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Sample records for cardiovascular injuries due

  1. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace. PMID:3392614

  2. Acute lung injury induces cardiovascular dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suda, Koichi; Tsuruta, Masashi; Eom, Jihyoun;

    2011-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with systemic inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction. IL-6 is a biomarker of this systemic response and a predictor of cardiovascular events, but its possible causal role is uncertain. Inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2 agonists (ICS/LABA) down......-regulate the systemic expression of IL-6, but whether they can ameliorate the cardiovascular dysfunction related to ALI is uncertain. We sought to determine whether IL-6 contributes to the cardiovascular dysfunction related to ALI, and whether budesonide/formoterol ameliorates this process. Wild-type mice were...... these impairments (vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, P = 0.005; cardiac output, P = 0.025). Pretreatment with the combination of budesonide and formoterol, but not either alone, ameliorated the vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine (P = 0.018) and cardiac output (P drugs also attenuated...

  3. [Secondary nephrotic syndrome due to cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tomoya; Takahashi, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2004-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases ralely evoke nephrotic syndrome. Especially hypertensive renal disease (nephroscrelosis) and renovascular hypertension occasionally may lead to nephrotic syndrome. We reported a case of nephrotic syndrome with renovascular hypertension successfully treated with candesartan. In eldery patients cardiovascular diseases are appeared. It is very important for clinicians to detect the mechanism of nephrotic syndrome caused by cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15500142

  4. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular function basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Karlsson, Anders Hans;

    2010-01-01

    To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets.......To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets....

  5. Variability in Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation in Healthy and Cardiovascular Compromised Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular bases for variability in air pollutant-induced pulmonary injury due to underlying cardiovascular (CVD) and/or metabolic diseases are unknown. We hypothesized that healthy and genetic CVD-prone rat models will exhibit exacerbated response to acute ozone exposure depe...

  6. Acute Myocardial Infarction Due To Electrical Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Uzkeser M et al.

    2011-01-01

    Rhythm abnormalities (conduction defects, tachycardia, and arrhythmia)due to electric shock are common. Rarely, myocardial infarction may beseen in these patients. This situation is generally caused by coronaryartery vasospasm and direct myocardial damage. In this report, wepresent a rare case of myocardial infarction due to electric shock.

  7. Mortality due to injuries in Maputo City, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamo, Hanifa; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Zacarias, Eugénio;

    2006-01-01

    Records of all registered deaths due to injuries maintained by the Legal Medicine Department in Maputo City for the period 1 January to 31 December 2000 were reviewed. Among the 1135 registered deaths, road traffic injuries accounted for the most common underlying cause of death (43.7%), followed...... by firearm discharge (8.7%) and burns (7.8%). For all deaths, skull fracture (21.9%), organ system injury (17.2%) and brain tissue injury (9.3%) were the most important intermediate causes of death and among the immediate causes of death acute anaemia (21.9%) was the most common followed by asphyxia (14...

  8. Cardiovascular collapse after myocardial infarction due to centipede bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üreyen, Çağin Mustafa; Arslan, Şakir; Baş, Cem Yunus

    2015-07-01

    Centipede bites have been reported to cause localized and/or systemic symptoms including local pain, erythema and edema, nausea and vomiting, palpitations, headache, lymphadenopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. However, acute myocardial infarction due to centipede envenomation is reported in only three cases in English medical literature.We present a case of 31-year-old male bitten by a golden colored centipede leading to myocardial infarction and cardiopulmonary arrest which is seen very rarely. The patient was admitted to emergency department with a swollen and painful right foot. However, typical chest pain became the major complaint and cardiopulmonary arrest developed while electrocardiography was being obtained. The patient was resuscitated successfully for 5 min and acute infero-posterolateral myocardial infarction was detected on electrocardiography. PMID:25994876

  9. The Lightning Heart: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Cardiovascular Complications of Lightning Injury

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, William F; Simpson, Christopher S.; Redfearn, Damian P; Abdollah, Hoshiar; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Lightning strike is a rare natural phenomenon, which carries a risk of dramatic medical complications to multiple organ systems and a high risk of fatality. The known complications include but are not limited to: myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac contusion, stroke, cutaneous burns, respiratory disorders, neurological disorders, acute kidney injury and death. We report a case of a healthy young man who suffered a lightning injury and discuss the cardiovascular complications of lightni...

  10. Ideomotor Apraxia Due to Injury of the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Jang, Woo Hyuk

    2016-08-01

    We report on a patient who showed ideomotor apraxia due to injury of the superior longitudinal fasciculus following brain tumor and tumor bleeding, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 60-yr-old, right-handed male patient underwent removal of brain meningioma and drainage of intraventricular hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage in the left fronto-parietal lobe. At the time of DTT scanning (5 wk after onset), he was able to move the right upper extremity against gravity. The patient exhibited an intact ideational plan for motor performance. In addition, he was able to use actual objects (scissors, eraser) using his right wrist and hand. However, he had difficulty in using his right upper extremity for pantomime of object use, imitating gestures (meaningless or meaningful), and movement of his right upper extremity proximal. Score on the ideomotor apraxia test for the right side was 4 (cut-off score apraxia in this patient. PMID:27003199

  11. Acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis due to multiple wasp stings

    OpenAIRE

    Hemachandar Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    In most patients, wasp stings cause local reactions and rarely anaphylaxis. Acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis are unusual complications of wasp stings. We report a case of acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis secondary to multiple wasp stings. A 55-year-old farmer developed multi organ dysfunction with acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis 3 days after he had sustained multiple wasp stings. The etiology of acute kidney injury is probably both rhabdomyolysis and acute tubular necrosis....

  12. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OZONE-INDUCED INJURY AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION IN RAT MODELS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant status are common pathologic factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It is hypothesized that individuals with chronic CVD are more susceptible to environmental exposures due to underlying oxidative stress. To determine the ...

  13. Orthopaedic admissions due to sports and recreation injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delaney, R A

    2009-02-01

    The health benefits of exercise may be attenuated by sports and recreation related injury (SRI). Though the majority of SRI are mild and self-limiting, a significant number are serious and require orthopaedic intervention. The aims of this study were to assess the burden of these serious injuries on the orthopaedic inpatient service, and to investigate potential target areas for injury prevention. All 1,590 SRI seen in the ED over a 3-month period were analysed using the Patient Information Management System to determine which patients received inpatient orthopaedic care. The medical records of those 63 patients who required inpatient care under orthopaedics were reviewed and data collected on demographic features, history, operative procedure and theatre resources, and length of hospital stay. Data were analyzed using SPSS. SRI accounted for 12.3% of all ED presentations. The principal activities resulting in injury requiring orthopaedic care were soccer, hurling and informal play e.g. trampoline. Falls made up 37% of the overall mechanism of injury but 68% of the injuries severe enough to require operative management. Most operative procedures were performed as part of a routine day trauma list but 20% were performed out of hours. This group of injuries places a significant burden on a busy trauma service. Injury prevention measures such as public education regarding falls in sport may have a role in reducing this burden.

  14. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Joondeph, Stephanie A.; Joondeph, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  15. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joondeph, Stephanie A; Joondeph, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions. PMID:24106626

  16. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Joondeph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  17. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    Guillory, Ashley N.; Clayton, Robert P.; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C.

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of ...

  18. Isolated fracture of the fibular shaft due to alpine skiing; a specific injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Atıl Atilla, Ozkan Kose, Ferhat Guler, H

    2013-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal injuries of lower leg due to alpine skiing is well known and widely reported, an acute isolated fibula fracture as a specific ski injury has not been reported in the relevant literature. Herein, we present a case of isolated fibula fracture which is missed at initial admission, and discuss the mechanism of injury and relationship with alpine skiing equipment.

  19. Personality Change due to Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Neurocognitive Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D; Hanten, Gerri; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell J.; Saunders, Ann E.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Wesley K. Thompson; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2015-01-01

    Personality Change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. The aim of the study was to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included children (n=177) aged 5-14 years with traumatic brain injury from consecutive admissions to 5 trauma centers were followed prospectively at baseline and 6 months with semi-structured psychiatric interviews. Injury severity, socioeconomic stat...

  20. [Unusual fatal thoracic injury due to glass splinters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, V; Soral, A

    1976-05-01

    The authors report on a case of unusual lethal penetrating puncture-incised thoracic wound in a male aged 33 following an incidental fall into the glass panel of a glass-panelled door. The glass splinters of the bre. The case as well as the pertinent literatury data and to the diagnostic problems pertaining to the determination of the injurious mechanism. PMID:1013734

  1. A case of lethal soft tissue injuries due to assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagawa Y

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Youichi Yanagawa,1 Yoshimasa Kanawaku,2 Jun Kanetake21Department of Emergency and Disaster Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, 2Department of Forensic Medicine, National Defense Medical College, Saitama, JapanAbstract: A 42-year-old male had been assaulted by his family over the two previous days and went into a deep coma. When the emergency technician arrived, the patient was in a state of cardiopulmonary arrest. On arrival, his electrocardiogram showed asystole. His body showed swelling with subcutaneous hemorrhage, suggesting multiple contusional wounds. Serum biochemistry evaluation revealed blood urea nitrogen of 80 mg/dL, creatinine of 5.99 mg/dL, creatine phosphokinase of 10,094 IU/L, and potassium of 11.0 mEq/L. Advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation failed to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation. Laboratory findings revealed rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and hyperkalemia. Autopsy did not indicate the direct cause of death to be traumatic organ injuries. Because trauma was not the direct reason of death, we speculated that the patient died of hyperkalemia induced by multiple contusional soft tissue injuries, following rhabdomyolysis, hemolysis, and acute renal failure. The physician should maintain a high index of suspicion for hyperkalemia induced by rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, especially in patients presenting with symptoms of multiple soft tissue injuries with massive subcutaneous hemorrhaging.Keywords: contusion, rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, hyperkalemia

  2. Brain injuries due to neonatal hypoglycemia: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although hypoglycemia may be common among neonates, brain injuries resulting from isolated neonatal hypoglycemia are rare. The condition may cause neurological symptoms such as stupor, jitteriness, and seizures, though in their absence, diagnosis delayed or difficult. Hypoglycemia was diagnosed in a three-day-old neonate after he visited the emergency department with loose stool, poor oral intake, and decreased activity, first experienced two days earlier. Two days after his visity, several episodes of seizure occurred. T2 and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) scanning, performed at 11 days of age, revealed bilateral and symmetrical high signal intensity lesions in occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes. We report the MR findings of hypoglycemic encephalopathy in a neonate

  3. Brain injuries due to neonatal hypoglycemia: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Bong; Song, Chang Joon; Chang, Mae Young; Youn, Hyae Won [College of Medicine, Chungram National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Although hypoglycemia may be common among neonates, brain injuries resulting from isolated neonatal hypoglycemia are rare. The condition may cause neurological symptoms such as stupor, jitteriness, and seizures, though in their absence, diagnosis delayed or difficult. Hypoglycemia was diagnosed in a three-day-old neonate after he visited the emergency department with loose stool, poor oral intake, and decreased activity, first experienced two days earlier. Two days after his visity, several episodes of seizure occurred. T2 and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) scanning, performed at 11 days of age, revealed bilateral and symmetrical high signal intensity lesions in occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes. We report the MR findings of hypoglycemic encephalopathy in a neonate.

