WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiovascular risk current

  1. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor: current status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Chapman, M John; Ray, Kausik

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies.......The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies....

  2. Lipoprotein(a) as a cardiovascular risk factor : current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Chapman, M John; Ray, Kausik; Borén, Jan; Andreotti, Felicita; Watts, Gerald F; Ginsberg, Henry; Amarenco, Pierre; Catapano, Alberico; Descamps, Olivier S; Fisher, Edward; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Lesnik, Philippe; Masana, Luis; Reiner, Zeljko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tokgözoglu, Lale; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of the study were, first, to critically evaluate lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] as a cardiovascular risk factor and, second, to advise on screening for elevated plasma Lp(a), on desirable levels, and on therapeutic strategies. METHODS AND RESULTS: The robust and specific association between e

  3. Is cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS a real risk? Current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios; Kandaraki, Eleni; Papalou, Olga; Vryonidou, Andromachi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2017-01-31

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive aged women. PCOS incorporates not only symptoms related to the reproductive system but also a clustering of systemic metabolic abnormalities that are linked with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). More specifically, metabolic aberrations such as impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, accompanied by increased low-grade inflammation as well as elevated coagulation factors appear to contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk. Even though many studies have indicated a rise in surrogate biomarkers of CVD in women with PCOS, it is still doubtful to what extent and magnitude this elevation can be translated to real cardiovascular events. Furthermore, the cardiovascular risk factors appear to vary significantly in the different phenotypes of the syndrome. Women with PCOS have the potential for early atherosclerosis, myocardial and endothelial dysfunction. Whether or not PCOS women are at real cardiovascular risk compared to controls remains between the verge of theoretical and real threat for the PCOS women at any age but particularly in the post menopausal state. Interestingly, although the presence of the CVD risk factors is well documented in PCOS women, their combination on different phenotypes may play a role, which eventually results in a spectrum of clinical manifestations of CVD with variable degree of severity. The present manuscript aims to review the interaction between PCOS and the combination of several cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. Current controversies in turner syndrome: Genetic testing, assisted reproduction, and cardiovascular risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ackermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Turner syndrome (TS require close medical follow-up and management for cardiac abnormalities, growth and reproductive issues. This review summarizes current controversies in this condition, including: 1 the optimal genetic testing for Turner syndrome patients, particularly with respect to identification of Y chromosome material that may increase the patient's risk of gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma, 2 which patients should be referred for bilateral gonadectomy and the recommended timing of such referral, 3 options for assisted reproduction in these patients and associated risks, 4 the increased risk of mortality associated with pregnancy in this population, and 5 how best to assess and monitor cardiovascular risks.

  5. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  6. Fish, Mercury, Selenium and Cardiovascular Risk: Current Evidence and Unanswered Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Mozaffarian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Controversy has arisen among the public and in the media regarding the health effects of fish intake in adults. Substantial evidence indicates that fish consumption reduces coronary heart disease mortality, the leading cause of death in developed and most developing nations. Conversely, concerns have grown regarding potential effects of exposure to mercury found in some fish. Seafood species are also rich in selenium, an essential trace element that may protect against both cardiovascular disease and toxic effects of mercury. Such protective effects would have direct implications for recommendations regarding optimal selenium intake and for assessing the potential impact of mercury exposure from fish intake in different populations. Because fish consumption appears to have important health benefits in adults, elucidating the relationships between fish intake, mercury and selenium exposure, and health risk is of considerable scientific and public health relevance. The evidence for health effects of fish consumption in adults is reviewed, focusing on the strength and consistency of evidence and relative magnitudes of effects of omega-3 fatty acids, mercury, and selenium. Given the preponderance of evidence, the focus is on cardiovascular effects, but other potential health effects, as well as potential effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in fish, are also briefly reviewed. The relevant current unanswered questions and directions of further research are summarized.

  7. Current practice in identifying and treating cardiovascular risk, with a focus on residual risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Aguiar, Carlos; Alegria, Eduardo; Bonadonna, Riccardo C.; Cosentino, Francesco; Elisaf, Moses; Farnier, Michel; Ferrières, Jean; Filardi, Pasquale Perrone; Hancu, Nicolae; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Mello e Silva, Alberto; Millan, Jesus; Reiner, Željko; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Valensi, Paul; Viigimaa, Margus; Vrablik, Michal; Zambon, Alberto; Zamorano, José Luis; Catapano, Alberico L.

    2016-01-01

    A panel of European experts on lipids and cardiovascular disease discussed clinical approaches to managing cardiovascular risk in clinical practice, including residual cardiovascular risk associated with lipid abnormalities, such as atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD). A simplified definition of AD was proposed to enhance understanding of this condition, its prevalence, and its impact on cardiovascular risk. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia can be defined by high fasting triglyceride levels (≥2.3 mmol/L) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels (≤1.0 and ≤1.3 mmol/L in men and women, respectively) in statin-treated patients at high cardiovascular risk. The use of a single marker for the diagnosis and treatment of AD, such as non-HDL-c, was advocated. Interventions including lifestyle optimization and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering therapy with statins (±ezetimibe) are implemented by all experts. Treatment of residual AD can be performed with the addition of fenofibrate, since it can improve the complete lipoprotein profile and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with AD. Specific clinical scenarios in which fenofibrate may be prescribed are discussed, and include patients with very high triglycerides (≥5.6 mmol/L), patients who are intolerant or resistant to statins, and patients with AD and at high cardiovascular risk. The fenofibrate–statin combination was considered by the experts to benefit from a favourable benefit–risk profile. Cardiovascular experts adopt a multifaceted approach to the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, with lifestyle optimization, LDL-lowering therapy, and treatment of AD with fenofibrate routinely used to help reduce a patient's overall cardiovascular risk. PMID:28533705

  8. Energy Drinks and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangi, Muhammad A; Rehman, Hiba; Rafique, Muhammad; Illovsky, Michael

    2017-06-07

    Energy drinks (EDs) are commonly used as a dietary supplement by young adolescents and adults. They are often used as a source of energy in order to enhance physical and mental performance. EDs contain a variety of substances, but caffeine is the main component. Safety has been the biggest concern associated with consuming EDs. Case reports, observational studies, and meta-analyses have been done in order to determine the effects of EDs on cardiovascular changes. The detrimental effects of EDs are cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, prolonged QT interval, aortic dissection, and death. In this article, we review case reports, observational studies, and meta-analyses of EDs and the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. We also review active ingredients, pharmacokinetics, and the mechanism of action of EDs.

  9. What is the Current Knowledge About the Cardiovascular Risk for Users of Cannabis-Based Products? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanjus, Emilie; Raymond, Valentin; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Wolff, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the published evidence on the cardiovascular risk related to the use of cannabis-based products by performing a systematic review of recent literature. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that cannabis use represents a risky behavior as it may lead to many adverse effects, and in particular, cardiovascular effects. A systematic review of articles published between January 1, 2011 and May 31, 2016 was performed in agreement with the PRISMA statement. Articles presenting data on humans exposed to cannabis-based products and suffering from any cardiovascular condition were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion process was based on a search algorithm and performed in a blinded standardized manner. Overall, 826 articles were found in the literature search, 115 of which remained after performing the inclusion procedure. These were 81 case reports, 29 observational studies, 3 clinical trials, and 2 experimental studies. A total of 116 individuals was the subject of case reports. The mean age was 31 years (95%CI = 29-34), and patients were more frequently men (81.9%) than women (18.1%). They mainly suffered from ischemic strokes or myocardial infarctions. Data provided by the 29 included observational studies evidenced an association between exposure to cannabis-based products and cardiovascular disease. Currently, this evidence is stronger for ischemic strokes than for any other cardiovascular diseases. While the data are limited, there is some suggestion that cannabis use may have negative cardiovascular consequences, particularly at large doses.

  10. How artificial intelligence tools can be used to assess individual patient risk in cardiovascular disease: problems with the current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Enzo

    2006-05-03

    In recent years a number of algorithms for cardiovascular risk assessment has been proposed to the medical community. These algorithms consider a number of variables and express their results as the percentage risk of developing a major fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event in the following 10 to 20 years The author has identified three major pitfalls of these algorithms, linked to the limitation of the classical statistical approach in dealing with this kind of non linear and complex information. The pitfalls are the inability to capture the disease complexity, the inability to capture process dynamics, and the wide confidence interval of individual risk assessment. Artificial Intelligence tools can provide potential advantage in trying to overcome these limitations. The theoretical background and some application examples related to artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been reviewed and discussed. The use of predictive algorithms to assess individual absolute risk of cardiovascular future events is currently hampered by methodological and mathematical flaws. The use of newer approaches, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, linked to artificial intelligence, seems to better address both the challenge of increasing complexity resulting from a correlation between predisposing factors, data on the occurrence of cardiovascular events, and the prediction of future events on an individual level.

  11. How artificial intelligence tools can be used to assess individual patient risk in cardiovascular disease: problems with the current methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi Enzo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years a number of algorithms for cardiovascular risk assessment has been proposed to the medical community. These algorithms consider a number of variables and express their results as the percentage risk of developing a major fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular event in the following 10 to 20 years Discussion The author has identified three major pitfalls of these algorithms, linked to the limitation of the classical statistical approach in dealing with this kind of non linear and complex information. The pitfalls are the inability to capture the disease complexity, the inability to capture process dynamics, and the wide confidence interval of individual risk assessment. Artificial Intelligence tools can provide potential advantage in trying to overcome these limitations. The theoretical background and some application examples related to artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been reviewed and discussed. Summary The use of predictive algorithms to assess individual absolute risk of cardiovascular future events is currently hampered by methodological and mathematical flaws. The use of newer approaches, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks, linked to artificial intelligence, seems to better address both the challenge of increasing complexity resulting from a correlation between predisposing factors, data on the occurrence of cardiovascular events, and the prediction of future events on an individual level.

  12. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...... reporting the intake of cheese and risk of CVD or risk factors of CVD represent four human intervention studies, nine prospective studies, one prospective case-cohort study, one prospective nested case-control study, five case-control studies, five cross-sectional studies and three correlation studies....... The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one...

  13. Cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Peter; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Jespersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    (ECG) abnormalities, heart rate, family history (of ischaemic heart disease), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, walking duration and pace, leisure time physical activity, forced expiratory volume (FEV)1%pred, household income, education, vital exhaustion, high-density lipoprotein (HDL......AIM: European society of cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification in asymptomatic individuals is based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithm, which estimates individual 10-year risk of death from CVD. We assessed...

  14. [Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Otto

    2012-05-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is without any doubt multifactorial, and it is generally accepted, that conventional risk factors determined only about 80% of cardiovascular risk. There is accumulating evidence that vitamin D exerts important pathophysiological effects on cardiovascular system. Low vitamin D was associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several reports. This review summarizes recent epidemiological evidence and possible pathophysiological mechanism for a role of low vitamin D in cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, available data concerning vitamin D supplementation are depicted.

  15. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  16. Is global cardiovascular risk considered in current practice? Treatment and control of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes according to patients’ risk level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Roccatagliata

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Daria Roccatagliata1, Fausto Avanzini1, Lara Monesi1, Vittorio Caimi2, Davide Lauri1, Paolo Longoni3, Roberto Marchioli4, Massimo Tombesi2, Gianni Tognoni1, Maria Carla Roncaglioni1, on behalf of the Collaborative Group Risk and Prevention Study*1Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, Milano, Italy; 2CSeRMEG Centro Studi e Ricerca in Medicina Generale, Monza, Italy; 3CoS Consorzio Sanità, Milano, Italy; 4Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, S. Maria Imbaro, Italy *A full list of investigators is reported in the AppendixObjectives: To assess the pharmacological treatment and the control of major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in everyday practice according to the patients’ cardiovascular risk level.Methods: In a cross-sectional study general practitioners (GPs had to identify a random sample of their patients with cardiovascular risk factors or diseases and collect essential data on the pharmacological treatment and control of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes according to the patients’ cardiovascular risk level and history of cardiovascular disease. Participants were subjects of both sexes, aged 40–80 years, with at least one known cardiovascular risk factor or a history of cardiovascular diseases.Results: From June to December 2000, 162 Italian GPs enrolled 3120 of their patients (2470 hypertensives, 1373 hyperlipidemics, and 604 diabetics. Despite the positive association between the perceived level of global cardiovascular risk and lipid-lowering drug prescriptions in hyperlipidemic subjects (from 26% for lowest risk to 56% for highest risk p < 0.0001 or the prescription of combination therapy in hypertensives (from 41% to 70%, p < 0.0001 and diabetics (from 24% to 43%, p = 0.057, control was still inadequate in 48% of diabetics, 77% of hypertensives, and 85% of hyperlipidemics, with no increase in patients at highest risk. Trends for treatment and control were similar in patients with cardiovascular diseases

  17. Abacavir and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, G.M.N.; Reiss, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on current studies addressing the association of abacavir (ABC) therapy and myocardial risk in HIV-infected patients, discusses potential pathogenetic mechanisms, and suggests a preliminary algorithm for decision making regarding ABC therapy in daily clinical pr

  18. Current trends in reducing cardiovascular risk factors in the United States: focus on worksite health and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalin, Lawrence P; Myers, Jonathan; Kaminsky, Leonard; Briggs, Paige; Forman, Daniel E; Patel, Mahesh J; Pinkstaff, Sherry O; Arena, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Health care in the United States (US) is changing with a broad provision of health care services to every American due to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) slated to begin in January of 2014. An important aspect of the ACA is that US companies may begin to offer health insurance incentives to employees for participating in health and wellness initiatives. Moreover, since US employers directly absorb many of the financial costs associated with the high degree of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors present in their personnel, employers may be financially vested in improving employee health. However, employers must also consider the costs of developing and maintaining programs to improve employee health and their return on investment (ROI). This review will identify key risk factors to address in a worksite health and wellness program and to examine the performance of such programs in improving CV risk factors and their ROI.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in elderly women: Challenging the current definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragsbæk, Katrine; Neergaard, Jesper S; Laursen, Janne M; Hansen, Henrik B; Christiansen, Claus; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Karsdal, Morten A; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim

    2016-09-01

    The prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is believed to vary with age. With an elderly population expecting to triple by 2060, it is important to evaluate the validity of MetS in this age group. We examined the association of MetS risk factors with later risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly Caucasian women. We further investigated if stratification of individuals not defined with MetS would add predictive power in defining future disease prevalence of individuals with MetS.The Prospective Epidemiological Risk Factor Study, a community-based cohort study, followed 3905 Danish women since 2000 (age: 70.1 ± 6.5) with no previous diagnosis of T2DM or CVD, holding all measurements used for MetS definition; central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia combined with register-based follow-up information.Elderly women with defined MetS presented a 6.3-fold increased risk of T2DM (95% confidence interval: [3.74-10.50]) and 1.7-fold increased risk of CVD (1.44-2.05) compared to women with no MetS risk factors. Subdividing the control group without defined MetS revealed that both centrally obese controls and controls holding other MetS risk factors also had increased risk of T2DM (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.21 [1.25-3.93] and HR = 1.75 [1.04-2.96]) and CVD (HR = 1.51 [1.25-1.83] and HR = 1.36 [1.15-1.60]) when compared to controls with no MetS risk factors.MetS in elderly Caucasian women increased risk of future T2DM and CVD. While not defined with MetS, women holding only some risk factors for MetS were also at increased risk of T2DM or CVD compared to women with no MetS risk factors.

  20. Cardiovascular investigations of airline pilots with excessive cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J; Larsen, Peter D

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of airline pilots who have an excessive cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk score according to the New Zealand Guideline Group (NZGG) Framingham-based Risk Chart and describes their cardiovascular risk assessment and investigations. A cross-sectional study was performed among 856 pilots employed in an Oceania based airline. Pilots with elevated CVD risk that had been previously evaluated at various times over the previous 19 yr were reviewed retrospectively from the airline's medical records, and the subsequent cardiovascular investigations were then described. There were 30 (3.5%) pilots who were found to have 5-yr CVD risk score of 10-15% or higher. Of the 29 pilots who had complete cardiac investigations data, 26 pilots underwent exercise electrocardiography (ECG), 2 pilots progressed directly to coronary angiograms and 1 pilot with abnormal echocardiogram was not examined further. Of the 26 pilots, 7 had positive or borderline exercise tests, all of whom subsequently had angiograms. One patient with a negative exercise test also had a coronary angiogram. Of the 9 patients who had coronary angiograms as a consequence of screening, 5 had significant disease that required treatment and 4 had either trivial disease or normal coronary arteries. The current approach to investigate excessive cardiovascular risk in pilots relies heavily on exercise electrocardiograms as a diagnostic test, and may not be optimal either to detect disease or to protect pilots from unnecessary invasive procedures. A more comprehensive and accurate cardiac investigation algorithm to assess excessive CVD risk in pilots is required.

  1. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  2. Cardiovascular risk calculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James A. Ker

    2014-08-20

    Aug 20, 2014 ... combined effects of several risk factors. Risk prediction ... but they have high intrinsic variance for the prediction of risk when applied to a given ... motivating patients to improve their vascular age by better adhering to therapy.6.

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  5. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  6. Cardiovascular risks of antiretroviral therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Tebas, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in sustained reductions in mortality from HIV infection. In recent years, HAART has also been associated with metabolic complications that may increase patients' cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies have begun to support a more complex interaction between HAART, HIV infection itself, and other traditional social and immunologic factors that may predispose patients to premature cardiovascular disease. Substantial progress has been made in the development of newer antiretroviral therapies that have a better metabolic profile with respect to dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and lipodystrophy. Optimal selection of metabolically neutral antiretroviral therapies, together with aggressive management of other modifiable coronary risk factors, may improve cardiovascular disease risk in the long term.

  7. Cardiovascular risk estimation in older persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooney, Marie Therese; Selmer, Randi; Lindman, Anja

    2016-01-01

    model and were included in the SCORE O.P. model were: age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and diabetes. SCORE O.P. showed good discrimination; area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0......AIMS: Estimation of cardiovascular disease risk, using SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation) is recommended by European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention. Risk estimation is inaccurate in older people. We hypothesized that this may be due to the assumption, inherent in current...... risk estimation systems, that risk factors function similarly in all age groups. We aimed to derive and validate a risk estimation function, SCORE O.P., solely from data from individuals aged 65 years and older. METHODS AND RESULTS: 20,704 men and 20,121 women, aged 65 and over and without pre...

  8. Cardiovascular risk assessment in diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaberi, Roxana

    2014-01-01

    Research described in this thesis is based on clinical data obtained through diabetes cardiovascular risk management (DIACARM) project. A clinical protocol founded on the co-operation of the departments of endocrinology, cardiology, nephrology, radiology and nuclear medicine at the Leiden University

  9. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist cir...

  10. Cardiovascular disease risk in women with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Fernanda Camboim; Perla, Alexandre da Silveira; Perry, Ingrid D Schweigert; Chaves, Márcia L Fagundes

    2013-09-06

    Studies suggest a higher prevalence of unfavourable cardiovascular risk factors amongst migraineurs, but results have been conflicting. The aim of this study was to investigate traditional and newly recognized risk factors as well as other surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk in obese and normal weight women with migraine. Fifty-nine adult female probands participated in this case-control study. The sample was divided into normal weight and obese migraineurs and age- and body mass index-matched control groups. The following cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed: serum levels of lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin; insulin resistance; blood pressure; smoking (categorized as current, past or never); Framingham 10-year risk of general cardiovascular disease score; C-reactive protein; family history of cardiovascular disease; physical activity; sleep disturbances; depression; and bioelectrical impedance phase angle. The means of continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test for independent samples or the Mann-Whitney U-test (for 2 groups) and ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test (for 4 groups) depending on the distribution of data. All migraineurs were sedentary irrespective of nutritional status. Migraineurs had higher depression scores and shorter sleep duration, and obese migraineurs, in particular, had worse sleep quality scores. Insulin resistance and insulinaemia were associated with obesity, and obese migraineurs had lower HDL-c than normal weight controls and migraineurs. Also, the Framingham risk score was higher in obese migraineurs. These findings suggest that female migraineurs experience marked inactivity, depression, and some sleep disturbance, that higher insulin resistance and insulinaemia are related to obesity, and that obesity and migraine probably exert overlapping effects on HDL-c levels and Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk.

  11. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Scheel-Thomsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    and biochemical parameters were collected. Logistic regression analyses were conducted and mutually adjusted for comorbidities, pharmaceutical use, and biochemical parameters. RESULTS: 10,073 DM patients were included (65,550person-years). 1947 suffered from a subsequent CE. CE prior to DM diagnosis (OR=20.18, 95......% CI: 0.54-0.72). DPP-4 inhibitors, insulin and β-cell stimulating agents had neutral effect. When results were adjusted for biochemical risk markers (1103 patients, 7271person-years, 189 cases), biguanides (OR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.34-0.87) and liraglutide (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.14-0.70) treatment retained...

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences......Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...

  13. Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Peter; Chester, Neil; Green, Danny; Somauroo, John; Whyte, Greg; George, Keith

    2012-02-01

    Recent reports from needle exchange programmes and other public health initiatives have suggested growing use of anabolic steroids (AS) in the UK and other countries. Data indicate that AS use is not confined to body-builders or high-level sportsmen. Use has spread to professionals working in emergency services, casual fitness enthusiasts and subelite sportsmen and women. Although the precise health consequences of AS use is largely undefined, AS use represents a growing public health concern. Data regarding the consequences of AS use on cardiovascular health are limited to case studies and a modest number of small cohort studies. Numerous case studies have linked AS use with a variety of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events or endpoints, including myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Large-scale epidemiological studies to support these links are absent. Consequently, the impact of AS use upon known CVD risk factors has been studied in relatively small, case-series studies. Data relating AS use to elevated blood pressure, altered lipid profiles and ECG abnormalities have been reported, but are often limited in scope, and other studies have often produced equivocal outcomes. The use of AS has been linked to the appearance of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy as well as endothelial dysfunction but the data again remains controversial. The mechanisms responsible for the negative effect of AS on cardiovascular health are poorly understood, especially in humans. Possibilities include direct effects on myocytes and endothelial cells, reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, increased release of apoptogenic factors, as well as increased collagen crosslinks between myocytes. New data relating AS use to cardiovascular health risks are emerging, as novel technologies are developed (especially in non-invasive imaging) that can assess physiological structure and function. Continued efforts to fully document the cardiovascular health consequences of AS use is important to

  14. Homoarginine, cardiovascular risk, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    März, Winfried; Meinitzer, Andreas; Drechsler, Christiane; Pilz, Stefan; Krane, Vera; Kleber, Marcus E; Fischer, Joachim; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Böhm, Bernhard O; Ritz, Eberhard; Wanner, Christoph

    2010-09-07

    Homoarginine is an amino acid derivative that may increase nitric oxide availability and enhance endothelial function. The effect of the level of homoarginine on cardiovascular outcome and mortality is unknown. We assessed cardiovascular and all-cause mortality according to homoarginine levels in a cohort of 3,305 subjects referred for coronary angiography from the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study. After investigating the relation of homoarginine with kidney function and markers of endothelial dysfunction, we explored its effects on adverse outcomes in a second high-risk cohort of 1244 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving maintenance hemodialysis (4D study [Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie]). In the LURIC study, mean serum homoarginine levels were 2.6+/-1.1 micromol/L. During a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 766 patients died. After adjustments for age and sex, patients in the lowest quartile (4-fold higher rate of dying of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 3.0 to 5.7) than patients in the highest quartile (>3.1 micromol/L). Lower homoarginine levels were associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Hemodialysed patients had lower mean homoarginine levels of 1.2+/-0.5 micromol/L and experienced a 5-fold increased mortality rate compared with LURIC patients (608 deaths during a median follow-up of 4 years). Homoarginine consistently affected mortality, which was 2-fold higher in 4D study patients in the lowest quartile (1.4 micromol/L). Homoarginine levels are independently associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography and in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Future studies are needed to elucidate the underlying pathomechanisms.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...... steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma...

  16. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    .09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (......BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective...... study of 16,516 healthy subjects from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. 8709 deaths, hereof 3821 cardiovascular deaths, occurred during 33years of follow-up. RESULTS: In multivariate Cox models with time-dependent covariates RHR was significantly associated with both cardiovascular and total mortality...

  17. Current trends in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors from around the world: focus on cardiac rehabilitation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Trimer, Renata; Cipriano, Gerson

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a program composed of structured exercise training, comprehensive education and counseling to positively impact functional, psychological, social, and quality of life aspects in these patients. However, the delivery of formal CR programs is limited to major metropolitan centers in Brazil and does not exist in much of the national territory, specifically in the North and Northeast regions. Barriers to the inclusion of qualified patients are lack of referral by the health professionals, as well as transportation difficulties, low income, lack of insurance coverage, and low educational level. Government efforts to implement CR programs on a broader scale, to reach a larger portion of the CVD population, are imperative. Additional research must be focused on the assessment of CR referral and adherence patterns as well as the effectiveness of different CR delivery models.

  18. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in diabetes: Risk scoresand provocative testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause ofmorbidity and mortality among patients with diabetesmellitus, who have a risk of cardiovascular mortalitytwo to four times that of people without diabetes. Anindividualised approach to cardiovascular risk estimationand management is needed. Over the past decades,many risk scores have been developed to predict CVD.However, few have been externally validated in adiabetic population and limited studies have examinedthe impact of applying a prediction model in clinicalpractice. Currently, guidelines are focused on testingfor CVD in symptomatic patients. Atypical symptomsor silent ischemia are more common in the diabeticpopulation, and with additional markers of vasculardisease such as erectile dysfunction and autonomicneuropathy, these guidelines can be difficult to interpret.We propose an algorithm incorporating cardiovascularrisk scores in combination with typical and atypical signsand symptoms to alert clinicians to consider furtherinvestigation with provocative testing. The modalities forinvestigation of CVD are discussed.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in elderly women Challenging the current definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Katrine Dragsbæk; Neergaard, Jesper; Laursen, Janne Marie

    2016-01-01

    , followed 3905 Danish women since 2000 (age: 70.1±6.5) with no previous diagnosis of T2DM or CVD, holding all measurements used for MetS definition; central obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycemia combined with register-based follow-up information. Elderly women with defined MetS presented...... a 6.3-fold increased risk of T2DM (95% confidence interval: [3.74-10.50]) and 1.7-fold increased risk of CVD (1.44-2.05) compared to women with no MetS risk factors. Subdividing the control group without defined MetS revealed that both centrally obese controls and controls holding other MetS risk...

  20. Pregnancy disorders and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, K.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of death in women in the Netherlands. Early identification of women at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and subsequent detection and treatment of risk factors contributes to the reduction of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. A

  1. Pregnancy disorders and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, KY

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of death in women in the Netherlands. Early identification of women at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and subsequent detection and treatment of risk factors contributes to the reduction of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. A

  2. Psoriasis: an opportunity to identify cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, D G; Shelling, M; Prodanovich, S; Gunderson, C G; Kirsner, R S

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis is highly prevalent and is associated with skin-associated complaints as well as arthritis, depression and a lower quality of life. Recently, it has been demonstrated that not only do patients with psoriasis have an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, but an increased risk of myocardial infarction, and for those with severe disease, increased mortality. Dermatologists and other health professionals need to be cognizant of this association and ensure that cardiovascular risk factors are evaluated and treated appropriately in those patients with psoriasis. We review the association between psoriasis, atherosclerosis and inflammation, as well as some treatable cardiovascular risk factors that may prove beneficial in reducing a patient's cardiovascular risk.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  4. Are current UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) obesity risk guidelines useful? Cross-sectional associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors in a large, representative English population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Faiza; Batty, G David

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently released obesity guidelines for health risk. For the first time in the UK, we estimate the utility of these guidelines by relating them to the established cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Health Survey for England (HSE) 2006, a population-based cross-sectional study in England was used with a sample size of 7225 men and women aged ≥35 years (age range: 35-97 years). The following CVD risk factor outcomes were used: hypertension, diabetes, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and Framingham risk score. Four NICE categories of obesity were created based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC): no risk (up to normal BMI and low/high WC); increased risk (normal BMI & very high WC, or obese & low WC); high risk (overweight & very high WC, or obese & high WC); and very high risk (obese I & very high WC or obese II/III with any levels of WC. Men and women in the very high risk category had the highest odds ratios (OR) of having unfavourable CVD risk factors compared to those in the no risk category. For example, the OR of having hypertension for those in the very high risk category of the NICE obesity groupings was 2.57 (95% confidence interval 2.06 to 3.21) in men, and 2.15 (1.75 to 2.64) in women. Moreover, a dose-response association between the adiposity groups and most of the CVD risk factors was observed except total cholesterol in men and low HDL in women. Similar results were apparent when the Framingham risk score was the outcome of interest. In conclusion, the current NICE definitions of obesity show utility for a range of CVD risk factors and CVD risk in both men and women.

  5. Lasers in cardiovascular surgery--current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J G; Dixon, J A

    1985-04-01

    The argon, carbon dioxide and neodymium-YAG lasers have been proposed as effective instruments for surgical procedures of the intact cardiovascular system. While argon and CO(2) lasers cause superficial (0 to 1 mm) thermal injury, the Nd:YAG laser is better suited for effecting deep thermal necrosis (3 to 4 mm). Microsurgical vessel anastomoses can be done by "tissue welding" with any of the three clinical lasers. Myocardial revascularization may be accomplished by drilling "neocapillaries" in ischemic myocardium. Endocardial resection for destroying arrhythmic pathways and removing hypertrophied septal muscle has also been successfully accomplished with laser phototherapy. Last, laser-mediated vaporization of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and peripheral circulation may offer a percutaneous approach to the treatment of arterial occlusive disease. Cardiovascular uses of lasers are purely investigational at the current time. Much more needs to be known before widespread clinical use of lasers in the cardiovascular system can occur.

  6. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biologic memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. While the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes, and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  7. Understanding cardiovascular risk in hemophilia: A step towards prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousos, Nikolaos; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Vakalopoulou, Sofia; Garipidou, Vasileia

    2016-04-01

    Advances in hemophilia care have led to increased life expectancy and new challenges in the management of the aging hemophilia population, including cardiovascular risk. Despite the deep knowledge into cardiovascular disease in terms of pathophysiology, risk prediction, prevention, early detection and management gained over the last decades, studies in hemophiliacs are scarce and mainly descriptive. As a growing amount of evidence points towards a similar or increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in hemophilia compared to the general population, the role of non-traditional, disease-related and treatment-related cardiovascular risk factors remains under investigation. Better understanding of cardiovascular risk in hemophilia is mandatory for proper cardiovascular risk prevention and management. Therefore, this review aims to summarize current knowledge on cardiovascular risk in hemophilia patients focusing on a) cardiovascular risk factors (traditional, non-traditional, disease-related and treatment-related), b) cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and c) cardiovascular prevention and management.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 10-year Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.

  9. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    by measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  10. Hypertension, the kidney, and cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sande, N.G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension and chronic kidney disease are both independent risk factors for first or subsequent cardiovascular events. Blood pressure-lowering therapy is recommended in patients with hypertension and chronic kidney disease, in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and kidney failure.

  11. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  12. Cardiovascular risk age: concepts and practicalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2012-06-01

    A young person with many risk factors may have the same level of risk as an older person with no risk factors. Thus a high-risk 40-year-old may have a risk age of 60 years or more. The aim of the study was to derive a generic equation for risk age, construct risk age charts, and explore the hypothesis that risk age is similar regardless of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) end point used.

  13. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, JoAnn E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death among U.S. women and men. Established cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated total cholesterol, and risk prediction models based on such factors, perform well but do not perfectly predict future risk of CVD. Thus, there has been much recent interest among cardiovascular researchers in identifying novel biomarkers to aid in risk prediction. Such markers include alternative lipids, B-type natriuretic peptides, high-sensitivity troponin, coronary artery calcium, and genetic markers. This article reviews the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, risk prediction tools, and selected novel biomarkers and other exposures in predicting risk of developing CVD in women. The predictive role of novel cardiovascular biomarkers for women in primary prevention settings requires additional study, as does the diagnostic and prognostic utility of cardiac troponins for acute coronary syndromes in clinical settings. Sex differences in the clinical expression and physiology of metabolic syndrome may have implications for cardiovascular outcomes. Consideration of exposures that are unique to, or more prevalent in, women may also help to refine cardiovascular risk estimates in this group.

  14. Diabetic dyslipidaemia: effective management reduces cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A

    2005-05-01

    Patients with diabetes are at significantly increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD); even those patients without a history of a previous myocardial infarction (MI) have as high a risk of a fatal or nonfatal MI as nondiabetic patients with a history of previous MI. As a result it is now generally recommended that cardiovascular risk factors be treated as aggressively in patients with diabetes as in nondiabetic patients with a history of CHD. Results from the recently published Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS) and meta-analysis of primary and secondary interventions trials confirm that there is a uniform relative risk reduction across a wide range of high-risk patients including diabetes patients without established CHD. A highly significant 22-24% reduction in risk of future vascular events is evident when patients with diabetes are treated with statins in trials. Current guidelines, including the recently updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines, endorse aggressive, early intervention in very-high-risk patients, such as those with diabetes plus cardiovascular disease (CVD), regardless of baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level in order to achieve an LDL-C goal of 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). However, despite increasing evidence and knowledge of the value of lipid lowering, a recent survey of diabetes specialists indicates that many patients with diabetes remain untreated or undertreated. The availability of more effective statins should help to close this "action gap", in concert with other measures such as initiatives to improve patient compliance.

  15. Lipid and Some Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Assessment in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipid and Some Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors Assessment in a Rural ... of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (cardiovascular diseases [CVDs]) in ... and risk predictive index were higher in females while triglyceride (TG), high density ...

  16. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  18. Preeclampsia : At risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to 3.07

  19. Preeclampsia : At risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to

  20. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the

  1. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Montes Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.

  4. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Rubio, María Antonia; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; Frías López, María del Carmen; Solera Albero, Juan; Bermejo López, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: Valorar si el hipotiroidismo subclínico puede comportarse como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular o un modificador del mismo, identificando variables epidemiológicas y riesgo cardiovascular estimado en una muestra de sujetos diagnosticados en la provincia de Albacete. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal realizado en Albacete durante la primera quincena de enero de 2012 en pacientes de ambos géneros con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: glucemia basal, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, TSH, T4, peso, talla, I.M.C., tensión arterial, antecedentes de patología cardiovascular, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y riesgo cardiovascular estimado. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 326 pacientes, con predominio femenino (79,2 %), menores de 65 años en el 78% y sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el 48,61%. La prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular identificados fué: tabaquismo (33,2%), diabetes mellitus (24,9%), hipertensión arterial (23,4%), alteraciones lipídicas (28,9%) y fibrilación auricular (4,9 %). No se encontró asociación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico y la mayoría de los parámetros del perfil lipídico que condicionan un perfil pro-aterogénico, salvo con la hipertrigliceridemia. Asimismo, tampoco se constató asociación con riesgo cardiovascular aumentado. Conclusiones: El perfil del paciente con hipotiroidismo subclínico es una mujer de mediana edad sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la mitad de casos. Se ha encontrado relación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico e hipertrigliceridemia, pero no con el resto de parámetros del perfil lipídico, otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular o con aumento de dicho riesgo. Sin embargo, un 25% de diabéticos y un 22% de no diabéticos están en situación de riesgo cardiovascular moderado-alto.

  5. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; McIntyre, M; Nicolosi, R J

    2001-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, in meats, and in dairy products. Their effect on blood cholesterol concentrations was examined decades ago, but recently there has been renewed interest in understanding how trans fatty acids affect blood lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Current advice to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk includes decreasing the consumption of saturated and total fat to help manage blood cholesterol concentrations. Saturated fat contributes significantly to total fat intake and markedly raises blood cholesterol concentrations. Trans fatty acids, which are consumed in much smaller quantities, have been shown to be modestly hypercholesterolemic in studies that have substituted hydrogenated vegetable oils for unhydrogenated oils. In contrast, when partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids are substituted for cholesterol-raising saturated fats, blood cholesterol levels are reduced. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are used in place of saturated fat in many food products. These foods can help consumers lower their saturated fat intake to achieve dietary recommendations. The following review critically examines the role of hydrogenated fats in the food supply, the metabolism of trans fatty acids, and the scientific literature surrounding the effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and trans fatty acids on blood cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk.

  6. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  7. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Graaf, A.A. de; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Parnell, L.D.; Werff-van der Vat, B.J.C. van der; Ommen, B. van; Greef, J. van der; Ordovás, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves

  8. Cardiovascular risk prediction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dis, van S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In clinical practice, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk prediction functions and charts are used to identify persons at high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), who are considered eligible for drug treatment of elevated blood pressure and serum cholesterol. These

  9. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1...

  10. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  11. Cardiovascular risk scores for coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Murat; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Uz, Omer; Yiginer, Omer; Ozmen, Namik; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Uzun, Mehmet; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare frequently used cardiovascular risk scores in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 3-vessel disease. In 350 consecutive patients (218 men and 132 women) who underwent coronary angiography, the cardiovascular risk level was determined using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Modified Framingham Risk Score (MFRS), the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves showed that FRS had more predictive value than the other scores for CAD (area under curve, 0.76, P MFRS, PROCAM, and SCORE) may predict the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.The FRS had better predictive value than the other scores.

  12. Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Webster1, Emma Heeley21Cardiovascular Division, 2Neurological and Mental Health Division, The George Institute for International Health, Camperdown, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide despite the availability of well-established and effective preventive options. Accurate perception of a patient’s risk by both the patient and the doctors is important as this is one of the components that determine health-related behavior. Doctors tend to not use cardiovascular (CV risk calculators and underestimate the absolute CV risk of their patients. Patients show optimistic bias when considering their own risk and consistently underestimate it. Poor patient health literacy and numeracy must be considered when thinking about this problem. Patients must possess a reasonably high level of understanding of numerical processes when doctors discuss risk, a level that is not possessed by large numbers of the population. In order to overcome this barrier, doctors need to utilize various tools including the appropriate use of visual aids to accurately communicate risk with their patients. Any intervention has been shown to be better than nothing in improving health understanding. The simple process of repeatedly conveying risk information to a patient has been shown to improve accuracy of risk perception. Doctors need to take responsibility for the accurate assessment and effective communication of CV risk in their patients in order to improve patient uptake of cardioprotective lifestyle choices and preventive medications.Keywords: risk perception, cardiovascular disease, cardioprotective lifestyle

  13. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marjan Boerma; Gregory A Nelson; Vijayalakshmi Sridharan; Xiao-Wen Mao; Igor Koturbash; Martin Hauer-Jensen

    2015-01-01

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation,and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Groundbased studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses,appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk,and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover,astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation,and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined,the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  14. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy.

  15. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Cardiovascular Risk: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Burlina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing in parallel with the rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity around the world. Current evidence strongly suggests that women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Given the growing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, it is important to identify appropriate reliable markers of cardiovascular disease and specific treatment strategies capable of containing obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in the women affected.

  16. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 18 and above to measure the prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors. Those risk factors are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, obesity index, blood glucose level, smoking, physical activity and mental stress. Overall prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors were higher, dominated by physical inactivity (65.7%, hypercholesterolemia – TC:HC (62.3%, mental stress (55.5% and obesity (53.7%. Smoking was also high at 49.9% especially among men. However systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and diabetes mellitus; although increased by age, its prevalence is relatively low at 23.7%, 19.2%, and 6.3% respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle are much evidenced as compared to risk factors related to the biological influence. Therefore, all initiatives in community health intervention should be mobilized specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 50-6Keywords: cardiovascular problem, community intervention, lifestyle-linked risk factors

  17. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk f

  19. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  20. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  1. Bariatric surgery, lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailleux, Anne; Rouskas, Konstantinos; Pattou, François; Staels, Bart

    2015-08-01

    To summarize recent epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies on the effects of Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass (RYGBP) surgery on cardiovascular risk factors and the underlying mechanisms. Although RYGBP has mechanical effects on the gastrointestinal tract, the reduced gastric pouch and intestinal calorie absorption cannot fully explain the metabolic improvements. Obesity predisposes to cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. In contrast to the limited success of pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, RYGBP induces sustained weight loss, metabolic improvements and decreases morbidity/mortality. In line, RYGBP reduces cardiovascular risk factors. Although the mechanisms are not entirely understood, RYGBP induces complex changes in the gut affecting other organs through endocrine and metabolic signals from the intestine to all key metabolic organs, which can link RYGBP and decreased cardiovascular risk. Here, we discuss the roles of changes in lipid absorption and metabolism, bile acid metabolism, gut hormones and the microbiote as potential mechanisms in the decreased cardiovascular risk and metabolic improvement after RYGBP.

  2. Framingham Risk Score underestimates cardiovascular disease risk in severe psoriatic patients: implications in cardiovascular risk factors management and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Tiago; Sales, Rita; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Martins da Silva, Berta; Selores, Manuela

    2013-11-01

    Severe psoriasis has been associated with increase cardiovascular mortality, due to a higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and premature atherosclerosis, as a consequence of its systemic inflammation. Recently, it has been estimated that severe psoriasis may confer an increased 6.2% on long-term risk of cardiovascular disease based on Framingham Risk Score, which can have practical implications in the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, as treatment guidelines account for the risk of cardiovascular disease in treatment goals. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the attributable risk of severe psoriasis on long-term risk of cardiovascular disease and its implication on the correct treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease on a real-world cohort of patients. One hundred severe psoriasis patients without psoriatic arthritis or previous cardiovascular disease were evaluated and it was found that more than half of the patients were reclassified to a higher cardiovascular risk category with important clinical implications on the correct management of their cardiovascular risk factors and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, as a considerable proportion of patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease equivalent risk were not being correctly managed.

