physical activity (an increase of 6.5% in the proportion meeting guidelines, OR(95%CI): 1.7(1.1, 2.5)), fruit intake (4%, OR: 1.7(1.0, 3.0)), vegetable intake (2...

  2. Plasma lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idumebor Florence

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the effects of lead exposure on risk of cardiovascular disease during occupational exposure to this metal, plasma cholesterol and its fractions as high-density liporotein (HDL, low-density liporotein (LDL and triglyceride were determined in various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria who have been shown to be occupationally exposed to lead and these were related to blood lead levels. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease was observed in the artisans. Total cholesterol in the artisans was between 1.5 and 2.0 times higher in the artisans than that present in controls while LDL cholesterol was between 1.6 and 2.4 times higher in the artisans when compared with control subjects [p 0.05]. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood lead and total cholesterol on one hand [r = 0.372; p = 3.0 × 10-5] and blood lead and LDL cholesterol on the other hand [r = 0.283; p = 0.001]. LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was also higher in the artisans when compared with control. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic and other anthropometric parameters were not significantly different between the artisans and the control subjects [p > 0.05]. Results suggest that lead exposure increases cholesterol synthesis and transport to peripheral tissues whereas reverse cholesterol transport to the liver is not affected.

  3. Paraoxonase 1 Polymorphism and Prenatal Pesticide Exposure Associated with Adverse Cardiovascular Risk Profiles at School Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle R.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Dalgard, Christine;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal environmental factors might influence the risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. The HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has anti-oxidative functions that may protect against atherosclerosis. It also hydrolyzes many substrates, including organophosphate...... prenatally exposed to pesticides. Methods: Pregnant greenhouse-workers were categorized as high, medium, or not exposed to pesticides. Their children underwent a standardized examination at age 6-to-11 years, where blood pressure, skin folds, and other anthropometric parameters were measured. PON1-genotype...... was determined for 141 children (88 pesticide exposed and 53 unexposed). Serum was analyzed for insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), insulin and leptin. Body fat percentage was calculated from skin fold thicknesses. BMI results were converted to age and sex...

  4. Dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risk profiles of patients attending an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe

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    Zhou DT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Danai Tavonga Zhou,1,2 Vitaris Kodogo,1 Kudzai Fortunate Vongai Chokuona,1 Exnevia Gomo,1 Olav Oektedalen,3 Babill Stray-Pedersen21Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Avondale, Zimbabwe; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: The chronic inflammation induced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV contributes to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in HIV-infected individuals. HIV-infected patients generally benefit from being treated with antiretroviral drugs, but some antiretroviral agents have side effects, such as dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. There is general consensus that antiretroviral drugs induce a long-term risk of CHD, although the levels of that risk are somewhat controversial. The intention of this cross-sectional study was to describe the lipid profile and the long-term risk of CHD among HIV-positive outpatients at an HIV treatment clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe. Two hundred and fifteen patients were investigated (females n=165, mean age 39.8 years; males n=50; mean age 42.0 years. Thirty of the individuals were antiretroviral-naïve and 185 had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART for a mean 3.9±3.4 years. All participants had average lipid and glucose values within normal ranges, but there was a small difference between the ART and ART- for total cholesterol (TC and high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Those on a combination of D4T or ZDV/NVP/3TC and PI-based ART were on average oldest and had the highest TC levels. Framingham risk showed 1.4% prevalence of high CHD risk within the next ten years. After univariate analysis age, sex, TC/HDL ratio, HDL, economic earnings and systolic BP were associated with medium to high risk of CHD. After multivariate regression analysis and adjusting for age or sex only age, sex and economic earnings

  5. Association of lipid profile and waist circumference as cardiovascular risk factors for overweight and obesity among school children in Qatar

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    Rizk NM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nasser M Rizk, Mervat YousefHealth Sciences Department, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, QatarBackground: Childhood obesity is a national as well as worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of overweight and obesity among Qatari children with lipid profile and waist circumference as adverse cardiovascular risk factors in children aged 6–11 years. International Obesity Task Force reference values were used to screen for overweight and obesity.Methods: A cross-sectional study in a randomly selected sample was conducted in 315 Qatari primary school students aged 6–11 years. Anthropometric measurements, including body weight, height, waist circumference, and body mass index were calculated for 151 girls and 164 boys. Weight categories were based on International Obesity Task Force reference values. Fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides were measured, and atherogenic index was calculated.Results: In total, 31.71% of boys and 32.78% of girls were overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children screened against International Obesity Task Force reference values had a significantly increased risk of high waist circumference (P < 0.0001, hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.002, low HDL-C (P = 0.017, and atherogenic index (P = 0.021 compared with children who were not overweight or obese. The partial correlation coefficient for the cardiovascular risk marker of waist circumference indicated a positive significant association with total cholesterol (r = 0.465, P = 0.003, triglycerides (r = 0.563, P < 0.001, and LDL-C (r = 0.267, P = 0.003, and a significant negative association with HDL-C (r = −0.361, P = 0.004. Overweight and obesity significantly increase the odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CIs of cardiovascular risk factors as follows: hypertriglyceridemia (OR 6.34, CI 2.49–13

  6. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  7. Cardiovascular risk factor profiles for peripheral artery disease and carotid atherosclerosis among Chinese older people: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological data concerning atherosclerotic disease among older people in rural China are sparse. We seek to determine prevalence and cardiovascular risk factor profiles for peripheral artery disease (PAD and carotid atherosclerosis (CAS among Chinese older people living in a rural community. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1499 participants (age ≥60 years, 59.0% women of the Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong, China. From June 2010-July 2011, data were collected through interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory tests. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index ≤0.9. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and carotid artery stenosis were assessed by ultrasonography. We defined moderate stenosis as carotid stenosis ≥50%, and severe stenosis as carotid stenosis ≥70%. cIMT≥1.81 mm was considered as an increased cIMT (a measure of CAS. Data were analyzed with multiple logistic models. RESULTS: The prevalence was 5.7% for PAD, 8.9% for moderate stenosis, 1.8% for severe stenosis, and 11.2% for increased cIMT. After controlling for multiple potential confounders, diabetes, an increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C ratio, and hypertension were significantly or marginally associated with PAD. Ever smoking, hypertension, and an increased LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of increased cIMT. An increasing number of those cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with an increasing odds ratio of PAD and increased cIMT, respectively (p for linear trend <0.001. CONCLUSION: Among Chinese older people living in a rural community, PAD, carotid artery stenosis, and an increased cIMT are relatively uncommon. Cardiovascular risk factor profiles for PAD and CAS are slightly different, with hypertension and an increased LDL-C/HDL-C ratio being associated with an increased likelihood of both PAD and

  8. Reduced Subendocardial Viability Ratio Is Associated With Unfavorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile in Women With Short Duration of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Høyem, Pernille; Fleischer, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    .2-5.0) years) and 86 sex- and age-matched control subjects in a cross-sectional study. SEVR was noninvasively assessed by tonometry and markers of cardiovascular risk by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), C-reactive protein, urinary albumin......: SEVR is reduced in women with short duration of T2DM and associated with cardiovascular risk markers. The latter association seems to be at least partly mediated via heart rate. We hypothesize that reduced SEVR may contribute to the unfavorable cardiovascular prognosis in women with diabetes....

  9. Evaluation of a community-based participatory physical activity promotion project: effect on cardiovascular disease risk profiles of school employees

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    Kobza Cee E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of physical activity in improving cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profiles has been well established. However, the effectiveness of health promotion programs implemented at the community level remains controversial. This study evaluated a school-based work-site physical activity program. Methods Using a community-based participatory research model, a work-site wellness intervention was implemented in a rural public school system in Southwestern Oklahoma. During the 2005-2006 school year, 187 participants (mean age 45 years completed a pre intervention screening for CVD risk factors followed by a physical activity promotion program. Post intervention screening was conducted after a 6 month period. During both screening sessions, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, glucose and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed. The focus of the intervention was on promoting physical activity. Opportunities for in school physical activity were created by marking hallways, adding a treadmill in each school, and allowing teachers to use planning periods for physical activity. Results During the post intervention screening, compared to pre intervention levels, participants had lower total, low, and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (t = 5.9, p Conclusions A successful participatory program was associated with improvements in several CVD risk factors among school employees. Limitations of this study such as seasonal variation in the outcome variables and lack of a control group limit our ability to draw solid conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention.

  10. Effect of hormonal contraceptives on lipid profile and the risk indices for cardiovascular disease in a Ghanaian community

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    Asare GA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available George A Asare,1 Sheila Santa,1 Robert A Ngala,2 Bernice Asiedu,1 Daniel Afriyie,3 Albert GB Amoah4 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Ghana School of Allied Health Sciences (SAHS, Korle-bu, Ghana; 2Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Ghana Medical School Korle-bu, Ghana; 4Department of Medicine, University of Ghana Medical School, Korle-bu, Ghana Background: Hormonal contraceptives (HCs have been shown to alter lipid profile among various population groups with different patterns of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular (CV risk. The study aimed at determining the lipid profile pattern and CV risk in a Ghanaian cohort. Methods: Purposive random sampling was done. Forty-seven and 19 cases were on oral contraceptives (OCs and injectable contraceptives (ICs, respectively; five were on subdermal implant. Twenty-four non-users served as controls. Biodemographic and lipid profiles were determined. Total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, and very-low-density lipid lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDLC, were determined. Castelli index I and II were calculated. Results: The mean age difference between the HC and control groups was insignificant. However, diastolic blood pressure (BP differences were significant (P=0.006. The body mass index (BMI of the OC and IC groups were significantly different from the control group (P=0.003 and P=0.008, respectively. TC levels for the control and case groups were 3.35±0.62 mmol/L and 4.07±0.91 mmol/L, respectively (P=0.002. LDLC levels for the control and case groups were 1.74±0.57 mmol/L and 2.38±0.84 mmol/L, respectively (P=0.003. Castelli index I (TC/HDLC and II (LDLC/HDLC were significantly different between the control and OC groups (P=0.026 and P=0.014, respectively. Spearman’s rho

  11. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

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    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet, a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution, and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.. Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  13. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile and Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers Among Chronic Haemodialysis Patients and Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadavanu, Tony Mathew; Green, Siva Ranganathan; Dutta, Tarun Kumar; Hemachandar, Radhakrishnan; Ramachandrappa, Arun Kumar; Tiwari, Shashank Rakesh; Govindasamy, Ezhumalai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lipid abnormalities and increase in inflammatory markers are common among patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) and it tends to persist/worsen even after initiating Intermittent Haemodialysis (IHD). The cardiovascular mortality and morbidity remains significantly high in this population. Aim The present study was carried out to assess the pattern of lipid abnormality in our population and to find its association with inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional, observational study on ESRD patients undergoing Haemodialysis (HD) in comparison with age and sex matched healthy individuals in a tertiary care hospital. About 40 adult male and female patients aged >18 years, undergoing chronic HD for more than 6 months were enrolled in Group A. Patients who were alcoholics, tobacco consumers and those on steroids and hypolipidemic drugs were excluded. Group B consisted of healthy, age and sex matched controls. Serum lipid profile, lipoprotein A, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and apo B/A1 ratio, serum uric acid, homocysteine, hs-CRP and testosterone levels were estimated among patients undergoing intermittent HD and healthy individuals. Chi-square/Fisher’s-exact test was used for comparing ratios. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The mean Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Non-HDL High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in HD patients as compared to control group with all the three parameters attaining statistical significance (p<0.005). The mean lipoprotein A level was significantly higher (p=0.037), while Apo A1 was found to be significantly lower (p=0.001) in patients receiving HD. Inflammatory markers like uric acid was high (p<0.005) and serum testotsterone level in male HD patient was significantly low (p<0.005). Conclusion The mean values of traditional serum lipid profile remained lower in HD patients than the control group. The

  14. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  15. Addition of a novel, protective family history category allows better profiling of cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. The Asklepios Study.

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    Caroline M Van daele

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Whereas the importance of family history (FH is widely recognized in cardiovascular risk assessment, its full potential could be underutilized, when applied with its current simple guidelines-based definition (cFH: presence of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD in a first-degree relative. We tested the added value of a new, extended family history definition (eFH, also taking into account later onset of disease, second-degree relatives and number of affected relatives, on profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. DESIGN: Longitudinal population study. SETTING: Random, representative population sample from Erpe-Mere and Nieuwerkerken (Belgium, primary care. SUBJECTS: 2524 male/female volunteers, aged 35-55 years, free from overt CVD. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Subjects were extensively phenotyped including presence of atherosclerosis (ultrasound and a newly developed FH questionnaire (4 generations. RESULTS: Compared to cFH, eFH was superior in predicting an adverse risk profile (glycemic state, elevated blood pressure, lipid abnormalities, presence of metabolic syndrome components and presence of atherosclerosis (all age & sex-adjusted p<0.05. Unlike cFH, eFH remained a significant predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis after adjusting for confounders. Most relations with eFH were not graded but showed clear informational breakpoints, with absence of CVD (including late onset in any first-degree relative being a negative predictor of atherosclerosis, and a particularly interesting phenotype for further study. CONCLUSIONS: A novel, extended FH definition is superior to the conventional definition in profiling cardiovascular risk and atherosclerotic burden in the general population. There remain clear opportunities to refine and increase the performance and informational content of this simple, readily-available inexpensive tool.

  16. Coronary Artery Disease and the Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in South South Nigeria: A Clinical and Autopsy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Okon Ekwere Essien; Joseph Andy; Victor Ansa; Akaninyene Asuquo Otu; Alphonsus Udoh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Death from coronary artery disease (CAD) has been until recently considered rare in Nigeria. We present a report of a study of CAD with its predisposing cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in South South Nigeria. Methods. We examined the autopsy reports of 747 coroner cases and 41 consecutive clinically diagnosed cases of ischemic heart disease seen in South South Nigeria. Results. CAD was diagnosed in 13 (1.6%) of 747 autopsies. They were predominantly males, urban residents, and...

  17. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  18. A five-year observance of changes in the cardiovascular risk profile in 505 HIV-positive individuals

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    A Potthoff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART and the extension of life expectancy, HIV-infected persons have shown an increasing number of cardiovascular events. The reduction of cardiovascular risk factors becomes a new challenge in HIV care. One of the main objectives of the HIV&HEART study is to examine the development of cardiovascular risk factors and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: This study is an on-going, prospective, regional multicentre trial that was conducted to analyse the frequency and clinical course of cardiac disorders as well as cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-infected patients. 505 HIV-infected outpatients were recruited at baseline (BL and re-examined during 5-year follow up (5YFU. Results: 84% of 505 eligible HIV-infected patients were male. The average age was 44.3±9.5 years at BL. The proportion of ART-treated patients increased from 85.7% at BL to 96.4% at 5YFU. During the 5-year observation period mean cardiovascular risk detected by Framingham score increased from 6% at BL to 10% at 5YFU. Even after adjusting for age there was a difference in the Framingham score of 2%. Between BL and 5YFU systolic blood pressure increased from 128.4±19.8 mmHg to 138.3±19.9 mmHg in spite of an intensified use of antihypertensive drugs, from 11.9% at BL to 24.0% at 5YFU. The rate of participants with adiposity, characterised by a BMI>30, increased from 7.9% at BL to 11.2% at 5YFU. Lipid-lowering therapy was applied in 10.3% of the patients at BL and in 13.9% at 5YFU. Triglycerides (TAG≥200 mg/dl reduced from 38.9% at BL to 36.8% at 5YFU; in contrast cholesterol values≥200 mg/dl elevated from 57.8% to 61.8%. The same trend was observed in HDL≤40 mg/dl. Here we found a change from 29.2% versus 31.3%. Doing regular sports elevated from 1.9% to 3.3%. The count of smokers increased for 2.8% and also mean pack-years changes from 24 to 26.5 pack-years. Conclusion: During a 5-year period the

  19. Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Patients with Psoriasis: Risk Profile Including Carotide Ultrasonography Assessed in Hospital-based Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votrubova, Jana; Juzlova, Katerina; Dzambova, Martina; Hercogova, Jana; Gopfertova, Dana

    2016-08-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and its comorbidities have attracted serious interest in recent years. The evidence that psoriasis is associated with systemic inflammation and significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular risk factors has already been described. The results of published studies are highly variable, the conclusions are ambiguous, and further epidemiological studies are needed for validation of published data. Therefore, we initiated a project aimed at identifying the association with cardiovascular risk factors, including early stages of atherosclerosis, that represent important comorbidities in patients with psoriasis. We carried out a hospital-based case-control study on 189 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis enrolled as cases. The control group consisted of 378 patients with other skin diseases complying with the same exclusion criteria who were recruited to the study as the controls. All participants underwent physical examination, blood tests, and measuring of blood pressure and waist circumference. Furthermore, we evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in a subset of 117 cases and controls (matched 1:2) with no history of cardiovascular disease. The results showed higher prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, waist circumference, weight, body-mass index (BMI), and C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients with psoriasis than in controls. These parameters have been clearly demonstrated to be risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The associations between psoriasis and diastolic blood pressure, BMI value, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were statistically significant in the binary data logistic model as well. CIMT was not significantly higher in patients compared with controls. PMID:27663919

  20. Uma estratégia para redução de risco cardiovascular em pacientes transplantados renais A strategy to improve the cardiovascular risk factor profile in renal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Leite

    2010-06-01

    -lowering therapy. Risk factor profiles were re-evaluated after 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Most patients were at high cardiovascular risk (58%. After 12 months, the proportion of patients on antiplatelet, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy was significantly increased (29 to 51%, 83 to 92% and 3 to 46%, p < 0.001, respectively. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased (237 to 215 mg/dl, p = 0.001 and 244 to 221 mg/dl, p = 0.03. Although a non-significant reduction in LDL levels was observed (136 to 116 mg/dl, p = 0.12, patients starting statins within the first 6 months of the study presented a significant 25% reduction in LDL (159 to 119 mg/dl, p < 0.001. The proportion of patients with complete plasma lipid evaluation was also increased (27% to 49%, p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a simple, inexpensive strategy significantly improves the cardiovascular risk profile of RTR, potentially translating into marked benefits for long-term graft function and life expectancy.

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors - Clinical and Epidemiologic profiles in the subjects of the "Atividade Física na Vila" Project

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    Eduardo Simon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The group of atherothrombotic cardiovascular diseases represents one of the leading causes of death around the world. Atherosclerosis is a condition of multifactorial origin, with great genetic and familiar dependence, besides being characterized by an elevated aggravation trend related to lifestyle. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk (CVR factors and Metabolic Syndrome (MS, as well as to estimate the cardiovascular risk in the subjects of the "Atividade Física na Vila" Project. By means of a cross sectional study, 48 patients aged between 23 and 74 (41 women and 7 men were screened for the presence of sedentary lifestyle, smoking, family antecedents of Diabetes mellitus type 22 (DM or Coronary artery disease, obesity, abdominal obesity, High Blood Pressure (HBP, DM2, Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG, Lipid abnormalities, and MS. This prevalence was compared to the available general population data. The MS definition was that of the NCEP. The CVR was estimated using the Framingham Score (FS, and compared among the groups with and without MS. 67% of the patients were 50 or older and 46% were 55 or older. There was a high prevalence of CVR factors compared to the population data, specially in the case of sedentary lifestyle (52% x 56%, NS, obesity (men 14% x 9%, NS; women 39% x 13%, P<0.05, HBP (56% x 32%, P<0.05, high total cholesterol (63% x 40%, P<0.05. The prevalence of DM2, IFG, abdominal obesity and MS was 10%, 21%, 60% and 27%, respectively. The mean FS was 5,2 ± 5,5, significantly higher in the patients with MS (9,5 ± 3,1 x 3,5 ± 5,4 p<0.05. These data indicate the high prevalence of CVR factors, and suggest its synergy in elevating the global CVR represented by the FS, as well as strongly support the need for changes in the lifestyle of these patients.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Profiles amongst Women in a Multiethnic Population in Inner City Britain: A Potential Impact of Anaemia

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    Julia Chackathayil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of diabetes is markedly reduced in men with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA. The nature of this relationship in women is not clear, nor is there information about the influence of ethnicity, given the increased susceptibility of diabetes amongst South Asians and Afro-Caribbeans. We reviewed 3563 patients with a diagnosis of anaemia from 2000 to 2007. The age-adjusted prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and IDA was calculated, together with cardiovascular comorbidities amongst Caucasians, South Asians, and Afro-Caribbeans. The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency (women only or IDA was markedly higher in South Asians compared to Caucasians and Afro-Caribbeans. Among women with IDA, diabetes was more prevalent among South Asians (45%, 95% CI 39.0–51.0 compared to Caucasians (3.0%, 2.1–4.0; P<0.001. Among South Asian women with vitamin B12 deficiency, the prevalence of diabetes was reduced 8.5% (5.2–12.0. South Asian women with vitamin B12 deficiency had a higher prevalence of myocardial infarction (MI and ischemic heart disease (IHD, but this relationship was reversed in IDA. IDA is associated with a greater prevalence of diabetes in South Asian women, but it is not coordinated by a greater risk of macrovascular complications. Given the cardiovascular impact of diabetes in South Asians, this association merits further study in relation to its pathophysiological implication.

  3. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  4. Coronary Artery Disease and the Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in South South Nigeria: A Clinical and Autopsy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okon Ekwere Essien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Death from coronary artery disease (CAD has been until recently considered rare in Nigeria. We present a report of a study of CAD with its predisposing cardiovascular (CVD risk factors in South South Nigeria. Methods. We examined the autopsy reports of 747 coroner cases and 41 consecutive clinically diagnosed cases of ischemic heart disease seen in South South Nigeria. Results. CAD was diagnosed in 13 (1.6% of 747 autopsies. They were predominantly males, urban residents, and of high social class with combination of CVD risk factors of hypertension, alcohol use, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, poor physical activities, and obesity. The mean serum cholesterol of the clinical subjects was 4.7±1.57 mmol/L and 5.07±1.94 mmol/L for angina and myocardial infarction, respectively, which was higher than the mean total cholesterol for locality of 3.1 mmol/L. Conclusion. CAD and its risk factors are contributing to mortality and morbidity in South South Nigeria. These risk factors include hypertension, alcohol use, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, poor physical activity, and obesity. Nigerians in this locality with CAD have raised serum lipids.

  5. The effect of sitagliptin on cardiovascular risk profile in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study

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    Shin S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sooyoung Shin,1 Hyunah Kim2 1College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, 2College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: A 2013 postmarketing study suggested a possible link between saxagliptin use and hospital admission for heart failure. Cardiovascular (CV effects of sitagliptin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic in the same class as saxagliptin, have not been evaluated much in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. This study sought to ascertain the CV safety of sitagliptin in Korean patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 4,860 patients who were classified into the sitagliptin and metformin groups was conducted using electronic patient data retrieved from a major tertiary care medical center in Korea. Primary composite end points included CV death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. Secondary composite end points included the aforementioned individual primary outcomes plus hospitalization due to unstable angina, heart failure, or coronary revascularization. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to compare CV risk associated with drug exposure. Results: Following propensity score (PS matching in a 1:2 ratio, 1,620 patients in the sitagliptin group and 3,240 patients in the metformin group were identified for cohort entry. The PS-matched hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI for sitagliptin relative to metformin were, respectively, 0.831 and 0.536–1.289 (P=0.408 for primary end point and 1.140 and 0.958–1.356 (P=0.139 for secondary end point. Heart failure hospitalization rates did not differ significantly between the two groups, with the PS-matched HR of 0.762 and 95% CI of 0.389–1.495 (P=0.430. When only those patients at high risk of ischemic heart disease were included for analysis, no excess CV risk was observed with sitagliptin compared with metformin. Overall, there were no substantial between-group differences in rates of adverse events, such as

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  7. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    . The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one...... reported no association in men but a decreased risk in women. In addition, results from four intervention studies indicated no harmful effect on cholesterol concentrations when comparing fat intake from cheese with fat from butter. The underlying mechanisms for these findings still need to be elucidated.......Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  8. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  9. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  10. Abacavir and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.N. Behrens; P. Reiss

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on current studies addressing the association of abacavir (ABC) therapy and myocardial risk in HIV-infected patients, discusses potential pathogenetic mechanisms, and suggests a preliminary algorithm for decision making regarding ABC therapy in daily clinical pr

  11. Abacavir and cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, G.M.N.; Reiss, P

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on current studies addressing the association of abacavir (ABC) therapy and myocardial risk in HIV-infected patients, discusses potential pathogenetic mechanisms, and suggests a preliminary algorithm for decision making regarding ABC therapy in daily clinical practise. Recent findings The D:A:D study was the first to reveal an increased rate of myocardial infarction in patients recently treated with ABC. Subsequent analyses of both cohort studies as well ...

  12. REAL PRACTICE OF STATINS USE AND ITS DEPENDENCE ON FOLLOW-UP IN THE SPECIALIZED MEDICAL CENTRE IN PATIENTS WITH HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK (ACCORDING TO THE PROFILE REGISTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze tactics of statins use in patients with high cardiovascular risk on the base of the PROFILE register data.Material and methods. Patients (n=274 who were enrolled into the PROFILE register from May, 1st till December, 31st, 2011 were divided into 3 groups: a control group (82 patients who sought medical care in the medical centre for the first time, the main group A (167 patients who were regularly followed-up in the medical centre and the main group B (25 patients who stopped follow-up in the medical centre over 2 years ago. The incidence rates of statins use and lipid target level achievement, as well as safety of statin therapy were studied in the groups.Results. 25.6, 70.7 and 52% of patients received statins in control group, main group A, and main group B, respectively. Target levels (according to the clinical guidelines of the low density cholesterol (LDC had been reached in 26.3% of patients in the main group A. This characteristic was not valid in the patients of control and main group B because of small size of these groups. Achievement of target LDC level was observed more often in use of statins in moderate and high doses, use of the original drugs, and use of rosu- vastatin. Safety of statin therapy (aspartate and alanine transaminases, creatine kinase activity, and total bilirubin was comparable in the groups of patients who reached or did not reach target LDC levels.Conclusion. High cardiovascular risk patients who were regularly followed-up in the specialized medical centre received statins therapy significantly more often. However statins use is often not correspond to the modern clinical guidelines.

  13. Multidisciplinary Approach to the Treatment of Obese Adolescents: Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Inflammatory Profile, and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raimunda Dâmaso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of obesity and health concerns related to body fat is a major challenge worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a medically supervised, multidisciplinary approach, on reduction in the prevalence of obesity related comorbidities, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance in a sample of obese adolescents. A total of 97 postpuberty obese adolescents were enrolled in this study. Body composition, neuropeptides, and adipokines were analysed. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. The abdominal ultrasonography was performed to measure visceral, subcutaneous fat and hepatic steatosis. All measures were performed at baseline and after one year of therapy. The multidisciplinary management promoted the control of obesity reducing body fat mass. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, asthma, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, binge eating, and hyperleptinemia was reduced. An improvement in the inflammatory profile was demonstrated by an increase in anti-inflammatory adiponectin and reduction in proinflammatory adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, interleukin-6 concentrations, and in the Lep/Adipo ratio. Moreover, a reduction in the AgRP and an increase in the alfa-MSH were noted. The multidisciplinary approach not only reduced obesity but also is efficacious in cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory profile, and neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance.

  14. The effect of sitagliptin on cardiovascular risk profile in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Shin S; Kim H

    2016-01-01

    Sooyoung Shin,1 Hyunah Kim2 1College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, 2College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: A 2013 postmarketing study suggested a possible link between saxagliptin use and hospital admission for heart failure. Cardiovascular (CV) effects of sitagliptin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic in the same class as saxagliptin, have not been evaluated much in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. This study sou...

  15. Millon´s Personality Model and ischemic cardiovascular acute episodes: Profiles of risk in a decision tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Richard's

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de subgrupos de riesgo permite a los psicólogos clínicos desarrollar intervenciones específicas para esos subgrupos. El principal propósito de este trabajo fue encontrar asociaciones estadísticas entre características de personalidad -rasgos y trastornos- y la existencia de episodios isquémicos cardiovasculares agudos según el modelo de personalidad de Theodore Millon. Los análisis del presente estudio se fundamentaron en una muestra de 313 mujeres y hombres entre 31 y 80 años de edad, divididos en dos grupos: un grupo clínico formado por 143 participantes internados a causa de episodios isquémicos cardiovasculares agudos y un grupo control constituido por 170 personas sin antecedentes de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Los resultados mostraron cuatro perfiles de riesgo de personalidad asociados con la existencia de episodios isquémicos agudos y, por tanto, esto posibilita a los psicólogos clínicos el diseño de intervenciones específicas para aquellos subgrupos.

  16. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  18. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  19. Differential adipose tissue gene expression profiles in abacavir treated patients that may contribute to the understanding of cardiovascular risk: a microarray study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahmanesh

    Full Text Available To compare changes in gene expression by microarray from subcutaneous adipose tissue from HIV treatment naïve patients treated with efavirenz based regimens containing abacavir (ABC, tenofovir (TDF or zidovidine (AZT.Subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained before, at 6- and 18-24-months after treatment, and from HIV negative controls. Groups were age, ethnicity, weight, biochemical profile, and pre-treatment CD4 count matched. Microarray data was generated using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Microarray. Identification of differentially expressed genes and genomic response pathways was performed using limma and gene set enrichment analysis.There were significant divergences between ABC and the other two groups 6 months after treatment in genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing, with some convergence at 18-24 months. Compared to controls the ABC group, but not AZT or TDF showed enrichment of genes controlling adherence junction, at 6 months and 18-24 months (adjusted p<0.05 and focal adhesions and tight junction at 6 months (p<0.5. Genes controlling leukocyte transendothelial migration (p<0.05 and ECM-receptor interactions (p = 0.04 were over-expressed in ABC compared to TDF and AZT at 6 months but not at 18-24 months. Enrichment of pathways and individual genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing were specifically dysregulated in the ABC group in comparison with other treatments. There was little difference between AZT and TDF.After initiating treatment, there is divergence in the expression of genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing between ABC and both TDF and AZT in subcutaneous adipose tissue. If similar changes are also taking place in other tissues including the coronary vasculature they may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular events reported in patients recently started on abacavir-containing regimens.

  20. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile in youth with type 1 diabetes: application of measurement error methodology in the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Crandell, Jamie L; Tooze, Janet A; Kipnis, Victor; Bell, Ronny; Couch, Sarah C; Dabelea, Dana; Crume, Tessa L; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-08-14

    The SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study aims to investigate the role of dietary intake on the development of long-term complications of type 1 diabetes in youth, and capitalise on measurement error (ME) adjustment methodology. Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method for episodically consumed foods, we evaluated the relationship between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and cardiovascular risk factor profile, with the application of ME adjustment methodology. The calibration sample included 166 youth with two FFQ and three 24 h dietary recall data within 1 month. The full sample included 2286 youth with type 1 diabetes. SSB intake was significantly associated with higher TAG, total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, after adjusting for energy, age, diabetes duration, race/ethnicity, sex and education. The estimated effect size was larger (model coefficients increased approximately 3-fold) after the application of the NCI method than without adjustment for ME. Compared with individuals consuming one serving of SSB every 2 weeks, those who consumed one serving of SSB every 2 d had 3.7 mg/dl (0.04 mmol/l) higher TAG concentrations and 4.0 mg/dl (0.10 mmol/l) higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, after adjusting for ME and covariates. SSB intake was not associated with measures of adiposity and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that SSB intake is significantly related to increased lipid levels in youth with type 1 diabetes, and that estimates of the effect size of SSB on lipid levels are severely attenuated in the presence of ME. Future studies in youth with diabetes should consider a design that will allow for the adjustment for ME when studying the influence of diet on health status.

  1. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  2. Cardiovascular risk age: concepts and practicalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2012-06-01

    A young person with many risk factors may have the same level of risk as an older person with no risk factors. Thus a high-risk 40-year-old may have a risk age of 60 years or more. The aim of the study was to derive a generic equation for risk age, construct risk age charts, and explore the hypothesis that risk age is similar regardless of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) end point used.

  3. Epigenetics and cardiovascular risk in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Martino, Eliana; Zanoni, Cristina; Perla, Francesco M; Puddu, Paolo E; Barillà, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors. Fetal exposure to high cholesterol, diabetes and maternal obesity is associated with increased risk and progression of atherosclerosis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to various environmental pollutants induce epigenetic alterations of gene expression relevant to the onset or progression of CVD. In children with hypercholesterolemia and/or obesity, oxidative stress activates platelets and monocytes, which release proinflammatory and proatherogenic substances, inducing endothelial dysfunction, decreased Doppler flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis should be implemented early. It is necessary to identify, through screening, high-risk apparently healthy children and take care of them enforcing healthy lifestyle (mainly consisting of Mediterranean diet and physical activity), prescribing nutraceuticals and eventual medications, if required by a high-risk profile. The key issue is the restoration of endothelial function in the reversible stage of atherosclerosis. Epigenetics may provide new markers for an early identification of children at risk and thereby develop innovative therapies and specific nutritional interventions in critical times. PMID:27367935

  4. Cardiovascular risk assessment in women - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P; Webb, C M; de Villiers, T J; Stevenson, J C; Panay, N; Baber, R J

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. Although it is a disease of aging, vascular disease initiates much earlier in life. Thus, there is a need to be aware of the potential to prevent the development of the disease from an early age and continue this surveillance throughout life. The menopausal period and early menopause present an ideal opportunity to assess cardiovascular risk and plan accordingly. Generally in this period, women will be seen by primary health-care professionals and non-cardiovascular specialists. This review addresses female-specific risk factors that may contribute to the potential development of cardiovascular disease. It is important for all health-care professionals dealing with women in midlife and beyond to be cognisant of these risk factors and to initiate female-specific preventative measures or to refer to a cardiovascular specialist. PMID:27327421

  5. Microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2000-01-01

    Microalbuminuria was originally considered to be an important new risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. More recently, it has been convincingly shown that microalbuminuria is also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients. Even...... in the non-diabetic background population, microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. What is the link between increased loss of albumin in urine and cardiovascular disease and mortality? As microalbuminuria is apparently associated with increased universal vascular sieving of albumin...

  6. Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Y. Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. In addition to skin and joint involvement, there is increasing evidence suggesting that patients with PsA also have an increase in risk of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular diseases, mostly due to accelerating atherosclerosis. Both conventional and nonconventional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in PsA. Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in PsA, acting independently and/or synergistically with the conventional risk factors. In this paper, we discuss the current literature indicating that patients with PsA are at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Vitamin D status and changes in cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta;

    2012-01-01

    A low vitamin D level has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but possible mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and 5-year changes in blood pressure, lipid profile and incidence of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and hyper...... hypercholesterolemia....

  8. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  9. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (path

  10. Preeclampsia : At risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to 3.07

  11. Ezetimibe, cardiovascular risk and atherogenic dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Battista Rini, Giovam

    2011-02-01

    Ezetimibe is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor with an excellent side-effect profile, able to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 15-25% from baseline in monotherapy and on top of statins and fibrates. Yet, it seems that ezetimibe produces quantitative rather than qualitative changes in LDL, with small net effects on atherogenic dyslipidaemia. This is supported by findings from the Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression (ENHANCE) study on atherosclerosis progression, where the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia did not affect the mean change in carotid intima-media thickness, although a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol levels was observed. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study has further shown that combination treatment with simvastatin significantly reduced LDL cholesterol levels in patients with aortic stenosis, but did not affect the primary end point of aortic valve and cardiovascular events, although a significant reduction in the risk of ischaemic events was reported. Formal cardiovascular outcome trials are underway and these will provide additional insights into the long-term effects of ezetimibe on clinical events as well as on atherogenic dyslipidaemia, beyond LDL cholesterol levels. PMID:22291726

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Montes Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.

  13. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Rubio, María Antonia; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; Frías López, María del Carmen; Solera Albero, Juan; Bermejo López, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: Valorar si el hipotiroidismo subclínico puede comportarse como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular o un modificador del mismo, identificando variables epidemiológicas y riesgo cardiovascular estimado en una muestra de sujetos diagnosticados en la provincia de Albacete. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal realizado en Albacete durante la primera quincena de enero de 2012 en pacientes de ambos géneros con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: glucemia basal, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, TSH, T4, peso, talla, I.M.C., tensión arterial, antecedentes de patología cardiovascular, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y riesgo cardiovascular estimado. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 326 pacientes, con predominio femenino (79,2 %), menores de 65 años en el 78% y sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el 48,61%. La prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular identificados fué: tabaquismo (33,2%), diabetes mellitus (24,9%), hipertensión arterial (23,4%), alteraciones lipídicas (28,9%) y fibrilación auricular (4,9 %). No se encontró asociación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico y la mayoría de los parámetros del perfil lipídico que condicionan un perfil pro-aterogénico, salvo con la hipertrigliceridemia. Asimismo, tampoco se constató asociación con riesgo cardiovascular aumentado. Conclusiones: El perfil del paciente con hipotiroidismo subclínico es una mujer de mediana edad sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la mitad de casos. Se ha encontrado relación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico e hipertrigliceridemia, pero no con el resto de parámetros del perfil lipídico, otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular o con aumento de dicho riesgo. Sin embargo, un 25% de diabéticos y un 22% de no diabéticos están en situación de riesgo cardiovascular moderado-alto.

  14. Cardiovascular risk prediction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dis, van S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In clinical practice, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk prediction functions and charts are used to identify persons at high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), who are considered eligible for drug treatment of elevated blood pressure and serum cholesterol. These funct

  15. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  17. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, l...

  18. The occurence of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and the effect of selected dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kopčeková

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE In a group of 204 randomly selected patients hospitalized in the Cardiocentre Nitra, of which 63 were women (30.88% and 141 men (69.12%, we evaluated the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and the impact of dietary habits on the lipid profile and body mass index (BMI. We have recorded a high prevalence of risk factors, especially overweight and obesity, where 87.3% of women and 92.91% of men had BMI ≥25. Normal weight was observed only in 12.70% of women and in 7.09% of men. In the study group up to 60.32% of women and 57.45% of men had blood pressure higher than ≥130/85 mmHg. More than half of the respondents were simultaneously overweighted or obese together with high blood pressure occurence. The total cholesterol level higher than 5.2 mmol/Ll was recorded in 41.24% of women and 34.75% of men. There was statistically significant difference between men and women (P <0.05 in the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol to the detriment of men while the value below 1.3 mmol/L was recorded in 31.75% of women and the value lower than 1.1 mmol/L in 52.48 % of men. Values of triglycerides (TG ≥1.7 mmol/L were recorded in 28.57% of women and in 35.42% of men. Fasting blood glucose levels ≥5.6 mmol/L were recorded in up to 68.25% of women and 71.63% of men. There was not statistically significant difference (P >0.05 in the occurrence of increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and glycemia according to gender. We found out that most of the respondents consumed food 3-4 times per day, i.e. 53.97% of women and 60.99% of men. Food intake for five to six times a day was reported only by 28.57% of women and 19.15% of men. The number of daily meals was significantly reflected in the BMI values in men who consumed food 1-2 times a day compared to the men who ate 3-4 meals daily (P <0.001. We detected lower BMI values in women with more frequent food

  19. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  20. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  1. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  2. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 18 and above to measure the prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors. Those risk factors are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, obesity index, blood glucose level, smoking, physical activity and mental stress. Overall prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors were higher, dominated by physical inactivity (65.7%, hypercholesterolemia – TC:HC (62.3%, mental stress (55.5% and obesity (53.7%. Smoking was also high at 49.9% especially among men. However systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and diabetes mellitus; although increased by age, its prevalence is relatively low at 23.7%, 19.2%, and 6.3% respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle are much evidenced as compared to risk factors related to the biological influence. Therefore, all initiatives in community health intervention should be mobilized specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 50-6Keywords: cardiovascular problem, community intervention, lifestyle-linked risk factors

  3. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    ) investigated which and how many markers to measure and (iv) finally discussed whether measuring subclinical organ damage provided benefits beyond risk prediction. In conclusion, more studies and if possible randomized studies are needed to investigate (i) the importance of markers of subclinical organ damage......Traditional cardiovascular risk factors have poor prognostic value for individuals and screening for subclinical organ damage has been recommended in hypertension in recent guidelines. The aim of this review was to investigate the clinical impact of the additive prognostic information provided...... by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  4. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk f

  6. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

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    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  7. Cardiovascular Outcomes in the Outpatient Kidney Transplant Clinic: The Framingham Risk Score Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Kiberd, Bryce; Panek, Romuald

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and death in kidney transplant recipients. This study examines the Framingham risk score's ability to predict cardiac and stroke events. Because cyclosporine and tacrolimus have different cardiovascular risk profiles, these agents were also examined.