  4. Ureteric Injury due to the Use of LigaSure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. LigaSure is a bipolar clamping device used in open and laparoscopic surgeries for producing haemostasis in vascular pedicles up to 7 mm in diameter (“Covidien LigaSure technology: consistent, reliable, trusted vessel sealing,” 2012. The use of LigaSure has made securing haemostasis and tissue dissection relatively easy especially in laparoscopic surgery; however, if not used with care it can cause damage to the surrounding structures through lateral spread of energy. Case Report. This case report discusses the induction of a thermal ureteral injury associated with the use of LigaSure. An 80-year-old gentleman was operated for bowel cancer. LigaSure was used for securing haemostasis and tissue dissection. Postoperatively, he was found to have damage to the right ureter secondary to lateral spread of energy from the jaws of LigaSure with high abdominal drain output. Conclusion. Judicious and careful use of electrosurgical devices should be done to prevent inadvertent damage to the surrounding structures. Early recognition and involvement of a urologist can prevent long-term complications.

  5. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley N. Guillory

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of drugs targeted at reducing aspects of the post-burn hypermetabolic response such as heart rate and cardiac work, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce cardiac dysfunction in the severely burned. There are many animal models of burn injury, from rodents, to sheep or swine, but the majority of burn related cardiovascular investigations have occurred in rat and mouse models. This literature review consolidates the data supporting the prevalent role that β-adrenergic receptors play in mediating post-burn cardiac dysfunction and the idea that pharmacological modulation of this receptor family is a viable therapeutic target for resolving burn-induced cardiac deficits.

  6. Cardiovascular Dysfunction Following Burn Injury: What We Have Learned from Rat and Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Ashley N.; Clayton, Robert P.; Herndon, David N.; Finnerty, Celeste C.

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn profoundly affects organs both proximal and distal to the actual burn site. Cardiovascular dysfunction is a well-documented phenomenon that increases morbidity and mortality following a massive thermal trauma. Beginning immediately post-burn, during the ebb phase, cardiac function is severely depressed. By 48 h post-injury, cardiac function rebounds and the post-burn myocardium becomes tachycardic and hyperinflammatory. While current clinical trials are investigating a variety of drugs targeted at reducing aspects of the post-burn hypermetabolic response such as heart rate and cardiac work, there is still a paucity of knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce cardiac dysfunction in the severely burned. There are many animal models of burn injury, from rodents, to sheep or swine, but the majority of burn related cardiovascular investigations have occurred in rat and mouse models. This literature review consolidates the data supporting the prevalent role that β-adrenergic receptors play in mediating post-burn cardiac dysfunction and the idea that pharmacological modulation of this receptor family is a viable therapeutic target for resolving burn-induced cardiac deficits. PMID:26729111

  7. Injuries Due to Inpatient Falls: Report of Two Consecutive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskay Kaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to present two consecutive fall cases in order to remind importance of  fall precautions. Two patients were injured in traffic accidents in two different cities, during transportation to university hospitals. They had different malignancies and were coming to receive their chemotherapy. Both patients were admitted to our surgical clinic for close observation due to the traffic accidents. They fell from their beds in the ward during the night shift in the first 24 hours after admission. They were treated for additional trauma and more time and source was spent for diagnosis and treatment. Thus their main oncologic treatments were delayed.

  8. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  9. Iliac Artery and Vein Injury Without Pelvic Fracture Due To Blunt Trauma: A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cuneyt Cicek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Iliac vascular injuries have high morbidity and mortality rates. Penetrant abdominal and pelvic vascular injuries are more common compared to blunt traumas. Pelvic vascular injuries associated with blunt trauma are quite likely to occur in accompaniment with pelvic fracture. A 23 year old male patient was admitted to the emergency room due to a motorcycle accident. Shock picture was prevalent in the patient. Shaft fracture was present in left femur and flow was not detected in arterial and venous colour Doppler ultrasonography. Patient underwent emergency surgery. Left main iliac artery and vein were normal, however, external iliac vein was lacerated in two spots, and blood vessel wall integrity was damaged in one part of left external iliac artery. Clinical presentation and traumatic retroperitoneal hematoma management of iliac artery and venous injuries due to blunt trauma without pelvic fracture are discussed in the presented case.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of black tea and nicotine alone or in combination against experimental induced heart injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukar, Siyavash; Bashiri, Hamideh; Dabiri, Shahriar; Ghotbi, Payam; Sarveazad, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Joukar, Farzin; Abbaszadeh, Mahsa

    2012-06-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the outcome of subchronic co-administration of black tea and nicotine on cardiovascular performance and whether these substances could modulate the isoproterenol-induced cardiac injury. Animal groups were control, black tea, nicotine and black tea plus nicotine. Test groups received nicotine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and black tea brewed (p.o.) each alone and in combination for 4 weeks. On the 28th day, myocardial damage was induced by isoproterenol (50 mg/kg i.p.), and blood samples were taken. On day 29, after hemodynamic parameters recording, hearts were removed for histopathological evaluation. Tea or nicotine consumption had no significant effects on hemodynamic indices of animals without heart damage. When the cardiac injury was induced, tea consumption maintained the maximum dp/dt, and nicotine significantly decreased the pressure-rate product. Moreover, severity of heart lesions was lower in the presence of nicotine or black tea. Concomitant use of these materials did not show extra effects on mentioned parameters more than the effect of each of them alone. The results suggest that subchronic administration of black tea or nicotine for a period of 4 weeks may have a mild cardioprotective effect, while concomitant use of these materials cannot intensify this beneficial effect.

  11. Nitric Oxide as a Mediator of Oxidant Lung Injury Due to Paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Hasan I.; Pakbaz, Hedayatollah; Absood, Afaf; Said, Sami I.

    1994-08-01

    At low concentrations, nitric oxide is a physiological transmitter, but in excessive concentrations it may cause cell and tissue injury. We report that in acute oxidant injury induced by the herbicide paraquat in isolated guinea pig lungs, nitric oxide synthesis was markedly stimulated, as evidenced by increased levels of cyclic GMP in lung perfusate and of nitrite and L-citrulline production in lung tissue. All signs of injury, including increased airway and perfusion pressures, pulmonary edema, and protein leakage into the airspaces, were dose-dependently attenuated or totally prevented by either N^G-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or N^ω-nitro-L-arginine, selective and competitive inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase. Protection was reversed by excess L-arginine but not by its enantiomer D-arginine. When blood was added to the lung perfusate, the paraquat injury was moderated or delayed as it was when paraquat was given to anesthetized guinea pigs. The rapid onset of injury and its failure to occur in the absence of Ca2+ suggest that constitutive rather than inducible nitric oxide synthase was responsible for the stimulated nitric oxide synthesis. The findings indicate that nitric oxide plays a critical role in the production of lung tissue injury due to paraquat, and it may be a pathogenetic factor in other forms of oxidant tissue injury.

  12. Assessing the Risk of Crew Injury Due to Dynamic Loads During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, J. T.; Gernhardt, M.; Newby, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight requires tremendous amounts of energy to achieve Earth orbit and to attain escape velocity for interplanetary missions. Although the majority of the energy is managed in such a way as to limit the accelerations on the crew, several mission phases may result in crew exposure to dynamic loads. In the automotive industry, risk of serious injury can be tolerated because the probability of a crash is remote each time a person enters a vehicle, resulting in a low total risk of injury. For spaceflight, the level of acceptable injury risk must be lower to achieve a low total risk of injury because the dynamic loads are expected on each flight. To mitigate the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, the NASA Human Research Program has developed a research plan to inform the knowledge gaps and develop relevant tools for assessing injury risk. The risk of injury due to dynamic loads can be further subdivided into extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors. Extrinsic risk factors include the vehicle dynamic profile, seat and restraint design, and spacesuit design. Human tolerance to loads varies considerably depending on the direction, amplitude, and rise-time of acceleration therefore the orientation of the body to the dynamic vector is critical to determining crew risk of injury. Although a particular vehicle dynamic profile may be safe for a particular design, the seat, restraint, and suit designs can affect the risk of injury due to localized effects. In addition, characteristics intrinsic to the crewmember may also contribute to the risk of injury, such as crewmember sex, age, anthropometry, and deconditioning due to spaceflight, and each astronaut may have a different risk profile because of these factors. The purpose of the research plan is to address any knowledge gaps in the risk factors to mitigate injury risk. Methods for assessing injury risk have been well documented in other analogous industries and include human volunteer testing, human exposure to dynamic

  13. Lumbopelvic control and days missed due to injury in professional baseball pitchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ajit M.W.; McKenzie, Christopher S.; Pan, Xueliang; Oñate, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently lumbopelvic control has been linked to pitching performance, kinematics and loading; however, poor lumbopelvic control has not been prospectively investigated as a risk factor for injury in baseball pitchers. Hypothesis Pitchers with poor lumbopelvic control during spring training are more likely to miss 30 or more days due to injury through an entire baseball season than pitchers with good lumbopelvic control. Study design Cohort study. Methods Three hundred forty-seven professional baseball pitchers were enrolled into the study during the last 2 weeks of spring training and stayed with the same team for the entire season. Lumbopelvic control was quantified by peak anterior-posterior deviation of the pelvis relative to starting position during a single leg raise test (APScore). Days missed due to injury through the entire season were recorded by each team's medical staff. Results Higher APScore was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of missing 30 days or more (Chi-Square, p=0.023). When divided into tertiles based on their APScore, participants in the highest tertile were 3.0 times and 2.2 times more likely to miss at least 30 days throughout the course of a baseball season relative to those in the lowest or middle tertiles, respectively. Higher APScore was also significantly associated with missing more days due to injury within participants who missed at least one day to injury (ANOVA, p=0.018), with the highest tertile missing significantly more days (mean=98.6 d) than the middle tertile (mean=45.8d, p=0.017) or the lowest tertile (mean=43.8, p=0.017). Conclusion This study found that poor lumbopelvic control in professional pitchers was associated with increased risk of missing significant time due to injury. PMID:25159541

  14. Personality Change Due to Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents: Neurocognitive Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Jeffrey E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Bigler, Erin D; Hanten, Gerri; Dennis, Maureen; Schachar, Russell J; Saunders, Ann E; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B; Thompson, Wesley K; Yang, Tony T; Levin, Harvey S

    2015-01-01

    Personality change due to traumatic brain injury (PC) in children is an important psychiatric complication of injury and is a form of severe affective dysregulation. This study aimed to examine neurocognitive correlates of PC. The sample included 177 children 5-14 years old with traumatic brain injury who were enrolled from consecutive admissions to five trauma centers. Patients were followed up prospectively at baseline and at 6 months, and they were assessed with semistructured psychiatric interviews. Injury severity, socioeconomic status, and neurocognitive function (measures of attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, verbal working memory, executive function, naming/reading, expressive language, motor speed, and motor inhibition) were assessed with standardized instruments. Unremitted PC was present in 26 (18%) of 141 participants assessed at 6 months postinjury. Attention, processing speed, verbal memory, IQ, and executive function were significantly associated with PC even after socioeconomic status, injury severity, and preinjury attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were controlled. These findings are a first step in characterizing concomitant cognitive impairments associated with PC. The results have implications beyond brain injury to potentially elucidate the neurocognitive symptom complex associated with mood instability regardless of etiology.