  3. Microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2000-01-01

    Microalbuminuria was originally considered to be an important new risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. More recently, it has been convincingly shown that microalbuminuria is also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients. Even...... in the non-diabetic background population, microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. What is the link between increased loss of albumin in urine and cardiovascular disease and mortality? As microalbuminuria is apparently associated with increased universal vascular sieving of albumin...... of functional in vivo tests of endothelial dysfunction have been performed in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients as well as in normal controls. Overall, these studies indicate the existence of a functional vascular dysfunction in Type 1 diabetic patients and normal controls with microalbuminuria, which may...

  4. Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary report on hepatic and cardiovascular risk assessment of ... The triglyceride level, artherogenic and coronary risk index of the mechanics was higher ... risk, mechanics, lipid profile, cardiovascular disease, liver dysfunction, benzene.

  5. Cardiovascular risk prediction: the old has given way to the new but at what risk-benefit ratio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeboah J

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Yeboah Heart and Vascular Center of Excellence, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The ultimate goal of cardiovascular risk prediction is to identify individuals in the population to whom the application or administration of current proven lifestyle modifications and medicinal therapies will result in reduction in cardiovascular disease events and minimal adverse effects (net benefit to society. The use of cardiovascular risk prediction tools dates back to 1976 when the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score was published. Since then a lot of novel risk markers have been identified and other cardiovascular risk prediction tools have been developed to either improve or replace the Framingham Risk Score (FRS. In 2013, the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator was published by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association to replace the FRS for cardiovascular risk prediction. It is too soon to know the performance of the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator. The risk-benefit ratio for preventive therapy (lifestyle modifications, statin +/− aspirin based on cardiovascular disease risk assessed using the FRS is unknown but it was assumed to be a net benefit. Should we also assume the risk-benefit ratio for the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimator is also a net benefit? Keywords: risk prediction, prevention, cardiovascular disease

  6. [Branch retinal vein occlusion: high time for cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk management is common in patients suffering from manifest cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. It is generally accepted that medication is the most effective treatment for reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients. Re

  7.  Cinacalcet therapy and cardiovascular risk in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Żelaźnicka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  Patients with end-stage kidney disease are at high cardiovascular risk due to accelerated atherosclerosis development. Important factors that accelerate the development of atherosclerosis in this group are calcium-phosphorus disturbances causing vascular calcification. Therefore, slowing the development and progression of vascular calcification is a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of calcium and phosphorus disturbances associated with chronic kidney disease. It seems that cinacalcet, a calcimimetic of the second generation, used in patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism can slow the progression of vascular calcification and potentially reduce the cardiovascular risk. This paper reviews the current literature on the pathogenesis of vascular calcification and the potential impact of cinacalcet to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

  8. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullart, A C I; de Graaf, J; Stalenhoef, A F

    2012-05-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (patho)physiology of triglycerides is described, including the definition and a short summary of the primary and secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we will give an overview of the published epidemiological studies concerning hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease to support the view that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are an independently associated risk factor. Finally, treatment strategies and treatment targets are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  10. Reducing cardiovascular risk : protecting the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobre, Daniela; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Progressive decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD), measured by a reduced glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), most

  11. Hormonal contraception and risk of cardiovascular disease. An international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, T M; Collins, J; Schlesselman, J J

    1998-03-01

    The most frequent major adverse effect of hormonal contraception is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) differs and is strongly influenced by smoking and the presence of other cardiovascular risks factors, such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The incidence of each disease rises with age and there are differences in risk among hormonal contraceptive preparations. This article provides a framework within which to assess the balance of risks among types of hormonal contraceptives according to individual circumstances. Data on cardiovascular disease mortality rates in women of reproductive age in different countries of the world were compiled from nationally reported statistics and supplemented where possible with reported disease incidence rates. Risks associated with current use of hormonal contraception were compiled from the most recent publications on the cardiovascular effects of steroid hormone contraception. These were combined to estimate the total cardiovascular incidence and mortality according to baseline cardiovascular risk and individual characteristics. Mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases are very low in women of reproductive age. Myocardial infarction mortality rates rise from mortality rates similarly rise steeply with age and are between 3 and 5 times higher than those for MI. VTE mortality rates rise less steeply with age and are approximately one-tenth the MI mortality rates at age 35-44 years. The adverse effect of oral contraceptives (OC) on the risk of VTE is the most important contributor to the total number of cardiovascular cases attributable to OC use. The increased risk of stroke and MI dominate the patterns of mortality in OC users and smokers. The additional risks attributable to smoking are greater than the additional risks attributable to OC use. The risk attributable to OC use in women mortality

  12. AGE, ARTERIAL STIFFNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雄京; 刘国仗; 刘力生

    2001-01-01

    The recent researches on the structure and function of large artery find that increasing pulse pressure is associated with greater cardiovascular risk, especially risk of coronary events. Such risk is not explicable on the basis of increasing systolic pressure with age, and is apparent even when the major reason for increased pulse pressure is a relative decrease of diastolic pressure. The finding challenges the conventional approach to arterial pressure where diastolic pressure is traditionally viewed as the most robust indicator of caridovascular risk. An explanation is available. This is based on the perception of Harriet Dustan that hypertension in the older popula-

  13. Practicality of cardiovascular risk functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Marrugat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las estrategias de prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares necesitan refinamiento porque su incidencia se reduce muy lentamente. Las funciones de riesgo incorporaron los factores de riesgo clásicos (edad, sexo, consumo de tabaco, diabetes, presión arterial, y perfil lipídico básico en cohortes seguidas generalmente más de 10 años. Son razonablemente precisas para el cribado poblacional del riesgo de enfermedad coronaria exigido en las guías de práctica clínica. Clasifican a los pacientes en niveles de riesgo para concentrar un mayor esfuerzo terapéutico y preventivo en los de mayor riesgo, y en los que el número necesario a tratar y el coste-efectividad son óptimos. Proporcionar el riesgo relativo y de la edad vascular al paciente, le motiva a cumplir seguir tratamientos y estilos de vida. Alrededor del 20% de la población de 35 a 74 años tiene riesgo intermedio y requiere reclasificación a alto o bajo riesgo porque concentra 35% de eventos poblacionales de enfermedad coronaria. Se ensayan nuevos biomarcadores (bioquímicos, genéticos o de imagen para mejorar la precisión de las predicciones. Si los equipos informáticos de los sistemas de salud incorporaran el cálculo automatizado del riesgo se facilitaría la tarea preventiva del personal asistencial.

  14. The cardiovascular exosome: current perspectives and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Jake; Liu, Peter P; Gramolini, Anthony O

    2013-05-01

    The exosome is a secreted microvesicle that has been shown to contain genetic material and proteins and is involved in multiple levels of cellular communication. The cardiovascular exosome proteome is a promising subproteome that warrants investigation since a detailed understanding of its role in the heart should improve our comprehension of intercellular communication in the heart, and may even assist in biomarker discovery. Indeed, uncovering the role of the exosome in cardiovascular physiology could be accomplished with the application of scientific approaches and insights gained from studies of exosomes in other fields, such as cancer biology and immunology, where much of the established knowledge of the exosome has been generated. In the present review, we discuss the relevant literature and examine areas of investigation that would bring the cardiovascular exosome to the forefront of intercellular communication in the heart.

  15. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Salgado, M T; Casanueva-Escobar, V; Cid-Cea, X; González-Rubilar, U; Olate-Mellado, P; Nickel-Paredes, F; Revello-Chiang, L

    1999-01-01

    To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic university students of both sexes, aged 18 to 25 years. Serum lipid levels were measured in a subsample of 293 subjects, using a Hitachi 717 chemical analyzer. Obesity was classified using body mass index (BMI) measurements. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect data on sedentary life style, family history of cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoking. Statistical associations of lipid levels with lipidic and non-lipidic risk factors were assessed using Pearson's chi-square test and multiple regression. We found lipid risk levels in 29.2% for total cholesterol (CT), 16.2% for low-density lipoproteins (C-LDL) and 5% for high-density lipoproteins (C-HDL). The main non-lipidic factors were smoking (46.1%) and sedentarism (60.8%). Obesity, hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction were present in 1.9%, 4.6% and 11%, respectively. We observed an association of a lipid risk profile with obesity, cigarette smoking and family history. The results show that sedentarism and smoking are associated with a lipid risk profile. These results call for the need to develop appropriate behavior strategies for the successful prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Coronary calcification improves cardiovascular risk prediction in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Oei, HHS; van Dijck, W; van Rooij, FJA; Witteman, JCM

    2005-01-01

    Background - Coronary calcification detected by electron beam tomography may improve cardiovascular risk prediction. The technique is particularly promising in the elderly because the predictive power of cardiovascular risk factors weakens with age. We investigated the prognostic value of coronary c

  17. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...

  18. Cardiovascular and thrombogenic risk of decidual vasculopathy in preeclampsia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, D.U.; Al-Nasiry, S.; Fajta, M.M.; Bulten, J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Oyen, W.J.G.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of preeclampsia (PE) have an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic, cardiovascular, and prothrombotic risk factors. Remotely, these women are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular and thrombotic disease. Decidual vasculopathy (DV) describes vascular lesions

  19. Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children in ... risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for ... density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides levels were assessed.

  20. Impact of Cardiovascular Calcifications on the Detrimental Effect of Continued Smoking on Cardiovascular Risk in Male Lung Cancer Screening Participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Jairam (Pushpa); P.A. de Jong (Pim); W.P. Mali (Willem); I. Isgum (Ivana); H.J. de Koning (Harry); C.M. van der Aalst (Carlijn); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Current smokers have an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared to ex-smokers due to reversible as well as irreversible effects of smoking. We investigated if current smokers remain to have an increased CVD risk compared to ex-smokers in subjects with a long and

  1. Impact of Cardiovascular Calcifications on the Detrimental Effect of Continued Smoking on Cardiovascular Risk in Male Lung Cancer Screening Participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jairam, Pushpa M.; de Jong, Pim A.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Isgum, Ivana; de Koning, Harry J.; van der Aalst, Carlijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current smokers have an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared to ex-smokers due to reversible as well as irreversible effects of smoking. We investigated if current smokers remain to have an increased CVD risk compared to ex-smokers in subjects with a long and intense

  2. The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

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    Anna Di Sessa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.

  3. The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sessa, Anna; Umano, Giuseppina Rosaria; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele

    2017-07-07

    The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased...

  5. Toxic urban waste's assault on cardiovascular risk

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    M.L. De Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiovascular health survey of 1203 persons in households located near the hazardous waste disposal sites and in a reference community, was conducted from 2009 until today to assess whether rates of adverse cardiovascular health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the sites. Data included medical records of reported cardiovascular disease certificates and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases from hospital database. The study areas appeared similar with respect to mortality, cancer incidence, and pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, rate ratios were greater than 1.5 for 2 of 19 reported diseases, i.e., angina pectoris, and strokes. The apparent broad-based elevation in reported diseases and symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by respondents living near the sites. Our study found that cardiovascular risk is associated only with PM2.5 concentrations, derived from uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste in particular sites of our country. Their analysis demonstrated a relationship between increased levels of eventual fine particulate pollution and higher rates of death and complications from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Management of solid waste releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Future community-based health studies should include medical and psychosocial assessment instruments sufficient to distinguish between changes in health status and effects of resident reporting tendency.

  6. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia: Cardiovascular Risk and Dietary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Musunuru, Kiran

    2010-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia comprises a triad of increased blood concentrations of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, and increased triglycerides. A typical feature of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherogenic dyslipidemia has emerged as an important risk factor for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. A number of genes have now been linked to this pattern of l...

  7. Adiponectin, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Bjerre, Mette

    2015-01-01

    prospective studies have consistently linked high adiponectin levels with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality, thus questioning the positive view on adiponectin. Accordingly, we investigated the relationship between adiponectin, incident T2DM and subsequently CV events. METHODS: We...... participants experienced a CV event (myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, or CV death). RESULTS: Participants with increasing adiponectin had reduced risk of developing T2DM (p gender, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol...

  8. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PRISON POPULATION

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    Ricardo Soares de OliveiraI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to make a reflection about the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the prison population, as well as the performance of the health care team in these spaces. It is a reflective approach, literature that included e-journal articles, published in the year 2003 to 2011, indexed at LILACS, Scielo, MEDLINE, and available in full. Textbooks were also consulted and ordinances of Ministry of health and Justice of Brazil. Used the descriptors "risk factors," "cardiovascular disease" and "Prisoners". It was noted that the current situation of overcrowding in prisons is, with unhealthy environment, which imposes risks the health of prisoners. The living habits, such as use of alcohol and drugs (cocaine, marijuana, tranquillizers and tobacco, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, the authors emphasize, a priori, the low level of schooling of the detainees. The performance of the health care team must be based on educational practices for promoting and monitoring the health, with multidisciplinary support. Further studies need to be done in order to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of health care for this population.

  9. Cardiovascular risk with subclinical hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: pathophysiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Jasleen; Singh, Sarabjeet; Barsano, Charles P; Arora, Rohit

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that subclinical thyroid dysfunction, as manifested by abnormalities in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, are associated with detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system. Subclinical hypothyroidism is characterized by abnormal lipid metabolism, cardiac dysfunction, diastolic hypertension conferring an elevated risk of atherosclerosis, and ischemic heart disease. Similarly, patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism have nearly 3 times the likelihood of atrial fibrillation over a 10-year follow-up interval, raising the question of whether patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism should be treated to prevent atrial fibrillation. A single measurement of low serum TSH in individuals aged 60 years or older has been reported to be associated with increased mortality from all causes and in particular from circulatory and cardiovascular disease in a 10-year follow-up study. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is currently the subject of numerous studies and remains controversial, particularly as it relates to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and clinical applications.

  10. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Risks and adverse effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, N; Heijman, J; Dobrev, D

    2014-03-01

    Adverse side effects of drugs are a significantly underestimated problem in modern medicine. In this review article, we summarize common adverse side effects of cardiovascular drugs. In particular, we highlight the factors promoting these adverse side effects in patients, including reduced hepatic or renal clearance in elderly patients that often requires dosage adjustment. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs (e.g. through the cytochrome P450 system or P-glycoproteins) can modify the plasma concentration of many compounds, thereby also increasing the likelihood of unwanted side effects. The most prominent cardiac side effects include arrhythmias, e.g. atrioventricular (AV) block, drug-induced long-QT syndrome and torsade de pointes and altered inotropy. Non-cardiac side effects are subsequently discussed grouped by drug class. A better understanding of the risks and side effects of cardiovascular drugs is expected to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with adverse side effects.

  12. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  13. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors encountered during medical examination in athletic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cis Spoturno, Adela C; Paz-Sauquillo, María T; López-Zea, Matilde; Fernández-Rostello, Eduardo A

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors can predispose to cardiovascular disease in adults or lead to cardiovascular events while practicing sports. The objectives of this study were: 1) to estimate the distribution of individual cardiovascular risk factors; 2) to establish a relationship between cardiovascular risk factors in parents or grandparents and the children's clinical condition. This was a retrospective study to assess overweight, obesity and hypertension in 1021 child athletes. The family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke was studied. Out of the studied children, 22.1% (n= 226) were obese and 2.1% (n= 21) had hypertension. Obesity was the most common family risk factor (30%).

  15. Identification of Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk

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    Igor V. Sergienko, PhD, ScD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify individuals at high cardiovascular risk (CVR to check for an additional estimate of CVR with the use of the ESH/ESC Guidelines (2003, 2007 in patients earlier classified as being at low and moderate risk on «SCORE». Material and methods: The study included 600 people (155 men and 445 women with low and moderate cardiovascular risk on the SCORE scale. All patients were examined with duplex scanning of the carotid arteries (DSCA to the determined of the thickness of the intima – media (IMT, the presence of atherosclerotic plaques (ASP; it has also been performed sphygmographic computer (SC with automatic estimation of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, biochemical analysis of blood lipid spectrum. Results: The frequency of ASP was 59.5% (357 out of 600, and a thickening of thecomplex "intima-media" (IMT> 0.9 mm was detected in only 5% of the cases (28 persons out of 600, that indicated a slight contribution to the magnitude of the risk of such parameters as the IMT. The total number of patients with signs of preclinicallesions of the arterial wall (the presence of ASP and/or increased baPWV was 337 (56% of 600. Our results showed that the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is in itself a risk factor. Conclusion: The usage of instrumental methods of research (DSCA, SC allowed to detect 32% of individuals with high CVR from 600 previously classified as low and moderate risk on SCORE scale. In our opinion, the proposed algorithm is convenient and easy to use for transfer of the patients into high-risk group.

  16. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

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    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...

  17. Sortilin and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Francisca; Bourbon, Mafalda; Prata, Maria João; Alves, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are a key determinant of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is why many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathways that regulate its metabolism. Novel latest-generation sequencing techniques have identified a strong association between the 1p13 locus and the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by changes in plasma LDL-C levels. As expected for a complex phenotype, the effects of variation in this locus are only moderate. Even so, knowledge of the association is of major importance, since it has unveiled a new metabolic pathway regulating plasma cholesterol levels. Crucial to this discovery was the work of three independent teams seeking to clarify the biological basis of this association, who succeeded in proving that SORT1, encoding sortilin, was the gene in the 1p13 locus involved in LDL metabolism. SORT1 was the first gene identified as determining plasma LDL levels to be mechanistically evaluated and, although the three teams used different, though appropriate, experimental methods, their results were in some ways contradictory. Here we review all the experiments that led to the identification of the new pathway connecting sortilin with plasma LDL levels and risk of myocardial infarction. The regulatory mechanism underlying this association remains unclear, but its discovery has paved the way for considering previously unsuspected therapeutic targets and approaches. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional Risk Factors in the Cardiovascular Patients

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    Mansour Karajibani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: With respect to the effective dietary factors on heart diseases (HDs, the present research aims to study the dietary risk factors of people with cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: The demography and anthropometric information as well as the nutritional condition for 80 patients hospitalized in the Cardiovascular Ward of Zahedan Khatam al-Anbia (PBUH Hospital were determined through dietary recall and indices of lipid profile.Results: As per the findings of this study, for BMI, 26.2% of the patients were overweighed, 10.1% of patients had obesity, and 43.5% of the patients had abdominal obesity for waist to hip ratio. The mean of cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and HDL were 198.2±52.8, 136.8±66.3, 139±35.4, and 40±10.2 mg/dl, respectively. Imbalance in the macronutrient intakes were observed in patients.Conclusion: Given the fact that the indices under study are inappropriate, the patients are those who are subject to cardiovascular diseases in a constant and chronic manner.

  19. Burnout and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, S; Kushnir, T; Shirom, A

    1992-01-01

    The burnout syndrome denotes a constellation of physical fatigue, emotional exhaustion, and cognitive weariness resulting from chronic stress. Although it overlaps considerably with chronic fatigue as defined in internal medicine, its links with physical illness have not been systematically investigated. This exploratory study, conducted among 104 male workers free from cardiovascular disease (CVD), tested the association between burnout and two of its common concomitants--tension and listlessness--and cardiovascular risk factors. After ruling out five possible confounders (age, relative weight, smoking, alcohol use, and sports activity), the authors found that scores on burnout plus tension (tense-burnout) were associated with somatic complaints, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, and, marginally, with ECG abnormalities. Workers scoring high on tense-burnout also had a significantly higher low density lipoprotein (LDL) level. Conversely, scores on burnout plus listlessness were significantly associated with glucose and negatively with diastolic blood pressure. The findings warrant further study of burnout as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  20. Risk of cardiovascular disease in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nynne; Nyboe; Andersen; Tine; Jess

    2014-01-01

    Abundant scientific evidence supporting an association between inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and venous thromboembolic events, caused by an IBD related hypercoagulability, is acknowledged and thromboprophylactic treatment strategies are now implemented in the management of IBD patients. In contrary, the risk of arterial thromboembolic disease, as ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular events, and mesenteric ischemia in patients with IBD remains uncertain and the magnitude of a potentially increased risk is continuously debated, with ambiguous risk estimates among studies. The evident role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis forms the basis of a biological plausible link; the chronic systemic inflammation in IBD patients increases the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby the risk of thrombotic events. Further, studies have shown that the burden of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia is lower in IBD populations, thus further strengthen the role of non-traditional risk factors, as chronic inflammation in the linking of the two disease entities. Likewise, mortality from cardiovascular disease in IBD remains questioned. The aim of the current review is to give an up-date on the existing evidence of the possible association between IBD and cardiovascular disease and to discuss traditional and non-traditional risk factors.

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

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    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  2. Current Strategies in Cardiovascular Biomaterial Functionalization

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    Karla Lehle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the coagulation cascade and platelet activation is the foremost demand for biomaterials in contact with blood. In this review we describe the underlying mechanisms of these processes and offer the current state of antithrombotic strategies. We give an overview of methods to prevent protein and platelet adhesion, as well as techniques to immobilize biochemically active molecules on biomaterial surfaces. Finally, recent strategies in biofunctionalization by endothelial cell seeding as well as their possible clinical applications are discussed.

  3. Cardiovascular risk, lipids and pregnancy: preeclampsia and the risk of later life cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Francesca; Tooher, Jane; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2014-03-01

    It has been widely thought that the effects of hypertension in pregnancy reversed after delivery and hypertension values returned to their pre-pregnancy level as it was seen as a disease of short duration in otherwise healthy young women. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the principal underlying abnormality, endothelial dysfunction, remains in women who had preeclampsia and that it is this damage that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. The contributions of hypertension and dyslipidaemia before and during the pregnancy are also important and contribute to future risk. Serum lipids are complex and change dramatically in pregnancy. In general there is an increase in most plasma lipid components, notably triglycerides, total cholesterol and the major particles of HDL and LDL. Aberrations or exaggerations in this shift (i.e. decrease HDL and a greater increase in LDL) are associated with poor outcomes of pregnancy such as preeclampsia. Long term cardiovascular disease is influenced by preeclampsia and in part potentially by the lipid changes which escalate late in disease. Whether we can influence the risk of preeclampsia by controlling cardiovascular risk factors preceding or during preeclampsia, or cardiovascular disease after preeclampsia is yet to be determined. Ultimately, strategies to control lipid concentrations will only be viable when we understand the safety to the mother at the time of the pregnancy, and to the foetus both immediately and in the very long term. Strategies to control blood pressure are well established in the non-pregnant population, and previous preeclampsia and gestational hypertension should be considered in any cardiovascular risk profile. Whether control of blood pressure in the pregnancy per se is of any longer term benefit is also yet to be determined.

  4. Epigenetics and cardiovascular risk in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Martino, Eliana; Zanoni, Cristina; Perla, Francesco M; Puddu, Paolo E; Barillà, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors. Fetal exposure to high cholesterol, diabetes and maternal obesity is associated with increased risk and progression of atherosclerosis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to various environmental pollutants induce epigenetic alterations of gene expression relevant to the onset or progression of CVD. In children with hypercholesterolemia and/or obesity, oxidative stress activates platelets and monocytes, which release proinflammatory and proatherogenic substances, inducing endothelial dysfunction, decreased Doppler flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis should be implemented early. It is necessary to identify, through screening, high-risk apparently healthy children and take care of them enforcing healthy lifestyle (mainly consisting of Mediterranean diet and physical activity), prescribing nutraceuticals and eventual medications, if required by a high-risk profile. The key issue is the restoration of endothelial function in the reversible stage of atherosclerosis. Epigenetics may provide new markers for an early identification of children at risk and thereby develop innovative therapies and specific nutritional interventions in critical times.

  5. Impact of cardiovascular calcifications on the detrimental effect of continued smoking on cardiovascular risk in male lung cancer screening participants.

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    Pushpa M Jairam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current smokers have an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk compared to ex-smokers due to reversible as well as irreversible effects of smoking. We investigated if current smokers remain to have an increased CVD risk compared to ex-smokers in subjects with a long and intense smoking history. We in addition studied if the effect of smoking continuation on CVD risk is independent of or modified by the presence of cardiovascular calcifications. METHODS: The cohort used comprised a sample of 3559 male lung cancer screening trial participants. We conducted a case-cohort study using all CVD cases and a random sample of 10% (n = 341 from the baseline cohort (subcohort. A weighted Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios for current smoking status in relation to CVD events. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 2.6 years (max. 3.7 years, 263 fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events (cases were identified. Age, packyears and cardiovascular calcification adjusted hazard ratio of current smokers compared to former smokers was 1.33 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.77. In additional analyses that incorporated multiplicative interaction terms, neither coronary nor aortic calcifications modified the association between smoking status and cardiovascular risk (P = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Current smokers have an increased CVD risk compared to former smokers even in subjects with a long and intense smoking history. Smoking exerts its hazardous effects on CVD risk by pathways partly independent of cardiovascular calcifications.

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  7. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism and arterial cardiovascular events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole; Lindhardsen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    This focused review describes the current knowledge of the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and as well as venous thromboembolism this disease shares inflammatory mechanisms with IBD. Patients...... with IBD have a high risk of venous thromboembolism especially during IBD flare-ups. Their risk of arterial cardiovascular disease may also be increased. The risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with IBD warrants clinical attention, and it is possible that the risk can be modified by applying anti...

  8. Cardiovascular risk score in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagan, Abrar Ahmed; Mahmud, Tafazzul E Haque; Rasheed, Aflak; Zafar, Zafar Ali; Rehman, Ata ur; Ali, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the 10-year Cardiovascular risk score with QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Non Rheumatoid Arthritis subjects and asses the usefulness of QRISK-2 and Framingham calculators in both groups. Methods: During the study 106 RA and 106 Non RA patients age and sex matched participants were enrolled from outpatient department. Demographic data and questions regarding other study parameters were noted. After 14 hours of fasting 5 ml of venous blood was drawn for Cholesterol and HDL levels, laboratory tests were performed on COBAS c III (ROCHE). QRISK-2 and Framingham risk calculators were used to get individual 10-year CVD risk score. Results: In this study the mean age of RA group was (45.1±9.5) for Non RA group (43.7±8.2), with female gender as common. The mean predicted 10-year score with QRISK-2 calculator in RA group (14.2±17.1%) and Non RA group was (13.2±19.0%) with (p-value 0.122). The 10-year score with Framingham risk score in RA group was (12.9±10.4%) and Non RA group was (8.9±8.7%) with (p-value 0.001). In RA group QRISK-2 (24.5%) and FRS (31.1%) cases with predicted score were in higher risk category. The maximum agreement scores between both calculators was observed in both groups (Kappa = 0.618 RA Group; Kappa = 0.671 Non RA Group). Conclusion: QRISK-2 calculator is more appropriate as it takes RA, ethnicity, CKD, and Atrial fibrillation as factors in risk assessment score. PMID:27375684

  9. [Is hyperuricemia a cardiovascular risk factor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizyński, Krzysztof; Rózycka, Monika

    2006-01-01

    The association of elevated serum uric acid (hyperuricemia, gout) with the presence of classical coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) has been analysed in many epidemiological studies. Numerous studies have revealed that hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), lipid disorders (especially raised triglycerides--TG level and low high dense lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C level), increased creatinine or insulin levels have caused hyperuricemia. No association has been observed between hyperuricemia and diabetes type 2 and uricemia and glicemia. But in some studies the relationship between cholesterol and uric acid levels has been not confirmed. Hyperuricemia has been observed in patients with non-treated hypertension. Gout has often occurred with typical disorders for the metabolic syndrome X. Significant correlation of the serum uric level and the CAD presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography has been observed in women. Hyperuricemia has also indirect influence on progress of CAD by physical activity restriction, what causes sedentary mode of life and lead to obesity. Obesity is a known risk factor diabetes, lipid disorders and hypertension. To recapitulate, it is a matter of controversy as to whether uric acid is an independent cardiovascular risk factor or rather it only represents reinforcement of typical risk factor.

  10. Relation between Childhood Obesity and Adult Cardiovascular Risk

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    Darren M. Allcock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.

  11. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

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    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk

  12. Systematic screening for cardiovascular risk at pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohla, Miklos; Haberfeld, Heinz; Sinzinger, Helmut; Kritz, Harald; Tscharre, Maximilian; Freynhofer, Matthias K; Huber, Kurt; Weiss, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is essential to prevent excess morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. We sought to investigate whether an active screening programme at pharmacies could identify a significant proportion of patients with previously undetected CVRFs. Methods and results Between April and July 2013, 184 pharmacies in Lower Austria enrolled a total of 6800 participants, in whom body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Mean age was 58±17 years and 67.8% were women. 21% of men and 16% of women had a BMI≥30 kg/m2. The crude prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 7%, hypercholesterolaemia was identified in 57%, and 44% had elevated BP. Among fasting individuals (n=1814), DM was found in 18%. In total, 30% were confronted with a CVRF they were previously unaware of, and pharmacists recommended 45% of all participants to actively consult a physician. A first-time diagnosis of a CVRF was most frequent in the age groups between 25 and 64 (32% of participants). Conclusions This pharmacy-based approach for cardiovascular risk screening found similar overall prevalences of CVRFs as reported by national surveys, but revealed underdiagnoses, particularly in lower age groups. A previously unknown CVRF was identified in every third individual, frequently prompting the pharmacists to recommend the consultation of a physician. An active screening approach at pharmacies might therefore serve as an effective alternative to the public preventive medical examination, particularly in younger age groups. PMID:27738518

  13. Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Research: Impact of Pets on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela J Schreiner

    2016-01-01

    Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or ...

  14. Counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Teunissen, Pim W.; Franx, Arie; Van Pampus, Maria G.; Mol, Ben W.; De Groot, Christianne J M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Gynaecologists have an important role in the counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia. We aimed to assess the role of gynaecologists in informing women on interventio

  15. Counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Teunissen, Pim W.; Franx, Arie; Van Pampus, Maria G.; Mol, Ben W.; De Groot, Christianne J M

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Gynaecologists have an important role in the counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia. We aimed to assess the role of gynaecologists in informing women on

  16. Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American…

  17. Cigarette use and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease: an unappreciated modifiable lifestyle risk factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stack, Austin G

    2012-01-31

    Tobacco use is a major modifiable cardiovascular risk factor in the general population and contributes to excess cardiovascular risk. Emerging evidence from large-scale observational studies suggests that continued tobacco use is also an independent cardiovascular risk factor among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The benefits of smoking cessation programs on improving the heath status of patients and reducing mortality are unequivocal in the general population. Despite this, there has been little effort in pursuing tobacco cessation programs in dialysis cohorts or those with lesser degrees of kidney impairment. Most of our attention to date has focused on the development of "kidney-specific" interventions that reduce rates of renal disease progression and improve dialysis outcomes. The purpose of this current review is to describe the epidemiology of tobacco use among patients with CKD, draw attention to its negative impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and finally highlight potential strategies for successful intervention. We hope that this study heightens the importance of tobacco use in CKD, stimulates renewed interest in the barriers and challenges that exist in achieving smoking cessation, and endorses the efficacy of intervention strategies and the immeasurable benefits of quitting on cardiovascular and noncardiovascular outcomes.

  18. Obesity and the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew J. Sorrentino

    2006-01-01

    @@ The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide has many experts concerned about the worsening health of a large proportion of the population. It is well recognized that obesity is associated with a higher mortality, an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, gall bladder disease and possibly some cancers. Currently it is estimated that over two thirds of adults in the United States are overweight and nearly one third are clinically obese.1 Of special concern is the rapid increase in obesity among children. Other countries both developed and developing are experiencing similar trends.

  19. Cardiovascular comorbidity in patients with restless legs syndrome: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas-Pérez NJ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Noel J Vargas-Pérez, Kanika Bagai, Arthur S Walters Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA Introduction: Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a sensorimotor neurological disorder associated with poor quality of life. Growing evidence links RLS and periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS with increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article reviews the association of RLS and PLMS with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods: PubMed and Medline database (1990 to July 2016 were searched for the terms “restless legs,” “restless legs syndrome,” “periodic limb movements,” “periodic limb movements in sleep” cross-referenced with “cardiovascular disease,” “heart disease,” “coronary artery disease,” “coronary heart disease,” “heart arrhythmia,” “heart failure,” “congestive heart failure,” “echocardiogram,” “echocardiographic,” “hypertension,” “high blood pressure,” “cerebrovascular disease,” “stroke,” “autonomic nervous system,” “heart rate,” “heart rate variability,” “hypoxia,” “microcirculation,” “oxidative stress,” “inflammation,” “chronic kidney disease,” “end-stage renal disease,” “renal disease,” “hemodialysis,” “multiple sclerosis,” “Parkinson,” “Parkinson’s,” “iron deficiency anemia,” and “mortality.” Other relevant articles from the reference list of the above-matched manuscripts were also reviewed. Studies that did not specify the diagnostic criteria for RLS or manuscripts in languages other than English were excluded. Articles with emphasis in RLS secondary to pregnancy were not included in this manuscript.Results: Eighty-six original articles were included in this review. Although mixed results were found regarding the association of RLS and PLMS with CVD, hypertension, stroke and mortality, an informal review of the literature does suggest that the

  20. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP) and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular...... up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1...... for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12). There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. CONCLUSIONS: Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part...

  1. Nurse management of cardiovascular risk factors in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Diaz, Silvia; Corominas, Hèctor

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, multi-system inflammatory disease. The incidence and prevalence of RA varies considerably between geographic areas and over time; the prevalence of RA in adults aged > 20 years in Spain is around 0.5% (Carmona et al, 2002). People with RA also have extra-articular manifestations, presenting an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk; therefore, cardiovascular risk screening and management strategies are necessary in individuals with RA. The importance of interventions in the management of people with RA and cardiovascular risk factors is recognised by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations (Peters et al, 2010). Rheumatology specialist nurses are well placed to include routine cardiovascular risk assessment for people with RA attending clinic, and to provide educational interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk, such as smoking cessation, weight loss, eating a balanced, low-fat diet and exercising regularly.

  2. Inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) represents a highly prevalent disease and is recognized as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood, but given the complexity of the disorder, a multifactorial etiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in general and they mediate many of the stages of atheroma formation. Circulating levels of several markers of inflammation have been associated with future cardiovascular risk. These markers include cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and selectins, cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), chemokines such as IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP). There is increasing evidence that inflammatory processes also play a central role in the cardiovascular pathophysiology of OSAS. This is supported by cell culture and animal studies identifying a preferential activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia (IH), the hallmark of OSAS. A number of studies have selectively examined the expression of inflammatory factors in OSAS patients with different conclusions. These different findings may have been contributed to by a number of methodological factors such as small subject numbers, inadequately matched study populations, particularly in terms of body mass index (BMI), and inclusion of patients with pre-existing cardiovascular or metabolic diseases. This review will focus on the potential role of various inflammatory markers in OSAS with a critical analysis of the current literature.

  3. A clinical approach to obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeder MT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Micha T Maeder,1 Otto D Schoch,2 Hans Rickli1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kantonsspital St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and increased mortality. Epidemiological studies have established these associations, and there are now numerous experimental and clinical studies which have provided information on the possible underlying mechanisms. Mechanistic proof-of-concept studies with surrogate endpoints have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP has the potential to reverse or at least to attenuate not only OSA but also the adverse cardiovascular effects associated with OSA. However, no randomized studies have been performed to demonstrate that treatment of OSA by CPAP improves clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and/or established cardiovascular disease and concomitant OSA. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of OSA as a potential cardiovascular risk factor, the impact of OSA on cardiac function, the role of OSA as a modifier of the course of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure, and the insights from studies evaluating the impact of CPAP therapy on the cardiovascular features associated with OSA. Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular, risk, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, hypertension

  4. Riesgo cardiovascular, una herramienta útil para la prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares Cardiovascular risk, a useful tool for prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vega Abascal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo cardiovascular se define como la probabilidad de padecer un evento cardiovascular en un determinado período. Mejorar la exactitud en la predicción del riesgo requiere la evaluación y el tratamiento de múltiples factores de riesgo cardiovascular, los que tienen un efecto sinérgico, más que aditivo, sobre el riesgo cardiovascular total. El cálculo utilizando métodos cuantitativos es más preciso que el obtenido con métodos cualitativos. La predicción del riesgo cardiovascular ha constituido, en los últimos años, la piedra angular en las guías clínicas de prevención cardiovascular, y deviene una herramienta útil del Médico de Familia para establecer prioridades en la atención primaria, mejorando la atención a los pacientes y eligiendo más eficazmente la terapéutica a seguir, con el objetivo de acercarnos más a la realidad multifactorial de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y a su prevención.The cardiovascular risk is defined like a probability of suffering a cardiovascular event in a determined period. To improve the accuracy in risk prediction requires the assessment and treatment of different cardiovascular risk factors, which have a synergistic effect more than additive on the total cardiovascular risk. The calculus using quantitative methods is more accurate than that obtained with qualitative methods. The prediction of cardiovascular risk has been in past years the cornerstone in clinical guidances of cardiovascular prevention and becomes an useful tool for Family Physician to establish priorities in the primary care, improving the patients care and selecting in a more effective way the therapy to be followed to bring closer more to multifactor reality of cardiovascular diseases and its prevention.

  5. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  6. Risk prediction of cardiovascular death based on the QTc interval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Graff, Claus; Rasmussen, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    .1 years, 6647 persons died from cardiovascular causes. Long-term risks of CVD were estimated for subgroups defined by age, gender, cardiovascular disease, and QTc interval categories. In general, we observed an increased risk of CVD for both very short and long QTc intervals. Prolongation of the QTc......AIMS: Using a large, contemporary primary care population we aimed to provide absolute long-term risks of cardiovascular death (CVD) based on the QTc interval and to test whether the QTc interval is of value in risk prediction of CVD on an individual level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Digital...... interval resulted in the worst prognosis for men whereas in women, a very short QTc interval was equivalent in risk to a borderline prolonged QTc interval. The effect of the QTc interval on the absolute risk of CVD was most pronounced in the elderly and in those with cardiovascular disease whereas...

  7. Cardiovascular disorders risk factors in different industries of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh Negar Assadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Disorders of cardiovascular system can cause disability or death, screening is necessary specially in workers who maybe had risk factors. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, genetic, exposure to chemicals, fumes, solvents, coldness are non occupational and occupational risk factors. Objective was comparison of cardiovascular disorders risk factors between workers in different industries of Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, workers of automobile, food indus...

  8. Welcoming low testosterone as a cardiovascular risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, M; Basaria, S

    2009-01-01

    Male hypogonadism now has a new spectrum of complications. They are mainly cardiometabolic in nature. Low serum testosterone levels are a risk factor for diabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and dyslipidemia. These metabolic and inflammatory complications are not without consequences. Recent studies have shown low serum testosterone levels to be an independent risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It is time to welcome low serum testosterone levels as a cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:19536127

  9. Total cardiovascular risk profile of Taiwanese vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-W; Lin, Y-L; Lin, T-K; Lin, C-T; Chen, B-C; Lin, C-L

    2008-01-01

    Although the health benefits of vegetarian diets have been well documented among Western population, there are geographic differences of vegetarian diets and the health benefits of the Taiwanese vegetarian diet have not been studied extensively. In addition to conventional risk factors, homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels have been found to predict first atherothrombotic events. We undertook this study to examine the total risk profile of Taiwanese vegetarians. A total of 198 healthy subjects (99 vegetarians and 99 omnivores) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), white blood cell count, hs-CRP and homocysteine. There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, blood glucose, white blood cell count, triglyceride and HDL-C between the two groups. The vegetarian group had significantly more females (65.7 vs 46.5%); lower body weight (58.66+/-11.13 vs 62.88+/-12.24 kg); shorter height (159.14+/-7.88 vs 162.53 +/-8.14 cm); lower total cholesterol (184.74+/-33.23 vs 202.01+/-41.05 mg/dl); and lower LDL-C (119.63+/-31.59 vs 135.89+/-39.50 mg/dl). Hs-CRP was significantly lower (0.14+/-0.23 vs 0.23+/-0.44 mg/dl, P=0.025), whereas homocysteine was significantly higher (10.97+/-6.69 vs 8.44+/-2.50 micromol/l, P=0.001) in vegetarians than omnivores. Taiwanese vegetarians have lower total cholesterol, LDL-C and hs-CRP levels, and higher homocysteine levels than omnivores. Owing to different predictive value of each risk factor, the Taiwanese vegetarians had a better cardiovascular risk profile than omnivores. Whether the Taiwanese vegetarian diet should be supplemented with vitamin B(12) to lower serum homocysteine level remains to be addressed.