  8. The effect of metformin on cardiovascular risk profile in patients without diabetes presenting with acute myocardial infarction: data from the Glycometabolic Intervention as adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexis, Chris P H; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N A; Lipsic, Erik; Valente, Mattia A E; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; de Boer, Rudolf A; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Harst, Pim; van der Horst, Iwan C C

    2015-01-01

    Objective In patients with diabetes mellitus, metformin treatment is associated with reduced mortality and attenuation of cardiovascular risk. As a subanalysis of the Glycometabolic Intervention as adjunct to Primary Coronary Intervention in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (GIPS-III) study, we evaluated whether metformin treatment in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) without diabetes improves the cardiovascular risk profile. Methods A total of 379 patients, without known diabetes, presenting with STEMI were randomly allocated to receive metformin 500 mg twice daily or placebo for 4 months. Results After 4 months, the cardiovascular risk profile of patients receiving metformin (n=172) was improved compared with placebo (n=174); glycated hemoglobin (5.83% (95% CI 5.79% to 5.87%) vs 5.89% (95% CI 5.85% to 5.92%); 40.2 mmol/mol (95% CI 39.8 to 40.6) vs 40.9 mmol/mol (40.4 to 41.2), p=0.049); total cholesterol (3.85 mmol/L (95% CI 3.73 to 3.97) vs 4.02 mmol/L (95% CI 3.90 to 4.14), p=0.045); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.10 mmol/L (95% CI 1.99 to 2.20) vs 2.3 mmol/L (95% CI 2.20 to 2.40), p=0.007); body weight (83.8 kg (95% CI 83.0 to 84.7) vs 85.2 kg (95% CI 84.4 to 86.1), p=0.024); body mass index (26.8 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.5 to 27.0) vs 27.2 kg/m2 (95% CI 27.0 to 27.5), p=0.014). Levels of fasting glucose, postchallenge glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure were similar in both groups. Conclusions Among patients with STEMI without diabetes, treatment with metformin for 4 months resulted in a modest improvement of the cardiovascular risk profile compared with placebo. Trial register number NCT01217307. PMID:26688733

  9. Cardiovascular Reactivity and its Association with the Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity

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    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are no studies that confirm the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. The universe consisted of the population aged 15 to 74 years in Cienfuegos municipality; the sample included 644 people. The variables were: sex, skin color, age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking, baseline systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity was calculated by applying the Framingham Risk Functions. The Pearson’s Chi-square test and the prevalence ratio were used with a 95 % confidence interval. The direction of the relationship between cardiovascular reactivity, age, and systolic blood pressure was analyzed considering the Eta value. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was higher among people aged 65 to 74 years and males. A higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity was observed in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals. There is an association between non-optimal systolic blood pressure, increasing age, and high risk of cardiovascular morbidity in cardiovascular hyperreactive people. Conclusions: the risk of cardiovascular morbidity is higher in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals than in normoreactive people. Age and systolic blood pressure showed greater association with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity.

  10. Cardiovascular Update: Risk, Guidelines, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2015-09-01

    This article provides an update of the current status of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States, including a brief review of the underlying pathophysiology and epidemiology. This article presents a discussion of the latest American Heart Association guidelines that introduce the concept of promoting ideal cardiovascular health, defined by seven identified metrics. Specific CVD risk factors and utilization of the 10-year CVD event prediction calculator are discussed. In addition, current management recommendations of health-related conditions that increase risk for CVD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are provided. Finally, a discussion of detailed evidence-based lifestyle recommendations to promote cardiovascular health and reduce CVD risks concludes the update. PMID:26156147

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Antić, I B; Bjekić-Macut, J

    2015-03-01

    Androgen excess (AE) was approximated to be present in 7% of the adult population of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent among them, followed by idiopathic hirsutism (IH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms (ASNs). Increased cardiovascular risk was implicated in women with AE. Serum testosterone independently increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlates even with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in various populations of postmenopausal women. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS is closely related to the aggravation of abdominal obesity, and together with insulin resistance forming the metabolic core for the development of CVD. However, phenotypic variability of PCOS generates significant influence on the cardiometabolic risks. Numerous risk factors in PCOS lead to 5-7 times higher risk for CVD and over 2-fold higher risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. However, issue on the cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenic history is still challenging. There is a significant overlapping in the CVD characteristics of women with PCOS and variants of CAH. Relevant clinical data on the prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and events in women with IH, HAIRAN syndrome or ASNs are scarce. The effects of various oral contraceptives (OCs) and antiandrogenic compounds on metabolic profile are varying, and could be related to the selected populations and different therapy regiments mainly conducted in women with PCOS. It is assumed relation of OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins to the increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events.

  12. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  13. Perfil lipídico, fatores de risco cardiovascular e síndrome metabólica em um grupo de pacientes com AIDS Perfil lipídico, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y síndrome metabólico en un grupo de pacientes con SID Lipid profile, cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome in a group of AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Ferrari Rafael da Silva

    2009-08-01

    pacientes vírgenes de tratamiento con HAART. La edad promedio era de 39,5 años, y el 60,9% eran del sexo masculino. Los principales factores de riesgo cardiovascular eran el fumo (27%, hipertensión (18% e histórico familiar de aterosclerosis (40%. Los valores promedios de colesterol total, HDL-colesterol, triglicéridos y glucosa fueron más altos en el Grupo HAART que en el Grupo no-HAART (205 vs. 180 mg/dL, 51 vs. 43 mg/dL, 219 vs. 164 mg/dL, 101 vs. 93 mg/dL respectivamente; p BACKGROUND: Since the advent of AIDS, the anti-HIV therapy has developed significantly, including the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and the disease acquired a chronic characteristic. However, after the introduction of HAART, several metabolic alterations were observed, mainly related to the lipid profile. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate and compare lipid profiles, analyze cardiovascular risk, describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AIDS patients with or without HAART. METHODS: Over an 18-month period, 319 patients treated at outpatient clinics in the city of São Paulo, Brazil were selected. RESULTS: The final sample included 215 patients receiving HAART and 69 HAART-naive patients. The mean age was 39.5 years, and 60.9% were males. The main cardiovascular risk factors were smoking (27%, hypertension (18% and family history of atherosclerosis (40%. Mean total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose were higher in the HAART group than in the non-HAART group (205 vs 180 mg/dl, 51 vs 43 mg/dl, 219 vs 164 mg/dl and 101 vs 93 mg/dl respectively; p < 0.001 for all. According to the Framingham risk score, the cardiovascular risk was moderate to high in 11% of the patients receiving HAART and 4% of the HAART-naïve patients. According to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition, the metabolic syndrome was observed in 13% and 12% of the patients with or without HAART, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although the mean values for total cholesterol, HDL-c and triglycerides were

  14. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS: characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Mari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers.

  15. Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Risk of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulwahed Al-Saeed

    2011-01-01

     Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) confer a gastrointestinal (GI) side effect profile and concerns regarding adverse cardiovascular effects have emerged associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. NSAIDs are highly effective in treating pain and inflammation, but it is well recognized that these agents are associated with substantial gastrointestinal toxicity. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors may also reduce the risk for gastrointestinal events, although they may increase ca...

  16. [Is psoriasis a dependent cardiovascular risk factor?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakkee, M.; Jong, E.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects approximately 2% of the Dutch population. It has been hypothesized that chronic inflammation occurring in psoriasis patients is more than skin deep, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Some observational studies have confirmed thi

  17. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  18. AGE, ARTERIAL STIFFNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雄京; 刘国仗; 刘力生

    2001-01-01

    The recent researches on the structure and function of large artery find that increasing pulse pressure is associated with greater cardiovascular risk, especially risk of coronary events. Such risk is not explicable on the basis of increasing systolic pressure with age, and is apparent even when the major reason for increased pulse pressure is a relative decrease of diastolic pressure. The finding challenges the conventional approach to arterial pressure where diastolic pressure is traditionally viewed as the most robust indicator of caridovascular risk. An explanation is available. This is based on the perception of Harriet Dustan that hypertension in the older popula-

  19. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are prevalent among the US population, often occurring in persons who are overweight or obese, or who have type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Meta-analysis indicates that elevated TG levels may be a significant independent risk factor for coronary heart dise...

  20. Cardiovascular and thrombogenic risk of decidual vasculopathy in preeclampsia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, D.U.; Al-Nasiry, S.; Fajta, M.M.; Bulten, J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Oyen, W.J.G.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of preeclampsia (PE) have an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic, cardiovascular, and prothrombotic risk factors. Remotely, these women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular and thrombotic disease. Decidual vasculopathy (DV) describes vascular lesions

  1. Overall cardiovascular profile of sildenafil citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, R M; Morales, A; Glasser, D B; Osterloh, I H

    1999-03-01

    Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), is the first in a new class of orally effective treatments for erectile dysfunction. During sexual stimulation, the cavernous nerves release nitric oxide (NO), which induces cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) formation and smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum. Sildenafil facilitates the erectile process during sexual stimulation by inhibiting PDE5 and thus blocking the breakdown of cGMP. Sildenafil alone can cause mean peak reductions in systolic/diastolic blood pressure of 10/7 mm Hg that are not dose related, whereas the heart rate is unchanged. Sildenafil and nitrates both increase cGMP levels in the systemic circulation but at different points along the NO-cGMP pathway. The combination is contraindicated because they synergistically potentiate vasodilation and may cause excessive reductions in blood pressure. Erectile dysfunction is a significant medical condition that shares numerous risk factors with ischemic heart disease, and hence a substantial overlap exists between these patient groups. From extensive clinical trials, the most commonly reported cardiovascular adverse events in patients treated with sildenafil were headache (16%), flushing (10%), and dizziness (2%). The incidences of hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, and syncope and the rate of discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events were disease states, such as renal or hepatic impairment, or concomitant use of inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP3A4 could increase systemic exposure to sildenafil. Since the US market launch in April 1998, monitoring of spontaneous adverse event reports in association with sildenafil has demonstrated a pattern that is generally consistent with the experience observed during clinical development, with the exception of infrequent reports of priapism. In conclusion, extensive clinical testing has shown that overall treatment with sildenafil for up to 1 year is well

  2. Rivaroxaban: An Evaluation of its Cardiovascular Benefit-Risk Profile Across Indications Based on Numbers Needed to Treat or Harm, and on Clinically Meaningful Endpoint Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageno, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The decision to prescribe anticoagulant therapy must consider the balance between reducing the risk of thromboembolic events and increasing the risk of bleeding. Although assessments of net clinical outcomes with oral anticoagulants are not new, this article presents an evaluation of benefit-risk by considering only events of substantial and comparable clinical relevance (i.e., events with serious long-term sequelae likely to have irreversible consequences, including death). This is based on the concept of the number of patients who need to be treated to elicit one beneficial [number needed to treat (NNT)] or harmful [number needed to harm (NNH)] event. The approach is illustrated using data from phase III trials of rivaroxaban, selected because it has the broadest range of approved indications of the novel oral anticoagulants. For example, in the ATLAS ACS 2 TIMI 51 trial of rivaroxaban plus standard antiplatelet therapy following an acute coronary syndrome event, the current analysis demonstrates that 63 patients need to be treated (over 24 months) to prevent one all-cause mortality event compared with placebo (NNT = 63). Conversely, 500 patients need to be treated to cause one additional intracranial hemorrhage (NNH = 500). The most relevant and clinically meaningful assessment of benefit-risk may therefore be achieved by focusing only on events of greatest concern to patients and physicians, namely those with (potentially) long-lasting, severe consequences. Although there are clear limitations to this type of analysis, rivaroxaban appears to demonstrate a broadly favorable benefit-risk profile across multiple clinical indications. PMID:26416655

  3. DETERMINING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Reed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor. We aimed to 1 determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2 create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI. Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC, high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2. The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2 compared with girls (8 (2.1, p < 0.01. A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor

  4. Cardiovascular risk in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manali, Effrosyni D; Papadaki, Georgia; Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Schams, Andrea; Kagouridis, Konstantinos; Karakatsani, Anna; Orfanos, Stylianos; Griese, Matthias; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that cardiovascular events and/or indices of cardiac dysfunction may be increased in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, arrhythmias, pulmonary embolism, stroke and ischemic heart attack were reported. Patients underwent serum anti-GM-CSF antibodies, disease severity score (DSS), Doppler transthoracic echocardiograph, glucose, thyroid hormones, lipids, troponin and pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) examination. Thirteen patients (8 female) were studied, median age of 47. Pro-BNP inversely related to DLCO% and TLC%; troponin directly related to DSS, age, P(A-a)O2, left atrium-, left ventricle-end-diastole diameter and BMI. On multiple regression analysis DSS was the only parameter significantly and strongly related with troponin (R(2) = 0.776, p = 0.007). No cardiovascular event was reported during follow-up. In PAP cardiovascular risk indices relate to lung disease severity. Therefore, PAP patients could be at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Quantitation of its magnitude and potential links to lungs' physiologic derangement will be addressed in future studies. PMID:26558331

  5. Longevity is independent of common variations in genes associated with cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E M; Andersen-Ranberg, K; Maat, M de;

    1999-01-01

    Do extremely old persons have a genetically favourable profile which has protected them from cardiovascular death? We have tried to answer this question by measuring DNA polymorphisms of selected cardiovascular risk indicators [factor VII, FVII (R/Q353, intron 7 (37bp)n, and -323ins10), beta fibr...

  6. Periodontitis and Calculated Risk of Cardiovascular Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Boutouyrie, P.; P. Bouchard; C. Mattout; Bourgeois, D.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between periodontitis and vascular disease in Europe. The aim of this multi-centric study was to evaluate the relationship between periodontitis and the calculated risk of cardiovascular death in the French adult population. The survey employed 2144 dentate adult subjects of the First National Periodontal and Systemic Examination Survey (NPASES I). This nationally representative sample was obtained by a quota method. The subjects had a compl...

  7. Toxic urban waste's assault on cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. De Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiovascular health survey of 1203 persons in households located near the hazardous waste disposal sites and in a reference community, was conducted from 2009 until today to assess whether rates of adverse cardiovascular health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the sites. Data included medical records of reported cardiovascular disease certificates and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases from hospital database. The study areas appeared similar with respect to mortality, cancer incidence, and pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, rate ratios were greater than 1.5 for 2 of 19 reported diseases, i.e., angina pectoris, and strokes. The apparent broad-based elevation in reported diseases and symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by respondents living near the sites. Our study found that cardiovascular risk is associated only with PM2.5 concentrations, derived from uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste in particular sites of our country. Their analysis demonstrated a relationship between increased levels of eventual fine particulate pollution and higher rates of death and complications from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Management of solid waste releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Future community-based health studies should include medical and psychosocial assessment instruments sufficient to distinguish between changes in health status and effects of resident reporting tendency.

  8. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis in Iran

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    Farshchian M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mahmoud Farshchian, Akram Ansar, Mohammadreza Sobhan Psoriasis Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. There is overwhelming evidence on the higher risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with psoriasis as a result of hyperlipidemia, which is more common in these patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between the cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 55 patients with psoriasis and 55 matched (sex and age controls were entered the study at the Department of Dermatology between March 2011 and March 2013. Blood samples were obtained following 14 hours fasting status and serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were determined using standard laboratory methods, and other variables such as sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the type of disease were recorded. Results: Our findings showed that levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and smoking were significantly higher in psoriatic patients when compared with controls, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol was not significantly different between two groups. Body mass index of psoriatic patients was not significantly higher than controls. Patients with psoriasis also had an increased prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Our findings further verify lipid abnormalities in psoriatic patients. Psoriasis is associated with higher rate of hypertension, which may be resulted in increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Thus, serum lipid profile and blood pressure in all patients with psoriasis, regardless of disease severity, deserve consideration to be checked. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk factors, psoriasis, lipid profile

  9. The effect of pectin extracted from guava on lipid profile in adults with different cardiovascular risk EFECTO DE LA PECTINA EXTRAÍDA DE GUAYABA SOBRE EL PERFIL LIPÍDICO EN ADULTOS CON DIFERENTE CONDICIÓN CARDIOVASCULAR

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    Martha M Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been shown that a high intake of dietary fiber such as pectin is beneficial for health since it has anticancer properties and lowers blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Objective. New applications for guava (Psidium guajava L. were being sought; this fruit is rich in functional nutrients such as pectin and antioxidant compounds which are used to enrich large-scale consumption food (bread and arepas/ corn pancakes with pectin extracted from this fruit. Materials and methods. A clinical study was made of thirty-one 20-70-year-old adults who were classified into two cardiovascular risk categories (latent and high; they consumed bread or arepa products enriched with 5% or 10% pectin extracted from guava for 15 days. Serum total cholesterol (TC, low (cLDL and high density lipoproteins (cHDL and triglycerides levels (TG were evaluated before and after such consumption. Results. A reduction in TC level in both latent and high risk groups was found depending on the dose of pectin added to the food. The greatest reduction (36 mg/dl was observed in the latent group which consumed food containing 10% added pectin; the greatest reduction in cLDL was also found in this group (24 mg/dl. Regarding cHDL and TG levels, no relationship was observed with the content of pectin added to food; concerning the type of food provided (bread or arepa a greater reduction in TC and cLDL levels was observed in individuals who consumed arepas. Conclusions. Consuming bread and/or arepa enriched with 5% and 10% pectin extracted from guava produced a dosedependent reduction in serum TC and cLDL levels during 15 days in both latent and high risk cardiovascular groups. The hypolipemiant effect was greater in patients who consumed arepa enriched with 10% pectin extracted from guava.Antecedentes. Se ha demostrado que el alto consumo de fibra dietaria como pectina es beneficioso para la salud, ya que posee propiedades anti-cancerígenas y disminuye los niveles de

  10. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in diabetes: Risk scoresand provocative testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause ofmorbidity and mortality among patients with diabetesmellitus, who have a risk of cardiovascular mortalitytwo to four times that of people without diabetes. Anindividualised approach to cardiovascular risk estimationand management is needed. Over the past decades,many risk scores have been developed to predict CVD.However, few have been externally validated in adiabetic population and limited studies have examinedthe impact of applying a prediction model in clinicalpractice. Currently, guidelines are focused on testingfor CVD in symptomatic patients. Atypical symptomsor silent ischemia are more common in the diabeticpopulation, and with additional markers of vasculardisease such as erectile dysfunction and autonomicneuropathy, these guidelines can be difficult to interpret.We propose an algorithm incorporating cardiovascularrisk scores in combination with typical and atypical signsand symptoms to alert clinicians to consider furtherinvestigation with provocative testing. The modalities forinvestigation of CVD are discussed.

  11. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-05-27

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biological memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. Although the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  12. Cardiovascular risk assessment - From individual risk prediction to estimation of global risk and change in risk in the population

    OpenAIRE

    Batsis John A; Lopez-Jimenez Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and risk prediction formulae such as the Framingham Risk Score have been developed to easily identify patients at high risk that may require therapeutic interventions. Discussion Using cardiovascular risk formulae at a population level to estimate and compare average cardiovascular risk among groups has been recently proposed as a way to facilitate surveillance of net cardiovascular risk and target public health inte...

  13. Effects of poly-bioactive compounds on lipid profile and body weight in a moderately hypercholesterolemic population with low cardiovascular disease risk: a multicenter randomized trial.

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    Rosa Solà

    Full Text Available A dietary supplement (AP, Armolipid Plus that combines red yeast rice extract, policosanol, berberine, folic acid, coenzyme Q10 and asthaxantine can have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers. The aim of this study was to assess whether the intake of AP, in combination with dietary recommendations, reduces serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c concentrations and other CVD biomarkers in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Eligible patients were recruited from the outpatient clinics of six Spanish hospitals Hospital Virgen del Rocío (Sevilla; Hospital San Jorge (Huesca; Hospital San Pedro (Logroño; Hospital Gregorio Marañón (Madrid, Hospital la Fe (Valencia and Hospital Universitari Sant Joan (Reus as recruiting and coordinating center. 102 participants (mean age ± SD; 50.91 ± 11.61; 32 men with low CVD, with mild-to-moderately elevated LDL-c (between 3.35 mmol/L and 4.88 mmol/L without hypolipemic therapy were randomized in a double-blind, parallel, controlled, multicenter trial commencing January 2012 and ending December 2012. Among the exclusion criteria were any concomitant chronic disease, triglycerides (TG >3.97 mmol/L, pregnant or lactating, and history of CVD. At 12 weeks, compared to placebo, AP reduced LDL-c by -6.9%, apolipoprotein (Apo B-100 by -6.6% and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio by -5.5%, the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio by -8.6%, while increasing ApoA1 by +2.5% (p<0.05. AP consumption was associated with modest mean weight loss of -0.93 kg (95%CI: -1.74 to -0.12; P = 0.02 compared with control group while dietary composition remained unchanged in the AP group. The AP product was well tolerated. In conclusion, AP, combined with dietary recommendations, reduced LDL-c levels as well as total cholesterol/HDL-c and ApoB/ApoA1 ratios, while increasing Apo A1, all of which are improvements in CVD risk indicators. AP is a product which could benefit patients having moderate hyperlipidemia and excess body

  14. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  15. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:26946252

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helal Imed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The aim of our investigation was the evaluation of an extensive cardiovascular profile in hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. We studied 74 patients with ESRD (38 males, 36 females, maintained either on chronic HD (n= 50 or chronic PD (n= 24 and age and sex matched 20 healthy subjects as controls. The lipid profile, homo-cysteine (Hcy and C reactive protein (CRP were measured. When compared to a healthy popu-lation, HD patients displayed a marked atherogenic profile, as attested by increased levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein A (Apo A, CRP, Hcy and lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, Apo B, albumin (ALB. A significant difference was noted concerning the rates of Apo B, HDL-C, TC, ALB and Hcy. Same biological disorders that those found at HD patients were noted in these PD patients. One also noted lower concentration in Apo A. there were a significant diffe-rence with the reference group concerning the rates of albumin, Apo A, HDL-Cl and Hcy. When compared to PD patients, HD patients had significantly decreased concentration of LDL-C. The peculiar metabolic changes observed in the present study confirm the marked tendency of patients with impaired renal function for developing cardiovascular diseases, irrespectively of the type of dialysis. We suggest including uremia-related risk factors in the panel for evaluation of cardio-vascular risk in dialysis patients.

  17. A hospital based study to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients of chronic plaque psoriasis

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    Bela Bhat

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Psoriasis patients have a unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile. Therefore these patients should undergo screening and treatment of various modifiable risk factors to reduce morbidity and mortality. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4974-4978

  18. Reduction in hypercholesterolemia and risk of cardiovascular diseases by mixtures of plant food extract: a study on plasma lipid profile, oxidative stress and testosterone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed, Doha A.

    2010-12-01

    reduction in plasma MDA levels. The plasma level of testosterone increased significantly in the rats fed the hypercholesterolemic diet and given mixture I or II compared to the hypercholesterolemic control. Plasma testosterone showed a significant negative correlation with plasma TGs and TGs/HDL-Ch in the hypercholesterolemic control rats. The studied extract mixtures showed complete safety towards liver and kidney functions. In conclusion the tested extract mixtures showed an improvement in the plasma lipid profile, a significant increase in testosterone and a decrease in oxidative stress with promising prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. The antiatherogenic effect of the extract mixtures may be due to the presence of phenolic compounds, phytosterols, tocopherols and unsaturated fatty acids.

    El presente estudio fue dirigido a preparar y evaluar la influencia de dos mezclas de extractos de plantas comestibles sobre el perfil lipídico del plasma, estrés oxidativo y nivel de testosterona en ratas alimentadas con una dieta hipercolesterolemica. La salubridad de las mezclas de extractos estudiadas fue evaluada mediante la determinación de las funciones del hígado y del riñón. El contenido total de fenoles, tocoferoles, ácidos grasos, y materia insaponificable (UNSAP fueron determinado en la mezclas de extractos. Las ratas fueron alimentadas con dietas hipercolesterolémica junto con una dosis oral diaria de (300 mg/kg de peso cada mezcla I y II durante un mes y comparada con un control hipercolesterolémico y un control normal. Los resultados muestran que el contenido de α-tocopherol fue 0.750 y 4.017 mg, γ-tocopherol fue 0.564 mg y 0 y δ-tocopherol fue 15.23mg y 0.634mg/100g de mezcla I y II, respectivamente. El contenido de fenoles en las mezcla I and II fue 36.74 y 23.72 g equivalentes de ácido gálico/100g de mezcla, respectivamente. La investigación por GLC de UNSAP reveló que el estigmasterol y el b-sitosterol fueron los

  19. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors encountered during medical examination in athletic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cis Spoturno, Adela C; Paz-Sauquillo, María T; López-Zea, Matilde; Fernández-Rostello, Eduardo A

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors can predispose to cardiovascular disease in adults or lead to cardiovascular events while practicing sports. The objectives of this study were: 1) to estimate the distribution of individual cardiovascular risk factors; 2) to establish a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents or grandparents and the children's clinical condition. This was a retrospective study to assess overweight, obesity and hypertension in 1021 child athletes. The family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke was studied. Out of the studied children, 22.1% (n= 226) were obese and 2.1% (n= 21) had hypertension. Obesity was the most common family risk factor (30%).

  1. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective.

  2. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Clare C. W. Yu; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; Alison M. McManus

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters i...

  3. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......, psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  4. Identification of Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Sergienko, PhD, ScD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify individuals at high cardiovascular risk (CVR to check for an additional estimate of CVR with the use of the ESH/ESC Guidelines (2003, 2007 in patients earlier classified as being at low and moderate risk on «SCORE». Material and methods: The study included 600 people (155 men and 445 women with low and moderate cardiovascular risk on the SCORE scale. All patients were examined with duplex scanning of the carotid arteries (DSCA to the determined of the thickness of the intima – media (IMT, the presence of atherosclerotic plaques (ASP; it has also been performed sphygmographic computer (SC with automatic estimation of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, biochemical analysis of blood lipid spectrum. Results: The frequency of ASP was 59.5% (357 out of 600, and a thickening of thecomplex "intima-media" (IMT> 0.9 mm was detected in only 5% of the cases (28 persons out of 600, that indicated a slight contribution to the magnitude of the risk of such parameters as the IMT. The total number of patients with signs of preclinicallesions of the arterial wall (the presence of ASP and/or increased baPWV was 337 (56% of 600. Our results showed that the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is in itself a risk factor. Conclusion: The usage of instrumental methods of research (DSCA, SC allowed to detect 32% of individuals with high CVR from 600 previously classified as low and moderate risk on SCORE scale. In our opinion, the proposed algorithm is convenient and easy to use for transfer of the patients into high-risk group.

  5. Diabetic dyslipidaemia: effective management reduces cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A

    2005-05-01

    Patients with diabetes are at significantly increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD); even those patients without a history of a previous myocardial infarction (MI) have as high a risk of a fatal or nonfatal MI as nondiabetic patients with a history of previous MI. As a result it is now generally recommended that cardiovascular risk factors be treated as aggressively in patients with diabetes as in nondiabetic patients with a history of CHD. Results from the recently published Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) and meta-analysis of primary and secondary interventions trials confirm that there is a uniform relative risk reduction across a wide range of high-risk patients including diabetes patients without established CHD. A highly significant 22-24% reduction in risk of future vascular events is evident when patients with diabetes are treated with statins in trials. Current guidelines, including the recently updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines, endorse aggressive, early intervention in very-high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes plus cardiovascular disease (CVD), regardless of baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in order to achieve an LDL-C goal of 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). However, despite increasing evidence and knowledge of the value of lipid lowering, a recent survey of diabetes specialists indicates that many patients with diabetes remain untreated or undertreated. The availability of more effective statins should help to close this "action gap", in concert with other measures such as initiatives to improve patient compliance.

  6. Lipid profile and cardiovascular risk factors among first-year Brazilian university students in São Paulo Perfil lipídico y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes universitarios brasileños de primer año de Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Costa Silva Zemdegs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims: The surveillance of cardiovascular risk factors has been recommended worldwide. The current study is aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among first-year students from a public university in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 56 first-year students, of both genders, was performed. Information about demographic characteristics, family history of chronic diseases, smoking, and physical activity was obtained by means of a standardised questionnaire. Anthropometrical parameters (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage, metabolic parameters (glycaemia, serum lipid profile, and dietary data (total energy intake, percentage of total energy from macronutrients, cholesterol and dietary fiber were assessed. Results: The risk of cardiovascular diseases was characterised by family history of cardiovascular diseases (44.6%, smoking (10.7%, physical inactivity (35.7%, borderline high total cholesterol and LDL-c levels (16.1% and 5.4, respectively, decreased HDL-c levels (8.9%, increased triglyceride levels (8.9%, and overweight and obesity (17.8% and 7.1%, respectively. The diet of the students was inadequate: it was high in fat and protein, and low in carbohydrate and dietary fibre. Conclusions: The prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young adults draws attention to the need to adopt preventive plans in the university setting.Antecendentes/objetivos: la vigilancia de los factores de riesgo se ha recomendado mundialmente. El presente estudio pretendía estimar la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes de primer año de una universidad pública de la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de 56 estudiantes de primer año, de ambos sexos. Se obtuvo información acerca de las características demográficas, antecedentes familiares de enfermedades crónicas, hábito de fumar y actividad f

  7. Cardiovascular risk and fitness in veteran football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, M; Steffen, A; Pütz, K; Würtz, N; Such, U; Faude, O; Bohm, P; Meyer, T

    2016-01-01

    Veteran football players above 40 years have rarely been subject to scientific investigations. This is worrisome because their number is considerable and their cardiovascular risk probably increased. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 100 football players between 40 and 63 years of age. This included a medical history and physical examination, venous blood sampling, measurement of resting blood pressure, a resting electrocardiogram (ECG), an exhaustive cycle ergometry and a multistage field test. Also, measurements of heart rate and blood lactate concentration were carried out during one typical training session and one match. Participants trained 1.0 ± 0.6 sessions per week and played 27 ± 8 matches per season. Of them, 19% were smokers. Resting blood pressure was 138 ± 15/88 ± 8 mmHg. Hypertension prevalence (WHO definition) was 66%. Total cholesterol averaged 220 ± 41 mg . dl(-1), HDL 46 ± 13 mg . dl(-1) and LDL 134 ± 33 mg . dl(-1). The average 10-year risk for cardiovascular events (Framingham score) was 6%. Mean maximal power output on the cycle ergometer was 2.8 ± 0.6 W . kg(-1), mean VO2peak 40.0 ± 7.3 ml . min(-1) . kg(-1). Comparing training and competition, no significant differences in cardiovascular and metabolic load were found. In summary, their cardiovascular risk was similar to age-adjusted reference values. However, they showed slightly better ergometric performance. More frequent training stimuli might be necessary to reach more favourable risk factor profiles. Training and competition lead to similar cardiocirculatory and metabolic stress which is considerably high and might put players into danger who have pre-existing cardiac disease. PMID:26691390

  8. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cardiovascular Risk during Menopause: A Mitochondrial Connection?

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Paulo J; Carvalho, Rui A.; Piero Portincasa; Leonilde Bonfrate; Sardao, Vilma A.

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is a consequence of the normal aging process in women. This fact implies that the physiological and biochemical alterations resulting from menopause often blur with those from the aging process. It is thought that menopause in women presents a higher risk for cardiovascular disease although the precise mechanism is still under discussion. The postmenopause lipid profile is clearly altered, which can present a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Due to the role of mitochondria in...

  9. Association of sympathovagal imbalance with cardiovascular risks in overt hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avupati Naga Syamsunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidities have been reported in hypothyroidism. Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate the link of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI to cardiovascular risks (CVRs and the plausible mechanisms of CVR in hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Age-matched 104 females (50 controls, 54 hypothyroids were recruited and their body mass index (BMI, cardiovascular parameters, autonomic function tests by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, heart rate response to standing, deep breathing and blood pressure response to isometric handgrip were studied. Thyroid profile, lipid profile, immunological and inflammatory markers were estimated and their association with low-frequency to the high-frequency ratio (LF-HF of HRV, the marker of SVI was assessed by multivariate regression. Results: Increased diastolic pressure, decreased HRV, increased LF-HF, dyslipidemia and increased high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP were observed in hypothyroid patients and all these parameters had significant correlation with LF-HF. BMI had no significant association with LF-HF. Atherogenic index (β 1.144, P = 0.001 and hsCRP (b 0.578, P = 0.009 had independent contribution to LF-HF. LF-HF could significantly predict hypertension status (odds ratio 2.05, confidence interval 1.110-5.352, P = 0.008 in hypothyroid subjects. Conclusions: SVI due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal occurs in hypothyroidism. Dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation, but not obesity contribute to SVI and SVI contributes to cardiovascular risks.

  10. Wiping Out CGRP: Potential Cardiovascular Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Meijer, Joris; Villalón, Carlos M; Ferrari, Michel D

    2016-09-01

    Migraine is a common episodic neurovascular brain disorder associated with increased risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular ischemia. Migraine headache is likely caused by activation of the trigeminovascular system and release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Monoclonal antibodies against CGRP or its receptor are currently being evaluated for the prevention of migraine attacks. Preliminary efficacy data are promising. However, because CGRP may act as a vasodilatory safeguard during cerebral and cardiac ischemia, CGRP blockade could transform transient mild ischemic events into full-blown infarcts. Here, we review the cerebro- and cardiovascular risks that might be associated with CGRP blockade and which clinical and preclinical studies should be conducted to better assess the potential safety issues of this new promising class of drug. PMID:27338837

  11. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...... on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  12. Rivaroxaban: An Evaluation of its Cardiovascular Benefit–Risk Profile Across Indications Based on Numbers Needed to Treat or Harm, and on Clinically Meaningful Endpoint Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Ageno, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The decision to prescribe anticoagulant therapy must consider the balance between reducing the risk of thromboembolic events and increasing the risk of bleeding. Although assessments of net clinical outcomes with oral anticoagulants are not new, this article presents an evaluation of benefit–risk by considering only events of substantial and comparable clinical relevance (i.e., events with serious long-term sequelae likely to have irreversible consequences, including death). This is based on ...

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  14. Cardiovascular risk score in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagan, Abrar Ahmed; Mahmud, Tafazzul E Haque; Rasheed, Aflak; Zafar, Zafar Ali; Rehman, Ata ur; Ali, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 10-year Cardiovascular risk score with QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Non Rheumatoid Arthritis subjects and asses the usefulness of QRISK-2 and Framingham calculators in both groups. Methods: During the study 106 RA and 106 Non RA patients age and sex matched participants were enrolled from outpatient department. Demographic data and questions regarding other study parameters were noted. After 14 hours of fasting 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for Cholesterol and HDL levels, laboratory tests were performed on COBAS c III (ROCHE). QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators were used to get individual 10-year CVD risk score. Results: In this study the mean age of RA group was (45.1±9.5) for Non RA group (43.7±8.2), with female gender as common. The mean predicted 10-year score with QRISK-2 calculator in RA group (14.2±17.1%) and Non RA group was (13.2±19.0%) with (p-value 0.122). The 10-year score with Framingham risk score in RA group was (12.9±10.4%) and Non RA group was (8.9±8.7%) with (p-value 0.001). In RA group QRISK-2 (24.5%) and FRS (31.1%) cases with predicted score were in higher risk category. The maximum agreement scores between both calculators was observed in both groups (Kappa = 0.618 RA Group; Kappa = 0.671 Non RA Group). Conclusion: QRISK-2 calculator is more appropriate as it takes RA, ethnicity, CKD, and Atrial fibrillation as factors in risk assessment score. PMID:27375684

  15. Perfil do risco cardiovascular de pacientes diabéticos atendidos em ambulatório de especialidades = Profile of cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients in a center of specialties

    OpenAIRE

    Vinholes, Daniele Botelho; Pacheco, Heloísa Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar o perfil de risco cardiovascular em pacientes diabéticos atendidos no Ambulatório Médico de Especialidades em Tubarão. Materiais e Métodos: Realizou - se um estudo retrospectivo composto por 101 pacientes diabéticos. A coleta foi realizada a partir de dados contidos nos prontuários médicos dos pacientes. Foram considerada s para o estudo as seguintes variáveis : sexo, idade, tipo de diabetes, temp o de diagnóstico da doença, tabagismo, índice de massa corporal (IMC), ...