  15. Economic Burden of Hospitalization Due to Injuries in North India: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Aggarwal, Sameer; Nguyen, Ha; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is little documentation of the potential catastrophic effects of injuries on families due to out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for medical care. Patients who were admitted for at least one night in a tertiary care hospital of Chandigarh city due to injury were recruited and were followed-up at 1, 2 and 12 months after discharge to collect information on OOP expenditure. Out of the total 227 patients, 60% (137/227) had sustained road traffic injuries (RTI). The average OOP expenditure per hospitalisation and up to 12 months post discharge was USD 388 (95% CI: 332–441) and USD 1046 (95% CI: 871–1221) respectively. Mean OOP expenditure for RTI and non-RTI cases during hospitalisation was USD 400 (95% CI: 344–456) and USD 369 (95% CI: 313–425) respectively. The prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was 30%, and was significantly higher among those belonging to the lowest income quartile (OR-26.50, 95% CI: 6.70–105.07, p-value: <0.01) and with an inpatient stay greater than 7 days (OR-10.60, 95% CI: 4.21–26.64, p-value: <0.01). High OOP expenditure for treatment of injury puts a significant economic burden on families. Measures aimed at increasing public health spending for prevention of injury and providing financial risk protection are urgently required in India. PMID:27384572

  16. Economic Burden of Hospitalization Due to Injuries in North India: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Aggarwal, Sameer; Nguyen, Ha; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is little documentation of the potential catastrophic effects of injuries on families due to out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for medical care. Patients who were admitted for at least one night in a tertiary care hospital of Chandigarh city due to injury were recruited and were followed-up at 1, 2 and 12 months after discharge to collect information on OOP expenditure. Out of the total 227 patients, 60% (137/227) had sustained road traffic injuries (RTI). The average OOP expenditure per hospitalisation and up to 12 months post discharge was USD 388 (95% CI: 332-441) and USD 1046 (95% CI: 871-1221) respectively. Mean OOP expenditure for RTI and non-RTI cases during hospitalisation was USD 400 (95% CI: 344-456) and USD 369 (95% CI: 313-425) respectively. The prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was 30%, and was significantly higher among those belonging to the lowest income quartile (OR-26.50, 95% CI: 6.70-105.07, p-value: expenditure for treatment of injury puts a significant economic burden on families. Measures aimed at increasing public health spending for prevention of injury and providing financial risk protection are urgently required in India. PMID:27384572

  17. Economic Burden of Hospitalization Due to Injuries in North India: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is little documentation of the potential catastrophic effects of injuries on families due to out of pocket (OOP expenditure for medical care. Patients who were admitted for at least one night in a tertiary care hospital of Chandigarh city due to injury were recruited and were followed-up at 1, 2 and 12 months after discharge to collect information on OOP expenditure. Out of the total 227 patients, 60% (137/227 had sustained road traffic injuries (RTI. The average OOP expenditure per hospitalisation and up to 12 months post discharge was USD 388 (95% CI: 332–441 and USD 1046 (95% CI: 871–1221 respectively. Mean OOP expenditure for RTI and non-RTI cases during hospitalisation was USD 400 (95% CI: 344–456 and USD 369 (95% CI: 313–425 respectively. The prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was 30%, and was significantly higher among those belonging to the lowest income quartile (OR-26.50, 95% CI: 6.70–105.07, p-value: <0.01 and with an inpatient stay greater than 7 days (OR-10.60, 95% CI: 4.21–26.64, p-value: <0.01. High OOP expenditure for treatment of injury puts a significant economic burden on families. Measures aimed at increasing public health spending for prevention of injury and providing financial risk protection are urgently required in India.

  18. Contemporary Cardiovascular Concerns after Spinal Cord Injury: Mechanisms, Maladaptations, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Aaron A; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-12-15

    Cardiovascular (CV) issues after spinal cord injury (SCI) are of paramount importance considering they are the leading cause of death in this population. Disruption of autonomic pathways leads to a highly unstable CV system, with impaired blood pressure (BP) and heart rate regulation. In addition to low resting BP, on a daily basis the majority of those with SCI suffer from transient episodes of aberrantly low and high BP (termed orthostatic hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia, respectively). In fact, autonomic issues, including resolution of autonomic dysreflexia, are frequently ranked by individuals with high-level SCI to be of greater priority than walking again. Owing to a combination of these autonomic disturbances and a myriad of lifestyle factors, the pernicious process of CV disease is accelerated post-SCI. Unfortunately, these secondary consequences of SCI are only beginning to receive appropriate clinical attention. Immediately after high-level SCI, major CV abnormalities present in the form of neurogenic shock. After subsiding, new issues related to BP instability arise, including orthostatic hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia. This review describes autonomic control over the CV system before injury and the mechanisms underlying CV abnormalities post-SCI, while also detailing the end-organ consequences, including those of the heart, as well as the systemic and cerebral vasculature. The tertiary impact of CV dysfunction will also be discussed, such as the potential impediment of rehabilitation, and impaired cognitive function. In the recent past, our understanding of autonomic dysfunctions post-SCI has been greatly enhanced; however, it is vital to further develop our understanding of the long-term consequences of these conditions, which will equip us to better manage CV disease morbidity and mortality in this population. PMID:25962761

  19. Contemporary Cardiovascular Concerns after Spinal Cord Injury: Mechanisms, Maladaptations, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Aaron A; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2015-12-15

    Cardiovascular (CV) issues after spinal cord injury (SCI) are of paramount importance considering they are the leading cause of death in this population. Disruption of autonomic pathways leads to a highly unstable CV system, with impaired blood pressure (BP) and heart rate regulation. In addition to low resting BP, on a daily basis the majority of those with SCI suffer from transient episodes of aberrantly low and high BP (termed orthostatic hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia, respectively). In fact, autonomic issues, including resolution of autonomic dysreflexia, are frequently ranked by individuals with high-level SCI to be of greater priority than walking again. Owing to a combination of these autonomic disturbances and a myriad of lifestyle factors, the pernicious process of CV disease is accelerated post-SCI. Unfortunately, these secondary consequences of SCI are only beginning to receive appropriate clinical attention. Immediately after high-level SCI, major CV abnormalities present in the form of neurogenic shock. After subsiding, new issues related to BP instability arise, including orthostatic hypotension and autonomic dysreflexia. This review describes autonomic control over the CV system before injury and the mechanisms underlying CV abnormalities post-SCI, while also detailing the end-organ consequences, including those of the heart, as well as the systemic and cerebral vasculature. The tertiary impact of CV dysfunction will also be discussed, such as the potential impediment of rehabilitation, and impaired cognitive function. In the recent past, our understanding of autonomic dysfunctions post-SCI has been greatly enhanced; however, it is vital to further develop our understanding of the long-term consequences of these conditions, which will equip us to better manage CV disease morbidity and mortality in this population.

  20. Occlusive thrombi arise in mammals but not birds in response to arterial injury: evolutionary insight into human cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schmaier, Alec A.; Stalker, Timothy J.; Runge, Jeffrey J.; Lee, Dooyoung; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Mericko, Patricia; Chen, Mei; Cliché, Simon; Gariépy, Claude; Brass, Lawrence F.; Hammer, Daniel A.; Weisel, John W.; Rosenthal, Karen; Kahn, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian platelets are small, anuclear circulating cells that form tightly adherent, shear-resistant thrombi to prevent blood loss after vessel injury. Platelet thrombi that form in coronary and carotid arteries also underlie common vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke and are the target of drugs used to treat these diseases. Birds have high-pressure cardiovascular systems like mammals but generate nucleated thrombocytes rather than platelets. Here, we show that avian t...

  1. Median Nerve Injury Due to High-Pressure Water Jet Injection: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emre, Ufuk; Unal, Aysun

    2009-08-01

    High-pressure injuries that occur accidentally are potentially destructive injuries that often affect the nondominant hands of young men. A variety of products such as paint, gasoline, grease, fuel oil, cement, thinner and solvents have been reported as destructive agents. High-pressure water jet injection injuries to soft tissues have rarely been reported. In this study, we present the first case of median nerve injury due to high-pressure water jet injection by a water spray gun. PMID:26815059

  2. Venous thromboembolism and subsequent hospitalisation due to acute arterial cardiovascular events: a 20-year cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Horvath-Puho, Erzsebet; Pedersen, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    of myocardial infarction and stroke in 25,199 patients with deep venous thrombosis, 16,925 patients with pulmonary embolism, and 163,566 population controls. FINDINGS: For patients with deep venous thrombosis, the relative risks varied from 1.60 for myocardial infarction (95% CI 1.35-1.91) to 2.19 (1......-up, with 20-40% increases in risk for arterial cardiovascular events. Relative risks were similar for those with provoked and unprovoked deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. INTERPRETATION: Patients with venous thromboembolism have a substantially increased long-term risk of subsequent arterial......BACKGROUND: In some studies, venous thromboembolism has been associated with atherosclerosis and with the risk of arterial cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Other studies, however, do not show this association. To help clarify these discrepant findings, we aimed...

  3. CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Hiroshi (St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    The CT findings of pulmonary parenchymal injury due to blunt chest trauma in 73 patients and their clinical significance were analyzed. CT was obtained within 6 hours after trauma. Findings were analyzed according to the number of injured segments and severity which was classified into three grades. A correlation was also made with arterial blood PaO{sub 2} and thoracic complications. Pulmonary parenchymal injury was identified in multisegmental portions bilaterally in most cases. It was most frequently observed in the posterior portion of the lung such as segment 6. More than 50% of lesions were classified as Grade 1. Pulmonary laceration, defined as patchy density with the cavitary lesion (Grade 3), was noted in 9.2%. There was a good correlation between extent of pulmonary injury and degree of hypoxia. The correlation of pneumothorax was also found with extensive lesion and frequency of Grade 3 lesion. Cases with pulmonary laceration tend to have extensive injury, and be related to the degree of hypoxia. In conclusion, CT evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal injury is valuable not only for morphological evaluation but also for estimation of hypoxia. (author).

  4. Primary oculomotor nerve palsy due to mild head injury. Report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients with primary oculomotor nerve palsy due to direct mild head injury are reported. They presented with internal ophthalmoplegia, dilated nonreactive pupils, and very mild disturbance in consciousness. Except for the persistent oculomotor nerve palsy, both the patients recovered fully within one week. Neither demonstrated a history that was suggestive of a cause for their oculomotor nerve palsy. Initial CT scans demonstrated localized subarachnoid hemorrhage around the brain stem. One of the patients had sustained a fracture of the anterior clinoid process. As the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the oculomotor nerve palsy we suspected mild injury to the pupillomotor fibers at the anterior petroclinoidal ligament and that of the pupillary fibers at the posterior petroclinoidal ligament. We speculate that these perforating fibers at the anterior petroclinoidal ligament acted as a fulcrum due to downward displacement of the brainstem at the time of impact. (author)

  5. Treatment of Uroschesis due to Spinal Cord Injury by Acupuncture in 32 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhi-gang; YOU Bin

    2003-01-01

    Treated uroschesis due to spinal cord injury in 32 cases with acupuncture therapy (acupuncture group) and compared with Neostigmine injection (control group). In acupucture group, 10 cases got clinical recovery, 17 efficacy and 5 inefficacy, with an effective rate of 84.4%; among 32 cases in control group, 3 cases got clinical recovery, 15 efficacy and 14 inefficacy, the effecrive rate was 56.2%.