  10. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  11. Estudio poblacional de factores de riesgo cardiovascular relacionados con el estilo de vida, hallazgos electrocardiográficos y medicación actual de pacientes valorados por el servicio de Cardiología A population study of cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle, electrocardiographic findings and current medication of patients evaluated by the Cardiology service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Alvarado

    2012-04-01

    de Bogota. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we evaluated 753 patients of the cardiology department at the Santa Fe de Bogota Foundation during March and April 2011. Registration forms were applied and processed in a descriptive way. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity of 57.1%, 11.8% and 75% respectively in the total population. The group of antihypertensive drugs of higher consume were angiotensin receptor antagonists II (55%. We observed that 48.4% of patients without history of cardiovascular disease had a normal electrocardiogram, while in the group with previous cardiovascular desease history, 72.8% of the electrocardiograms were altered. CONCLUSIONS: risk factors related to lifestyle and arterial hypertension constitute a real public health problem; currently the primary prevention and the treatment with antihypertensive medications stand out as key tools in reducing morbidity and mortality associated to cardiovascular disease. The analysis of the epidemiological behavior of the electrocardiogram is a major challenge for research in the cardiology clinic and a fundamental contribution in this respect, and at the same time it would allow to determine the variables affecting its use, interpretation and clinical correlation.

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction with Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Houston Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evidence supporting treatments within the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS, the role cardioprotection plays within the management of hypertension, considerations around medication adherence, and the role of the nurse or nurse practitioner in guiding patients to achieve higher hypertension control rates. A large body of data now exists to support the use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs which act on RAS, in the management of hypertension and their effect on cardiovascular risk reduction. Current evidence suggests that inhibition of the RAS is an important target for cardioprotection. RAS inhibition controls blood pressure and also reduces target-organ damage. This is especially important in populations at high-risk for damage including patients with diabetes and those with chronic kidney disease. Both ARBs and ACEIs target the RAS offering important reductions in both BP and target organ damage.

  13. Framingham risk score with cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Chen

    Full Text Available The Framingham Risk Score (FRS was developed to predict coronary heart disease in various populations, and it tended to under-estimate the risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Our objectives were to determine whether FRS was associated with cardiovascular events, and to evaluate the role of new risk markers and echocardiographic parameters when they were added to a FRS model. This study enrolled 439 CKD patients. The FRS is used to identify individuals categorically as "low" (4.7 cm, left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular ejection fraction<50% to the FRS model significantly improves the predictive values for cardiovascular events. In CKD patients, "high" risk categorized by FRS predicts cardiovascular events. Novel biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters provide additional predictive values for cardiovascular events. Future study is needed to assess whether risk assessment enhanced by using these biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters might contribute to more effective prediction and better care for patients.

  14. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular risk: recommendations for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Christopher; Davila, Maria I; Bhat, Mallika; Frishman, William H; Weiss, Irene A

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHy), the mildest form of hyperthyroidism, is diagnosed in patients having a persistently low or undetectable serum concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal free T4 and T3 concentrations. Although overt hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, the cardiovascular risk of SHy is controversial. Multiple studies have demonstrated an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, especially in older individuals with TSH levels cause and cardiovascular mortality are not clear, but recent meta-analyses suggest a modest increase in mortality, with the risk increasing with age and associated with the lowest TSH levels. The long-term consequences of SHy in young- and middle-aged adults, and in those with TSH levels are mildly low, are uncertain. For these reasons, guidelines for treatment are based on patient age, the degree of TSH suppression, symptoms consistent with hyperthyroidism, and overall cardiovascular and osteoporotic fracture risks.

  15. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  16. Prevalence of atherogenic dyslipidemia in primary care patients at moderate-very high risk of cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Nuria; Ibarretxe, Daiana; Cabré, Anna; Ruiz, Emilio; Masana, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aim to determine atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence in primary care patients at moderate-very high cardiovascular risk and its associated cardiovascular risk perception in Spain. This cross-sectional study included 1137 primary care patients. Patients had previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, SCORE risk ≥ 3, severe hypertension or dyslipidemia. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as low HDL-C (triglycerides (≥ 150 mg/dL). A visual analog scale was used to define a perceived cardiovascular disease risk score. Mean age was 63.9 ± 9.7 years (64.6% males). The mean BMI was 29.1 ± 4.3 kg/m(2), and mean waist circumference 104.2 ± 12.7 cm (males), and 97.2 ± 14.0 cm (females). 29.4% were smokers, 76.4% had hypertension, 48.0% were diabetics, 24.7% had previous myocardial infarction, and 17.8% peripheral arterial disease. European guidelines classified 83.6% at very high cardiovascular risk. Recommended HDL-C levels were achieved by 50.1% of patients and 37.3% had triglycerides in the reference range. Target LDL-C was achieved by 8.8%. The overall atherogenic dyslipidemia prevalence was 27.1% (34.1% in diabetics). This prevalence in patients achieving target LDL-C was 21.4%. Cardiovascular risk perceived by patients was 4.3/10, while primary care physicians scored 5.7/10. When LDL-C levels are controlled, atherogenic dyslipidemia is more prevalent in those patients at highest cardiovascular risk and with diabetes. This highlights the importance of intervention strategies to prevent the residual vascular risk in this population. Both patients and physicians underestimated cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Cardiovascular benefits and risks across the physical activity continuum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; George, K.P.; Thompson, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Habitual physical activity can reduce the risk of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review evaluates recent publications that have assessed the impact of the dose of physical (in)activity on cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Sedentary behavior,

  18. Hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk markers and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan H; Lokkegaard, Ellen; Ottesen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    cardiovascular outcomes. Recent, large-scale, randomized clinical studies did not confirm a beneficial cardiovascular effect of HT. On the contrary, an increased risk was found with continuous combined estrogen-progestagen regimens. The progestagen used in these trials was medroxyprogesterone acetate and other...

  19. Indications for and utilization of angiotensin receptor II blockers in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsang, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide burden of cardiovascular disease is growing. In addition to lifestyle changes, pharmacologic agents that can modify cardiovascular disease processes have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Antihypertensive agents are widely used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events partly beyond that of blood pressure-lowering. In particular, the angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), which antagonize the vasoconstrictive and proinflammatory/pro-proliferative effects of angiotensin II, have been shown to be cardio vascularly protective and well tolerated. Although the eight currently available ARBs are all indicated for the treatment of hypertension, they have partly different pharmacology, and their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties differ. ARB trials for reduction of cardiovascular risk can be broadly categorized into those in patients with/without hypertension and additional risk factors, in patients with evidence of cardiovascular disease, and in patients with severe cardiovascular disease, such as heart failure. These differences have led to their indications in different populations. For hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, losartan was approved to have an indication for stroke prevention, while for most patients at high-risk for cardiovascular events, telmisartan is an appropriate therapy because it has a cardiovascular preventive indication. Other ARBs are indicated for narrowly defined high-risk patients, such as those with hypertension or heart failure. Although in one analysis a possible link between ARBs and increased risks of cancer has surfaced, several meta-analyses, using the most comprehensive data available, have found no link between any ARB, or the class as a whole, and cancer. Most recently, the US Food and Drug Administration completed a review of the potential risk of cancer and concluded that treatment with an ARB medication does not increase the risk of developing cancer. This review

  20. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease: a Risk Factor or a Risk Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandviwala, Taher; Khalid, Umair; Deswal, Anita

    2016-05-01

    In the USA, 69 % of adults are either overweight or obese and 35 % are obese. Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of various cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, in that it is associated with a much higher prevalence of comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, which then increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in addition, obesity may also be an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, although obesity has been shown to be an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases, it is often associated with improved survival once the diagnosis of the cardiovascular disease has been made, leading to the term "obesity paradox." Several pathways linking obesity and cardiovascular disease have been described. In this review, we attempt to summarize the complex relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disorders, in particular coronary atherosclerosis, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation.

  1. Women with cardiovascular disease have increased risk of osteoporotic fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Sheng; Hogan, Chris; Lyubomirsky, Greg; Sambrook, Philip N

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether women with cardiovascular disease (CVD) would have an increased risk of fractures as osteoporosis and CVD share many common risk factors. From February 2006 to January 2007, 17,033 women aged ≥50 years (mean 71.8, range 50-106) were recruited by 1,248 primary care practitioners and interviewed by trained nurses. For each woman, 10-year probability of a future major osteoporotic fracture was estimated using the World Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX). The study showed that the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture was higher for 6,219 CVD women compared to 10,814 non-CVD women after adjustment for age, BMI, current smoking, and alcohol use (adjusted geometric means 14.3 and 13.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). With regard to high risk of fracture (i.e., 10-year probability ≥ 20%), the adjusted odds ratio for CVD was 1.23 (95% CI 1.13-1.35, P < 0.001). However, compared to non-CVD women, CVD women were more likely to report a previous fracture, to have a secondary osteoporosis, and to use glucocorticoids. Among the 4,678 women who were classified as having a high fracture risk, current use rate of bone-related medications (i.e., any one of bisphosphonates, raloxifene, PTH, vitamin D, calcium, or hormone therapy) was 50.2% in the CVD group and 56.9% in the non-CVD group. Women with CVD were at increased risk of fracture partly due to bone-specific risk factors such as history of previous fracture, use of glucocorticoids, and secondary osteoporosis. This risk is not being treated appropriately by primary health physicians.

  2. Cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events among airline pilots: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Larsen, Peter D; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J

    2012-05-01

    A cardiovascular risk prediction score is routinely applied by aviation authorities worldwide. We examined the accuracy of the Framingham-based risk chart used by the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority in predicting cardiovascular events among airline pilots. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of 5-yr cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events in Oceania-based airline pilots. Cases were pilots with cardiovascular events as recorded on their medical records. Each case was age and gender matched with four controls that were randomly selected from the pilot population. To collect data before the events, 5-yr retrospective evaluations were conducted. Over a 16-yr study period we identified 15 cases of cardiovascular events, 9 (60%) of which were sudden clinical presentations and only 6 (40%) of which were detected using cardiovascular screening. There were 8 cases (53%) and 16 controls (27%) who had a 5-yr risk of > or = 10-15%. Almost half of the events (7/15) occurred in pilots whose highest 5-yr risk was in the 5-10% range. Cases were 3.91 times more likely to have highest 5-yr risk score of > or =10-15% than controls (OR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.04-16.35). The accuracy of the highest risk scores were moderate (AUC = 0.723, 95% CI 0.583-0.863). The cutoff point of 10% is valid, with a specificity of 0.73, but low sensitivity (0.53). Despite a valid and appropriate cutoff point, the tool had low sensitivity and was unable to predict almost half of the cardiovascular events.

  3. A novel risk score to predict cardiovascular disease risk in national populations (Globorisk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Ueda, Peter; Lu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors based on disease risk depends on valid risk prediction equations. We aimed to develop, and apply in example countries, a risk prediction equation for cardiovascular disease (consisting here of coronary heart disease and stroke) that can be reca...

  4. Identification of effective screening strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention in a developing country: using cardiovascular risk-estimation and risk-reduction tools for policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Kaur, Gurpreet; Guat Hiong, Tee; Bujang, Adam; Chee Cheong, Kee; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-02-25

    Recent increases in cardiovascular risk-factor prevalences have led to new national policy recommendations of universal screening for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Malaysia. This study assessed whether the current national policy recommendation of universal screening was optimal, by comparing the effectiveness and impact of various cardiovascular screening strategies. Data from a national population based survey of 24 270 participants aged 30 to 74 was used. Five screening strategies were modelled for the overall population and by gender; universal and targeted screening (four age cut-off points). Screening strategies were assessed based on the ability to detect high cardiovascular risk populations (effectiveness), incremental effectiveness, impact on cardiovascular event prevention and cost of screening. 26.7% (95% confidence limits 25.7, 27.7) were at high cardiovascular risk, men 34.7% (33.6, 35.8) and women 18.9% (17.8, 20). Universal screening identified all those at high-risk and resulted in one high-risk individual detected for every 3.7 people screened, with an estimated cost of USD60. However, universal screening resulted in screening an additional 7169 persons, with an incremental cost of USD115,033 for detection of one additional high-risk individual in comparison to targeted screening of those aged ≥35 years. The cost, incremental cost and impact of detection of high-risk individuals were more for women than men for all screening strategies. The impact of screening women aged ≥45 years was similar to universal screening in men. Targeted gender- and age-specific screening strategies would ensure more optimal utilisation of scarce resources compared to the current policy recommendations of universal screening.

  5. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-03-28

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.

  6. Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Picklo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.

  7. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: contributions to risk prediction in individuals with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Katherine N; Wang, Thomas J

    2017-09-28

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death, especially in individuals with diabetes mellitus, whose risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease is markedly increased compared with the general population. There has been growing interest in the identification of biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes. The present review focuses on the current and potential contributions of these biomarkers to predicting cardiovascular risk in individuals with diabetes. At present, certain biomarkers and biomarker combinations can lead to modest improvements in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in diabetes beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Emerging technologies may enable the discovery of novel biomarkers and generate new information about known biomarkers (such as new combinations of biomarkers), which could lead to significant improvements in cardiovascular disease risk prediction. A critical question, however, is whether improvements in risk prediction will affect processes of care and decision making in clinical practice, as this will be required to achieve the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes in diabetes.

  8. Employees' Modifiable Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Blood pressure readings were taken and hypertension for the study was defined as ≥140/90 for ... This study confirms the high prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular ...

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk among professionals: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among teachers in an ... use was obtained while obesity indices, physical activity and blood pressure ... High prevalence (41%) of low physical activity was noted among participants of ...

  10. Cardiovascular disorders risk factors in different industries of iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2013-01-01

    .... In a cross-sectional study, workers of automobile, food industries and light works had been selected and cardiovascular disorders risk factors had been gathered then data analyzed in SPSS with one...

  11. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among Diabetic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ... BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study ... Female gender, hypertension and fasting blood glucose . 180mg/dl ...

  12. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Mansour

    2016-03-01

    CONCLUSION:  Saturated fat was associated with elevated lipid levels in obese children. These results reinforce the importance of healthy dietary habits since child-hood in order to reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  13. 'Awareness and attitudes towards total cardiovascular disease risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft account

    therapy. Female sex and the use of an Internet-enabled smartphone were associated with ... Cardiovascular disease prevention involves two major broad strategies- ... nations with robust guidelines on risk assessment to aid CVD prevention,.

  14. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Çakır

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 33-7

  15. Insulin Resistance and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers s......-cholesterol and did not provide independent prognostic information in postmenopausal women without diabetes mellitus. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611....

  16. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the reliability of blood pressure measurement for proper cardiovascular risk prediction, both in and out of the doctor’s office. We show that it is possible to obtain a reliable blood pressure without the use o...

  17. Welcoming low testosterone as a cardiovascular risk factor

    OpenAIRE

    Maggio, M; Basaria, S.

    2009-01-01

    Male hypogonadism now has a new spectrum of complications. They are mainly cardiometabolic in nature. Low serum testosterone levels are a risk factor for diabetes, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and dyslipidemia. These metabolic and inflammatory complications are not without consequences. Recent studies have shown low serum testosterone levels to be an independent risk factor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. It is time to welcome low serum testosterone levels as a cardiovascular r...

  18. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer DJ; Nicholls SJ

    2015-01-01

    Daniel J Scherer,1 Stephen J Nicholls2 1Cardiovascular Investigation Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, 2South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of c...

  19. Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojevic Iva Perovic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to analyse risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in PCOS, to define individual risk factors and assess their ability to predict risk.

  20. Cardiovascular risk prediction in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño Mora, Santiago; Goicoechea, Marian; Torres, Esther; Verdalles, Úrsula; Pérez de José, Ana; Verde, Eduardo; García de Vinuesa, Soledad; Luño, José

    Scores underestimate the prediction of cardiovascular risk (CVR) as they are not validated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two of the most commonly used scores are the Framingham Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the ASCVD (AHA/ACC 2013). The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive ability of experiencing a cardiovascular event (CVE) via these 2scores in the CKD population. Prospective, observational study of 400 prevalent patients with CKD (stages 4 and 5 according the KDOQI; not on dialysis). Cardiovascular risk was calculated according to the 2scores and the predictive capacity of cardiovascular events (atherosclerotic events: myocardial infarction, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, peripheral vascular disease; and non-atherosclerotic events: heart failure) was analysed. Forty-nine atherosclerotic cardiovascular events occurred in 40.3±6.6 months of follow-up. Most of the patients were classified as high CVR by both scores (59% by the FRS-CVD and 75% by the ASCVD). All cardiovascular events occurred in the high CVR patients and both scores (FRS-CVD log-rank 12.2, P<.001, HR 3.1 [95% CI: 1.3-7.1] P: 0.006 and ASCVD log-rank 8.5 P<.001, HR 3.2 [95% CI: 1.1-9.4] P: 0.03) were independent predictors adjusted to renal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events. The cardiovascular risk scores (FRS-CVD and ASCVD [AHA/ACC 2013]) can estimate the probability of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with CKD regardless of renal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypertension Management in the High Cardiovascular Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Maraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hypertension is increasing every year. Blood pressure (BP control is an important therapeutic goal for the slowing of progression as well as for the prevention of Cardiovascular disease. The management of hypertension in the high cardiovascular risk population remains a real challenge as the population continues to age, the incidence of diabetes increases, and more and more people survive acute myocardial infarction. We will review hypertension management in the high cardiovascular risk population: patients with coronary heart disease (CHD and heart failure (HF as well as in diabetic patients.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk and Hippocampal Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Donix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this regional cortical thinning would be modulated by cardiovascular risk factors. We utilized high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique to determine the cortical thickness of medial temporal subregions in 30 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using a sex-specific multivariable risk score. Greater cardiovascular risk was associated with cortical thinning in the hippocampus CA2/3/dentate gyrus area but not other hippocampal and medial temporal subregions. APOE genotype, a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, and age did not influence cortical thickness. Alzheimer’s disease-related atrophy could mask the influence of genetic risk factors or age on regional cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe regions, whereas the impact of vascular risk factors remains detectable. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Di Sessa; Giuseppina Rosaria Umano; Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice

    2017-01-01

    The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD) even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and fun...

  4. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. PMID:25848301

  5. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed.

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk stratification and comparison in a California population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Meng, Y-Y; Leung, K-M; Jatulis, D E; Welsh, N J; Zaher, C A; Legorreta, A P

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the need for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in an HMO population and to develop appropriate interventions for individuals in different risk groups, based on risk stratification and comparison. The analysis is based on a cross-sectional survey of the HMO members of a large employer group. Respondents (n=17,878) were stratified based on the Framingham model; 34% of respondents without cardiovascular disease were classified as moderate to high attributable risk for the disease, and 66% were classified as low attributable risk. Results of logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared with respondents with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, moderate- to high-risk respondents are more likely to smoke, have unhealthy diets, and be overweight, hypertensive, and hypercholesterolemic. More low-risk respondents had unhealthy diets than did those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. There were no differences between these groups for physical activity and stress. Respondents had fewer modifiable risk factors and healthier lifestyles than did those who were at risk. These findings suggest that primary prevention should be enhanced, especially among those with significantly increased risk for the disease. Moreover, the approaches of this project-population-based risk assessment, stratification, and comparison-were instrumental in identifying the target population and designing appropriate interventions. (c) 2001 by CHF, Inc.

  7. A four-year cardiovascular risk score for type 2 diabetic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Ramírez-Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As cardiovascular risk tables currently in use were constructed using data from the general population, the cardiovascular risk of patients admitted via the hospital emergency department may be underestimated. Accordingly, we constructed a predictive model for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department. We undertook a four-year follow-up of a cohort of 112 adult patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department for any cause except patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, stroke, cancer, or a palliative status. The sample was selected randomly between 2010 and 2012. The primary outcome was time to cardiovascular disease. Other variables (at baseline were gender, age, heart failure, renal failure, depression, asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, insulin, smoking, admission for cardiovascular causes, pills per day, walking habit, fasting blood glucose and creatinine. A cardiovascular risk table was constructed based on the score to estimate the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Risk groups were established and the c-statistic was calculated. Over a mean follow-up of 2.31 years, 39 patients had cardiovascular disease (34.8%, 95% CI [26.0–43.6%]. Predictive factors were gender, age, hypertension, renal failure, insulin, admission due to cardiovascular reasons and walking habit. The c-statistic was 0.734 (standard error: 0.049. After validation, this study will provide a tool for the primary health care services to enable the short-term prediction of cardiovascular disease after hospital discharge in patients with type 2 diabetes admitted via the emergency department.

  8. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: assessment, management and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegkos, Thomas; Kitas, George; Dimitroulas, Theodoros

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality which cannot be fully explained by traditional CV risk factors; cumulative inflammatory burden and antirheumatic medication-related cardiotoxicity seem to be important contributors. Despite the acknowledgment and appreciation of CV disease burden in RA, optimal management of individuals with RA represents a challenging task which remains suboptimal. To address this need, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) published recommendations suggesting the adaptation of traditional risk scores by using a multiplication factor of 1.5 if two of three specific criteria are fulfilled. Such guidance requires proper coordination of several medical specialties, including general practitioners, rheumatologists, cardiologists, exercise physiologists and psychologists to achieve a desirable result. Tight control of disease activity, management of traditional risk factors and lifestyle modification represent, amongst others, the most important steps in improving CV disease outcomes in RA patients. Rather than enumerating studies and guidelines, this review attempts to critically appraise current literature, highlighting future perspectives of CV risk management in RA.

  9. Use of pioglitazone in the treatment of diabetes: effect on cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Cong; Hu, Honglin

    2013-01-01

    Pioglitazone and other thiazolidinediones (TZDs) initially showed great promise as unique receptor-mediated oral therapy for type 2 diabetes, but a host of serious side effects, primarily cardiovascular, have limited their utility. It is crucial at this point to perform a risk- benefit analysis to determine what role pioglitazone should play in our current treatment of type 2 diabetes and where the future of this class of drugs is headed. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the present literature. Clinical data currently available indicate that pioglitazone is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment option for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Pioglitazone can still reduce adverse cardiovascular risk.

  10. Current status of NADPH oxidase research in cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiño-Janeiro BK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bruno K Rodiño-Janeiro,1,2 Beatriz Paradela-Dobarro,1 María Isabel Castiñeiras-Landeira,1 Sergio Raposeiras-Roubín,1,3 José R González-Juanatey,1,3,4 Ezequiel Álvarez1,4 1Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble, France; 3Cardiology Department, University Clinic Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 4Medicine Department, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Abstract: The implications of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular disease have been known for some decades. Rationally, therapeutic antioxidant strategies combating oxidative stress have been developed, but the results of clinical trials have not been as good as expected. Therefore, to move forward in the design of new therapeutic strategies for cardiovascular disease based on prevention of production of reactive oxygen species, steps must be taken on two fronts, ie, comprehension of reduction-oxidation signaling pathways and the pathophysiologic roles of reactive oxygen species, and development of new, less toxic, and more selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase inhibitors, to clarify both the role of each NADPH oxidase isoform and their utility in clinical practice. In this review, we analyze the value of NADPH oxidase as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease and the old and new pharmacologic agents or strategies to prevent NADPH oxidase activity. Some inhibitors and different direct or indirect approaches are available. Regarding direct NADPH oxidase inhibition, the specificity of NADPH oxidase is the focus of current investigations, whereas the chemical structure-activity relationship studies of known inhibitors have provided pharmacophore models with which to search for new molecules. From a general point of view, small-molecule inhibitors are preferred because of their hydrosolubility

  11. Importance of cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorber D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Lorber Division of Endocrinology, New York Hospital Queens, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is commonly accompanied by other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, CVD is the most common cause of death in people with T2DM. It is therefore of critical importance to minimize the risk of macrovascular complications by carefully managing modifiable CVD risk factors in patients with T2DM. Therapeutic strategies should include lifestyle and pharmacological interventions targeting hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and prothrombotic factors. This article discusses the impact of modifying these CVD risk factors in the context of T2DM; the clinical evidence is summarized, and current guidelines are also discussed. The cardiovascular benefits of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure are well established. For aspirin therapy, any cardiovascular benefits must be balanced against the associated bleeding risk, with current evidence supporting this strategy only in certain patients who are at increased CVD risk. Although overweight, obesity, and hyperglycemia are clearly associated with increased cardiovascular risk, the effect of their modification on this risk is less well defined by available clinical trial evidence. However, for glucose-lowering drugs, further evidence is expected from several ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials. Taken together, the evidence highlights the value of early intervention and targeting multiple risk factors with both lifestyle and pharmacological strategies to give the best chance of reducing macrovascular complications in the long term. Keywords: cardiovascular risk, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia

  12. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elani Streja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th birthday. RESULTS: We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00, attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76, became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12. There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. CONCLUSIONS: Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births.

  13. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in grade nine students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Dawn; Kilty, Heather Lee; Stearne, Karen; Dobbin, Stafford W

    2008-01-01

    The Niagara Schools' Healthy Heart Program (NSHHP) is a health education and intervention program offered to students enrolled in a grade nine physical education course. The program involves completion of a family history and a self-report lifestyle survey, measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and random total cholesterol levels, a heart education class, and CPR training. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of cardiovascular risk for adolescents enrolled in the program. A secondary analysis was conducted using data collected by the NSHHP staff to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in grade nine students for the school year 2006. Specific risk factors studied were smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol level and blood pressure. A total of 3,639 students from 30 schools participated. Almost 14% of students had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Body mass index was found to be the highest risk factor (13.7%) and total random cholesterol level (5%) was found to be the lowest risk factor in this sample. There were differences in prevalence rates between male and female students for all risk factors except elevated blood pressure. Five per cent of the students were referred to a family physician for follow-up, mostly for high cholesterol readings. The findings suggest that adolescents do have cardiovascular risk factors and prevention could be targeted to this population. These risk factors were already established by the time the students reached adolescence. The findings support conducting early prevention with younger children and adolescents.

  14. Cardiovascular disorders risk factors in different industries of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Negar Assadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disorders of cardiovascular system can cause disability or death, screening is necessary specially in workers who maybe had risk factors. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, genetic, exposure to chemicals, fumes, solvents, coldness are non occupational and occupational risk factors. Objective was comparison of cardiovascular disorders risk factors between workers in different industries of Iran. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, workers of automobile, food industries and light works had been selected and cardiovascular disorders risk factors had been gathered then data analyzed in SPSS with one-way ANOVA, Chi-2 and multi nominal logistic regression with P < 0.05. Results: 875 workers had been participated in the study, all of the cardiovascular disorders risk factors were in the normal range. Mean of high density lipoprotein (HDL in food industry workers was 63.83 ± 17.42 mg/dl and it was protective, but in workers who work in automobile industry was 38.97 ± 11.08 mg/dl and the lowest, Also hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were more prominent in this industry and after regression with P < 0.05, the differences were significant. Conclusions: Screening of cardiovascular disorders risk factors were important and helpful in industries specially automobile industry, that might be preventive method for these disorders in the future.

  15. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  16. Lowering triglycerides to modify cardiovascular risk: will icosapent deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer DJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Scherer,1 Stephen J Nicholls2 1Cardiovascular Investigation Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, 2South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Despite the clinical benefits of lowering levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, many patients continue to experience cardiovascular events. This residual risk suggests that additional risk factors require aggressive modification to result in more effective prevention of cardiovascular disease. Hypertriglyceridemia has presented a considerable challenge with regard to understanding its role in the promotion of cardiovascular risk. Increasing evidence has established a clear causal role for elevated triglyceride levels in vascular risk. As a result, there is increasing interest in the development of specific therapeutic strategies that directly target hypertriglyceridemia. This has seen a resurgence in the use of omega-3 fatty acids for the therapeutic lowering of triglyceride levels. The role of these agents and other emerging strategies to reduce triglyceride levels in order to decrease vascular risk are reviewed. Keywords: hypertriglyceridemia, omega-3 fatty acid, fish oil, cardiovascular risk, lipids

  17. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  18. Can nocturnal hypertension predict cardiovascular risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Oded Friedman; Logan, Alexander G.

    2009-01-01

    Oded Friedman1, Alexander G Logan21Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai Hospital, 2Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping of blood pressure during sleep are distinct entities that often occur together and are regarded as important harbingers of poor cardiovascular prognosis. This review addresses several aspects related to these blo...

  19. Can nocturnal hypertension predict cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oded Friedman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Oded Friedman1, Alexander G Logan21Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai Hospital, 2Mount Sinai Hospital and University Health Network and Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping of blood pressure during sleep are distinct entities that often occur together and are regarded as important harbingers of poor cardiovascular prognosis. This review addresses several aspects related to these blood pressure abnormalities including definitions, diagnostic limitations, pathogenesis and associated patient profiles, prognostic significance, and therapeutic strategies. Taken together, persistent nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping blood pressure pattern, perhaps secondary to abnormal renal sodium handling and/or altered nocturnal sympathovagal balance, are strongly associated with deaths, cardiovascular events, and progressive loss of renal function, independent of daytime and 24-hour blood pressure. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches may restore nocturnal blood pressure and circadian blood pressure rhythm to normal; however, whether this translates to a clinically meaningful reduction in unfavorable cardiovascular and renal consequences remains to be seen.Keywords: blood pressure, sleep, nocturnal hypertension

  20. Troponin I and cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Makarova, Nataliya;

    2016-01-01

    implication of statin therapy based on troponin concentration in 12 956 individuals free of cardiovascular disease in the JUPITER study. Troponin I remained an independent predictor with a hazard ratio of 1.37 for cardiovascular mortality, 1.23 for cardiovascular disease, and 1.24 for total mortality......-index discrimination and NRI increment. In individuals above 6 ng/L of troponin I, a concentration near the upper quintile in BiomarCaRE (5.9 ng/L) and JUPITER (5.8 ng/L), rosuvastatin therapy resulted in higher absolute risk reduction compared with individuals

  1. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia management in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, James H

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy each appear to increase cardiovascular disease risk. Increased risk may be attributable to the inflammatory effects of HIV infection and dyslipidemia associated with some antiretroviral agents. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing as patients live longer, age, and acquire traditional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. In general, any additional cardiovascular risk posed by HIV infection or antiretroviral therapy is of potential concern for patients who are already at moderate or high risk for CHD. Long-term and well-designed studies are needed to more accurately ascertain to what degree HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy affect long-term cardiovascular disease risk. Management of dyslipidemia to reduce CHD risk in HIV-infected patients is much the same as in the general population, with the cornerstone consisting of statin therapy and lifestyle interventions. Smoking cessation is a major step in reducing CHD risk in those who smoke. This article summarizes a presentation by James H. Stein, MD, at the IAS-USA live continuing medical education activity held in New York City in March 2012.

  2. Association of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K; Cushman, Mary; Næss, Inger Anne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -There is much controversy surrounding the association of traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: - We performed an individual level random-effect meta-analysis including 9 prospective studies with measured baseline CVD risk fa...

  3. Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy...

  4. Physical inactivity, depression, and risk of cardiovascular mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Tijhuis, M.A.R.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Studies indicate that depression may increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in addition to classical risk factors. One of the hypotheses to explain this relation is that depressed subjects become physically inactive. We set out to determine the role of physical inactivity in the rela

  5. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  6. Apolipoprotein E genotype, cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Tauseef A; Shah, Tina; Prieto, David;

    2013-01-01

    At the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, genotypes of the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are also associated with higher coronary risk. However, the association of APOE genotype with other cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of ischaemic stroke is less...

  7. Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Judd, Suzanne E.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important pro-hormone for optimal intestinal calcium absorption for mineralization of bone. Since the vitamin D receptor is present in multiple tissues, there has been interest in evaluating other potential functions of vitamin D, particularly in cardiovascular diseases. Cross-sectional studies have reported that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, heart failure and ischemic heart disease. Initial prospectiv...

  8. Rosuvastatin: Role in Cardiovascular High-risk Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Feliciano-Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are the lipid-lowering drug family of first choice in situations of hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia with predominant increase in cholesterol. The evidence shows conclusively that each one of the commercially available statins have proven benefits on outcomes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, rosuvastatin has certain pharmacokinetic efficacy and cost-effectiveness characteristics that make it an attractive molecule to be the statin of choice in patients at high cardiovascular risk.

  9. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: los cambios en el estilo de vida están relacionados con la exposición temprana de los adolescentes a las comorbilidades asociadas a la enfermedad cardiovascular. Estas condiciones pueden tener consecuencias en la edad adulta. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia de riesgo cardiovascular y factores asociados en las tres fases de la adolescencia. Métodos: estudio transversal que incluye a adolescentes de 10-19 años en la ciudad de Viçosa, distribuidos en tres fases. Se evaluaron las pruebas de laboratorio, el índice de masa corporal clasificadas en Z-score, según el sexo y la edad, y el porcentaje de grasa corporal, clasificados por sexo. Se utilizó la prueba de chi-cuadrado, la partición de chi-cuadrado con corrección de Bonferroni y la regresión de Poisson. El nivel de significación fue proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación de la UFV en humanos. Resultados: el sobrepeso, la grasa corporal, el perfil lipídico, el comportamiento sedentario y la historia de enfermedades cardiovasculares en la familia fueron los factores de riesgo cardiovascular más prevalentes entre los adolescentes. Los adolescentes tenían tasas más altas de sobrepeso y grasa. En cuanto a las etapas, la inicial mostró un mayor porcentaje de individuos con comportamiento sedentario, sobrepeso y colesterol total y LDL en comparación con otras fases. Los individuos con cambios en el estado nutricional eran más propensos a desarrollar hipertensión, cambios en el colesterol total, LDL, triglicéridos, insulina, HOMA y HDL bajo, en comparación con los individuos sanos. Conclusiones: los factores de riesgo cardiovascular se han observado en personas cada vez más jóvenes y son factores importantes para identificar una población en riesgo.

  10. [Trends and current questions of cardiovascular prevention in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyés, István; Jancsó, Zoltán; Simay, Attila

    2012-09-30

    Although an impressive progress has been achieved in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, they are at the top of the mortality statistics in Hungary. Prevention of these diseases is an essential task of the primary health care. Cardiovascular prevention is carried out at primary, secondary and tertiary levels using risk group and population preventive strategies. The two main tasks of primary cardiovascular prevention are health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention, and its main programs are ensuring healthy nutrition, improving physical training and accomplishing an anti-smoking program. The essential form of secondary prevention is the screening activity of the primary health care. The majority of cardiovascular risk factors can be discovered during the doctor-patient consultation, but laboratory screening is needed for assessing metabolic risks. The official screening rules of the cardiovascular risk factors and diseases are based on diagnostic criteria of the metabolic syndrome; however, nowadays revealing of global cardiometabolic risks is also necessary. In patients without cardiovascular diseases but with risk factors, a cardiovascular risk estimation has to be performed. In primary care, there is a possibility for long term follow-up and continuous care of patients with chronic diseases, which is the main form of the tertiary prevention. In patients with cardiovascular diseases, ranking to cardiovascular risk groups is a very important task since target values of continuous care depend on which risk group they belong to. The methods used during continuous care are lifestyle therapy, specific pharmacotherapy and organ protection with drugs. Combined health education and counselling is the next element of the primary health care prevention; it is a tool that helps primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Changes needed for improving cardiovascular prevention in primary care are the following: appropriate evaluation of primary prevention

  11. Association between low education and higher global cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiara, Tiziana; Scaglione, Alessandra; Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Pinto, Antonio; Scaglione, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the impact of educational status on global cardiovascular risk in a southern Italian urban population. The study population consisted of 488 consecutive outpatients aged 18 years and older. Educational status was categorized according to the number of years of formal education as follows: (1) low education group (education group (10-15 years). In both groups, cardiometabolic comorbidities (obesity, visceral obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, microalbuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy) and global cardiovascular risk, according to international guidelines, were analyzed. Left ventricular mass index and ejection fraction by echocardiography and E/A ratio, by pulsed-wave Doppler, were calculated. The low education group was characterized by a significantly higher prevalence of patients with visceral obesity (P=.021), hypertension (P=.010), metabolic syndrome (P=.000), and microalbuminuria (P=.000) and greater global cardiovascular risk (P=.000). Significantly increased levels of microalbuminuria (P=.000) and significantly decreased values of E/A ratio (P=.000) were also detected in the low education group. Global cardiovascular risk correlated directly with waist-to-hip ratio (P=.010), microalbuminuria (P=.015), and the metabolic syndrome (P>.012) and inversely with educational status (P=.000). Education was independently (P=.000) associated with global cardiovascular risk. These data indicate a strong association between low education and cardiometabolic comorbidities suitable to influence the evolution of chronic degenerative diseases. Preventive strategies need to be more efficient and more effective in this patient population.

  12. Agreement in cardiovascular risk rating based on anthropometric parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Endilly Maria da Silva; Pinto, Cristiane Jordânia; Freitas, Rodrigo Pegado de Abreu; Medeiros, Anna Cecília Queiroz de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the agreement in evaluation of risk of developing cardiovascular diseases based on anthropometric parameters in young adults. The study included 406 students, measuring weight, height, and waist and neck circumferences. Waist-to-height ratio and the conicity index. The kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement in risk classification for cardiovascular diseases. The positive and negative specific agreement values were calculated as well. The Pearson chi-square (χ{sup 2}) test was used to assess associations between categorical variables (p<0.05). The majority of the parameters assessed (44%) showed slight (k=0.21 to 0.40) and/or poor agreement (k<0.20), with low values of negative specific agreement. The best agreement was observed between waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio both for the general population (k=0.88) and between sexes (k=0.93 to 0.86). There was a significant association (p<0.001) between the risk of cardiovascular diseases and females when using waist circumference and conicity index, and with males when using neck circumference. This resulted in a wide variation in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk (5.5%-36.5%), depending on the parameter and the sex that was assessed. The results indicate variability in agreement in assessing risk for cardiovascular diseases, based on anthropometric parameters, and which also seems to be influenced by sex. Further studies in the Brazilian population are required to better understand this issue.

  13. Can machine-learning improve cardiovascular risk prediction using routine clinical data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Stephen F; Reps, Jenna; Kai, Joe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to predict cardiovascular risk fail to identify many people who would benefit from preventive treatment, while others receive unnecessary intervention. Machine-learning offers opportunity to improve accuracy by exploiting complex interactions between risk factors. We assessed whether machine-learning can improve cardiovascular risk prediction. Prospective cohort study using routine clinical data of 378,256 patients from UK family practices, free from cardiovascular disease at outset. Four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, logistic regression, gradient boosting machines, neural networks) were compared to an established algorithm (American College of Cardiology guidelines) to predict first cardiovascular event over 10-years. Predictive accuracy was assessed by area under the 'receiver operating curve' (AUC); and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) to predict 7.5% cardiovascular risk (threshold for initiating statins). 24,970 incident cardiovascular events (6.6%) occurred. Compared to the established risk prediction algorithm (AUC 0.728, 95% CI 0.723-0.735), machine-learning algorithms improved prediction: random forest +1.7% (AUC 0.745, 95% CI 0.739-0.750), logistic regression +3.2% (AUC 0.760, 95% CI 0.755-0.766), gradient boosting +3.3% (AUC 0.761, 95% CI 0.755-0.766), neural networks +3.6% (AUC 0.764, 95% CI 0.759-0.769). The highest achieving (neural networks) algorithm predicted 4,998/7,404 cases (sensitivity 67.5%, PPV 18.4%) and 53,458/75,585 non-cases (specificity 70.7%, NPV 95.7%), correctly predicting 355 (+7.6%) more patients who developed cardiovascular disease compared to the established algorithm. Machine-learning significantly improves accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction, increasing the number of patients identified who could benefit from preventive treatment, while avoiding unnecessary treatment of others.

  14. Relationship between sleep duration and Framingham cardiovascular risk score and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eui; Kim, Gwang-Sil

    2017-09-01

    Studies have shown sleep duration to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension. However, whether sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the prevalence of CVD irrespective of conventional CV-risk factor, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, has not been well established for the Korean population.A total of 23,878 individuals aged 18 years or older from the 2007-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. We evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and CV-event risk using the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS; ≥10% or ≥20%) and the prevalence of CVD.After adjusting for traditional risk factors of CVD, a short sleep duration (≤5 hours) yielded odds ratios (OR) of 1.344 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.200-1.505) for intermediate to high risk and 1.357 (95% CI, 1.140-1.614) for high risk. A long sleep duration (≥9 hours) was also associated with both intermediate to high (OR 1.142, 95% CI 1.011-1.322) and high cardiovascular FRS (OR 1.276, 95% CI 1.118-1.457).Both short and long sleep durations were related with high CVD risk, irrespective of established CVD risk, and a short sleep duration was associated with a higher prevalence of CVD than an optimal or long sleep duration.

  15. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and Management in Prerenal Transplantation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Eric M; Hall, Amanda K; Hess, Jordan; Abraham, Jo; Smith, Brigham; Hopkins, Paul N; Shihab, Fuad; Welt, Frederick; Owan, Theophilus; Fang, James C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) assessment in prerenal transplant patients varies by center. Current guidelines recommend stress testing for candidates if ≥ 3 CV risk factors exist. We evaluated the CV assessment and management in 685 patients referred for kidney transplant over a 7-year period. All patients had CV risk factors, and the most common cause of end-stage renal disease was diabetes. Thirty-three percent (n = 229) underwent coronary angiography. The sensitivity of stress testing to detect obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was poor (0.26). Patients who had no CAD, nonobstructive CAD, or CAD with intervention had significantly higher event-free survival compared with patients with obstructive CAD without intervention. There were no adverse clinical events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, and graft failure) within 30 days post-transplant in patients who had preoperative angiography (n = 77). Of the transplanted patients who did not have an angiogram (n = 289), there were 8 clinical events (6 myocardial infarctions) in the first 30 days. In conclusion, our results indicate that stress testing and usual risk factors were poor predictors of obstructive CAD and that revascularization may prove beneficial in these patients.