  16. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk

  17. Systematic screening for cardiovascular risk at pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohla, Miklos; Haberfeld, Heinz; Sinzinger, Helmut; Kritz, Harald; Tscharre, Maximilian; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential to prevent excess morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. We sought to investigate whether an active screening programme at pharmacies could identify a significant proportion of patients with previously undetected CVRFs. Methods and results Between April and July 2013, 184 pharmacies in Lower Austria enrolled a total of 6800 participants, in whom body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Mean age was 58±17 years and 67.8% were women. 21% of men and 16% of women had a BMI≥30 kg/m2. The crude prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 7%, hypercholesterolaemia was identified in 57%, and 44% had elevated BP. Among fasting individuals (n=1814), DM was found in 18%. In total, 30% were confronted with a CVRF they were previously unaware of, and pharmacists recommended 45% of all participants to actively consult a physician. A first-time diagnosis of a CVRF was most frequent in the age groups between 25 and 64 (32% of participants). Conclusions This pharmacy-based approach for cardiovascular risk screening found similar overall prevalences of CVRFs as reported by national surveys, but revealed underdiagnoses, particularly in lower age groups. A previously unknown CVRF was identified in every third individual, frequently prompting the pharmacists to recommend the consultation of a physician. An active screening approach at pharmacies might therefore serve as an effective alternative to the public preventive medical examination, particularly in younger age groups. PMID:27738518

  18. Evaluation of risk profiles for gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects in nonselective NSAID and COX-2 inhibitor users - A cohort study using pharmacy dispensing data in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Layton, Deborah; Souverein, Patrick C.; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Shakir, Saad A. W.; Egberts, Antoine C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Newly approved drugs, in comparison with older drugs, are more often prescribed to patients who have not responded satisfactorily to established related drugs or as first-line therapy to patients with a high baseline risk for adverse outcomes (i.e. channelling). However, these patients a

  19. Hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular risks in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi; Ostovan, Mohammad Ali; Sohrabi, Zahra; Atabati, Elham; Raisjalai, Ghanbar Ali; Roozbeh, Jamshid

    2010-09-01

    The risk of premature and progressive occlusive vascular disease is high in chronic uremic patients, and it accounts for more than 40% of the mortality in dialysis patients. End stage renal failure (ESRF) patients exhibit elevated plasma homocystein levels, about four fold as much as those in the controls, and it is now considered as a causative factor for increased risk of cardiovascular death among these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of total plasma homocysteine level and echocardiographic abnormalities as a surrogate of cardiac disease outcome in hemodialysis patients. 123 adult patients on maintenance hemodialysis and having echocardiography done during January till November 2006 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma homocysteine level was directly related to the presence of aortic regurgitation r= 0.27 P= 0.009. There were negative correlations between ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular systolic dimension (LV.S) (r= - 0.71, P= 0.0001), left ventricular diastolic dimension (LV.D) (r= -0.23 p= 0.01) and age (r= - 0.021 P= 0.02). In conclusion we did not find the paradoxical reverse epidemiology in our patients and plasma total homocysteine level was in direct correlation with cardiac risk factors such as left ventricular mass index and aortic regurgitation. PMID:20814121

  20. Hyperhemocysteinemia and cardiovascular risks in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagheb Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of premature and progressive occlusive vascular disease is high in chronic uremic patients, and it accounts for more than 40% of the mortality in dialysis patients. End stage renal failure (ESRF patients exhibit elevated plasma homocystein levels, about four fold as much as those in the controls, and it is now considered as a causative factor for increased risk of cardiovascular death among these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of total plasma homocysteine level and echocardiographic abnormalities as a surrogate of cardiac disease outcome in hemodialysis patients. 123 adult patients on maintenance hemodialysis and having echocardiography done during January till November 2006 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma homocysteine level was directly related to the presence of aortic regur-gitation r= 0.27 P= 0.009. There were negative correlations between ejection fraction (EF, left ventricular systolic dimension (LV.S (r= - 0.71, P= 0.0001, left ventricular diastolic dimension (LV.D (r= -0.23 p= 0.01 and age (r= - 0.021 P= 0.02. In conclusion we did not find the para-doxical reverse epidemiology in our patients and plasma total homocysteine level was in direct correlation with cardiac risk factors such as left ventricular mass index and aortic regurgitation.

  1. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  2. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW

  3. Perfil lipídico e fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em estudantes de medicina Lipid profile and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in medicine students

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Gregorin Coelho; Loeni Fátima Caetano; Raphael Del Roio Liberatore Júnior; José Antônio Cordeiro; Dorotéia Rossi Silva Souza

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil lipídico e sua correlação com fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) em estudantes de medicina. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 153 estudantes, independente do sexo, com idade entre 18 e 31 anos, submetidos à análise do perfil lipídico, incluindo níveis séricos de colesterol total (CT), fração de colesterol das lipoproteínas de baixa (LDLc), alta (HDLc) e muito baixa densidade (VLDLc) e triglicérides (TG), além de hábitos de vida e dados antropométricos. Apl...

  4. Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American…

  5. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  6. Cardiovascular risks and brain function: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Yi-Fang; Eldreth, Dana; Kirk I Erickson; Varma, Vijay; Harris, Gregory; Fried, Linda P.; Rebok, George W.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive impairment and risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms linking them are not clear. This study aims to investigate the association between aggregate CV risk, assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile, and functional brain activation in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty participants (mean age: 64.6 years) from the Brain Health ...

  7. Nurse management of cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Corominas, Hèctor

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, multi-system inflammatory disease. The incidence and prevalence of RA varies considerably between geographic areas and over time; the prevalence of RA in adults aged > 20 years in Spain is around 0.5% (Carmona et al, 2002). People with RA also have extra-articular manifestations, presenting an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk; therefore, cardiovascular risk screening and management strategies are necessary in individuals with RA. The importance of interventions in the management of people with RA and cardiovascular risk factors is recognised by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations (Peters et al, 2010). Rheumatology specialist nurses are well placed to include routine cardiovascular risk assessment for people with RA attending clinic, and to provide educational interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk, such as smoking cessation, weight loss, eating a balanced, low-fat diet and exercising regularly.

  8. Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Militão AG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Angeliete Garcez Militão,1,2 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Fernanda Rodrigues da Silva,4 Elba Sancho Garcez Militão,3 Raiane Maiara dos Santos Pereira,5 Carmen Silvia Grubert Campbell,2,5 1Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil; 2Post-Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brazil; 4Laboratory of Physical Evaluation and Training, 5Laboratory of Physical Education and Health Studies, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil Introduction: Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. Methods: The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40% participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF: the intervention group (IG, n = 17 and the control group (CG, n = 17. The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children's weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC, maximum oxygen intake (VO2max, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used

  9. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes universitarios chilenos Cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Chiang-Salgado

    1999-12-01

    cardiovasculares en la vida adulta de los jóvenes.OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic university students of both sexes, aged 18 to 25 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum lipid levels were measured in a subsample of 293 subjects, using a Hitachi 717 chemical analyzer. Obesity was classified using Body Mass Index (BMI measurements. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect data on sedentary life style, family history of cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoking. Statistical associations of lipid levels with lipidic and non-lipidic risk factors were assessed using Pearson´s chi² test and multiple regression. RESULTS: We found lipid risk levels in 29.2% for Total Cholesterol (CT, 16.2% for Low Density Lipoproteins (C-LDL and 5% for High Density Lipoproteins (C-HDL. The main non-lipidic factors were smoking (46.1% and sedentarism (60.8%. Obesity, hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction were present in 1.9%, 4.6% and 11%, respectively. We observed an association of a lipid risk profile with obesity, cigarette smoking and family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that sedentarism and smoking are associated with a lipid risk profile. These results call for the need to develop appropriate behavior strategies for the successful prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Lipoprotein (a) and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Ástrid Camêlo; Leal, Adriana Amorim de F.; Ramos, Nathaly de Medeiros N.; de Alencar F., José; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da S.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a) levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a) and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a) levels and the lipid profile. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:24473960

  11. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26383179

  12. Cardiovascular profiles of scleroderma patients with arrhythmias and conduction disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, L; Petcu, A; Pamfil, C; Muresan, C; Rinzis, M; Mada, R O; Gusetu, G N; Pop, D; Zdrenghea, D; Rednic, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arrhythmias and conduction disorders are common among patients with scleroderma. Their early identification is important, since scleroderma patients with arrhythmias have a higher mortality risk compared with scleroderma patients without arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular profiles of scleroderma patients with different types of arrhythmias and conduction disorders. Methods One hundred and ten consecutive patients with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis according to the ACR criteria were included in the study. Patients underwent a 12-lead ECG and a 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring for arrhythmias and conduction disorders identification. Blood sample testing, echocardiography, spirometry, chest X-ray and, when considered appropriate, high resolution chest CT were also performed. A subgroup of 21 patients underwent NT-pro BNP level measurements. Patients' clinical and para-clinical characteristics were compared according to the presence or absence of arrhythmias and conduction disorders. Results The prevalence of arrhythmia and conduction disturbances was 60.9%. Patients with such disorders were older (54.4 ± 13.3 vs. 49.7 ± 10.1 years, p=0.05), had a higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (p=0.008), valve disease (p < 0.001), especially mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, chamber enlargement on echocardiography (left atrial and right ventricular, p = 0.012 and 0.005, respectively) as well as higher NT-pro BNP levels: 265.5 ± 399.7 vs. 163 ± 264.3 pg/ml, p=0.04. Conclusion Arrhythmias and conduction disorders are common in patients with scleroderma. Patients with such disorders are older, have a higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, more severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, left atrial and right ventricular dilation on echocardiography. PMID:27115105

  13. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cardiovascular Risk during Menopause: A Mitochondrial Connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a consequence of the normal aging process in women. This fact implies that the physiological and biochemical alterations resulting from menopause often blur with those from the aging process. It is thought that menopause in women presents a higher risk for cardiovascular disease although the precise mechanism is still under discussion. The postmenopause lipid profile is clearly altered, which can present a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Due to the role of mitochondria in fatty acid oxidation, alterations of the lipid profile in the menopausal women will also influence mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation fluxes in several organs. In this paper, we propose that alterations of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the heart, consequence from normal aging and/or from the menopausal process, result in decreased fatty acid oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the cardiomyocyte cytosol, resulting in lipotoxicity and increasing the cardiovascular risk in the menopausal women.

  14. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, Wilma; Roebroeck, Marij; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah; Bergen, Michael; Stam, Henk; Burdorf, Alex; Berg-Emons, Rita

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To explore: (i) cardiovascular disease risk factors and the 10-year clustered risk of a fatal cardiovascular event in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy; and (ii) relationships between the 10-year risk and body fat, aerobic fitness and physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Forty-three adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy without severe cognitive impairment (mean age 36.6 years (standard deviation 6); 27 men). Methods: Biological a...

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness have much higher mortality rates from somatic diseases than the general population. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death, and, contrary to the general population, cardiovascular mortality in psychiatric patients has not declined over the last decades. The main aim of the clinical studies performed in this thesis in psychiatry was to gain more knowledge about the prevalence and causes of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with severe ...

  17. Cardiovascular Risk in Malaysia: causes, consequences and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Selvarajah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease forms the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide and disproportionately affects low and middle-income developing countries. In developing countries, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality tend to affect the (younger) working adults. This poses a significant burden to the economy. This thesis attempts to investigate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors and disease, and its’ prevention in Malaysia, a middle-income developing country. We described the clustering of...

  18. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  19. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  20. Framingham risk score with cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Chen

    Full Text Available The Framingham Risk Score (FRS was developed to predict coronary heart disease in various populations, and it tended to under-estimate the risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Our objectives were to determine whether FRS was associated with cardiovascular events, and to evaluate the role of new risk markers and echocardiographic parameters when they were added to a FRS model. This study enrolled 439 CKD patients. The FRS is used to identify individuals categorically as "low" (4.7 cm, left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular ejection fraction<50% to the FRS model significantly improves the predictive values for cardiovascular events. In CKD patients, "high" risk categorized by FRS predicts cardiovascular events. Novel biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters provide additional predictive values for cardiovascular events. Future study is needed to assess whether risk assessment enhanced by using these biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters might contribute to more effective prediction and better care for patients.

  1. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  2. Cardiovascular risk during hormonal treatment in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this review is to provide information on cardiovascular risk following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients and to suggest potential prevention and management strategies. Androgen deprivation therapy can cause peripheral insulin resistance, increase fat mass and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and induce type 2 diabetes. While recent studies have reported an association in patients with prostate cancer between ADT and increased risk of cardiovascular events, other studies have not detected the association. However, at this time, it is plausible that ADT could increase cardiovascular risk because of the adverse effect of ADT on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is advisable that prostate cancer patients in whom ADT is initiated be referred to their physician, who will carefully monitor them for potential metabolic effects. Therefore, physicians should be informed about these potential side effects. This especially applies to men aged >65 years and those with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities. Adopting a healthy lifestyle including a balanced diet and regular physical activity is recommended. Patients with cardiovascular disease should receive appropriate preventive therapies, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and antiplatelet therapy. ADT should preferably not be unnecessarily administered to prostate cancer patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, certainly not to those in whom the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. The physician should carefully weigh the potential benefits of ADT against the possible risks in individual patients with prostate cancer

  3. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures, and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future.

  4. Emerging risk biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. PMID:25949827

  5. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  6. Arterial hypertension and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Lorenzo A; Caielli, Paola; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Rossi, Gianpaolo

    2013-08-01

    The dramatic change of the natural history of HIV-infected patients by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has exposed these patients to cardiovascular risk, including cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In HIV-infected patients, the development of arterial hypertension, at least in the medium-long term is an established feature, although recognized predictors of its development have not been clearly identified. In addition, conflicting data regarding the influence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are reported. The presence of a proinflammatory state and oxidative stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction seem, however, to play a pathophysiologic role. In this review, we examine and provide a comprehensive, literature based, consideration of the pathophysiologic aspects of hypertension in these patients. HIV-infected patients, independently of the presence of hypertension, remain at very high cardiovascular risk due to the presence of the same cardiovascular risk factors recognized for the general population with, in addition, the indirect influence of the ART, essentially via its effect on lipid metabolism. This review based on the evidence from the literature, concludes that the management of HIV-infected patients in terms of cardiovascular prevention emerges as a priority. The consideration of cardiovascular risk in these patients should receive the same emphasis given for the general population at high cardiovascular risk, including adequate blood pressure control according to international guidelines.

  7. A novel risk score to predict cardiovascular disease risk in national populations (Globorisk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Ueda, Peter; Lu, Yuan;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors based on disease risk depends on valid risk prediction equations. We aimed to develop, and apply in example countries, a risk prediction equation for cardiovascular disease (consisting here of coronary heart disease and stroke) that can be reca...

  8. SCORE underestimates cardiovascular risk (CVR of HIV+ patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramírez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new European Guidelines of Dislipidemia Management of the European Societies of Cardiology and Arteriosclerosis consider HIV+ as patients at high risk of developing cardiovascular events and deaths. The objective of the study was to evaluate cardiovascular events and deaths in a series of HIV+ patients. Observational, cross-sectional study, including a cohort of HIV+ and HIV− patients from 2008. CVR was calculated using the SCORE-CVR chart. Variation on lipid profile and incidence of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death or death related to any cause were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 for MAC. 154 HIV+ and 155 HIV− patients were included. Mean age: 44.8±9.5 vs 55.2±14.3 y and 69.5% vs 49% males respectively (p<0.01. Mean time since HIV+ diagnosis was 11±6.2 y. Mean BMI and systolic blood pressure were lower in HIV+ (25.1±6.7 kg/m2 vs 28.7±5.1 kg/m2, (p<0.01 and 119.6±19.4 vs 124.7±14.7 mmHg, (p=0.044; respectively. A lower proportion of hypertense, diabetic and obese patients was observed in HIV+ (25.5% vs 6.5%; 20.6% vs 3.9% and 36.8% vs 12.3% but a larger proportion of smokers (68.8% vs 29.7% was observed (p<0.01 in all cases. Mean cholesterol and LDLc were lower in HIV+ (191.2±41.4 vs 218.5±44.6 mg/dl and 109.5±33.9 vs 134.6±37.7 mg/dl; p<0.01; respectively but with a lower mean HDLc and higher TG (50.3±19 mg/dl vs 55.2±14.9 mg/dl; p=0.013 and 156.7±85.7 vs 135.8±66.2 mg/dl; p=0.017; respectively. There was no significant difference in mean CVR-SCORE (3.5±3.6% vs 4.4±3.8%; p=0.091. With this SCORE, 5.2±5.3 and 6.7±5.8 cardiovascular events or deaths should be expected in HIV+ and HIV− respectively at 10 y. Four years later cholesterol, LDLc, HDLc, TG in HIV+ and HIV− patients did not vary compared with those obtained 4 y before. 5 events and 1 death were seen at 4 y follow-up in HIV+, and in HIV− patients. The incidence of events in HIV+ patients is similar to the expected according

  9. Risk prediction of cardiovascular death based on the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Graff, Claus; Rasmussen, Peter V;

    2014-01-01

    risk groups when the QTc interval was added to a conventional risk model for CVD. CONCLUSION: Important differences were observed across subgroups when the absolute long-term risk of CVD was estimated based on QTc interval duration. The accuracy of the personalized CVD prognosis can be improved when.......1 years, 6647 persons died from cardiovascular causes. Long-term risks of CVD were estimated for subgroups defined by age, gender, cardiovascular disease, and QTc interval categories. In general, we observed an increased risk of CVD for both very short and long QTc intervals. Prolongation of the QTc...

  10. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mansour

    2016-03-01

    CONCLUSION:  Saturated fat was associated with elevated lipid levels in obese children. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since child-hood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  11. Cardiovascular risk assessment in Italy: the CUORE Project risk score and risk chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Giampaoli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Aim: Risk charts and risk score, based on the global absolute risk, are key tools for CVD risk assessment. When applied to the population from which they derive, they provide the best estimate of CVD risk. That is why the CUORE Project has among its objectives the assessment of the Italian population’s cardiovascular risk, identifying the model for the prediction of coronary and cerebrovascular events in 10 years.

    Methods: Data fromdifferent cohorts enrolled in the North, Centre and South of Italy between the 1980s and the 1990s were used. From the 7,056 men and 12,574 women aged 35-69 years, free of cardiovascular disease at base-line and followed up for a mean time of 10 years for total and cause-specific mortality and non fatal cerebrovascular and coronary events, 894 major cardiovascular events (596 coronary and 298 cerebrovascular were identified and validated. To assess 10-year cardiovascular risk, the risk score and risk chart were developed for men and women separately, considering the first major coronary or cerebrovascular event as the endpoint.

    Results: The risk score is applied tomen andwomen aged 35-69 years and includes age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, smoking habit, diabetes and hypertension treatment using continuous values when possible. The risk chart is applied to persons aged 40-69 years and includes the same risk factors as risk score, except for HDL-cholesterol and hypertension treatment, and uses categorical values for all variables.

    Conclusions: The risk score and risk chart are easy-to-use tools which enable general practitioners and specialists to achieve an objective evaluation of the absolute global cardiovascular risk of middle-aged persons in primary prevention.

  12. New Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Use for an Accurate Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Hypertensive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAUTU, Oana-Florentina; DARABONT, Roxana; ONCIUL, Sebastian; DEACONU, Alexandru; COMANESCU, Ioana; ANDREI, Radu Dan; DRAGOESCU, Bogdan; CINTEZA, Mircea; DOROBANTU, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the predictive value of new cardiovascular (CV) risk factors for CV risk assessment in the adult Romanian hypertensive (HT) population. Methods: Hypertensive adults aged between 40-65 years of age, identified in national representative SEPHAR II survey were evaluated by anthropometric, BP and arterial stiffness measurements: aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao), aortic augmentation index (AIXao), revers time (RT) and central systolic blood pressure (SBPao), 12 lead ECGs and laboratory workup. Values above the 4th quartile of mean SBP' standard deviation (s.d.) defined increased BP variability. Log(TG/HDL-cholesterol) defined atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Serum uric acid levels above 5.70 mg/dl for women and 7.0 mg/dl for males defined hyperuricemia (HUA). CV risk was assessed based on SCORE chart for high CV risk countries. Binary logistic regression using a stepwise likelihood ratio method (adjustments for major confounders and colliniarity analysis) was used in order to validate predictors of high and very high CV risk class. Results: The mean SBP value of the study group was 148.46±19.61 mmHg. Over forty percent of hypertensives had a high and very high CV risk. Predictors of high/very high CV risk category validated by regression analysis were: increased visit-to-visit BP variability (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.67-3.73), PWVao (OR: 1.12; 95%CI: 1.02-1.22), RT (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98), SBPao (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.01-1.03) and AIP (OR: 7.08; 95%CI: 3.91-12.82). Conclusion: The results of our study suggests that the new CV risk factors such as increased BP variability, arterial stiffness indices and AIP are useful tools for a more accurate identification of hypertensives patients at high and very high CV risk. PMID:25705267

  13. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, A; Weir-McCall, J R; Webb, D J; van Beek, E J R; Mirsadraee, S

    2015-08-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients. PMID:25917542

  14. Characterisation of cardiovascular risk in adults with Turner Syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Ostberg, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Turner Syndrome (TS) results from the complete or partial absence of one X chromosome in females. Short stature and gonadal dysgenesis are characteristic, with increased risks of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. This thesis investigates the prevalence and pathogenesis of factors contributing to cardiovascular risk. Because women with TS differ from normals in terms of their X-chromosome defect and oestrogen deficiency, they were compared to similarly-aged normal women, and a seco...

  15. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Çakır; Erman Çakal; Mustafa Özbek; Mustafa Şahin; Tuncay Delibaşı

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease...

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Çakır

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 33-7

  17. Occupational Health Promotion Programs to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Russell E.; Terborg, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys literature on worksite health promotion programs targeting cardiovascular risk factors. Reviews findings on health-risk appraisal, hypertension control, smoking cessation, weight reduction, exercise, and programs addressing multiple risk factors. Discusses current knowledge, highlights exemplary studies, and identifies problems and…

  18. Cardiovascular Risk and Hippocampal Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Donix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this regional cortical thinning would be modulated by cardiovascular risk factors. We utilized high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique to determine the cortical thickness of medial temporal subregions in 30 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using a sex-specific multivariable risk score. Greater cardiovascular risk was associated with cortical thinning in the hippocampus CA2/3/dentate gyrus area but not other hippocampal and medial temporal subregions. APOE genotype, a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, and age did not influence cortical thickness. Alzheimer’s disease-related atrophy could mask the influence of genetic risk factors or age on regional cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe regions, whereas the impact of vascular risk factors remains detectable. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

  19. The Impact of NSAID Treatment on Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. M. S.; Fosbol, E. L.; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2014-01-01

    This MiniReview describes the present evidence for the relationship between cardiovascular risk and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with special focus using Danish register-based data. NSAIDs are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and mainly used for management of pain...... observational studies is accumulating, suggesting that NSAIDs are a major public health concern due to the widespread use of these drugs. Although it seems unlikely that we can completely avoid use of NSAIDs, even among high-risk patients, these results highlight the importance of balancing the benefit versus...... and inflammatory conditions. Through the past decade, much attention has been given to the cardiovascular safety of these drugs, and several studies have shown increased risk of adverse cardiovascular effects associated with NSAID use. Current guidelines discourage any use of NSAIDs in patients with cardiovascular...

  20. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in First and Second Generation Mexican-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, L. S.; Leng, M; Escarce, J J

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles of first generation (FG) and second generation (SG) Mexican-Americans (MA) in two large national studies––the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Study (HHANES) (1982–1984) and the National Health and Examination Study (NHANES) (1999–2004). The main outcome measures were five individual risk indicators of CVD (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) and a composite measure (the Framingham...

  1. Ultrasonography for the evaluation of visceral fat and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Filho, F F; Faria, A N; Kohlmann, O; Ajzen, S; Ribeiro, A B; Zanella, M T; Ferreira, S R

    2001-09-01

    Visceral fat accumulation is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Clinical evaluation of visceral fat is limited because of the lack of reliable and low-cost methods. To assess the correlation between ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of visceral fat, 101 obese women, age 50.5+/-7.7 years with a body mass index of 39.2+/-5.4 kg/m(2), were submitted to ultrasonograph and CT scans. Visceral fat measured by ultrasonography, 1 cm above the umbilical knot, showed a high correlation with CT-determined visceral fat (r=0.67, P<0.0001). The ultrasonograph method showed good reproducibility with an intra-observer variation coefficient of <2%. Both ultrasonograph and CT visceral fat values were correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.29 and r=0.27, P<0.01) and plasma glucose 2 hours after oral glucose load (r=0.22 and r=0.34, P<0.05), indicating that ultrasonography is a useful method to evaluate cardiovascular risk. A significant correlation was also found between visceral fat by CT and serum sodium (r=0.18, P<0.05). A ultrasonograph-determined visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio of 2.50 was established as a cutoff value to define patients with abdominal visceral obesity. This value also identified patients with higher levels of plasma glucose, serum insulin and triglycerides and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, which are metabolic abnormalities characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. Our data demonstrate that ultrasonography is a precise and reliable method for evaluation of visceral fat and identification of patients with adverse metabolic profile. PMID:11566963

  2. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  3. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  4. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun; Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases(CVDs) is escalating,and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition.Contributory causes include:growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile,socio-economic factors,lifestyle changes due to urbanization.Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity.Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics,along with all form of tobacco use.The pace of health transition,however,varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs.A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial,primary and secondary prevention.Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives,enable nutritionbased preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  5. Cardiovascular Risk in Psoriasis: A Population-Based Analysis with Assessment of the Framingham Risk Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Myasoedova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS in estimating cardiovascular risk in psoriasis. Methods. We compared the predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular events, namely, cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass grafting using the FRS, to the observed risk of cardiovascular events in a population-based cohort of patients with psoriasis. Patients with incident or prevalent adult-onset psoriasis aged 30–79 years without prior history of cardiovascular disease were included. Results. Among the 1197 patients with predicted risk scores, the median FRS was 6.0%, while the observed 10-year cardiovascular risk was 6.9% (standardized incidence ratio (SIR: 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.92–1.42. The SIR was not elevated for women nor for men. The differences between observed and predicted cardiovascular risks in patients <60 years (SIR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.73–1.41 or ≥60 years (SIR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.95–1.68 were not statistically significant. Conclusion. There was no apparent difference between observed and predicted cardiovascular risks in patients with psoriasis in our study. FRS reasonably estimated cardiovascular risk in both men and women as well as in younger and older psoriasis patients, suggesting that FRS can be used in risk stratification in psoriasis without further adjustment.

  6. 10-Year cardiovascular event risks for women who experienced hypertensive disorders in late pregnancy: the HyRAS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponjee Gabrielle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the cause of death in 32% of women in the Netherlands. Prediction of an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease is difficult, in particular in younger women due to low sensitive and specific tests for these women. 10% to 15% of all pregnancies are complicated by hypertensive disorders, the vast majority of which develop only after 36 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in later life show both features of "the metabolic syndrome" and atherosclerosis. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and cardiovascular disease may develop by common pathophysiologic pathways initiated by similar vascular risk factors. Vascular damage occurring during preeclampsia or gestational hypertension may contribute to the development of future cardiovascular disease, or is already present before pregnancy. At present clinicians do not systematically aim at the possible cardiovascular consequences in later life after a hypertensive pregnancy disorder at term. However, screening for risk factors after preeclampsia or gestational hypertension at term may give insight into an individual's cardiovascular risk profile. Methods/Design Women with a history of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension will be invited to participate in a cohort study 2 1/2 years after delivery. Participants will be screened for established modifiable cardiovascular risk indicators. The primary outcome is the 10-year cardiovascular event risk. Secondary outcomes include differences in cardiovascular parameters, SNP's in glucose metabolism, and neonatal outcome. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the potential health gains of a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor screening program for women whose pregnancy was complicated by hypertension or preeclampsia. The calculation of individual 10-year cardiovascular event risks will allow identification of those women who will benefit from primary prevention by tailored

  7. [Renal markers and predictors, and renal and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andrade, C

    2002-01-01

    prediction. And also, its possible association nexuses, its injuring mechanisms, and the characterization of the new "emergent" renal and cardiovascular risk's markers and factors. 4. The impact on the possibility to treat the end stage renal disease with effective and prolonged procedures, by hemodialisis or kidney transplantation, has been occurred. The affected population's survival with the adequacy renal-sustitution treatment, and the possibility of indefinite duration of its treatment, has also impacted on the public health, and its resources, in an evident way. Simultaneously to increase of the incidence in the population, the electivity for the treatment has been enlarged and extended increasing it exponentially. These facts are documented here, and are defined the characteristics of the factors and markers of risk, of renal and cardiovascular diseases. The defined factors are valued to mark, so far as with the well-known evidence is possible, the prediction and the progression of the renal and cardiovascular functional deterioration: The hypertension, cardiovascular remodeling, the arterial stiffness, the heart rate, the sympathetic activation, the modification of the physiological response of the target organ to the overcharge, the metabolic syndrome, the obesity, the insulin resistance, the altered lipid profile, and metabolism of the fatty acids, the salt-sensibility, the decrease of the renal functional reserve, the glomerular hyperfiltration, the absence of the arterial pressure nocturnal descent, the abnormal excretion of proteins for the urine, the phenomenon induced by dysfunctions of the clotting, superoxide production, growth factors, the production of chronic inflammation and its markers, the factors of the glomerulosclerosis progression, the hyperuricemic status, the endothelial dysfunction and others, are evaluated. As well as their association among them and with other factors of risk not changeable like the age, and in turn, with other acquired

  8. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elani Streja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th birthday. RESULTS: We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00, attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76, became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12. There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. CONCLUSIONS: Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births.

  9. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer DJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Scherer,1 Stephen J Nicholls2 1Cardiovascular Investigation Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, 2South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. Keywords: hypertriglyceridemia, omega-3 fatty acid, fish oil, cardiovascular risk, lipids

  10. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  11. Diabetes Mellitus, Arterial Wall, and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop heart disease or stroke than adults without diabetes. The two major features of diabetes, i.e., hyperglycemia and insulin-resistance, trigger arterial stiffening and increase the susceptibility of the arterial wall to atherosclerosis at any given age. These pathological changes in the arterial wall may provide a functional and structural background for cardiovascular events. The present paper provides a critical overview of the clinical evidence linking diabetes-related metabolic abnormalities to cardiovascular risk, debates the pathophysiologic mechanisms through which insulin resistance and hyperglycemia may affect the arterial wall, and discusses the associations between vascular biomarkers, metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular events. PMID:26861377

  12. Cancer therapy and cardiovascular risk: focus on bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition and management of treatment-related cardiovascular toxicity, defined as either an acute cardiac event or a chronic condition, has been tightly integrated into routine cancer care and has become an important component in treatment selection. Several chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines, are traditionally characterized as cardiotoxic, but cardiovascular adverse events are also associated with commonly used molecular targeted therapies. In the past decade, bevacizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been introduced in the treatment of a variety of metastatic malignancies. Despite its efficacy, bevacizumab has been associated with significant risk of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, cardiac ischemia, and congestive heart failure. This review will focus on the cardiovascular toxicity of bevacizumab, providing the latest evidence on the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors, and responsible mechanisms

  13. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...

  14. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Blackburn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribute to long-term risk reduction. Here we describe the lifestyle intervention, including clinical and molecular data collected, and provide details of the experimental methods and quality control parameters for the gene expression data generated from participants and non-intervention controls. Our findings suggest successful and sustained modulation of gene expression through healthy lifestyle changes may have beneficial effects on vascular health that cannot be discerned from traditional risk factor profiles. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, series GSE46097 and GSE66175.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in workers at Health Centre in Beočin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cardiovascular diseases are caused by atherosclerosis, which is a result of interactions between risk factors such as gender, age, blood lipid concentrations, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, adiposity, physical activity and cigarette smoking. Identification of risk factors is the first step in cardiovascular disease prevention. As health workers contribute significantly to cardiovascular morbidity, the aim of our study was to analyze prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and to assess the level of mentioned risk in health workers employed in Health Centre Beočin. The study group consisted of 50 health workers. Obesity was evaluated according to BMI and body fat (BF% values, while central obesity was defined using waist circumference. Serum lipid concentrations and glycaemia were used in metabolic profile definition. The level of physical activity was assessed using IPAQ, and information about smoking status and family history of cardiovascular diseases was obtained from self-report. Framingham point-scoring system was used to predict the risk for development of coronary heart disease in the 10-year period. Overweight was found in 36%, and obesity in 18% subjects. 42% of examined subjects had higher fat mass, while 24% of them had obesity. Central fat accumulation was observed in 50% subjects. We registered 56% smokers, 70% subjects with positive family history, 28% subjects with hypertension, and 56% subjects with dyslipidemia. According to IPAQ results 20% of exanimate subjects were minimally active and 70% were insufficiently active. Estimated risk of coronary heart disease was 7.38%, and 10% subjects had risk over 20%. In spite of lower cardiovascular risk level, our results showed high prevalence of overweight, smoking and physical inactivity in health workers, which suggests the importance of their own lifestyle modification. It should be the first step in increasing motivation of their patients.

  16. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  17. Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy...

  18. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia management in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, James H

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy each appear to increase cardiovascular disease risk. Increased risk may be attributable to the inflammatory effects of HIV infection and dyslipidemia associated with some antiretroviral agents. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing as patients live longer, age, and acquire traditional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. In general, any additional cardiovascular risk posed by HIV infection or antiretroviral therapy is of potential concern for patients who are already at moderate or high risk for CHD. Long-term and well-designed studies are needed to more accurately ascertain to what degree HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy affect long-term cardiovascular disease risk. Management of dyslipidemia to reduce CHD risk in HIV-infected patients is much the same as in the general population, with the cornerstone consisting of statin therapy and lifestyle interventions. Smoking cessation is a major step in reducing CHD risk in those who smoke. This article summarizes a presentation by James H. Stein, MD, at the IAS-USA live continuing medical education activity held in New York City in March 2012.

  19. Apolipoprotein E genotype, cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Tauseef A; Shah, Tina; Prieto, David;

    2013-01-01

    At the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, genotypes of the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are also associated with higher coronary risk. However, the association of APOE genotype with other cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of ischaemic stroke is less...

  20. Dietary epicatechin intake and 25-y risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dower, James I.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Hollman, Peter C.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; Kromhout, Daan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prospective cohort studies have shown that the consumption of cocoa and tea is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and cocoa and tea have been shown to improve CVD risk factors in randomized controlled trials. Cocoa and tea are major dietary sources of the fl

  1. Rosuvastatin: Role in Cardiovascular High-risk Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Feliciano-Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are the lipid-lowering drug family of first choice in situations of hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia with predominant increase in cholesterol. The evidence shows conclusively that each one of the commercially available statins have proven benefits on outcomes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, rosuvastatin has certain pharmacokinetic efficacy and cost-effectiveness characteristics that make it an attractive molecule to be the statin of choice in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  2. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Channa

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia are now the most encountered diseases and causes of death in older people with intellectual disabilities. Although cardiovascular disease is a major risk for older people with intellectual disabilities...

  3. Cardiovascular comorbidity and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic inflammatory skin diseases: A case-control study utilising a population-based administrative database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schmitt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: : Psoriasis (PSO and atopic eczema (AE are chronic inflammatory disorders that primarily affect the skin. Data on cardiovascular comorbidity in PSO is scarce, and studies on the association of cardiovascular disease/cardiovascular risk factors and AE are missing. Methods: We performed two separate case-control studies for PSO and AE utilising an administrative health care database including approximately 250,000 individuals from Germany. Cases with AE (n=6,296 and cases with PSO (n=3,156 were individually-matched (1:1 to controls with the same age and sex. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated based on the observed prevalences of cardiovascular morbidity among cases and controls.

    Results: Patients with AE had a higher risk of obesity (OR,95%CI 1.24, 1.07-1.44. None of the other cardiovascular risk factors or diseases studied was associated with AE. PSO was significantly associated with hypertension (OR,95%CI 1.45, 1.27-1.66, diabetes mellitus type-2 (OR,95%CI 1.35, 1.13-1.61, obesity (OR,95%CI 1.58, 1.34-1.85, dyslipidemia (OR,95%CI 1.42, 1.14-1.77, and atherosclerosis (OR,95%CI 1.81, 1.37-2.41. Despite their unfavorable cardiovascular risk factor profile, patients with PSO were not at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction OR,95%CI 1.14, 0.74-1.77; cerebral apoplexy OR,95%CI 0.94, 0.57-1.55.

    Conclusions: Chronic inflammation due to AE does not appear to cause adverse cardiovascular comorbidities. In contrast, PSO is associated with an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile, but this does not necessarily appear to translate into a higher risk for cardiovascular events. This study does not rule out that specific treatments for AE or PSO modify the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  4. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: los cambios en el estilo de vida están relacionados con la exposición temprana de los adolescentes a las comorbilidades asociadas a la enfermedad cardiovascular. Estas condiciones pueden tener consecuencias en la edad adulta. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de riesgo cardiovascular y factores asociados en las tres fases de la adolescencia. Métodos: estudio transversal que incluye a adolescentes de 10-19 años en la ciudad de Viçosa, distribuidos en tres fases. Se evaluaron las pruebas de laboratorio, el índice de masa corporal clasificadas en Z-score, según el sexo y la edad, y el porcentaje de grasa corporal, clasificados por sexo. Se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado, la partición de chi-cuadrado con corrección de Bonferroni y la regresión de Poisson. El nivel de significación fue < 0,05. El proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la UFV en humanos. Resultados: el sobrepeso, la grasa corporal, el perfil lipídico, el comportamiento sedentario y la historia de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la familia fueron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más prevalentes entre los adolescentes. Los adolescentes tenían tasas más altas de sobrepeso y grasa. En cuanto a las etapas, la inicial mostró un mayor porcentaje de individuos con comportamiento sedentario, sobrepeso y colesterol total y LDL en comparación con otras fases. Los individuos con cambios en el estado nutricional eran más propensos a desarrollar hipertensión, cambios en el colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos, insulina, HOMA y HDL bajo, en comparación con los individuos sanos. Conclusiones: los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se han observado en personas cada vez más jóvenes y son factores importantes para identificar una población en riesgo.

  5. Estimation of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetes mellitus accelerates atherosclerotic changes throughout the vascular tree and consequently increases the risk of developing fatal acute events. Objective: to estimate the global cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: a cross-sectional study of a series of type 2 diabetic patients from the People's Council of Constancia, Abreus municipality, Cienfuegos province was conducted from July to December 2012. The universe comprised the 180 people with diabetes in the area. Variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, blood pressure, toxic habits, associated chronic diseases, blood levels of glucose, lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides and microalbuminuria. World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension prediction charts specific to the region of the Americas, in which Cuba is included, were used to estimate the cardiovascular risk. Results: mean age was 61.63 years and females predominated. Relevant risk factors were hypertension followed by obesity, smoking and dyslipidemia. Mean body mass index was 27.66kg/m2; waist circumference was 94.45 cm in women and 96.86 cm in men. Thirty point six percent had more than two uncontrolled risk factors and 28.3 % of the total presented a high to very high cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: cardiovascular risk prediction charts are helpful tools for making clinical decisions, but their interpretation must be flexible and allow the intervention of clinical reasoning.

  6. IL-17 Blockade in Psoriasis: Friend or Foe in Cardiovascular Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Tiago; Raposo, Inês; Selores, Manuela

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory disorder associated with systemic inflammation and a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Common pathologic mechanisms are likely involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and atherosclerosis, including similar inflammatory cytokine profiles and proinflammatory cell types. The hypothesis that aggressive treatment of skin inflammation may decrease the risk of developing atherosclerosis and consequently cardiovascular disease is currently a focus of major attention. Interleukin (IL)-17 may be an important cytokine linking skin disease to vascular disease/inflammation. However, the role of IL-17 in atherosclerosis is still controversial, as IL-17 may exhibit pro-atherogenic or anti-atherogenic effects depending on the specific tissue, cellular, and immune context. Given the development of several IL-17 inhibitors, the investigation of IL-17 inhibition impact on cardiovascular outcome is extremely important. PMID:26596991

  7. Expanding the definition of hypertension to incorporate global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Nitin; Black, Henry R

    2006-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic analyses have changed the way that hypertension is viewed. Cardiovascular risk has been found to be elevated at levels of blood pressure previously believed to be normal and not imparting additional risk. Furthermore, the approach to hypertension has been shifted from viewing and treating it in isolation to a more comprehensive approach that incorporates a focus on global cardiovascular risk and the risk factors commonly associated with having an elevated blood pressure. However, control rates not only for hypertension but also for associated risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes, remain abysmal, providing an even greater challenge to providers of care. To change this alarming trend, physicians must become aggressive in using the available armamentarium of lifestyle modifications and drugs in treating hypertension and other risk factors that increase the burden of atherosclerosis. PMID:16965724

  8. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent....... Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  9. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger wome...