  6. Unusual presentations of acute kidney injury and neurologic complications due to snake bite

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Noshad; Reza Rikhtegar; Mehdi Hagdoost; Masood Dinevari; Hosein Mahmoodi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vascularity of kidneys is very high, so these organs are potentially susceptible to be affected with toxins including snake venom. Hypersensitivity to snake venous could cause some neurological problem. Case Report: We present a 14-year-old boy with acute kidney injury (AKI) due to snake bite. After a few days, kidney failure with hematuria was developed. His serum creatinine level rose to 3 mg/dl and following 2 weeks gradually and d...

  7. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2014-02-01

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer.

  8. EFFECTS OF HYBRID CYCLE AND HANDCYCLE EXERCISE ON CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS IN PEOPLE WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY : A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; Paulson, Thomas A. W.; Bishop, Nicolette C.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.; Stolwijk-Swuste, Janneke M.; van Kuppevelt, Dirk J.; de Groot, Sonja; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a 16-week exercise programme, using either a hybrid cycle or a handcycle, on cardiovascular disease risk factors in people with spinal cord injury. Participants: Nineteen individuals with spinal cord injury >= 8 years. Design: Multicentre randomized controlled tr

  9. [A case of a penetrating brain injury due to an explosion of a construction machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibayashi, Kenji; Tsutsumi, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, Gakushi; Uno, Takeshi; Shimada, Shiko; Kawashima, Mariko; Koizumi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Yushi

    2012-05-01

    Penetrating brain injury caused by a high speed projectile is rather rare in Japan, known for its strict gun-control laws. We report a case of a 55-year-old male, who was transferred to our hospital with a foreign body in the brain due to penetrating head injury, which was caused by an explosion of a construction machine. Neurological examination demonstrated severe motor aphagia with no apparent motor paresis. The patient had a scalp laceration on his left forehead with exposed cerebral tissue and CSF leakage. Head CT scan and plain skull X-ray revealed a 20 mm×25 mm bolt which had penetrated due to the explosion of the machine. The anterior wall of the left frontal sinus was fractured resulting in dural laceration, and scattered bone fragments were seen along the trajectory of the bolt. Digital subtraction angiography showed no significant vascular injuries including superior sagittal sinus. We performed open surgery, and successfully removed the bolt along with the damaged frontal lobe. The patient had no infection or seizure after the surgery, and was transferred for further rehabilitation therapy. We performed a cosmetic cranioplasty six months later. Surgical debridement of the damaged cerebral tissue along the trajectory led to successful removal of the bolt with no further neurological deficit. PMID:22538284

  10. Management of a Patient With Faciocervical Burns and Inhalational Injury Due to Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhai, Zhang; Xingang, Wang; Liangfang, Ni; Chunmao, Han

    2014-05-01

    Hydrofluoric acid, a highly dangerous substance, can cause tissue damage and systemic toxicity by its unique mechanisms. Many cases of severe faciocervical burns due to hydrofluoric acid exposure are lethal. Herein, we present a case of 37-year-old man who suffered from hydrofluoric acid burns to his face, anterior neck, lips, and nasal cavity. On admission, this patient coughed with much sputum, and the chest auscultation detected rough breath sounds, wheezes, and very weak heart sounds, indicating possible inhalation injury. This case highlights the extreme complexity of managing this kind of injury. Timely and accurate wound treatment and respiratory tract care, as well as active systematic support treatment, played vital roles in the management of this patient.

  11. Iris rubeosis and hyphema caused by chemical injury due to household detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto,1,2 Tetsuya Ishizuka,1 Hiroshi Toshida31Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Kuki, Saitama, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanAbstract: We report an unusual case of iris rubeosis and hyphema caused by chemical injury due to household detergent. A 74-year-old man with a 15-year history of diabetes mellitus was refilling a container with household detergent at home. He splashed the detergent in his eyes. Slit-lamp examination revealed extensive epithelial damage to the left eye, leading to a persistent corneal epithelial defect. We used a bandage soft contact lens with levofloxacin eye drops as concomitant therapy in order to promote healing. However, a strain of fluoroquinolone-resistant Corynebacterium colonized the eye, so that the corneal ulcer eventually became severe. Use of the bandage soft contact lens was discontinued. His antimicrobial agent was changed to cefmenoxime, a drug to which fluoroquinolone-resistant Corynebacterium is sensitive, and topical instillation of autologous serum subsequently promoted improvement of the ulcer. On day 38 after injury, iris rubeosis led to hyphema and ghost cell glaucoma. With improvement of his corneal epithelial defect, the iris rubeosis and hyphema regressed and his visual acuity improved to 20/25 on the left eye. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case resulting in severe complications due to chemical injury by a neutral detergent. Ophthalmologists should be aware that corneal epithelial damage may become prolonged in elderly patients with diabetes, and unexpectedly severe when wearing bandage soft contact lens, with infection of Corynebacterium resistant to fluoroquinolones, even if the chemical agent is a neutral detergent.Keywords: chemical injury, household detergent, persistent corneal

  12. [Pathogenic variants of brain injuries and pharmalogic cerebroprotection performed on the model of brain condition during cardiovascular bypass surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygan, N V; Trashkov, A P

    2014-10-01

    Developed and approved a pathogenic grounded experimental model of brain condition during cardiovascular bypass surgery. Undertaken in Wistar rats research allowed to evaluate in detail effectiveness and safety of protracted cerebroprotective treatment. Advantages of this model are researches in laboratory animals with the aim to research condition of nerve tissue, not intensive procedures and consequently high reproducibility and possibility of complex evaluation of changes at every stage of research. Results of neurons, neuroglia and activation of neurotrophic mechanisms prove that simulation of brain condition during cardiovascular bypass surgery is accompanied with acute and delayed brain injuries. Use of Cytoflavin under pharmalogic cerebroprotection had prolonged multimodal and neuroprotactive effect, leading to improvement of neurotrophic protection from the first days.

  13. Cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea are enhanced in hypertensive rats due to enhanced chemoreceptor responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angheben, Juliana M M; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M; Rossi, Marcio V; Silva, Thiago A; Cravo, Sergio L

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY). Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (pchemoreceptors were then inactivated by the ligation of the carotid body artery, and apneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea.

  14. Health care consumption and costs due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands, 1986-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Boer, Annette; Schepers, Tim; Panneman, Martien; Van Beeck, Ed; Lieshout, Esther

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Foot and ankle injuries account for a large proportion of Emergency Department attendance. The aim of this study was to assess population-based trends in attendances due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands since 1986, and to provide a detailed analysis of health care costs in these patients. Methods. Age- and gender-standardized emergency attendance rates and incidence rates for hospital admission were calculated for each year of the study. Injury cases and h...

  15. Unusual presentations of acute kidney injury and neurologic complications due to snake bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Noshad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascularity of kidneys is very high, so these organs are potentially susceptible to be affected with toxins including snake venom. Hypersensitivity to snake venous could cause some neurological problem. Case Report: We present a 14-year-old boy with acute kidney injury (AKI due to snake bite. After a few days, kidney failure with hematuria was developed. His serum creatinine level rose to 3 mg/dl and following 2 weeks gradually and decreased to normal level without any special treatment except for anti-venom, which was not prescribed inappropriate time (this type of AKI is not reported previously. He had seizure attacks, which were according to magnetic resonance imaging due to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES (This neurologic complication has been seen in other kidney injuries but up to now it was not reported in snake bite victims. Conclusion: Sanke venom could cause PRES due to AKI and seizure could be one of the most important complications in snake bite.

  16. Hybrid cadaveric/surrogate model of thoracolumbar spine injury due to simulated fall from height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2013-10-01

    A fall from high height can cause thoracolumbar spine fracture with retropulsion of endplate fragments into the canal leading to neurological deficit. Our objectives were to develop a hybrid cadaveric/surrogate model for producing thoracolumbar spine injury during simulated fall from height, evaluate the feasibility and performance of the model, and compare injuries with those observed clinically. Our model consisted of a 3-vertebra human lumbar specimen (L3-L4-L5) stabilized with muscle force replication and mounted within an impact dummy. The model was subjected to a fall from height of 2.2 m with impact velocity of 6.6 m/s. Kinetic and kinematic time-history responses were determined using spinal and pelvis load cell data and analyses of high-speed video. Injuries to the L4 vertebra were evaluated by fluoroscopy, radiography, and detailed anatomical dissection. Peak compression forces during the fall from height occurred at 7 ms and reached 44.7 kN at the ground, 9.1 kN at the pelvis, and 4.5 kN at the spine. Pelvis acceleration peaks reached 209.9 g at 8 ms for vertical and 62.8 g at 12 ms for rearward. Tensile load peaks were then observed (spine: 657.0 N at 47 ms; pelvis: 569.4 N at 61 ms). T1/pelvis peak flexion of 68.3° occurred at 38 ms as the upper torso translated forward while the pelvis translated rearward. Complete axial burst fracture of the L4 vertebra was observed including endplate comminution, retropulsion of bony fragments into the canal, loss of vertebral body height, and increased interpedicular distance due to fractures anterior to the pedicles and a vertical split fracture of the left lamina. Our dynamic injury model closely replicated the biomechanics of real-life fall from height and produced realistic, clinically relevant burst fracture of the lumbar spine. Our model may be used for further study of thoracolumbar spine injury mechanisms and injury prevention strategies. PMID:23792617

  17. Rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury and transverse myelitis due to naive heroin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heroin exposure can cause various complications like seizures, stroke, spongiform encephalopathy, transverse myelopathy, plexopathy, compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure due to various mechanisms. We report here a young male who smoked heroin for the first time and developed transverse myelitis, rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury requiring dialysis. His renal recovery was complete by four weeks, while neurological improvement occurred 8 to 12 weeks later. This case suggests a common pathogenic mechanism of heroin intoxication involving multiple systems of the body.

  18. Memory deficits due to brain injury: unique PET findings and dream alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masaki; Nariai, Tadashi; Hiura, Mikio; Ishii, Kenji; Nishikawa, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The authors herein report the case of a young male with memory deficits due to a traumatic head injury, who presented with sleep-related symptoms such as hypersomnia and dream alterations. Although MRI and polysomnography showed no abnormalities, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and (11)C flumazenil (FMZ)-PET revealed findings consistent with cerebral damage to the affected temporal region. The memory deficit of the patient gradually improved in parallel with the relief of the sleep-related symptoms. FDG-PET showed considerable improvement in glucose metabolism when he had recovered, however, evidence of neural loss remained in the FMZ-PET findings. PMID:22674950

  19. Cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea are enhanced in hypertensive rats due to enhanced chemoreceptor responsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M M Angheben

    Full Text Available Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY. Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (p<0.05, n = 14/13. The respiratory effort increased by 53±6 mmHg in SHR and by 34±5 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell by 209±19 bpm in SHR and by 155±16 bpm in WKY. The carotid chemoreceptors were then inactivated by the ligation of the carotid body artery, and apneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea.