  16. Vitamin D: epidemiology of cardiovascular risks and events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Monica; Giovannucci, Edward

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin D may influence blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system, parathyroid hormone levels, myocardial function, inflammation, and vascular calcification. In the past several years, a number of high-quality prospective studies have examined 25(OH)vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies consistently show that levels of 25(OH)D below 20-25 ng/mL are associated with an increased risk of CVD incidence or mortality. Risk appears especially elevated at 25(OH)D levels below 10 or 15 ng/mL. It is unclear if levels higher that 25 ng/mL provide further benefits for CVD disease. Currently, results from randomized clinical trials are sparse and do not allow a definitive conclusion. Given other potential benefits of vitamin D, and low potential for toxicity, deficient levels below 25-30 ng/mL should be avoided and treated when identified. Further observational and randomized clinical trial data are important to better characterize the optimal range for 25(OH)D.

  17. Simulating the impact of improved cardiovascular risk interventions on clinical and economic outcomes in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Shum

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Russia faces a high burden of cardiovascular disease. Prevalence of all cardiovascular risk factors, especially hypertension, is high. Elevated blood pressure is generally poorly controlled and medication usage is suboptimal. With a disease-model simulation, we forecast how various treatment programs aimed at increasing blood pressure control would affect cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, we investigated what additional benefit adding lipid control and smoking cessation to blood pressure control would generate in terms of reduced cardiovascular events. Finally, we estimated the direct health care costs saved by treating fewer cardiovascular events. METHODS: The Archimedes Model, a detailed computer model of human physiology, disease progression, and health care delivery was adapted to the Russian setting. Intervention scenarios of achieving systolic blood pressure control rates (defined as systolic blood pressure <140 mmHg of 40% and 60% were simulated by modifying adherence rates of an antihypertensive medication combination and compared with current care (23.9% blood pressure control rate. Outcomes of major adverse cardiovascular events; cerebrovascular event (stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death over a 10-year time horizon were reported. Direct health care costs of strokes and myocardial infarctions were derived from official Russian statistics and tariff lists. RESULTS: To achieve systolic blood pressure control rates of 40% and 60%, adherence rates to the antihypertensive treatment program were 29.4% and 65.9%. Cardiovascular death relative risk reductions were 13.2%, and 29.6%, respectively. For the current estimated 43,855,000-person Russian hypertensive population, each control-rate scenario resulted in an absolute reduction of 1.0 million and 2.4 million cardiovascular deaths, and a reduction of 1.2 million and 2.7 million stroke/myocardial infarction diagnoses, respectively. Averted direct costs from

  18. Clinical utility of ivabradine in cardiovascular disease management: current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosano GMC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe MC Rosano,1,2 Cristiana Vitale,1,2 Ilaria Spoletini,1 Maurizio Volterrani11Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy; 2Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK Abstract: Ivabradine is a selective antagonist of the funny channels with anti-anginal and anti-ischemic properties, approved for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD and heart failure (HF. It provides pure heart rate reduction, reducing the diastolic depolarization slope, without altering hemodynamic parameters. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the efficacy of ivabradine in patients with cardiovascular diseases, with a particular focus on its role in the clinical management of patients with CAD and HF. There is consistent evidence that ivabradine is effective in reducing angina pectoris symptoms and myocardial ischemia. At approved doses ivabradine is safe, improves exercise tolerance, and reduces heart rate. Available data from clinical trials support its use in the management of patients with stable CAD and chronic HF. Recent studies have cast doubt on the safety of non-approved high doses of ivabradine for the treatment of patients with CAD and without clinical HF, but have shown no concerns on the doses approved for clinical use. Keywords: ivabradine, coronary artery disease, heart failure, angina pectoris, exercise performance

  19. Estimation of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetes mellitus accelerates atherosclerotic changes throughout the vascular tree and consequently increases the risk of developing fatal acute events. Objective: to estimate the global cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: a cross-sectional study of a series of type 2 diabetic patients from the People's Council of Constancia, Abreus municipality, Cienfuegos province was conducted from July to December 2012. The universe comprised the 180 people with diabetes in the area. Variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, blood pressure, toxic habits, associated chronic diseases, blood levels of glucose, lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides and microalbuminuria. World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension prediction charts specific to the region of the Americas, in which Cuba is included, were used to estimate the cardiovascular risk. Results: mean age was 61.63 years and females predominated. Relevant risk factors were hypertension followed by obesity, smoking and dyslipidemia. Mean body mass index was 27.66kg/m2; waist circumference was 94.45 cm in women and 96.86 cm in men. Thirty point six percent had more than two uncontrolled risk factors and 28.3 % of the total presented a high to very high cardiovascular risk. Conclusions: cardiovascular risk prediction charts are helpful tools for making clinical decisions, but their interpretation must be flexible and allow the intervention of clinical reasoning.

  20. Dietary effects on cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Zamora, Rosa Maria

    2009-01-01

    La tesis consta de 4 proyectos: dos estudios de intervención, aleatorizados, paralelos y controlados, uno sobre los efectos de productos del cacao y otro sobre los de fibra soluble, Plantago ovata husk (Po-husk), sobre biomarcadores de enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) en sujetos hipercolesterolémicos. El tercero es la identificación de compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva virgen (AOV) en plasma humano (en ayunas y en fase postprandial) y el cuarto, el desarrollo de una aplicación informáti...

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Frías López, M. C.; P. J. Tárraga López; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; J. Solera Albero; Celada Rodríguez, A.; M. A. López Cara; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia del hipotiroidismo subclínico en la población general de un centro de salud urbano y describir las características clínicas y factores de riesgo cardiovascular de los pacientes con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, transversal, retrospectivo, revisando las historias clínicas de los pacientes incluidos en la muestra desde junio de 2005 hasta julio de 2007. Se analizaron las siguientes va...

  2. Atypical antipsychotics olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone and risk of acute major cardiovascular events in young and middle-aged adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternak, Björn; Svanström, Henrik; Ranthe, Mattis F

    2014-01-01

    risperidone (n = 14,134). The primary outcome was any major cardiovascular event (composite of cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary syndrome, or ischemic stroke) within 1 year following treatment initiation. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) while on current antipsychotic monotherapy......BACKGROUND: A number of serious cardiovascular safety concerns related to the use of atypical antipsychotics, compared with no use, have emerged, but nearly all reports are from studies of older patients. We aimed to compare the risk of cardiovascular events between the three most commonly used...... in the outpatient setting, adjusting for an outcome-specific disease risk score. RESULTS: The crude rate of any major cardiovascular event was 5.3 per 1,000 person-years among olanzapine users, 3.4 in quetiapine users, and 5.2 in risperidone users. Compared with risperidone, the risk of any major cardiovascular...

  3. [Cardiovascular risk factors in psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebrov, A P; Nikitina, N M; Gaĭdukova, I Z

    2011-01-01

    To study the role of conventional and new factors of cardiovascular risk in development of atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PA). Sixty patients with psoriatic arthritis, 414 RA patients and 79 healthy controls entered the trial. All of them had no manifestations of cardiovascular diseases. Screening was made of the leading risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular complications, thickness of the complex intima-media (TIM) of the carotid arteries, vascular wall stiffness were measured, vasoregulatory function of the endothelium, markers of endothelial damage were examined. Patients with psoriatic and rheumatoid arthritis were found to have increased TIM of the carotid arteries, high incidence of atherosclerotic plaques, increased stiffness, damage of the vascular wall, affected endothelial vasoregulation. These alterations were associated with high arthritis activity, systemic manifestations, seropositivity by rheumatoid factor (in RA), presence of entesitis, uveitis and dactilitis (in psoriatic arthritis), dislipidemia, arterial hypertension (AH). To determine cardiovascular risk in patients with arthritis, it is necessary to consider not only standard risk factors (dislipidemia and AH), but also severity of systemic inflammation, arterial stiffness, endothelial damage and ability of the vascular wall to relax reflecting endothelial dysfunction.

  4. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in employees of Brazilian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Sanches BERTASSO-BORGES

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases have been the main cause of death in Brazil and the identification of cardiovascular risk factors is crucial to effective prevention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in employees of a University in São José do Rio Preto. This analysis was done by a study transverse and descriptive carried out from a questionnaire for the identification of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric measures and arterial blood pressure in employees. A total of 127 employees were assessed, being 84 (66.14% of them females. The age group most prevalent is 21 to 30 years (37%. Arterial hypertension was identified in 7.09% of the people and 17.32% of them were in the pre-hypertension range. Positive family history was reported by 82.68% of the employees. Approximately 50% of the population reported alcoholism, with prevalence in males (69.77%. The frequency of a sedentary lifestyle was high in females (73.81% and 52.76% of the total population was overweight. For females there was statistical significance for waist circumference in the analysis by age groups. Based on the results we conclude that hypertension, family history, alcoholism, overweight and a sedentary lifestyle are the main cardiovascular risk factors in this population of employees.

  5. Caffeine and cardiovascular diseases: critical review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulli, Anthony; Smith, Renee M; Kubatka, Peter; Novak, Jan; Uehara, Yoshio; Loftus, Hayley; Qaradakhi, Tawar; Pohanka, Miroslav; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Zagatina, Angela; Klimas, Jan; Hayes, Alan; La Rocca, Giampiero; Soucek, Miroslav; Kruzliak, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a most widely consumed physiological stimulant worldwide, which is consumed via natural sources, such as coffee and tea, and now marketed sources such as energy drinks and other dietary supplements. This wide use has led to concerns regarding the safety of caffeine and its proposed beneficial role in alertness, performance and energy expenditure and side effects in the cardiovascular system. The question remains "Which dose is safe?", as the population does not appear to adhere to the strict guidelines listed on caffeine consumption. Studies in humans and animal models yield controversial results, which can be explained by population, type and dose of caffeine and low statistical power. This review will focus on comprehensive and critical review of the current literature and provide an avenue for further study.

  6. Exercise and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; La Gerche, Andre; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-02-01

    Evidence for the benefits of regular exercise is irrefutable and increasing physical activity levels should be a major goal at all levels of health care. People with hypertension are less physically active than those without hypertension and there is strong evidence supporting the blood pressure-lowering ability of regular exercise, especially in hypertensive individuals. This narrative review discusses evidence relating to exercise and cardiovascular (CV) risk in people with hypertension. Comparisons between aerobic, dynamic resistance, and static resistance exercise have been made along with the merit of different exercise volumes. High-intensity interval training and isometric resistance training appear to have strong CV protective effects, but with limited data in hypertensive people, more work is needed in this area. Screening recommendations, exercise prescriptions, and special considerations are provided as a guide to decrease CV risk among hypertensive people who exercise or wish to begin. It is recommended that hypertensive individuals should aim to perform moderate intensity aerobic exercise activity for at least 30 minutes on most (preferably all) days of the week in addition to resistance exercises on 2-3 days/week. Professionals with expertise in exercise prescription may provide additional benefit to patients with high CV risk or in whom more intense exercise training is planned. Despite lay and media perceptions, CV events associated with exercise are rare and the benefits of regular exercise far outweigh the risks. In summary, current evidence supports the assertion of exercise being a cornerstone therapy in reducing CV risk and in the prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  8. Both raloxifene and estrogen reduce major cardiovascular risk factors in healthy postmenopausal women: A 2-year, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk-de Roo, G.W. de; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Meijer, P.; Mijatovic, V.; Kluft, C.; Kenemans, P.; Cohen, F.; Watts, S.; Netelenbos, C.

    1999-01-01

    Currently raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, is being investigated as a potential alternative for postmenopausal hormone replacement to prevent osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. We compared the 2-year effects of raloxifene on a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors with

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, D; Antić, I B; Bjekić-Macut, J

    2015-03-01

    Androgen excess (AE) was approximated to be present in 7% of the adult population of women. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent among them, followed by idiopathic hirsutism (IH), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome, and androgen-secreting neoplasms (ASNs). Increased cardiovascular risk was implicated in women with AE. Serum testosterone independently increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlates even with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis in various populations of postmenopausal women. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS is closely related to the aggravation of abdominal obesity, and together with insulin resistance forming the metabolic core for the development of CVD. However, phenotypic variability of PCOS generates significant influence on the cardiometabolic risks. Numerous risk factors in PCOS lead to 5-7 times higher risk for CVD and over 2-fold higher risk for coronary heart disease and stroke. However, issue on the cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women with hyperandrogenic history is still challenging. There is a significant overlapping in the CVD characteristics of women with PCOS and variants of CAH. Relevant clinical data on the prevalence and cardiometabolic risk and events in women with IH, HAIRAN syndrome or ASNs are scarce. The effects of various oral contraceptives (OCs) and antiandrogenic compounds on metabolic profile are varying, and could be related to the selected populations and different therapy regiments mainly conducted in women with PCOS. It is assumed relation of OCs containing antiandrogenic progestins to the increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic events.

  10. Greater cardiovascular responses to laboratory mental stress are associated with poor subsequent cardiovascular risk status: a meta-analysis of prospective evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    An increasing number of studies has tested whether greater cardiovascular responses to acute mental stress predict future cardiovascular disease, but results have been variable. This review aimed quantitatively to evaluate the association between cardiovascular responses to laboratory mental stress and subsequent cardiovascular risk status in prospective cohort studies. We searched general bibliographic databases, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed, up to December 2009. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and estimates of associations. There were 169 associations (36 articles) of stress reactivity and 30 associations (5 articles) of poststress recovery in relation to future cardiovascular risk status, including elevated blood pressure, hypertension, left ventricular mass, subclinical atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiac events. The overall meta-analyses showed that greater reactivity to and poor recovery from stress were associated longitudinally with poor cardiovascular status (r=0.091 [95% CI: 0.050 to 0.132], Pstress reactivity and poor stress recovery, respectively, whereas both factors were associated with higher future systolic and diastolic blood pressures. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis suggests that greater responsivity to acute mental stress has an adverse effect on future cardiovascular risk status, supporting the use of methods of managing stress responsivity in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Risk of cardiovascular disease? A qualitative study of risk interpretation among patients with high cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Edwards, Adrian; Risør, Mette Bech; Thomsen, Janus Laust

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the importance of paying attention to lay peoples’ interpretations of risk of disease, in order to explain health-related behavior. However, risk interpretations interplay with social context in complex ways. The objective was to explore how asymptomatic patients with high cholesterol interpret risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods Fourteen patients with high cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease were interviewed, and patterns across patient a...

  12. Sociodemographic factors associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Seman, Zamtira; Cheong, Kee Chee; Hock, Lim Kuang; Manickam, Mala; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi; Mustafa, Feisul Idzwan; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2015-01-31

    To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Malaysian adults. We analysed data on 1044 men and 1528 women, aged 24-64 years, participants in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a nationally representative, population-based, cross-sectional study. Prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, physical inactivity, smoking, risky drinking, low vegetable and fruit intake were determined and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with having ≥3 of these cardiovascular disease risk factors. The response rate was 84.6% (2572/3040). Overall, 68.4% (95% CI: 63.2, 73.1) had at least three risk factors. Among men, older age and Indian ethnicity were independently associated with having ≥3 CVD risk factors; while among women, older age, low education, and housewives were more likely to have ≥3 CVD risk factors. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors clustering among Malaysian adults is high, raising concerns that cardiovascular disease incidence will rise steeply in the near future if no immediate preventive measures are taken. The current national health education and promotion programmes pertaining to modifiable risk factors can be further improved by taking into account the sociodemographic variation in CVD risk factors clustering.

  13. A reappraisal of the impact of dairy foods and milk fat on cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    German, J.B.; Gibson, R.A.; Krauss, R.M.; Nestel, P.; Lamarche, B.; Staveren, van W.A.; Steijns, J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Lock, A.L.; Destaillats, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background This review provides a reappraisal of the potential effects of dairy foods, including dairy fats, on cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Commodities and foods containing saturated fats are of particular focus as current public dietary recommendations are

  14. Human microbiome as therapeutic intervention target to reduce cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, Annefleur M.; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The absolute burden of cardiovascular risk remains high despite currently available preventive and therapeutic options. In search for novel therapeutic leads, mounting evidence has linked the gut microbiota as well as their metabolites to the development of cardiometabolic diseases

  15. Human microbiome as therapeutic intervention target to reduce cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, Annefleur M.; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The absolute burden of cardiovascular risk remains high despite currently available preventive and therapeutic options. In search for novel therapeutic leads, mounting evidence has linked the gut microbiota as well as their metabolites to the development of cardiometabolic diseases

  16. A reappraisal of the impact of dairy foods and milk fat on cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    German, J.B.; Gibson, R.A.; Krauss, R.M.; Nestel, P.; Lamarche, B.; Staveren, van W.A.; Steijns, J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Lock, A.L.; Destaillats, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background This review provides a reappraisal of the potential effects of dairy foods, including dairy fats, on cardiovascular disease (CVD)/coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Commodities and foods containing saturated fats are of particular focus as current public dietary recommendations are direct

  17. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duggirala Sivaram Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative.

  18. Markers of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Nonfunctional Adrenal Incidentaloma Patients without Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansu, Güven Barış; Sarı, Ramazan; Yılmaz, Nusret; Özdem, Sebahat; Çubuk, Metin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Data regarding cardiovascular risk in patients with non-functional adrenal incidentaloma (NFAI) are limited. The objectives of this study are to investigate markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease like carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and leptin levels in NFAI patients without traditional cardiovascular risk factors and healthy control group. Methods: This study involved 35 patients with NFAI (11 males, 24 females; mean age, 52.4±7.7 years) and 35 healthy subjects as control group (11 males, 24 females; mean age, 51.8±7.2 years). CIMT was evaluated by ultrasonographical methods. PWV and AIx were measured with TensioClinic arteriograph system. Serum leptin and sCD40L levels were measured by ELISA. Results: In NFAI patients group; CIMT (ptriglycerides (r=0.378, ptriglycerides (r=0.335, ptriglycerides (r=0414, pcardiovascular risk factors featured several disturbances (CIMT, PWV and AIx) compared to the control group that could be attributable to increased cardiovascular risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Marie-Louise; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of LN as a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) in patients with SLE. METHODS: The study was conducted using individual-level data from multiple nationwide registers. We identified a cohort of patients diagnosed with S...

  20. LEADER 7 : Cardiovascular risk profiles of US and European participants in the LEADER diabetes trial differ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, Guy E H M; Tack, Cees J.; Pieber, Thomas R.; Comlekci, Abdurrahman; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Baeres, Florian M M; Marso, Steven P.; Buse, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether US and European participants in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of cardiovascular outcome Results (LEADER) trial differ regarding risk factors for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Methods: Baseline data, stratified for prior cardiovascular

  1. Estado actual de la rehabilitación cardiovascular en Colombia (2010 Current status of cardiovascular rehabilitation in Colombia (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V Anchique

    2011-12-01

    programas de Rehabilitación Cardiovascular en el país debe evaluarse de acuerdo con las cifras de morbimortalidad cardiovascular, la estratificación del riesgo de los pacientes, el acceso al servicio y los resultados más relevantes de este estudio, por lo cual se hace necesario trabajar en la definición de las líneas de base de los requerimientos de los programas que favorezcan el trabajo y la aproximación interdisciplinaria e integral así como el cumplimiento de los objetivos, dando prioridad a la seguridad del paciente.INTRODUCTION: cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries around the world, including Colombia. Thus, cardiovascular rehabilitation becomes a secondary prevention strategy with integral and cost-effective intervention for these patients. OBJECTIVE: to assess the current status of cardiac rehabilitation programs in Colombia. METHODS: a descriptive study, carried out through a written questionnaire, applied to the coordinator and/or responsible for each cardiac rehabilitation program in the country. RESULT ANALYSIS: 44 of 49 centers contacted answered the questionnaire. 88.6% of the programs belonging to the private network and 6.8% to the public; 75% work within a hospital or clinic and 25% are outpatient. Coronary heart disease is the main pathology that generates the referral of patients to cardiovascular rehabilitation centers. Human resources are variable in their shape, stay and activities within the program. All centers perform phase II, followed by stages III (84.1%, I (70.5% and IV (45.5%. 58% of the programs always include diagnostic tests for conventional risk factors (total cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides and glucose, 97.7% of the programs referred to assess the patient in a holistic manner including aspects of nutrition and physical activity; however, a lower percentage of implementation of the management of smoking (45.5%, of cardiovascular health programs in women (15

  2. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists: Do They Increase Cardiovascular Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Aljada

    2009-01-01

    agonists, and their primary benefit appears to be the prevention of diabetic complications by improving glycemic control and lipid profile. Recently, the cardiovascular safety of rosiglitazone was brought to center stage following meta analyses and the interim analysis of the RECORD trial. Current evidence points to rosiglitazone having a greater risk of myocardial ischemic events than placebo, metformin, or sulfonylureas. This review article discusses the mechanism of action of PPAR agonists and correlates it with clinical and laboratory outcomes in the published literature. In addition, this review article attempts to discuss some of the molecular mechanisms regarding the association between TZDs therapy and the nontraditional cardiovascular risks.

  3. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA

  4. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS: characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Mari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers.

  5. A family history intervention: enhancing cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Jeanette A; Cook, Jennifer D M; Mahon, Marveen; Allwein, David A; Rauschhuber, Maureen; Richardson, Cynthia O; Muñoz, Laura R; Estrada, Rosanna; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2011-04-01

    This article describes the effect of individualized counseling using family history data and objective cardiovascular risk factors on intent to change and actual exercise behavior in a diverse sample of working adults. Using a longitudinal, quasi-experimental, crossover design, objective data (blood lipids, glucose, blood pressure, and body mass index) and subjective data (awareness of heart disease risk, depression, spirituality, and knowledge of family history) were collected from 91 (mostly female and with a mean age of 45 years) primary and secondary teachers in a southwestern city. The Transtheoretical Model of Change guided the study and measured intent to exercise. Objective risks in this sample mirrored national indices of risk for obesity and abnormal lipids. Although some participants increased their exercise, no significant differences were found between the groups in exercise behavior at 6 and 12 months. Using knowledge of family history to raise awareness and encourage lifestyle changes related to cardiovascular risk warrants further study. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. [Systemic cardiovascular risk assessment. Conventional or eye fundus-based?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, A; Kernt, M; Kampik, A; Neubauer, A S

    2010-09-01

    Several systemic cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment algorithms exist, of which the ESC HeartScore, Framingham and PROCAM are the most frequently applied in Germany. The risk estimates generated differ and take a number of different risk factors into consideration. Due to existing homology of retinal vessels and brain vessels, eye fundus examination is a promising approach to improving risk prediction. Large cohort studies investigated retinal vascular changes, including arteriovenous ratio, as well as signs of retinopathy such as cotton-wool spots, microaneurysms, or retinal hemorrhages for their ability to predict systemic cardiovascular events. While signs of retinopathy proved to have high predictive power (but are rarely diagnosed,) the retinal vascular changes investigated could contribute little to enhancing systemic CV risk prediction. A number of new and promising approaches based on static and dynamic retinal analysis exist, but still need to be validated prospectively.

  7. Association between Serum Osteopontin Levels and Cardiovascular Risk in Hypothyrodism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Mete

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cardiovascular effects of hypothyroidism are well known. Osteopontin (OPN is a new inflammatory marker which was first isolated from the bone. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD, a noninvasive technique to measure this endothelium-dependent function, has been used in several clinical studies to show cardiovascular risks. The aim of our study was to assess FMD value in hypothyroidism patients and to investigate whether plasma OPN level is a parameter which can predict cardiovascular risks in this group of patients. Material and Method: This study included 39 patients who had high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and 11 healthy euthyroid controls. Plasma TSH, free thyroxine, fibrinogen, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (T-chol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride and OPN levels were measured at the time hypothyroidism was first detected and after euthyroid state was achieved with levothyroxine treatment. In parallel with these assessments, brachial FMD measurements were also performed. Results: In hypothyroid patients cardiovascular risk factors such as T-chol, LDL and triglyceride levels were higher than in control group but fibrinogen and hsCRP levels were not different between the groups. OPN levels were similar in patient and control groups, but basal FMD levels were lower in patients with hypothyroidism. After euthyroidism was achieved, OPN levels significantly decreased and FMD levels significantly increased, but a correlation was not detected between these two parameters. Discussion: Our study did not show a significant correlation between OPN and cardiovascular risk parameters. Further studies are needed to use OPN as a cardiovascular risk marker in hypothyroid patients.

  8. The role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brady, Sharmayne R E; de Courten, Barbora; Reid, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. We investigated the relative contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to this elevated risk.......People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. We investigated the relative contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to this elevated risk....

  9. Fruits and vegetables moderate lipid cardiovascular risk factor in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famodu Adekunle

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor in etiology of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown association between vegetarian diet and low total serum cholesterol as well as LDL-cholesterol which is a pointer to low risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary fiber, antioxidants and other classes of nutrients have been reported to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors. Fruits and vegetables being rich sources of fiber and antioxidants have been the focus in intervention studies. The current work reports the effect local fruits and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors in African hypertensive subjects in an 8 week study. Though there was no significant difference in the Body Mass Index and HDL-cholesterol at the end of the eighth week, there were significant reductions (P -1; total serum cholesterol (226.60 ± 6.15 to 179.20 ± 5.78 and LDL-cholesterol (135.69 ± 5.56 to 93.07 ± 7.18 mgdL-1. We concluded that consumption of combination of local fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in Africans.

  10. [Hyperglycemia and cardiovascular risk: lessons from randomized trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, André

    2010-04-20

    Diabetes is a major cardiovascular risk factor However, hyperglycemia is much more closely associated with microangiopathy than with macrovascular complications. Epidemiologic studies have shown a 15% increase of myocardial infarction for 1% increase in HbA1c level. It is accepted but not absolutely demonstrated, that reduction of HbA1c results in an equal reduction of cardiovascular events. An initial good glycemic control has long-term benefical effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease. On the contrary, benefit of an intensive glucose control is not demonstrated in diabetic patients with previous myocardial infarction. Two recent studies (ACCORD and VADT) showed an increase of cardiovascular mortality by severe hypoglycemia. In diabetic patients with previous myocardial infarction, glycemic goal must be modulated by the hypoglycaemic risk. A goal of 7.5% HbA1c seems reasonable for the diabetic patients treated by sulfonylureas or insulin, at risk of hypoglycaemia. HbA1c target < 7% remains the general goal and HbA1c target < 6.5% is appropriated to the patients treated by insulin sensitizing medications without risk of hypoglycaemia.

  11. Night work, total occupational burden and cancer/cardiovascular risk factors in physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Karen; Nedić, Olesja

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Lifestyle-related risk factors: smoking, obesity, sedentariness and excess alcohol intake are among the most important known causes of cancer and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between these lifestyle-related risk factors for cancer/cardiovascular disease and working conditions among surgeons/anesthesiologists and other physicians. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study was carried out among physicians aged 35 to 60, without diagnosed coronary heart disease or other structural heart disease, who were employed at the Novi Sad University Hospital. The participation rate was high (> 90%). The physicians completed the Occupational Stress Index. Low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk was defined as: not a current smoker, body mass index intervention strategies are urgently needed. Among the surgeons/anesthesiologists these should include reduction in the frequency of night call and improvement of the overall conditions of nightshift work. Among other physicians, the total occupational burden needs to be diminished.

  12. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Omoifo Dele E. - College of Education, Igueben, Edo State, Nigeria. E-mail: ... paper therefore is that one's consciousness of his health status can bring about positive modification of likely risk factors. Key words: ...

  13. Improving cardiovascular risk management: a randomized, controlled trial on the effect of a decision support tool for patients and physicians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkiste, B.C. van; Weijden, T. van der; Stoffers, H.E.; Kester, A.D.; Timmermans, D.R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is nonoptimal adherence of general practitioners (GPs) and patients to cardiovascular risk reducing interventions. GPs find it difficult to assimilate multiple risk factors into an accurate assessment of cardiovascular risk. In addition, communicating cardiovascular risk to

  14. Why would serum phosphorus correlate with cardiovascular risk, and how is the clinician supposed to use this information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Numerous recent studies have demonstrated an association between serum phosphorus and cardiovascular risk, even in individuals with normal kidney function and with serum phosphorus levels considered within the acceptable range. Whether serum phosphorus serves as a biomarker, as a causative agent, or both remains unclear. Additionally, the impact of other important considerations, such as the time of day when the phosphorus is measured, the diet of the individual, and the age of the individual, on interpretation of this association has not been determined. Currently, serum phosphorus cannot be used systematically as an independent cardiovascular risk factor but may be an important adjunctive factor in analyzing cardiovascular risk. More importantly, understanding the basis for the association between serum phosphorus and cardiovascular risk will likely yield new insights into fundamental mechanisms of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Vascular risk assessment in older adults without a history of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambrick, P; Tan, W S; Mulcahy, R; Pope, G A; Cooke, J

    2016-06-15

    Modern cardiovascular risk prediction tools, which have their genesis in the Framingham Heart Study, have allowed more accurate risk stratification and targeting of treatments worldwide over the last seven decades. Better cardiovascular risk factor control during this time has led to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and, at least in part, to improved life expectancy. As a result, western societies as a whole have seen a steady increase in the proportion of older persons in their populations. Unfortunately, several studies have shown that the same tools which have contributed to this increase cannot be reliably extrapolated for use in older generations. Recent work has allowed recalibration of existing models for use in older populations but these modified tools still require external validation before they can be confidently applied in clinical practice. Another complication is emerging evidence that aggressive risk factor modification in older adults, particularly more frail individuals, may actually be harmful. This review looks at currently available cardiovascular risk prediction models and the specific challenges faced with their use in older adults, followed by analysis of recent attempts at recalibration for this cohort. We discuss the issue of frailty, looking at our evolving understanding of its constituent features and various tools for its assessment. We also review work to date on the impact of frailty on cardiovascular risk modification and outline its potentially central role in determining the most sensible approach in older patients. We summarise the most promising novel markers of cardiovascular risk which may be of use in improving risk prediction in older adults in the future. These include markers of vascular compliance (such as aortic pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis), of endothelial function (such as flow mediated dilation, carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium scores), and also biochemical and

  16. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what about cocoa and chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    Cocoa flavonoids are able to reduce cardiovascular risk by improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure (BP). Interest in the biological activities of cocoa is daily increasing. A recent meta-analysis shows flavanol-rich cocoa administration decreases mean systolic (-4.5mm Hg; p<0.001) and diastolic (-2.5mm Hg; p<0.001) BP. A 3-mm Hg systolic BP reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on cardiovascular health focusing on putative mechanisms of action and nutritional and "pharmacological" viewpoints. Cocoa consumption could play a pivotal role in human health.

  17. Electrocardiographic PR-interval duration and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Vibe; Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Skov, Morten Wagner

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of ambiguous reports in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between PR interval and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death, heart failure, and pacemaker implantation, allowing for a nonlinear relationship. METHODS: We included 293,111 individuals...... into 7 groups based on the population PR interval distribution. Cox models were used, with reference to a PR interval between 152 and 161 ms (40th to identified 34,783 deaths from all causes, 9867 cardiovascular deaths, 9526 cases of incident heart...... failure, and 1805 pacemaker implantations. A short PR interval ( 200 ms; HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.14-1.32; P risk of cardiovascular death after...

  18. Current Chemical Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  19. Cardiovascular Risk among Older Women in a Havana Health Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys Bárbara; Hernández, Yesenia de la Caridad; Dueñas, Alfredo F; García, Reynaldo de la Noval; Castillo, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality increase in women after menopause. Various scoring models assess qualitative risk of cardiovascular disease. The Framingham Heart Study global risk score is among the most widely used. Objective Determine level of coronary heart disease risk among women aged ≥60 years in a Havana health catchment area (geographic area whose residents are served by the M�rtires del Corynthia Polyclinic, in the Plaza de la Revoluci�n municipality of Havana). Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006. Universe: all women (3,396) aged ≥60 years in the catchment area, attended at the primary care level by the Polyclinic and 42 neighborhood family doctor-and-nurse offices. Equal probability sample: 1,082 women meeting the inclusion criteria, chosen through single-stage cluster sampling considering a <10% error margin for estimates for this parameter, a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a design effect of 1.5. Absolute frequencies and percentages were calculated to summarize the qualitative data obtained. Results were presented as tables. Results The most common cardiovascular risk factors found in this study were: physical inactivity, 74.9%; hypertension (HTN), 70.6%; abdominal obesity, 53%; reported family history of coronary heart disease (CHD), 41.8%; diabetes mellitus (DM), 21.8%; and cigarette smoking, 17.2%. Scoring according to number of risk factors present in each individual, 79.3% of these women fell into the high- or moderate-risk categories. Conclusion The large number of women categorized as high- or moderate-risk for coronary heart disease in this population emphasizes the need for preventive actions aimed at reducing these figures. Cardiovascular diseases, vascular diseases, ischemic heart disease, coronary heart disease, postmenopause, woman, aged, risk factors, risk assessment, hypertension, high blood pressure, lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, obesity, abdominal adipose tissue, body mass

  20. Marine Carotenoids and Cardiovascular Risk Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Speranza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine carotenoids are important bioactive compounds with physiological activities related to prevention of degenerative diseases.found principally in plants, with potential antioxidant biological properties deriving from their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. They are substances with very special and remarkable properties that no other groups of substances possess and that form the basis of their many, varied functions and actions in all kinds of living organisms. The potential beneficial effects of marine carotenoids have been studied particularly in astaxanthin and fucoxanthin as they are the major marine carotenoids. Both these two carotenoids show strong antioxidant activity attributed to quenching singlet oxygen and scavenging free radicals. The potential role of these carotenoids as dietary anti-oxidants has been suggested to be one of the main mechanisms for their preventive effects against cancer and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this short review is to examine the published studies concerning the use of the two marine carotenoids, astaxanthin and fucoxanthin, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio Dai Cas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium is a dynamic organ with many properties that takes part in the regulation of the principal mechanisms of vascular physiology. Its principal functions include the control of blood-tissue exchange and permeability, the vascular tonus, and the modulation of inflammatory or coagulatory mechanisms. Many vasoactive molecules, produced by the endothelium, are involved in the control of these functions. The most important is nitric oxide (NO, a gaseous molecule electrically neutral with an odd number of electrons that gives the molecule chemically reactive radical properties. Already known in the twentieth century, NO, sometimes considered as a dangerous molecule, recently valued as an important endogenous vasodilator factor. Recently, it was discovered that it is involved in several physiological mechanisms of endothelial protection (Tab. I. In 1992, Science elected it as “molecule of the year”; 6 yrs later three American researchers (Louis Ignarro, Robert Furchgott and Fried Murad obtained a Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology “for their discoveries about NO as signal in the cardiovascular system”.

  2. Vitamin D status and changes in cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    A low vitamin D level has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but possible mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the association between vitamin D levels and 5-year changes in blood pressure, lipid profile and incidence of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and hyper...... and hypercholesterolemia....

  3. High cardiovascular risk in severely obese young children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, N.M.A. van; Renders, C.M.; Veer, M. van de; Buuren, S. van; Baan-Slootweg, O.H. van der; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; HiraSing, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children and adolescents. Methods: A nationwide prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2005 to July 2007 where paediatricians were asked to report all new cases of severe obesity in 2-18-year-old

  4. The Cardiovascular Risk of White-Coat Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of white-coat hypertension (WCH) and the white-coat-effect (WCE) in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Using data from the population-based, 11-cohort IDACO (International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in...

  5. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  6. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the reliabili

  7. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk : epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ron T.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; Mann, Johannes F.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Wen, Chi Pang

    2013-01-01

    Since the first description of the association between chronic kidney disease and heart disease, many epidemiological studies have confirmed and extended this finding. As chronic kidney disease progresses, kidney-specific risk factors for cardiovascular events and disease come into play. As a

  8. Metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Gema; Donapetry, Cristóbal; Calviño, Jesús; Adeva, Maria M

    2011-08-01

    Microalbuminuria has been conclusively established as an independent cardiovascular risk factor, and there is evidence of an association between insulin resistance and microalbuminuria, the former preceding the latter in prospective studies. It has been demonstrated that even the slightest degree of metabolic acidosis produces insulin resistance in healthy humans. Many recent epidemiological studies link metabolic acidosis indicators with insulin resistance and systemic hypertension. The strongly acidogenic diet consumed in developed countries produces a lifetime acidotic state, exacerbated by excess body weight and aging, which may result in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes, contributing to cardiovascular risk, along with genetic causes, lack of physical exercise, and other factors. Elevated fruits and vegetables consumption has been associated with lower diabetes incidence. Diseases featuring severe atheromatosis and elevated cardiovascular risk, such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney failure, are typically characterized by a chronic state of metabolic acidosis. Diabetic patients consume particularly acidogenic diets, and deficiency of insulin action generates ketone bodies, creating a baseline state of metabolic acidosis worsened by inadequate metabolic control, which creates a vicious circle by inducing insulin resistance. Even very slight levels of chronic kidney insufficiency are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, which may be explained at least in part by deficient acid excretory capacity of the kidney and consequent metabolic acidosis-induced insulin resistance.

  9. High cardiovascular risk in severely obese young children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, N.M.A. van; Renders, C.M.; Veer, M. van de; Buuren, S. van; Baan-Slootweg, O.H. van der; Kist-van Holthe, J.E.; HiraSing, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in severely obese children and adolescents. Methods: A nationwide prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2005 to July 2007 where paediatricians were asked to report all new cases of severe obesity in 2-18-year-old c

  10. Endogenous estrogen exposure and cardiovascular mortality risk in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Peeters, P.M.; Banga, J.D.; Graaf, Y. van der

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether combined information on reproductive factors has additive value to the single reproductive factor age at menopause for assessing endogenous estrogen exposure and cardiovascular mortality risk in postmenopausal women. They conducted a population-based c

  11. Urinary potassium excretion and risk of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieneker, L.M.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Boer, de R.; Brouwers, Frank P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Navis, G.; Bakker, Stephan L.J.; Joosten, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies on dietary potassium and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have reported weak-to-modest inverse associations. Long-term prospective studies with multiple 24-h urinary samples for accurate estimation of habitual potassium intake, however, are scarce.

  12. Genetics and behavioral medicine: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogler, G.P.; McClearn, G.E.; Snieder, H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Palmer, R.; Knijff, P. de; Slagboom, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles addressing the intersection of interests in behavioral genetics and behavioral medicine. In this article, we use risk factors for cardiovascular disease as a prototypical trait for which behavioral genetic approaches provide powerful tools for underst

  13. Guidelines for managing cardiovascular risk: an evolving area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currier, Judith S; Lundgren, Jens

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To reflect on the need for guidelines to assist clinicians in the management of cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Over the past eight years guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia and metabolic complications of HIV infection have been develope...

  14. Microalbuminuria: is it a valid predictor of cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Monica; Vidt, Donald G

    2003-03-01

    Microalbuminuria strongly predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, clinical nephropathy, and progression of renal disease in high-risk populations. We recommend screening patients with type 2 diabetes, older patients with type 1 diabetes, and older patients with stage 2 hypertension or higher (ie, > or = 160/100 mm Hg).

  15. Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross...

  16. Genetics and behavioral medicine: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogler, G.P.; McClearn, G.E.; Snieder, H.; Boomsma, D.I.; Palmer, R.; Knijff, P. de; Slagboom, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles addressing the intersection of interests in behavioral genetics and behavioral medicine. In this article, we use risk factors for cardiovascular disease as a prototypical trait for which behavioral genetic approaches provide powerful tools for

  17. CETP inhibition in cardiovascular risk management : a critical appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; van Tol, A.

    In view of the cardioprotective effect of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and the limited effects of statin and fibrate therapy on HDL cholesterol, it is clinically relevant to test whether pharmacological treatment aimed at raising HDL lowers cardiovascular risk. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein

  18. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Mediating Mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Hartman, Y.A.W.; Holder, S.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Hopkins, N.D.

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behavior has a strong association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, which may be independent of physical activity. To date, the mechanism(s) that mediate this relationship are poorly understood. We hypothesize that sedentary behavior modifies key hemodynamic, inflammatory, and

  19. [Cardiovascular risk parameters, metabolic syndrome and alcohol consumption by workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; López González, Ángel Arturo; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Capdevila-García, Luisa; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of alcohol consumption is high in the general population and generates specific problems at the workplace. To establish benchmarks between levels of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk variables and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study of 7,644 workers of Spanish companies (2,828 females and 4,816 males). Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk was assessed using Framingham calibrated for the Spanish population (REGICOR) and SCORE, and metabolic syndrome was assessed using modified ATPIII and IDF criteria and Castelli and atherogenic index and triglycerides/HDL ratio. A multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression and odds ratios were estimated. Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean values of the different parameters studied in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes and with modified ATPIII, IDF and REGICOR and SCORE. The sex, age, alcohol, and smoking variables were associated to cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome. Physical exercise and stress are only associated to with some of them. The alcohol consumption affects all cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome, being more negative the result in high level drinkers. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the

  1. Blood pressure management in cardiovascular risk stratification : procedure, progression, process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiyaman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have explored different aspects of blood pressure measurement and related it to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the first part we showed that when the arm is positioned under heart level, for example when the arm is placed on a desk or a chair support, the blood pressure

  2. Lipid parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Arsenault; S.M. Boekholdt; J.J.P. Kastelein

    2011-01-01

    Besides measuring blood pressure and glucose levels, assessing the lipid spectrum is the method most commonly used to identify individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as those who are likely to benefit most from lipid-lowering therapy. Although lowering LDL-cholesterol leve

  3. Saturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Replacements for Saturated Fat to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michelle A; Petersen, Kristina S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-06-21

    Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein, may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.