  10. Hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular Risk: Is There a Major Link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Frier, Brian M; Pistrosch, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Severe hypoglycemia is recognized to be one of the strongest predictors of macrovascular events, adverse clinical outcomes, and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, it is uncertain whether a direct pathophysiological link exists or whether hypoglycemia is primarily a marker of vulnerability to these events. Large clinical trials have reported an increased hazard ratio for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes and severe hypoglycemia, but such an association has not been demonstrated in prospective trials of people with type 1 diabetes. Several cardiovascular effects occur during hypoglycemia either as a result of low blood glucose levels per se or through activation of the sympathoadrenal response: hemodynamic changes with an increase in cardiac work load and potential attenuation of myocardial perfusion, electrophysiological changes that may be arrhythmogenic, induction of a prothrombotic state, and release of inflammatory markers. Although the potential for a causal relationship has been demonstrated in mechanistic studies, the evidence from large prospective studies that hypoglycemia is a major causal contributor to cardiovascular events is limited to date. Other preexisting cardiovascular risk factors in addition to hypoglycemia may be the major link to the final cardiovascular event, but a low blood glucose level can trigger these events in patients with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:27440834

  11. Should We Use PPAR Agonists to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer G. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR agonists have shown mixed results for cardiovascular prevention. Fibrates are PPAR- agonists that act primarily to improve dyslipidemia. Based on low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and HDL effects, gemfibrozil may be of greater cardiovascular benefit than expected, fenofibrate performed about as expected, and bezafibrate performed worse than expected. Increases in both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular serious adverse events have been observed with some fibrates. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are PPAR- agonists used to improve impaired glucose metabolism but also influence lipids. Pioglitazone reduces atherosclerotic events in diabetic subjects, but has no net cardiovascular benefit due to increased congestive heart failure risk. Rosiglitazone may increase the risk of atherosclerotic events, and has a net harmful effect on the cardiovascular system when congestive heart failure is included. The primary benefit of TZDs appears to be the prevention of diabetic microvascular complications. Dual PPAR-/ agonists have had unacceptable adverse effects but more selective agents are in development. PPAR- and pan-agonists are also in development. It will be imperative to prove that future PPAR agonists not only prevent atherosclerotic events but also result in a net reduction on total cardiovascular events without significant noncardiovascular adverse effects with long-term use.

  12. Hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk markers and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H; Lokkegaard, Ellen; Ottesen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    therapy (HT), although an underlying healthy-user effect may account for these observations. Progestagens are added to protect against an increased risk of endometrial cancer observed with unopposed estrogen treatment. The inclusion of progestagen in HT has been associated with possible adverse...... cardiovascular outcomes. Recent, large-scale, randomized clinical studies did not confirm a beneficial cardiovascular effect of HT. On the contrary, an increased risk was found with continuous combined estrogen-progestagen regimens. The progestagen used in these trials was medroxyprogesterone acetate and other...

  13. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in an Aging HIV Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N

    2015-01-01

    With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population....... The incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking...

  14. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z ABDEYASDAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. So the present study was planned with the goals to determine and compare the cardia-vascular risk factors in the diabetic children with type 1 of diabetes mellitus. Method: This was an analytic, cross sectional study that has been done in two groups (case-control. In this research, 148 children, suffering from the typel diabetes mellitus being supported by the metabolism and endocrine research center, were chosen in the continues case manner and for the control group, 148 children, matched with the study group (according to the age and the sex, at 6-18 years old from the schools in Isfahan city randomly and at 2-6 years from the neiborhoods of the case group. The data-gathering tool was the questionnaires includes lipid profile, blood pressure, weight and height. To analyze the data we used the analytic (t student and logistic regression and descriptive (mean and standard deviation statistic methods and SPSS. Results: Findings revealed that the means of Lipid profile, systolic blood pressure and body mass index had not statistically significant differences in the two groups. But the mean of diastolic blood pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure in the control group were more than the case group and this difference was significant. The mean, 75 and 95 percentiles for cholesterol and LDL in all the age groups, mean, 75 and 95 percentile for triglyceride in all the age groups except the age group of 1-4 years in the diabetic and non diabetic groups were

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age group. Insulin resistance and the consequent hyperinsulinemia seem to be the central pathophysiological mechanism that links PCOS to its associated metabolic derangements. Women with PCOS exhibit a number of risk factors for coronary artery disease. We studied risk of CVD using two surrogate markers, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Aims and objectives: To study cardiovascular disease risk in young women (18-35 years age with PCOS using CIMT and FMD. Materials and Methods: Sixty women with PCOS (age: 23.8 ± 4.5 years; body mass index [BMI]: 23.5 ± 4.2 kg/m 2 were compared with 30 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age: 26.3 ± 5.4 years; BMI: 22.6 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . Diagnosis of PCOS was made using the Rotterdam criteria. Fasting blood sample was analyzed for glucose, insulin, lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWADP, and interleukin 6 (IL6. CIMT and FMD were performed. Results: PCOS patients had a higher waist to hip ratio (W/H [0.86 ± .07 vs. 0.80 ± .05] and free testosterone index (FTI [6.6 ± 6.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0] in comparison to controls. There was no difference in the two groups in lipid profile parameters and HOMA IR. CIMT was significantly higher (0.59 ± .1 mm vs. 0.50 ± .05 mm, P value <.001 and FMD lower (10.3 ± 3.9% vs. 15.2 ± 5.5%, P value < .001 in cases when compared to controls. FMD negatively correlated with W/H ratio (r: -0.257 and hsCRP (r: -0.347, while IMT showed positive correlation with IL6 (r: 0.325 and hsCRP (r: 0.303 and a negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein (HDL [r: -0.224], all P values < .05. Conclusions: Patients with PCOS have evidence for increased CVD risk as shown by endothelial dysfunction manifested by increased CIMT and a lower FMD.

  16. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  17. Genetic risk factors and Mendelian randomization in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Daniel I; Hingorani, Aroon D; Humphries, Steve E

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease encompasses several diverse pathological states that place a heavy burden on individual and population health. The aetiological basis of many cardiovascular disorders is not fully understood. Growing knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiac arrhythmias and peripheral vascular disease has confirmed some suspected causal pathways in these conditions but also uncovered many previously unknown mechanisms. Here, we consider the contribution of genetics to the understanding of cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluate the utility and relevance of findings from genome-wide association studies and explore the role that Mendelian randomisation has to play in exploiting these. Mendelian randomisation permits robust causal inference in an area of research where this has been hampered by bias and confounding in observational studies. In doing so, it provides evidence for causal processes in cardiovascular disease that could represent novel targets for much-needed new drugs for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:25894797

  18. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. PMID:25998928

  19. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular y perfil apolipoprotéico en un grupo de adultos atendidos en un centro público de salud del estado Carabobo, Venezuela Cardiovascular risk factors and apolipoproteic profile in a group of adults treated in a public health center in Carabobo state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelina Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    individuals (44.0 ± 15.5 years of both genders blood pressure, waist circumference (WC, lipid profile and apolipoproteins A-I and B; body mass index (BMI was calculated from weight and height; smoking habit, alcohol intake and consumption pattern were established. Results. 27.5% of individuals had low levels of Apo A-I, 45.2% high Apo B and 60.6% high Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Serum levels of apolipoproteins and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio did not vary with age or gender, while the ratio HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I decreased with the age. Obese individuals, smokers, hypertensive, hypercholesterolemics, hypertriglyceridemics or with low HDL cholesterol showed higher Apo B and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio. Older individuals, smokers or individuals with increased LDL cholesterol and triglycerides showed lower HDL cholesterol/Apo A-I ratio. Consumption of three or more alcoholic drinks/day was associated with decreased Apo B. Conclusions. These results show high prevalence of altered apolipoprotein profile, which is associated with major cardiovascular risk factors. The results support the inclusion of the evaluated apolipoproteins in laboratory determinations made in public health centers in Venezuela.

  20. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA

  1. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  2. Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is viewed as an insulin-sensitizing hormone with anti-inflammatory effects. In accordance, plasma adiponectin is decreased in metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, in spite of the apparently beneficially effects, recent data from large...... prospective studies have consistently linked high adiponectin levels with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality, thus questioning the positive view on adiponectin. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin, incident T2DM and subsequently CV events. METHODS: We...... prospectively followed 5349 randomly selected men and women from the community, without T2DM or CV disease. Plasma adiponectin was measured at study entry. Median follow-up time was 8.5 years (IQR 8.0-9.1 years). During follow up, 136 participants developed T2DM. Following their diagnosis, 36 of the 136...

  3. [Assessment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: comparison among scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Colle, Sara; Rabbia, Franco; Mulatero, Paolo; Veglio, Franco

    2004-09-01

    At present, a correct and thorough risk evaluation represents the best prognostic and therapeutic approach for hypertensive patients. Recent European and American guidelines recommend a global stratification of the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive patients, based on the evaluation of risk factors, organ damage, and the clinical conditions associated with hypertension. A similar approach uses numerical risk scores that transform the percentage risk, calculated from large populations, into absolute values. These scores have been calculated by different research groups and scientific organizations with the aim of better defining the real risk of a given population over time. Many of these risk scores have been conceived by American and European scientific groups on the basis of the epidemiology of different risk variables in the respective populations; in general, north American hypertensives are exposed to a higher cardiovascular risk compared to Europeans and some European countries have a higher risk than others. The present review underlines the pivotal role of a correct risk evaluation of hypertension as reported in the guidelines. We briefly analyze the principal studies on risk scores: we compare the advantages and disadvantages of the different scores, as well as the similarities and differences, in order to demonstrate not only their utility, but also the possible equivalence of the different parameters considered. PMID:15568607

  4. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  5. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  6. Trials of cardiovascular risk factor management in type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, A.; Joshi, R.; Galan, B.E. de

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of recent clinical trial findings relevant to cardiovascular risk management in patients with diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent trial evidence has demonstrated benefits of routine blood pressure (BP) lowering, regardless of initial BP levels, in people with

  7. Endogenous estrogen exposure and cardiovascular mortality risk in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Peeters, P.M.; Banga, J.D.; Graaf, Y. van der

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether combined information on reproductive factors has additive value to the single reproductive factor age at menopause for assessing endogenous estrogen exposure and cardiovascular mortality risk in postmenopausal women. They conducted a population-based c

  8. Guidelines for managing cardiovascular risk: an evolving area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currier, Judith S; Lundgren, Jens

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reflect on the need for guidelines to assist clinicians in the management of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past eight years guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia and metabolic complications of HIV infection have been developed...

  9. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  10. Estimation of cardiovascular risk severity in chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Kundu Kundu

    2015-02-01

    CONCLUSION: Chronic periodontitis (CPD is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease as evidenced by increased hsCRP and radiological parameters. Successful periodontal therapy could decrease serum inflammatory parameters. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 49-54

  11. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor : current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Chapman, M John; Ray, Kausik; Borén, Jan; Andreotti, Felicita; Watts, Gerald F; Ginsberg, Henry; Amarenco, Pierre; Catapano, Alberico; Descamps, Olivier S; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: The robust and specific association between e

  12. CETP inhibition in cardiovascular risk management : a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; van Tol, A.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the cardioprotective effect of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and the limited effects of statin and fibrate therapy on HDL cholesterol, it is clinically relevant to test whether pharmacological treatment aimed at raising HDL lowers cardiovascular risk. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein

  13. Blood pressure management in cardiovascular risk stratification : procedure, progression, process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiyaman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have explored different aspects of blood pressure measurement and related it to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the first part we showed that when the arm is positioned under heart level, for example when the arm is placed on a desk or a chair support, the blood pressure and

  14. Lipid parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Arsenault; S.M. Boekholdt; J.J.P. Kastelein

    2011-01-01

    Besides measuring blood pressure and glucose levels, assessing the lipid spectrum is the method most commonly used to identify individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as those who are likely to benefit most from lipid-lowering therapy. Although lowering LDL-cholesterol leve

  15. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...... a stent dual antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for 12 months, preferable with prasugrel or ticagrelor unless there is an additional indication of warfarin or increased risk of bleeding. In patients with AF, warfarin is recommended...

  16. 高血压病患者中医体质分类及与心血管危险因素的相关研究%Correlation of Constitutional Classification of Chinese Medicine with Cardiovascular Risk Profiles in Hypertensive Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱岳晟; 张怡; 朱鼎良

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation of constitutional classification of Chinese medicine with cardiovascular risk profiles in hypertensive patients. Methods Based on sampling survey of community population,the constitution of Chinese medicine were assessed and the cardiovascular disease risk profiles were analyzed. A total of 623 essential hypertensive patients were investigated. Results The percentage of Nizhi type was 55. 4% ,Zaohong type was 22. 2% .Juanhuang type was 5. 8% ,and normality type was 16. 7%. Based on the cardiovascular disease risk profiles, patients at intermediate and high risk was 97. 7%. Patients with Nizhi type were more than other subgroups (P=0. 013). Based on analysis of cardiovascular disease risk profiles,patients with Nizhi type were older (P=0. 001),and had higher proportions of smoking (P=0. 003) and dyslipidemia (P=0. 016) than that in others. Conclusion Essential hypertensive patients had two major constitutions, Nizhi type and Zaohong type. Hypertensive patients with Nizhi type had more cardiovascular disease risk profiles than patients with other subtypes.%目的 对高血压病患者进行体质分类,并比较不同体质类型的心血管危险因素的相关性.方法 以社区人群抽样调查,采用中医体质分类标准评定和以心血管危险因素判断.结果 被调查的高血压病患者623例,按中医体质分类标准分为腻滞质345例(55.4%),燥红质138例(22.2%),倦晄质36例(5.8%),正常质104例(16.7%).按照心血管危险因素分层,中危和高危人群占97.7%,在这些中危和高危的患者中腻滞质患者明显多于其他体质类型的患者,差异有统计学意义(P=0.013);心血管危险因素分析,腻滞质高血压患者年龄偏大、吸烟和血脂异常比例明显高于其他体质类型的患者,差异有统计学意义(P分别为0.001、0.003、0.016).结论 原发性高血压患者是以腻滞质和燥红质两种体质类型为主要特征,中医临床的辨证分型是从两

  17. Carotid intima-media thickness in the spanish population : reference ranges and association with cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, M; Subirana, I.; Agis, D.; Ramos, R.; Basagana, X; Marti, R.; Groot, E. de; Arnold, R.J.; Marrugat, J.; Künzli, N.; Elosua, R.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Carotid intima-media thickness as measured with ultrasonography is an inexpensive and noninvasive predictor of cardiovascular events. The objectives of this study were to determine the population reference ranges of carotid intima-media thickness for individuals aged 35-84 years in Spain and to analyze the association of carotid intima-media thickness with cardiovascular risk factors (age, smoking, diabetes, pulse pressure, lipid profile, and body mass index). MET...

  18. Ezetimibe, cardiovascular risk and atherogenic dyslipidaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Manfredi; Battista Rini, Giovam

    2011-01-01

    Ezetimibe is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor with an excellent side-effect profile, able to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 15-25% from baseline in monotherapy and on top of statins and fibrates. Yet, it seems that ezetimibe produces quantitative rather than qualitative changes in LDL, with small net effects on atherogenic dyslipidaemia. This is supported by findings from the Ezetimibe and Simvastatin in Hypercholesterolemia Enhances Atherosclerosis Regression...

  19. Evaluation of 9 biomarkers for predicting 10-year cardiovascular risk in patients undergoing coronary angiography: Findings from the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. ó Hartaigh; G.N. Thomas; J.A. Bosch; K. Hemming; S. Pilz; A. Loerbroks; M.E. Kleber; T.B. Grammer; J.E. Fischer; G. Silbernagel; A. Tomaschitz; W. März

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conventional factors do not fully explain the distribution of cardiovascular outcomes. Biomarkers are known to participate in well-established pathways associated with cardiovascular disease, and may therefore provide further information over and above conventional risk factors. This stu

  20. Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Speranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dai Cas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium is a dynamic organ with many properties that takes part in the regulation of the principal mechanisms of vascular physiology. Its principal functions include the control of blood-tissue exchange and permeability, the vascular tonus, and the modulation of inflammatory or coagulatory mechanisms. Many vasoactive molecules, produced by the endothelium, are involved in the control of these functions. The most important is nitric oxide (NO, a gaseous molecule electrically neutral with an odd number of electrons that gives the molecule chemically reactive radical properties. Already known in the twentieth century, NO, sometimes considered as a dangerous molecule, recently valued as an important endogenous vasodilator factor. Recently, it was discovered that it is involved in several physiological mechanisms of endothelial protection (Tab. I. In 1992, Science elected it as “molecule of the year”; 6 yrs later three American researchers (Louis Ignarro, Robert Furchgott and Fried Murad obtained a Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology “for their discoveries about NO as signal in the cardiovascular system”.

  2. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed...

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Z ABDEYASDAN; N. Sadeghi; M HASANPOOR; M Maaroofi; A HASAN ZADEH

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. S...

  4. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have ...

  5. Method and apparatus for assessing cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Paul (Inventor); Bigger, J. Thomas (Inventor); Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The method for assessing risk of an adverse clinical event includes detecting a physiologic signal in the subject and determining from the physiologic signal a sequence of intervals corresponding to time intervals between heart beats. The long-time structure of fluctuations in the intervals over a time period of more than fifteen minutes is analyzed to assess risk of an adverse clinical event. In a preferred embodiment, the physiologic signal is an electrocardiogram and the time period is at least fifteen minutes. A preferred method for analyzing the long-time structure variability in the intervals includes computing the power spectrum and fitting the power spectrum to a power law dependence on frequency over a selected frequency range such as 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-2 Hz. Characteristics of the long-time structure fluctuations in the intervals is used to assess risk of an adverse clinical event.

  6. Cardiovascular risk stratification and management in pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Færch, Kristine; Vistisen, Dorte; Johansen, Nanna Borup; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2014-06-01

    Prediabetes, covering individuals with impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, or high-risk HbA1c levels, is associated with a ∼20 % increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with normoglycemic individuals. It is well-known that lifestyle or pharmacologic interventions can prevent diabetes in prediabetic people; however, the evidence is less clear regarding prevention of CVD. Most diabetes prevention trials have failed to show beneficial effects on CVD morbidity and mortality despite significant improvements of CVD risk factors in individuals with prediabetes. Another challenge is how to estimate CVD risk in prediabetic people. In general, prediction models for CVD do not take glucose levels or prediabetes status into account, thereby underestimating CVD risk in these high-risk individuals. More evidence within risk stratification and management of CVD risk in prediabetes is needed in order to recommend useful and effective strategies for early prevention of CVD.

  7. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  8. Associations Between Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Bertoia, Monica L.; Rimm, Eric B.; Spiegelman, Donna; Mittleman, Murray A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Previous studies have examined the associations of individual clinical risk factors with risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD), but the combined effects of these risk factors are largely unknown. Objective To estimate the degree to which the 4 conventional cardiovascular risk factors of sm

  9. [Hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitenberg, A

    2006-10-01

    Increased blood pressure induces functional and structural changes of the vascular endothelium. Depression of endothelium-dependant vasodilatation is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction due to hypertension. It can be demonstrated by pharmacological or physiological tests. Decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) is a major determinant of the depression of vasodilatation. It may be caused by a reduction in the activity of NO-endothelial synthase (NOSe) related to: 1) a deficit in substrate (L-arginine), 2) an inhibition by asymmetrical dimethylarginine, 3) a deficit in the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). However, the increase in oxidative stress, a producer of superoxide radicals which combine with NO to form peroxynitrates (ONOO-), is the determining factor. It is related to activation of membranous NAD(P)H oxidases initiated by the stimulation of activating mecanosensors of protein C kinase. The message is amplified by oxidation of BH4 which transforms the NOSe into a producer of superoxide radicals. A cascade of auto-amplification loops leading to atherosclerosis and its complications is then triggered. The superoxide radicals and the peroxynitrates oxidise the LDL-cholesterol. They activate the nuclear factor-kappaB which controls the genes stimulating the expression of many proteins: angiotensinogen and AT1 receptors which stimulate the sympathetic system, receptors of oxidised LDL, adhesion and migration factors (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and MCP-1), pro-inflammatory cytokins (interleukines and TNF-alpha), growth factors (MAP kinases), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. The monocytes and smooth muscle cells produce metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokins which destabilise the atheromatous plaque and favourise vascular remodelling. Inshort, the endothelial dysfunction due to hypertension plays a role in a complex physiopathological process and is a marker of future cardiovascular events. PMID:17100143

  10. The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzelenberg Wilhelmina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71 or control group (n = 75 using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference. In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive

  11. Night work, total occupational burden and cancer/cardiovascular risk factors in physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Olesja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifestyle-related risk factors: smoking, obesity, sedentariness and excess alcohol intake are among the most important known causes of cancer and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between these lifestyle-related risk factors for cancer/cardiovascular disease and working conditions among surgeons/anesthesiologists and other physicians. Material and Methods. The study was carried out among physicians aged 35 to 60, without diagnosed coronary heart disease or other structural heart disease, who were employed at the Novi Sad University Hospital. The participation rate was high (> 90%. The physicians completed the Occupational Stress Index. Low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk was defined as: not a current smoker, body mass index < 28, regular recreational physical activity and not consuming alcohol every day. Analysis of covariance was performed. Results. Of 191 physicians included in this study only 23 (12.0% had a low lifestyle- related cancer/cardiovascular risk. Surgeons/anesthesiologists faced a heavier total work stressor burden than physicians in other profiles (87.7±8.8 versus 74.1±10.5, p=0.000. Among the 56 surgeons/anesthesiologists, lower nightshift work scores were associated with low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk (F=4.19, p=0.046. A lower overall work stressor burden was associated with low risk among the other 135 physicians (F=4.06, p=0.046. Conclusion. Specific workplace intervention strategies are urgently needed. Among the surgeons/anesthesiologists these should include reduction in the frequency of night call and improvement of the overall conditions of nightshift work. Among other physicians, the total occupational burden needs to be diminished.

  12. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The ... Recommendation | 1 Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults Potential ...

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in high-need psoriasis patients and its implications for biological therapies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, R.J.B.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors are reported to be stronger as psoriasis severity increases. This makes studying cardiovascular risk factors in high-need psoriasis patients, eligible for biological therapy, interesting. OBJECTIVE: To survey the prevalen

  14. Targeting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors May Be Important Across a Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Targeting cardiovascular disease risk factors may be important across a lifetime NIH-funded study suggests efforts ... of those risk factors may be a potential strategy to lower rates of cardiovascular disease across the ...

  15. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C;

    2013-01-01

    of the increased risk. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of observational studies with continuous outcome using random-effects statistics. A systematic search of studies published before 25 October 2012 was conducted using the databases Medline, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PASCAL and BIOSIS......·65 mmol L(-1) )] and a higher HbA1c [1·09 mmol mol(-1) , 95% CI 0·87-1·31, P controls are significant, and therefore relevant to the clinical management of patients with psoriasis.......BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...

  16. Cardiovascular Risk in Men Aged Over 40 in Boa Vista, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Maciel de Lima; Emanuel Araújo Bezerra; José Geraldo Ticianeli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of disease in the developed world. Early detection and risk prediction are a key component in reducing cardiovascular mortality. The Framingham Risk Score uses age, sex, cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking to calculate the 10-year risk probability of developing cardiovascular disease for a given patient. The aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular disease risk in men aged over 40 years in Boa Vista, Brazil and ...

  17. Risk of cardiovascular disease in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nynne; Nyboe; Andersen; Tine; Jess

    2014-01-01

    Abundant scientific evidence supporting an association between inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and venous thromboembolic events, caused by an IBD related hypercoagulability, is acknowledged and thromboprophylactic treatment strategies are now implemented in the management of IBD patients. In contrary, the risk of arterial thromboembolic disease, as ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular events, and mesenteric ischemia in patients with IBD remains uncertain and the magnitude of a potentially increased risk is continuously debated, with ambiguous risk estimates among studies. The evident role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis forms the basis of a biological plausible link; the chronic systemic inflammation in IBD patients increases the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby the risk of thrombotic events. Further, studies have shown that the burden of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia is lower in IBD populations, thus further strengthen the role of non-traditional risk factors, as chronic inflammation in the linking of the two disease entities. Likewise, mortality from cardiovascular disease in IBD remains questioned. The aim of the current review is to give an up-date on the existing evidence of the possible association between IBD and cardiovascular disease and to discuss traditional and non-traditional risk factors.

  18. [Socioeconomic class as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ch; Ackermann-Liebrich, U

    2005-09-01

    It's been known for a long time, that certain diseases are more frequent in lower socioeconomic classes. But knowledge about the nature of this association, its main risk factors and how to improve health outcomes in lower social groups is still limited. Social class has been defined by different indicators by e.g. occupation and job position or the highest school qualification achieved. For international comparisons different classifications such as "The Registrar General's Social Class Classification " or the "International Standard Classification of Education" have been used. Several European Studies show a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in lower socioeconomic classes. But this studies also show that all socioeconomic groups have access to medical services. The Data from the Swiss Health Survey show the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases by three levels of education: Behaviouralfactors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity are more commonly present in the lower socioeconomic groups. People with a lower educational level visit their GP more often, whereas people with a higher level of educational consult specialists more frequently. Medical services are often used to check of blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol. An indication of state of health may be shown by medication and treatment for cardiovascular disease which is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. The present discussion of explanations of the poorer state of health in lower socioeconomic groups goes beyond the classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that after the correction for risk factors a correlation remains between social class and state of health. It is believed, that psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, control in the workplace or coping-strategies play an additional important role

  19. ARTERIAL STIFFNESS PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH MODERATE/HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK DURING LISINOPRIL AND SIMVASTATIN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Isakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate parameters of arterial stiffness by non-invasive arteriography in patients with moderate/high cardiovascular risk receiving lisinopril and simvastatin.Material and methods. 20 patients (aged 50-55 y.o. with arterial hypertension of the 1st degree and dislipidemia are included in the study. All patients had pulse wave velocity (PWV ≥ 10 m/s and/or the corrected index of pulse wave augmentation (AI × 80 ≥ -10% according to non-invasive arteriography data; and moderate-high cardiovascular risk (≥ 3%. Patients received therapy with lisinopril and simvastatin. Blood pressure (BP levels and lipid profiles were assessed before therapy and in 1, 2, 6 and 12 month of the observation. Non-invasive arteriography was performed before therapy and in 2, 6 and 12 months later.Results. BP target levels were reached within 1 month of treatment as well as improvement of lipid profile was reached within 2 months in majority of the patients. Reference PWV and AI were reached in 85,7% of patients within one year of treatment.Conclusion. Arterial stiffness parameters help to evaluate cardiovascular risk changes accurately as the results of treatment.

  20. [Screening for cardiovascular risk factors in a large workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agner, E; Jacobsen, K; Mahnfeldt, M S; Jensen, S E; Baastrup, A; Stene, G M; Bech, J; Kjaer, A

    1990-11-01

    A screening investigation was carried out in a large industry in the Copenhagen region and 1,472 of the employees were offered examination of blood cholesterol and measurement of blood pressure. At this examination the employees completed a one-page questionnaire about other cardiovascular risk factors. 45% of those invited participated in the investigation, the poorest participation was among women and the greatest among the male officials. On account of the limited number of female employees, the majority of results were only calculated for men. Over 1/3 of these had hypercholesteremia (greater than or equal to 7.0 mmol/l) and nearly 1/3 had, simultaneously, at least two cardiovascular risk factors in addition to age and male sex. Extensive occupational investigations under the auspices of WHO have demonstrated that energetic intervention at the place of work aimed at the cardiovascular risk factors can reduce the risk of development of coronary heart disease and death within a six-year follow-up period. It is therefore emphasized that similar interventions are very necessary also in Denmark. PMID:2238226

  1. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis;

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Impaired sleep has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are still unsettled. We sought to determine how onset of impaired sleep affects the risk of established physiological CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes......, and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation...... = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.29) in fully adjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that onset of sleep disturbances rather than short or long sleep mark an increase in physiological risk factors, which may partly explain the higher risk of CVD observed among impaired sleepers. COMMENTARY...

  2. (Brown) adipose tissue associated metabolic dysfunction and risk of cardiovascular disease in high risk patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssens, B.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis it was shown that (brown) adipose tissue associated metabolic dysfunction increases the risk on development of cardiovascular disease in high risk patients. Quantity of adipose tissue is an important risk factor for adipose tissue dysfunction but functionality of adipose tissue not so

  3. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. RESULTS: Significant (p high...

  4. Congenital Cerebral Palsy, Child Sex and Parent Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th) birthday. RESULTS: We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow...... up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1...... disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were...

  5. Role of childhood food patterns on adult cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Jari E; Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that childhood nutrition plays a role in the adulthood cardiovascular health. A lifelong tracking of dietary habits, following a long-term exposure to unhealthy dietary patterns or independent effects, is a potential effect-mediating mechanism. Dietary patterns have been studied by data-driven and hypothesis-based approaches. Typically, either data-driven healthy or prudent childhood dietary patterns have been characterized and found to be associated with lower adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the published cohort studies. With regard to the individual food groups or food quality indices, intakes particularly of vegetables and fruits (or fiber indicating plant food intake) and polyunsaturated fatty acids have shown protective effects. The evidence which could confirm the long-term healthiness of a hypothesis-based Mediterranean diet is limited, requiring further investigation. Overall, the recent literature strengthens the view that a healthy childhood diet is associated with lowered adulthood CVD risk.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: from risk factors to clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-05-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are oral incretin-based glucose-lowering agents with proven efficacy and safety in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, preclinical data and mechanistic studies suggest a possible additional non-glycemic beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide-1-dependent and glucagon-like peptide-1-independent effects. As a matter of fact, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several cardiovascular risk factors: they improve glucose control (mainly by reducing the risk of postprandial hyperglycemia) and are weight neutral; may lower blood pressure somewhat; improve postprandial (and even fasting) lipemia; reduce inflammatory markers; diminish oxidative stress; improve endothelial function; and reduce platelet aggregation in patients with T2DM. In addition, positive effects on the myocardium have been described in patients with ischemic heart disease. Results of post hoc analyses of phase 2/3 controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend (sometimes significant) toward lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, or alogliptin compared with placebo or other active glucose-lowering agents. However, the definite relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and better cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials involving various DPP-4 inhibitors with predefined cardiovascular outcomes are under way in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile: the Sitagliptin Cardiovascular Outcome Study (TECOS) on sitagliptin, the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (SAVOR-TIMI) 53 trial on saxagliptin, the Cardiovascular Outcomes Study of Alogliptin in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndrome (EXAMINE) trial on alogliptin, and the Cardiovascular Outcome

  7. Hypoglycemia as a driver of cardiovascular risk in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Moheet, Amir; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Severe hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events and death. Recent large randomized clinical trials in individuals with type 2 diabetes have shown that intensive glycemic control may result in increased mortality and hypoglycemia has been investigated as a possible cause. Acute hypoglycemia is a pro-arrhythmic, pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic state and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how hypoglycemia might in...

  8. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E; Victor L. Fulgoni III

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weig...

  9. Diabetes Mellitus, ArterialWall, and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Kozakova; Carlo Palombo

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Adults with diabetes are two to four times more likely to develop heart disease or stroke than adults without diabetes. The two major features of diabetes, i.e., hyperglycemia and insulin-resistance, trigger arterial stiffening and increase the susceptibility of the arterial wall to atherosclerosis at any given age. These pathological changes in the arterial wall may provide a functional and structura...

  10. Socioeconomic disparities in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Wielgosz, A T; Spasoff, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Lev...

  11. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farshchian M; Ansar A; Sobhan M

    2015-01-01

    Mahmoud Farshchian, Akram Ansar, Mohammadreza Sobhan Psoriasis Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. There is overwhelming evidence on the higher risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with psoriasis as a result of hyperlipidemia, which is more common in these patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the association bet...

  12. Role of green tea in reduction of cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Christodoulos Stefanadis1st Cardiology Department, Athens Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Tea is widely consumed worldwide. There is accumulating evidence that tea ­consumption may be associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, an association that could be attributed to its flavonoid content. Green tea, the most common type of tea consumed in Asia, contains a large amount of nonoxidized flavonoids, named c...

  13. Affluence and the Worldwide Distribution of Cardiovascular Disease Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzati, Majid; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M.M.; Leach, Rachel; James, W.Philip T.; Alan D Lopez; Rodgers, Anthony; Christopher J L Murray

    2005-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases and their nutritional risk factors—including overweight and obesity, elevated blood pressure, and cholesterol—are among the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, and have been predicted to rise with economic development. Methods and Findings We examined age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbanizati...

  14. Oral contraception and cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Dominique; Saint-Remy, Annie; JeanJean, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the pattern of oral contraceptive (OC) use in teenagers and to examine the relationship between OC use and other cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted in 24 Belgian secondary schools. Most students (1526 adolecents aged 12-17 years) agreed to participate (participation rate: 83.6%). Smoking, physical activity habits, menarche, and OC use were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Total cholesterol level, blood press...

  15. Family history of vascular disease and the risk of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, M.

    2015-01-01

    A positive family history of cardiovascular disease is an established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In clinical practice, this evident relation between the presence of cardiovascular disease in families and first cardiovascular events has resulted in family history being

  16. Cardiovascular Risks in Relation to Daidzein Metabolizing Phenotypes among Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Chen, Yu-ming; Liu, Jun; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that the inter-individual differences in metabolizing isoflavone daidzein to equol or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) might explain the inconsistency of the soy/isoflavones efficacy on cardiovascular health. Objectives The study aims to evaluate the relationship between equol and ODMA phenotypes and cardiovascular risks with habitual isoflavone consumption in Chinese postmenopausal women. Methods This is a cross-sectional study among 726 prehypertensive postmenopal women who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. 648 women returned a daidzein-challenged urine samples for determination of equol and O-DMA production. 595 attended clinic visits for assessment of cardiovascular risks including body composition, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, uric acid, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fasting glucose and free fatty acid (FFA). Results The prevalences of equol and O-DMA producers were 53.2% and 60.9% respectively. Equol producers had higher fat free mass (p = 0.001), lower systolic (p = 0.01) and diastolic (p = 0.01) BP, serum triglyceride (p = 0.023), hs-CRP (p = 0.015) and FFA (p = 0.001) than non-producers. O-DMA producers had lower body fat% (p = 0.032), SBP (p = 0.02), total cholesterol (p = 0.002) than non-producers. The significant differences remained after further adjustment for potential confounders. The habitual soy isoflavones intake had little relation to cardiovascular risk factors in either equol/O-DMA producer phenotypes. Conclusion Equol/O-DMA producers had more favorable cardiovascular risk profiles than non-producers in prehypertensive postmenopausal women. PMID:24533060

  17. TO STUDY THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR MORBIDITY & MORTALITY IN STABLE COPD PATIENTS BASED ON ESTABLISHED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiologic evidence linking COPD and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is strong. Even after adjustments for traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as serum total cholesterol hypertension, obesity and smoking, patients with COPD have a two- to threefold increase in the risk of cardiovascular events including death. Age >60 yrs., Male sex, Significant Smoking History, T2 Diabetes Mellitus, Body Mass Index >30 Kg/M2, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy have a statistically significant correlation to cardiovascular mortality & morbidity. Significant relations were demonstrated between the treatment that patient requires for stability & cardiovascular morbidity & mortality in Central India.

  18. Patients' knowledge of risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Friderici, Jennifer; Lotfi, Amir; Verma, Ashish; Kleppel, Reva; Naglieri-Prescod, Deborah; Rothberg, Michael B

    2011-05-15

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Heart Association has proposed improving overall cardiovascular health by promoting 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health, including health behaviors (not smoking, regular exercise, and healthy diet) and health factors (ideal body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose). The patients' knowledge of these 7 components is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of patients at 4 primary care and 1 cardiology clinic. The survey measured demographic data, personal behaviors/health factors, cardiovascular disease history, and knowledge about these 7 components. A multivariate model was developed to assess patient characteristics associated with high knowledge scores. Of the 2,200 surveys distributed, 1,702 (77%) were returned with sufficient responses for analysis. Of these, 49% correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death, and 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35% to 39%) correctly identified all 7 components. The average respondent identified 4.9 components (95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). The lowest recognition rates were for exercise (57%), fruit/vegetable consumption (58%), and diabetes (63%). In a multivariate model, knowledge of all 7 components was positively associated with high school education or greater (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.52) and white ethnicity (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.50), and negatively associated with attending an urban neighborhood clinic (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). In conclusion, just >1/3 of patients could identify all 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health. Educational efforts should target patients in low socioeconomic strata and focus on improving knowledge about healthy diet and regular exercise. Although patients with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to recognize their risk, 1 in 5 were not aware that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  19. Cardiovascular risk prediction: the old has given way to the new but at what risk-benefit ratio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeboah J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Yeboah Heart and Vascular Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The ultimate goal of cardiovascular risk prediction is to identify individuals in the population to whom the application or administration of current proven lifestyle modifications and medicinal therapies will result in reduction in cardiovascular disease events and minimal adverse effects (net benefit to society. The use of cardiovascular risk prediction tools dates back to 1976 when the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score was published. Since then a lot of novel risk markers have been identified and other cardiovascular risk prediction tools have been developed to either improve or replace the Framingham Risk Score (FRS. In 2013, the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator was published by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association to replace the FRS for cardiovascular risk prediction. It is too soon to know the performance of the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator. The risk-benefit ratio for preventive therapy (lifestyle modifications, statin +/− aspirin based on cardiovascular disease risk assessed using the FRS is unknown but it was assumed to be a net benefit. Should we also assume the risk-benefit ratio for the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator is also a net benefit? Keywords: risk prediction, prevention, cardiovascular disease

  20. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  1. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including elevated blood pressure (BP, atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac structural and functional changes and obstructive sleep apnea. Probable mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and altered vascular function. Adiposity promotes cardiovascular risk clustering during childhood and adolescence. Insulin resistance has a strong association with childhood obesity. A variety of proinflammatory mediators that are associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction are also known to be influenced by obesity levels. Obesity in early life promotes atherosclerotic disease in vascular structures such as the aorta and the coronary arteries. Childhood and adolescent adiposity has strong influences on the structure and function of the heart, predominantly of the left ventricle. Obesity compromises pulmonary function and increases the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. Neglecting childhood and adolescent obesity will compromise the cardiovascular health of the pediatric population and is likely to result in a serious public health crisis in future.

  2. From hyperglycemia to the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A

    2006-01-01

    Blood glucose is a continuous, progressive risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) throughout the dysglycemic range. There is also evidence that post-prandial hyperglycemia may be a better predictor of CVD risk than fasting plasma glucose or A1C. Targeting normoglycemia appears to reduce CVD events in diabetes mellitus (DM), although definitive studies in type 2 DM, as well as in prediabetes, are ongoing. Prediabetes has some, but not total, overlaps with the metabolic syndrome. Patients with the metabolic syndrome are at a significantly increased risk for both CVD and DM. Although the individual components of the syndrome predict risk for CVD to approximately equal degree, increased blood glucose, perhaps not surprisingly, is the best predictor of diabetes. Finally, there are multiple mechanisms by which hyperglycemia can increase the risk for CVD.

  3. Relationship between practice organization and cardiovascular risk factor recording in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    van Drenth, B B; Hulscher, M E; van der Wouden, J C; Mokkink, H G; Van Weel, C; Grol, R P

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research findings suggest that the level of cardiovascular risk factor recording in general practice is not yet optimal. Several studies indicate a relation between the organization of cardiovascular disease prevention at practice level and cardiovascular risk factor recording. AIM: To explore the relation between the organization of cardiovascular disease prevention and risk factor recording in general practice. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted using data on adherenc...

  4. Cardiovascular Risks Factors and their Relationship with Disorders of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Leguen Gulgar; Maricel Castellanos; María de Jesús Sánchez Bouza; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in Cuba, where studies on emerging cardiovascular risk factors as predictors of cardiovascular risk are scarce. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Methods: a correlational study was conducted with a sample of 105 men and women selected from a total of 346 workers of the University of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos from June 2011 th...