  20. Health care consumption and costs due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands, 1986-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. de Boer (Annette ); T. Schepers (Tim); M.J.M. Panneman (Martien); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Foot and ankle injuries account for a large proportion of Emergency Department attendance. The aim of this study was to assess population-based trends in attendances due to foot and ankle injuries in the Netherlands since 1986, and to provide a detailed analysis of health car

  1. 150 bicycle injuries in children: a comparison with accidents due to other causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, C M; Noble, D; Bell, D; Kemn, I; Roche, C; Pascoe, J

    1981-07-01

    One hundred and fifty bicycle accidents seen at the Children's Hospital Sheffield over a 6-month period from mid-August 1979 were analysed and 9.3 per cent of the cases were admitted. Twenty-two per cent had fractures, 20 per cent had soft tissue injuries of face or scalp, 8 children having damaged their teeth. Of the accidents 17.3 per cent were due to hitting an obstruction, 30.7 per cent were due to loss of control on a hill or corner and 8 per cent were of mechanical origin. Eighty-eight per cent had cycling experience of a year or more, and 32.7 per cent had had previous cycling accidents. Comparison with other types of accidents previously studied at the hospital, involving skateboards, playground equipment or road traffic accidents affecting child pedestrians, showed that by far the most serious were those involving child pedestrians. The injuries from bicycle accidents were similar in severity to those involving skateboards.

  2. Acupuncture for Chronic Urinary Retention due to Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No systematic review has been published on the use of acupuncture for the treatment of chronic urinary retention (CUR due to spinal cord injury (SCI. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for CUR due to SCI. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs including 334 patients with CUR due to SCI were included. Meta-analysis showed that acupuncture plus rehabilitation training was much better than rehabilitation training alone in decreasing postvoid residual (PVR urine volume (MD −109.44, 95% CI −156.53 to −62.35. Likewise, a combination of acupuncture and aseptic intermittent catheterization was better than aseptic intermittent catheterization alone in improving response rates (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.38. No severe adverse events were reported. In conclusion, acupuncture as a complementary therapy may have a potential effect in CUR due to SCI in decreasing PVR and improving bladder voiding. Additionally, acupuncture may be safe in treating CUR caused by SCI. However, due to the lack of high quality RCTs, we could not draw any definitive conclusions. More well-designed RCTs are needed to provide strong evidence.

  3. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer. -- Air pollution has a greater influence on acute human mortality than weather type, with significant differences in risk from exposure to gaseous air pollution based on cause of death

  4. Fatal and non-fatal injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal, 2008-2011: analysis of surveillance data

    OpenAIRE

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Becknell, Kristin; Laurenge, Hugues; Danee, Luhar; Subedi, Krishna P

    2013-01-01

    Background Nepal is one of the post-conflict countries affected by violence from explosive devices. We undertook this study to assess the magnitude of injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal during 2008-2011 and to describe time trends and epidemiologic patterns for these events. Methods We analyzed surveillance data on fatal and non-fatal injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal that occurred between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2011. The case definition included casualties ...

  5. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease stratified by body mass index categories in patients with wheelchair-dependent paraplegia after spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Flank, Peter; Wahman, Kerstin; Levi, Richard; Fahlström, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess risk factors for cardiovascular disease at different body mass index values in persons with wheelchair-dependent paraplegia after spinal cord injuries. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 135 individuals, age range 18-79 years, with chronic (>= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia. Methods: Body mass index was stratified into 6 categorical groups. Cardiovascular disease risk factors for hypertension, diabetes mellitus and a serum lipid profile were analyse...

  6. Data Mining of Historical Human Data to Assess the Risk of Injury due to Dynamic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jesica; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Newby, N.; Gernhardt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    deflection was determined from motion capture video of the impact test. HIC- 15 and BRIC were calculated from head acceleration responses. Given the number of human subjects for each test condition a confidence interval of injury probability will be obtained. RESULTS: Results will be discussed in terms of injury-risk probability estimates based on the human data set evaluated. Also, gaps in the data set will be identified. These gaps could be one of two types. One is areas where additional THOR testing would increase the comparable human data set, thereby improving confidence in the injury probability rate. The other is where additional human testing would assist in obtaining information on other acceleration levels or directions. DISCUSSION: The historical human data showed validity of the THOR ATD for supplemental testing. The historical human data are limited in scope, however. Further data are needed to characterize the effects of sex, age, anthropometry, and deconditioning due to spaceflight on risk of injury

  7. Pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets in a conflict zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd L Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rubber bullets and pellet guns are considered non-lethal low-velocity weapons. They are used to disperse a mob during street protests. The present study was undertaken to analyze the pattern, presentation and management of vascular injuries caused by these weapons. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients with features of vascular injuries due to pellets and rubber bullets from June 2010 to November 2010. All patients with features of vascular injuries due to these non-lethal weapons were included in the study. Vascular injuries caused by other causes were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 35 patients who presented with features of vascular injury during this period were studied. All of them were males. The mean age was 22 years. Fifteen patients were revascularized primarily, 19 patients needed reverse saphenous vein graft and, in one, patient lateral repair was done. There were two mortalities in our series. Wound infection was the most common complication. The amputation rate was around 6%. Conclusion: Pellet and rubber bullets can cause serious life-threatening injuries. Vascular injury caused by these weapons need no different approach than other vascular injuries. Early revascularization and prompt resuscitation prevents the loss of limb or life.

  8. Surfactant therapy restores gas exchange in lung injury due to paraquat intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, K L; de Buijzer, E; Gommers, D; Kaisers, U; van Genderen, P J; Lachmann, B

    1998-08-01

    Paraquat is a weed killer which causes often fatal lung damage in humans and other animals. There is evidence that the pulmonary surfactant system is involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory failure after paraquat intoxication and, therefore, the possible therapeutic effect of intratracheal surfactant administration on gas exchange in rats with progressive lung injury induced by paraquat poisoning was studied. In one group of rats, the time course of the development of lung injury due to paraquat intoxication was characterized. In a second group of rats, 72 h after paraquat intoxication, the animals underwent mechanical ventilation and only those animals in which the arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction (Pa,O2/FI,O2) decreased to below 20 kPa (150 mmHg) received exogenous surfactant (200 mg x kg(-1) body weight). Within 3 days the rats in group 1 developed progressive respiratory failure, demonstrated not only by impaired gas exchange and lung mechanics but also by increased minimal surface tension and increased protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In group 2, intratracheal surfactant administration increased Pa,O2/FI,O2 significantly within 5 min (14.4+/-2.4 kPa (108+/-18 mmHg)) to (55.2+/-53 kPa (414+/-40 mmHg)) and sustained this level for at least 2 h. It is concluded that intratracheal surfactant administration is a promising approach in the treatment of severe respiratory failure caused by paraquat poisoning. PMID:9727775

  9. Efficacy of extracorporeal albumin dialysis for acute kidney injury due to cholestatic jaundice nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Florence; Bacchetta, Justine; Rabeyrin, Maud; Juillard, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 37-year-old man with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Youth (MODY) type 5, admitted for an episode of cholestasis and a simultaneous acute kidney injury (AKI). Chronic liver disease was due to a mutation in the transcription factor 2 (TCF2) gene, thus highlighting the need for a close liver follow-up in these patients. AKI was attributed to a cholemic nephropathy based on the following rationale: (1) alternative diagnoses were actively ruled out; (2) the onset of AKI coincided with the onset of severe hyperbilirubinaemia; (3) renal pathology showed large bile tubular casts and a marked tubular necrosis and (4) creatinine serum dramatically decreased when bilirubin levels improved after the first sessions of extracorporeal albumin dialysis (ECAD), thus suggesting its role in renal recovery. Even though cholestasis can precipitate renal injury, the diagnosis of cholemic nephropathy could require a renal biopsy at times. Future studies should confirm the benefits of ECAD in cholemic nephropathy. PMID:27389722

  10. Brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning Magnetic resonance imaging manifestation and pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute organophosphate poisoning can cause injuries of multiple visceras; especially,central nervous system injury can increase risk factors of patients with severe acute organophosphate poisoning. An application of modem image may increase diagnostic rate of brain injury in an earlier period and provide evidences for clinical treatment.OBJECTIVE: To reveal imaging manifestations, pathological characteristics and multi-ways injured mechanism of brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Medical Image, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Nerve Molecule Imaging Medicine and Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from August 2003 to February 2004. A total of 30 healthy cats weighing 2.8 - 3.5 g and of both genders were selected from Animal Experimental Center of Hebei Medical University.METHODS: Thirty healthy cats were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and intoxication group (n=25). Cats in the control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.3 mL/kg saline at four points; while, cats in the intoxication group were subcutaneously injected with 400 g/L 0.3 mL/kg O,O-dimethyl-S-(methoxycarbonylmethyl) thiophosphate at four points. Two minutes after intoxication, cats received muscular injection with 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate, and then, brain tissues were collected from parietal lobe, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem were observed at 3, 6, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after intoxication respectively under optic microscope and electron microscope and expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-amino butyric acid after immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of MRI examinations; histological changes under optic microscope and electron

  11. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Antonio de Padua; Favarato, Desidério

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD) in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1) CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2) IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3) CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0) PMID:27437866

  12. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1 CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2 IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3 CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  13. Haemophilia A and cardiovascular morbidity in a female SHAM syndrome carrier due to skewed X chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczar, Szymon; Kosinska, Joanna; Ploski, Rafal; Pastorczak, Agata; Wegner, Olga; Zalewska-Szewczyk, Beata; Paige, Adam J W; Borowiec, Maciej; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described a severe haemophilia A and moyamoya (SHAM) syndrome caused by Xq28 deletions encompassing F8 and the BRCC3 familial moyamoya gene. The phenotype includes haemophilia A, moyamoya angiopathy, dysmorphia and hypertension. The genetic analysis of the family of our SHAM patient demonstrated carrier state in proband's mother and sister. The patient's mother is apparently well, whereas his currently 18-years-old sister presents with mild haemophilia A, coarctation of the aorta, hypertension, and ventricular arrhythmia. We performed X chromosome inactivation assay based on HpaII methylation analysis of a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) in the X linked AR (androgen receptor) gene and used quantitative real-time RT PCR to measure the expression of genes from the deleted region in proband's family members. We found an extremely skewed X chromosome inactivation pattern in the female members of the family leading to preferential inactivation of the X chromosome without Xq28 deletion in patient's sister. We demonstrated differential expression of the genes from the deleted region in four members of the family, that tightly correlates with the clinical features. In conclusion, we show that the haematologic and cardiovascular morbidity and the discrepancy between patient's sister and mother despite the same genetic lesion are due to skewed X chromosome inactivation leading to clinically relevant differential expression of SHAM syndrome genes. This report highlights the role for BRCC3 in cardiovascular physiology and disease, and demonstrates that in some complex hereditary syndromes full diagnostics may require the examination of both genetic and epigenetic events. PMID:26691666

  14. [The efficacy of botulinum toxin therapy in patients with upper limb spasticity due to traumatic brain injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulov, M A; Khat'kova, S E; Mokienko, O A; Orlova, O R; Usachev, D Yu; Zakharov, V O; Orlova, A S; Tomsky, A A