  4. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J F; Penninx, Brenda J W H

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders, clinical characteristics and newly-developed CVD. DSM-IV diagnoses were established in 2510 CVD-free participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Data on subtype, severity, and psychoactive medication were collected. The 6-year incidence of CVD was assessed using Cox regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors. One-hundred-six subjects (4.2%) developed CVD. Having both current depressive and anxiety disorders (HR=2.86, 95%CI 1.49-5.49) or current depression only (HR=2.30; 95%CI 1.10-4.80) was significantly associated with increased CVD incidence, whereas current anxiety only (HR=1.48; 95%CI 0.74-2.96) and remitted disorders (HR=1.48; 95%CI 0.80-2.75) were not associated. Symptom severity was associated with increased CVD onset (e.g., Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology per SD increase: HR=1.51; 95%CI 1.25-1.83). Benzodiazepine use was associated with additional CVD risk (HR=1.95; 95%CI 1.16-3.31). Current depressive (but not anxiety) disorder independently contributed to CVD in our sample of initially CVD-free participants. CVD incidence over 6years of follow-up was particularly increased in subjects with more symptoms, and in those using benzodiazepines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  6. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina;

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  7. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PRISON POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Soares de OliveiraI; gor Monteiro Lima Martins; Luís Paulo Souza e Souza; Edna Maria de Souza Oliveira; Jaqueline Teixeira Teles; Jansen Maxwell de Freitas Santana; Antônio Prates Caldeira

    2014-01-01

    This work aimed to make a reflection about the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the prison population, as well as the performance of the health care team in these spaces. It is a reflective approach, literature that included e-journal articles, published in the year 2003 to 2011, indexed at LILACS, Scielo, MEDLINE, and available in full. Textbooks were also consulted and ordinances of Ministry of health and Justice of Brazil. Used the descriptors "risk factors," "cardiov...

  8. Cardiovascular risk stratification and management in pre-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Færch, Kristine; Vistisen, Dorte; Johansen, Nanna Borup; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2014-06-01

    Prediabetes, covering individuals with impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, or high-risk HbA1c levels, is associated with a ∼20 % increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with normoglycemic individuals. It is well-known that lifestyle or pharmacologic interventions can prevent diabetes in prediabetic people; however, the evidence is less clear regarding prevention of CVD. Most diabetes prevention trials have failed to show beneficial effects on CVD morbidity and mortality despite significant improvements of CVD risk factors in individuals with prediabetes. Another challenge is how to estimate CVD risk in prediabetic people. In general, prediction models for CVD do not take glucose levels or prediabetes status into account, thereby underestimating CVD risk in these high-risk individuals. More evidence within risk stratification and management of CVD risk in prediabetes is needed in order to recommend useful and effective strategies for early prevention of CVD.

  9. Trading off dietary choices, physical exercise and cardiovascular disease risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Boeri, Marco; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Despite several decades of decline, cardiovascular diseases are still the most common causes of death in Western societies. Sedentary living and high fat diets contribute to the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. This paper analyses the trade-offs between lifestyle choices defined in terms of diet, physical activity, cost, and risk of cardiovascular disease that a representative sample of the population of Northern Ireland aged 40-65 are willing to make. Using computer assisted personal interviews, we survey 493 individuals at their homes using a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) questionnaire administered between February and July 2011 in Northern Ireland. Unlike most DCE studies for valuing public health programmes, this questionnaire uses a tailored exercise, based on the individuals' baseline choices. A "fat screener" module in the questionnaire links personal cardiovascular disease risk to each specific choice set in terms of dietary constituents. Individuals are informed about their real status quo risk of a fatal cardiovascular event, based on an initial set of health questions. Thus, actual risks, real diet and exercise choices are the elements that constitute the choice task. Our results show that our respondents are willing to pay for reducing mortality risk and, more importantly, are willing to change physical exercise and dietary behaviours. In particular, we find that to improve their lifestyles, overweight and obese people would be more likely to do more physical activity than to change their diets. Therefore, public policies aimed to target obesity and its related illnesses in Northern Ireland should invest public money in promoting physical activity rather than healthier diets.

  10. Cardiovascular risks associated with incident and prevalent periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke and total CVD. In a prospective cohort of 39,863 predominantly white women, age ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status [prevalent (18%), incident (7.3%) versus never (74.7%)] were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25-2.38) for MI, 1.41 (1.02-1.95) for ischaemic stroke and 1.27 (1.06-1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04-1.56) for MI, 1.12 (0.91-1.37) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for total CVD. New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cardiovascular disorders risk factors in different industries of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyedeh Negar

    2013-06-01

    Disorders of cardiovascular system can cause disability or death, screening is necessary specially in workers who maybe had risk factors. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, smoking, genetic, exposure to chemicals, fumes, solvents, coldness are non occupational and occupational risk factors. Objective was comparison of cardiovascular disorders risk factors between workers in different industries of Iran. In a cross-sectional study, workers of automobile, food industries and light works had been selected and cardiovascular disorders risk factors had been gathered then data analyzed in SPSS with one-way ANOVA, Chi-2 and multi nominal logistic regression with P risk factors were in the normal range. Mean of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in food industry workers was 63.83 ± 17.42 mg/dl and it was protective, but in workers who work in automobile industry was 38.97 ± 11.08 mg/dl and the lowest, Also hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were more prominent in this industry and after regression with P risk factors were important and helpful in industries specially automobile industry, that might be preventive method for these disorders in the future.

  12. Preeclampsia and hypertensive disease in pregnancy: their contributions to cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo, Carolina; Garovic, Vesna D; Ouyang, Pamela

    2012-03-01

    More women than men die each year of cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Sex-specific factors, including pregnancy-related disorders, should be considered when assessing cardiovascular (CV) risk in women. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy have been associated with CV risk later in life and may identify women in whom earlier primary prevention may reduce their risk. This article reviews the physiologic changes in blood pressure during pregnancy, current definitions of hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and preeclampsia, and postulated pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to preeclampsia that might contribute to later CV risk. Also summarized are studies providing evidence on the association between hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and future CV risk.

  13. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  14. Associations Between Conventional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Risk of Peripheral Artery Disease in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Pai, Jennifer K.; Bertoia, Monica L.; Rimm, Eric B.; Spiegelman, Donna; Mittleman, Murray A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Previous studies have examined the associations of individual clinical risk factors with risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD), but the combined effects of these risk factors are largely unknown. Objective To estimate the degree to which the 4 conventional cardiovascular risk factors of sm

  15. Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk reduction with PPAR agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Johanna; Andrulionyte, Laura; Laakso, Markku

    2007-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Three isoforms, PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARdelta, which are encoded by separate genes, have been identified. The PPARs act as gene regulators of various metabolic pathways in energy and lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and inflammation. Two key classes of synthetic compounds, fibrates and thiazolidinediones (glitazones), activate PPARalpha and PPARgamma, respectively. Both of these drugs have several properties that prevent atherosclerosis in the vascular wall and reduce the levels of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, clinical trials have not produced convincing evidence that cardiovascular disease is prevented with the use of PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists.

  16. [Cardiovascular effects and safety of glucose-lowering drugs: current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmiquel, L

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Therefore, in addition to normalising blood glucose, the aim of the treatment for diabetes mellitus should be to prevent cardiovascular complications. However, the evidence available on the cardio-protective role of the different glucose-lowering drugs is scarce and poor, particularly as regards with the risk of major cardiovascular events. In this context, the regulatory agencies have modified the regulations for the approval of glucose-lowering drugs, now requiring to demonstrate the glucose-lowering effect together with a robust assessment of the cardiovascular safety. The aim of this work is to review the cardiovascular effects of the different glucose-lowering drugs, focusing on their impact on the risk of major cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. EFFICACY OF FIXED COMBINATION OF VALSARTAN, AMLODIPINE AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF THE PATIENT OF VERY HIGH CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Sokolov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of arterial hypertension in association with high and very high cardiovascular risk requires widespread use of combined therapy. Current approaches to selection of combination components of antihypertensive drugs are based the efficacy of these drugs proven in multicenter randomized clinical trials. The triple combination of calcium antagonist, angiotensin II receptor blocker and thiazide diuretic is regarded as the best option for combined therapy in patients with arterial hypertension and ischemic heart disease to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  18. Main factors of risk related to the cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Glaner

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Obese people are at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD than people with normal body fat. Therefore, the aim of this review was to synthetize the traditional risk factors for CVD. The search was made in Medline and Scielo, using the key-words cardiovascular disease, glucose, triglycerides, lipoproteins, obesity and body fat distribution. The studies showed that high values of glicemia, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and, low rate of high-density lipoproteins are the main risk factors associated with central body fat distribution, which seems to be a greater risk factor for CDV than obesity itself. RESUMO Pessoas obesas têm um risco mais elevado para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares do que pessoas com gordura corporal normal. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão foi sintetizar os fatores de risco mais tradicionais para as doenças cardiovasculares (DCV. A pesquisa foi feita no Medline e Scielo, usando as palavras-chave doença cardiovascular, glicose, triglicérides, lipoproteínas, obesidade e distribuição da gordura corporal. Os estudos mostraram que altas taxas de glicemia, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade, triglicérides e baixa taxa de lipoproteínas de alta densidade são os principais fatores de risco, para as DCV, associados à distribuição da gordura na região central. Esta gordura parece ser o maior fator de risco para as DCV, associada à glicemia, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade, triglicérides e lipoproteínas de alta densidade, do que a obesidade por si só.

  19. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  20. [Cardiovascular risk factors in users with severe mental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paños-Martínez, Montserrat; Patró-Moncunill, Ester; Santiago-Barragán, Ángel-María; Marti-Mestre, Marc; Torralbas-Ortega, Jordi; Escayola-Maranges, Anna; Granero-Lázaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk (RCV) in users with a Severe Mental Disorder (SMD) attended in mental health service in ParcTaulí (Sabadell - Barcelona). This is an observational, descriptive and transversal study of the factors of cardiovascular risk in 789 users with SMD. The instrument used was the scale of assessment of the Registre Gironí del Cor, which estimates the risk of cardiovascular disease. 26.6% of the sample has RCV (22.5% moderate, 3.8% high and 0.3% very high). The analysis of the modifiable risk factors shows that 16.5% of the patients are hypertensive, 55.2% are smokers, 19.77% have hyperglycaemia (8.2% of whom are diagnosed of diabetes mellitus), 40.2% have obesity, 36.2% overweight and 47.27% hypercholesterolemia. The study confirms that the prevalence of the RVC in SMD users is greater than the RCV in general population and it's associated to the presence of modifiable risk factors. Health education carried out by nurses is the best to prevent the RCV in SMD users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. [Risk Factor Analysis of Pneumonia after Cardiovascular Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Shuichi; Nakamura, Ken; Uchida, Tetsuro; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki; Morikane, Keita

    2016-08-01

    Pneumonia is a major and life-threatening complication after cardiovascular surgery. The objective of our study was to describe epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pneumonia after cardiovascular surgery. From January 2007 to December 2011, 511 consecutive patients (age 67.3±11.9;336 men, 175 women) were enrolled in this study. Pneumonia was diagnosed according to Centers of Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria for healthcare associated infection. Data collection included preoperative, intraoperative, and post-operative variables. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 72 cases(14.0%). The mortality in pneumonia group was significantly higher than that in non-pneumonia group (16.6% vs 4.3%, Odds ratio 4.4 ppneumonia after cardiovascular surgery.

  2. Targeting Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors May Be Important Across a Lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Targeting cardiovascular disease risk factors may be important across a lifetime NIH-funded study suggests efforts ... of those risk factors may be a potential strategy to lower rates of cardiovascular disease across the ...

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors in high-need psoriasis patients and its implications for biological therapies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, R.J.B.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The associations between psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors are reported to be stronger as psoriasis severity increases. This makes studying cardiovascular risk factors in high-need psoriasis patients, eligible for biological therapy, interesting. OBJECTIVE: To survey the prevalen

  4. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  5. Sex differences in cardiovascular risk factors and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelman, Yolande; van Rijn, Bas B; Ten Haaf, Monique E; Boersma, Eric; Peters, Sanne A E

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a men's disease for decades, however it is more common in women than in men. It is generally assumed in medicine that the effects of the major risk factors (RF) on CVD outcomes are the same in women as in men. Recent evidence has emerged that recognizes new, potentially independent, CVD RF exclusive to women. In particular, common disorders of pregnancy, such as gestational hypertension and diabetes, as well as frequently occurring endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age (e.g. polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and early menopause) are associated with accelerated development of CVD and impaired CVD-free survival. With the recent availability of prospective studies comprising men and women, the equivalency of major RF prevalence and effects on CVD between men and women can be examined. Furthermore, female-specific RFs might be identified enabling early detection of apparently healthy women with a high lifetime risk of CVD. Therefore, we examined the available literature regarding the prevalence and effects of the traditional major RFs for CVD in men and women. This included large prospective cohort studies, cross-sectional studies and registries, as randomised trials are lacking. Furthermore, a literature search was performed to examine the impact of female-specific RFs on the traditional RFs and the occurrence of CVD. We found that the effects of elevated blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and elevated cholesterol on CVD outcomes are largely similar between women and men, however prolonged smoking is significantly more hazardous for women than for men. With respect to female-specific RF only associations (and no absolute risk data) could be found between preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and menopause onset with the occurrence of CVD. This review shows that CVD is the main cause of death in men and women, however the prevalence is higher in women. Determination of the CV risk profile should take into

  6. Evaluation of bad habits as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Sarajevo Canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suada Branković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases by its frequency, epidemic expenditure, socio-medical consequences and with high mortality are becoming the biggest problem of modern medicine. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases declines due to prevention measures in developed countries, in developing countries and countries in transition it increases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of harmful habits and connection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in economically active population in the Canton of Sarajevo.Methods: The study was conducted among the active population of Sarajevo Canton. Randomly selected 443 respondents from different groups of workers aged 18-65 years, who voluntarily joined the study. Weperformed a study intersection descriptive method of research. Instrument for conducting research was a set of questionnaires, designed for research purposes.Results: The results study showed that the study group, current smokers occupy 45%, 1.8% occasional smokers who smoke and the rest of nonsmokers. It was shown that subjects who consume alcohol in biggestpercentage 73.4% consumed the same day, while the smallest percentage 2.7% comprise the same subjects who consumed annually.Conclusions: The prevalence of harmful habits as risk factors for cardiovascular disease among subjects in the Sarajevo Canton is evident represented. It is a significant development of the country, because it affects the health promotion strategy, which consequently changes the behavior based on individual needs. Health education and promotion of health can be reduced or completely prevented by a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  7. Sovereign Risk and Currently Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Corte, Pasquale; Sarno, Lucio; Schmeling, Maik

    explanatory power for currency returns which is largely driven by shocks to global credit risk. Consistent with the notion that sovereign risk is priced, we find that a country's exposure to global credit risk forecasts excess returns to trading exchange rates as well as to trading on the volatility, skewness......We empirically investigate the relation between sovereign risk and exchange rates for a broad set of currencies. An increase in the credit default swap (CDS) spread of a country is accompanied by a significant depreciation of the exchange rate. More generally, CDS spread changes have substantial......, and kurtosis of currency returns....

  8. Pharmacological management of dyslipidemia in high and very high cardiovascular risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pascual Fuster

    Full Text Available Dyslipaemia is one of the main risk factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Currently, there are different alternatives available (amongst which statins occupy a pre-eminent place, to optimise the treatment of patients at high or very high cardiovascular risk. Despite this, the percentage of patients that achieve good lipid control is low. The causes of the mismatch with proposed objectives include lack of patient adherence and therapeutic inertia. This review uses available evidence and the latest clinical guides as a basis to assess the pharmacological treatment of dyslipaemia in patients with a background of arteriosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular risk at ≥5% calculated by SCORE and familial hypercholesterolaemia. The treatment of hypertriglyceridemia is also reviewed along with the special consideration that poly-pharmacy deserves in patients treated with statins, making mention of the treatment of dyslipaemia with HIV infection. The global assessment of cardiovascular risk is of high priority to adapt treatment to the specific objectives of the c-LDL for each risk category.

  9. Modern obesity pharmacotherapy: weighing cardiovascular risk and benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jonathan W; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major correlate of cardiovascular disease. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors and has the potential to improve outcomes. Two drugs, phentermine plus topiramate and lorcaserin, have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the indication of obesity; a third, bupropion plus naltrexone, is under consideration for approval. In clinical trials, these drugs cause weight loss and improve glucose tolerance, lipid profile, and, with the exception of bupropion plus naltrexone, blood pressure. However, their effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In defining appropriate roles for these drugs in preventive cardiology, it is important to remember the checkered history of drugs for obesity. New weight-loss drugs share the serotonergic and sympathomimetic mechanisms that proved harmful in the cases of Fen-Phen and sibutramine, respectively, albeit with significant differences. Given these risks, randomized cardiovascular outcomes trials are needed to establish the safety, and potential benefit, of these drugs. This review will discuss the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity, existing efficacy and safety data for the novel weight-loss drugs, and issues in the design of postapproval clinical trials.

  10. Visceral fat cell lipolysis and cardiovascular risk factors in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, D P; Löfgren, P; Thorell, A; Arner, P; Hoffstedt, J

    2011-10-01

    Visceral fat accumulation relates to cardiovascular risk factors, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the role of visceral adipocyte triglyceride breakdown (lipolysis) for several risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In 73 obese women, fat mass and distribution, blood pressure, blood samples for cardiometabolic risk factors, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. A subcutaneous and a visceral fat biopsy were taken. Fat cell glycerol release after stimulation with a major lipolytic hormone, noradrenaline, was measured. In simple regression analysis, visceral fat cell lipolysis, but not subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis was related to components of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, subjects in the highest quartile of catecholamine-induced visceral lipolysis had higher levels of systolic blood pressure, estimated liver fat, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity than those in the lowest quartile (p=0.0004-0.048). Among subjects with the metabolic syndrome, visceral fat cell lipolysis was 40% higher than in the remaining subjects (p=0.0052). Catecholamine-activated lipolysis in visceral but not subcutaneous fat cells is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in obesity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. DETERMINING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Reed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor. We aimed to 1 determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2 create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI. Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC, high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2. The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2 compared with girls (8 (2.1, p < 0.01. A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor

  12. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  13. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics; state of current knowledge and implementation in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Payman; Dubé, Marie-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is the science that examines how an individual's genetic make-up affects the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs. PGx of response to cardiovascular (CV) medications is of the most successfully translated branches of PGx into the clinical workout. However, the clinical implementation of PGx of CV drugs is yet far beyond the growth of our understanding of the role of genetics in drug therapy. A considerable amount of efforts have been devoted by the regulatory agents like the food and drug administration (FDA) as well as the expert-based networks such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) to overcome the existing barriers. This has been done, at least in part, for some of the most widely prescribed CV drugs, including clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin for which the PGx knowledge have been satisfactorily robust to provoke the CPIC to issue the guidelines for these drugs and the FDA to update the drugs' labeling, both strongly recommended the use of genotype-guided dosing for these medications, provided that the genetic data are available. For other drugs, however, studies have produced contradictory results and further large and well-designed clinical trials are required to expand and confirm the clinical utility of their PGx data. This review paper presents the current state of knowledge in the field of PGx of CV medications and describes the facilities assisting to the translation of PGx data into the clinical practice. Afterward, the existing body of PGx literature of the most-commonly used CV medications is comprehensively discussed.

  14. Lipidomics profiling and risk of cardiovascular disease in the prospective population-based Bruneck study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Christin; Pechlaner, Raimund; Willeit, Peter; Langley, Sarah R; Mangino, Massimo; Mayr, Ursula; Menni, Cristina; Moayyeri, Alireza; Santer, Peter; Rungger, Gregor; Spector, Tim D; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan; Mayr, Manuel

    2014-05-06

    The bulk of cardiovascular disease risk is not explained by traditional risk factors. Recent advances in mass spectrometry allow the identification and quantification of hundreds of lipid species. Molecular lipid profiling by mass spectrometry may improve cardiovascular risk prediction. Lipids were extracted from 685 plasma samples of the prospective population-based Bruneck Study (baseline evaluation in 2000). One hundred thirty-five lipid species from 8 different lipid classes were profiled by shotgun lipidomics with the use of a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Levels of individual species of cholesterol esters (CEs), lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), sphingomyelins, and triacylglycerols (TAGs) were associated with cardiovascular disease over a 10-year observation period (2000-2010, 90 incident events). Among the lipid species with the strongest predictive value were TAGs and CEs with a low carbon number and double-bond content, including TAG(54:2) and CE(16:1), as well as PE(36:5) (P=5.1 × 10⁻⁷, 2.2 × 10⁻⁴, and 2.5 × 10⁻³, respectively). Consideration of these 3 lipid species on top of traditional risk factors resulted in improved risk discrimination and classification for cardiovascular disease (cross-validated ΔC index, 0.0210 [95% confidence interval, 0.0010-0.0422]; integrated discrimination improvement, 0.0212 [95% confidence interval, 0.0031-0.0406]; and continuous net reclassification index, 0.398 [95% confidence interval, 0.175-0.619]). A similar shift in the plasma fatty acid composition was associated with cardiovascular disease in the UK Twin Registry (n=1453, 45 cases). This study applied mass spectrometry-based lipidomics profiling to population-based cohorts and identified molecular lipid signatures for cardiovascular disease. Molecular lipid species constitute promising new biomarkers that outperform the conventional biochemical measurements of lipid classes currently used in

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Sheila F; Rosenbaum, René P; Holscher, Jessica T; Madanat, Hala; Talavera, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal (MS) farmworkers are an important component of the US economy. Their unique occupational health concerns have garnered research, but chronic disease research in this population is lacking. It is unclear whether health differences exist between migrant (those who migrate to and travel a distance from the home environment and thus live in temporary housing for the purpose of employment) and seasonal workers (those who work in the agricultural industry on a seasonal basis, whose long-term home environments are often near work locations and thus may be considered more "settled"), since most research presents MS farmworkers as a homogenous group. This study explored potential differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors, (i.e., diabetes, current smoking, obesity, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) by sex and MS status among a sample of 282 English- and Spanish- speaking Latino MS farmworkers in the Midwest using cross-sectional survey and clinical laboratory data. Results showed that in multivariate logistic regression analyses, migrant workers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15) had a higher likelihood of being obese compared with seasonal workers (P < .05). MS farmworkers did not differ in likelihood of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, or hypercholesterolemia. In adjusted analyses, females were more likely to be obese (OR = 3.29) and have diabetes (OR = 4.74) compared with males (P < .05); and males were more likely to be current smokers (OR = 7.50) as compared with females (P < .05). This study provides insight into chronic health concerns among this predominantly Latino farmworker population and suggests that future prevention and intervention research may need to focus on sex differences rather than MS farmworker status.

  16. (Brown) adipose tissue associated metabolic dysfunction and risk of cardiovascular disease in high risk patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssens, BT

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis it was shown that (brown) adipose tissue associated metabolic dysfunction increases the risk on development of cardiovascular disease in high risk patients. Quantity of adipose tissue is an important risk factor for adipose tissue dysfunction but functionality of adipose tissue not so

  17. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    ) and retinal venular calibre (central retinal vein equivalent) were measured computer-assisted on retinal photographs. Data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and smoking were collected....... Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  18. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management....... RESULTS: We included 59 studies with up to 18 666 cases and 50 724 controls. Psoriasis cases had a higher total cholesterol [weighted mean difference 8·83 mg dL(-1) , 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·94-14·72, P = 0·003 (= 0·23 mmol L(-1) )], higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [9·90 mg dL(-1) , 95......·65 mmol L(-1) )] and a higher HbA1c [1·09 mmol mol(-1) , 95% CI 0·87-1·31, P psoriasis....

  19. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: from pathophysiology to risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinou, Kyriakoula; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Antonopoulos, Alexios S; Stefanadi, Elli; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-01-07

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. As obesity is considered to be a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to obesity and linking obesity with atherogenesis is necessary, for the development of therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis. The pathophysiology of CVD linked to obesity is an area of intensive research. In this review we examine the role of obesity on CVD, and we focus on specific mechanisms of major importance in atherogenesis, such as the role of adipokines, insulin resistance, endothelial function and cardiac structure with emphasis on the effects of obesity on vascular endothelium and atherosclerosis. We then proceed from the pathophysiology of obesity to clinical practice, and we discuss clinical studies linking obesity with subclinical or overt CVD. We highlight that obesity is an easily assessed cardiovascular risk factor in the clinical setting and strategies to promote optimal body weight should be encouraged.

  20. Heart rate variability dynamics for the prognosis of cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Ramirez-Villegas

    Full Text Available Statistical, spectral, multi-resolution and non-linear methods were applied to heart rate variability (HRV series linked with classification schemes for the prognosis of cardiovascular risk. A total of 90 HRV records were analyzed: 45 from healthy subjects and 45 from cardiovascular risk patients. A total of 52 features from all the analysis methods were evaluated using standard two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test. The results of the statistical procedure provided input to multi-layer perceptron (MLP neural networks, radial basis function (RBF neural networks and support vector machines (SVM for data classification. These schemes showed high performances with both training and test sets and many combinations of features (with a maximum accuracy of 96.67%. Additionally, there was a strong consideration for breathing frequency as a relevant feature in the HRV analysis.

  1. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. RESULTS: Significant (p high...

  2. Role of childhood food patterns on adult cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, Jari E; Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that childhood nutrition plays a role in the adulthood cardiovascular health. A lifelong tracking of dietary habits, following a long-term exposure to unhealthy dietary patterns or independent effects, is a potential effect-mediating mechanism. Dietary patterns have been studied by data-driven and hypothesis-based approaches. Typically, either data-driven healthy or prudent childhood dietary patterns have been characterized and found to be associated with lower adulthood cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the published cohort studies. With regard to the individual food groups or food quality indices, intakes particularly of vegetables and fruits (or fiber indicating plant food intake) and polyunsaturated fatty acids have shown protective effects. The evidence which could confirm the long-term healthiness of a hypothesis-based Mediterranean diet is limited, requiring further investigation. Overall, the recent literature strengthens the view that a healthy childhood diet is associated with lowered adulthood CVD risk.

  3. Flavanols and Anthocyanins in Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Pascual-Teresa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is accepted that natural flavonoids present in fruits and plant-derived-foods are relevant, not only for technological reasons and organoleptic properties, but also because of their potential health-promoting effects, as suggested by the available experimental and epidemiological evidence. The beneficial biological effects of these food bioactives may be driven by two of their characteristic properties: their affinity for proteins and their antioxidant activity. Over the last 15 years, numerous publications have demonstrated that besides their in vitro antioxidant capacity, certain phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanidins, and other non coloured flavonoids, may regulate different signaling pathways involved in cell survival, growth and differentiation. In this review we will update the knowledge on the cardiovascular effects of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins, as implied by the in vitro and clinical studies on these compounds. We also review the available information on the structure, distribution and bioavailability of flavanols (monomeric catechins and proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, data necessary in order to understand their role in reducing risk factors and preventing cardiovascular health problems through different aspects of their bioefficacy on vascular parameters (platelet agregation, atherosclerosis, blood pressure, antioxidant status, inflammation-related markers, etc., myocardial conditions, and whole-body metabolism (serum biochemistry, lipid profile, highlighting the need for better-designed clinical studies to improve the current knowledge on the potential health benefits of these flavonoids to cardiovascular and metabolic health.

  4. Framingham cardiovascular risk in patients with obesity and periodontitis

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    Juliana Rico Pires

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated to a risk factor for the development of periodontitis and cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship still needs to be clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk in obese patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 obese patients were evaluated for anthropometric data (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, body fat, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glycemia and periodontal parameters (visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, bleeding on probing (BOP, periodontal probing depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to the periodontal characteristics found: Group O-PD: Obese patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 45, 22 men and 23 women; and Group O-sPD: Obese patients without chronic periodontitis (n = 42, 17 men and 25 women. Patients had a BMI mean of 35.2 (±5.1 kg/m 2 . Group O-PD showed a similarity between the genders regarding age, SBP, DBP, cholesterol, HDL, GBI, VPI, PPD ≥4 mm and CAL ≥4 mm. O-PD women showed greater glycemia level and smoking occurrence, but O-PD men presented a 13% - risk over of developing coronary artery disease in 10 years than O-PD women, 9% - risk over than O-sPD men and 15% - risk over than O-sPD women, by the Framingham Score. Conclusions: It was concluded that obesity and periodontal disease are cardiovascular risk factors and that the two associated inflammatory conditions potentially increases the risk for heart diseases.

  5. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis in Iran

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    Farshchian M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mahmoud Farshchian, Akram Ansar, Mohammadreza Sobhan Psoriasis Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran Background: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. There is overwhelming evidence on the higher risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with psoriasis as a result of hyperlipidemia, which is more common in these patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between the cardiovascular risk factors and psoriasis. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 55 patients with psoriasis and 55 matched (sex and age controls were entered the study at the Department of Dermatology between March 2011 and March 2013. Blood samples were obtained following 14 hours fasting status and serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were determined using standard laboratory methods, and other variables such as sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and the type of disease were recorded. Results: Our findings showed that levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, and smoking were significantly higher in psoriatic patients when compared with controls, whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol was not significantly different between two groups. Body mass index of psoriatic patients was not significantly higher than controls. Patients with psoriasis also had an increased prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Our findings further verify lipid abnormalities in psoriatic patients. Psoriasis is associated with higher rate of hypertension, which may be resulted in increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Thus, serum lipid profile and blood pressure in all patients with psoriasis, regardless of disease severity, deserve consideration to be checked. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, risk factors, psoriasis, lipid profile

  6. Role of green tea in reduction of cardiovascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Nikolaos Alexopoulos, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Christodoulos Stefanadis1st Cardiology Department, Athens Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Tea is widely consumed worldwide. There is accumulating evidence that tea ­consumption may be associated with reduced cardiovascular risk, an association that could be attributed to its flavonoid content. Green tea, the most common type of tea consumed in Asia, contains a large amount of nonoxidized flavonoids, named c...

  7. Vitamin D status, filaggrin genotype, and cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Martinussen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in observational studies. Whether these associations are causal is not clear. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene result in up to 10% higher serum vitamin D concentrations, supposedly due to a decreased UV......-protection of the keratinocytes. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to estimate the causal effect of vitamin D status on serum lipids, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and the metabolic syndrome....

  8. Atherogenic dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk factors in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Bartuli, Andrea; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children.

  9. THE CURRENT STATE OF RISK-CONTROLLING

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    Orlov A. I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of risk-controlling is based on the general theory of risk. The current state of risk-management in our country is reviewed. We also discuss the research on risk-controlling made in the BMSTU Laboratory of economic-mathematical methods in controlling

  10. Patients' knowledge of risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartak, Siddharth A; Friderici, Jennifer; Lotfi, Amir; Verma, Ashish; Kleppel, Reva; Naglieri-Prescod, Deborah; Rothberg, Michael B

    2011-05-15

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The American Heart Association has proposed improving overall cardiovascular health by promoting 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health, including health behaviors (not smoking, regular exercise, and healthy diet) and health factors (ideal body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood glucose). The patients' knowledge of these 7 components is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of patients at 4 primary care and 1 cardiology clinic. The survey measured demographic data, personal behaviors/health factors, cardiovascular disease history, and knowledge about these 7 components. A multivariate model was developed to assess patient characteristics associated with high knowledge scores. Of the 2,200 surveys distributed, 1,702 (77%) were returned with sufficient responses for analysis. Of these, 49% correctly identified heart disease as the leading cause of death, and 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] 35% to 39%) correctly identified all 7 components. The average respondent identified 4.9 components (95% CI 4.7 to 5.0). The lowest recognition rates were for exercise (57%), fruit/vegetable consumption (58%), and diabetes (63%). In a multivariate model, knowledge of all 7 components was positively associated with high school education or greater (odds ratio 2.43, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.52) and white ethnicity (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.50), and negatively associated with attending an urban neighborhood clinic (odds ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82). In conclusion, just >1/3 of patients could identify all 7 components of ideal cardiovascular health. Educational efforts should target patients in low socioeconomic strata and focus on improving knowledge about healthy diet and regular exercise. Although patients with diabetes were more likely than those without diabetes to recognize their risk, 1 in 5 were not aware that diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  11. Association of grip strength with cardiovascular risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubelmann, Cédric; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Background Mechanisms underlying the association between grip strength and cardiovascular mortality are poorly understood. We aimed to assess the association of grip strength with a panel of cardiovascular risk markers. Design The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 3468 adults aged 50-75 years (1891 women) from a population-based sample in Lausanne, Switzerland. Methods Grip strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. Cardiovascular risk markers included anthropometry, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, adiposity, inflammatory and other metabolic markers. Results In both genders, grip strength was negatively associated with fat mass (Pearson correlation coefficient: women: -0.170, men: -0.198), systolic blood pressure (women: -0.096, men: -0.074), fasting glucose (women: -0.048, men: -0.071), log-transformed leptin (women: -0.074, men: -0.065), log-transformed high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (women: -0.101, men: -0.079) and log-transformed homocysteine (women: -0.109, men: -0.060). In men, grip strength was also positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (0.068), total (0.106) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.082), and negatively associated with interleukin-6 (-0.071); in women, grip strength was negatively associated with triglycerides (-0.064) and uric acid (-0.059). After multivariate adjustment, grip strength was negatively associated with waist circumference (change per 5 kg increase in grip strength: -0.82 cm in women and -0.77 cm in men), fat mass (-0.56% in women; -0.27% in men) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-6.8% in women; -3.2% in men) in both genders, and with body mass index (0.22 kg/m(2)) and leptin (-2.7%) in men. Conclusion Grip strength shows only moderate associations with cardiovascular risk markers. The effect of muscle strength as measured by grip strength on cardiovascular disease does not seem to be mediated by cardiovascular risk markers.

  12. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk in Canadian children and adolescents

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    Y. Shi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD and its risk factors show clear socioeconomic gradients in Canadian adults. Whether socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk emerge in childhood remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are socioeconomic gradients in physiological markers of CVD risk in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Using combined cross-sectional data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007–2011, we examined the following cardiovascular risk markers: overweight (including obesity, aerobic fitness score (AFS, blood pressure (BP, blood lipids (total as well as HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, glucose metabolism and C-reactive protein (CRP by sex in 2149 children (ages 6–11 years and 2073 adolescents (ages 12–17 years. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify patterns in cardiovascular risk across strata of household income adequacy and parental educational attainment, adjusting for age and ethnicity, and stratified by age group and sex. Results: Young boys showed markedly higher prevalence of obesity than young girls (prevalence of 18.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.6–21.5 vs. 7.7%, 95% CI: 5.2–10.3. However, negative SES gradients in adiposity risk were seen in young and adolescent girls rather than boys. Young and adolescent boys were more physically fit than girls (mean AFS of 541, 95% CI: 534–546 vs. 501, 95% CI: 498–505 in children; 522, 95% CI: 514–529 vs. 460, 95% CI: 454–466 in adolescents; p < .001. Although a positive income gradient in AFS was observed in both boys and girls, statistical significance was reached only in girls (p = .006. A negative gradient of parental education in BP was observed in young children. While we observed substantial sex differences in systolic BP, total and HDL cholesterol, fasting glucose and CRP in adolescents, sex-specific socioeconomic gradients were only observed for

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors, nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Gracia, M; Córdoba Alonso, A; Hernández Hernández, J L; Pérez Montes, R; Napal Lecumberri, J J

    2017-05-01

    To analyse the importance of cardiovascular risk factors, ultrasound findings in the supra-aortic trunk and the presence of anticoagulated nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and in a control group. A cross-sectional study was conducted of all patients with RVO consecutively referred to the office of internal medicine, comparing them with a control group. We analysed clinical, electrocardiographic and ultrasound variables. We studied 212 patients (114 men and 98 women) with RVO and 212 controls (95 men and 117 women) of similar ages. Arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes mellitus were significantly more prevalent in the patients with RVO than in the controls (73.6 vs. 50%, 64.6 vs. 48.6% and 27.8 vs. 12.3%, respectively). We observed arteriosclerotic lesions in the supra-aortic trunk in 55% of the patients with RVO. The patients with RVO and NVAF had a greater burden of cardiovascular risk factors than the controls with NVAF. There were no differences in terms of the international normalised ratio or in the use of direct anticoagulants between the cases and controls with NVAF. Cardiovascular risk factors (especially arterial hypertension) and arteriosclerotic involvement of the supra-aortic trunk are highly prevalent in RVO. Anticoagulation does not appear to be effective in preventing RVO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  15. Obesity and cardiovascular risk in children and adolescents

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    Manu Raj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has increased substantially over the past several decades. These trends are also visible in developing economies like India. Childhood obesity impacts all the major organ systems of the body and is well known to result in significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated atherosclerotic processes, including elevated blood pressure (BP, atherogenic dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes mellitus, cardiac structural and functional changes and obstructive sleep apnea. Probable mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include insulin resistance, sodium retention, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and altered vascular function. Adiposity promotes cardiovascular risk clustering during childhood and adolescence. Insulin resistance has a strong association with childhood obesity. A variety of proinflammatory mediators that are associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction are also known to be influenced by obesity levels. Obesity in early life promotes atherosclerotic disease in vascular structures such as the aorta and the coronary arteries. Childhood and adolescent adiposity has strong influences on the structure and function of the heart, predominantly of the left ventricle. Obesity compromises pulmonary function and increases the risk of sleep-disordered breathing and obstructive sleep apnea. Neglecting childhood and adolescent obesity will compromise the cardiovascular health of the pediatric population and is likely to result in a serious public health crisis in future.

  16. From hyperglycemia to the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A

    2006-01-01

    Blood glucose is a continuous, progressive risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) throughout the dysglycemic range. There is also evidence that post-prandial hyperglycemia may be a better predictor of CVD risk than fasting plasma glucose or A1C. Targeting normoglycemia appears to reduce CVD events in diabetes mellitus (DM), although definitive studies in type 2 DM, as well as in prediabetes, are ongoing. Prediabetes has some, but not total, overlaps with the metabolic syndrome. Patients with the metabolic syndrome are at a significantly increased risk for both CVD and DM. Although the individual components of the syndrome predict risk for CVD to approximately equal degree, increased blood glucose, perhaps not surprisingly, is the best predictor of diabetes. Finally, there are multiple mechanisms by which hyperglycemia can increase the risk for CVD.

  17. Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in law enforcement personnel: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Franklin H

    2012-01-01

    Law enforcement is a high-stress occupation that is prone to increasing the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies suggest that police officers and related public safety personnel have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Currently employed police personnel have a high prevalence of traditional risk factors, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, cigarette smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle. Obesity may be more common in police officers compared with civilians, whereas diabetes is present less frequently. Law enforcement personnel are also exposed to occupation-specific risk factors that include sudden physical exertion, acute and chronic psychological stress, shift work, and noise. Workplace programs to promote the health and fitness of police officers are commonly lacking, but can be an effective means for reducing cardiovascular risk. Physicians should be familiar with the essential job tasks required for police officers to determine whether the individual is fit for duty. Governmental agencies have established strategic goals to reduce cardiovascular complications and improve the health and wellness of public safety personnel.