  5. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Scottish Youth: A Pilot Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Buchan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Approximately 70% of the total ethnic minority population of Scotland is of South Asian ancestry, although relatively little is known about their cardiovascular risk profile. Determining the risk profiles of Scottish youth of South Asian ancestry may inform the creation of interventions to reduce risk and improve the quality of life in this population. Approach: The purpose of this pilot investigation was to examine the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD risk profiles of Scottish youth of South Asian ancestry. A sample of 48 South Asian adolescents (26 females, 22 males, 16±2 years of age resident in the city of Glasgow participated in this study. Stature, mass, waist circumference, physical activity, blood pressure, diet and 10 metabolic markers of CVD risk were recorded. Results: Boys had a significantly (p≤0. 01 greater body mass, stature and were more physically active than girls. The boys also had significantly (p≤0. 05 higher fasting levels of glucose, LDL and C-Reactive Protein (CRP and recorded lower levels of HDL than girls. High fat diets, low physical activity, elevated CRP, glucose and insulin levels and low HDL levels were the risk factors most often identified as being as non-desirable. About 88% of the cohort had between 2 and 6 CVD risk factors while 40% of boys and 20% of girls presented with 5 or more risk factors. Conclusion/Recommendations: Results suggest that preventive measures, including increased physical activity and dietary management may be warranted for the youth of South Asian ancestry."

  6. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in migrants participating in the PEP family heart study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults and their children from the 3 major groups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study [11] and to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants and German participants. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometric data, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children, 363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and German immigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were compared with age and gender adjusted German (GER resi-dents (3253 children, 2491 adults. Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regarding specificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was as follows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; in TUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men 48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women 25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men 13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women 28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46% and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%. About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were current smokers and one third of women and half of men from these two countries were over-weight. Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and it should consider the ethnic differences and the heterogene-ous risk profiles.

  7. Risk of cardiovascular disease in a traditional African population with a high infectious load: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J E Koopman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To test the inflammatory origin of cardiovascular disease, as opposed to its origin in western lifestyle. Population-based assessment of the prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease in an inflammation-prone African population, including electrocardiography and ankle-arm index measurement. Comparison with known prevalences in American and European societies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Traditional population in rural Ghana, characterised by adverse environmental conditions and a high infectious load. Population-based sample of 924 individuals aged 50 years and older. Median values for cardiovascular risk factors, including waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, and markers of glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Prevalence of myocardial infarction detected by electrocardiography and prevalence of peripheral arterial disease detected by ankle-arm index. When compared to western societies, we found the Ghanaians to have more proinflammatory profiles and less cardiovascular risk factors, including obesity, dysglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. Prevalences of cardiovascular disease were also lower. Definite myocardial infarction was present in 1.2% (95%CI: 0.6 to 2.4%. Peripheral arterial disease was present in 2.8% (95%CI: 1.9 to 4.1%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data indicate that for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease inflammatory processes alone do not suffice and additional factors, probably lifestyle-related, are mandatory.

  8. [Civilization stress, cardiovascular risk, evidence-based medicine, guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kornél

    2009-05-10

    Cardiovascular diseases have the pole-position on the list of morbidity and mortality statistics. Despite the great advances have been made in management of cardiovascular diseases, prevalence of these disorders increases worldwide, and even younger and younger ages are threatened. This phenomenon is strongly related to obesity and type 2 diabetes pandemic, which shows an unequivocal association with expansion of modernized life-style. The pathomechanism proposed to have central role is the chronic stress induced by civilized life-conduct. The authors criticizes the everyday practice suggested for management of cardiovascular diseases, focusing on normalization of cardiovascular risk factors, instead of fighting against the primary cause ie. chronic stress. There is growing evidence, that achieving the target values defined in guide-lines will not necessarily result in improvement of patient related clinical outcomes. The statistical approach generally practiced in randomized clinical trials is primarily striving for the drug-sale, instead of discovering novel pathophysiological relations. Pharmaceutical industry having decisive role in research and patient-care is mainly interested in profit-sharing, therefore patients' interest can not be optimally realized, and costs are unnecessarily augmented. Separation of patient-, and business-oriented medical care is an ethical question of fundamental importance. PMID:19403433

  9. Age and body mass related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macut Đuro P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is considered a metabolic disorder closely related to obesity, insulin resistance (IR, hyperinsulinemia and unfavorable lipid profile, all increasing the risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to assess age and body mass index (BMI related changes of cardiovascular risk factors in 90 women with PCOS. The cut-off age point was 30 years and for BMI 27.8 kg/m2. In all patients systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, metabolic parameters comprising values of glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and basal lipid values were determined. Significant increase in blood pressure (BP indices, basal insulin values and insulin resistance (IR assessed by HOMA model were observed with aging and the increase of BMI, while the parameters of glucose metabolism, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated only with aging. However, the correlation between the indices of arterial blood pressure, and lipid and glucose metabolism parameters occurred only in patients over 30 years of age, pointing to the causative relation and the consequent deterioration of IR and lipid profile with aging, influencing cardiovascular function in women with PCOS.

  10. An insidious risk factor for cardiovascular disease: benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Omer Faruk; Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan

    2010-10-29

    Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) have a considerably higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than the general population in old age. Many hypotheses have been created to explain traditional clinical risk factors of CVD, including age, male gender, cigarette smoking, inheritance, high blood pressure (BP), obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, decreased physical activity and metabolic syndrome; or nontraditional risk factors such as oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular calcification, malnutrition, homocysteine and genetic variation. Although these risk factors are important in CVD pathophysiology and clinical presentation, there is still no single theory sufficient to provide an adequate explanation for all the properties of CVD. We speculate that by causing nocturia-induced sleep disturbances, BP variability, increased sympathetic activity, non-dipping BP variations; BPH may be an insidious risk factor for CVD. Benign prostate hyperplasia may be related to increased BP, coronary ischemic hearth disease or other cardiovascular pathologic conditions. This attention on BPH may produce a new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of CVD. Although the underlying mechanisms are still exactly unclear, further prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to identify if patients with BPH/LUTS is higher risk for CVD. PMID:19359054

  11. A Multidimensional Integrative Medicine Intervention to Improve Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, David; Oddone, Eugene Z; Liebowitz, Richard S; Yancy, William S; Olsen, Maren K; Jeffreys, Amy S; Moon, Samuel D; Harris, Amy C; Smith, Linda L; Quillian-Wolever, Ruth E; Gaudet, Tracy W

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Integrative medicine is an individualized, patient-centered approach to health, combining a whole-person model with evidence-based medicine. Interventions based in integrative medicine theory have not been tested as cardiovascular risk-reduction strategies. Our objective was to determine whether personalized health planning (PHP), an intervention based on the theories and principles underlying integrative medicine, reduces 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS We conducted a randomized, controlled trial among 154 outpatients age 45 or over, with 1 or more known cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects were enrolled from primary care practices near an academic medical center, and the intervention was delivered at a university Center for Integrative Medicine. Following a health risk assessment, each subject in the intervention arm worked with a health coach and a medical provider to construct a personalized health plan. The plan identified specific health behaviors important for each subject to modify; the choice of behaviors was driven both by cardiovascular risk reduction and the interests of each individual subject. The coach then assisted each subject in implementing her/his health plan. Techniques used in implementation included mindfulness meditation, relaxation training, stress management, motivational techniques, and health education and coaching. Subjects randomized to the comparison group received usual care (UC) without access to the intervention. Our primary outcome measure was 10-year risk of CHD, as measured by a standard Framingham risk score, and assessed at baseline, 5, and 10 months. Differences between arms were assessed by linear mixed effects modeling, with time and study arm as independent variables. RESULTS Baseline 10-year risk of CHD was 11.1% for subjects randomized to UC (n = 77), and 9.3% for subjects randomized to PHP (n = 77). Over 10 months of the intervention, CHD risk decreased to 9.8% for UC subjects and 7

  12. Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig;

    2010-01-01

    -sectional study were obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen, Denmark. Two hundred ten 9-year-old children were selected for cytokine analysis from 434 third-grade children with complete CVD risk profiles. The subgroup was selected according to the CVD risk factor profile (upper and lower quartile of a composite...... pronounced in fat and unfit children based on the association with CRP levels. The association between fitness and fatness variables, insulin resistance, and clustered risk could be caused by other mechanisms related to these exposures. The role of IL-6 remains unclear....

  13. National differences in screening programmes for cardiovascular risks could obstruct understanding of cardiovascular prevention studies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Thio; T.B. Twickler; M.J. Cramer; P. Giral

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In North-West Europe, cardiovascular disease is still a major cause of death and despite several efforts (e.g. European guidelines and conferences) cardiovascular risk factors are still inconsistently diagnosed and treated. Methods We evaluated the first consultations of patients in two

  14. Cardiovascular risk assessment in the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a secondary analysis of the MOZART trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven C.; Ang, Brandon; Hernandez, Carolyn; Bettencourt, Ricki; Jain, Rashmi; Salotti, Joanie; Richards, Lisa; Kono, Yuko; Bhatt, Archana; Aryafar, Hamed; Lin, Grace Y.; Valasek, Mark A.; Sirlin, Claude B.; Brouha, Sharon; Loomba, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. No US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapies for NASH are available; clinical trials to date have not yet systematically assessed for changes in cardiovascular risk. This study examines the prospective utility of cardiovascular risk assessments, the Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, as endpoints in a NASH randomized clinical trial, and assesses whether histologic improvements lead to lower cardiovascular risk. Methods: Secondary analysis of a 24-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (MOZART) in which 50 biopsy-proven NASH patients received oral ezetimibe 10 mg daily (n = 25) versus placebo (n = 25). Biochemical profiling, FRS, CAC scores, liver biopsies were obtained at baseline and endpoint. Results: Ezetimibe improved FRS whereas placebo did not (4.4 ± 6.2 to 2.9 ± 4.8, p = 0.038; 3.0 ± 4.4 to 2.9 ± 4.2, p = 0.794). CAC scores did not change with ezetimibe or placebo (180.4 ± 577.2 to 194.1 ± 623.9, p = 0.293; 151.4 ± 448.9 to 183.3 ± 555.7, p = 0.256). Ezetimibe improved FRS and CAC scores in more patients than placebo (48% versus 23%, p = 0.079, and 21% versus 0%, p = 0.090, respectively), though not significantly. No differences were noted in cardiovascular risk scores among histologic responders versus nonresponders. Conclusions: Ezetimibe improved FRS whereas placebo did not. FRS and CAC scores improved in a greater proportion of patients with ezetimibe; this trend did not reach significance. These findings indicate the utility and feasibility of monitoring cardiovascular risk in a NASH trial. The utility of CAC scores may be higher in trials of longer duration (⩾52 weeks) and with older patients (age ⩾45). ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01766713. PMID:26929777

  15. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  16. Relation between Childhood Obesity and Adult Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. Allcock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.

  17. Are There Genetic Paths Common to Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444

  18. Inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) represents a highly prevalent disease and is recognized as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood, but given the complexity of the disorder, a multifactorial etiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in general and they mediate many of the stages of atheroma formation. Circulating levels of several markers of inflammation have been associated with future cardiovascular risk. These markers include cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and selectins, cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), chemokines such as IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP). There is increasing evidence that inflammatory processes also play a central role in the cardiovascular pathophysiology of OSAS. This is supported by cell culture and animal studies identifying a preferential activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia (IH), the hallmark of OSAS. A number of studies have selectively examined the expression of inflammatory factors in OSAS patients with different conclusions. These different findings may have been contributed to by a number of methodological factors such as small subject numbers, inadequately matched study populations, particularly in terms of body mass index (BMI), and inclusion of patients with pre-existing cardiovascular or metabolic diseases. This review will focus on the potential role of various inflammatory markers in OSAS with a critical analysis of the current literature.

  19. Human Plasma Lipidome Is Pleiotropically Associated with Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Manju; Kent, Jack W.; Wong, Gerard; Weir, Jacquelyn M.; Barlow, Christopher K.; Diego, Vincent; Almeida, Marcio; Dyer, Thomas D.; Göring, Harald H.H.; Almasy, Laura; Mahaney, Michael C.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Meikle, Peter J.; Blangero, John; Curran, Joanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in the United States and is associated with a high economic burden. Prevention of CVD focuses on controlling or improving the lipid profile of patients at risk. The human lipidome is made up of thousands of ubiquitous lipid species. By studying biologically simple canonical lipid species, we investigated whether the lipidome is genetically redundant and whether its genetic influences can provide clinically relevant clues of CVD risk. Methods and Results We performed a genetic study of the human lipidome in 1,212 individuals from 42 extended Mexican American families. High-throughput mass spectrometry enabled rapid capture of precise lipidomic profiles, providing 319 unique species. Using variance-component based heritability analyses and bivariate trait analyses, we detected significant genetic influences on each lipid assayed. Median heritability of the plasma lipid species was 0.37. Hierarchical clustering based on complex genetic correlation patterns identified 12 genetic clusters that characterized the plasma lipidome. These genetic clusters were differentially but consistently associated with risk factors of CVD, including central obesity, obesity, type 2 diabetes, raised serum triglycerides and metabolic syndrome. Also these clusters consistently predicted occurrence of cardiovascular deaths during follow-up. Conclusions The human plasma lipidome is heritable. Shared genetic influences reduce the dimensionality of the human lipidome into clusters that are associated with risk factors of CVD. PMID:25363705

  20. Impaired Fasting Glucose in Nondiabetic Range: Is It a Marker of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Valentino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG through the nondiabetic range (100–125 mg/dL is not considered in the cardiovascular (CV risk profile. Aim. To compare the clustering of CV risk factors (RFs in nondiabetic subjects with normal fasting glucose (NFG and IFG. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study in 3739 nondiabetic subjects. Demographics, medical history, and CV risk factors were collected and lipid profile, fasting glucose levels (FBG, C-reactive protein (hsCRP, blood pressure (BP, anthropometric measurements, and aerobic capacity were determined. Results. 559 (15% subjects had IFG: they had a higher mean age, BMI, waist circumference, non-HDL cholesterol, BP, and hsCRP (p<0.0001 and lower HDL (p<0.001 and aerobic capacity (p<0.001. They also had a higher prevalence of hypertension (34% versus 25%; p<0.001, dyslipidemia (79% versus 74%; p<0.001, and obesity (29% versus 16%; p<0.001 and a higher Framingham risk score (8% versus 6%; p<0.001. The probability of presenting 3 or more CV RFs adjusted by age and gender was significantly higher in the top quintile of fasting glucose (≥98 mg/dL; OR = 2.02; 1.62–2.51. Conclusions. IFG in the nondiabetic range is associated with increased cardiovascular RF clustering.

  1. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD, myocardial infarction (MI, and heart failure (HF.

  2. Chronic inflammatory diseases and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roifman, Idan; Beck, Paul L; Anderson, Todd J; Eisenberg, Mark J; Genest, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advancements in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), it remains the number one cause of death in the world. While traditional risk factors partially account for the development of CAD, other novel risk factors have recently been implicated. Specifically, chronic inflammation has been postulated to play a role in the development and propagation of this disease. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to determine if patients with chronic inflammatory diseases have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published between 1980-2009. We focused on studies that assessed hard cardiovascular endpoints in subjects with chronic inflammatory conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although largely based on small studies, our review indicates that patients with chronic inflammatory conditions are likely at elevated risk for the development of CAD. Further research consisting of prospective cohort studies is needed to better quantify this risk.

  3. The importance of Pharmacovigilance for the drug safety: Focus on cardiovascular profile of incretin-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportiello, Liberata; Rafaniello, Concetta; Scavone, Cristina; Vitale, Cristiana; Rossi, Francesco; Capuano, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    With the recent introduction of the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation, all new drugs must be carefully monitored after admission on the European market, in order to assess the long safety profile. Currently, special attention is given to several hypoglycemic agents with recent market approval (agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors [DPP-4i]), which act through the potentiation of incretin hormone signaling. Their inclusion in European additional monitoring is also due to safety problems, which seem to characterize their pharmacological class. In fact, these drugs initially showed a good tolerability profile with mainly gastrointestinal adverse events, low risk of hypoglycemia and minor effects on body weight. But, new concerns such as infections, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and above all cardiovascular events (especially risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization) are now arising. In this review, we highlighted aspects of the new Pharmacovigilance European dispositions, and then we investigated the tolerability profile of incretin-based therapies, in particular DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, we focused our attention on new safety concerns, which are emerging mostly in the post-marketing period, as the cardiovascular risk profile. Evidence in literature and opinions of regulatory agencies (e.g., European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration) about risks of incretin-based therapies are yet controversial, and there are many open questions in particular on cancer and cardiovascular effects. Thus, it is important to continue to monitor closely the use of these drugs in clinical practice to improve the knowledge on their long-term safety and their place in diabetes therapy.

  4. The importance of Pharmacovigilance for the drug safety: Focus on cardiovascular profile of incretin-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportiello, Liberata; Rafaniello, Concetta; Scavone, Cristina; Vitale, Cristiana; Rossi, Francesco; Capuano, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    With the recent introduction of the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation, all new drugs must be carefully monitored after admission on the European market, in order to assess the long safety profile. Currently, special attention is given to several hypoglycemic agents with recent market approval (agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors [DPP-4i]), which act through the potentiation of incretin hormone signaling. Their inclusion in European additional monitoring is also due to safety problems, which seem to characterize their pharmacological class. In fact, these drugs initially showed a good tolerability profile with mainly gastrointestinal adverse events, low risk of hypoglycemia and minor effects on body weight. But, new concerns such as infections, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and above all cardiovascular events (especially risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization) are now arising. In this review, we highlighted aspects of the new Pharmacovigilance European dispositions, and then we investigated the tolerability profile of incretin-based therapies, in particular DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, we focused our attention on new safety concerns, which are emerging mostly in the post-marketing period, as the cardiovascular risk profile. Evidence in literature and opinions of regulatory agencies (e.g., European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration) about risks of incretin-based therapies are yet controversial, and there are many open questions in particular on cancer and cardiovascular effects. Thus, it is important to continue to monitor closely the use of these drugs in clinical practice to improve the knowledge on their long-term safety and their place in diabetes therapy. PMID:26461922

  5. SISTEMA ENDOCANABINOIDE: MODIFICANDO LOS FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR Endocannabinoid system: modifying cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edwin Feliciano Alfonso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de alcanzar un tratamiento óptimo para el tabaquismo, la obesidad y sus comorbilidades, conocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, ha fomentado la búsqueda de objetivos terapéuticos novedosos. Es el caso del sistema endocanabinoide, involucrado en diversos fenómenos fisiológicos entre los que se encuentran el refuerzo de ciertos comportamientos y la regulación del apetito. La sobreactivación de este sistema altera la homeostasis corporal predisponiendo a dependencias o a un aumento en la ingesta alimentaria, lo que puede traducirse en tabaquismo u obesidad. La intervención farmacológica sobre el sistema endocanabinoide puede contribuir al manejo de estos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, teniendo en cuenta que a tales beneficios se suman otros independientes de la suspensión del tabaquismo o la reducción de peso, como el aumento del colesterol de alta densidad, la disminución de triglicéridos y la mejoría del control glucémico en pacientes con diabetes. Ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados adelantados en poblaciones con diferentes características, han evaluado la utilidad de la regulación farmacológica del sistema endocanabinoide; confirmando su eficacia en personas con factores de riesgo cardiovascular establecidos.The need for an optimal treatment for smoking, obesity and their comorbidities, well-known cardiovascular risk factors; has prompted the search for novel therapeutic targets. This is the case of the endocannabinoid system, involved in several physiological phenomena including the reinforcement of certain behaviors and the regulation of appetite.

  6. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucia Pacifico; Valerio Nobili; Caterina Anania; Paola Verdecchia; Claudio Chiesa

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver histology severity and outcomes in the absence of chronic alcohol use. The mildest form is simple steatosis in which triglycerides accumulate within hepatocytes. A more advanced form of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, includes inflammation and liver cell injury, progressive to cryptogenic cirrhosis. NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity likely explains the NAFLD epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is strongly associated with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and most patients have evidence of insulin resistance. Thus, NAFLD shares many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a highly atherogenic condition, and this has stimulated interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with a significantly greater overall mortality than in the general population, as well as with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of classical atherosclerotic risk factors. Yet, several studies including the pediatric population have reported independent associations between NAFLD and impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation and increased carotid artery intimal medial thickness-two reliable markers of subclinical atherosclerosis-after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Therefore, the rising prevalence of obesity-related MetS and NAFLD in childhood may lead to a parallel increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In children, the cardiovascular system remains plastic and damage-reversible if early and appropriate interventions are established effectively. Therapeutic goals for NAFLD should address nutrition, physical activity, and avoidance of smoking to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also CVD.

  7. Prediabetes and cardiovascular risk alert programs - useful tools for preventing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular events in primary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgolici, Horia; Virgolici, Bogdana; Purcarea, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We propose alert programs, made in Excel using VBA, for general practitioners, in order not to miss the diagnosis of prediabetes and cardiovascular risk factors for their patients and to improve their management. PMID:25991138

  8. Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Roayaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation is the basis of treatment for advanced stages of prostate cancer. Cardiovascular disease may be a risk factor for mortality in prostate cancer. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT on the cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study on 2011, 35 patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer as candidates for ADT were enrolled. Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC were measured at the beginning and after the 5 th month of ADT. Results: The mean level of TG increased significantly from 130.82 ± 41.57 mg/dl to 150.05 ± 48.29 mg/dl (P < 0.012. Furthermore, serum level of TC increased from 197.62 ± 40.71 mg/dl to 212.54 ± 38.25 mg/dl, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. A non-significant increase in the serum level of FBS from 96.74 ± 14.04 mg/dl to 99.17 ± 15.23 mg/dl was also seen (P = 0.27. Conclusion: ADT in prostate cancer may lead to an increase in TG and TC levels. In patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease patient′s lipid profile should be considered during ADT.

  9. Effect of Weight Reduction on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and CD34-positive Cells in Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A Mikirova, Joseph J Casciari, Ronald E Hunninghake, Margaret M Beezley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial cells and stem/endothelial progenitor cell function associated with overweight and obesity predispose to atherosclerosis and thrombosis.In our study, we analyzed the effect of a low calorie diet in combination with oral supplementation by vitamins, minerals, probiotics and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 125-180 IUs on the body composition, lipid profile and CD34-positive cells in circulation.During this dieting program, the following parameters were assessed weekly for all participants: fat free mass, body fat, BMI, extracellular/intracellular water, total body water and basal metabolic rate. For part of participants blood chemistry parameters and circulating CD34-positive cells were determined before and after dieting.The data indicated that the treatments not only reduced body fat mass and total mass but also improved the lipid profile. The changes in body composition correlated with the level of lipoproteins responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk factors. These changes in body composition and lipid profile parameters coincided with the improvement of circulatory progenitor cell numbers.As the result of our study, we concluded that the improvement of body composition affects the number of stem/progenitor cells in circulation.

  10. Results from systematic screening for cardiovascular risk in outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis in accordance with the EULAR recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Jette; Clausen, Joan; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimate the risk of cardiovascular death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in accordance with EULAR recommendations.......To investigate risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimate the risk of cardiovascular death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in accordance with EULAR recommendations....

  11. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Bulgarian Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and/or Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta Gateva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disturbances in women of reproductive age. Besides its well-known effects on reproductive health, it is also linked to increased cardiovascular risk in later life. The aim of this study is to investigate some classical cardiovascular risk factors in a crossectional study of Bulgarian women with PCOS and/or obesity. We performed a retrospective medical chart review of 375 women from an university endocrine clinic. We found significant differences in the indices of carbohydrate metabolism, blood pressure, lipid profile, rate of liver steatosis, and the levels liver enzymes and hematological results between the lean and obese PCOS women. Obese women without PCOS did not show significantly different results in their OGGT form obese PCOS women. Waist-to-stature-ratio (WSR correlated better with the baseline IRI levels and lipid profile than waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR that makes it a better marker for unfavorable metabolic profile.

  12. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors: intervention recommendations to decrease adolescent obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.

  13. Potential Cardiovascular Risk Protection of Bilirubin in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria do Sameiro-Faria; Michaela Kohlova; Sandra Ribeiro; Petronila Rocha-Pereira; Laetitia Teixeira; Henrique Nascimento; Flávio Reis; Vasco Miranda; Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha; Alexandre Quintanilha; Luís Belo; Elísio Costa; Alice Santos-Silva

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in hemodialysis (HD) patients. An enlarged set of studies were evaluated in 191 HD patients, including hematological study, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory markers, and dialysis adequacy. The TA duplication screening in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 A1 (UGT1A1) promoter region was also performed. The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies in HD patients were 49.2%, 42.4%, and 8.4% for 6/6, 6/7, and 7/7 g...

  14. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients - The CORDIAL Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are scarce epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in Brazil. The CORDIAL study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and follow up a hemodialysis population in a Brazilian metropolitan city. All patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure in all fifteen nephrology centers of Porto Alegre were considered for inclusion in the baseline phase of the CORDIAL study. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were obtained in medical records and in structured individual interviews performed in all patients by trained researchers. A total of 1215 patients were included (97.3% of all hemodialysis patients in the city of Porto Alegre). Their average age was 58.3 years old, 59.5% were male and 62.8% were white. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors observed was 87.5% for hypertension, 84.7% for dyslipidemia, 73.1% for sedentary lifestyle, 53.7% for tobacco use, and 35.8% for diabetes. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we found that sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.032, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), dyslipidemia (p = 0.019, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), and obesity (p < 0.001, PR 1.96 - 95%CI: 1.45-2.63) were more frequent in women; and hypertension (p = 0.018, PR 1.06 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.11) and tobacco use (p = 0.006, PR 2.7 - 95%CI: 1.79-4.17) were more often found among patients under 65 years old. Sedentary lifestyle was independently associated with time in dialysis less than 12 months (p < 0.001, PR 1.23 - 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Hemodialysis patients in this southern metropolitan Brazilian city have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors resembling many northern countries

  15. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients - The CORDIAL Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo, E-mail: jb.nefro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Mosmann, Camila Borges [Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Costa, Veridiana Borges [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Faculdade de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Saraiva, Ramiro Tubino; Grandi, Renata Rech; Bastos, Juliano Peixoto [Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gonçalves, Luiz Felipe [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Faculdade de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital Mãe de Deus - Departamento de Nefrologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rosito, Guido Aranha [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    There are scarce epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in Brazil. The CORDIAL study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and follow up a hemodialysis population in a Brazilian metropolitan city. All patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure in all fifteen nephrology centers of Porto Alegre were considered for inclusion in the baseline phase of the CORDIAL study. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were obtained in medical records and in structured individual interviews performed in all patients by trained researchers. A total of 1215 patients were included (97.3% of all hemodialysis patients in the city of Porto Alegre). Their average age was 58.3 years old, 59.5% were male and 62.8% were white. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors observed was 87.5% for hypertension, 84.7% for dyslipidemia, 73.1% for sedentary lifestyle, 53.7% for tobacco use, and 35.8% for diabetes. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we found that sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.032, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), dyslipidemia (p = 0.019, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), and obesity (p < 0.001, PR 1.96 - 95%CI: 1.45-2.63) were more frequent in women; and hypertension (p = 0.018, PR 1.06 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.11) and tobacco use (p = 0.006, PR 2.7 - 95%CI: 1.79-4.17) were more often found among patients under 65 years old. Sedentary lifestyle was independently associated with time in dialysis less than 12 months (p < 0.001, PR 1.23 - 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Hemodialysis patients in this southern metropolitan Brazilian city have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors resembling many northern countries.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Screening Options in Diabetes: Framework for Selective Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available "Background: There exist several models for assessment of risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, including different criteria for diag-nosis of obesity, of which a major disparity is and lsquo;definition of waist circumference'. Case reports and comparative reviews are hereby presented to exemplify that one cap and lsquo;model' does not fit all. Cases: First case illustrates how very slim person with BMI of 17 may possess cardiovascular risk and #8805;22.7% compared to an obese in-dividual who has a BMI of 39 with CVD risk and #8804;8.0%. Second case review illustrates how the same BMI and lipid models vary in outcomes depending on gender. Third case report shows how different and lsquo;definitions of waist circumference' impacts on identification of obesity, which in turn affect decision about metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: The needs for paradigm shift and 5-step framework are briefly highlighted. [Natl J Community Med 2016; 7(6.000: 540-544

  18. Assessing cardiovascular risk in hepatitis C: An unmet need

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Ampuero; Manuel; Romero-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, as a result of the progression towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, HCV seems to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases(CVD) due to its association with insulin resistance, diabetes and steatosis. HCV infection represents an initial step in the chronic inflammatory cascade, showing a direct rolein altering glucose metabolism. After achieving sustained virological response, the incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes dramatically decrease. HCV core protein plays an essential role in promoting insulin resistance and oxidative stress. On the other hand, atherosclerosis is a common disease in which the artery wall thickens due to accumulation of fatty deposits. The main step in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques is the oxidation of low density lipoprotein particles, together with the increased production of proinflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin(IL)-6, IL-18 or C-reactive protein]. The advent of new direct acting antiviral therapy has dramatically increased the sustained virological response rates of hepatitis C infection. In this scenario, the cardiovascular risk has emerged and represents a major concern after the eradication of the virus. Consequently, the number of studies evaluating this association is growing. Data derived from these studies have demonstrated the strong link between HCV infection and the atherogenic process, showing a higher risk of coronary heart disease, carotid atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease and, ultimately, CVD-related mortality.

  19. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors.

  20. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease stratified by body mass index categories in patients with wheelchair-dependent paraplegia after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Flank, Peter; Wahman, Kerstin; Levi, Richard; Fahlström, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk factors for cardiovascular disease at different body mass index values in persons with wheelchair-dependent paraplegia after spinal cord injuries. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 135 individuals, age range 18-79 years, with chronic (>= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia. Methods: Body mass index was stratified into 6 categorical groups. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a serum lipid profile were analyse...

  1. Obesity and the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew J. Sorrentino

    2006-01-01

    @@ The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide has many experts concerned about the worsening health of a large proportion of the population. It is well recognized that obesity is associated with a higher mortality, an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, gall bladder disease and possibly some cancers. Currently it is estimated that over two thirds of adults in the United States are overweight and nearly one third are clinically obese.1 Of special concern is the rapid increase in obesity among children. Other countries both developed and developing are experiencing similar trends.

  2. Using Machine Learning Algorithms in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sitar-Taut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if Medicine and Computer Science seemapparently intangible domains, they collaborate each otherfor few decades. One of the faces of this cooperation is DataMining, a relative new and multidisciplinary field capable toextract valuable information from large sets of data. Despitethis fact, in cardiology related studies it was rarely used. Weassume that some data mining tools can be used as asubstitute for some complex, expensive, uncomfortable, timeconsuming, and sometimes dangerous medical examinations.This paper aims to show that cardiovascular diseases may bepredicted by classical risk factors analyzed and processed ina “non-invasive” way.

  3. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  4. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebe D’Adamo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and estimated 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular events using various equations in Greeks with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimonas, Theodoros; Athyros, Vassilios G; Ganotakis, Emmanouel; Nicolaou, Vassilios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Elisaf, Moses

    2010-01-01

    We investigated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 1501 Greeks (613 men and 888 women, aged 40-65 years) referred to outpatients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and without diabetes mellitus or CVD. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD events was calculated using European Society of Cardiology Systematic Coronary Risk Estimation (ESC SCORE), Hellenic-SCORE, and Framingham equations. Raised blood pressure (BP) and hypertriglyceridemia were more common in men (89.6% vs 84.2% and 86.8% vs 74.2%, respectively; P < .001). Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and abdominal obesity were more common in women (58.2% vs 66.2% and 85.8% vs 97.1%, respectively; P < .001). The 10-year risk of fatal CVD events using HellenicSCORE was higher in men (6.3% +/- 4.3% vs 2.7% +/- 2.1%; P < .001). European Society of Cardiology Systematic Coronary Risk Estimation and Framingham yielded similar results. The risk equations gave similar assessments in a European Mediterranean population except for HellenicSCORE that calculated more MetS women requiring risk modification. This might justify local risk engine evaluation in event-based studies. (Clinical-Trials.gov ID: NCT00416741).

  6. Hipotiroidismo subclínico y factores de riesgo cardiovascular Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª C. Frías López

    2011-12-01

    center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods: An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal history: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. Results: The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Conclusions: Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%, similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40% and obesity (23% and lowest in hypertension (23%. In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  7. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  8. General practitioners’ use of absolute risk versus individual risk factors in cardiovascular disease prevention: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Jesse; Bonner, Carissa; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Glasziou, Paul ,; Doust, Jenny; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Hayen, Andrew; Turner, Robin; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand general practitioners’ (GPs) use of individual risk factors (blood pressure and cholesterol levels) versus absolute risk in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management decision-making. Design Randomised experiment. Absolute risk, systolic blood pressure (SBP), cholesterol ratio (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL)) and age were systematically varied in hypothetical cases. High absolute risk was defined as 5-year risk of a cardiovascular event >15%, hig...

  9. Short-Term Effects of Screening for Cardiovascular Risk in the Deaf Community: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the risk of cardiovascular disease amongst the Deaf community. Given that the access of Deaf people to mainstream health promotion is likely to be hindered by language barriers, we were interested to assess the short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion within this group. Using a pilot study we investigated changes in cardiovascular risk factors amongst Deaf people identified to be at high cardiovascular risk, who received standard health promotion by a medical team specializing in cardiovascular health promotion. The short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion in this group did not reduce estimates of cardiovascular risk. The reasons for this are likely to relate to the design and delivery of health promotion to Deaf people, which deserves further study.

  10. Potential role of Borreria hispida in ameliorating cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, Hannah R; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Ray, Diptarka; Veeraraghavan, Gayathri; Das, Dipak K

    2009-06-01

    Borreria hispida (BHE), a weed of Rubiaceae family, is being used from time immemorial as an alternative therapy for diabetes. To evaluate the scientific background of using BHE as therapy to reduce cardiovascular risk, a group of rats were given BHE for a period of 30 days, whereas control animals were given the vehicle only. The animals were sacrificed, the hearts were isolated, and perfused with buffer. All the hearts were subjected to 30-minute ischemia followed by 2-hour reperfusion. Compared with vehicle-treated rats, BHE-treated rat hearts showed improved post-ischemic ventricular function and exhibited reduced myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The level of cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activation was also reduced. BHE elevated antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 and stimulated the phosphorylation of survival protein Akt simultaneously decreasing the apoptotic proteins Bax and Src. In addition, BHE enhanced the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta, and Glut-4, probably revealing the antiobese and antidiabetic potential of BHE. These results indicate that treatment with BHE improves cardiac function and ameliorates various risk factors associated with cardiac disease, suggesting that BHE can be considered as a potential plant-based nutraceutical and pharmaceutical agent for the management of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19455054

  11. ROLE OF VARIOUS RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Wal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality world wide. Increasing rate of CAD mortality and projected rise in CAD mortality for 2020 in the developing world necessitates immediate prevention and control measures. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is generally due to reduced blood flow to the heart, brain or body caused by atheroma or thrombosis. It is increasingly common after the age of 60, but rare below the age of 30. Plaques (plates of fatty atheroma build up in different arteries during adult life. These can eventually cause narrowing of the arteries, or trigger a local thrombosis (blood clot which completely blocks the blood flow. Despite scientific evidence that evidence based drug therapy reduce mortality in patients with established CAD, these therapies continue to be underutilized in patients receiving conventional care. It is essential to identify and manage risk factors for coronary artery diseases and to implement unique and creative approaches to stimulate better adherence to practice guidelines, to improve the quality of care given to patients with CAD. Reduction of SBP, DBP, heart rate, and body fat%, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL after regular yogic practices is beneficial for cardiac and hypertensive patients. Emphasis focusing on conventional risk factors, lifestyle modifications, smoking cessation, reduction of central obesity through dietary modification and exercise, can be proved to be the key interventions for preventing CAD.

  12. Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA; CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75 RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001 and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001. Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP, in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.

  13. Cigarette use and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: an unappreciated modifiable lifestyle risk factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2012-01-31

    Tobacco use is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and contributes to excess cardiovascular risk. Emerging evidence from large-scale observational studies suggests that continued tobacco use is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of smoking cessation programs on improving the heath status of patients and reducing mortality are unequivocal in the general population. Despite this, there has been little effort in pursuing tobacco cessation programs in dialysis cohorts or those with lesser degrees of kidney impairment. Most of our attention to date has focused on the development of "kidney-specific" interventions that reduce rates of renal disease progression and improve dialysis outcomes. The purpose of this current review is to describe the epidemiology of tobacco use among patients with CKD, draw attention to its negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and finally highlight potential strategies for successful intervention. We hope that this study heightens the importance of tobacco use in CKD, stimulates renewed interest in the barriers and challenges that exist in achieving smoking cessation, and endorses the efficacy of intervention strategies and the immeasurable benefits of quitting on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes.

  14. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk by using Framingham Risk Equation amongst the Residents of Ahmedabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Parikh, Manish Patel, Hemant Tiwari, D V Bala, Bhavin Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Results: The median 10-year probability of CHD was 2.9% (5.6% for men and 1.8% for women. One third (33.4% population above 30 years had CVD risk 20% or more. Males had significantly higher CVD risk as compared to females (20% of males & 4.5% of female had high CVD risk. Cardiovascular disease risk was also person with inadequate sleep & in executives. Conclusion- Higher risk in males & unskilled worker was mainly due to tobacco addiction while in executives it was mainly due to diabetes & obesity.

  15. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion. PMID:26238744

  16. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in Turkish immigrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus : Comparison with Dutch patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitewaal, PJM; Goudswaard, AN; Ubnik-Veltmaat, LJ; Bruijnzeels, MA; Hoes, AW; Thomas, S

    2004-01-01

    Background: Based on recent epidemiological studies the need for a similar approach towards management of cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetics with different ethnic background can be questioned. We compared the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and 10-year absolute risk for a coro

  18. Dyslipidemias in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: risks and causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian; Cooney, Marie-Therese; Bradley, David; Dudina, Alexandra; Reiner, Zeljko

    2012-12-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is now the major global cause of death, despite reductions in CVD deaths in developed societies. Dyslipidemias are a major contributor, but the mass occurrence of CVD relates to the combined effects of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and smoking. Total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol relate to CVD risk in an independent and graded manner and fulfill the criteria for causality. Therapeutic reduction of these lipid fractions is associated with improved outcomes. There is good evidence that HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and Lp(a) relate to CVD although the evidence for a causal relationship is weaker. The HDL association with CVD is largely independent of other risk factors whereas triglycerides may be more important as signaling a need to look intensively for other measures of risk such as central obesity, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, and glucose intolerance. Lp(a) is an inherited risk marker. The benefit of lowering it is uncertain, but it may be that its impact on risk is attenuated if LDL-cholesterol is low.