    2016-01-01

    Spasticity is a type of muscle hyperactivity that occurs in patients after focal lesions of the Central nervous system due to various diseases: stroke, traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury, neurosurgical intervention, as well as multiple sclerosis and other diseases of the Central nervous system and is the most disability manifestation of the syndrome of upper motor neuron (UMNS). Focal spasticity of the upper limb requires a complex treatment. Botulinum toxin therapy is an effective treatment for focal/multifocal spasticity in reducing muscle tone and improving function with the highest level of evidence according to the latest American and European guidelines for treatment of spasticity. There are many publications devoted to BTA use in post-stroke patients. This article provides a review of the BTA use in patients with the upper limb spasticity due to severe traumatic brain injury. Some local data on the BTA efficacy in the cohort of patients with traumatic brain injury are also presented. PMID:27635608

  15. Is There an Association Between Markers of Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction at Discharge From Rehabilitation and Participation 1 and 5 Years Later in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, H. J. (Rianne); de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Bongers-Janssen, Helma M.; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Claydon, Victoria E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether physical activity and participation 1 and 5 years after discharge are associated with measures of cardiovascular autonomic function: prevalence of hypotension and reduced peak heart rate at discharge from initial inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Des

  16. Case of skin injuries due to stings by crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hironobu; Tsuruta, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Yu-ichi; Asato, Yutaka; Taira, Kiyohito; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Kayo, Susumu; Iwanaga, Setsuko; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    A case of skin injuries due to stings by crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, in a 53-year-old Okinawan woman is reported. She went to a beach to gather shellfish on 8 April 2001 and fell to the ground with her left palm on a crown-of-thorns starfish that happened to be close to her. She hurried to the emergency section of our hospital. An emergency doctor sterilized the wound and administered an antibiotic, an analgesic agent and an injection of a tetanus antitoxin. He tried to remove the remaining spines from the palm with great difficulty. Because swelling and subcutaneous indurations of the left palm had persisted thereafter, oral and topical administration of corticosteroid started on 13 April. Physical examination at the dermatology section revealed approximately 10 stab wounds of the left palm with pus, subcutaneous bleeding and many abrasions around them. X-rays of the left hand showed foreign bodies, 2-10 mm in size, located on the lesions. The patient was treated with a topical injection of 2 mg triamcinolone acetonide (Kenacort-A), diluted fivefold with 1% Xylocaine, once a week. Some of the foreign body granulomatous lesions improved but pain and subcutaneous indurations persisted in most of the lesions. Because the X-ray photographs showed many remaining spines, surgical excision to remove them was performed under local anesthesia 3 months after the injury. All the symptoms improved after the operation. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the spines revealed that their tips had fragile lattice-like structures.

  17. Association Between the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio and Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiovascular Surgery: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Ho; Park, Ji Young; Ok, Seong-Ho; Shin, Il-Woo; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-10-01

    A high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio) was associated with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with severe sepsis. We sought to investigate the association between the perioperative N/L ratios and postoperative AKI in patients undergoing high-risk cardiovascular surgery.A retrospective medical chart review was performed of 590 patients who underwent cardiovascular surgeries, including coronary artery bypass, valve replacement, patch closure for atrial or ventricular septal defect and surgery on the thoracic aorta with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Baseline perioperative clinical parameters, including N/L ratios measured before surgery, immediately after surgery, and on postoperative day (POD) one were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors.A total of 166 patients (28.1%) developed AKI defined by the KDIGO (kidney disease improving global outcomes) criteria in the first 7 PODs. Independent risk factors for AKI included old age, decreased left ventricular systolic function, preoperative high serum creatinine, low serum albumin and high uric acid levels, intraoperative large transfusion amount, oliguria, hyperglycemia, and elevated N/L ratio measured immediately after surgery and on POD one. The quartiles of immediately postoperative N/L ratio were associated with graded increase in risk of AKI development (fourth quartile [N/L ratio≥10] multivariate odds ratio 5.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.74-12.73; P work-up, can therefore assist with risk stratification of AKI and mortality in high-risk surgical patients. PMID:26512598

  18. REVIEW OF CAUDA EQUINA LESIONS DUE TO PENETRATING INJURIES IN THE ESFAHAN PROVINCE IMPOSED WAR WOUNDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A MIR HOSSEINI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An Injury of the caudal equine has been suggested to be an unique type of spinal injury than other types of penetrating spinal injuries. However the role of surgery as a method to speed or improve recovery is unclear. The 33 war wounded reported here represent approximately 15% of all penetrating spinal injuries related to Esfahan province. The average age was 23 years they were admitted at first in urgent centers near the war border and then in hospitals in different parts of country they received spine films and syelography. Deficit were Complete. if total loss of function existed and were "incomplete" if any function remained below the level of injury. Improvement at the end of follow up (after two years was defiend as any recovery of motor strength or sensory level. Early neurosurgical intervention for pentrating injuries of caudal equine may be beneficial but carries an increased risk of complications.

  19. Acute Kidney Injury due to Crescentic Glomerulonephritis in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Maggard, Reuben; Makary, Raafat; Monteiro, Carmela l.; James, Leighton R.

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease is an inherited condition, characterized by the development of cysts in the kidney, as well as in other organs. Patients with polycystic kidney can suffer from the same causes of acute kidney injury as the general population. Nephritic syndrome is an uncommon cause of acute kidney injury in the general population and less common in patients with polycystic kidney disease. We report the second case of crescentic glomerulonephritis, causing acute kidney injury, in a pa...

  20. Characteristic features of injuries due to shark attacks: a review of 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihama, Yoko; Ninomiya, Kenji; Noguchi, Masamichi; Fuke, Chiaki; Miyazaki, Tetsuji

    2009-09-01

    Shark attacks on humans might not occur as often as is believed and the characteristic features of shark injuries on corpses have not been extensively reviewed. We describe the characteristic features of shark injuries on 12 corpses. The analysis of these injuries might reveal the motivation behind the attacks and/or the shark species involved in the attack. Gouge marks on the bones are evidence of a shark attack, even if the corpse is decomposed. Severance of the body part at the joints without a fracture was found to be a characteristic feature of shark injuries.

  1. Difficulty in Clinical Evaluation of Radial Nerve Injury due to Multiple Trauma to the Humerus, Wrist, and Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balik Mehmet Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radial nerve damage is frequently encountered in humeral fractures. The radial nerve is primarily damaged when the humerus gets fractured, while secondary damage maybe due to post-traumatic manipulations and surgical exploration. High impact traumatic nerve injury, serious neuropathic pain, lack of response to therapeutic interventions, and indifference to the Tinel test are indications for surgical intervention. Since most humeral fracture-induced low impact radial nerve injuries resolve spontaneously, conservative therapy is preferred. We present a patient with humeral fracture-associated radial nerve injury, accompanied with digital amputation and flexor tendon avulsion on the same arm. These injuries required immediate surgery, thus rendering the clinical evaluation of the radial nerve impossible. We would like to highlight and discuss the inherent difficulties associated with multiple trauma of the upper arm.

  2. Paraquat poisoning: an experimental model of dose-dependent acute lung injury due to surfactant dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.R. Silva

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the most characteristic feature of paraquat poisoning is lung damage, a prospective controlled study was performed on excised rat lungs in order to estimate the intensity of lesion after different doses. Twenty-five male, 2-3-month-old non-SPF Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, received paraquat dichloride in a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 1, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg body weight 24 h before the experiment. Static pressure-volume (PV curves were performed in air- and saline-filled lungs; an estimator of surface tension and tissue works was computed by integrating the area of both curves and reported as work/ml of volume displacement. Paraquat induced a dose-dependent increase of inspiratory surface tension work that reached a significant two-fold order of magnitude for 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight (P<0.05, ANOVA, sparing lung tissue. This kind of lesion was probably due to functional abnormalities of the surfactant system, as was shown by the increase in the hysteresis of the paraquat groups at the highest doses. Hence, paraquat poisoning provides a suitable model of acute lung injury with alveolar instability that can be easily used in experimental protocols of mechanical ventilation

  3. A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Amy; 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.08.015

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating ballistic projectiles or ballistic impacts to body armor, can only reach the brain via an internal mechanism and have been shown to cause cerebral effects. Similar effects have been documented when a blast pressure wave has been applied to the whole body or focused on the thorax in animal models. While vagotomy reduces apnea and bradycardia due to ballistic or blast pressure waves, it does not eliminate neural damage in the brain, suggesting that the pressure wave directly affects the brain cells via a thoracic mechanism. ...

  4. Injuries due to school sports accidents in 4 to 13-yr.-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, J; Ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    505 kindergarten and primary school children from 4 to 13 years of age were treated for school sports injuries during the period 1990-1997. The incidence of injuries increased statistically significantly from .5 per 1,000 children 4- to 5-yr.-old to 4.8 injured children per 1,000 in 12- to 13-yr.-ol

  5. Safety of greenlight photoselective vaporisation of prostate in lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients using anticoagulants due to cardiovascular comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Cakiroglu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lasers have been used in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia for the last two decades. To be comparable, they should reduce or avoid the immediate and long-term complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP or open prostatectomy (OP, especially bleeding and need for blood transfusion. Although Holmium laser treatment of the prostate was compared frequently in terms of cardiovascular safety with TURP or OP, photoselective vaporisation of the prostate (PVP was not largely evaluated. In this article we analyzed the current literature to see if there is convincing data to support the observation of some authors that use of PVP is associated with increased safety in patients on anticoagulants with cardiovascular comorbidities. With this purpose a Medline search between January 2004 to March 2013 was performed using evidence obtained from randomised trials, well-designed controlled studies without randomisation, individual cohort studies, individual case control studies and case reports Results: In the last 10 years, several case-control and cohort studies have demonstrated the efficacy of PVP as well as its safety in patients with cardiovascular comorbidities using anticoagulants. The results confirmed the overall lower perioperative and postoperative morbidity of PVP, whereas the efficacy was comparable to TURP in the short term, despite a higher reoperation rate. Conclusion: Although it is still developing, PVP with KTP or LBO seems to be a promising alternative to both TURP and OP in terms of cardiovascular safety and in patients using anticoagulants.

  6. Presença de fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares e de lesões em praticantes de corrida de rua Presence of cardiovascular risck factors and injuries in road runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Castro Ishida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu as características antropométricas e presença de fatores de riscos cardiovasculares (Parte1 bem como a ocorrência de lesões (Parte 2 em corredores de rua. Índice de massa corporal, pressão arterial (PA, circunferência abdominal (CA e presença de lesões foram avaliadas em 94 corredores. Destes, 38,5% eram hipertensos auto-referidos, mas 41,9% estavam com a PA alterada no dia. Dentre os auto-referidos sem problemas de saúde, foram encontradas alterações na PA (42%, na CA (9,8% e 6% apresentaram risco cardiovascular moderado. Verificou-se que 34% já sofreram lesão, sendo que 67,7% foram derivadas de treinos ou competições. Idade, distância da prova e realização de outras atividades foram associados com a ocorrência de lesão. Os resultados do presente estudo nos permitem concluir que os praticantes de pedestrianismo apresentam uma condição física propícia ao comprometimento cardiovascular durante uma prova e ao surgimento de lesões, sugerindo campanhas de conscientização sobre a condição de saúde neste público.This study investigated the anthropometric characteristics and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (Part 1 as well as occurrence of injuries (Part 2 in road runners. Body mass index, blood pressure (BP, abdominal circumference (AC and incidence of injuries were evaluated in 94 road runners. Among the participants, 38,5% self-reported as hypertensive, but 41,7% from total had altered BP. Among healthy runners, it was found alterations on BP (42%, AC (9.8% and 6% presented moderated cardiovascular risk. It was observed that 34% already suffered some injuries and 67.7% derived from training and competition. Age, distance of the running and practice of other activities were associated with presence of injury. The results of the present study allow us to conclude that road runners have a physical condition that facilitates the cardiovascular event during the competition and that

  7. The Role of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Injury and Protective Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danina M. Muntean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R injury of the heart represents a major health burden mainly associated with acute coronary syndromes. While timely coronary reperfusion has become the established routine therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the restoration of blood flow into the previously ischaemic area is always accompanied by myocardial injury. The central mechanism involved in this phenomenon is represented by the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Besides their harmful role when highly generated during early reperfusion, minimal ROS formation during ischaemia and/or at reperfusion is critical for the redox signaling of cardioprotection. In the past decades, mitochondria have emerged as the major source of ROS as well as a critical target for cardioprotective strategies at reperfusion. Mitochondria dysfunction associated with I/R myocardial injury is further described and ultimately analyzed with respect to its role as source of both deleterious and beneficial ROS. Furthermore, the contribution of ROS in the highly investigated field of conditioning strategies is analyzed. In the end, the vascular sources of mitochondria-derived ROS are briefly reviewed.