  18. Effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: protocol for an overview of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzin´ski, Krzysztof; Tomasik, Tomasz; Krzyszton´, Janusz; Józ´wiak, Jacek; Windak, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Major clinical practice guidelines recommend assessing risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using absolute/global/total CVD risk scores. However, the effectiveness of using them in clinical practice, despite publication of numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs), is still poorly understood. To summarise and analyse current knowledge in this field, we will carry out an overview of existing systematic reviews (SRs). The objective of this overview will be to assess the effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of CVD compared with standard care. Methods and analysis We will include SRs and meta-analyses which take into account RCTs and quasi-RCTs investigating the effect of using cardiovascular risk scoring in routine risk assessment in primary prevention of CVD. SRs will be retrieved from 4 bibliographical databases and reference lists of identified reviews. Additionally, the PROSPERO database will be searched for unpublished, ongoing or recently completed SRs. 2 reviewers will assess the SRs independently for eligibility and bias. The data will be extracted to a special form. Any disagreement will be resolved by discussion. In case of lack of consensus, a third author will arbitrate. The overview of SRs will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required for overview of SRs. We will summarise evidence concerning whether use of the absolute/global/total CVD risk scoring tools in primary prevention of CVD is effective and supported with scientific data or not. If we face unsatisfactory confirmation, we will highlight a need for further research and advice on how to plan such a study. We will submit the results of our study for peer-review publication in a journal indexed in the international bibliographic database of biomedical information. PMID:28274967

  19. Family history of vascular disease and the risk of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, M.

    2015-01-01

    A positive family history of cardiovascular disease is an established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In clinical practice, this evident relation between the presence of cardiovascular disease in families and first cardiovascular events has resulted in family history being

  20. Risk of Major Cardiovascular Events in People with Down Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Sobey

    Full Text Available Improved medical care over more than five decades has markedly increased life expectancy, from 12 years to approximately 60 years, in people with Down syndrome (DS. With increased survival into late adulthood, there is now a greater need for the medical care of people with DS to prevent and treat aging-related disorders. In the wider population, acquired cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and coronary heart disease are common with increasing age, but the risks of these diseases in people with DS are unknown. There are no population-level data on the incidence of acquired major cerebrovascular and coronary diseases in DS, and no data examining how cardiovascular comorbidities or risk factors in DS might impact on cardiovascular event incidence. Such data would be also valuable to inform health care planning for people with DS. Our objective was therefore to conduct a population-level matched cohort study to quantify the risk of incident major cardiovascular events in DS.A population-level matched cohort study compared the risk of incident cardiovascular events between hospitalized patients with and without DS, adjusting for sex, and vascular risk factors. The sample was derived from hospitalization data within the Australian state of Victoria from 1993-2010. For each DS admission, 4 exact age-matched non-DS admissions were randomly selected from all hospitalizations within a week of the relevant DS admission to form the comparison cohort. There were 4,081 people with DS and 16,324 without DS, with a total of 212,539 person-years of observation. Compared to the group without DS, there was a higher prevalence in the DS group of congenital heart disease, cardiac arrhythmia, dementia, pulmonary hypertension, diabetes and sleep apnea, and a lower prevalence of ever-smoking. DS was associated with a greater risk of incident cerebrovascular events (Risk Ratio, RR 2.70, 95% CI 2.08, 3.53 especially among females (RR 3.31, 95% CI 2.21, 4.94 and

  1. TO STUDY THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR MORBIDITY & MORTALITY IN STABLE COPD PATIENTS BASED ON ESTABLISHED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN CENTRAL INDIA

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    Ravindra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiologic evidence linking COPD and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is strong. Even after adjustments for traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as serum total cholesterol hypertension, obesity and smoking, patients with COPD have a two- to threefold increase in the risk of cardiovascular events including death. Age >60 yrs., Male sex, Significant Smoking History, T2 Diabetes Mellitus, Body Mass Index >30 Kg/M2, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy have a statistically significant correlation to cardiovascular mortality & morbidity. Significant relations were demonstrated between the treatment that patient requires for stability & cardiovascular morbidity & mortality in Central India.

  2. Cardiovascular risk management in rheumatoid arthritis patients still suboptimal: the Implementation of Cardiovascular Risk Management in Rheumatoid Arthritis project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oever, Inge A M; Heslinga, Maaike; Griep, Ed N; Griep-Wentink, Hanneke R M; Schotsman, Rob; Cambach, Walter; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Smulders, Yvo M; Lems, Willem F; Boers, Maarten; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Peters, Mike J L; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Nurmohamed, Micheal T

    2017-09-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk score and to identify treatment and undertreatment of CV risk factors in patients with established RA. Demographics, CV risk factors and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were assessed by questionnaire. To calculate the 10-year CV risk score according to the Dutch CV risk management guideline, systolic blood pressure was measured and cholesterol levels were determined from fasting blood samples. Patients were categorized into four groups: indication for treatment but not treated; inadequately treated, so not meeting goals (systolic blood pressure ⩽140 mmHg and/or low-density lipoprotein ⩽2.5 mmol/l); adequately treated; or no treatment necessary. A total of 720 consecutive RA patients were included, 375 from Reade and 345 from the Antonius Hospital. The mean age of patients was 59 years (s.d. 12) and 73% were female. Seventeen per cent of the patients had a low 10-year CV risk (management remains a major challenge and better awareness and management are urgently needed to reduce the high risk of CVD in the RA population.

  3. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Future Cardiovascular Event Risk in Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgerber, Tracey L; Turner, Stephen T; Mosley, Thomas H; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hanis, Craig L; Milic, Natasa M; Garovic, Vesna D

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is a risk factor for future hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This may reflect an underlying familial predisposition or persistent damage caused by the hypertensive pregnancy. We sought to isolate the effect of hypertension in pregnancy by comparing the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in women who had hypertension in pregnancy and their sisters who did not using the dataset from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study, which examined the genetics of hypertension in white, black, and Hispanic siblings. This analysis included all sibships with at least one parous woman and at least one other sibling. After gathering demographic and pregnancy data, BP and serum analytes were measured. Disease-free survival was examined using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression. Compared with their sisters who did not have hypertension in pregnancy, women who had hypertension in pregnancy were more likely to develop new onset hypertension later in life, after adjusting for body mass index and diabetes (hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.42). A sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy was also associated with an increased risk of hypertension in brothers and unaffected sisters, whereas an increased risk of cardiovascular events was observed in brothers only. These results suggest familial factors contribute to the increased risk of future hypertension in women who had hypertension in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of nonfamilial factors. Furthermore, a sibling history of hypertension in pregnancy may be a novel familial risk factor for future hypertension.

  4. Dietary fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular diseases risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-06-13

    Diet is likely to be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this article, we will review the evidence linking the consumption of fruit and vegetables and CVD risk. The initial evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption has a protective effect against CVD came from observational studies. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on the occurrence of CVD and whether the optimal intake is five portions or greater. Results from randomized controlled trials do not show conclusively that fruit and vegetable intake protects against CVD, in part because the dietary interventions have been of limited intensity to enable optimal analysis of their putative effects. The protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables may not only include some of the known bioactive nutrient effects dependent on their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and electrolyte properties, but also include their functional properties, such as low glycemic load and energy density. Taken together, the totality of the evidence accumulated so far does appear to support the notion that increased intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce cardiovascular risk. It is clear that fruit and vegetables should be eaten as part of a balanced diet, as a source of vitamins, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. The evidence now suggests that a complicated set of several nutrients may interact with genetic factors to influence CVD risk. Therefore, it may be more important to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns rather than individual nutrients to successfully impact on CVD risk reduction. A clearer understanding of the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk would provide health professionals with significant information in terms of public health and clinical practice.

  5. Night work, total occupational burden and cancer/cardiovascular risk factors in physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Olesja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifestyle-related risk factors: smoking, obesity, sedentariness and excess alcohol intake are among the most important known causes of cancer and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between these lifestyle-related risk factors for cancer/cardiovascular disease and working conditions among surgeons/anesthesiologists and other physicians. Material and Methods. The study was carried out among physicians aged 35 to 60, without diagnosed coronary heart disease or other structural heart disease, who were employed at the Novi Sad University Hospital. The participation rate was high (> 90%. The physicians completed the Occupational Stress Index. Low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk was defined as: not a current smoker, body mass index < 28, regular recreational physical activity and not consuming alcohol every day. Analysis of covariance was performed. Results. Of 191 physicians included in this study only 23 (12.0% had a low lifestyle- related cancer/cardiovascular risk. Surgeons/anesthesiologists faced a heavier total work stressor burden than physicians in other profiles (87.7±8.8 versus 74.1±10.5, p=0.000. Among the 56 surgeons/anesthesiologists, lower nightshift work scores were associated with low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk (F=4.19, p=0.046. A lower overall work stressor burden was associated with low risk among the other 135 physicians (F=4.06, p=0.046. Conclusion. Specific workplace intervention strategies are urgently needed. Among the surgeons/anesthesiologists these should include reduction in the frequency of night call and improvement of the overall conditions of nightshift work. Among other physicians, the total occupational burden needs to be diminished.

  6. Early physiological markers of cardiovascular risk in community based adolescents with a depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Byrne, Michelle L; Woods, Michael J; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2015-04-01

    Depression is recognised as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in adults. Identifying this relationship early on in life is potentially important for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated whether clinical depression is associated with multiple physiological markers of CVD risk in adolescents from the general community. Participants aged 12-18 years were recruited from the general community and screened for depressive symptoms. Individuals with high and low depressive symptoms were administered a diagnostic interview. Fifty participants, 25 with a current depressive episode and 25 matched healthy controls, subsequently completed cardiovascular assessments. Variables assessed were automatic brachial and continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial blood pressure, heart rate, vascular functioning by pulse amplitude tonometry following reactive hyperaemia and pulse transit time (PTT) at rest. Blood samples were collected to measure cholesterol, glucose and glycohaemoglobin levels and an index of cumulative risk of traditional cardiovascular risk factors was calculated. Depressed adolescents had a significantly lower reactive hyperaemia index and shorter PTT, suggesting deterioration in vascular integrity and structure. Higher fasting glucose and triglyceride levels were also observed in the depressed group, who also had higher cumulative risk scores indicative of increased engagement in unhealthy behaviours and higher probability of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The sample size and number of males who completed all cardiovascular measures was small. Clinically depressed adolescents had poorer vascular functioning and increased CVD risk compared to controls, highlighting the need for early identification and intervention for the prevention of CVD in depressed youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in rheumatology: Current status and recommendations for use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavrogeni, S.I.; Kitas, G.D.; Dimitroulas, T.; Sfikakis, P.P.; Seo, P.; Gabriel, S.; Patel, A.R.; Gargani, L.; Bombardieri, S.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.; Lombardi, M.; Pepe, A.; Aletras, A.H.; Kolovou, G.; Miszalski, T.; Riel, P. van; Semb, A.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Dessein, P.; Karpouzas, G.; Puntmann, V.; Nagel, E.; Bratis, K.; Karabela, G.; Stavropoulos, E.; Katsifis, G.; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L.; Rossum, A. van; Rademakers, F.; Pohost, G.; Lima, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies in connective tissue diseases (CTDs) have led to improvements of disease-associated outcomes, but life expectancy remains lower compared to general population due to emerging co-morbidities, particularly due to excess cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is

  8. The Impact of NSAID Treatment on Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. M. S.; Fosbol, E. L.; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2014-01-01

    This MiniReview describes the present evidence for the relationship between cardiovascular risk and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with special focus using Danish register-based data. NSAIDs are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and mainly used for management of pain...... observational studies is accumulating, suggesting that NSAIDs are a major public health concern due to the widespread use of these drugs. Although it seems unlikely that we can completely avoid use of NSAIDs, even among high-risk patients, these results highlight the importance of balancing the benefit versus...

  9. Sovereign Risk and Currently Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Corte, Pasquale; Sarno, Lucio; Schmeling, Maik

    We empirically investigate the relation between sovereign risk and exchange rates for a broad set of currencies. An increase in the credit default swap (CDS) spread of a country is accompanied by a significant depreciation of the exchange rate. More generally, CDS spread changes have substantial...

  10. Fat distribution, physical activity and cardiovascular risk among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Jago, R

    2013-03-01

    It is not clear whether changes in waist circumference (WC), sums of skinfold thickness (SSF), or levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, or if associations are independent or interactive. In a US cohort of adolescent girls (n = 617-904) girls, examined at ages 12 and 14, WC, SSF, PA, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP & DBP) were assessed. Fasting blood samples were used to determine concentrations of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL-C and LDL-C), and apolipoprotein A1 and B (Apo-A1 and Apo-B). After adjustment for change in SSF and PA, increases in WC were associated with change in TG (z = 1.73, 95% CI = 0.77, 2.69), TC (z = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.90), HDL-C (z = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.37, -0.01), LDL-C (z = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.80), Apo-A1 (z = -0.52, 95% CI = -1.02, -0.02), Apo-B (z = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.97) and SBP levels (z = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.47). Associations between changes in SSF and PA with cardiovascular risk were eliminated after adjustment for WC, and all interactions between WC, SSF and PA were non-significant at conventional levels. Changes in WC were independently associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas changes in SSF and PA were not. Clinicians should consider the routine screening of WC to monitor cardiovascular health in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Endothelial function and cardiovascular risk stratification in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvagh, S L; Behrenbeck, T; Lahr, B A; Bailey, K R; Zais, T G; Araoz, P A; Miller, V M

    2010-02-01

    Peripheral arterial, endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated reactive hyperemia is reduced in individuals with atherosclerosis. This study tested the hypothesis that digital tonometry, as a surrogate of endothelial function, is useful to stratify cardiovascular risk in recently menopausal women who are asymptomatic for cardiovascular disease. Women undergoing screening for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) were evaluated for conventional risk factors, flow-mediated reactive hyperemia by digital tonometry (RHI), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by ultrasound, and coronary arterial calcium (CAC) by 64-slice CT scanner. One hundred and two non-diabetic Caucasian women (53.0 +/- 2.3 years old, 18.0 +/- 9.0 months past their last menses) participated; 72% were never-smokers. Fourteen women had positive CAC scores (range 0.5-133 Agatston units); CIMT ranged from 0.57 to 1.06 mm. RHI ranged from 1.26 to 5.44. RHI did not correlate with time past menopause, CAC, CIMT, total cholesterol or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The significant negative correlation of RHI with body mass index (r = -0.21, p = 0.031) was lost in non-smokers (r = - 0.17, p = 0.14). There was also a negative correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with CAC, both in the overall group and non-smokers (rho = -0.20, p = 0.05 and rho = -0.27, p = 0.02, respectively). RHI varies widely in healthy women within the first 3 years of menopause. RHI was not associated with standard risk assessment algorithms, CAC or CIMT. RHI may indicate an additional, independent component and non-invasive tool to further stratify cardiovascular risk in recently menopausal women. As KEEPS continues, data on RHI will provide information regarding hormonal therapy, endovascular biology and atherosclerotic risk.

  12. Evaluation of the performance of existing non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The high burden and rising incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in resource constrained countries necessitates implementation of robust and pragmatic primary and secondary prevention strategies. Many current CVD management guidelines recommend absolute cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment as a clinically sound guide to preventive and treatment strategies. Development of non-laboratory based cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms enable absolute risk assessment in resource constrained countries. The objective of this review is to evaluate the performance of existing non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms using the benchmarks for clinically useful CV risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Methods A literature search to identify non-laboratory based risk prediction algorithms was performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ovid Premier Nursing Journals Plus, and PubMed databases. The identified algorithms were evaluated using the benchmarks for clinically useful cardiovascular risk assessment algorithms outlined by Cooney and colleagues. Results Five non-laboratory based CV risk assessment algorithms were identified. The Gaziano and Framingham algorithms met the criteria for appropriateness of statistical methods used to derive the algorithms and endpoints. The Swedish Consultation, Framingham and Gaziano algorithms demonstrated good discrimination in derivation datasets. Only the Gaziano algorithm was externally validated where it had optimal discrimination. The Gaziano and WHO algorithms had chart formats which made them simple and user friendly for clinical application. Conclusion Both the Gaziano and Framingham non-laboratory based algorithms met most of the criteria outlined by Cooney and colleagues. External validation of the algorithms in diverse samples is needed to ascertain their performance and applicability to different populations and to enhance clinicians’ confidence in them. PMID:24373202

  13. Myeloperoxidase Is an Early Biomarker of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk in Prepubertal Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Olza, Josune; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis, Rosaura; Bueno, Gloria; Martínez-Jiménez, Maria D.; Valle, Miguel; Cañete, Ramon; Tojo, Rafael; Moreno, Luis A.; Gil, Angel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objectives of the current study were to evaluate plasma MPO levels in prepubertal obese children and to determine whether MPO could be an early biomarker of inflammation and CVD risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective multicenter case-contr...

  14. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    , and dyslipidemia). METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation......STUDY OBJECTIVES: Impaired sleep has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are still unsettled. We sought to determine how onset of impaired sleep affects the risk of established physiological CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes...... of medication for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was derived from electronic medical records within 8 years of follow-up. Data on 45,647 participants was structured as two data-cycles to examine the effect of change in sleep (between two waves) on incident CVD events. We applied strict inclusion...

  15. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......, psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  16. Improvements on Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes Silva, Humberto José; Andersen, Lars Bo; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina

    2015-01-01

    , psychological and clinical counseling. Subjects were assessed in fatness, fitness, lipid profile and glucose at baseline and after 12W. The CVD risk factors assessed were waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, glucose and fitness, which were single and clustered analyzed (Z-scores sum). RESULTS......BACKGROUND: It is unclear how different exercise intensities affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in obese adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high intensity (HIT) vs. low intensity (LIT) aerobic training on CVD risk factors in obese adolescents. METHODS......= -.48; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: High intensity training does not promote any additional improvements in CVD risk factors than LIT in obese adolescents....

  17. Coconut oil consumption and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyres, Laurence; Eyres, Michael F; Chisholm, Alexandra; Brown, Rachel C

    2016-04-01

    Coconut oil is being heavily promoted as a healthy oil, with benefits that include support of heart health. To assess the merits of this claim, the literature on the effect of coconut consumption on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in humans was reviewed. Twenty-one research papers were identified for inclusion in the review: 8 clinical trials and 13 observational studies. The majority examined the effect of coconut oil or coconut products on serum lipid profiles. Coconut oil generally raised total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a greater extent than cis unsaturated plant oils, but to a lesser extent than butter. The effect of coconut consumption on the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was often not examined. Observational evidence suggests that consumption of coconut flesh or squeezed coconut in the context of traditional dietary patterns does not lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, due to large differences in dietary and lifestyle patterns, these findings cannot be applied to a typical Western diet. Overall, the weight of the evidence from intervention studies to date suggests that replacing coconut oil with cis unsaturated fats would alter blood lipid profiles in a manner consistent with a reduction in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  18. Endothelial dysfunction: cardiovascular risk factors, therapy, and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi AR Hadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hadi AR Hadi, Cornelia S Carr, Jassim Al SuwaidiDepartment of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital – Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of QatarAbstract: Endothelial dysfunction is a well established response to cardiovascular risk factors and precedes the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction is involved in lesion formation by the promotion of both the early and late mechanisms of atherosclerosis including up-regulation of adhesion molecules, increased chemokine secretion and leukocyte adherence, increased cell permeability, enhanced low-density lipoprotein oxidation, platelet activation, cytokine elaboration, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. Endothelial dysfunction is a term that covers diminished production/availability of nitric oxide and/or an imbalance in the relative contribution of endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors. Also, when cardiovascular risk factors are treated the endothelial dysfunction is reversed and it is an independent predictor of cardiac events. We review the literature concerning endothelial dysfunction in regard to its pathogenesis, treatment, and outcome.Keywords: endothelial dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease

  19. ISPD Cardiovascular and Metabolic Guidelines in Adult Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Part I - Assessment and Management of Various Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Angela Yee Moon; Brimble, K Scott; Brunier, Gillian; Holt, Stephen G; Jha, Vivekanand; Johnson, David W; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kooman, Jeroen P; Lambie, Mark; McIntyre, Chris; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease contributes significantly to the adverse clinical outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Numerous cardiovascular risk factors play important roles in the development of various cardiovascular complications. Of these, loss of residual renal function is regarded as one of the key cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with an increased mortality and cardiovascular death. It is also recognized that PD solutions may incur significant adverse metabolic effects in PD patients. The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) commissioned a global workgroup in 2012 to formulate a series of recommendations regarding lifestyle modification, assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors, as well as management of the various cardiovascular complications including coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmia (specifically atrial fibrillation), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and sudden cardiac death, to be published in 2 guideline documents. This publication forms the first part of the guideline documents and includes recommendations on assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors. The documents are intended to serve as a global clinical practice guideline for clinicians who look after PD patients. The ISPD workgroup also identifies areas where evidence is lacking and further research is needed.

  20. Are there genetic paths common to obesity, cardiovascular disease outcomes, and cardiovascular risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-02-27

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥ 1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets.

  1. [Renal markers and predictors, and renal and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andrade, C

    2002-01-01

    An important task of the nephrologists during the last century, it has been the search of elements and means that allow us, with the adequate precision, to correlate the functional deterioration of the kidney, and the patient's clinical reality. And the continuous searching of factors and markers that injure them, the prognosis, and early diagnosis, to be able to predict the degree of the organs and patient's survival. Almost parallel survival presage in the natural history of the illness, almost one century ago. In the second half of the XX century, in the developed countries, appear modifications of the social, cultural, and sanitary conditions, that make appear some very different partner-sanitary and epidemic circumstances, and take place like they are, among others: 1. An increase of per cápita private rents, what takes place to increase of the level of social life and the population's health. With increment of the longevity, and smaller incidence and prevalence of classic process, as malnutrition, infections, infantile mortality, so increasing the weight of the cardiovascular diseases and death. This is potentiated for the increment and the incidence of environmental cardiovascular risk's factors (like high caloric and fatty-rich diets, smoke, alcohol, disappearance of the physical work, inactivity, etc). And that situations are also product of the change of the outline of human and social values and guides. 2. Access of the whole population to a sanitary attention of more quality and effectiveness. It allows the biggest survival of patients that suffer vascular crisis, (as angina, miocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident), that few years ago they have had a higher morbimortality and an inferior survival (2). 3. The execution of big epidemic studies has been able to, not only characterize and test with scientific evidence to numerous factors and markers, that induce renal and cardiovascular prejudicial changes, but risk and death probability

  2. Coffee components and cardiovascular risk: beneficial and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godos, Justyna; Pluchinotta, Francesca Romana; Marventano, Stefano; Buscemi, Silvio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed.

  3. [Cardiovascular risk factors in an Arab and Hispanic working population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivielso, P; García, A; de Rus, I; Avila, J M; Andrade, R; Escolar, J L; González, P

    1991-07-01

    318 records of male workers, 169 Spanish and 149 Arab were retrospectively studied in 1987 at the "Gabinete de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo" (Council for Safety and Hygiene in the Workplace) in Ceuta in order to prove the hypothesis that 2 different ethnic groups living in the same geographic area have a non-equal distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. The Spanish group showed a higher prevalence in blood hypertension, diabetes, glucose intolerance, obesity and alcohol intake, compared to the Arab group. Smoking and high levels of seric cholesterol were similar in both groups, however, medium levels of seric cholesterol were lower in the Arab group. Family histories of cardiovascular disease were very rare in the latter mentioned group. These observations suggested a major predisposition to ischemic cardiopathy in the Spanish group.

  4. Current Evidence Supporting the Link Between Dietary Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Shatha; Pu, Shuaihua; Jones, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Lack of consensus exists pertaining to the scientific evidence regarding effects of various dietary fatty acids on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this article is to review current evidence concerning cardiovascular health effects of the main dietary fatty acid types; namely, trans (TFA), saturated (SFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA; n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Accumulating evidence shows negative health impacts of TFA and SFA; both may increase CVD risk. Policies have been proposed to reduce TFA and SFA consumption to less than 1 and 7 % of energy intake, respectively. Cardiovascular health might be promoted by replacing SFA and TFA with n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA, or MUFA; however, the optimal amount of PUFA or MUFA that can be used to replace SFA and TFA has not been defined yet. Evidence suggests of the potential importance of restricting n-6 PUFA up to 10 % of energy and obtaining an n-6/n-3 ratio as close as possible to unity, along with a particular emphasis on consuming adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. The latest evidence shows cardioprotective effects of MUFA-rich diets, especially when MUFA are supplemented with essential fatty acids; namely, docosahexaenoic acid. MUFA has been newly suggested to be involved in regulating fat oxidation, energy metabolism, appetite sensations, weight maintenance, and cholesterol metabolism. These favorable effects might implicate MUFA as the preferable choice to substitute for other fatty acids, especially given the declaration of its safety for up to 20 % of total energy.

  5. [From risk charts to guidelines: tools for evaluation and management of cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Cristina; Colivicchi, Furio; Sclavo, Mariagrazia; Uguccioni, Massimo; Ebert, Alberto Genovesi; Abrignani, Maurizio G; Faggiano, Pompilio; Riccio, Carmine

    2006-03-01

    Despite the wide improvement of diagnostic techniques and the introduction of effective pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic strategies aimed to the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, their incidence and lethality are still elevated, with economic implications increasingly less sustainable by the public medical systems. The modern practice of cardiovascular prevention requires, thus, that diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, both at population level and on the single patient, should be more and more precise, effective, and appropriate. From this point of view, a correct global cardiovascular risk stratification assumes a preponderant relevance, in order to allow an adequate therapeutical response. For this purpose several work instruments, as risk charts and guidelines, namely dedicated to arterial hypertension and dyslipidemias, were developed and offered to clinicians interested in cardiovascular prevention. The aim of this review is to illustrate, in synthesis, those instruments, aiming to facilitate their implementation, thus reducing the actual gap between theoretical indications and the real world.

  6. Chronic inflammatory diseases and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roifman, Idan; Beck, Paul L; Anderson, Todd J; Eisenberg, Mark J; Genest, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advancements in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), it remains the number one cause of death in the world. While traditional risk factors partially account for the development of CAD, other novel risk factors have recently been implicated. Specifically, chronic inflammation has been postulated to play a role in the development and propagation of this disease. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence to determine if patients with chronic inflammatory diseases have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. A MEDLINE search was conducted for articles published between 1980-2009. We focused on studies that assessed hard cardiovascular endpoints in subjects with chronic inflammatory conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although largely based on small studies, our review indicates that patients with chronic inflammatory conditions are likely at elevated risk for the development of CAD. Further research consisting of prospective cohort studies is needed to better quantify this risk.

  7. Association of sympathovagal imbalance with cardiovascular risks in overt hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avupati Naga Syamsunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular morbidities have been reported in hypothyroidism. Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate the link of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI to cardiovascular risks (CVRs and the plausible mechanisms of CVR in hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Age-matched 104 females (50 controls, 54 hypothyroids were recruited and their body mass index (BMI, cardiovascular parameters, autonomic function tests by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, heart rate response to standing, deep breathing and blood pressure response to isometric handgrip were studied. Thyroid profile, lipid profile, immunological and inflammatory markers were estimated and their association with low-frequency to the high-frequency ratio (LF-HF of HRV, the marker of SVI was assessed by multivariate regression. Results: Increased diastolic pressure, decreased HRV, increased LF-HF, dyslipidemia and increased high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP were observed in hypothyroid patients and all these parameters had significant correlation with LF-HF. BMI had no significant association with LF-HF. Atherogenic index (β 1.144, P = 0.001 and hsCRP (b 0.578, P = 0.009 had independent contribution to LF-HF. LF-HF could significantly predict hypertension status (odds ratio 2.05, confidence interval 1.110-5.352, P = 0.008 in hypothyroid subjects. Conclusions: SVI due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal occurs in hypothyroidism. Dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation, but not obesity contribute to SVI and SVI contributes to cardiovascular risks.

  8. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucia Pacifico; Valerio Nobili; Caterina Anania; Paola Verdecchia; Claudio Chiesa

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver histology severity and outcomes in the absence of chronic alcohol use. The mildest form is simple steatosis in which triglycerides accumulate within hepatocytes. A more advanced form of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, includes inflammation and liver cell injury, progressive to cryptogenic cirrhosis. NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity likely explains the NAFLD epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is strongly associated with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and most patients have evidence of insulin resistance. Thus, NAFLD shares many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a highly atherogenic condition, and this has stimulated interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with a significantly greater overall mortality than in the general population, as well as with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of classical atherosclerotic risk factors. Yet, several studies including the pediatric population have reported independent associations between NAFLD and impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation and increased carotid artery intimal medial thickness-two reliable markers of subclinical atherosclerosis-after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Therefore, the rising prevalence of obesity-related MetS and NAFLD in childhood may lead to a parallel increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In children, the cardiovascular system remains plastic and damage-reversible if early and appropriate interventions are established effectively. Therapeutic goals for NAFLD should address nutrition, physical activity, and avoidance of smoking to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also CVD.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helal Imed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The aim of our investigation was the evaluation of an extensive cardiovascular profile in hemodialysis (HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. We studied 74 patients with ESRD (38 males, 36 females, maintained either on chronic HD (n= 50 or chronic PD (n= 24 and age and sex matched 20 healthy subjects as controls. The lipid profile, homo-cysteine (Hcy and C reactive protein (CRP were measured. When compared to a healthy popu-lation, HD patients displayed a marked atherogenic profile, as attested by increased levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein A (Apo A, CRP, Hcy and lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, Apo B, albumin (ALB. A significant difference was noted concerning the rates of Apo B, HDL-C, TC, ALB and Hcy. Same biological disorders that those found at HD patients were noted in these PD patients. One also noted lower concentration in Apo A. there were a significant diffe-rence with the reference group concerning the rates of albumin, Apo A, HDL-Cl and Hcy. When compared to PD patients, HD patients had significantly decreased concentration of LDL-C. The peculiar metabolic changes observed in the present study confirm the marked tendency of patients with impaired renal function for developing cardiovascular diseases, irrespectively of the type of dialysis. We suggest including uremia-related risk factors in the panel for evaluation of cardio-vascular risk in dialysis patients.

  10. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Lucia; Nobili, Valerio; Anania, Caterina; Verdecchia, Paola; Chiesa, Claudio

    2011-07-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver histology severity and outcomes in the absence of chronic alcohol use. The mildest form is simple steatosis in which triglycerides accumulate within hepatocytes. A more advanced form of NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, includes inflammation and liver cell injury, progressive to cryptogenic cirrhosis. NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity likely explains the NAFLD epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is strongly associated with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and most patients have evidence of insulin resistance. Thus, NAFLD shares many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a highly atherogenic condition, and this has stimulated interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with a significantly greater overall mortality than in the general population, as well as with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of classical atherosclerotic risk factors. Yet, several studies including the pediatric population have reported independent associations between NAFLD and impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation and increased carotid artery intimal medial thickness-two reliable markers of subclinical atherosclerosis-after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Therefore, the rising prevalence of obesity-related MetS and NAFLD in childhood may lead to a parallel increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In children, the cardiovascular system remains plastic and damage-reversible if early and appropriate interventions are established effectively. Therapeutic goals for NAFLD should address nutrition, physical activity, and avoidance of smoking to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also CVD.

  11. Cardiovascular Bio-Engineering: Current State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Yarza, Teresa; Bataille, Isabelle; Letourneur, Didier

    2017-04-01

    Despite the introduction of new drugs and innovative devices contributing in the last years to improve patients' quality of life, morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases remain high. There is an urgent need for addressing the underlying problem of the loss of cardiac or vascular tissues and therefore developing new therapies. Autologous vascular transplants are often limited by poor quality of donor sites and heart organ transplantation by donor shortage. Vascular and cardiac tissue engineering, whose aim is to repair or replace cardiovascular tissues by the use of cells, engineering and materials, as well as biochemical and physicochemical factors, appears in this scenario as a promising tool to repair the damaged hearts and vessels. We will present a general overview on the fundamentals in the area of cardiac and vascular tissue engineering as well as on the latest progresses and challenges.

  12. SISTEMA ENDOCANABINOIDE: MODIFICANDO LOS FACTORES DE RIESGO CARDIOVASCULAR Endocannabinoid system: modifying cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Edwin Feliciano Alfonso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de alcanzar un tratamiento óptimo para el tabaquismo, la obesidad y sus comorbilidades, conocidos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, ha fomentado la búsqueda de objetivos terapéuticos novedosos. Es el caso del sistema endocanabinoide, involucrado en diversos fenómenos fisiológicos entre los que se encuentran el refuerzo de ciertos comportamientos y la regulación del apetito. La sobreactivación de este sistema altera la homeostasis corporal predisponiendo a dependencias o a un aumento en la ingesta alimentaria, lo que puede traducirse en tabaquismo u obesidad. La intervención farmacológica sobre el sistema endocanabinoide puede contribuir al manejo de estos factores de riesgo cardiovascular, teniendo en cuenta que a tales beneficios se suman otros independientes de la suspensión del tabaquismo o la reducción de peso, como el aumento del colesterol de alta densidad, la disminución de triglicéridos y la mejoría del control glucémico en pacientes con diabetes. Ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados adelantados en poblaciones con diferentes características, han evaluado la utilidad de la regulación farmacológica del sistema endocanabinoide; confirmando su eficacia en personas con factores de riesgo cardiovascular establecidos.The need for an optimal treatment for smoking, obesity and their comorbidities, well-known cardiovascular risk factors; has prompted the search for novel therapeutic targets. This is the case of the endocannabinoid system, involved in several physiological phenomena including the reinforcement of certain behaviors and the regulation of appetite.

  13. Clinical utility of ivabradine in cardiovascular disease management: current status

    OpenAIRE

    Rosano GMC; Vitale C; Spoletini I; Volterrani M.

    2014-01-01

    Giuseppe MC Rosano,1,2 Cristiana Vitale,1,2 Ilaria Spoletini,1 Maurizio Volterrani11Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy; 2Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK Abstract: Ivabradine is a selective antagonist of the funny channels with anti-anginal and anti-ischemic properties, approved for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF). It provides pure heart rate redu...

  14. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Suryyani Deb; Kanjaksha Ghosh; Shrimati Dharmapal Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents , to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as sur...

  15. Patients’ Perceptions of Cholesterol, Cardiovascular Disease Risk, and Risk Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Roberta E.; Parker, Donna R.; Eaton, Charles B.; Borkan, Jeffrey M.; Gramling, Robert; Cover, Rebecca T.; Ahern, David K.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite some recent improvement in knowledge about cholesterol in the United States, patient adherence to cholesterol treatment recommendations remains suboptimal. We undertook a qualitative study that explored patients’ perceptions of cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and their reactions to 3 strategies for communicating CVD risk.

  16. [Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the descendants of patients after early myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateřánková, Markéta; Karnosová, Petra; Mlíková Seidlerová, Jitka; Filipovský, Jan; Mayer, Otto

    2017-01-01

    The cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) developing as the result of atherosclerosis are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality within the Czech Republic and elsewhere. Genetic predisposition for cardiovascular diseases is amplified in the presence of routine risk factors which can be influenced. Our aim was to establish whether the level of the risk factors for ICHS already differs in the population of healthy descendants of the patients after early myocardial infarction, as opposed to the control group of examined individuals. We approached adult children (n = 127; age 28.7 ± 6.5 years) of the patients with early manifestation of ICHS, who were examined within the study EUROASPIRE IV. The examination of both the descendants and the control group (n = 199; age 28.9 ± 5.3 years) focused on identifying the risk factors for ICHS. Descendants presented arterial hypertension more often (18.9 vs 8.0 %, p = 0.003) and there were more smokers among them compared to the control group (37 vs 24.1 %, p = 0.01). The levels of triglycerides (1.13 vs 0.99 mmol/l, p = 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (2.7 vs 2.45 mmol/l, p = 0.01) were higher in the descendant group, HDL-cholesterol was similar in both groups (1.6 vs 1.67 mmol/l, p = 0.17). Increased fasting glycemia occurred more frequent in the descendant group (5.5 vs 1.5 %, p = 0.05). None of the examined participants met the criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Aortic stiffness was higher in the descendant group as opposed to the control group (6.2 vs 5.8 m/s, p = 0.001). The total calculated cardiovascular risk based on the SCORE system was also higher in the descendant group as compared to the control group - the current risk related to the age of 40 years: 0.35 (0.19-0.64) vs 0.20 (0.13-0.47), p triglycerides and impaired fasting glycemia more frequently. Unfavourable genetic predisposition along with unfitting lifestyle contributes to a higher likelihood of accumulation of risk factors, and therefore

  17. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka V. Gadiraju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week. Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying, temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  18. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiraju, Taraka V; Patel, Yash; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-10-06

    Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week). Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying), temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  19. Risk of cardiac arrhythmias during hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Elaine; Bernjak, Alan; Williams, Scott; Fawdry, Robert A; Hibbert, Steve; Freeman, Jenny; Sheridan, Paul J; Heller, Simon R

    2014-05-01

    Recent trials of intensive glycemic control suggest a possible link between hypoglycemia and excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemia might cause arrhythmias through effects on cardiac repolarization and changes in cardiac autonomic activity. Our aim was to study the risk of arrhythmias during spontaneous hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients with cardiovascular risk. Twenty-five insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of cardiovascular disease or two or more risk factors underwent simultaneous continuous interstitial glucose and ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring. Frequency of arrhythmias, heart rate variability, and markers of cardiac repolarization were compared between hypoglycemia and euglycemia and between hyperglycemia and euglycemia matched for time of day. There were 134 h of recording at hypoglycemia, 65 h at hyperglycemia, and 1,258 h at euglycemia. Bradycardia and atrial and ventricular ectopic counts were significantly higher during nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with euglycemia. Arrhythmias were more frequent during nocturnal versus daytime hypoglycemia. Excessive compensatory vagal activation after the counterregulatory phase may account for bradycardia and associated arrhythmias. QT intervals, corrected for heart rate, >500 ms and abnormal T-wave morphology were observed during hypoglycemia in some participants. Hypoglycemia, frequently asymptomatic and prolonged, may increase the risk of arrhythmias in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. This is a plausible mechanism that could contribute to increased cardiovascular mortality during intensive glycemic therapy.

  20. Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whooley, Mary A.; de Jonge, Peter; Vittinghoff, Eric; Otte, Christian; Moos, Rudolf; Carney, Robert M.; Ali, Sadia; Dowray, Sunaina; Na, Beeya; Feldman, Mitchell D.; Schiller, Nelson B.; Browner, Warren S.

    2008-01-01

    Context Depressive symptoms predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. Objective To determine why depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Design and Part

  1. Prehypertension: A warning sign of future cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnak Assadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the report from the national high blood pressure (BP education program working group on BP in children and adolescents and the introduction of a new description called prehypertension many data have been provided on its rate of progression to hypertension, its prevalence and association with other cardiovascular (CV risk factors and its therapy. Making a diagnosis of prehypertension in a child or adolescent identifies an individual at increased risk for early-onset CV disease who requires specific treatment. Thus, routine BP measurement is highly recommended at every health-care encounter beginning at 3 years of age. This review will present updated data on prehypertension in children and adolescents to increase awareness of health-care providers to the seriousness of this condition. Optimal BP measurement techniques as well as the evaluation and management of prehypertension will be discussed and preventive strategies to reduce the CV risk will be presented.

  2. [Therapeutic Strategies. Cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia in elderly and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Clotilde; Royuela, Meritxell

    2013-01-01

    The management of cardiovascular risk and dyslipidemia are justified in guidelines. In the elderly, when they are in primary prevention, recommendations are controversial, even if there is evidence in reducing morbidity. In secondary prevention, between 65 and 85 years, there is enough evidence to recommend statins. The decision to start or to continue further treatment must be complemented by comprehensive assessment of the risk-benefit factor. In elderly patients we have to support in decision-making, we take clinical judgment and not just the age criteria. In women the risk is underestimated and may be untreated. The recomendations are the same as in men. During pregnancy there are particular recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEA. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Profiling of Group C Employees in JIPMER, Puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswin, K; Ghorpade, Arun G; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Kumar, Ganesh

    2014-07-01

    Settings-based approach for health promotion includes conducting risk factor surveillance as one of its component. It was aimed to estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors among group C employees of tertiary care hospital in south India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 group C employees aged ≥20 years using the WHO "STEPwise approach to surveillance of non-communicable diseases" (STEPS) methodology. Standardized international protocols were used to measure behavioral risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity) and physical characteristics (weight, waist and hip circumferences, height, and blood pressure). Multivariate analysis was done to predict the factors, which carry independent risk of hypertension. Risk factor profiling of the staff was done using WHO/ISH risk prediction chart to calculate the 10-year risk of a fatal or non-fatal major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or stroke), according to age, gender, blood pressure, smoking status, and presence or absence of diabetes mellitus. Mean age in years was 40.9 (±10.4), and men constituted 81.3% of study population. Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors was as follows: Current smokers 12.3% men, regular alcohol intake 33.2% among men, overweight (≥23 kg/m(2)) 74.5%, central obesity 78.7%, hypertension 38.8%, and history of diabetes mellitus 13.2%. Age, gender, physical inactivity, obesity, and family history of hypertension were found to be independently associated with hypertension. Four percent participants had a >10% risk of developing CVD in next 10 years. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high in the sample population. Employee wellness program should be started in the institute to combat the burden of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Kennedy space center cardiovascular disease risk reduction program evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine S Calderon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristine S Calderon1, Charles Smallwood1, David A Tipton21Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health Services, Comprehensive Health Services, Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA; 2Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Health Branch, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL, USAAbstract: This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC Cardiovascular Disease (CVD Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03; diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002; total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001 as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04. Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05; and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001. These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Rodrigues

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that a judicious diet, regular physical activity and blood pressure (BP monitoring must start in early childhood to minimize the impact of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. This study was designed to evaluate BP and metabolic parameters of schoolchildren from Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, and correlate them with cardiovascular risk factors. The study was conducted on 380 students aged 10-14 years (177 boys, 203 girls enrolled in public schools. Baseline measurements included body mass index, BP and heart rate. The students were submitted to exercise spirometry on a treadmill. VO2max was obtained from exercise testing to voluntary exhaustion. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides (TG, and glucose were measured. Nine point nine percent of the boys and 11.7% of the girls were hypertensive or had pre-hypertensive levels. There was no significant correlation between VO2max and TC, LDL-C, or TG in prepubertal children, but a slight negative correlation was detected in post-pubertal boys for HDL-C and TG. In addition, children with hypertension (3.4% or pre-hypertensive levels (6.6% also had comorbidity for overweight and blood lipid abnormalities (14% for triglycerides, 44.7% for TC, 25.9% for LDL-C, 52% for low HDL-C. The present study shows for the first time high correlations between prehypertensive blood pressure levels and the cardiovascular risk factors high TC, high LDL-C, low HDL-C in schoolchildren. These are important for the formulation of public health policies and strategies.