  19. Physical activity in prevention and reduction of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Oggiano Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is evidence that physical activity decreases the degree of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries in persons who are physically active by modifying the chemistry and metabolism of lipoproteins. The effect of physical activity on the lipid status is achieved by affecting the enzymes of lipoprotein metabolism including the lipoprotein and liver lipase and transport protein of cholesterol esters. Epidemiological investigations on the effect of physical activity in prevention of cardiovascular diseases point to the fact that the persons who have a higher degree of cardio-respiratory endurance have a much lower mortality rate than those with a lower degree. The positive effect of physical activity on the cardiovascular system is reflected on the improved aerobic capacity, metabolic function, amplification of lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, immunological functions; it increases the perfusion of myocardium and the fibrinolytic activity, and reduces the adherence of thrombocytes due to increased synthesis of prostaglandin (PGI2, it also enhances the energy consumption, which is important in the maintenance of ideal bodyweight, prevention and treatment of obesity, and it has a positive effect on the control of stress. Conclusion With respect to the effects on the lipid status, aerobic physical exercises like running, swimming, cycling, with the intensity of training of a medium (65% VO2 load, have a positive effect on lipid status. The best form of physical activity is the one in which the endurance and power are increased.

  20. Association between job strain (high demand-low control and cardiovascular disease risk factors among petrochemical industry workers

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    Siamak Poorabdian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the practical models for assessment of stressful working conditions due to job strain is "job demand and control" or Karasek's job strain model. This model explains how adverse physical and psychological effects including cardiovascular disease risk factors can be established due to high work demand. The aim was to investigate how certain cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index (BMI, heart rate, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking are associated with job demand and control in workers. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 500 subjects completed "job demand and control" questionnaires. Factor analysis method was used in order to specify the most important "job demand and control" questions. Health check-up records of the workers were applied to extract data about cardiovascular disease risk factors. Ultimately, hypothesis testing, based on Eta, was used to assess the relationship between separated working groups and cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and serum total cholesterol level. Results: A significant relationship was found between the job demand-control model and cardiovascular risk factors. In terms of chisquared test results, the highest value was assessed for heart rate (Chi2 = 145.078. The corresponding results for smoking and BMI were Chi2 = 85.652 and Chi2 = 30.941, respectively. Subsequently, Eta result for total cholesterol was 0.469, followed by hypertension equaling 0.684. Moreover, there was a significant difference between cardiovascular risk factors and job demand-control profiles among different working groups including the operational group, repairing group and servicing group. Conclusion: Job control and demand are significantly related to heart disease risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cigarette smoking.

  1. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in a rural community in the Brazilian state of Bahia

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    André Costa Matos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in the rural community of Cavunge, in the Brazilian state of Bahia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 160 individuals (age > 19 years randomly drawn from those listed in the population census of the Cavunge Project. The following parameters were studied: arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, waist-hip ratio (WHR, physical activity, and overall cardiovascular risk classified according to the Framingham score. The assessing parameters used were those established by the III Brazilian Consensus on Hypertension and the II Brazilian Consensus on Dyslipidemia. RESULTS: Of the randomly drawn individuals, 126 with a mean age of 46.6 + 19.7 years were included in the study, 43.7% of whom were males. The frequency of arterial hypertension was 36.5%; 20.4% of the individuals had cholesterol levels >240 mg/dL; 31.1% of the individuals had LDL-C levels > 130 mg/dL; 4% were diabetic; and 39.7% had a high-risk Framingham score. Abdominal obesity was observed in 41.3% of the population and in 57.7% of the females. High caloric-expenditure (HCE physical activities were performed by 56.5% of the individuals. The HCE group had a greater frequency of normal triglyceride levels (63% vs 44%; P=0.05, no diabetes, and WHR tending towards normal (46% vs 27%, P=0.08 as compared with those in the low caloric-expenditure group. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are frequently found in rural communities. The greatest frequency of normal triglyceride levels and normal WHR in the HCE group reinforces the association between greater caloric expenditure and a better risk profile.

  2. Application of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models and the relevance of novel biomarkers to risk stratification in Asian Indians

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    S Kanjilal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available S Kanjilal1, VS Rao1, M Mukherjee1, BK Natesha1, KS Renuka1, K Sibi1, SS Iyengar1, Vijay V Kakkar1,21Tata Proteomics and Coagulation Department, Thrombosis Research Institute, Bangalore, Narayana Hrudayalaya Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 2Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UKAbstract: The increasing pressure on health resources has led to the emergence of risk assessment as an essential tool in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Concern exists regarding the validity of their generalization to all populations. Existing risk scoring models do not incorporate emerging ‘novel’ risk factors. In this context, the aim of the study was to examine the relevance of British, European, and Framingham predictive CVD risk scores to the asymptomatic high risk Indian population. Blood samples drawn from the participants were analyzed for various ‘traditional’ and ‘novel’ biomarkers, and their CVD risk factor profiling was also done. The Framingham model defined only 5% of the study cohort to be at high risk, which appears to be an underestimation of CVD risk in this genetically predisposed population. These subjects at high risk had significantly elevated levels of lipid, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and serological markers. It is more relevant to develop risk predictive scores for application to the Indian population. This study substantiates the argument that alternative approaches to risk stratification are required in order to make them more adaptable and applicable to different populations with varying risk factor and disease patterns.Keywords: atherosclerosis, risk factors, risk score, Framingham, plasma biomarkers

  3. Application of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models and the relevance of novel biomarkers to risk stratification in Asian Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kanjilal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available S Kanjilal1, VS Rao1, M Mukherjee1, BK Natesha1, KS Renuka1, K Sibi1, SS Iyengar1, Vijay V Kakkar1,21Tata Proteomics and Coagulation Department, Thrombosis Research Institute, Bangalore, Narayana Hrudayalaya Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 2Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UKAbstract: The increasing pressure on health resources has led to the emergence of risk assessment as an essential tool in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Concern exists regarding the validity of their generalization to all populations. Existing risk scoring models do not incorporate emerging ‘novel’ risk factors. In this context, the aim of the study was to examine the relevance of British, European, and Framingham predictive CVD risk scores to the asymptomatic high risk Indian population. Blood samples drawn from the participants were analyzed for various ‘traditional’ and ‘novel’ biomarkers, and their CVD risk factor profiling was also done. The Framingham model defined only 5% of the study cohort to be at high risk, which appears to be an underestimation of CVD risk in this genetically predisposed population. These subjects at high risk had significantly elevated levels of lipid, pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic, and serological markers. It is more relevant to develop risk predictive scores for application to the Indian population. This study substantiates the argument that alternative approaches to risk stratification are required in order to make them more adaptable and applicable to different populations with varying risk factor and disease patterns.Keywords: atherosclerosis, risk factors, risk score, Framingham, plasma biomarkers

  4. Potential Cardiovascular Risk Protection of Bilirubin in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Hemodialysis

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    Maria do Sameiro-Faria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in hemodialysis (HD patients. An enlarged set of studies were evaluated in 191 HD patients, including hematological study, lipid profile, iron metabolism, nutritional, inflammatory markers, and dialysis adequacy. The TA duplication screening in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 A1 (UGT1A1 promoter region was also performed. The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies in HD patients were 49.2%, 42.4%, and 8.4% for 6/6, 6/7, and 7/7 genotypes, respectively. Although no difference was found in UGT1A1 genotype distribution between the three tertiles of bilirubin, significant differences were found with increasing bilirubin levels, namely, a decrease in platelet, leukocyte, and lymphocyte counts, transferrin, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, ox-LDL/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, apolipoprotein (Apo A, Apo B, and interleukin-6 serum levels and a significant increased concentration of hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte count, iron, transferrin saturation, Apo A/Apo B ratio, adiponectin, and paraoxonase 1 serum levels. After adjustment for age these results remained significant. Our data suggest that higher bilirubin levels are associated with beneficial effects in HD patients, by improving lipid profile and reducing the inflammatory grade, which might contribute to increase in iron availability. These results suggest a potential cardiovascular risk protection of bilirubin in HD patients.

  5. Assessment of the Body Composition and Parameters of the Cardiovascular Risk in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

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    Ewa Jednacz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate cardiovascular risk parameters, body mass index (BMI centiles for sex and age, and body fat percentage using the electric bioimpedance method in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. 30 children with JIA participated in the study. A control group included 20 children. Patients were well matched for the age and sex. The body mass and body fat percentage were determined using the segmental body composition analyser; the BMI centiles were determined. All patients had the following parameters determined: lipid profile, hsCRP, homocysteine, and IL-6. The intima media thickness (IMT was measured. Patients with JIA had significantly lower body weight, BMI, and the BMI centile compared to the control group. The IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with JIA compared to the control group. There were no differences between two groups with regard to the lipid profile, % content of the fat tissue, homocysteine levels, hsCRP, and IMT. Further studies are necessary to search for reasons for lower BMI and BMI centile in children with JIA and to attempt to answer the question of whether lower BMI increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients, similarly as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.

  6. Relationship between Sarcopenic Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk as Estimated by the Framingham Risk Score

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Yong Soon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the association between sarcopenic obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Korean adults (n=3,320; ≥40 yr) who participated in the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight was calculated for each participant; participants with values

  7. p-Cresol and Cardiovascular Risk in Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Björn K.I.; Claes, Kathleen; Bammens, Bert; De Loor, Henriette; Viaene, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Kristin; Kuypers, Dirk; Vanrenterghem, Yves; Evenepoel, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease. Traditional risk factors are insufficient to explain the high cardiovascular disease prevalence. Free p-cresol serum concentrations, mainly circulating as its derivative p-cresyl sulfate, are associated with cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. It is not known if p-cresol is associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet on dialysis.

  8. Circadian Role in Daily Pattern of Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael F.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven A.

    2004-03-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate that sudden cardiac death, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke have a 24-hour daily pattern with a broad peak between 9-11am. Such a daily pattern in cardiovascular risk could be attributable to external factors, such as the daily behavior patterns, including sleep-wake cycles and activity levels, or internal factors, such as the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Findings of significant alternations in the temporal organization and nonlinear properties of heartbeat fluctuations with disease and with sleep-wake transitions raise the intriguing possibility that changes in the mechanism of control associated with behavioral sleep-wake transition may be responsible for the increased cardiac instability observed in particular circadian phases. Alternatively, we hypothesize that there is a circadian clock, independent of the sleep-wake cycle, which affects the cardiac dynamics leading to increased cardiovascular risk. We analyzed continuous recordings from healthy subjects during 7 cycles of forced desynchrony routine wherein subjects' sleep-wake cycles are adjusted to 28 hours so that their behaviors occur across all circadian phases. Heartbeat data were divided into one-hour segments. For each segment, we estimated the correlations and the nonlinear properties of the heartbeat fluctuations at the corresponding circadian phase. Since the sleep and wake contributions are equally weighted in our experiment, a change of the properties of the heartbeat dynamics with circadian phase suggest a circadian rhythm. We show significant circadian-mediated alterations in the correlation and nonlinear properties of the heartbeat resembling those observed in patients with heart failure. Remarkably, these dynamical alterations are centered at 60 degrees circadian phase, coinciding with the 9-11am window of cardiac risk.

  9. Rationale - Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events with Aranesp Therapy (TREAT) : Evolving the management of cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mix, TCH; Brenner, RM; Cooper, ME; de Zeeuw, D; Ivanovich, P; Levey, AS; McGill, JB; McMurray, JJV; Parfrey, PS; Parving, HH; Pereira, BJG; Remuzzi, G; Singh, AK; Solomon, SD; Stehman-Breen, C; Toto, RD; Pfeffer, MA

    2005-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high burden of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. Additional strategies to modulate cardiovascular risk in this population are needed. Data suggest that anemia is a potent and potentially modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular dise

  10. Predictive Value of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Risk Assessment in Cohort of Shiraz Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk assessment for fast growing burden of cardiovascular diseases is very important and dif- ficult. As a response to this challenge, in particular, genetic risk factors which potentially modify risk, we conducted a survey of primary data registry of Shiraz Heart Study on integration and application of family history data in prevention of cardiovascular disorders.Method: This study is a longitudinal cohort project to be extended from subpopulations of different job groups to the community.Results: Parental family history of MI, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia (HPL, hypertension (HTN was reported more frequently among females than males. Histories of MI, DM, HPL, and HTN in both parents were respectively positive in 2.6%, 2%, 4.6%, and 7.9 % of the participants. Odd ratios (OR for risk of MI from family history of MI were 2.7; risk of DM from family history of DM 4.5; risk of HPL from family history of HPL 2.04; and risk of HTN from family history HTN 4.7. Also, family history of MI modifies risk of HPL (OR=1.7, P<0.0001; and family history of DM modifies risk of HPL (OR=2.04, P<0.0001.Conclusion: Our primary result shows potent application of family history data in risk assessment of cardiovascular outcome. In particular, HTN appears as a silent and leading risk modifier. In regard to the course of continuing Shiraz Heart Study integration of family history of risk factors crucial in public health we suggest to adopt a network of electronic health records from the “Health House” to the “Heart House”.

  11. Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

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    Matthew J. Picklo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.

  12. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-04-01

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction. PMID:23538940

  13. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: assessment, management and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegkos, Thomas; Kitas, George; Dimitroulas, Theodoros

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality which cannot be fully explained by traditional CV risk factors; cumulative inflammatory burden and antirheumatic medication-related cardiotoxicity seem to be important contributors. Despite the acknowledgment and appreciation of CV disease burden in RA, optimal management of individuals with RA represents a challenging task which remains suboptimal. To address this need, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) published recommendations suggesting the adaptation of traditional risk scores by using a multiplication factor of 1.5 if two of three specific criteria are fulfilled. Such guidance requires proper coordination of several medical specialties, including general practitioners, rheumatologists, cardiologists, exercise physiologists and psychologists to achieve a desirable result. Tight control of disease activity, management of traditional risk factors and lifestyle modification represent, amongst others, the most important steps in improving CV disease outcomes in RA patients. Rather than enumerating studies and guidelines, this review attempts to critically appraise current literature, highlighting future perspectives of CV risk management in RA.

  14. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Noori, Nazanin; Zavareh, Maryam Beheshti; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-04-01

    The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intakes as means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, only limited data are available on the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on CVD risk factors in a community-based population. The aim of this study was to examine whether, and to what extent, intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely associated with CVD risk factors in adults. In this population-based cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 840 Tehranian adults (male and female) aged 18 to 74 years was randomly selected in 1998. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for lifestyle and nutritional confounders was used in 2 models. After adjusting for confounders, dietary fruit and vegetable were found to be significantly and inversely associated with CVD risk factors. Adjusted odds ratio for high low-density lipoprotein concentrations were 1.00, 0.88, 0.81, and 0.75 (P for trend fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with the risk of CVD per se in a dose-response manner.

  15. STUDY OF RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL PROFILE OF ACUTE STROKE

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    Tomar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available `INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. In India Community Surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate for hemiplegia 200 per 1, 00, 000 population. It accounts for nearly 1.5% of all urban admissions, 4.5 % of all medical and about 20% of neurological cases. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Identification of risk factors and evaluation of clinical profile of acute stroke. MATERIAL AND METHOD: INCLUSION CRITERIA: Cases of acute stoke admitted in SGMH hospital were selected for the study. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Brain injury cases, infective, neoplastic cases producing stroke were excluded. RESULTS: Stroke was more common in male, 58 % patients were male and 42% patients were female. It was more common in 5th and 6th decade. Most common etiology was infarction. Most common risk factor was hypertension followed by smoking. In addition to limb weakness, headache and vomiting were most common presenting symptoms followed by convulsion. These symptoms were more common in hemorrhagic stroke. Right sided hemiplegia was more common than left sided. Middle cerebral artery was involved in majority of cases in atherothrombotic stroke whereas basal ganglion was most common site of bleed in hemorrhagic stroke. Coma and mortality were more in hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSION: The risk factors and clinical profile of acute stroke in India are similar to that of Western countries. Common risk factors are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia

  16. Management of High Blood Pressure in Those without Overt Cardiovascular Disease Utilising Absolute Risk Scores

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    Mark R. Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing blood pressure has a continuum of adverse risk for cardiovascular events. Traditionally this single measure was used to determine who to treat and how vigorously. However, estimating absolute risk rather than measurement of a single risk factor such as blood pressure is a superior method to identify who is most at risk of having an adverse cardiovascular event such as stroke or myocardial infarction, and therefore who would most likely benefit from therapeutic intervention. Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk calculators must be used to estimate absolute risk in those without overt CVD as physician estimation is unreliable. Incorporation into usual practice and limitations of the strategy are discussed.

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Factors - Clinical and Epidemiologic profiles in the subjects of the "Atividade Física na Vila" Project Fatores de risco cardiovascular - Perfil clínico e epidemiológico dos participantes do projeto Atividade Física na Vila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Simon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The group of atherothrombotic cardiovascular diseases represents one of the leading causes of death around the world. Atherosclerosis is a condition of multifactorial origin, with great genetic and familiar dependence, besides being characterized by an elevated aggravation trend related to lifestyle. Our objective was to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk (CVR factors and Metabolic Syndrome (MS, as well as to estimate the cardiovascular risk in the subjects of the "Atividade Física na Vila" Project. By means of a cross sectional study, 48 patients aged between 23 and 74 (41 women and 7 men were screened for the presence of sedentary lifestyle, smoking, family antecedents of Diabetes mellitus type 22 (DM or Coronary artery disease, obesity, abdominal obesity, High Blood Pressure (HBP, DM2, Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG, Lipid abnormalities, and MS. This prevalence was compared to the available general population data. The MS definition was that of the NCEP. The CVR was estimated using the Framingham Score (FS, and compared among the groups with and without MS. 67% of the patients were 50 or older and 46% were 55 or older. There was a high prevalence of CVR factors compared to the population data, specially in the case of sedentary lifestyle (52% x 56%, NS, obesity (men 14% x 9%, NS; women 39% x 13%, P<0.05, HBP (56% x 32%, P<0.05, high total cholesterol (63% x 40%, P<0.05. The prevalence of DM2, IFG, abdominal obesity and MS was 10%, 21%, 60% and 27%, respectively. The mean FS was 5,2 ± 5,5, significantly higher in the patients with MS (9,5 ± 3,1 x 3,5 ± 5,4 p<0.05. These data indicate the high prevalence of CVR factors, and suggest its synergy in elevating the global CVR represented by the FS, as well as strongly support the need for changes in the lifestyle of these patients.

    As doenças cardiovasculares aterotrombóticas representam uma das principais causas de morte no mundo. A aterosclerose é uma patologia de origem

  18. Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls

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    Mohammad-Reza Parizadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls.Methods: A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools.Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometricassessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regionalfat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status.Findings: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular riskfactors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total andregional body fat percent (P<0.001. After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat massespecially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure.Conclusion: Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI and Waist Circumference (WC may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Diabetic indicators are the strongest predictors for cardiovascular disease risk in African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ashley N; Ralston, Penny A; Young-Clark, Iris; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to other racial groups. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors play a role in the development of both diseases. This study assessed diabetes indicators in relation to other CVD risk factors taking into account confounders, among African American adults. This was a cross-sectional study in mid-life and older African Americans (≥45 years) who were recruited from the local churches. Fasting blood was collected and serum analyzed for diabetes indicators, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile. CVD risk scores were determined using the American Heart Association and Framingham Risk Score assessments. Homeostasis Model Assessments (HOMAs) were calculated using glucose and insulin concentrations. Confounding variables were assessed by questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 21, and pDescriptive statistics was used to analyze continuous variables. Frequencies and percentages were used to examine categorical variables. T-tests compared different groups while Pearson correlations provided preliminary relationships and determined variables for multiple regression analyses. A total of n=79 participants were evaluated (69% women), 59.3±9.2 years, BMI=34.7±8.3 (mean ± SD). As expected, AA men had higher fasting blood glucose than women (123.6±54.9 mg/dL versus 99.0±21.8 mg/dL), and AA women had higher insulin (11.8±13.1 mg/dL versus 7.6±6.0 mg/dL). Our study confirmed that it is likely for AA men to have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations in comparison to AA women. Based on the CVD risk assessments, men had a significantly higher risk of developing CVD than women, which has been shown previously. Apolipoproteins, adipokines, and lipid profile also negatively influenced the cardiovascular health outcomes in men. Dietary intake, probably by influencing participants' weight/adiposity, contributed to the differences in

  20. Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health.

  1. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dijana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CVS morbidity and mortality in the endstage renal disease (ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy is 10-30 folds higher than in general population. The prevalence of well known traditional risk factors such as age, sex, race, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity is higher in the uraemic patients. Besides these, there are specific, nontraditional risk factors for dialysis patients. Mild inflammation present in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients which can be confirmed by specific inflammatory markers is the cause of CVS morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hypoalbuminaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in the PD patients. Plasma norepinephrine, an indicator of sympathetic activity, is high in the ESRD patients and higher in the PD patients than in the patients on haemodialysis (HD. Therefore, norepinephrine may be a stronger risk factor in the PD patients. The same applies to asymmetric dimethylargine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, which is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality 15 % higher in the PD than the HD patients. Hyperphosphataemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and high calcium x phosphate product have been associated with the progression of the coronary artery calcification and valvular calcifications and predict all-cause CVS mortality in the PD patients. Residual renal function (RRF declines with time on dialysis but is slower in the PD than the HD patients. RRF decline is associated with the rise of proinflammatory cytokines and the onset of hypervolaemia and hypertension which increase the risk of CVS diseases, mortality in general and CVS mortality. In conclusion, it is very important to establish all CVS risk factors in the PD patients to prevent CVS diseases and CVS mortality in this population.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors and primary selection into shift work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Tüchsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    : In the unadjusted analyses, baseline obesity was associated with fixed evening work at follow-up. Minimal or light-to-moderate leisure-time physical activity was associated with a decrease in the odds ratio (OR) for two or three shifts including night work. Smoking status was associated with fixed evening work......OBJECTIVES: This study examined differences between future shift workers and future day workers as regards cardiovascular risk factors before they began different work schedules and the differences that remained after control for sociodemographic factors and general self-efficacy. METHODS......, fixed night work, and two- or three- shift work including night work. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors and general self-efficacy, smoking was prospectively associated with fixed evening work [OR 1.56, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-2.02] and fixed night work (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1...

  3. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Migrants Participating in the PEP Family Heart Study, Nuremberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascularrisk factors in adults and their children from the 3 majorgroups of migrants participating in the PEP Family Heart Study 11 andto compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles between migrants andGerman participants.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, anthropometricdata, blood pressure and lipid profiles of migrants (480 children,363 adults from Turkey (TUR, Eastern Europe (EEU and Germanimmigrants from the former Soviet Union (GFSU were comparedwith age- and gender adjusted German (GER residents (3253 children,2491 adults.Results: The profile of risk factors differed considerably regardingspecificity and frequency. The prevalence of ≥3 risk factors was asfollows: in GFSU men 62%, women 36%, boys 19% and girls 17%; inTUR men 57%, women 30%, 15% boys and 6% girls; in GER men48%, women 19%, boys 4% and girls 6%; for EEU men 38%, women25% and 0% in children. No risk factor was present in GFSU men13%, women 25%, boys 38% and girls 42%; TUR men 13%, women28%, boys 27% and girls 22 %; GER men16%, women 45%, boys 46%and girls 41%; EEU men 17%, women 42 %, boys 29% and girls 27%.About 50% of the adults from Turkey and Eastern Europe were currentsmokers and one third of women and half of men from these twocountries were overweight.Conclusions: The implementation of primary care measures for theprevention of cardiovascular disease in migrants is necessary, and itshould consider the ethnic differences and the heterogeneous risk profiles

  4. Cardiovascular event-free survival after adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer patients stratified by cardiovascular risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of a cardiovascular event or death associated with modern radiation in a population of elderly female breast cancer patients with varying baseline cardiovascular risk. The data used for this analysis are from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database. The retrospective cohort study included women aged 66 years and older with stage 0–III breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2005. Women were grouped as low, intermediate, or high cardiovascular risk based on the presence of certain clinical diagnoses. The risk for the combined outcome of a hospitalization for a cardiovascular event or death within 6 months and 24 months of diagnosis was estimated using a multivariable Cox model. The median follow-up time was 24 months. Among the 91,612 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 0–III breast cancer: 39,555 (43.2%) were treated with radiation therapy and 52,057 (56.8%) were not. The receipt of radiation therapy in the first 6 months was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for the combined outcome in women categorized as high risk (HR = 1.510; 95% CI, 1.396–1.634) or intermediate risk (HR = 1.415; 95% CI, 1.188–1.686) but not low risk (HR = 1.027; 95% CI, 0.798–1.321). Women with a prior medical history of cardiovascular disease treated with radiation therapy are at increased risk for an event and should be monitored for at least 6 months following treatment with radiation therapy

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Management in Prerenal Transplantation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Eric M; Hall, Amanda K; Hess, Jordan; Abraham, Jo; Smith, Brigham; Hopkins, Paul N; Shihab, Fuad; Welt, Frederick; Owan, Theophilus; Fang, James C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) assessment in prerenal transplant patients varies by center. Current guidelines recommend stress testing for candidates if ≥ 3 CV risk factors exist. We evaluated the CV assessment and management in 685 patients referred for kidney transplant over a 7-year period. All patients had CV risk factors, and the most common cause of end-stage renal disease was diabetes. Thirty-three percent (n = 229) underwent coronary angiography. The sensitivity of stress testing to detect obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was poor (0.26). Patients who had no CAD, nonobstructive CAD, or CAD with intervention had significantly higher event-free survival compared with patients with obstructive CAD without intervention. There were no adverse clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, and graft failure) within 30 days post-transplant in patients who had preoperative angiography (n = 77). Of the transplanted patients who did not have an angiogram (n = 289), there were 8 clinical events (6 myocardial infarctions) in the first 30 days. In conclusion, our results indicate that stress testing and usual risk factors were poor predictors of obstructive CAD and that revascularization may prove beneficial in these patients.

  6. Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations. PMID:26350421

  7. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections: associated risk factors and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohacek, Martin; Baddour, Larry M

    2015-01-01

    Infections of cardiovascular implantable electric devices (CIED) are a burden on patients and healthcare systems and should be prevented. The most frequent pathogens are coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus. The most important risk factors for CIED infections are diabetes mellitus, renal and heart failure, corticosteroid use, oral anticoagulation, fever within 24 hours before the procedure and leucocytosis, implantable cardioverter defibrillator compared with pacemaker, especially in the case of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, lack of antibiotic prophylaxis, and postoperative haematoma and other wound complications. Other important risk factors are history of prior procedures and previous CIED infections, number of leads, use of povidone-iodine compared with chlorhexidine-alcohol, and centres and operators with a low volume of implants. To prevent CIED infections, patients undergoing CIED procedures and appropriate devices should be carefully selected, and interventions should be performed by trained operators. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered, and skin antisepsis should be done with chlorhexidine-alcohol. Oral anticoagulation should be continued during CIED procedures in high-risk patients for thromboembolism, instead of bridging with heparin. Early reintervention in cases of haematoma or lead dislodgement should be avoided. The implementation of infection prevention programmes reduces infection rates. More randomised controlled studies are needed to evaluate prevention strategies, especially skin preparation and antibiotic prophylaxis with glycopeptides. PMID:26230056

  8. Arterial stiffness, central hemodynamics, and cardiovascular risk in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palatini P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Palatini1, Edoardo Casiglia1, Jerzy Gąsowski2, Jerzy Głuszek3, Piotr Jankowski4, Krzysztof Narkiewicz5, Francesca Saladini1, Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek4, Valérie Tikhonoff1, Luc Van Bortel6, Wiktoria Wojciechowska4, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz41Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Padova, Padua, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Arterial Hypertension, University Hospital, Poznan, Poland; 4First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 5Department of Hypertension and Diabetology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 6Heymans Institute of Pharmacology, Ghent University, Ghent, BelgiumAbstract: This review summarizes several scientific contributions at the recent Satellite Symposium of the European Society of Hypertension, held in Milan, Italy. Arterial stiffening and its hemodynamic consequences can be easily and reliably measured using a range of noninvasive techniques. However, like blood pressure (BP measurements, arterial stiffness should be measured carefully under standardized patient conditions. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity has been proposed as the gold standard for arterial stiffness measurement and is a well recognized predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcome. Systolic BP and pulse pressure in the ascending aorta may be lower than pressures measured in the upper limb, especially in young individuals. A number of studies suggest closer correlation of end-organ damage with central BP than with peripheral BP, and central BP may provide additional prognostic information regarding cardiovascular risk. Moreover, BP-lowering drugs can have differential effects on central aortic pressures and hemodynamics compared with brachial BP. This may explain the greater beneficial effect provided by newer antihypertensive drugs beyond peripheral BP

  9. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to deploy and then evaluate the contribution of resting advanced ECG (A-ECG) in addition to other screening tools (family history, lipid profiles, and cardiopulmonary exercise tests, XT) in assessment of an individual fs cardiac risk profile. METHODS: Forty-four career firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance, fasting lipids and glucose. Five-min resting 12-lead A-ECGs were obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=21) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a NASA physician collaborator. Using myocardial perfusion and other imaging as the gold standard, A-ECG scoring has been proven useful in accurately identifying a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and non-ischemic and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Subjects f mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI 28 (3) kg/m2. Fifty-one percent of subjects had .3 cardiovascular risk factors. One subject had ST depression on XT ECG, at least one positive A-ECG score for CAD, and documented CAD based on cardiology referral. While all other subjects, including those with fewer risk factors, higher aerobic fitness, and normal exercise ECGs, were classified as healthy by A-ECG, there was no trend for association between risk factors and any of 20 A-ECG parameters in the

  10. DYSLIPIDEMIA IN PREECLAMPSIA – RISK FACTOR FOR FUTU RE MATERNAL CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Latha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia is still one of the leading causes of m aternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. It is associated with insulin resistance & increase in Free Fatty Acids and plasma Triglycerides well above that seen in normal pregnan cy . The pattern of dyslipidemia seen in preeclampsia may predispose these women to future cardi ovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare the alteration in lipid profile and also the calculated risk ratios of women who developed Preeclampsia with normotensive pregnant women. This cross sectional study was carried out in Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Governme nt Hospital, Trichy, Tamilnadu.100 women with preeclampsia and 100 normotensive pregnant women as controls were included in the study after obtaining their informed consent. T he diagnosis of Preeclampsia was done as per the norms of American college of Obstetrics and Gyn ecologists. Fasting blood samples were collected. Serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride s, and HDL-C were estimated by standard methods using standard kits. LDL-C was calculated b y Friedwald’s equation. All the results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA technique. There was significant elevation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and risk rati os TC/HDL and TGL/HDL and decrease in HDL in Preeclamptic group compared to normotensives (p<0.00 01. The dyslipidemic pattern of elevated TGL and reduced HDL which was also reflect ed in highly elevated TGL/HDL seen in preeclamptic patients is definitely atherogenic and ma y lead to future maternal cardiovascular disease. Hence simple measurement of lipid profile at 20 weeks of gestation can help in preventing the complications of PIH and future cardio vascular risk of the mother. Further studies in larger population in various ethnic groups are required to predict maternal future cardiovascular risk and its prevention by lifestyle modifications and therapy

  11. Metabolic Risk: Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient’s Guide The number of people at risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ... lifestyle therapies because studies suggest it will reduce cardiovascular risk. Medications to lower LDL cholesterol may be added ...

  12. Prevention of cardiovascular risk in women who had hypertension during pregnancy after 36 weeks gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G.; Poppel, Mireille N. M.; Tamsma, Jouke T.; Mol, Ben W.; de Groot, Christianne J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyse preventive interventions of women with cardiovascular risk factors postpartum. Methods: 3.5 years postpartum, women with history of hypertension in pregnancy were invited for a questionnaire, 1 year after a cardiovascular risk assessment. Results: Two hundred and fifty-seven wo

  13. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor;

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor of ...

  14. Associations of subjective vitality with DNA damage, cardiovascular risk factors and physical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, S; Keijzers, G; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2015-01-01

    To examine associations of DNA damage, cardiovascular risk factors and physical performance with vitality, in middle-aged men. We also sought to elucidate underlying factors of physical performance by comparing physical performance parameters to DNA damage parameters and cardiovascular risk factors....

  15. Associations between pre-kidney-transplant risk factors and post-transplant cardiovascular events and death.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalten, J.; Hoogeveen, E.K.; Roodnat, J.I.; Weimar, W.; Borm, G.F.; Fijter, J.W. de; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in renal transplant candidates is high. A better understanding of the relation between these risk factors and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is mandatory to improve transplantation outcome. In this retrospective cohort study 2187 adult patients w

  16. Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to prevent cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne A Ligthart

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne A Ligthart1, Eric P Moll van Charante1, Willem A Van Gool2, Edo Richard21Department of General Practice, 2Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that vascular risk factors increase the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD. So far, few randomized controlled trials have focused on lowering the vascular risk profile to prevent or postpone cognitive decline or dementia.Objective: To systematically perform a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating drug treatment effects for cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of dementia or cognitive decline.Selection criteria: RCTs studying the effect of treating hypertension, dyslipidemia, ­hyperhomocysteinemia, obesity, or diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive decline or dementia, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year in elderly populations.Outcome measure: Cognitive decline or incident dementia.Main results: In the identified studies, dementia was never the primary outcome. Statins (2 studies and intensified control of type II DM (1 study appear to have no effect on prevention of cognitive decline. Studies on treatment of obesity are lacking, and the results of lowering homocysteine (6 studies are inconclusive. There is some evidence of a preventive effect of antihypertensive medication (6 studies, but results are inconsistent.Conclusion: The evidence of a preventive treatment effect aimed at vascular risk factors on cognitive decline and dementia in later life is scarce and mostly based on secondary outcome parameters. Several important sources of bias such as differential dropout may importantly affect interpretation of trial results.Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive decline, dementia, prevention

  17. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Singapore: Its Implications to Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Bi

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a global health challenge and has been linked to type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. However, the relationship between vitamin D status, body composition, and cardiovascular risks has not been well characterized in Asian populations. The objectives of this study were to examine the factors associated with the low vitamin D levels in a sunny tropical region and to assess the role of vitamin D status in cardiovascular risk factors.This was a cross-sectional study. One hundred and fourteen healthy participants (59 males and 55 females residing in Singapore took part in this study. Plasma 25OH-D3 concentration was measured by using LC-MS/MS. Body fat (% was measured by using three different techniques including bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, BOD POD, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Basic anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting serum insulin (FSI, and lipid profiles were obtained using standard protocols.Approximately 42% of the participants were vitamin D deficient (< 20 ng/mL. Vitamin D status was inversely associated with body fat (%, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein (TC/HDL ratio, while positively associated with lean body mass (LBM and hand grip strength (HGS.The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a sunny tropical region reinforces the need to recognize that sunlight alone is not the precursor for optimal vitamin D status. This raises the need to investigate public health measures that will encourage exposure to sunlight without overexposure that is harmful to skin. More importantly, vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular risks, i.e. HOMA-IR, TC/HDL, and LDL/HDL. Future studies should attempt to elucidate the potential mechanisms.

  18. Lipoprotein Particles in Adolescents and Young Women With PCOS Provide Insights Into Their Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, M.; Shamburek, R.; Keil, M.; Wesley, R.; Walter, M.; Sampson, M.; Bernstein, S.; Khurana, D.; Lyssikatos, C.; Ten, S.; Dobs, A.; Remaley, A. T.; Stratakis, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but the evidence for this is controversial in adolescents and young women with PCOS. Measurement of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number, measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a novel technology to assess cardiovascular risk. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate lipoprotein particle number and size in young women with PCOS and its relationship with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Design: This was a cross-sectional case control study. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical research center. Participants: Women with PCOS (n = 35) and normal controls (n = 20) participated in the study. Interventions: Blood samples and anthropometric measures were obtained. Main Outcome Measures: LDL particle size and number were measured using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary outcome was to investigate the correlation of LDL particle number with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, waist to hip ratio, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and adiponectin. Results: Women with PCOS had higher LDL particle number when compared with healthy controls (935 ± 412 vs 735 ± 264, P = .032); LDL particle number correlated strongly with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r = 0.37, P = .006) and waist-to-hip (r = 0.57, P = .0003). The higher LDL particle number was driven mainly due to differences in the small LDL particle number (sLDLp), with PCOS patients having more sLDLp (348 ± 305 vs 178 ± 195, P = .015). The sLDLp correlated with the Matsuda index (r = −0.51, P = .0001), homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (r = 0.41, P = .002), and adiponectin (r = −0.46, P = .0004) but not with T. Conclusion: Adolescent and young women with PCOS have an atherogenic lipoprotein profile suggestive of increased cardiovascular risk that appears to be driven by the degree of visceral adiposity

  19. Early cardiovascular risk markers and cardiac function in children with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tranæus Lindblad, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    Children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of premature death, foremost due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cardiovascular (CV) morbidity starts early in the disease process and renal transplanted children (CKD-T) are also at risk. Aims: The overall aim of this thesis was to study CV morbidity and potential risk factors in pediatric CKD and CKD-T patients. The prevalence of various known biomarkers associated with increased risk of CVD was assessed ...

  20. Body Fat Equations and Electrical Bioimpedance Values in Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Eutrophic and Overweight Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Rocha Faria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze body fat anthropometric equations and electrical bioimpedance analysis (BIA in the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors in eutrophic and overweight adolescents. 210 adolescents were divided into eutrophic group (G1 and overweight group (G2. The percentage of body fat (% BF was estimated using 10 body fat anthropometric equations and 2 BIA. We measured lipid profiles, uric acid, insulin, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and blood pressure. We found that 76.7% of the adolescents exhibited inadequacy of at least one biochemical parameter or clinical cardiovascular risk. Higher values of triglycerides (TG (P=0.001, insulin, and HOMA-IR (P<0.001 were observed in the G2 adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, the % BF from equation (5 was associated with TG, diastolic blood pressure, and insulin in G1. Among the G2 adolescents, the % BF estimated by (5 and (9 was associated with LDL, TG, insulin, and the HOMA-IR. Body fat anthropometric equations were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and should be used to assess the nutritional status of adolescents. In this study, equation (5 was associated with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors independent of the nutritional status of adolescents.