  8. Identical fracture patterns in combat vehicle blast injuries due to improvised explosive devices; a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Commandeur Joris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In November 2008, a surgical team from the Red Cross Hospital Beverwijk, the Netherlands, was deployed in Afghanistan for three months to attend in the army hospital of Kandahar. During their stay, four incidents of armored personnel carriers encountering an improvised explosive device were assessed. In each incident, two soldiers were involved, whose injuries were strikingly similar. Case presentation The described cases comprise paired thoracic vertebral fractures, radial neck fractures, calcaneal fractures and talar fractures. Moreover, the different types of blast injury are mentioned and related to the injuries described in our series. Acknowledging the different blast mechanisms is important for understanding possible injury patterns. Conclusion From this case series, as well as the existing literature on injury patterns caused by blast injuries, it seems appropriate to pay extra attention to bodily areas that were injured in other occupants of the same vehicle. Obviously, the additional surveillance for specific injuries should be complementary to the regular trauma work-up (e.g., ATLS.

  9. Brachial artery injury due to closed posterior elbow dislocation: case report☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Checchia, Caio Santos; Checchia, Sergio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    An association between closed posterior elbow dislocation and traumatic brachial artery injury is rare. Absence of radial pulse on palpation is an important warning sign and arteriography is the gold-standard diagnostic test. Early diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment to be provided. This consists of joint reduction and immobilization, along with urgent surgical restoration of arterial flow. Here, a case (novel to the Brazilian literature) of an association between these injuries (and the treatment implemented) in a 27-year-old male patient is reported. These injuries were sustained through physical assault. PMID:27069896

  10. Brachial artery injury due to closed posterior elbow dislocation: case report☆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An association between closed posterior elbow dislocation and traumatic brachial artery injury is rare. Absence of radial pulse on palpation is an important warning sign and arteriography is the gold-standard diagnostic test. Early diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment to be provided. This consists of joint reduction and immobilization, along with urgent surgical restoration of arterial flow. Here, a case (novel to the Brazilian literature of an association between these injuries (and the treatment implemented in a 27-year-old male patient is reported. These injuries were sustained through physical assault.

  11. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in subjects hospitalized due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Beijing from 2000 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Cui; Dong-Mei Miao; Zhi-Min Wei; Jian-Fang Cai; Yi Li; Ai-Min Liu; Fan Li

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the overall prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and explore the prevalence of the major CVD complications and trends in patients with COPD over a 10-year period.Methods Medical records in the PLA General Hospital,Beijing Union Medical College Hospital,and Beijing Hospital from 2000/01/01 to 2010/03/03 were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 4960 patients with COPD were reviewed in the study (3570 males,mean age,72.2 ± 10.5 years; 1390 females,mean age,72.0 ± 10.4 years).Results The prevalence of CVD in COPD patients was 51.7%.The three most prevalent CVDs were ischemic heart disease (28.9%),heart failure (19.6%),and arrhythmia (12.6%).During the 10-year study period,the prevalence of various CVDs in COPD patients showed a gradual increasing trend with increasing age.There was higher morbidity due to ischemic heart disease (P < 0.01) in male COPD patients than in the female counterparts.However,heart failure (P < 0.01)and hypertension (P < 0.01) occurred less frequently in male COPD patients than in female COPD patients.Furthermore,the prevalence of ischemic heart disease decreased year by year.In addition to heart failure,various types of CVD complications in COPD patients tended to occur in younger subjects.The prevalence of all major types of CVD in women tended to increase year by year.Conclusions The prevalence of CVD in patients hospitalized for COPD in Beijing was high.Age,sex and CVD trends,as well as life style changes,should be considered when prevention and control strategies are formulated.

  12. Increased mortality in schizophrenia due to cardiovascular disease – a non-systematic review of epidemiology, possible causes and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Andreas eRingen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is among the major causes of disability worldwide and the mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD is significantly elevated. There is a growing concern that this health challenge is not fully understood and efficiently addressed.Methods: Non-systematic review using searches in PubMed on relevant topics as well as selection of references based on the authors experience from clinical work and research in the field.Results: In most countries, the standardized mortality rate (SMR in schizophrenia is about 2.5, leading to a reduction in life expectancy between 15 and 20 years. A major contributor of the increased mortality is due to CVD, with CVD mortality ranging from 40-50% in most studies. Important causal factors are related to lifestyle, including poor diet, lack of physical activity, smoking and substance abuse. Recent findings suggest that there are overlapping pathophysiology and genetics between schizophrenia and CVD risk factors, further increasing the liability to CVD in schizophrenia. Many pharmacological agents used for treating psychotic disorders have side effects augmenting CVD risk. Although several CVD risk factors can be effectively prevented and treated, the provision of somatic health services to people with schizophrenia seems inadequate. Further, there is a sparseness of studies investigating the effects of life-style interventions in schizophrenia, and there is little knowledge about effective programs targeting physical health in this population. Discussion: The risk for CVD and CVD-related deaths in people with schizophrenia is increased, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. Coordinated interventions in different health care settings could probably reduce the risk. There is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to increase life expectancy in schizophrenia, and we argue that mental health workers should be more involved in this important task.

  13. A drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riewpaiboon A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to develop a drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents for patients receiving treatment at a regional hospital in Thailand. Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive analysis. The cases were all from road traffic accidents receiving treatment at a public regional hospital in the fiscal year 2004. Results: Three thousand seven hundred and twenty-three road accident patients were included in the study. The mean drug cost per case was USD18.20 (SD=73.49, median=2.36. The fitted drug cost model had an adjusted R2 of 0.449. The positive significant predictor variables of drug costs were prolonged length of stay, age over 30 years old, male, Universal Health Coverage Scheme, time of accident during 18:00-24:00 o’clock, and motorcycle comparing to bus. To forecast the drug budget for 2006, there were two approaches identified, the mean drug cost and the predicted average drug cost. The predicted average drug cost was calculated based on the forecasted values of statistically significant (p<0.05 predictor variables included in the fitted model; predicted total drug cost was USD44,334. Alternatively, based on the mean cost, predicted total drug cost in 2006 was USD63,408. This was 43% higher than the figure based on the predicted cost approach.Conclusions: The planned budget of drug cost based on the mean cost and predicted average cost were meaningfully different. The application of a predicted average cost model could result in a more accurate budget planning than that of a mean statistic approach.

  14. Secondary attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder due to right basal ganglia injury: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Mehmet Fatih; AKCA, Ömer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent and commonly studied neuropsychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. The symptoms of ADHD include inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. Diagnosis of ADHD requires a persistent pattern of symptoms beginning before the age of 7 except for secondary ADHD. Secondary ADHD may occur as a consequence of childhood traumatic brain injury. A patient with secondary ADHD as a result of right basal ganglia injury is presented...

  15. Injuries Due to Wedging of Bicycle Wheels in On-road Tram Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Jaap; Harmsen, Annelieke M. K.; Schonhuth, Casper P.; Bloemers, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In cities with trams as public transportation, tram tracks are often on public roads, creating a shared road situation with other road participants like cyclists. Beside the risk of direct collisions, this situation can also lead to bicycle wheels getting wedged in tram tracks, causing cyclists to fall. Objectives: The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the injury pattern of this trauma mechanism and to draw attention to the risks of the infrastructural situation with on-road tram tracks. Patients and Methods: A one-year, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted. All patients admitted after presentation to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma center, who got injured because their bicycle wheels got wedged in tram tracks, were included. Data were collected on patient demographics, type of injury and treatment. Results: Ten patients were included. Six were male. The mean age was 38 years. Six patients required surgery, mostly because of extremity injuries. Mean duration of admission was 4 days. Mean injury severity score was 13. One patient died as a result of the injuries sustained in the accident. Conclusions: Tram tracks on public roads are potentially dangerous and can lead to serious injuries and even mortality amongst cyclist. Operative intervention is frequently needed. PMID:25685751

  16. Analysis of 78 cases of prehospital death due to traffic accident injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡孝菽; 洪勇; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective The cause and time of prehospital death for the injured patients caused by traffic accidents were studied in order to improve traffic management and clinical treatment,and reduce mortality.Methods The characteristics of the injury,the rescue procedure,the status of the injury leading to death were analyzed based on the retrospective data of 78 cases died before admission.Results The main causes of prehospital death in the traffic accidents included:1.head injury,2.bleeding,3.chest and heart wound,4.spinal cord injury at upper cervix.Death happened immediately after injury was in 17 cases.Death happened from the accident site to our hospital was in 47 cases.Death happened within half an hour after reaching emergency room was in 14 cases.In all of the cases,the death on the transfer took up 62.5%.Conclusions Findings from analysis of the data will be presented on a wide range of traffic safety issues.These include enhancing education of traffic safety and administration of drivers and motor vehicles,establishing a perfect emergency medical service system and a well-trained team of first aid,and popularizing first aid knowledge to all people.

  17. A rare case of a scuba diver's death due to propeller injuries of a desalination pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilli, G; Di Battista, B; Montana, A; Pavia, J; Cauchi, S; Zerafa, N M; Pomara, C

    2015-05-01

    Water skiing, boat racing, skin and scuba diving, as well as pleasure boat cruising are becoming increasingly popular hobbies. As a result, the incidence of injuries secondary to motor propellers is becoming more frequent. Injuries by propellers, amputation, death by drowning, and bleeding are rare reported events in forensic literature. The most common circumstances surrounding boat-propeller-related injuries are concerned with getting into or out of the boat, personal watercraft use or water skiing, and falling or being thrown from the boat. A case of a scuba diver's death that occurred during an illegal scuba fishing trip around a desalination plant is presented. A complete autopsy and histological study of all organs and surfaces of dismembered cadaveric sections, performed in order to determine the phases of death, are reported. An underwater scene investigation was conducted by an engineering team studying the mouth of the pump and the dynamic characteristic of rotating propeller blades.