  6. Different Impacts of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Blesa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH with and without insulin resistance. Oxidative stress markers (oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehide together with the activity of antioxidant enzyme triad (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and activation of both pro-oxidant enzyme (NAPDH oxidase components and AGTR1 genes, as well as antioxidant enzyme genes (CuZn-SOD, CAT, GPX1, GSR, GSS and TXN were measured in mononuclear cells of controls (n = 20 and patients (n = 90 by assessing mRNA levels. Activity of some of these antioxidant enzymes was also tested. An increase in OS and pro-oxidant gene mRNA values was observed in patients compared to controls. The hypertensive group showed not only the highest OS values, but also the highest pro-oxidant activation compared to those observed in the other groups. In addition, in HT a significantly reduced antioxidant activity and mRNA induction of antioxidant genes were found when compared to controls and the other groups. In FH and FCH, the activation of pro-oxidant enzymes was also higher and antioxidant ones lower than in the control group, although it did not reach the values obtained in hypertensives. The thioredoxin system was more activated in patients as compared to controls, and the highest levels were in hypertensives. The increased oxidative status in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors is a consequence of both the activation of pro-oxidant mechanisms and the reduction of the antioxidant ones. The altered response of the main cytoplasmic antioxidant systems largely contributes to OS despite the apparent attempt of the thioredoxin system to

  7. Quantifying Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Related Health Risks: Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Among Indian Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Purohit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases account for a significant disease burden in the South East Asia region. India is facing an increased incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Socioeconomic and lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD have been under investigated in India. This study was designed to explore risk factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease among Indian males.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,235 males in the age group of 18-60 years across three states of India. A household survey was used to collect demographic and socioeconomic status information in addition to lifestyle-related attributes such as smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to identify the role of various factors that may be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in this population.Results: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease among the male respondents contacted through a household survey was reported to be 9.8%. Logistic regression revealed that males with higher education and higher income were more likely to report CVD. With age as a strong predictor of CVD, the risk of CVD was found to be five times higher in the older age group. Current smokers were 1.3 times more likely to have CVD compared to those who never smoked. Those who were engaged in physical activity were less likely to have CVD; however, the adverse effects of smoking and excessive consumption of red meat showed a stronger association with CVD than the protective effects of physical activity.Conclusion: In developing countries, where the increase in earning capacity and change in lifestyle has been found to be accompanied by substantial risk of heart disease for males, public health measures like health promotion programs need to be implemented to decrease CVD burden.

  8. Assessing cardiovascular risk in hepatitis C: An unmet need

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Ampuero; Manuel; Romero-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, as a result of the progression towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, HCV seems to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases(CVD) due to its association with insulin resistance, diabetes and steatosis. HCV infection represents an initial step in the chronic inflammatory cascade, showing a direct rolein altering glucose metabolism. After achieving sustained virological response, the incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes dramatically decrease. HCV core protein plays an essential role in promoting insulin resistance and oxidative stress. On the other hand, atherosclerosis is a common disease in which the artery wall thickens due to accumulation of fatty deposits. The main step in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques is the oxidation of low density lipoprotein particles, together with the increased production of proinflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin(IL)-6, IL-18 or C-reactive protein]. The advent of new direct acting antiviral therapy has dramatically increased the sustained virological response rates of hepatitis C infection. In this scenario, the cardiovascular risk has emerged and represents a major concern after the eradication of the virus. Consequently, the number of studies evaluating this association is growing. Data derived from these studies have demonstrated the strong link between HCV infection and the atherogenic process, showing a higher risk of coronary heart disease, carotid atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease and, ultimately, CVD-related mortality.

  9. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors.

  10. Biomarkers for cardiovascular risk assessment in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Ferber, Philippe; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Cutler, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis, are characterized by a high prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), which constitutes the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among such patients. Although such effects are partly explained by a higher prevalence of traditional CV risk factors, many studies indicate that such factors do not fully explain the enhanced CV risk in these patients. In addition, risk stratification algorithms based upon traditional CV risk factors are not as predictive in autoimmune diseases as in the general population. For these reasons, the timely and accurate assessment of CV risk in these high-risk populations still remains an unmet clinical need. An enhanced contribution of different inflammatory components of the immune response, as well as autoimmune elements (e.g. autoantibodies, autoantigens, and cellular response), has been proposed to underlie the incremental CV risk observed in these populations. Recent advances in proteomic tools have contributed to the discovery of proteins involved in CVDs, including some that may be suitable to be used as biological markers. In this review we summarize the main markers in the field of CVDs associated with autoimmunity, as well as the recent advances in proteomic technology and their application for biomarker discovery in autoimmune disease.

  11. Results from systematic screening for cardiovascular risk in outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis in accordance with the EULAR recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Jette; Clausen, Joan; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimate the risk of cardiovascular death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in accordance with EULAR recommendations.......To investigate risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimate the risk of cardiovascular death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in accordance with EULAR recommendations....

  12. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using the SCORE risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Otávio Augusto Martins; Nazário, Nazaré Otília; de Magalhães Souza Fialho, Sônia Cristina; Fialho, Guilherme Loureiro; de Oliveira, Fernando José Savóia; de Castro, Gláucio Ricardo Werner; Pereira, Ivânio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes systemic involvement and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To analyze the prediction index of 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular disease event in female RA patients versus controls. Case-control study with analysis of 100 female patients matched for age and gender versus 100 patients in the control group. For the prediction of 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular disease event, the SCORE and modified SCORE (mSCORE) risk indexes were used, as suggested by EULAR, in the subgroup with two or more of the following: duration of disease ≥10 years, RF and/or anti-CCP positivity, and extra-articular manifestations. The prevalence of analyzed comorbidities was similar in RA patients compared with the control group (p>0.05). The means of the SCORE risk index in RA patients and in the control group were 1.99 (SD: 1.89) and 1.56 (SD: 1.87) (p=0.06), respectively. The means of mSCORE index in RA patients and in the control group were 2.84 (SD=2.86) and 1.56 (SD=1.87) (p=0.001), respectively. By using the SCORE risk index, 11% of RA patients were classified as of high risk, and with the use of mSCORE risk index, 36% were at high risk (p<0.001). The SCORE risk index is similar in both groups, but with the application of the mSCORE index, we recognized that RA patients have a higher 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular disease event, and this reinforces the importance of factors inherent to the disease not measured in the SCORE risk index, but considered in mSCORE risk index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in first year university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, C A; Vacchino, M N; Spillmann, C A; Soria, J A

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their relation to a self-reported family history of disease was examined in 3,357 first year university students of Mar del Plata University (Argentine). The prevalence of family disease was 27.5% for hypercholesterolemia, 42.1% for hypertension, 26.9% for diabetes mellitus, 27.2% for obesity and 42.1% for cardiovascular disease. The percentual of 80.7% of the population surveyed showed at least one of these diseases in their previous family history. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure levels > or = 140 mmHg) or/and diastolic blood pressure levels > or = 90 mmHg) was 7.0%. Hypertension was related to Body Mass Index (BMI), male sex and age. The percentual of 14.4% presented hypercholesterolemia (> or = 210 mg/dl), which was associated with age, BMI and family history of obesity and hypercholesterolemia. Nine hundred and eleven subjects (27.1%) were smokers. Differences related to sex were not found. Smoking was positively related to age and the career they had chosen. The examination detected one hundred and twenty-three (3.7%) students with cardiac problems. This was associated with a family history of cardiovascular disease. Preventive measures were suggested.

  14. Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en estudiantes universitarios chilenos Cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Chiang-Salgado

    1999-12-01

    cardiovasculares en la vida adulta de los jóvenes.OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic university students of both sexes, aged 18 to 25 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum lipid levels were measured in a subsample of 293 subjects, using a Hitachi 717 chemical analyzer. Obesity was classified using Body Mass Index (BMI measurements. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect data on sedentary life style, family history of cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoking. Statistical associations of lipid levels with lipidic and non-lipidic risk factors were assessed using Pearson´s chi² test and multiple regression. RESULTS: We found lipid risk levels in 29.2% for Total Cholesterol (CT, 16.2% for Low Density Lipoproteins (C-LDL and 5% for High Density Lipoproteins (C-HDL. The main non-lipidic factors were smoking (46.1% and sedentarism (60.8%. Obesity, hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction were present in 1.9%, 4.6% and 11%, respectively. We observed an association of a lipid risk profile with obesity, cigarette smoking and family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that sedentarism and smoking are associated with a lipid risk profile. These results call for the need to develop appropriate behavior strategies for the successful prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Cheese and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Review of the Evidence and Discussion of Possible Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpsted, Julie; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-06-10

    Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic much debated and with conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included reporting the intake of cheese and risk of CVD or risk markers of CVD represent four human intervention studies, nine prospective studies, one prospective case-cohort study, one prospective nested case-control study, five case-control studies, five cross-sectional studies and three correlation studies. The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one reported no association in men but a decreased risk in women. In addition, results from four intervention studies indicated no harmful effect on cholesterol concentrations when comparing fat intake from cheese with fat from butter. The underlying mechanisms for these findings still need to be elucidated.

  16. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebe D’Adamo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children.

  17. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Ebe; Guardamagna, Ornella; Chiarelli, Francesco; Liccardo, Daniela; Ferrari, Federica; Nobili, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity when associated with serum lipoprotein changes triggers atherosclerosis. Evidences suggest that the atherosclerotic process begins in childhood and that the extent of early atherosclerosis of the aorta and coronary arteries can be associated with lipoprotein levels and obesity. Furthermore, many studies in childhood demonstrate an important relationship between parameters of insulin sensitivity, body fat distribution, and the development of lipid abnormalities. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the relationship between obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular risk in children. PMID:25663838

  18. Do calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew SM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AssessMadam Chan, a 65-year-old retired staff nurse, walks into my clinic and asks for a refill of her prescription of losartan 50 mg daily and calcium carbonate 1200 mg daily. Her blood pressure is well controlled at 130/80 and she feels well otherwise. Examination and her annual investigation reports reveal no abnormalities.I remember the news of calcium supplements increasing the risk of cardiovascular events on BBC. Her bone mineral density scan, which was carried out a year ago, was normal. Madam Chan was started on calcium supplements by another doctor 5 years ago.

  19. Using Machine Learning Algorithms in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sitar-Taut

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if Medicine and Computer Science seemapparently intangible domains, they collaborate each otherfor few decades. One of the faces of this cooperation is DataMining, a relative new and multidisciplinary field capable toextract valuable information from large sets of data. Despitethis fact, in cardiology related studies it was rarely used. Weassume that some data mining tools can be used as asubstitute for some complex, expensive, uncomfortable, timeconsuming, and sometimes dangerous medical examinations.This paper aims to show that cardiovascular diseases may bepredicted by classical risk factors analyzed and processed ina “non-invasive” way.

  20. Extreme thrombocytosis and cardiovascular surgery: risks and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Ethan A

    2012-01-01

    Extreme thrombocytosis is a major risk factor for excessive bleeding and for thrombosis, either of which can complicate cardiovascular surgical and interventional procedures. Extreme thrombocytosis can also cause an unusual syndrome, erythromelalgia, that results in a type of chronic microvascular occlusive arterial disease. We present the differential diagnosis of conditions that may lead to extreme thrombocytosis, 3 cases (each of which illustrates a different potential complication), and a review of the pertinent medical literature. Correcting excessive thrombocytosis is typically not difficult, whether electively or acutely, and effective therapy usually controls thrombosis and excessive hemorrhage post-procedurally.

  1. Cardiovascular risk assessment in rheumatoid arthritis – controversies and the new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bonek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current methods of cardiovascular (CV risk assessment in the course of inflammatory connective tissue diseases are a subject of considerable controversy. Comparing different methods of CV risk assessment in current rheumatoid arthritis (RA guidelines, only a few of them recommend the use of formal risk calculators. These are the EULAR guidelines suggesting the use of SCORE and the British Society for Rheumatology guidelines performed in collaboration with NICE preferring the use of QRISK-2. Analyzing the latest American and British reports, two main concepts could be identified. The first one is to focus on risk calculators developed for the general population taking into account RA, and the calculator that might fulfill this role is the new QRISK-2 presented by NICE in 2014. The second concept is to create RA-specific risk calculators, such as the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for RA. In this review we also discuss the efficiency of a new Pooled Cohort Equation and other calculators in the general and RA population.

  2. Cardiovascular risk assessment in rheumatoid arthritis – controversies and the new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głuszko, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The current methods of cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment in the course of inflammatory connective tissue diseases are a subject of considerable controversy. Comparing different methods of CV risk assessment in current rheumatoid arthritis (RA) guidelines, only a few of them recommend the use of formal risk calculators. These are the EULAR guidelines suggesting the use of SCORE and the British Society for Rheumatology guidelines performed in collaboration with NICE preferring the use of QRISK-2. Analyzing the latest American and British reports, two main concepts could be identified. The first one is to focus on risk calculators developed for the general population taking into account RA, and the calculator that might fulfill this role is the new QRISK-2 presented by NICE in 2014. The second concept is to create RA-specific risk calculators, such as the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for RA. In this review we also discuss the efficiency of a new Pooled Cohort Equation and other calculators in the general and RA population. PMID:27504023

  3. Cardiovascular risk assessment in rheumatoid arthritis - controversies and the new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonek, Krzysztof; Głuszko, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The current methods of cardiovascular (CV) risk assessment in the course of inflammatory connective tissue diseases are a subject of considerable controversy. Comparing different methods of CV risk assessment in current rheumatoid arthritis (RA) guidelines, only a few of them recommend the use of formal risk calculators. These are the EULAR guidelines suggesting the use of SCORE and the British Society for Rheumatology guidelines performed in collaboration with NICE preferring the use of QRISK-2. Analyzing the latest American and British reports, two main concepts could be identified. The first one is to focus on risk calculators developed for the general population taking into account RA, and the calculator that might fulfill this role is the new QRISK-2 presented by NICE in 2014. The second concept is to create RA-specific risk calculators, such as the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for RA. In this review we also discuss the efficiency of a new Pooled Cohort Equation and other calculators in the general and RA population.

  4. Low ankle-brachial index predicts cardiovascular risk after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Markus A; Lutz, Katrin; Röhl, Jens-Eric; Neuner, Bruno; Masuhr, Florian

    2009-12-01

    A low ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) is an established risk marker for cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population, but little is known about its prognostic value in individuals with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). An inception cohort of 204 patients with acute ischemic stroke or TIA was followed up for a mean of 2.3 years. At baseline, patients underwent ABI measurement and were assessed for risk factors, cardiovascular comorbidities, and cervical or intracranial artery stenosis. The association between low ABI (stroke, myocardial infarction, or death was examined by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. A low ABI was found in 63 patients (31%) and was associated with older age, current smoking, hypertension, peripheral arterial disease, and cervical or intracranial stenosis. During a total of 453.0 person-years of follow-up, 37 patients experienced outcome events (8.2% per person-year), with a higher outcome rate per person-year in patients with low ABI (12.8% vs 6.3%, P=0.03). In survival analysis adjusted for age and stroke etiology, patients with a low ABI had a 2 times higher risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, or death than those with a normal ABI (hazard ratio=2.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.5). Additional adjustment for risk factors and cardiovascular comorbidities did not attenuate the association. A low ABI independently predicted subsequent cardiovascular risk and mortality in patients with acute stroke or TIA. ABI measurement may help to identify high-risk patients for targeted secondary stroke prevention.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and estimated 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular events using various equations in Greeks with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimonas, Theodoros; Athyros, Vassilios G; Ganotakis, Emmanouel; Nicolaou, Vassilios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Elisaf, Moses

    2010-01-01

    We investigated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 1501 Greeks (613 men and 888 women, aged 40-65 years) referred to outpatients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and without diabetes mellitus or CVD. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD events was calculated using European Society of Cardiology Systematic Coronary Risk Estimation (ESC SCORE), Hellenic-SCORE, and Framingham equations. Raised blood pressure (BP) and hypertriglyceridemia were more common in men (89.6% vs 84.2% and 86.8% vs 74.2%, respectively; P < .001). Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and abdominal obesity were more common in women (58.2% vs 66.2% and 85.8% vs 97.1%, respectively; P < .001). The 10-year risk of fatal CVD events using HellenicSCORE was higher in men (6.3% +/- 4.3% vs 2.7% +/- 2.1%; P < .001). European Society of Cardiology Systematic Coronary Risk Estimation and Framingham yielded similar results. The risk equations gave similar assessments in a European Mediterranean population except for HellenicSCORE that calculated more MetS women requiring risk modification. This might justify local risk engine evaluation in event-based studies. (Clinical-Trials.gov ID: NCT00416741).

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk reduction: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Costanzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The inverse relationship between low to moderate alcohol consumption and several favorable health outcomes has been well established in many epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. However, several questions still remain controversial.

    Aims: To discuss a number of open questions relating to the healthy effect of a moderate intake of alcohol (especially wine on cardiovascular disease and total mortality. This will be based on findings from the literature, with a particular emphasis on meta-analyses.

    Results and Conclusion: The role of different alcoholic beverages, age and sex, confounding, former drinkers and study design has been discussed. Whether wine is better than beer or spirits, though suggestive, remains to be established. Cardiovascular morbidity and total mortality is significantly reduced both in men and women who are regular drinkers of low amounts of alcohol; however, the predicted protection in women disappears at lower doses than in men. The primary protection of alcohol decreases after adjustment for known variables, thus confirming the importance of confounding in assessing drinking effects, but it remains significant and of undoubted public health value. As the cardiovascular protection by moderate alcohol consumption might have been unduly overestimated by inclusion in control groups of former drinkers, we compared studies that used as a reference group the category of no alcohol intake and/or formally excluded former drinkers with studies which did not: the protection was indeed somewhat lower in the former than in the latter studies, but was still statistically significant. We conclude that the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk or total mortality, consistently described by J-shaped curves, can be reasonably attributed to a combination of both real beneficial (at lower doses and harmful (at higher doses

  7. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  8. Cardiovascular disease risk in a semirural community in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chia Yook; Pengal, Srinivas

    2009-10-01

    It has been argued that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not very prevalent in developing countries, particularly in a rural community. This study examined the prevalence of CVD risk of a semirural community in Malaysia through an epidemiological survey. Subjects were invited to a free health screening service carried out over a period of 6 weeks. Then, a follow-up study of the initial nonresponders was done in the villages that showed a poorer response. The survey was conducted using a standardized questionnaire. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure > or =140/90 mm Hg. The Framingham Coronary Disease Risk Prediction Score (FRS) was used as a measure of CVD risk. A total of 1417 subjects participated in this survey. The response rate was 56%. A follow-up survey of the nonresponders did not show any differences from the initial responders in any systematic way. The prevalence of CVD risk factors was high in both men and women. The mean (+/-SD) FRS was 9.4 (+/-2.5) and 11.3 (+/-4.1) for men and women, respectively. The mean predicted coronary heart disease (CHD) risk was high at 20% to 25% for men and medium at 11% to 13% for women. Overall, 55.8% of the men had >20% risk of having a CHD event in the next 10 years whereas women's risk was lower, with 15.1% having a risk of > or =20%. The prevalence of CVD risk even in a semirural community of a developing country is high. Every effort should be made to lower these risk factors.

  9. Common Carotid Artery Diameter and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly D. Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial diameter is an underutilized indicator of vascular health. We hypothesized that interadventitial and lumen diameter of the common carotid artery would be better indicators of vascular health than carotid plaque or intima media thickness (IMT. Participants were 491 overweight or obese, postmenopausal women who were former or current hormone therapy (HT users, 52–62 years, with waist circumference >80 cm. We evaluated cross-sectional associations of cardiovascular risk factors with carotid measures, by HT status. Former HT users had a worse cardiovascular profile than current HT users: larger adventitial (6.94 mm versus 6.79 mm and lumen diameter (5.44 mm versus 5.31 mm, both P<0.01 independent of cardiovascular risk factors; IMT and plaque were similar. Larger diameters were best explained by former HT use, higher pulse pressure, and greater weight. Independent of potential confounders, overweight and obese postmenopausal former HT users had larger carotid diameters than current HT users. Carotid diameter should be considered in studies of HT.

  10. Migraine patients should be cautiously followed for risk factors leading to cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Rocha Ferreira da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and ischemic strokes are two of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Besides having a coincident symptomatology, for long researchers have been searching for a possible causal relation between these diseases. Current evidence based on data suggest that patients with aura migraine could have a doubled risk of developing an ischemic stroke, when compared to the rest of the population. At the same time, migraine sufferers apparently have higher incidences of risk factors for cardiovascular events. The aim of this review was not only to dissect some of the more compelling evidence based on data regarding this association, but also to discuss the possible clinical and therapeutic implications.

  11. Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components from Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Giulia; Busnelli, Marco; Manzini, Stefano; Parolini, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended modifications. Emerging research has explored the application of natural food-based strategies in disease management. In recent years, much focus has been placed on the beneficial effects of fish consumption. Many of the positive effects of fish consumption on dyslipidemia and heart diseases have been attributed to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, i.e., EPA and DHA); however, fish is also an excellent source of protein and, recently, fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive peptides have shown promising activities for the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease and associated health complications. The present review will focus on n-3 PUFAs and bioactive peptides effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Moreover, since considerable controversy exists regarding the association between n-3 PUFAs and major cardiovascular endpoints, we have also reviewed the main clinical trials supporting or not this association. PMID:27338419

  12. INTENSE PHYSICAL EXERCISE RELATED TO THE EMERGENT GENERATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK MARKERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present review was performed in order to bring together the current knowledge about the impact of intense physical exercise on cardiovascular function, especially on plasma levels of cardiovascular risk markers such as cardiac troponin T (cTnT, myeloperoxidase (MPO, amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, C-reactive protein (CRP and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL. Methods: Data were collected using the PubMed database. The articles were chosen for their relevance and importance in the area of interest. Results: The literature describes numerous examples where physical exercise induces plasma variation for the markers studied. Intense physical effort increases the levels of cTnT, MPO and NT proBNP, whereas CRP and oxLDL levels tend to be decreased with regular sport activities. Conclusions: The present literature investigation confirms the fact that intense physical exercise has an impact on the plasma variations of the five cardiovascular risk markers studied. However, practising regular exercise remains one of the first strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disorders.

  13. Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components from Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Giulia; Busnelli, Marco; Manzini, Stefano; Parolini, Cinzia

    2016-06-08

    Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended modifications. Emerging research has explored the application of natural food-based strategies in disease management. In recent years, much focus has been placed on the beneficial effects of fish consumption. Many of the positive effects of fish consumption on dyslipidemia and heart diseases have been attributed to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, i.e., EPA and DHA); however, fish is also an excellent source of protein and, recently, fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive peptides have shown promising activities for the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease and associated health complications. The present review will focus on n-3 PUFAs and bioactive peptides effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Moreover, since considerable controversy exists regarding the association between n-3 PUFAs and major cardiovascular endpoints, we have also reviewed the main clinical trials supporting or not this association.

  14. Ten-year cardiovascular risk assessment in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvacsek, Martina; Kneffel, Zs; Tóth, M; Johnson, A W; Vehrs, P; Myrer, J W; Hager, R

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for more than half of all deaths in the European region. The aim of the study was to compare body composition, blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), family history, activity behaviors, and the 10-year risk of having a heart attack between 166 university students (21.62 ± 2.59 yrs) from Utah (USA) and 198 students (22.11 ± 2.51 yrs) from Hungary. Ninety-two percent of the Hungarian students and 100% of the Utah students had an estimated 10-year Framingham risk score of 1% or less. The high prevalence of low risk was primarily due to the young age of study participants, healthy body composition and non-smoking behavior. Hungarians who had higher 10-year risk of heart attack had significantly higher waist hip ratio (WHR), TC, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and were smokers compared to those Hungarians with lower risk. The self-reported physical activity levels between the two groups of students were not different. In conclusion the young men and women who participated in this study were, for the most part healthy; however the smoking habits and the lower physical activity of the Hungarian students likely elevated their risk of CVD.

  15. Hipotiroidismo subclínico y factores de riesgo cardiovascular Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª C. Frías López

    2011-12-01

    center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Methods: An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal history: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. Results: The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Conclusions: Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%, similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40% and obesity (23% and lowest in hypertension (23%. In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  16. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  17. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors as Predictors of Cardiovascular Events in the U.S. Astronaut Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, M. K.; Clark, A.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J. D.; Polk, J. D.; Amirian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Risk prediction equations from the Framingham Heart Study are commonly used to predict the absolute risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) related death. Predicting CHD-related events in the U.S. astronaut corps presents a monumental challenge, both because astronauts tend to live healthier lifestyles and because of the unique cardiovascular stressors associated with being trained for and participating in space flight. Traditional risk factors may not hold enough predictive power to provide a useful indicator of CHD risk in this unique population. It is important to be able to identify individuals who are at higher risk for CHD-related events so that appropriate preventive care can be provided. This is of special importance when planning long duration missions since the ability to provide advanced cardiac care and perform medical evacuation is limited. The medical regimen of the astronauts follows a strict set of clinical practice guidelines in an effort to ensure the best care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of the Framingham risk score (FRS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and resting pulse as predictors of CHD-related death and MI in the astronaut corps, using Cox regression. Of these factors, only two, LDL and pulse at selection, were predictive of CHD events (HR(95% CI)=1.12 (1.00-1.25) and HR(95% CI)=1.70 (1.05-2.75) for every 5-unit increase in LDL and pulse, respectively). Since traditional CHD risk factors may lack the specificity to predict such outcomes in astronauts, the development of a new predictive model, using additional measures such as electron-beam computed tomography and carotid intima-media thickness ultrasound, is planned for the future.

  18. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    (SI unit for ionizing radiation dosage, i.e. one joule of radiation energy per one kilogram of matter)) to facilitate risk prediction. This risk has considerable uncertainty associated with it, and no acceptable model for projecting degenerative tissue risk is currently available. In particular, risk factors such as obesity, alcohol, and tobacco use can act as confounding factors that contribute to the large uncertainties. The PELs could be violated under certain scenarios, including following a large SPE (solar proton event) or long-term GCR (galactic cosmic ray) exposure. Specifically, for a Mars mission, the accumulated dose is sufficiently high that epidemiology data and preliminary risk estimates suggest a significant risk for cardiovascular disease. Ongoing research in this area is intended to provide the evidence base for accurate risk quantification to determine criticality for extended duration missions. Data specific to the space radiation environment must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of this risk to decrease the uncertainty in current PELs and to determine if additional protection strategies are required. New research results could lead to estimates of cumulative radiation risk from CNS and degenerative tissue diseases that, when combined with the cancer risk, may have major negative impacts on mission design, costs, schedule, and crew selection. The current report amends an earlier report (Human Research Program Requirements Document, HRP-47052, Rev. C, dated Jan 2009) in order to provide an update of evidence since 2009.

  19. Diet and Cardiovascular Disease: Effects of Foods and Nutrients in Classical and Emerging Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badimon, Lina; Chagas, Patricia; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma

    2017-04-27

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Diet comprises a mixture of food compounds that has an influence on human health. The relationship between diet and health is extremely complex and strategies to delay or prevent chronic diseases such as CVD are of utmost interest because chronic diseases and more concretely CVD are still the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In this mini-review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the principal diet components that potentially influence CVD initiation and progression. Current research places the Mediterranean dietary pattern, rich in fruits and vegetables, as the most cardioprotective, because of its high concentration of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, fiber, phytosterols, vitamins and minerals, which exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects contributing to the delay of CVD initiation and progression. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Reverse Epidemiology of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Geriatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Streja, Elani; Zahmatkesh, Golara; Streja, Dan; Kashyap, Moti; Moradi, Hamid; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Reddy, Uttam; Amin, Alpesh N.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Traditional risk factors of cardiovascular death in the general population, including body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol, and blood pressure (BP), are also found to relate to outcomes in the geriatric population, but in an opposite direction. Some degrees of elevated BMI, serum cholesterols, and BP are reportedly associated with lower – instead of higher – risk of death among the elderly. This phenomenon is termed “reverse epidemiology” or “risk factor paradox” (such as obesity paradox) and is also observed in a variety of chronic disease states such as end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, chronic heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, and AIDS. Several possible causes are hypothesized to explain this risk factor reversal: competing short-term and long-term killers, improved hemodynamic stability in the obese, adipokine protection against tumor necrosis factor-α, lipoprotein protection against endotoxins, and lipophilic toxin sequestration by the adipose tissue. It is possible that the current thresholds for intervention and goals levels for such traditional risk factors as BMI, serum cholesterol, and BP derived based on younger populations do not apply to the elderly, and that new levels for such risk factors should be developed for the elderly population. Reverse epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors may have a bearing on the management of the geriatric population, thus it deserves further attention. PMID:26363864

  1. Is obesity predictive of cardiovascular dysfunction independent of cardiovascular risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVallance, E; Fournier, S B; Donley, D A; Bonner, D E; Lee, K; Frisbee, J C; Chantler, P D

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is thought to exert detrimental effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, this relationship is impacted by the co-occurrence of CV risk factors, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and overt disease. We examined the relationships between obesity, assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and CV function in 102 subjects without overt CV disease. We hypothesized that obesity would be independently predictive of CV remodeling and functional differences, especially at peak exercise. Brachial (bSBP) and central (cSBP) systolic pressure, carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) augmentation index (AGI; by SphygmoCor), and carotid remodeling (B-mode ultrasound) were examined at rest. Further, peak exercise cardiac imaging (Doppler ultrasound) was performed to measure the coupling between the heart and arterial system. In backward elimination regression models, accounting for CV risk factors, neither BMI nor WC were predictors of carotid thickness or PWVcf; rather age, triglycerides and hypertension were the main determinants. However, BMI and WC predicted carotid cross-sectional area and lumen diameter. When examining the relationship between body size and SBP, BMI (β=0.32) and WC (β=0.25) were predictors of bSBP (Pdisease, and after accounting for CV risk factors, is susceptible to pathophysiological adaptations that may predispose individuals to an increased risk of CV events.

  2. Prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk: the DARIOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Grau, María; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Dégano, Irene R; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Guembe, Maria Jesús; Alzamora, María Teresa; Vega-Alonso, Tomás; Robles, Nicolás R; Ortiz, Honorato; Rigo, Fernando; Mayoral-Sanchez, Eduardo; Tormo, Maria José; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2013-06-05

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Spanish population as measured with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) and to determine the associated cardiovascular risk factors. Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. Participants aged 35-74 years were asked about the history of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure, glycaemia, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary risk were measured. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), general obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), suboptimal WC (≥ 80 cm and European population. We included 28,743 individuals. The prevalence of overweight and suboptimal WC was 51% and 30% in men and 36% and 22% in women, respectively; general obesity was 28% in both sexes and abdominal obesity 36% in men and 55% in women. The prevalence of WHtR ≥0.5 was 89% and 77% in men and women, respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with abnormal increased values of BMI, WC and WHtR. Hypertension showed the strongest association with overweight [OR = 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.81-2.21) and OR = 2.10 (1.91-2.31)]; suboptimal WC [OR = 1.78 (1.60-1.97) and OR = 1.45 (1.26-1.66)], with general obesity [OR = 4.50 (4.02-5.04), and OR = 5.20 (4.70-5.75)] and with WHtR ≥0.5 [OR = 2.94 (2.52-3.43), and OR = 3.02 (2.66-3.42)] in men and women respectively, besides abdominal obesity in men only [OR = 3.51 (3.18-3.88)]. Diabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity in women [OR = 3,86 (3,09-4,89). The prevalence of obesity in Spain was high. Overweight, suboptimal WC, general, abdominal obesity and WHtR ≥0.5 was significantly associated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary risk. The use of lower cut-off points for both BMI and

  3. Renal outcomes in hypertensive Black patients at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Matthew R; Bakris, George L; Weber, Michael A; Dahlof, Bjorn; Devereux, Richard B; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Pitt, Bertram; Wright, Jackson T; Kelly, Roxzana Y; Hua, Tsushung A; Hester, R Allen; Velazquez, Eric; Jamerson, Kenneth A

    2012-03-01

    The ACCOMPLISH trial (Avoiding Cardiovascular events through Combination therapy in Patients Living with Systolic Hypertension) was a 3-year multicenter, event-driven trial involving patients with high cardiovascular risk who were randomized in a double-blinded manner to benazepril plus either hydrochlorothiazide or amlodipine and titrated in parallel to reach recommended blood pressure goals. Of the 8125 participants in the United States, 1414 were of self-described Black ethnicity. The composite kidney disease end point, defined as a doubling in serum creatinine, end-stage renal disease, or death was not different between Black and non-Black patients, although the Blacks were significantly more likely to develop a greater than 50% increase in serum creatinine to a level above 2.6 mg/dl. We found important early differences in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) due to acute hemodynamic effects, indicating that benazepril plus amlodipine was more effective in stabilizing eGFR compared to benazepril plus hydrochlorothiazide in non-Blacks. There was no difference in the mean eGFR loss in Blacks between therapies. Thus, benazepril coupled to amlodipine was a more effective antihypertensive treatment than when coupled to hydrochlorothiazide in non-Black patients to reduced kidney disease progression. Blacks have a modestly higher increased risk for more advanced increases in serum creatinine than non-Blacks.

  4. Whole Body Bone Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Popescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis share an age-independent bidirectional correlation. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA represents a risk factor for both conditions. Objectives. The study aims to evaluate the connection between the estimated cardiovascular risk (CVR and the loss of bone tissue in RA patients. Methods. The study has a prospective cross-sectional design and it includes female in-patients with RA or without autoimmune diseases; bone tissue was measured using whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (wbDXA; CVR was estimated using SCORE charts and PROCAM applications. Results. There were 75 RA women and 66 normal women of similar age. The wbDXA bone indices correlate significantly, negatively, and age-independently with the estimated CVR. The whole body bone percent (wbBP was a significant predictor of estimated CVR, explaining 26% of SCORE variation along with low density lipoprotein (P < 0.001 and 49.7% of PROCAM variation along with glycemia and menopause duration (P < 0.001. Although obese patients had less bone relative to body composition (wbBP, in terms of quantity their bone content was significantly higher than that of nonobese patients. Conclusions. Female patients with RA and female patients with cardiovascular morbidity have a lower whole body bone percent. Obese female individuals have higher whole body bone mass than nonobese patients.

  5. Lipoprotein (a) and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Ástrid Camêlo; Leal, Adriana Amorim de F.; Ramos, Nathaly de Medeiros N.; de Alencar F., José; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da S.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a) levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a) and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a) levels and the lipid profile. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:24473960

  6. ROLE OF VARIOUS RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Wal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality world wide. Increasing rate of CAD mortality and projected rise in CAD mortality for 2020 in the developing world necessitates immediate prevention and control measures. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is generally due to reduced blood flow to the heart, brain or body caused by atheroma or thrombosis. It is increasingly common after the age of 60, but rare below the age of 30. Plaques (plates of fatty atheroma build up in different arteries during adult life. These can eventually cause narrowing of the arteries, or trigger a local thrombosis (blood clot which completely blocks the blood flow. Despite scientific evidence that evidence based drug therapy reduce mortality in patients with established CAD, these therapies continue to be underutilized in patients receiving conventional care. It is essential to identify and manage risk factors for coronary artery diseases and to implement unique and creative approaches to stimulate better adherence to practice guidelines, to improve the quality of care given to patients with CAD. Reduction of SBP, DBP, heart rate, and body fat%, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL after regular yogic practices is beneficial for cardiac and hypertensive patients. Emphasis focusing on conventional risk factors, lifestyle modifications, smoking cessation, reduction of central obesity through dietary modification and exercise, can be proved to be the key interventions for preventing CAD.

  7. Inheritance pattern of familial hypercholesterolemia and markers of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, D Meeike; Avis, Hans J; Braamskamp, Marjet J; Huijgen, Roeland; Wijburg, Frits A; Kastelein, John J; Wiegman, Albert; Hutten, Barbara A

    2013-09-01

    Studies in children and adults have resulted in conflicting evidence in the quest for the answer to the hypothesis that offspring from hypercholesterolemic mothers might have an increased cardiovascular risk. Previous studies might have suffered from limitations such as cohort size and clinical sampling bias. We therefore explored this hypothesis in large cohorts of both subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and unaffected siblings in a wide age range. In three cohorts (cohort 1: n = 1,988, aged 0-18 years; cohort 2: n = 300, 8-30 years; cohort 3: n = 369, 18-60 years), we measured lipid and lipoproteins as well as carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in offspring from FH mothers versus FH fathers. For LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and c-IMT, we performed a pooled analysis. No significant differences could be observed in c-IMT, lipid, or lipoprotein levels from offspring of FH mothers versus FH fathers. Pooled analyses showed no significant differences for either LDL cholesterol [mean difference 0.02 (-0.06,0.11) mmol/l, P = 0.60], TGs [mean difference 0.07 (0.00,0.14) mmol/l, P = 0.08], or c-IMT [mean difference -0.00 (-0.01,0.01) mm, P = 0.86]. Our data do not support the hypothesis that cardiovascular risk markers are different between offspring from FH mothers and FH fathers.

  8. Lipoprotein (a and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ástrid Camêlo Palmeira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a [Lp(a] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCES: This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". DATA SYNTHESIS: Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a levels and the lipid profile. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates.

  9. Lipoprotein (a) and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Ástrid Camêlo; Leal, Adriana Amorim de F; Ramos, Nathaly de Medeiros N; Neto, José de Alencar F; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da S; Medeiros, Carla Campos M

    2013-12-01

    To review the relationship between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children and adolescents. This systematic review included studies from 2001 to 2011, a ten-year time period. Epidemiological studies with children and/or adolescents published in English, Portuguese or Spanish and fully available online were included. The searches were performed in Science Direct, PubMed/Medline, BVS (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) and Cochrane Library databases, using the following combination of key-words: "lipoprotein a" and "cardiovascular diseases" and "obesity". Overall, 672 studies were obtained but only seven were included. Some studies assessed the family history for CVD. In all of them, Lp(a) levels were increased in patients with family history for CVD. There was also a positive correlation between Lp(a) and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels, suggesting an association between Lp(a) levels and the lipid profile. The evidence that CVD may originate in childhood and adolescence leads to the need for investigating the risk factors during this period in order to propose earlier and possibly more effective interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality rates.

  10. Advances in the management of cardiovascular risk for patients with type 2 diabetes: perspectives from the Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernthaner, Guntram; Jarvis, Sarah; Lotan, Chaim; Prázný, Martin; Wanner, Christoph; Wascher, Thomas C

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a global health emergency projected to affect 642 million people by 2040. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents 90% of diabetes cases and is associated with a range of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors that are more than double the incidence of CV disease and significantly increase mortality rates. Diabetes treatments have typically focused on improving glycemic control but their effect on CV outcomes has remained uncertain. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) looked to address this knowledge gap and mandated CV outcome trials (CVOTs) for all new antidiabetic therapies. In 2015, EMPA-REG OUTCOME® became the first CVOT to present results for a sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2; also known as SLC5A2) inhibitor, empagliflozin. Subsequently, a regional meeting of the Academy for Cardiovascular Risk, Outcomes and Safety Studies in Type 2 Diabetes (ACROSS T2D) brought together a respected faculty of international experts and 150 physicians from 14 countries to discuss the current unmet medical needs of patients with T2D, the results from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study and the implications of these results for clinical practice. This article summarizes the current scientific evidence and the discussions that took place at the ACROSS T2D regional meeting, which was held in Vienna, Austria, on May 30, 2016. PMID:28144148

  11. General practitioners’ use of absolute risk versus individual risk factors in cardiovascular disease prevention: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Jesse; Bonner, Carissa; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Glasziou, Paul ,; Doust, Jenny; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Hayen, Andrew; Turner, Robin; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand general practitioners’ (GPs) use of individual risk factors (blood pressure and cholesterol levels) versus absolute risk in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management decision-making. Design Randomised experiment. Absolute risk, systolic blood pressure (SBP), cholesterol ratio (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL)) and age were systematically varied in hypothetical cases. High absolute risk was defined as 5-year risk of a cardiovascular event >15%, hig...

  12. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk by using Framingham Risk Equation amongst the Residents of Ahmedabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Parikh, Manish Patel, Hemant Tiwari, D V Bala, Bhavin Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Results: The median 10-year probability of CHD was 2.9% (5.6% for men and 1.8% for women. One third (33.4% population above 30 years had CVD risk 20% or more. Males had significantly higher CVD risk as compared to females (20% of males & 4.5% of female had high CVD risk. Cardiovascular disease risk was also person with inadequate sleep & in executives. Conclusion- Higher risk in males & unskilled worker was mainly due to tobacco addiction while in executives it was mainly due to diabetes & obesity.

  13. Short-Term Effects of Screening for Cardiovascular Risk in the Deaf Community: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on the risk of cardiovascular disease amongst the Deaf community. Given that the access of Deaf people to mainstream health promotion is likely to be hindered by language barriers, we were interested to assess the short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion within this group. Using a pilot study we investigated changes in cardiovascular risk factors amongst Deaf people identified to be at high cardiovascular risk, who received standard health promotion by a medical team specializing in cardiovascular health promotion. The short-term impact of cardiovascular health promotion in this group did not reduce estimates of cardiovascular risk. The reasons for this are likely to relate to the design and delivery of health promotion to Deaf people, which deserves further study.