  1. Primary care patients' recognition of their own risk for cardiovascular disease: implications for risk communication in practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, T.T. van der; Bos, L.B.; Loon, MS Koelewijn-van

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease emphasize identifying high-risk patients for intensive risk-reducing management. These guidelines recommend the identification of individuals with high risk using risk score sheets or risk tables. Patients' misperceptions

  2. Effects of metformin plus gliclazide versus metformin plus glimepiride on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Memy Hegazy; Abd-Allah, Gamil Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    High blood glucose level, lipid profile disturbances and plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to evaluate and compare effects of glimepiride/metformin combination versus gliclazide/metformin combination on cardiovascular risk factors in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. One hundred and eighty T2DM patients were randomly allocated for treatment with placebo (control), metformin (500 mg twice daily), glimepiride (3mg once daily), gliclazide (80 mg once daily), metformin plus glimepiride or metformin plus gliclazide for 3 months. We evaluated plasma levels of glucose (PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), Hcy, vitamin B12, folic acid and lipid profile before treatment and 3 months post treatment. Compared to metformin treated patients, glimepiride plus metformin induced significant reductions in: fasting plasma glucose, postprandial PG level, HbA1C % and Hcy level. Conversely, plasma folic acid and vitamin B12 were significantly increased. The levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly decreased; low-density lipoprotein was markedly decreased, whereas high-density lipoprotein was significantly increased and hence risk ratio was significantly decreased. Similar results but with lower values were obtained using combination of metformin plus gliclazide on glycemic control only. Combination of glimepiride with metformin was superior to gliclazide plus metformin in alleviating the cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. PMID:26408873

  3. Cardiovascular Diseases and Mental Disorders: Bidirectional Risk Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vollenweider

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD, their well-established risk factors (CVRF and mental disorders are common and co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance. However, potential causal mechanisms underlying their association still need to be elucidated. Several non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been suggested to explain this association: a mental disorders could increase vulnerability to CVD through poor health behaviour including smoking, unbalanced diet, sedentary lifestyle or the side effects of psychotropic drugs; b CVD or their treatment could favour the development of mental disorders; or c mental disorders and CVD/CVRF could share risk factors such as common metabolic processes or common genes. Disentangling some of these mechanisms will require studying the temporal relationship of the appearance of CVD and mental disorders.Herein we review the existing epidemiological evidence of an association between these two types of disorders, and describe several mechanisms potentially involved. We will briefly describe the CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study cohort, a population-based in Lausanne, Switzerland designed to address some of these questions.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors among Bangladeshi ready-made garment workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniz Fatema

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of anthropometry and clinical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs among ready-made garment (RMG of workers, majority are females, come from low-socioeconomics conditions. Population-based cross-sectional study with 614 individuals aged ≥18 years were recruited from six different RMG factories. In total, of 313 male (46% and 301 of female (56% workers had body mass index (BMI in the overweight and obese range as per Asian cut off values with corresponding reflection in waist hip ratio (WHR. High proportion of male 84% (95% confidence interval 81-87 had smoking habits. The prevalence of hypertension (HTN, dyslipidemia were 24% vs 15%; 56% vs 43% among males and females respectively. Prevalence of diabetes was 7.3% (5.3-9.4 and pre-diabetes was 10.6% (8.2-13 and it showed female preponderance (4.5% male vs 10.3% female. In multivariable logistic regression HTN showed significant association with age, gender, BMI; glycemic status with age, genderand WHR; dyslipidemia with BMI and WHR. A substantial proportion of RMG workers are at an increased risk of CVDs which need focused attention to reduce smoking (among males and body-weight and central obesity, particularly in females.

  5. Causal beliefs and perceptions of risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, The Netherlands, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Claassen, E.A.M.; Henneman, L.; Nijpels, G; Dekker, J.M.; Marteau, T.; Timmermans, D R M

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Understanding people's perceptions of disease risk and how these perceptions compare with actual risk models may improve the effectiveness of risk communication. This study examined perceived disease risk and causal beliefs for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the relationship between self-reported risk factors and perceived disease risk, and the influence of causal beliefs on perceived disease risk in people at increased risk. Methods The sample (n = 255) consis...

  6. Plasma Clusterin and Lipid Profile: A Link with Aging and Cardiovascular Diseases in a Population with a Consistent Number of Centenarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Baralla

    Full Text Available The role of Clusterin in attenuation of inflammation and reverse cholesterol transfer makes this molecule a potential candidate as a marker for cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. In elderly subjects cardiovascular diseases represent the primary cause of death and different clinical studies have shown a positive correlation of these diseases with changes in the lipid pattern. This work aimed at evaluating the relationship between circulating clusterin and the biochemical parameters that characterize the lipid profile of a Sardinian population divided into five age groups including centenarians; the high frequency in Sardinia of these long-lived individuals gave us the opportunity to extend the range of the age groups to be analyzed to older ages and to better evaluate the changes in the lipid balance during ageing and its relationship with clusterin concentration in plasma. Our results showed that Clusterin concentration values of the youngest group were more similar with the centenarian's group compared to the other age groups, and a positive correlation arises with LDL. Furthermore given the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the population examined and the association of Clusterin with these pathologies we evaluated Clusterin concentration variation in two groups with or without cardiovascular diseases. In presence of cardiovascular disease, Clusterin is significantly related to the most atherogenic components of lipid profile (total cholesterol and LDL, especially in women, suggesting its potential role in modulating cardiovascular metabolic risk factors.

  7. General Characteristics and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Interstate Bus Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pastréllo Hirata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers in the transportation industry are at greater risk of an incorrect diet and sedentary behavior. The aim of our study was to characterize a population of professional bus drivers with regard to clinical and demographic variables, lipid profile, and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 659 interstate bus drivers collected retrospectively, including anthropometric characteristics, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, meatoscopy, and audiometry. All participants were male, with a mean age of 41.7±6.9 years, weight of 81.4±3.3 kg, and BMI 27.2±3.3 Kg/m2; the mean abdominal and neck circumferences were 94.4±8.6 cm and 38.9±2.2  cm; 38.2% of the sample was considered hypertensive; mean HDL cholesterol was 47.9±9.5 mg/dL, mean triglyceride level was 146.3±87.9 mg/dL, and fasting glucose was above 100 mg/dL in 249 subjects (39.1%. Drivers exhibited reduced audiometric hearing at 4–8 kHz, being all sensorineural hearing loss. The clinical characterization of a young male population of interstate bus drivers revealed a high frequency of cardiovascular risk factors, as obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia, as well as contributing functional characteristics, such as a low-intensity activity, sedentary behavior, long duration in a sitting position, and high-calorie diet, which lead to excessive weight gain and associated comorbidities.

  8. Prognostic Significance of Subclinical Atherosclerosis of Arteries for Cardiovascular Risk Identification in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakova Т.А.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the state of arteries of elastic and muscular type in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and subclinical hypothyroidism to reveal potential factors of cardiovascular risk. Materials and Methods. There have been studied three groups of patients, each group consisting of 29 females: 1st — control group, with no abnormalities, 2nd — with autoimmune thyroiditis and euthyroid status, 3rd — with autoimmune thyroiditis and subclinical hypothyroidism. There have been estimated hormonal status (ТТГ, Т4, Т3, antibody level to thyroglobulin and thyroid peroxydase, endothelial function and arterial stiffness. Results. In subclinical hypothyroidism there is significant decrease of endothelial function of brachial artery, with normal indices of non-endothelium dependent vasodilation; arterial wall stiffness and endothelial dysfunction increase, that is determined by a number of factors including the levels of T3, T4, thyrotropic hormone, lipid profile, and arterial pressure. The level of systemic arterial pressure can be of great concern in the increase of arterial stiffness if there are no marked changes of lipid spectrum. The obtained data indicate the negative effect of even minimal thyroid function on vessel condition that can contribute to the increase of cardiovascular risk along with lipid spectrum disorders in this group of patients.

  9. SY 13-4 CURRENT TRENDS IN BLOOD PRESSURE AND OTHER CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hwan

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension is a major health problem in most developed and developing countries. Worldwide, about one billion people were found to have hypertension, and 13% of all deaths were closely related to hypertension. Secular trends in the prevalence of adult hypertension vary by country; some western countries show a decreasing trend for hypertension, while data from some developing countries show increasing prevalence of hypertension. So, it is difficult to predict the future changes in the prevalence of adult hypertension in some countries.Hypertension at an early age has been shown to develop into adulthood hypertension. Therefore, the investigation of the current trend in the prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents would help us to predict the trend in the prevalence of adult hypertension in the future.In the present study, we show the recent trend in blood pressure in adolescents aged 10∼18 years, using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005∼2014). Additionally, we present the current changes in other cardiovascular risk factors including obesity indices (body mass index and waist circumference) and lipid profile, and the influences of physical activity and dietary patterns on these cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:27643126

  10. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism and arterial cardiovascular events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole; Lindhardsen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    This focused review describes the current knowledge of the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and as well as venous thromboembolism this disease shares inflammatory mechanisms with IBD. Patients...... with IBD have a high risk of venous thromboembolism especially during IBD flare-ups. Their risk of arterial cardiovascular disease may also be increased. The risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with IBD warrants clinical attention, and it is possible that the risk can be modified by applying anti...

  11. Contribution of Individual Risk Factor Changes to Reductions in Population Absolute Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cochrane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few studies have investigated individual risk factor contributions to absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Even fewer have examined changes in individual risk factors as components of overall modifiable risk change following a CVD prevention intervention. Design. Longitudinal study of population CVD risk factor changes following a health screening and enhanced support programme. Methods. The contribution of individual risk factors to the estimated absolute CVD risk in a population of high risk patients identified from general practice records was evaluated. Further, the proportion of the modifiable risk attributable to each factor that was removed following one year of enhanced support was estimated. Results. Mean age of patients (533 males, 68 females was 63.7 (6.4 years. High cholesterol (57% was most prevalent, followed by smoking (53% and high blood pressure (26%. Smoking (57% made the greatest contribution to the modifiable population CVD risk, followed by raised blood pressure (26% and raised cholesterol (17%. After one year of enhanced support, the modifiable population risk attributed to smoking (56%, high blood pressure (68%, and high cholesterol (53% was removed. Conclusion. Approximately 59% of the modifiable risk attributable to the combination of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and current smoking was removed after intervention.

  12. Risk-profile modification of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commodity futures and swaps markets are thought to be the invention of speculators, the bane of the oil business, or possibly something confined to finance departments of major corporations. In actuality, they should be considered more as an insurance vehicle and can be used at the project level to modify the risk profile of a property. In this context, an increased familiarity with them can be useful for an engineer. Either futures of swaps can be used to guarantee or modify product prices. While this does not necessarily maximize cash flow or present worth, it can protect a project or company for several years from downside price risk, thereby reducing the risk of the venture. This can be particularly important if lower product prices would cause unacceptable cash flows or net incomes. This paper reports that reducing risk by limiting downside price exposure could alter budgeting decisions, allow continued or expanded operations of a particular property, or increase debt capacity

  13. Bisphosphonates and risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis.

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    Dae Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests that bisphosphonates may reduce atherosclerosis, while concerns have been raised about atrial fibrillation. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of bisphosphonates on total adverse cardiovascular (CV events, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction (MI, stroke, and CV death in adults with or at risk for low bone mass.A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE through July 2014 identified 58 randomized controlled trials with longer than 6 months in duration that reported CV events. Absolute risks and the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of total CV events, atrial fibrillation, MI, stroke, and CV death were estimated. Subgroup analyses by follow-up duration, population characteristics, bisphosphonate types, and route were performed.Absolute risks over 25-36 months in bisphosphonate-treated versus control patients were 6.5% versus 6.2% for total CV events; 1.4% versus 1.5% for atrial fibrillation; 1.0% versus 1.2% for MI; 1.6% versus 1.9% for stroke; and 1.5% versus 1.4% for CV death. Bisphosphonate treatment up to 36 months did not have any significant effects on total CV events (14 trials; ORs [95% CI]: 0.98 [0.84-1.14]; I2 = 0.0%, atrial fibrillation (41 trials; 1.08 [0.92-1.25]; I2 = 0.0%, MI (10 trials; 0.96 [0.69-1.34]; I2 = 0.0%, stroke (10 trials; 0.99 [0.82-1.19]; I2 = 5.8%, and CV death (14 trials; 0.88 [0.72-1.07]; I2 = 0.0% with little between-study heterogeneity. The risk of atrial fibrillation appears to be modestly elevated for zoledronic acid (6 trials; 1.24 [0.96-1.61]; I2 = 0.0%, not for oral bisphosphonates (26 trials; 1.02 [0.83-1.24]; I2 = 0.0%. The CV effects did not vary by subgroups or study quality.Bisphosphonates do not have beneficial or harmful effects on atherosclerotic CV events, but zoledronic acid may modestly increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. Given the large reduction in fractures with bisphosphonates, changes in

  14. Risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Popkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications (CVC including myocardial infarction (MI, sudden death and stroke (ST are the main cause of premature mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Chronic inflammation plays the key role in the development of CVC in RA. Objective. To analyze prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, significance of traditional risk factors (Rf, DMARDs and RA features in the development of clinical and subclinical signs of atherosclerosis (AT. To compare results with data of QUEST-RA. Material and methods. Traditional Rf and CVD frequency in RA pts were assessed with a questionnaire. Coronary heart disease, MI and ST were diagnosed according to medical documents. Subclinical signs of atherosclerosis were evaluated with carotid artery sonography. Results. Traditional CVD Rf were evaluated in 563 pts (496 female, 93 male aged 54 (44-54 years with disease duration 72 (24-144 months. Clinical signs of AT were revealed in5,6%, subclinical – in 11% of RA pts. Hyperlipidemia was present in 82%, increase of intima-media thickness – in 51%, family strain of CVD – in 44%, hypertension – in 38% of pts with RA. Traditional Rf, extra-articular features of RA, CVC and early AT signs weremore frequent in men than in women (p<0,005. Thickness of intima-media complex in 11men exceed that in women (p<0,005. RA pts were divided into two groups (I – with CVD and II – without CVD to assess relationship between traditional Rf and CVC. Frequency of traditional Rf (hypertension and increased intima-media thickness in group I was higher than in group II. Relative risk of their development was 4,78 and 2,09 respectively (p<0,05. 38% of RA pts had extra-articular features of RA (OR=2,02; p=0,04. Thickness of intima-media complex correlated with duration of treatment with hydroxichloroquine and sulfasalazine (r=0,34; p=0,0002 and r=0,28; p=0,008 respectively. CVC were not associated with administration of other DMARDs.

  15. p-Cresol and Cardiovascular Risk in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligabue, G; Damiano, F; Cuoghi, A; De Biasi, S; Bellei, E; Granito, M; Aldo, T; Cossarizza, A; Cappelli, G

    2015-09-01

    p-Cresol Sulphate (pCS) is a uremic toxin that originates exclusively from dietary sources and has a high plasma level related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the plasma levels of pCS in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) related to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional risk factors, cardiovascular clinical events and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow-derived cells for the vascular repair system. We considered 51 KTRs and 25 healthy blood donors (HBDs). pCs levels were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization (ESI) (LC/ESI-MS/MS) on a triple-quadrupole; EPCs were analyzed using flow cytometric analysis. eGFR was 52.61 ± 19.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in KTRs versus 94 ± 21 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in HBDs. We did not find differences in pCS levels between KTRs and HBDs. Levels of pCS were inversely related with eGFR in KTRs and pCS levels were significantly lower in KTRs with eGFR 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Furthermore, there was a difference in pCS levels between eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) of KTRs compared with HBDs. Levels of pCS were almost significantly influenced by the presence of a previous vascular event and were inversely related with mature EPCs. These findings suggest that KTRs should not have higher CVD risk than HBDs and their physiological vascular repair system appears to be intact. In KTRs the reduction of eGFR also increased pCS levels and reduced EPCs numbers and angiogenesis capacity. In summary, pCS acts as an emerging marker of a uremic state, helping assess the global vascular competence in KTRs. PMID:26361658

  16. A Web-Based Intervention for Health Professionals and Patients to Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Attributable to Physical Inactivity: Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Mesters, Ilse; Crutzen, Rik; Cremers, Anita; Vanhees, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with cardiovascular risk factors can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing their physical activity and their physical fitness. According to the guidelines for cardiovascular risk management, health professionals should encourage their patients to engage in physical activity. Objective In this paper, we provide insight regarding the systematic development of a Web-based intervention for both health professionals and patients with cardiovascular risk fact...

  17. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  18. Risk of serious cardiovascular problems with medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Raga, Jose; Knecht, Carlos; Szerman, Nestor; Martinez, María I

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and/or impulsivity. The proportion of patients diagnosed with ADHD receiving pharmacological treatments has increased enormously in recent years. Despite the well established efficacy and the good safety and tolerability profile, there is concern about the potential for rare but serious cardiovascular adverse events, as well as sudden cardiac death, with pharmacotherapies used for treating ADHD in children, adolescents and adults. The present paper aims to comprehensively and critically review the published evidence on the controversial association between medications approved for treating patients with ADHD and the risk of serious cardiovascular problems, specifically the risk of corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, and the risk of sudden cardiac death. A comprehensive search of relevant databases (PubMed, EMBASE and PsychINFO) was conducted to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals until 21 July 2012. Clinical reports, as well as retrospective or prospective population-based studies with children, adolescents or adults as participants, of pharmacotherapies for ADHD reporting cardiovascular adverse events were included. Stimulant medications for ADHD, including methylphenidate and amphetamine derivatives, are generally safe and well tolerated. Small but statistically significant increases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are among the adverse events of stimulant treatment in all age groups. Similarly, the non-stimulant medication atomoxetine has also been associated with increased HR and BP, although as is the case with stimulants, these are generally minor, time limited and of minor clinical significance in children, adolescents or adults. Growing evidence suggests that these medications do not cause sudden and unexpected cardiac death or serious cardiovascular problems including

  19. Lifestyle modifies obesity-associated risk of cardiovascular disease in a genetically homogeneous population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marit E; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk differs across populations. Whether such differences in obesity-related risk factors exist within population groups of the same genetic origin but with differences in lifestyle remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... groups of Inuit living in Greenland and Inuit migrants living in Denmark. The findings indicate that lifestyle factors modify the cardiovascular disease risk associated with obesity.......BACKGROUND: The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk differs across populations. Whether such differences in obesity-related risk factors exist within population groups of the same genetic origin but with differences in lifestyle remains to be determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... was to analyze whether obesity was associated with the same degree of metabolic disturbances in 2 groups of genetically homogeneous Inuit who were exposed to considerable differences in lifestyle. DESIGN: We studied obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a cross-sectional population survey of 2311...

  20. Hypertriglyceridemia: a too long unfairly neglected major cardiovascular risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Klempfner, Robert; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2014-01-01

    The existence of an independent association between elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality has been largely controversial. The main difficulty in isolating the effect of hypertriglyceridemia on CV risk is the fact that elevated triglyceride levels are commonly associated with concomitant changes in high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and other lipoproteins. As a result of this problem and in disregard of the real biological role of TG, its significance as a plausible therapeutic target was unfoundedly underestimated for many years. However, taking epidemiological data together, both moderate and severe hypertriglyceridaemia are associated with a substantially increased long term total mortality and CV risk. Plasma TG levels partially reflect the concentration of the triglyceride-carrying lipoproteins (TRL): very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), chylomicrons and their remnants. Furthermore, hypertriglyceridemia commonly leads to reduction in HDL and increase in atherogenic small dense LDL levels. TG may also stimulate atherogenesis by mechanisms, such excessive free fatty acids (FFA) release, production of proinflammatory cytokines, fibrinogen, coagulation factors and impairment of fibrinolysis. Genetic studies strongly support hypertriglyceridemia and high concentrations of TRL as causal risk factors for CV disease. The most common forms of hypertriglyceridemia are related to overweight and sedentary life style, which in turn lead to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intensive lifestyle therapy is the main initial treatment of hypertriglyceridemia. Statins are a cornerstone of the modern lipids-modifying therapy. If the primary goal is to lower TG levels, fibrates (bezafibrate and fenofibrate for monotherapy, and in combination with statin; gemfibrozil only for monotherapy) could be the preferable drugs. Also ezetimibe has mild positive effects in lowering TG

  1. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Pblood pressure is an independent risk factor for blood pressure increase and incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined.

  2. Oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Shetty; Mahima Dua; Kiran Kumar; Raghu Dhanpal; Madhusudan Astekar; Devi Charan Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Dentist and oral health screening may be the latest weapon in identifying persons at risk of cardiovascular disease. Oral infections, specifically periodontitis, may confer independent risks for different systemic conditions. The risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases also suggest that the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes works in both ways. The aim of this study was to support and strengthen the association and relationship between oral hygiene status of in...

  3. Estado nutricional, consumo alimentar e risco cardiovascular: um estudo em universitários Nutritional status, food consumption and cardiovascular risk: a study on university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Moraes Vasconcelos Petribú

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a proporção de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, dando ênfase aos fatores nutricionais, em alunos da área de saúde de uma universidade pública do Recife. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 250 estudantes por um questionário que abordou aspectos biossociais, dados sobre estilo de vida, história familiar para doenças cardiovasculares, variáveis antropométricas e consumo alimentar, avaliado pelo Recordatório de 24horas. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada a seguinte freqüência para os fatores de risco analisados: tabagismo (2,8%, sedentarismo (41,7%, excesso de peso (35,5% e 5,3% nos sexos masculino e feminino, respectivamente pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the proportion of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, emphasizing nutritional factors, among health students from a public university in Recife, Brazil. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty students were assessed through a questionnaire that addressed biosocial aspects, lifestyle data, family history for cardiovascular diseases, anthropometric variables and food consumption determined by the 24-hour recall. RESULTS: The following rates were found for the assessed risk factors: smoking (2.8%, inactivity (41.7%, overweight (35.5% among men and 5.3% among women, p<0,01, family history of hypertension (35.5%, diabetes (11.3%, obesity (20.2% and death of close relatives before age 50 due to cardiovascular diseases (14.8%. Regarding food consumption, a high percentage of individuals had inappropriate energy intake and a low percentage had inappropriate protein and carbohydrate intakes. Regarding the fat profile of the diet, more than 40.0% of the students consumed more cholesterol than the recommended levels and 17.9% of the men and 44.8% of the women consumed high amounts of saturated fat (p<0.01. The consumption of linoleic acid and monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was inadequate in more than 95% of the individuals under study. CONCLUSION: The

  4. Bicycling to school improves the cardiometabolic risk factor profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Børrestad, Line A B; Tarp, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children.......To investigate whether bicycling to school improves cardiometabolic risk factor profile and cardiorespiratory fitness among children....

  5. Movement and circulation: Population studies on physical activitiy and cardiovascular disease risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Mensink, G. B. M.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of leisure-time physical activity with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality was determined using data from the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study, conducted from 1984-1991. Three nationally representative crosssectional samples, with a total of 7 689 men and 7 747 women, ages 25-69, were part of this study, originally designed to estimate the impact of community intervention on cardiovascular health. Additionally we analyzed regional cross-sectional and follow-up sam...

  6. CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Botez C; Brujbu Isabella Cristina; V.R. Murariu

    2011-01-01

    The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of d...

  7. A new Web-based medical tool for assessment and prevention of comprehensive cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Franchi; Davide Cini; Giorgio Iervasi

    2011-01-01

    Daniele Franchi1,2, Davide Cini1, Giorgio Iervasi11Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, CNR, Pisa, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Oncologia, dei Trapianti e delle Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina, Università di Pisa, Pisa, ItalyBackground: Multifactor cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death; besides well-known cardiovascular risk factors, several emerging factors such as mental stress, diet type, and physical inactivity, have been associated to cardiovascular disease. To date, prevent...

  8. THE PREVALENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN APPARENTY HEALTHY MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Noveanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study comprised one group of 518 apparently healthy medical students, 375 girls and 143 boys, with a mean age of 20  2 years, who attended the first and the second year of study at University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babes” Timisoara. We assessed the cardiovascular disease risk factors using 4 methods: (a the questionnaire method, (b the measurement of blood pressure, (c the measurement of several anthropometric parameters, such as body mass index and waist circumference, and (d the measurement of biochemical parameters such as plasma lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose. Great evidence was obtained that certain lifestyles related to tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and psychosocial stress had an important prevalence in medical young subjects, leading to adverse changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics, that enhance the development of an earlier atherosclerosis in adulthood.

  9. Glucometabolic hormones and cardiovascular risk markers in antipsychotic-treated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Knop, Filip K; Madsen, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Treatment with antipsychotic drugs is widely associated with metabolic side effects such as weight gain and disturbed glucose metabolism, but the pathophysiologic mechanisms are unclear. METHOD: Fifty nondiabetic (fasting plasma glucose ≤ 7.0 mmol/L), antipsychotic-treated male patients.......3 years; BMI = 26.1 ± 3.9; waist circumference = 94.6 ± 11.9 cm; HbA1c = 5.7% ± 0.3%) participated in this cross-sectional study. Blood was sampled in the fasting state and 90 minutes after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (2,268 kJ). The primary outcomes were glucometabolic hormones...... signs of dysmetabolism and a compromised cardiovascular risk profile. The appetite-regulating hormones GLP-1 and ghrelin appear not to be influenced by antipsychotic treatment. Our findings provide new clinical insight into the pathophysiology associated with metabolic side effects of antipsychotic...

  10. Cardiovascular risks associated with low dose ionizing particle radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Yan

    Full Text Available Previous epidemiologic data demonstrate that cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality may occur decades after ionizing radiation exposure. With increased use of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy and concerns about space radiation exposures to astronauts on future long-duration exploration-type missions, the long-term effects and risks of low-dose charged particle irradiation on the CV system must be better appreciated. Here we report on the long-term effects of whole-body proton ((1H; 0.5 Gy, 1 GeV and iron ion ((56Fe; 0.15 Gy, 1GeV/nucleon irradiation with and without an acute myocardial ischemia (AMI event in mice. We show that cardiac function of proton-irradiated mice initially improves at 1 month but declines by 10 months post-irradiation. In AMI-induced mice, prior proton irradiation improved cardiac function restoration and enhanced cardiac remodeling. This was associated with increased pro-survival gene expression in cardiac tissues. In contrast, cardiac function was significantly declined in (56Fe ion-irradiated mice at 1 and 3 months but recovered at 10 months. In addition, (56Fe ion-irradiation led to poorer cardiac function and more adverse remodeling in AMI-induced mice, and was associated with decreased angiogenesis and pro-survival factors in cardiac tissues at any time point examined up to 10 months. This is the first study reporting CV effects following low dose proton and iron ion irradiation during normal aging and post-AMI. Understanding the biological effects of charged particle radiation qualities on the CV system is necessary both for the mitigation of space exploration CV risks and for understanding of long-term CV effects following charged particle radiotherapy.

  11. Cycling to school and cardiovascular risk factors: a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels; Kristensen, Peter Lund;

    2011-01-01

    Cycling to school may potentially increase physical activity level in sedentary children. Transport to school occur twice a day and could improve cardiovascular health in children. Commuter cycling is associated with lower mortality and cardiovascular disease rate in adults, but limited evidence...

  12. Cardiovascular Risk in Malaysia: causes, consequences and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selvarajah, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease forms the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide and disproportionately affects low and middle-income developing countries. In developing countries, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality tend to affect the (younger) working adults. This poses a significant burden to the ec

  13. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: misleading analysis and doubtful methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Guo WQ; Li L

    2015-01-01

    Wenqin Guo, Lang Li Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of ChinaZhao et al have presented the result of the relative cardiovascular safety profile in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane to treat the postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, in which fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction is the outcome measure and ten randomized controlled trials are used as the data sources.1 We cong...

  14. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: misleading analysis and doubtful methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wenqin; Li, Lang

    2015-01-01

    Wenqin Guo, Lang Li Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of ChinaZhao et al have presented the result of the relative cardiovascular safety profile in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane to treat the postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, in which fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction is the outcome measure and ten randomized controlled trials are used as the data sources.1 We ...

  15. Telehealth for patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Salisbury, Chris; O’Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Clare; Edwards, Louisa; Gaunt, Daisy; Dixon, Padraig; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Nicholl, Jon; Large, Shirley; Yardley, Lucy; Fahey, Tom; Foster, Alexis; Garner, Katy; Horspool, Kimberley; Man, Mei-See

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether non-clinical staff can effectively manage people at high risk of cardiovascular disease using digital health technologies. Design Pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 42 general practices in three areas of England. Participants Between 3 December 2012 and 23 July 2013 we recruited 641 adults aged 40 to 74 years with a 10 year cardiovascular disease risk of 20% or more, no previous cardiovascular event, at least one modifiable risk factor (sy...

  16. Deployment of an Advanced Electrocardiographic Analysis (A-ECG) to Detect Cardiovascular Risk in Career Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, B. A.; Storer, T. W.; Abrazado, M.; Watne, R.; Schlegel, T. T.; Batalin, M.; Kaiser, W.; Smith, D. L.; Cooper, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of line of duty death among firefighters, accounting for approximately 45% of fatalities annually. Firefighters perform strenuous muscular work while wearing heavy, encapsulating personal protective equipment in high ambient temperatures, under chaotic and emotionally stressful conditions. These factors can precipitate sudden cardiac events like myocardial infarction, serious dysrhythmias, or cerebrovascular accidents in firefighters with underlying cardiovascular disease. Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is recommended but not always followed in this population. PHASER is a project charged with identifying and prioritizing risk factors in emergency responders. We have deployed an advanced ECG (A-ECG) system developed at NASA for improved sensitivity and specificity in the detection of cardiac risk. METHODS Forty-four professional firefighters were recruited to perform comprehensive baseline assessments including tests of aerobic performance and laboratory tests for fasting lipid profiles and glucose. Heart rate and conventional 12-lead ECG were obtained at rest and during incremental treadmill exercise testing (XT). In addition, a 5-min resting 12-lead A-ECG was obtained in a subset of firefighters (n=18) and transmitted over a secure networked system to a physician collaborator at NASA for advanced-ECG analysis. This A-ECG system has been proven, using myocardial perfusion and other imaging, to accurately identify a number of cardiac pathologies including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS Subjects mean (SD) age was 43 (8) years, weight 91 (13) kg, and BMI of 28 (3) kg/square meter. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was 39 (9) ml/kg/min. This compares with the 45th %ile in healthy reference values and a recommended standard of 42 ml/kg/min for firefighters. The metabolic threshold (VO

  17. Management of dyslipidemia as a cardiovascular risk factor in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kathleen E; Chalasani, Naga

    2014-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent cause of liver disease in the United States and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. CVD is one of the most common causes of death among individuals with NAFLD and management of NAFLD must extend beyond liver disease to include CVD risk modification. Clinicians should assess CVD risk with the Framingham Risk Score and screen for CVD risk factors including dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, tobacco use, and the metabolic syndrome. CVD risk factors, particularly dyslipidemia, require aggressive medical management to reduce the high risk of CVD events and death in individuals with NAFLD.

  18. Cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognition: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Harrison

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease and its risk factors have consistently been associated with poor cognitive function and incident dementia. Whether cardiovascular disease prediction models, developed to predict an individual's risk of future cardiovascular disease or stroke, are also informative for predicting risk of cognitive decline and dementia is not known.The objective of this systematic review was to compare cohort studies examining the association between cardiovascular disease risk models and longitudinal changes in cognitive function or risk of incident cognitive impairment or dementia.Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched from inception to March 28, 2014. From 3,413 records initially screened, 21 were included.The association between numerous different cardiovascular disease risk models and cognitive outcomes has been tested, including Framingham and non-Framingham risk models. Five studies examined dementia as an outcome; fourteen studies examined cognitive decline or incident cognitive impairment as an outcome; and two studies examined both dementia and cognitive changes as outcomes. In all studies, higher cardiovascular disease risk scores were associated with cognitive changes or risk of dementia. Only four studies reported model prognostic performance indices, such as Area Under the Curve (AUC, for predicting incident dementia or cognitive impairment and these studies all examined non-Framingham Risk models (AUC range: 0.74 to 0.78.Cardiovascular risk prediction models are associated with cognitive changes over time and risk of dementia. Such models are easily obtainable in clinical and research settings and may be useful for identifying individuals at high risk of future cognitive decline and dementia.

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors in women who had hypertensive disorders late in pregnancy : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Wietske; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; van der Post, Joris A.; Porath, Martina; Ponjee, Gabrielle A. E.; Tamsma, Jouke T.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine cardiovascular risk factors in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders at term (HTP) 2.5 years after pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: In a multicenter cohort study in The Netherlands from June 2008 through November 2010, cardiovascular r

  20. Cost-effectiveness of cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiessen, Ans H.; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely preventable and prevention expenditures are relatively low. The randomised controlled SPRING-trial (SPRING-RCT) shows that cardiovascular risk management by practice nurses in general practice with and without self-monitoring both decreases cardiov

  1. Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

  2. Preterm delivery and risk of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and type-II diabetes in the mother

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, J A; Paidas, M J; Damm, P;

    2010-01-01

    Preterm delivery has been shown to be associated with subsequent maternal cardiovascular morbidity. However, the impact of the severity and recurrence of preterm delivery on the risk of specific cardiovascular events and the metabolic syndrome in the mother, have not been investigated....

  3. Movement and circulation: Population studies on physical activitiy and cardiovascular disease risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, G.B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of leisure-time physical activity with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality was determined using data from the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study, conducted from 1984-1991. Three nationally representative crosssectional samples, with a total of 7 689 men and 7 747 women, ag

  4. [EMPA-REG OUTCOME: Empagliflozin reduces mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2015-11-01

    EMPA-REG OUTCOME is an international, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the cardiovascular outcomes of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and known cardiovascular disease. The trial succeeded in reaching the primary objective of non-inferiority and, in addition, showed, after a median follow up of 3.1 years, a superiority of empagliflozin (10 or 25 mg/day) versus placebo as regards the primary composite cardiovascular endpoint (hasard ratio or HR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.74-0.99; P = 0.04), hospitalisations for heart failure (-35%), cardiovascular mortality (-38%) and all-cause mortality (-32%, each p < 0.001). The reductionin mortality appeared early (< 6 months) and concerned all subgroups, without any obvious heterogeneity. This reduction in mortality does not seem to be fully explained by the concomitant slight reductions in HbA1c, body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and serum uric acid levels in the empagliflozin groups versus the placebo group. Finally, the tolerance and safety profile of empagliflozin was good, with only a moderate increase in benign mycotic genital infections, a well-known adverse event with SGLT2 inhibitors. The remarkable effects of empagliflozin in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, especially on mortality, should modify the management of patients with type 2 diabetes and a high cardiovascular risk in a near future.

  5. Correlation between Progetto Cuore risk score and early cardiovascular damage in never treated subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertolini Stefano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global cardiovascular risk is a new approach which allows the physicians to quantitate the prognosis of the patients. It is therefore possible that a score, based on the major cardiovascular risk factors, is correlated with some degree of cardiovascular anatomic damage. Since this hypothesis has been demonstrated with the Framingham risk score, we decided to verify it using another score (Progetto Cuore risk score, which is probably more precise in a european low-risk population, such as the italian one. Methods We studied 84 italian caucasian subjects (50 males and 34 females with elevated blood pressure and/or dyslipidemia plus other possible cardiovascular risk factors. The subjects have never been treated for these reasons. The following evaluations were performed: history, clinical and laboratory determinations, echocardiogram, carotid echodoppler. Results The recruited people were on the whole characterized by a low cardiovascular risk, as confirmed by the low scores of the Progetto Cuore. Simple linear regression analysis showed significant associations between some parameters of early cardiovascular damage (left ventricular mass, intima-media thickness, and an integrated measure of both the carotid wall thickness and the presence of a plaque, called Carotid score and some predictors. The highest significance was found between the cardiovascular structural results and the Progetto Cuore score. In a multivariate regression analysis our model, which included factors potentially linked to the cardiovascular anatomic changes, demonstrated that the Carotid score was significantly associated with age, sex and pulse pressure; intima-media thickness with the same factors and, in addition, with the body mass index; left ventricular mass with sex, pulse pressure and body mass index. Conclusion Our paper confirms previous studies about the association between a comprehensive risk score and signs of early cardiovascular damage. A

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Ghana during the Rural-to-Urban Transition: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaman, Nuri; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Sobota, Rafal; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Poku, Kwabena A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Populations in sub-Saharan Africa are shifting from rural to increasingly urban. Although the burden of cardiovascular disease is expected to increase with this changing landscape, few large studies have assessed a wide range of risk factors in urban and rural populations, particularly in West Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of 3317 participants from Ghana (≥18 years old), of whom 2265 (57% female) were from a mid-sized city (Sunyani, population ~250,000) and 1052 (55% female) were from surrounding villages (populations LDL cholesterol (+0.89, 95% CI: 0.79–0.99), and t-PA (+0.56, 95% CI: 0.48–0.63). Triglycerides and HDL cholesterol profiles were similarly poor in both urban and rural environments, but significantly worse among rural participants after BMI-adjustment. For most of the risk factors, the strength of the association with urban residence did not vary with sex. Obesity was a major exception, with urban women at particularly high risk (26% age-standardized prevalence) compared to urban men (7%). Overall, urban residents had substantially worse cardiovascular risk profiles, with some risk factors at levels typically seen in the developed world. PMID:27732601

  7. 74. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: Developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme

    OpenAIRE

    R. Alzeidan; F. Rabiee; A. Hersi; A. Mandil

    2016-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR) among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families. A cross-s...

  8. 26. Cardiovascular risk assessment for Saudi university employees and their families: developing a framework for provision of an evidence-based cardiovascular disease preventative programme.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Alzeidan; F. Rabiee; A. Hersi; A. Mandil

    2016-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the primary cause of death among adults, representing 46% of total mortality in 2014. This study’s objectives were to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), and calculate the cardiovascular risk (CVR) among King Saud University employees and their families. Moreover, it aimed at assessing the possible effects of living in KSA on the heart health of expatriate employees and their families.A cross-se...

  9. Cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients Evaluación del riesgo cardiovascular en hipertensos Avaliação do risco cardiovascular em hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Amaral de Paula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess cardiovascular risk by means of the traditional Framingham score and the version modified through the incorporation of emerging risk factors, such as family history of acute myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease. METHOD: participants were 50 hypertensive patients under outpatient treatment. The clinical data were collected through a semi-structured interview and the laboratory data from patients' histories. RESULTS: it was verified that the traditional Framingham score was predominantly low (74%, with 14% showing medium risk and 12% high risk. After the inclusion of emerging risk factors, the chance of a coronary event was low in 22% of the cases, medium in 56% and high in 22%. CONCLUSIONS: the comparison between the traditional Framingham risk score and the modified version demonstrated a significant difference in the cardiovascular risk classification, whose correlation shows discreet agreement between the two scales. Lifestyle elements seem to play a determinant role in the increase in cardiovascular risk levels. OBJETIVO: evaluar el riesgo cardiovascular utilizando el puntaje de Framingham tradicional y el modificado por la incorporación de factores de riesgo emergentes como historia familiar de infarto agudo del miocardio, síndrome metabólico y enfermedad renal crónica. MÉTODO: participaron 50 hipertensos que hacen tratamiento en ambulatorio. Los datos clínicos fueron obtenidos por medio de entrevista semiestructurada y los de laboratorio fueron obtenidos de fichas. RESULTADOS: se verificó que el puntaje de Framingham tradicional fue predominantemente bajo (74%, 14% presentó riesgo medio y 12% riesgo alto. Tras la inclusión de factores de riesgo emergentes, la probabilidad de ocurrir un evento coronario fue baja en 22% de los casos, media en 56% y alta en 22% de los casos. CONCLUSIONES: la comparación entre el puntaje de riesgo de Framingham tradicional y el modificado demostr

  10. Running for your life: A review of physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk reduction in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Claire; Karelis, Antony D; Stip, Emmanuel; Abdel-Baki, Amal

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have a greater risk for cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g. central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidaemia), cardiovascular diseases and mortality. This risky profile may be explained by the adverse effects of antipsychotic medications and an unhealthy lifestyle (e.g. smoking, poor nutrition and low physical activity). In the general population, physical activity has been shown to be the optimal strategy to improve both cardiometabolic parameters and cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Accordingly, an emerging literature of non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. cognitive behavioural therapy, diet and physical activity) has been studied in individuals with schizophrenia. Therefore, the purpose of this review was 1) to conduct a critical literature review of non-pharmacological interventions that included some kind of physical activity (including supervised and unsupervised exercise training) and target cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with schizophrenia. 2) To describe the contribution of physical activity alone by reviewing trials of supervised exercise training programmes only. A literature review via systematic keyword search for publications in Medline, PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO was performed. Many non-pharmacological interventions are efficient in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors when combined with physical activity. Supervised physical activity has been successful in decreasing cardiovascular disease risk, and aerobic interval training appears to provide more benefits by specifically targeting cardiorespiratory fitness levels. In conclusion, physical activity is an effective strategy for addressing cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with schizophrenia. Long-term studies are needed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of exercise training programmes in individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:26630458

  11. Reducing cardiovascular risk in spouses of cardiac patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Bernice C; Rowland, Sheri; Mancuso, Kerry; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Norman, Joseph F; Shurmur, Scott; Tesina, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined risk-reducing interventions in spouses of coronary artery bypass patients. This study examined the effects of the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) intervention versus usual care on cardiovascular risk factors. Spouses in the experimental group (n = 17/group) attended cardiac rehabilitation with patients and made the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the usual care group attended educational classes with patients. Spouses' 30-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Lifetime Risk Scale before and after cardiac rehabilitation (3 months), and at 6 months. Spouses in both groups significantly reduced 30-year risk scores at 3 and 6 months. Exercise was the key ingredient in lowering risk. There was a trend toward reduction in systolic blood pressure and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both groups. Although there were no group differences, having spouses participate in cardiac rehabilitation with the patient was effective for reducing spouses' cardiovascular risk.

  12. Sympathoadrenal Reactivity to Stress as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaa A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is much uncertainty about the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. One possible cause may be alterations in the autonomic nervous system, which plays an important role in the normal physiological regulation of pressure. Therefore, we studied the relationship between resting blood pressure and arterial plasma catecholamines, cardiovascular and sympathetic reactivities, and cardiovascular risk factors in young men (aged 19 years with low, normal, and high blood pressures, who were unaware of their blood pressure status. In the initial cross-sectional study, lower blood pressure was associated with a better lipoprotein profile, lower fructosamine concentration, and waist-hip-ratio. Mental stress test was the only test that induced differential responses between the 3 blood pressure groups, where the high blood pressure group showed the most and the low blood pressure group the least pronounced response in blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma catecholamines. Adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations during mental stress test were significant predictors of future systolic blood pressure in a follow- up study over 18 years, while plasma catecholamine levels at rest and during the cold pressor test did not show significant associations with later blood pressure. Noradrenaline response to mental stress was a weak positive predictor for future waist circumference. None of the other parameters during rest or cold pressor test were significantly related to changes in Body Mass Index, waist circumference, or triceps skinfold thickness. Noradrenaline response to the cold pressor test was positively related to fasting plasma glucose and HOMA-IR at followup in univariate analyses. In the multiple regression analyses, noradrenaline response was an independent positive predictor of HOMA-IR. There were no significant associations with plasma catecholamines at rest or during mental stress test. Thus, reactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors among the inhabitants of an urban Congolese community: results of the VITARAA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal M. Bayauli

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings highlight the staggering rates of cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa and underscore the pressing need to move their prevention and control higher on the political agenda.

  14. Mercury exposure and risk of cardiovascular disease in two U.S. cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J Steven;

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects....

  15. Lifestyle Changes in Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality : The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Looman, Moniek; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W.M. Monique

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between overall lifestyle profile and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death have been mainly investigated in cross-sectional studies. The full benefits of a healthy lifestyle may therefore be underestimated, and the magnitude of benefits associated with changes in lifestyle remains unclear. We quantified the association of changes in lifestyle profiles over 5 years with risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lifestyle factors (ie, diet, physica...

  16. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, A.; Weir-McCall, J.R.; Webb, D J; van Beek, E J R; Mirsadraee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardi...

  17. Relationships between body mass index, cardiovascular mortality, and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudina, Alexandra; Cooney, Marie Therese; Bacquer, Dirk De;

    2011-01-01

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity.......Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the biggest global cause of death, CVD mortality is falling in developed countries. There is concern that this trend may be offset by increasing levels of obesity....

  18. Imaging of cardiovascular risk in patients with Turner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner's syndrome is a disorder defined by an absent or structurally abnormal second X chromosome and affects around 1 in 2000 newborn females. The standardised mortality ratio in Turner's syndrome is around three-times higher than in the general female population, mainly as a result of cardiovascular disorders. Most striking is the early age at which Turner's syndrome patients develop the life-threatening complications of cardiovascular disorders compared to the general population. The cardiovascular risk stratification in Turner's syndrome is challenging and imaging is not systematically used. The aim of this article is to review cardiovascular risks in this group of patients and discuss a systematic imaging approach for early identification of cardiovascular disorders in these patients

  19. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Charlot, Mette Gitz;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged...... with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Main outcome measures. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and coronary revascularization were recorded. Results. A total of 34 371 patients with mild psoriasis and 2621 with severe psoriasis, including...... 607 with psoriatic arthritis, were identified and compared with 4 003 265 controls. The event rates and rate ratios (RRs) of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, MI, coronary revascularization, stroke and a composite of MI, stroke and cardiovascular death were increased in patients...

  20. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, O; Gislason, G H; Charlot, M;

    2011-01-01

    . The magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged =18 years followed from...... and psoriatic arthritis. Main outcome measures. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and coronary revascularization were recorded. Results. A total of 34 371 patients with mild psoriasis and 2621 with severe psoriasis, including 607...... with psoriatic arthritis, were identified and compared with 4 003 265 controls. The event rates and rate ratios (RRs) of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death, MI, coronary revascularization, stroke and a composite of MI, stroke and cardiovascular death were increased in patients with psoriasis. The rate...

  1. Meta-Analysis of Anxiety as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emdin, Connor A; Odutayo, Ayodele; Wong, Christopher X; Tran, Jenny; Hsiao, Allan J; Hunn, Benjamin H M

    2016-08-15

    Whether anxiety is a risk factor for a range of cardiovascular diseases is unclear. We aimed to determine the association between anxiety and a range of cardiovascular diseases. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for cohort studies that included participants with and without anxiety, including subjects with anxiety, worry, posttraumatic stress disorder, phobic anxiety, and panic disorder. We examined the association of anxiety with cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events (defined as the composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, coronary heart disease, and heart failure), stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. We identified 46 cohort studies containing 2,017,276 participants and 222,253 subjects with anxiety. Anxiety was associated with a significantly elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality (relative risk [RR] 1.41, CI 1.13 to 1.76), coronary heart disease (RR 1.41, CI 1.23 to 1.61), stroke (RR 1.71, CI 1.18 to 2.50), and heart failure (RR 1.35, CI 1.11 to 1.64). Anxiety was not significantly associated with major cardiovascular events or atrial fibrillation although CIs were wide. Phobic anxiety was associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease than other anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with a higher risk of stroke. Results were broadly consistent in sensitivity analyses. Anxiety disorders are associated with an elevated risk of a range of different cardiovascular events, including stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiovascular death. Whether these associations are causal is unclear. PMID:27324160

  2. The Effect of Exercise on the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Constituting the Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pattyn, Nele; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Eshghi, Saeed R. Toghi; Vanhees, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of exercise in different populations and for single cardiovascular risk factors, but none have specifically focused on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and the concomitant effect of exercise on all associated cardiovascular risk factors. Objective The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review with a meta-analysis of randomized and clinical controlled trials (RCTs, CTs) investigating the effect of exercise on car...

  3. Women-specific factors to consider in risk, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Ronée E; Coffman, Kirsten E.; Miller, Virginia M

    2015-01-01

    In the era of individualized medicine, gaps in knowledge remain about sex-specific risk factors, diagnostic and treatment options that might reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and improve outcomes for both women and men. In this review, contributions of biological mechanisms involving the sex chromosomes and the sex hormones on the cardiovascular system will be discussed in relationship to the female-specific risk factors for CVD: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, menopause...

  4. Prevalence of Cardiovascular disease risk among Medical Students in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Biswajit Paul; Vidhyaa Nayaaki; Mousumi Sen; Rita Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are global epidemic and contribute to double burden in developing countries. Individual’s dietary habits and risk behavior influence the onset and progression of CVDs. Medical students are future role models of the society and their knowledge, habits and behavior can influence their practice in prevention of CVDs in general population. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors among a sample of medical stud...

  5. Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors among young Brazilian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Olinto, Maria Teresa A.; Gigante, Denise P.; Horta, Bernardo; Silveira, Vera; OLIVEIRA, ISABEL; Willett, Walter C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diet is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The scientific literature has consistently shown the effects of certain diets on health; however, given the variety of cultures and dietary habits across the world, it is likely that much remains to be learned about dietary patterns and health outcomes. We assessed the associations between main dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors among 4,202 young Brazilian adults in a cross-sectional ...

  6. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease–Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jing eSun; Nicholas Jan Buys; Shu-Ying eShen

    2013-01-01

    AbstractStudies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Simiar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–8...

  7. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who ...

  8. Effect of Weight Reduction on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and CD34-positive Cells in Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nina A Mikirova, Joseph J Casciari, Ronald E Hunninghake, Margaret M Beezley

    2011-01-01

    Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial c...

  9. Effects of Smokeless Tobacco “Maras Powder” Use on Nitric Oxide and Cardiovascular Risk Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Aytekin Guven, Fatma Tolun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels.Methods: In the study, participants ...

  10. Clinical values dataset processing through cluster analysis to find cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, C. M.; Legnani, W. E.; Armentano, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this work is to show another way to grouping population with clinical variables measured in health centres and to assign a cardiovascular risk indicator. To do this, two different datasets were used, one coming from France and another coming from Uruguay. The well proved Framingham index was used to validate the results. The preliminary results are very auspicious to encourage the research and get deeper knowledge of the cardiovascular risk indicators.

  11. The level of grammar school students’ knowledge on cardiovascular disease risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Jaraković Milana; Mihajlović Bojan; Čemerlić Snežana; Ađić Filip; Sladojević Miroslava; Mihajlović Bogoljub

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The atherosclerotic process in the aorta starts in childhood, while atheroclerotic changes of coronary heart vessels start in adolescence. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of the students attending all four grades of grammar school about the risk factors for cardiovascular disease, with special attention to the risk factors that can be...

  12. Gene polymorphisms in association with emerging cardiovascular risk markers in adult women

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling Nicole F; Hayes Donald; Ned Renée; Fang Jing; House Meaghan; Chang Man-huei; Yesupriya Ajay; Fan Amy Z; Mokdad Ali H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence on the associations of emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors/markers with genes may help identify intermediate pathways of disease susceptibility in the general population. This population-based study is aimed to determine the presence of associations between a wide array of genetic variants and emerging cardiovascular risk markers among adult US women. Methods The current analysis was performed among the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NH...

  13. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population-based sample of Norwegian children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kolle, Elin; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred;

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the study was to describe the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and to evaluate the extent of clustering of CVD risk factors in Norwegian children and adolescents. Material and methods. A randomly selected cohort of 9-year-olds and 15-year...... on selected CVD risk factors in children and adolescents....

  14. One risk assessment tool for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Alssema (Marjan); R.S. Newson (Rachel); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); M.W. Heymans (Martijn); M.G.A.A.M. Nijpels (Giel); H.L. Hillege (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); R.T. Gansevoort; J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - Individuals at high risk for chronic cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease [CVD], type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) share many risk factors and would benefit from early intervention. We developed a nonlaboratory-based risk-assessment tool for identi

  15. One Risk Assessment Tool for Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alssema, Marjan; Newson, Rachel S.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Nijpels, Giel; Hillege, Hans L.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Individuals at high risk for chronic cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease [CVD], type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease [CKDD]) share many risk factors and would benefit from early intervention. We developed a nonlaboratory-based risk-assessment tool for identification of p

  16. A four-year cardiovascular risk score for type 2 diabetic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Ramírez-Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As cardiovascular risk tables currently in use were constructed using data from the general population, the cardiovascular risk of patients admitted via the hospital emergency department may be underestimated. Accordingly, we constructed a predictive model for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department. We undertook a four-year follow-up of a cohort of 112 adult patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department for any cause except patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, or a palliative status. The sample was selected randomly between 2010 and 2012. The primary outcome was time to cardiovascular disease. Other variables (at baseline were gender, age, heart failure, renal failure, depression, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin, smoking, admission for cardiovascular causes, pills per day, walking habit, fasting blood glucose and creatinine. A cardiovascular risk table was constructed based on the score to estimate the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Risk groups were established and the c-statistic was calculated. Over a mean follow-up of 2.31 years, 39 patients had cardiovascular disease (34.8%, 95% CI [26.0–43.6%]. Predictive factors were gender, age, hypertension, renal failure, insulin, admission due to cardiovascular reasons and walking habit. The c-statistic was 0.734 (standard error: 0.049. After validation, this study will provide a tool for the primary health care services to enable the short-term prediction of cardiovascular disease after hospital discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department.

  17. [Risk assessment and management of exodontia perioperative patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Y

    2016-07-01

    The number of tooth extraction patients with cardiovascular disease in our country is increasing year by year. Safety is essential for those patients and there is no uniform standard of risk assessment and management for tooth extraction patients with cardiovascular disease during perioperative period. By referring to literatures and with the clinical experience, the author summarized the risk assessment methods for tooth extraction patients with cardiovascular disease during perioperative period. Blood pressure control, cardiac function determination, arrhythmia recognition, blood glucose management, oral antiplatelet or anticoagulant medicine use, etc, were proposed in this article. PMID:27480428

  18. Impact of urate level on cardiovascular risk in allopurinol treated patients. A nested case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Søltoft; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, H. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gout gives rise to increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs such as allopurinol, and allopurinol further potentially reduces the cardiovascular risk. Whether treatment to a target level of uric acid.......36 mmol/l on allopurinol. The derived odds ratios were controlled for potential confounders available from data on prescriptions, laboratory values or in- and outpatient contacts. Results: No association of treatment-to-target urate level below 0.36 mmol/l and cardiovascular events were found. Adjusted...

  19. Estimated GFR associates with cardiovascular risk factors independently of measured GFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Ulla Dorte; Melsom, Toralf; Ingebretsen, Ole C; Jenssen, Trond; Njølstad, Inger; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid; Eriksen, Bjørn O

    2011-05-01

    Estimation of the GFR (eGFR) using creatinine- or cystatin C-based equations is imperfect, especially when the true GFR is normal or near-normal. Modest reductions in eGFR from the normal range variably predict cardiovascular morbidity. If eGFR associates not only with measured GFR (mGFR) but also with cardiovascular risk factors, the effects of these non-GFR-related factors might bias the association between eGFR and outcome. To investigate these potential non-GFR-related associations between eGFR and cardiovascular risk factors, we measured GFR by iohexol clearance in a sample from the general population (age 50 to 62 years) without known cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or kidney disease. Even after adjustment for mGFR, eGFR associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors in multiple regression analyses. More risk factors influenced cystatin C-based eGFR than creatinine-based eGFR, adjusted for mGFR, and some of the risk factors exhibited nonlinear effects in generalized additive models (PGFR. Thus, estimates of cardiovascular risk associated with small changes in eGFR must be interpreted with caution.

  20. Global Cardiovascular Risk in Women from a Health Area in Central Havana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suilbert Rodríguez Blanco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: global cardiovascular risk is a person’s probability of developing an adverse cardiovascular event of atherosclerotic origin over a defined period of time. Cuban women have surpassed men in mortality due to heart disease. Objective: to identify the global cardiovascular risk in women from doctor’s offices number 9 and 10 of the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic in Central Havana municipality from August 2012 to August 2013. Method: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in women aged 35 to 74 years from an area of the Nguyen Van Troi Polyclinic during August 2012-August 2013. Global cardiovascular risk was identified by means of the following variables: age, systolic blood pressure, smoking, presence of diabetes mellitus and body mass index; non-laboratory-based charts developed by Gaziano were used. Results: the most frequent risk factors were: smoking, increased body mass index and elevated systolic blood pressure. Global cardiovascular risk was low in 74.6 % of patients. Conclusions: global cardiovascular risk increases with age, presence of diabetes mellitus and increased body mass index.

  1. Therapeutic implications of selecting the SCORE (European versus the D'AGOSTINO (American risk charts for cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giné-Garriga Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No comparisons have been made of scales estimating cardiovascular mortality and overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The study objectives were to assess the agreement between the Framingham-D'Agostino cardiovascular risk (CVR scale and the chart currently recommended in Europe (SCORE with regard to identification of patients with high CVR, and to describe the discrepancies between them and the attendant implications for the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Methods A total of 474 hypertensive patients aged 40–65 years monitored in primary care were enrolled into the study. CVR was assessed using the Framingham-D'Agostino scale, which estimates the overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk, and the SCORE chart, which estimates the cardiovascular mortality risk. Cardiovascular risk was considered to be high for values ≥ 20% and ≥ 5% according to the Framingham-D'Agostino and SCORE charts respectively. Kappa statistics was estimated for agreement in classification of patients with high CVR. The therapeutic recommendations in the 2007 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention were followed. Results Mean patient age was 54.1 (SD 7.3, and 58.4% were males. A high CVR was found in 17.5% using the SCORE chart (25.3% males, 6.6% females and in 32.7% using the D'Agostino method (56.9% males, 12,7% females. Kappa coefficient was 0.52, and increased to 0.68 when the high CVR threshold was established at 29% according to D'Agostino. Hypertensive patients with high SCORE and non-high D'Agostino (1.7% were characterized by an older age, diabetes, and a lower atherogenic index, while the opposite situation (16.9% was associated to males, hyperlipidaemia, and a higher atherogenic index. Variables with a greater weight in discrepancies were sex and smoking. A 32.0% according to SCORE and 33.5% according to D'Agostino would be candidates to receive antihypertensive treatment, and 15.8% and

  2. Perfil cardiovascular em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono Perfil cardiovascular en pacientes con apnea obstructiva del sueño Cardiovascular profile in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Dumas Cintra

    2011-04-01

    ño durante una evaluación clínica. OBJETIVO:Analizar las características cardiovasculares de pacientes con AOS. MÉTODOS:Los pacientes sometidos a la polisomnografía basal fueron seleccionados de forma consecutiva a partir del banco de datos del Instituto del Sueño entre marzo de 2007 y marzo de 2009. Todos los pacientes fueron orientados a comparecer al ambulatorio para la recolección de sangre, examen físico, electrocardiograma de 12 derivaciones espirometria, prueba cardiopulmonar en cinta ergométrica y ecocardiograma transtorácico. El estudio fue aprobado por el comité de ética e investigación y registrado en la página web http://clinicaltrials.gov/ con el número: NCT00768625. RESULTADOS:Se analizaron a 261 pacientes y 108 controles. Las principales características de los pacientes con AOS fueron: la obesidad, la hipertensión, los bajos niveles plasmáticos de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL y el aumento de diámetro de la aurícula izquierda en comparación con los controles (3,75 1 0,42, 3,61 1 0,41, p = 0,001, respectivamente. Estas características asociadas corresponden a un aumento de 16,6 veces en la probabilidad de ocurrencia de AOS, independientemente de reportar cualquier síntoma de este trastorno, como la somnolencia o el ronquido. CONCLUSIÓN:En la muestra estudiada, el perfil cardiovascular de los pacientes con AOS más encontrado ha sido: obesidad, hipertensión arterial, bajos niveles plasmáticos de HDL y el diámetro de la aurícula izquierda mayor.BACKGROUND: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is a risk factor for several cardiovascular conditions including increased cardiovascular mortality. It is therefore essential to know the major cardiovascular effects of sleep-disordered breathing during a clinical evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cardiovascular characteristics of patients with OSA. METHODS: Patients underwent baseline polysomnography and were consecutively selected from the database of the Sleep Institute between March 2007

  3. Application of cardiovascular disease risk prediction models and the relevance of novel biomarkers to risk stratification in Asian Indians

    OpenAIRE

    S Kanjilal; Rao, VS; Mukherjee, M.; Natesha, BK; Renuka, KS; Sibi, K; Iyengar, SS; Kakkar, Vijay V

    2008-01-01

    The increasing pressure on health resources has led to the emergence of risk assessment as an essential tool in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Concern exists regarding the validity of their generalization to all populations. Existing risk scoring models do not incorporate emerging ‘novel’ risk factors. In this context, the aim of the study was to examine the relevance of British, European, and Framingham predictive CVD risk scores to the asymptomatic high risk Indian populati...

  4. Molecular mechanisms explaining the possible effects of phenolic compounds on reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aubets-Fusté

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to evaluate the possible association between phenolic compounds and cardiovascular disease, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease. An extensive research of scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, Web of Science, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, to establish the effect of polyphenols in the prevention and development of cardiovascular disease was conducted. The in vitro, animal and human studies show the potential ability of polyphenols to act against cardiovascular disease as a result of their antioxidant effect and vasodilatation and their capacity to improve lipid profile while reducing the concentration of low-density lipoproteins. Polyphenols consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease.

  5. TRADITIONAL CARDIOVASCULAR RISK-FACTORS AMONG HEALTHCARE WORKERS IN KELANTAN, MALAYSIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazmi, Helmy; Ishak, Wan Rosli Wan; Jalil, Rohana Abd; Hua, Gan Siew; Hamid, Noor Fadzlina; Haron, Rosliza; Shafei, Mohd Nazri; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Musa, Kamarul Imran

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study of cardiovascular risk factors among healthcare workers at four government hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. We randomly selected 330 subjects fulfilling the following study criteria: those who had been working for at least one year at that health facility, Malaysians citizens and those with some form of direct contact with patients. We conducted an interview, obtained physical measurements, a fasting blood sugar and fasting lipid profiles among 308 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 43.5 years, 82% were female; 30.8%, 14.3%, 10.4%, 1.3% and 1.6% of the subjects had dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, a history of stroke and a history of ischemic heart disease, respectively. Forty-two percent of subjects had at least one medical condition. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.0 kg/M2 (SD=4.8) and 24.3% had a BMI > or =30 kg/M2. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 121.5 mmHg (SD=14.0) and 76.5 mmHg (SD=9.7), respectively and the mean waist-hip ratio was 0.84 (SD=0.1). The mean fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were 5.8 mmol/l (SD=2.4), 5.5 mmol/l (SD=1.0), 1.4 mmol/l (SD=0.9), 1.5 mmol/l (SD=0.3) and 3.5 mmol/l (SD=0.9), respectively. Our study population had a smaller proportion of hypertension than that of the general Malaysian population. They had higher fasting total cholesterol, slightly lower fasting blood sugar, with a large proportion of them, obese and had diabetes. Immediate intervention is needed to reduce the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, health care workers, Malaysia PMID:26521525

  6. Endothelial progenitor cells in mothers of low-birthweight infants: a link between defective placental vascularization and increased cardiovascular risk?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    King, Thomas F J

    2013-01-01

    Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk.

  7. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients--association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Weber, Rainer; Reiss, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-infected persons, and to investigate any association between such risk factors, stage of HIV disease, and use of antiretroviral therapies. DESIGN: Baseline data from 17,852 subjects enrolled in DAD...... of lipodystrophy, longer exposure times to NNRTI and PI, and older age were all also associated with elevated total cholesterol level. CONCLUSION: HIV-infected persons exhibit multiple known risk factors for CVD. Of specific concern is the fact that use of the NNRTI and PI drug classes (alone and especially...... in combination), particularly among older subjects with normalized CD4 cell counts and suppressed HIV replication, was associated with a lipid profile known to increase the risk of coronary heart disease....

  8. Approach to dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, J Gregory

    2011-02-01

    There is a significant prevalence (20%-80% depending on the population and the study) of lipid disorders and other cardiovascular risk factors in people living with HIV infection. This review focuses on HIV and HIV treatment-associated metabolic and cardiovascular concerns, including dyslipidemias, lipodystrophy syndromes, endothelial dysfunctions, and associated metabolic events such as insulin resistance. Emerging hypotheses of the underlying pathophysiology of these issues, with impact on selection of specific antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategies, therapy, and preventive approaches to decreasing cardiovascular risk and other problems associated with these syndromes are discussed. Screening for cardiovascular risk as part of the decision of starting antiretroviral therapy, and during care of patients with HIV regardless of ART therapy status, is suggested with particular areas of focus. Statins, other hyperlipidemic therapies, treatment for specific problems arising due to lipodystrophy, and implications on ART selection to avoid drug interactions and adverse effects are also discussed.

  9. Risk of solid cancer, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis and fractures in patients with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Vestergaard, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    In patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), several aspects of morbidity remain poorly understood. We assessed the risk of solid cancers, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis, and fractures in SM patients. Using Danish medical registries, we conducted a nationwide population.......2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6) and the 10-year AR was 5.9% (95% CI 3.9-8.4). SM patients are at increased risk of solid cancers - especially melanoma and NMSC-and cardiovascular disease. The risk of anaphylaxis and osteoporosis is clearly increased in SM, though absolute risk was low in this population-based study...

  10. Prehypertension and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents Participating in the Community-Based Prevention Education Program Family Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gerda-Maria Haas; Thomas Bertsch; Peter Schwandt

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because prehypertension identifies children most at risk for the development of future hypertensive disease, the purpose of this study was, to examine the association of prehypertension with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large sample of youths participating in the community-based prevention education program family heart study. Methods: We estimated blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) for age and the lipid profile in terms of total cholesterol (TC), l...

  11. How are physical activity behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors associated with characteristics of the built and social residential environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eichinger

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to identify perceptions of built and social residential characteristics and their association with behaviors such as physical activity (PA, nutrition and smoking and with cardiovascular risk factors (elevated BMI and fasting blood glucose.Among participants of a preventive medical checkup at an Austrian District Health Insurance Fund (n=904, response rate = 82.2%, 42% women, 18-91 years self-reported and measured data were collected.Total PA was positively associated with the presence of trees along the streets and high levels of pro-physical activity social modeling (SM and it was negatively related to perceived safety from crime. More leisure-time PA was associated with higher levels of cycling/walking infrastructure and high levels of SM. PA for transportation was positively related to high levels of connectivity and high levels of SM. Better behavioral cardiovascular risk factor profiles (smoking and nutrition were associated with high levels of SM and high levels of total PA. Lower BMI values were associated with high levels of infrastructure and high levels of SM.Both built and social residential characteristics are important correlates of PA as well as of major cardiovascular risk factors besides PA.

  12. Effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in split-dose streptozotocin induced neonatal rat model: a chronic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mohammed Salman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus using n-STZ rat model on a long term basis. Methods: The diabetic model was developed using a split dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally on 2nd and 3rd postnatal days. The diabetic rats were treated orally with gliclazide suspension at the dose of 10 mg/kg for 90 days. Cardiovascular risk factors such as systolic blood pressure, heart rate, lipid profile, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated at regular intervals along with fasting blood glucose (FBG and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Gliclazide did not alter FBG however improved the impaired glucose tolerance. The gliclazide treated rats did not develop hypertension and there was a significant difference (p<0.001 at the end of treatment when compared to the diabetic group which could be due to free radical scavenging property of gliclazide. Gliclazide treatment in n-STZ model was found to be effective in preventing hypertension, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Also gliclazide was found to have beneficial effects on the impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, adiposity index and total fat pad weight. Conclusions: To improve and prevent the cardiovascular risk factors involved in Type II diabetic patients, gliclazide could be clinically beneficial. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 196-201

  13. Rural to urban migration and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in Tanzania: a prospective cohort study

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    Tamin Bushiri

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of rural to urban migration are a feature of most African countries. Our aim was to investigate changes, and their determinants, in cardiovascular risk factors on rural to urban migration in Tanzania. Methods Men and women (15 to 59 years intending to migrate from Morogoro rural region to Dar es Salaam for at least 6 months were identified. Measurements were made at least one week but no more than one month prior to migration, and 1 to 3 monthly after migration. Outcome measures included body mass index, blood pressure, fasting lipids, and self reported physical activity and diet. Results One hundred and three men, 106 women, mean age 29 years, were recruited and 132 (63.2% followed to 12 months. All the figures presented here refer to the difference between baseline and 12 months in these 132 individuals. Vigorous physical activity declined (79.4% to 26.5% in men, 37.8% to 15.6% in women, p -1 respectively, p -1, p = 0.01, and triglycerides fell (0.31 mmoll-1, p = 0.034. Blood pressure appeared to fall in both men and women. For example, in men systolic blood pressure fell by 5.4 mmHg, p = 0.007, and in women by 8.6 mmHg, p = 0.001. Conclusion The lower level of physical activity and increasing weight will increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, changes in diet were mixed, and may have contributed to mixed changes in lipid profiles and a lack of rise in blood pressure. A better understanding of the changes occurring on rural to urban migration is needed to guide preventive measures.

  14. Oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Shetty

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dentist and oral health screening may be the latest weapon in identifying persons at risk of cardiovascular disease. Oral infections, specifically periodontitis, may confer independent risks for different systemic conditions. The risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases also suggest that the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes works in both ways. The aim of this study was to support and strengthen the association and relationship between oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and its associated risk factors. A simple random sampling was carried out in 200 inhabitants of Western Utter Pradesh, India. An oral health visit and examination was made for an equal number of males and females of different age groups with cardiovascular diseases. Evaluation of the oral status was made by means of an oral hygiene index, community periodontal index of treatment needs and loss of attachment. Evaluation of oral status in patients with cardiovascular diseases and in the control group has shown a statistically significant low level of oral health in patients with cardiovascular diseases as compared to control. Prevalence of systemic diseases in different age groups significantly correlated with the prevalence of severe periodontal diseases. Treating gum disease may reduce the risk of heart disease and improve health outcomes for patients with periodontal disease and vascular heart problems.

  15. Double blind randomized clinical trial controlled by placebo with an alpha linoleic acid and prebiotic enriched cookie on risk cardiovascular factor in obese patients Ensayo clínico aletorizado doble ciego controlado con placebo con una galleta enriquecida en ácido alfa linoleico y prebióticos en el patrón de riesgo cardiovascular de pacientes obesos

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. De Luis; B. de la  Fuente; O. Izaola; Conde, R.; S. Gutiérrez; M.ª Morillo; C. Teba Torres

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Inulin and FOS are prebiotics with potential benefit in cardiovascular risk factors. Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the metabolic precursor of the long chain n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20: 5n-3), this fatty acid has anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of our study was to evaluate the response of the cardiovascular risk profile in obese patients after inclusion in the diet of an ALA, FOS and inulin enriched-cookie. Material and methods: 36 patients were randomized in ...

  16. Association between perceived lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and calculated risk in a male population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lima Jr MM

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mário Maciel de Lima Jr,1,2 Glaciane Rocha da Silva,3 Sebastião Salazar Jensem Filho,2 Fabiana Granja3 1Department of Urology, Coronel Mota Hospital, Roraima, 2Cathedral College, 3Biodiversity Research Center, Federal University of Roraima (CBio/UFRR, Roraima, Brazil Aim: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality across the world. Despite health campaigns to improve awareness of cardiovascular risk factors, there has been little improvement in cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to examine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and people’s perception on cardiovascular risk. Methods: This was an epidemiological, cross-sectional, descriptive, prospective study of Masonic men aged >40 years in Boa Vista, Brazil. Participants completed a health survey, which included three questions about perception of their stress level, overall health status, and risk of a heart attack. In addition, demographic and biological data were collected. Results: A total of 101 Masonic men took part in the study; their mean age (± standard ­deviation was 55.35±9.17 years and mean body mass index was 28.77±4.51 kg/m2. Answers to the lifestyle questionnaire suggested an overall healthy lifestyle, including good diet and moderate exercise, although despite this ~80% were classified as overweight or obese. The majority of participants felt that they had a low stress level (66.3%, good overall general health (63.4%, and were at low risk of having a heart attack (71.3%. Masons who were overweight were significantly more likely to perceive themselves to be at risk of a heart attack (P=0.025. Conclusion: Despite over half of participants having a moderate to high risk of cardiovascular disease according to traditional risk factors, less than a third perceived themselves to be at high risk. Public health campaigns need to better communicate the significance of traditional cardiovascular risk in order to improve

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in combination with hypertension depending on body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sіrenko O.Yu.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors and hypertension in patients with rheumatoid arthritis depending on body weight. The study involved 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and stably selected therapy for more than 6 months at the age from 45 to 65 years (mean age 53,19 ± 5,40 years. Traditional cardiovascular risk was assessed, taking into account risk factors by SCORE scale and amended for patients with RA. The levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, serum creatinine, body mass index, body area index were determined. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 41 (41% patients with rheuma¬toid arthritis and was associated with traditional risk factors (age, obesity, rheumatoid factor, hyperuricemia and the duration of glucocorticoid therapy. Obesity and excess body mass occurred in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, herewith the highest level of inflammation indicators and risk of cardiovascular events was in overweight patients. Obesity was associated with duration of rheumatoid arthritis, the activity of the inflammatory process, the duration of glucocorticoids taking. It is found that the traditional SCORE scale does not fully reflect the risk of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis. Identification of hypertension and obesity increases the information content of the risk assessment of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis.

  18. Microalbuminuria in Obese Young and Middle Aged Population: A Potential Marker of Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Purvi; Garg, Kunal; Singh, Vikram; Dwivedi, Shailendra; Sharma, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established cardiovascular risk indicator in diabetes, hypertension and the general population. There is lack of information on MAU in healthy obese Indian adults and an ongoing debate whether obese adults deserve targeted identification and clinical intervention for MAU and prediabetes. We aimed to screen the healthy obese, young (group I) and middle aged (group II) adults for prevalence of MAU and prediabetes and study its association with Framingham risk score. The study included 50 healthy obese young (20-30 years) and middle aged adults (31-50 years), attending the outpatient clinic of Dept. of Medicine for a duration of 2 months (July-August). The patients were screened for fasting blood sugar, lipid profile and MAU. Of the total patients 28 % had MAU, 32.14 % of which had prediabetes and 33.33 % had diabetes whereas 10 % were normoglycemic. The group I patients had 50 % cases of MAU and group II had 25 % patients with MAU. Group II 63.63 % pre-diabetics. The values of MAU obtained were correlated with age, gender, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, FBS, waist to hip ratio using Pearson's Coefficient (p < 0.05). The 10 year CVD risk calculated using FRS in subjects with MAU was higher as compared to those without MAU. Thus we conclude that Indian, young and middle aged obese adults to be at a risk of prediabetes, MAU and CV risk warranting their routine screening for better clinical outcomes. PMID:27382209

  19. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado; Sandra Maria Barbalho; Marie Oshiiwa; Ricardo Goulart; Osvaldo Pessan Junior

    2012-01-01

    Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a...

  20. Cardiovascular risk in Egyptian healthy consumers of different types of combined oral contraceptives pills: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haggar, Sahar M; Mostafa, Tarek M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the associated cardiovascular risk in Egyptian healthy consumers of different types of combined oral contraceptives pills (COCPs) via determination of lipids profiles, Castelli index I, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations as cardiovascular risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, the study groups consisted of control group that represented by 30 healthy married women who were not on any contraceptive mean or any hormonal therapy and had normal menstrual cycles, group two consisted of 30 women who were users of Levonorgesterl 0.15 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle, group three consisted of 30 women who were users of Gestodene 0.075 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle, and group four consisted of 30 women who were users of Drospirenone 3 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle. One-way analysis of variance followed by LSD post hoc test was used for comparison of variables. P value index. Formulation containing ethinylestradiol combined with gestodene neither altered adipose tissue function nor showed deleterious effect on lipid panel. Formulation containing ethinylestradiol combined with drospirenone resulted in significantly higher HDL-C and adiponectin concentrations. In conclusion, the uptake of COCPs containing levonorgestrel plus ethinylestradiol is associated with high cardiovascular risk since this formulation showed significantly lower adiponectin concentration, significantly higher leptin, resistin, and atherogenic index as compared to other studied groups. By contrast, the formulations containing ethinylestradiol combined with third generation progestin gestodene or fourth generation progestin drospirenone are associated with low cardiovascular risk since they neither altered adipose tissue function nor impaired lipoprotein metabolism as experienced by their favorable effect on leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, with non-changed atherogenic index, higher HDL-C levels and

  1. Importance of cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorber D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Lorber Division of Endocrinology, New York Hospital Queens, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term. Keywords: cardiovascular risk, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia

  2. Health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, R J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin. Clinical records of all 150 new prostitutes who attended a drop-in clinic for prostitutes in Dublin city during the period 1991-1997 were reviewed. Variables examined included: age, use of injectable drugs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, hepatitis B and C status, presence of sexually transmitted disease (STD), cervical cytology. Results showed the mean age of the women was 32 years. Among those tested, 2.5% were HIV positive, 5% were hepatitis B positive, 8% were hepatitis C positive and 25% had an STD. Almost 8% were injecting drug users (IDU) with higher prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B and C compared with non-IDU (P < 0.001). The clinic has been successful in providing a health-care facility for the specific health needs of this patient cohort.

  3. Is Sex Good for Your Health? A National Study on Partnered Sexuality and Cardiovascular Risk Among Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda; Shen, Shannon; Wang, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Working from a social relationship and life course perspective, we provide generalizable population-based evidence on partnered sexuality linked to cardiovascular risk in later life using national longitudinal data from the NSHAP (N=2204). We consider characteristics of partnered sexuality of older men and women, particularly sexual activity and sexual quality, as they affect cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular risk is defined as hypertension, rapid heart rate, elevated CRP, and general cardiovascular events. We find that older men are more likely to report being sexually active, report having sex more often and more enjoyably than are older women. Results from cross-lagged models suggest that high frequency of sex is positively related to later risk of cardiovascular events for men but not women, whereas good sexual quality seems to protect women but not men from cardiovascular risk in later life. We find no evidence that poor cardiovascular health interferes with later sexuality for either gender. PMID:27601406

  4. Metabolomic Profiling for Identification of Novel Potential Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Barderas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics involves the identification and quantification of metabolites present in a biological system. Three different approaches can be used: metabolomic fingerprinting, metabolic profiling, and metabolic footprinting, in order to evaluate the clinical course of a disease, patient recovery, changes in response to surgical intervention or pharmacological treatment, as well as other associated features. Characteristic patterns of metabolites can be revealed that broaden our understanding of a particular disorder. In the present paper, common strategies and analytical techniques used in metabolomic studies are reviewed, particularly with reference to the cardiovascular field.

  5. Comparative study on individual aromatase inhibitors on cardiovascular safety profile: misleading analysis and doubtful methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo WQ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wenqin Guo, Lang Li Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People’s Republic of ChinaZhao et al have presented the result of the relative cardiovascular safety profile in using anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane to treat the postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, in which fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction is the outcome measure and ten randomized controlled trials are used as the data sources.1 We congratulate and applaud their important work, but there are some issues of concern.  View original article by Zhao et al 

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. de Winter (Channa)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia are

  7. Impact of selective platelet inhibition in reducing cardiovascular risk - role of vorapaxar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy Wm

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and safety of vorapaxar in reducing cardiovascular risk. Vorapaxar is a tricyclic himbacine-derived reversible inhibitor of platelet surface protease activator receptor-1, which prevents thrombin from activating platelets. Two Phase III clinical trials and multiple subanalyses from the two trials with vorapaxar have been published. In patients with recent acute coronary syndrome, vorapaxar, when added to standard therapy, did not reduce the composite cardiovascular end point. In contrary, in a study of secondary prevention for patients with cardiovascular diseases, vorapaxar reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or ischemic events (myocardial infarction, stroke) in patients with stable atherosclerosis who were receiving standard therapy. Vorapaxar is approved in the US for use with aspirin and/or clopidogrel in the secondary prevention of thrombogenic cardiovascular events in stable patients with peripheral arterial disease or a history of myocardial infarction. Vorapaxar increases risk of bleeding and is contraindicated in patients with previous cerebrovascular events. It is essential to balance individual patient's bleeding risk to any further cardiovascular benefits that they may get. Future investigation is also needed to evaluate use of vorapaxar with newer antiplatelet agents such as ticagrelor and cangrelor, as well as its role as monotherapy. PMID:27366081

  8. Somatotype of the individuals with lower extremity amputation and its association with cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)<