  14. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion.

  15. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  16. [Cardiovascular risk factors in the population at risk of poverty and social exclusión].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fernández, Carlos; Vaquero-Abellán, Manuel; Ruíz-Gandara, África; Romero-Saldaña, Manuel; Álvarez-López, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Detect if there are differences in prevalence, distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and risk according to REGICOR and SCORE's function; between people belonging to different occupational classes and population at risk of social exclusion. Cross-sectional. SITE: Occupational health unit of the City Hall of Córdoba. Sample availability of 628 people, excluding 59 by age or incomplete data. The group of municipal workers was obtained randomly while all contracted exclusion risk was taken. No preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic actions that modify the course of the previous situation of workers were applied. Smoke, glucose, lipids, blood pressure and BMI as main variables. T-student were used for comparison of means and percentages for Chi(2). Statistical significance attached to an alpha error <5% and confidence interval with a 95% security. Receiver operator curves (ROC) were employed to find out what explanatory variables predict group membership of workers at risk of exclusion. Smoking (95% CI: -.224;-.443), hypercholesterolemia (95% CI: -.127;-.320), obesity (95% CI: -.005;-0.214), diabetes (95% CI: -.060;-.211) and cardiovascular risk were higher in men at risk of exclusion. In women there were differences in the same variables except smoking (P=.053). The existence of inequalities in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is checked. In a context of social crisis, health promotion and primary prevention programs directing to the most vulnerable, they are needed to mit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Dyslipidemias in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: risks and causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian; Cooney, Marie-Therese; Bradley, David; Dudina, Alexandra; Reiner, Zeljko

    2012-12-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is now the major global cause of death, despite reductions in CVD deaths in developed societies. Dyslipidemias are a major contributor, but the mass occurrence of CVD relates to the combined effects of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and smoking. Total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol relate to CVD risk in an independent and graded manner and fulfill the criteria for causality. Therapeutic reduction of these lipid fractions is associated with improved outcomes. There is good evidence that HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and Lp(a) relate to CVD although the evidence for a causal relationship is weaker. The HDL association with CVD is largely independent of other risk factors whereas triglycerides may be more important as signaling a need to look intensively for other measures of risk such as central obesity, hypertension, low HDL-cholesterol, and glucose intolerance. Lp(a) is an inherited risk marker. The benefit of lowering it is uncertain, but it may be that its impact on risk is attenuated if LDL-cholesterol is low.

  18. Smoking, apolipoprotein E genotypes, and mortality (the Ludwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Tanja B; Hoffmann, Michael M; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kleber, Marcus E; Silbernagel, Günther; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; März, Winfried

    2013-05-01

    The genetic polymorphism of apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been suggested to modify the effect of smoking on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) in apparently healthy persons. The interaction of these factors in persons undergoing coronary angiography is not known. We analysed the association between the APOE-genotype, smoking, angiographic CAD, and mortality in 3263 participants of the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health study. APOE-genotypes were associated with CAD [ε22 or ε23: odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-0.71; ε24 or ε34 or ε44: OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.89-1.37 compared with ε33] and moderately with cardiovascular mortality [ε22 or ε23: hazard ratio (HR) 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.99; ε33: HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.75-1.14 compared with ε24 or ε34 or ε44]. HRs for total mortality were 1.39 (95% CI 0.39-0.1.67), 2.29 (95% CI 1.85-2.83), 2.07 (95% CI 1.64-2.62), and 2.95 (95% CI 2.10-4.17) in ex-smokers, current smokers, current smokers without, or current smokers with one ε4 allele, respectively, compared with never-smokers. Carrying ε4 increased mortality in current, but not in ex-smokers (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.04-2.64 for interaction). These findings applied to cardiovascular mortality, were robust against adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, and consistent across subgroups. No interaction of smoking and ε4 was seen regarding non-cardiovascular mortality. Smokers with ε4 had reduced average low-density lipoprotein (LDL) diameters, elevated oxidized LDL, and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2. In persons undergoing coronary angiography, there is a significant interaction between APOE-genotype and smoking. The presence of the ε4 allele in current smokers increases cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

  19. Sex hormone-binding globulin levels predict insulin sensitivity, disposition index, and cardiovascular risk during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Munch-Andersen, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Low sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels are a feature of early puberty and of conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate SHBG as a predictor...... of glucose metabolism and metabolic risk during puberty....

  20. Excess risk attributable to traditional cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice settings across Europe - The EURIKA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi Claudio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians involved in primary prevention are key players in CVD risk control strategies, but the expected reduction in CVD risk that would be obtained if all patients attending primary care had their risk factors controlled according to current guidelines is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess risk attributable, firstly, to the presence of CVD risk factors and, secondly, to the lack of control of these risk factors in primary prevention care across Europe. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Daily Practice (EURIKA, which involved primary care and outpatient clinics involved in primary prevention from 12 European countries between May 2009 and January 2010. We enrolled 7,434 patients over 50 years old with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but without CVD and calculated their 10-year risk of CVD death according to the SCORE equation, modified to take diabetes risk into account. Results The average 10-year risk of CVD death in study participants (N = 7,434 was 8.2%. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes were responsible for 32.7 (95% confidence interval 32.0-33.4, 15.1 (14.8-15.4, 10.4 (9.9-11.0, and 16.4% (15.6-17.2 of CVD risk, respectively. The four risk factors accounted for 57.7% (57.0-58.4 of CVD risk, representing a 10-year excess risk of CVD death of 5.66% (5.47-5.85. Lack of control of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and diabetes were responsible for 8.8 (8.3-9.3, 10.6 (10.3-10.9, 10.4 (9.9-11.0, and 3.1% (2.8-3.4 of CVD risk, respectively. Lack of control of the four risk factors accounted for 29.2% (28.5-29.8 of CVD risk, representing a 10-year excess risk of CVD death of 3.12% (2.97-3.27. Conclusions Lack of control of CVD risk factors was responsible for almost 30% of the risk of CVD death among patients participating in the EURIKA Study.

  1. On the crossroads of cardiovascular disease and cancer : shared risk factors and treatment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijsdijk, R.C.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Although cardiovascular-related mortality has decreased in the past decades, the number of patients in a chronic phase of cardiovascular disease is still growing. Cardiovascular disease shares several important modifiable risk factors with cancer, including smoking and obesity. Given these shared ri

  2. On the crossroads of cardiovascular disease and cancer : shared risk factors and treatment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijsdijk, R.C.M. van

    2014-01-01

    Although cardiovascular-related mortality has decreased in the past decades, the number of patients in a chronic phase of cardiovascular disease is still growing. Cardiovascular disease shares several important modifiable risk factors with cancer, including smoking and obesity. Given these shared

  3. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Cardiovascular Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated several cardiovascular risks associated with space flight along with the ongoing and emerging plans to study these issues and potentially propose and/or develop countermeasures. The areas of focus included: 1) The risk of cardiac rhythm problems during prolonged space flight, and 2) Issues related to the risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity. An emerging area of concern is radiation associated vascular injury. The risk of cardiac rhythm disturbances has emerged based on case reports only. No systematic study of this risk has been published. However, concerns about this risk are heightened by the age range of astronauts, the structural changes in the heart that occur during space flight, and the potential shifts in fluids and electrolytes. The current plan is to use prolonged Holter monitor EKG records made as part of the "Integrated Cardiovascular SMO" in space to determine more about the frequency and magnitude of this problem and to link this data to complementary data from the nutrition group on electrolytes. The SRP was supportive of this approach. The SRP also felt that any data related to cardiovascular risk in space should be better coordinated with the medical screening data that all astronauts undergo at regular intervals. Additionally, while there are potential privacy issues related to this suggestion, many of the current barriers to better coordination of experimental and clinical data appear to reflect longstanding cultural traditions at NASA that need rethinking. The risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity was seen by the SRP as an area supported by a wealth of published physiological evidence. The SRP also felt that moving forward with the planned approach to countermeasures was reasonable and that extensive additional hypothesis testing on the physiology of orthostatic intolerance was not needed at this time. There was support for developing

  4. Recommendations from the EGAPP Working Group: genomic profiling to assess cardiovascular risk to improve cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention Working Group (EWG) found insufficient evidence to recommend testing for the 9p21 genetic variant or 57 other variants in 28 genes (listed in ) to assess risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, specifically heart disease and stroke. The EWG found that the magnitude of net health benefit from use of any of these tests alone or in combination is negligible. The EWG discourages clinical use unless further evidence supports improved clinical outcomes. Based on the available evidence, the overall certainty of net health benefit is deemed "Low." It has been suggested that an improvement in CVD risk classification (adjusting intermediate risk of CVD into high- or low-risk categories) might lead to management changes (e.g., earlier initiation or higher rates of medical interventions, or targeted recommendations for behavioral change) that improve CVD outcomes. In the absence of direct evidence to support this possibility, this review sought indirect evidence aimed at documenting the extent to which genomic profiling alters CVD risk estimation, alone and in combination with traditional risk factors, and the extent to which risk reclassification improves health outcomes. Assay-related evidence on available genomic profiling tests was deemed inadequate. However, based on existing technologies that have been or may be used and on data from two of the companies performing such testing, the analytic sensitivity and specificity of tests for individual gene variants might be at least satisfactory. Twenty-nine gene candidates were evaluated, with 58 different gene variant/disease associations. Evidence on clinical validity was rated inadequate for 34 of these associations (59%) and adequate for 23 (40%). Inadequate grades were based on limited evidence, poor replication, existence of possible biases, or combinations of these factors. For heart disease (25 combined associations) and stroke (13

  5. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: impact of the new EULAR recommendations on the score cardiovascular risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Robustillo, Montserrat; Narváez, Javier; Rodríguez-Moreno, Jesús; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Nolla, Joan Miquel; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the application of the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recommendations in the cardiovascular (CV) risk of a series of Spanish patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two hundred consecutive RA patients seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of Bellvitge Hospital, Barcelona, were studied. Information on clinical features of the disease, classic CV risk factors, and history of CV events was assessed. Both the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) CV risk index and the modified SCORE (mSCORE) according to the last EULAR recommendations were calculated. Based on the classic CV risk factors, the mean ± standard deviation SCORE was 2.1 ± 2.3% (median, 2; interquartile range [IQR], 1-3). Twenty-three (11%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk for the Spanish population (≥5%). Following the EULAR recommendations, a change in the score was required in 119 (59%) patients. Therefore, the mean mSCORE was 2.7 ± 2.9% (median, 2; IQR, 1-3) and, due to this, 28 (14%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk. Nine (5%) had at least one ischemic CV event. Patients with CV events were older and had more CV risk factors and higher SCORE and mSCORE than those without CV events. Although a large proportion of patients from this series fulfilled the criteria for the application of the EULAR recommendations, the final impact on the calculated CV risk was low and clinically significant in only a few patients. However, an association between the mSCORE and the presence of ischemic CV events was observed.

  6. Update on pre-diabetes: Focus on diagnostic criteria and cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pino, Antonino; Urbano, Francesca; Piro, Salvatore; Purrello, Francesco; Rabuazzo, Agata Maria

    2016-01-01

    Pre-diabetes, which is typically defined as blood glucose concentrations higher than normal but lower than the diabetes threshold, is a high-risk state for diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. As such, it represents three groups of individuals: Those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and those with a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) between 39-46 mmol/mol. Several clinical trials have shown the important role of IFG, IGT and HbA1c-pre-diabetes as predictive tools for the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Moreover, with regard to cardiovascular disease, pre-diabetes is associated with more advanced vascular damage compared with normoglycaemia, independently of confounding factors. In view of these observations, diagnosis of pre-diabetes is mandatory to prevent or delay the development of the disease and its complications; however, a number of previous studies reported that the concordance between pre-diabetes diagnoses made by IFG, IGT or HbA1c is scarce and there are conflicting data as to which of these methods best predicts cardiovascular disease. This review highlights recent studies and current controversies in the field. In consideration of the expected increased use of HbA1c as a screening tool to identify individuals with alteration of glycaemic homeostasis, we focused on the evidence regarding the ability of HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for pre-diabetes and as a useful marker in identifying patients who have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Finally, we reviewed the current evidence regarding non-traditional glycaemic biomarkers and their use as alternatives to or additions to traditional ones.

  7. Cardiovascular Risk Behavior among Students of a Medical College in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, N; Taneja, DK; Mishra, P; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Background: Life style related behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for increased burden of cardio- vascular diseases. Research related to these risk behaviours especially among medical students is essential, considering their role as future physicians and role models in public health intervention programmes. Objective: To evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk behaviours among students of a medical college of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Delhi. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information on identification data and risk behaviours in relation to cardiovascular diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to calculate adjusted odds ratio to assess association between risk behaviours and covariates. Results: The minimum recommendation of taking at least five servings per day of fruits and vegetables was complied only by 12% of students. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks either once or more on daily basis was present in 23.7% students and 32.0% reported frequent consumption of fast foods in past week. Consumption of alcohol was present in 28.8% students but only small proportion of students (7%) was current tobacco users. Large proportions of students (42.6%) were either not carrying out or were involved in only occasional physical activity in past week. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavioural practises are present and may progress as student advance through medical college. Developing strategies targeting at these risk behaviours and determining factors is necessary to promote healthy life style among medical students. PMID:21687382

  8. Cardiovascular risk behavior among students of a Medical College in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life style related behavioural risk factors are mainly implicated for increased burden of cardio- vascular diseases. Research related to these risk behaviours especially among medical students is essential, considering their role as future physicians and role models in public health intervention programmes. Objective: To evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk behaviours among students of a medical college of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among undergraduate medical students of a medical college in Delhi. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information on identification data and risk behaviours in relation to cardiovascular diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was done to calculate adjusted odds ratio to assess association between risk behaviours and covariates. Results: The minimum recommendation of taking at least five servings per day of fruits and vegetables was complied only by 12% of students. Consumption of carbonated soft drinks either once or more on daily basis was present in 23.7% students and 32.0% reported frequent consumption of fast foods in past week. Consumption of alcohol was present in 28.8% students but only small proportion of students (7% was current tobacco users. Large proportions of students (42.6% were either not carrying out or were involved in only occasional physical activity in past week. Conclusions: Unhealthy behavioural practises are present and may progress as student advance through medical college. Developing strategies targeting at these risk behaviours and determining factors is necessary to promote healthy life style among medical students.

  9. Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rate and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Rebecca K; Griffin, Simon J; Witte, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    -based screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors on mortality rates and cardiovascular events. METHODS: This register-based, non-randomised, controlled trial included men and women aged 40-69 years without known diabetes who were registered with a general practice in Denmark (n = 1......,912,392). Between 2001 and 2006, 153,107 individuals registered with 181 practices participating in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION)-Denmark study were sent a diabetes risk score questionnaire. Individuals at moderate-to-high risk...... were invited to visit their GP for assessment of diabetes status and cardiovascular risk (screening group). The 1,759,285 individuals registered with all other general practices in Denmark constituted the retrospectively constructed no-screening (control) group. Outcomes were mortality rate...

  10. Effect of unemployment on cardiovascular risk factors and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagożdżon, P; Parszuto, J; Wrotkowska, M; Dydjow-Bendek, D

    2014-09-01

    Following the economic changes in Poland, increasing health discrepancies were observed during a period of 20 years, which may be partly attributable to the consequences of unemployment. To assess the association between unemployment, major cardiovascular risk factors and mental health. A cross-sectional study in which data were collected between 2009 and 2010 during preventive health examinations by an occupational medicine service in Gdansk, Poland. Data on blood pressure, resting heart rate, information about smoking habits, body mass index and history of use of mental health services were collected during these assessments. Multiple logistic regression was used during data analysis to adjust for age, gender, education and length of employment. Study participants comprised 3052 unemployed and 2059 employed individuals. After adjustment for age, gender, education and number of previous employments, the odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in relation to unemployment was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.84-1.23]. There was a statistically significant negative association between being overweight and unemployment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99). Smoking was positively associated with unemployment after adjustment for age and sex (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.67). There was a positive relationship between mental ill-health and unemployment among study participants (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 0.91-4.65), but this was not statistically significant. The patterns of major cardiovascular risk factors differed between unemployed and employed individuals in Poland. Our observations suggest employment status is a predictor of specific disease risk profiles; consequently, specific preventive measures are needed in unemployed individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Overt hypothyroidism is disease associated with accelerated arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism (SH is associated with increased cardiovascular risk is contraversial. As SH is a high prevalence thyroid dysfunction, specially in older women, it is important to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors in these patients and that was the aim of this study. Methods. We examined 30 patients with SH and 20 healthy controls. Subclinical hypothireoidism was defined as an elevated thyrotropin (TSH (> 4.5 mU/L and normal free thyroxine (FT4 level. In all the participants we determined body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, TSH, FT4, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase, antibodies to thyroglobulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglicerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio. Results. Mean BMI in patients with SH was significantly higher (p < 0.05, as well as diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01 compared with the controls. Average levels of total cholesterol (5.40±0.62 vs 5.06±0.19 mmol/l, p < 0.01 and triglycerides (2.16±0.56 vs 1.89±0.24 mmol/l, p < 0.05 were also significantly higher in the group with SH. Individual analysis revealed that the percentage of patients with SH having borderline elevated total cholesterol (63.33%, hypertrigliceridemia (43.33% and elevated total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (26.67% were significantly higher than the percentage in the controls. No significant correlation between TSH and lipid parameters was detected. Conclusion. Subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with higher BMI, diastolic hypertension, higher total cholesterol and triglicerides levels and higher total cholesterol/HDL cholesterols ratio. This might increase the risk of accelerated arteriosclerosis in patients with SH.

  12. Gene polymorphisms in association with emerging cardiovascular risk markers in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Nicole F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the associations of emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors/markers with genes may help identify intermediate pathways of disease susceptibility in the general population. This population-based study is aimed to determine the presence of associations between a wide array of genetic variants and emerging cardiovascular risk markers among adult US women. Methods The current analysis was performed among the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III phase 2 samples of adult women aged 17 years and older (sample size n = 3409. Fourteen candidate genes within ADRB2, ADRB3, CAT, CRP, F2, F5, FGB, ITGB3, MTHFR, NOS3, PON1, PPARG, TLR4, and TNF were examined for associations with emerging cardiovascular risk markers such as serum C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid, and plasma fibrinogen. Linear regression models were performed using SAS-callable SUDAAN 9.0. The covariates included age, race/ethnicity, education, menopausal status, female hormone use, aspirin use, and lifestyle factors. Results In covariate-adjusted models, serum C-reactive protein concentrations were significantly (P value controlling for false-discovery rate ≤ 0.05 associated with polymorphisms in CRP (rs3093058, rs1205, MTHFR (rs1801131, and ADRB3 (rs4994. Serum homocysteine levels were significantly associated with MTHFR (rs1801133. Conclusion The significant associations between certain gene variants with concentration variations in serum C-reactive protein and homocysteine among adult women need to be confirmed in further genetic association studies.

  13. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Phypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Risk amongst African Black Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Need for Population Specific Stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA enhances the risk of cardiovascular disease to a similar extent as diabetes. Whereas atherogenesis remains poorly elucidated in RA, traditional and nontraditional risk factors associate similarly and additively with CVD in RA. Current recommendations on CVD risk stratification reportedly have important limitations. Further, reported data on CVD and its risk factors derive mostly from data obtained in the developed world. An earlier epidemiological health transition is intrinsic to persons living in rural areas and those undergoing urbanization. It is therefore conceivable that optimal CVD risk stratification differs amongst patients with RA from developing populations compared to those from developed populations. Herein, we briefly describe current CVD and its risk factor profiles in the African black population at large. Against this background, we review reported data on CVD risk and its potential stratification amongst African black compared to white patients with RA. Routinely assessed traditional and nontraditional CVD risk factors were consistently and independently related to atherosclerosis in African white but not black patients with RA. Circulating concentrations of novel CVD risk biomarkers including interleukin-6 and interleukin-5 adipokines were mostly similarly associated with both endothelial activation and atherosclerosis amongst African black and white RA patients.

  15. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Noori, Nazanin; Zavareh, Maryam Beheshti; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-04-01

    The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intakes as means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, only limited data are available on the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on CVD risk factors in a community-based population. The aim of this study was to examine whether, and to what extent, intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely associated with CVD risk factors in adults. In this population-based cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 840 Tehranian adults (male and female) aged 18 to 74 years was randomly selected in 1998. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for lifestyle and nutritional confounders was used in 2 models. After adjusting for confounders, dietary fruit and vegetable were found to be significantly and inversely associated with CVD risk factors. Adjusted odds ratio for high low-density lipoprotein concentrations were 1.00, 0.88, 0.81, and 0.75 (P for trend fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with the risk of CVD per se in a dose-response manner.

  16. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. PMID:25949827

  17. Predictive Value of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Risk Assessment in Cohort of Shiraz Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk assessment for fast growing burden of cardiovascular diseases is very important and dif- ficult. As a response to this challenge, in particular, genetic risk factors which potentially modify risk, we conducted a survey of primary data registry of Shiraz Heart Study on integration and application of family history data in prevention of cardiovascular disorders.Method: This study is a longitudinal cohort project to be extended from subpopulations of different job groups to the community.Results: Parental family history of MI, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia (HPL, hypertension (HTN was reported more frequently among females than males. Histories of MI, DM, HPL, and HTN in both parents were respectively positive in 2.6%, 2%, 4.6%, and 7.9 % of the participants. Odd ratios (OR for risk of MI from family history of MI were 2.7; risk of DM from family history of DM 4.5; risk of HPL from family history of HPL 2.04; and risk of HTN from family history HTN 4.7. Also, family history of MI modifies risk of HPL (OR=1.7, P<0.0001; and family history of DM modifies risk of HPL (OR=2.04, P<0.0001.Conclusion: Our primary result shows potent application of family history data in risk assessment of cardiovascular outcome. In particular, HTN appears as a silent and leading risk modifier. In regard to the course of continuing Shiraz Heart Study integration of family history of risk factors crucial in public health we suggest to adopt a network of electronic health records from the “Health House” to the “Heart House”.

  18. Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Icelanders Following Voluntarily a Low Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidottir, Anita S; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Ramel, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD. A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20-66yrs) in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors. Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months. Fifty percent claimed they had lost weight during the past month. The median intake of carbohydrate, protein and fat were 8%, 22% and 68% E (hereof 25% saturated fatty acids), respectively. The consumption of bread and wholegrain cereals was very low (intake of dietary fiber (11g/day). Median fruit intake was 12 g/day. Intake of red meat and meat products was double that of the general population or ~900 g/week. Median intake of vitamins and minerals were mostly higher than the estimated average requirements. Cardiovascular risk factors were mostly within normal range. Mean blood lipids were slightly elevated although the high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was normal. Despite poor diet quality and high prevalence of obesity, individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD have cardiovascular risk factors mostly within reference range. These individuals consume very low amounts of carbohydrates and high amounts of fat and saturated fat acids. Intake of red meat and processed meat exceeds recommended intake. Very low intake of whole grain cereals and fruits results in low intake of fiber. Long term health implications need to be examined further in longitudinal studies.

  19. Phytoestrogen intake and cardiovascular risk markers in Bangladeshi postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, F; Afnan, F; Ara, F; Yasmin, S; Nahar, K; Khatun, F; Ali, L

    2011-04-01

    Menopause is the transitional event of female life creating a considerable degree of clinical and psychological as well as social problem and it is known to affect the risk markers of cardiovascular diseases. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was though to be a cornerstone in the management of menopause, but evidences accumulated in the recent past have raised serious questions regarding its safety and usability. In this context, phytoestrogens are getting increasingly more attention for therapeutic (as an alternate of HRT) and dietary interventions. Menopause is a special problem for women in developing countries and intake of phytoestrogens can be highly useful also from the economic point of views. The nutraceuticals of specific vitamins, minerals and especially phytoestrogens supplementations are a vital component of the strategy to reduce health problem. The present study was aimed to assess the association of phytoestrogens and risk markers of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women. A total of 111 postmenopausal subjects [age, (years, M±SD) 52±5.35] were studied. The dietary intake of phytoestrogens by study subjects was calculated by a specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Serum fasting homocysteine was measured by AxSYM system. Serum glucose was estimated by glucose-oxidase method. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-C were estimated by enzymatic-colorimetric method LDL-C was estimated by the Friedewald's formula. The intake of total phytoestrogens, isoflavones and lignans (mean±SD, mg/day) were 7.65±3.33, 0.32±0.16, 7.32±3.28 respectively in postmenopausal women. The intake of diadzein, genistein, formononetin, biochanin A (mean±SD, mg/day) were 0.085±0.035, 0.168±0.101, 0.074±0.052 and 0.001±0.0008 respectively. The intake of matairesinol and secoisolaiciresinol (SILR) (mean±SD, mg/day) were 0.022±0.006 and 7.30±3.28 respectively. The total phytoestrogens (r=-0.19, p=0.03) and SILR, one specific type of lignans (r

  20. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, male hypogonadism and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large body of evidences indicates that sexual dysfunction, and in particular erectile dysfunction (ED, may represent an early surrogate marker of different disease states such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS and depression. Furthermore, it has been suggested that ED could also be considered the first sign of a forthcoming coronary heart disease (CHD and an efficient predictor of silent CHD in a diabetic population, independently of glycometabolic control and ED severity. Hypogonadism is frequently associated with MetS both in subjects with or without ED, insulin resistance being the putative pathogenetic link. In subjects with ED hypogonadism can exacerbate sexual dysfunction because of its typical symptoms, such as decreased sexual desire and mood disturbances. However, hypogonadism per se has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and overall mortality. Aim of the study: In this review, a comprehensive literature search was carried out, in order to discuss the relationship between insulin resistance, ED, MetS and hypogonadism, focusing on their possible involvement in the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Chronic vitamin C deficiency increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E

    2007-01-01

    The studies on experimental animals (guinea pigs, monkeys, fish) have confirmed the important role of ascorbic acid deficiency in the development of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, but the clinical experience is not quite uniform. Metaanalyses of randomized controlled trials performed on subjects without established vitamin C-deficiency conclud that the evidence of the presence or absence of benefits derived from the ability of ascorbic acid to prevent cardiovascular diseases is not sufficient. This review is an outline of numerous clinical, epidemiological and prospective studies that have found a positive role of vitamin C in the prevention of atherosclerosis. If we admit the possibility that vitamin C deficiency is a significant risk factor of atherogenesis, due to ethical reasons it is impossible to perform long-term controlled trials on subjects with proved vitamin C deficiency, to recommend them not to change their nutrition and lifestyle, and to administer placebo to the control group. Therefore the proof of atherogenic effect of chronic vitamin C deficiency is limited to indirect evidence only. In this review many new data on the positive effects of ascorbic acid on human cardiovascular system are summarized and the mechanisms of its protective influence on blood vessels are discussed (Fig.5, Ref. 45). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  2. [Cardiovascular risk factors among first and third year university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Gladys; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Muñoz, Sergio; Belmar, Carlos; Schifferli, Ingrid; Muñoz, Andrea; Soto, Alvaro

    2017-03-01

    College students are in a critical stage in their life style due to the transition between high school and university and they may be prone to develop cardiovascular diseases. To compare the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in students from first and third year at the University of La Frontera, Temuco-Chile, according to faculty, gender and socioeconomic status (SES). Cross-sectional study. Anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance (IR), sedentary lifestyle, tobacco and alcohol consumption were evaluated during 2014 in randomly selected 163 freshmen aged 19.2 ± 1.8 years and 163 third year students aged 21.7 ± 2.5 years (49% females), stratified by faculty, career and gender. 32.4% of students had prehypertension, 30.6% abdominal obesity, 26.3% insulin resistance, 25.7% dyslipidemia and 8.9% metabolic syndrome. Third grade students had higher prevalence of elevated total and LDL cholesterol and higher alcohol consumption, especially among students of middle and high socioeconomic level. Compared with students from the School of Medicine, students from the Education Faculty had 3.9, 3.3 and 2.7 times greater likelihood of being obese, having elevated LDLcholesterol and being smokers, respectively. Women had the highest prevalence of sedentary lifestyles and dyslipidemia. Men had the highest prevalence of prehypertension and smoking. Educational programs are required to promote healthy lifestyles among these students.

  3. [RISK-FSCTORS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PATIENTS WITH ROSACEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiskarishvili, Ts; Katsitadze, A; Tsiskarishvili, N I; Chigladze, V

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to study the lipid profile, some indices of hemostasis and cytokine status of rosacea patients with severe climacteric syndrome. Serum lipid profile was studied by means of the following parameters: total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), triglycerides (the study of lipid profile was performed by the device "INTEGRAM +400" (Company "ROSH»). Haemostatic system was evaluated in terms of prothrombin, thrombin time. Content of fibrinogen, fibrinolytic activity, and prothrombin index were determined. The concentration of free VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and IL-8 were measured by ELISA. The results of these studies suggest that the phenomenon of hyper coagulation and disorders in lipid profile of blood serum in patients with rosacea with climacteric syndrome can be considered as risk factors of cardiovascular disease. From the other side, as a powerful provocateur of increased permeability, atony and fragility of vessel walls, VEGF, IL-2, IL-8 may be directly related to the mechanism of the development of cardiovascular disease in rosacea patients.

  4. Plasma Total Cysteine and Cardiovascular Risk Burden: Action and Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta De Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that redox analysis could provide sensitive markers of the oxidative pathway associated to the presence of an increasing number of cardiovascular risk factors (RFs, independently of type. We classified 304 subjects without cardiovascular disease into 4 groups according to the total number of RFs (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia, diabetes, obesity, and their combination. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring plasma total and reduced homocysteine, cysteine (Cys, glutathione, cysteinylglycine, blood reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Twenty-seven percent of subjects were in group 0 RF, 26% in 1 RF, 31% in 2 RF, and 16% in ≥3 RF. By multivariable ordinal regression analysis, plasma total Cys was associated to a higher number of RF (OR = 1.068; 95% CI = 1.027–1.110, =0.002. Total RF burden is associated with increased total Cys levels. These findings support a prooxidant effect of Cys in conjunction with RF burden, and shed light on the pathophysiologic role of redox state unbalance in preclinical atherosclerosis.

  5. Current Scientific Evidence for a Polarized Cardiovascular Endurance Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydren, Jay R; Cohen, Bruce S

    2015-12-01

    Recent publications have provided new scientific evidence for a modern aerobic or cardiovascular endurance exercise prescription that optimizes the periodization cycle and maximizes potential endurance performance gains in highly trained individuals. The traditional threshold, high volume, and high-intensity training models have displayed limited improvement in actual race pace in (highly) trained individuals while frequently resulting in overreaching or overtraining (physical injury and psychological burnout). A review of evidence for replacing these models with the proven polarized training model seems warranted. This review provides a short history of the training models, summarizes 5 key studies, and provides example training programs for both the pre- and in-season periods. A polarized training program is characterized by an undulating nonlinear periodization model with nearly all the training time spent at a "light" (≤13) and "very hard" (≥17) pace with very limited time at "hard" (14-16) or race pace (6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion [RPE] scale). To accomplish this, the polarization training model has specific high-intensity workouts separated by one or more long slow distance workouts, with the exercise intensity remaining below ventilatory threshold (VT) 1 and/or blood lactate of less than 2 mM (A.K.A. below race pace). Effect sizes for increasing aerobic endurance performance for the polarized training model are consistently superior to that of the threshold training model. Performing a polarized training program may be best accomplished by: going easy on long slow distance workouts, avoiding "race pace" and getting after it during interval workouts.

  6. Current trends in the cardiovascular clinical trial arena (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pater Cornel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of effective therapies for most cardiovascular disease states, coupled with increased requirements that potential benefits of new drugs be evaluated on clinical rather than surrogate endpoints, makes it increasingly difficult to substantiate any incremental improvements in efficacy that these new drugs might offer. Compounding the problem is the highly controversial issue of comparing new agents with placebos rather than active pharmaceuticals in drug efficacy trials. Despite the recent consensus that placebos may be used ethically in well-defined, justifiable circumstances, the problem persists, in part because of increased scrutiny by ethics committees but also because of considerable lingering disagreement regarding the propriety and scientific value of placebo-controlled trials (and trials of antihypertensive drugs in particular. The disagreement also substantially affects the most viable alternative to placebo-controlled trials: actively controlled equivalence/noninferiority trials. To a great extent, this situation was prompted by numerous previous trials of this type that were marked by fundamental methodological flaws and consequent false claims, inconsistencies, and potential harm to patients. As the development and use of generic drugs continue to escalate, along with concurrent pressure to control medical costs by substituting less-expensive therapies for established ones, any claim that a new drug, intervention, or therapy is "equivalent" to another should not be accepted without close scrutiny. Adherence to proper methods in conducting studies of equivalence will help investigators to avoid false claims and inconsistencies. These matters will be addressed in the third article of this three-part series.

  7. Dietary Fat and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Recent Controversies and Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong D; Hu, Frank B

    2017-08-21

    Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intake of industrially produced trans fat is consistently associated with higher CVD risk. Both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are associated with lower CVD risk, although the effects of fish oil supplementation remains inconsistent. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans place greater emphasis on types of dietary fat than total amount of dietary fat and recommend replacing SFAs with unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids for CVD prevention.

  8. Can Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Close the Risk Management Gap Between Diabetes and Prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perreault, Leigh; Færch, Kristine; Gregg, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    a continuous relationship between A1c and CVD-even below the current levels of A1c-defined prediabetes and after adjustment for known risk factors for CVD. Clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in CV morbidity and/or mortality when interventions are invoked in the prediabetic A1c range. Guidelines...... advocating CV risk factor management in prediabetes have not been widely adopted, subsequently leading to comparable coronary heart disease risk between people with prediabetes (HR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.1 vs normoglycemia) and diabetes itself (HR=2.0, 95% CI 1.8-2.2 vs no diabetes). This review highlights......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed published literature to determine the relationship between A1c and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and summarize the need and implications for CVD risk reduction with interventions, focusing in the prediabetic A1c range (

  9. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors in peritoneal dialysis patients

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    Jovanović Dijana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CVS morbidity and mortality in the endstage renal disease (ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy is 10-30 folds higher than in general population. The prevalence of well known traditional risk factors such as age, sex, race, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity is higher in the uraemic patients. Besides these, there are specific, nontraditional risk factors for dialysis patients. Mild inflammation present in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients which can be confirmed by specific inflammatory markers is the cause of CVS morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hypoalbuminaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in the PD patients. Plasma norepinephrine, an indicator of sympathetic activity, is high in the ESRD patients and higher in the PD patients than in the patients on haemodialysis (HD. Therefore, norepinephrine may be a stronger risk factor in the PD patients. The same applies to asymmetric dimethylargine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, which is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality 15 % higher in the PD than the HD patients. Hyperphosphataemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and high calcium x phosphate product have been associated with the progression of the coronary artery calcification and valvular calcifications and predict all-cause CVS mortality in the PD patients. Residual renal function (RRF declines with time on dialysis but is slower in the PD than the HD patients. RRF decline is associated with the rise of proinflammatory cytokines and the onset of hypervolaemia and hypertension which increase the risk of CVS diseases, mortality in general and CVS mortality. In conclusion, it is very important to establish all CVS risk factors in the PD patients to prevent CVS diseases and CVS mortality in this population.

  10. Changes in diet, cardiovascular risk factors and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, L A; Griffin, S J; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims To describe change in self-reported diet and plasma vitamin C, and to examine associations between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the year following diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent assessment of self-reported diet, plasma vitamin C, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk at 1 year, adjusting for change in physical activity and cardio-protective medication. Results Participants reported significant reductions in energy, fat and sodium intake, and increases in fruit, vegetable and fibre intake over 1 year. The reduction in energy was equivalent to an average-sized chocolate bar; the increase in fruit was equal to one plum per day. There was a small increase in plasma vitamin C levels. Increases in fruit intake and plasma vitamin C were associated with small reductions in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. Increased vegetable intake was associated with an increase in BMI and waist circumference. Reductions in fat, energy and sodium intake were associated with reduction in HbA1c, waist circumference and total cholesterol/modelled cardiovascular disease risk, respectively. Conclusions Improvements in dietary behaviour in this screen-detected population were associated with small reductions in cardiovascular disease risk, independently of change in cardio-protective medication and physical activity. Dietary change may have a role to play in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk following diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:24102972

  11. Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health.

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors and primary selection into shift work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Tüchsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined differences between future shift workers and future day workers as regards cardiovascular risk factors before they began different work schedules and the differences that remained after control for sociodemographic factors and general self-efficacy. METHODS......: Altogether 2870 newly educated social and health care workers filled out a questionnaire a few weeks before finishing their formal training and again 1 year after graduation. They answered questions on diabetes, hypertension, lifestyle habits, sociodemographic factors, and general self-efficacy. RESULTS......: In the unadjusted analyses, baseline obesity was associated with fixed evening work at follow-up. Minimal or light-to-moderate leisure-time physical activity was associated with a decrease in the odds ratio (OR) for two or three shifts including night work. Smoking status was associated with fixed evening work...

  13. Early determinants of cardiovascular risk in the young: Two Dutch cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Lydia Esther

    2003-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death in westernized societies, responsible for 35.5% of the total mortality in The Netherlands. Part of the current decline in cardiovascular mortality has been attributed to primary prevention in adults. However, as the roots of cardiovascular disease

  14. Knowledge and perception of cardiovascular disease risk among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Sunjoo; Oh, Hyunjin; Froelicher, Erika S; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The prerequisites for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease are adequate levels of knowledge and being aware of the risk. In this study, the levels of knowledge about cardiovascular disease among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and the perception were evaluated in relation to their actual 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease. This cross-sectional study of 200 patients with rheumatoid arthritis was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital in South Korea. The patients' actual risk of cardiovascular disease was estimated using the Framingham Risk Score. The most common risk factor was physical inactivity, with 77% of the patients not engaging in regular exercise. The patients lacked knowledge about the effects of physical inactivity and anti-inflammatory medication on the development of cardiovascular disease. Misperceptions about the risk of cardiovascular disease were common, i.e., 19.5% of the patients underestimated their risk and 41% overestimated. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and smoking were the most prevalent among the patients who underestimated their risk, and these same patients had the lowest level of knowledge about cardiovascular disease. This study demonstrated the rheumatoid arthritis patients' lack of knowledge about the effects of physical inactivity and anti-inflammatory medications on the development of cardiovascular disease, and their misperception of cardiovascular risk was common. As a preventive measure, educational programs about cardiovascular disease should be tailored specifically for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and behavioral interventions, including routine exercise, should be made available at the time of diagnosis.

  15. SCORE underestimates cardiovascular risk (CVR of HIV+ patients

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    R Ramírez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new European Guidelines of Dislipidemia Management of the European Societies of Cardiology and Arteriosclerosis consider HIV+ as patients at high risk of developing cardiovascular events and deaths. The objective of the study was to evaluate cardiovascular events and deaths in a series of HIV+ patients. Observational, cross-sectional study, including a cohort of HIV+ and HIV− patients from 2008. CVR was calculated using the SCORE-CVR chart. Variation on lipid profile and incidence of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death or death related to any cause were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 for MAC. 154 HIV+ and 155 HIV− patients were included. Mean age: 44.8±9.5 vs 55.2±14.3 y and 69.5% vs 49% males respectively (p<0.01. Mean time since HIV+ diagnosis was 11±6.2 y. Mean BMI and systolic blood pressure were lower in HIV+ (25.1±6.7 kg/m2 vs 28.7±5.1 kg/m2, (p<0.01 and 119.6±19.4 vs 124.7±14.7 mmHg, (p=0.044; respectively. A lower proportion of hypertense, diabetic and obese patients was observed in HIV+ (25.5% vs 6.5%; 20.6% vs 3.9% and 36.8% vs 12.3% but a larger proportion of smokers (68.8% vs 29.7% was observed (p<0.01 in all cases. Mean cholesterol and LDLc were lower in HIV+ (191.2±41.4 vs 218.5±44.6 mg/dl and 109.5±33.9 vs 134.6±37.7 mg/dl; p<0.01; respectively but with a lower mean HDLc and higher TG (50.3±19 mg/dl vs 55.2±14.9 mg/dl; p=0.013 and 156.7±85.7 vs 135.8±66.2 mg/dl; p=0.017; respectively. There was no significant difference in mean CVR-SCORE (3.5±3.6% vs 4.4±3.8%; p=0.091. With this SCORE, 5.2±5.3 and 6.7±5.8 cardiovascular events or deaths should be expected in HIV+ and HIV− respectively at 10 y. Four years later cholesterol, LDLc, HDLc, TG in HIV+ and HIV− patients did not vary compared with those obtained 4 y before. 5 events and 1 death were seen at 4 y follow-up in HIV+, and in HIV− patients. The incidence of events in HIV+ patients is similar to the expected according

  16. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk: an uptodate in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Francesco; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Nese, Cinar; Palomba, Stefano; Savastano, Silvia; Tafuri, Domenico; Colarieti, Giorgio; La Sala, Giovanbattista; Colao, Annamaria; Yildiz, Bulent O