  18. Injuries sustained to the upper extremity due to modern warfare and the evolution of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Eric P; Mazurek, Michael; Ingari, Jack

    2007-10-01

    The formation of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand was related to world conflicts and hostilities. Therefore, it is appropriate that upper-extremity surgeons understand injuries resulting from modern-day combat. Because of ongoing warfare, many countries have experienced a large increase in the number of wounded service members and civilians, particularly wounds of the extremities. As a result of increased rate of survival in battlefield trauma in part because of the use of modern body armor, there is increasing complexity of extremity injuries that require complex reconstructions. Decreased mortality and a consequent increase in the incidence of injured extremities underline the need for the development of new treatment options. The purpose of this presentation is to describe upper-extremity injury patterns in modern warfare, the levels of care available, and the treatment at each level of care based on the experience of the United States Military Medical Support System.

  19. Diffusion-weighted imaging of brain injury due to neonatal hypoglycemia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profound hypoglycemia results in significant brain injury because glucose is essential for normal brain functioning. We present here a case of transient neonatal hypoglycemia with diffuse brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 2 days after onset, and this revealed bilateral regions of restricted diffusion in the parietal, occipital, frontal and temporal lobes. On the T1-weighted images, the regions showed indistinct gray matter-white matter differentiation. There were subtle high signal intensity lesions along the corresponding regions of the FLAIR and T2-weighted images

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging of brain injury due to neonatal hypoglycemia: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Eun A; Choi, See Sung; Jeon, Se Jeong; Kim, Eun A; Lee, Young Hwan; Juhng, Seon Kwan [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Profound hypoglycemia results in significant brain injury because glucose is essential for normal brain functioning. We present here a case of transient neonatal hypoglycemia with diffuse brain injury. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 2 days after onset, and this revealed bilateral regions of restricted diffusion in the parietal, occipital, frontal and temporal lobes. On the T1-weighted images, the regions showed indistinct gray matter-white matter differentiation. There were subtle high signal intensity lesions along the corresponding regions of the FLAIR and T2-weighted images.

  1. Risk factors for injuries due to the 1990 earthquake in Luzon, Philippines.

    OpenAIRE

    Roces, M. C.; White, M E; Dayrit, M. M.; Durkin, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    On 16 July 1990, an earthquake measuring 7.7 on the Richter scale struck the island of Luzon, Philippines. A case-control study was carried out to identify the risk factors for earthquake-related injuries and at the same time observations were made on the rescue efforts. Being hit by falling objects was the leading cause of injury (34%). Those injured during the tremor were more likely to have been inside buildings constructed of concrete or mixed materials (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence in...

  2. 国际脊髓损伤心血管功能基础数据集%International Spinal Cord Injury Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei Krassioukov; 刘根林; 郑樱; 张缨; 郝春霞; 康海琼; 王一吉; 逯晓蕾; Marca Sipski Alexander; Ann-Katrin Karlsson; William Donovan; Christopher Mathias; Fin Biering-Sorensen; 卫波; 周红俊; 李建军

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders of spinal cord injury (SCI) are among the most common causes of death in individuals with SCI. The International Spinal Cord Injury Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set is introduced in order to standardize the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information on cardiovascular function in daily practice. Moreover, this data set makes it possible to evaluate and compare results from various published studies on cardiovascular function after SCI. The technical terms in this data set are defined in particular in this article.%心血管功能异常是脊髓损伤患者常见的死亡原因.为了使脊髓损伤患者心血管功能信息的收集和报道标准化,引入了国际脊髓损伤心血管基础数据集.同时,使用该数据集便于比较和评估各种发表的脊髓损伤后心血管功能研究结果.针对数据集中的术语也给出了详细定义.

  3. Effects of nutritional supplementation with l-arginine on repair of injuries due to muscle strain: experimental study on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Izabel Medeiros Couto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of oral supplementation with arginine on regeneration of injuries due to straining of the anterior tibial muscle of rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats of weight 492.5 ± 50.45 g were used. Injuries were induced through straining the anterior tibial muscles. The rats were separated into three groups of eight rats each. In the untreated group (UTG, after induction of injuries, the rats were observed for 24 h. In the simulation group (SG and the arginine group (AG respectively, the rats received isotonic saline solution and arginine solution via direct gavage, over a seven-day period. At the end of the period, blood samples were collected for serum evaluations of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and C-reactive protein (CRP. The right and left anterior tibial muscles were resected for histopathological evaluations on the muscle injuries, investigating edema, hemorrhage and disorganization or morphometric alteration of the muscle fibers. The tissue repair was investigated in terms of proliferation of adipose tissue, angiogenesis and collagen fibers. The ANOVA and Student's tmethods were used and p≤ 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. RESULTS: In the serum evaluations, the AG showed lower CK assay values and higher AST values. In the histopathological evaluation, the UTG presented edema and hemorrhage compatible with injuries due to strain; the SG presented edema and hemorrhage with proliferation of adipose tissue and collagen fibers; and the AG presented not only the findings of the SG but also, especially, intense angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Oral supplementation with arginine did not cause any significant metabolic alterations that would contraindicate its use and it induced angiogenesis during the repair of muscles injured due to strain.

  4. Penile injury due to blunt trauma after circumcision in a male child: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Ozturk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury in the case presented here is different from the cause of penile trauma. Our case has been exposed to blunt trauma after circumcision. Type developments of the penile trauma, treatment, and precautions have been discussed with the literature.

  5. Spontaneous postoperative choledochoduodenal fistula due to bile duct injury following laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In the present case we have reported a case of Bismuth type 2 (Strasberg type E2 injury in which the biliary drainage was closed spontaneously with the formation of spontaneous biliary-duodenal fistula. It is an extremely interesting case that has not been reported in the literature previously.

  6. Investigation of bias due to loss of participants in a Dutch multicentre prospective spinal cord injury cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    De Groot,, P.A.J.; Haisma, J.A.; Post, M.W.; Asbeck, van, F.W.A.; Woude, van der, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine bias due to loss of participants (attrition bias) in a prospective cohort study. DESIGN: A multi-centre prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: A total of 225 individuals with a spinal cord injury from 8 Dutch rehabilitation centres. METHODS: Participants were considered non-participants when no information was collected at the measurement one year after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Using bivariate tests participants and non-participants were compared regarding...

  7. Increased Mortality in Schizophrenia Due to Cardiovascular Disease – A Non-Systematic Review of Epidemiology, Possible Causes, and Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Ringen, Petter Andreas; Engh, John A; Birkenaes, Astrid B.; Dieset, Ingrid; Ole A. Andreassen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is among the major causes of disability worldwide and the mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is significantly elevated. There is a growing concern that this health challenge is not fully understood and efficiently addressed. Methods: Non-systematic review using searches in PubMed on relevant topics as well as selection of references based on the authors’ experience from clinical work and research in the field. Results: In most countries, the standardiz...

  8. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in subjects hospitalized due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Beijing from 2000 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Hua; Miao, Dong-Mei; Wei, Zhi-Min; Cai, Jian-Fang; Li, Yi; Liu, Ai-min; Li, Fan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the overall prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and explore the prevalence of the major CVD complications and trends in patients with COPD over a 10-year period. Methods Medical records in the PLA General Hospital, Beijing Union Medical College Hospital, and Beijing Hospital from 2000/01/01 to 2010/03/03 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 4960 patients with COPD were reviewed in ...

  9. Severe pediatric ocular injury due to explosion of a firecracker inside a soda bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A Shazly

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A ShazlyDepartment of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: This case report describes a penetrating ocular injury, followed by endophthalmitis, in a four-year-old girl, resulting from explosion of a small K0201 match-cracker inside a soda bottle. The patient presented with two corneal lacerations, ruptured crystalline lens, multiple intraocular foreign bodies, and hyphema of the right eye, for which immediate surgical exploration and repair was performed. The patient developed aggressive endophthalmitis that led to atrophy of the eye within a few weeks. Severe ocular injuries can result from small, relatively “safe” firecrackers. Therefore, this type of firework should not be used, especially by minors.Keywords: pediatric trauma, endophthalmitis, firecracker

  10. Manic Symptoms Due to Methylphenidate Use in an Adolescent with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Direk, Meltem Çobanoğullari; Ekinci, Nuran; Okuyaz, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Almost one-fifth of children who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are under the risk of attention problems after injury. The efficacy and tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) in children with a history of TBI have not been completely identified. In this case report, MPH-induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with TBI will be summarized. A male patient aged 17 years was admitted with the complaints of attention difficulties on schoolwork and forgetfullness which became evident after TBI. Long-acting MPH was administered with the dose of 18 mg/day for attention problems. After one week, patient presented with the complaints of talking to himself, delusional thoughts, irritability and sleeplessness. This case highlights the fact that therapeutic dose of MPH may cause mania-like symptoms in children with TBI. Close monitarization and slow dose titration are crucial when considering MPH in children with TBI. PMID:27489389

  11. Manic Symptoms Due to Methylphenidate Use in an Adolescent with Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Direk, Meltem Çobanoğullari; Ekinci, Nuran; Okuyaz, Cetin

    2016-08-31

    Almost one-fifth of children who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) are under the risk of attention problems after injury. The efficacy and tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) in children with a history of TBI have not been completely identified. In this case report, MPH-induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with TBI will be summarized. A male patient aged 17 years was admitted with the complaints of attention difficulties on schoolwork and forgetfullness which became evident after TBI. Long-acting MPH was administered with the dose of 18 mg/day for attention problems. After one week, patient presented with the complaints of talking to himself, delusional thoughts, irritability and sleeplessness. This case highlights the fact that therapeutic dose of MPH may cause mania-like symptoms in children with TBI. Close monitarization and slow dose titration are crucial when considering MPH in children with TBI. PMID:27489389

  12. An unusual fatal injury due to tyre burst: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautji, Ravi; Rudra, A; Dogra, T D

    2003-12-17

    A 20 year-old male driver of a heavy duty crane, employed in an industry located in an industrial area on the outskirts of Delhi was fatally injured while repositioning an ill-fitted locking rim of a crane tyre (Fig. 1). The inner tube of the crane tyre had accidentally burst, dislodging the loose iron-locking rim, which hit the individual with a great force resulting in multiple injuries. He died on his way to the hospital. PMID:14642727

  13. Surfactant therapy restores gas exchange in lung injury due to paraquat intoxication in rats

    OpenAIRE

    So, K. L.; Buijzer, E.; Gommers, Diederik; Kaisers, U; Genderen, Perry; Lachmann, Burkhard

    1998-01-01

    textabstractParaquat is a weed killer which causes often fatal lung damage in humans and other animals. There is evidence that the pulmonary surfactant system is involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory failure after paraquat intoxication and, therefore, the possible therapeutic effect of intratracheal surfactant administration on gas exchange in rats with progressive lung injury induced by paraquat poisoning was studied. In one group of rats, the time course of the development of lung ...

  14. A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating b...

  15. Acute kidney injury and disseminated intravascular coagulation due to mercuric chloride poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Dhanapriya, J.; Gopalakrishnan, N; Arun, V.; Dineshkumar, T.; Sakthirajan, R.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Haris, M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic heavy metal and occurs in organic and inorganic forms. Inorganic mercury includes elemental mercury and mercury salts. Mercury salts are usually white powder or crystals, and widely used in indigenous medicines and folk remedies in Asia. Inorganic mercury poisoning causes acute kidney injury (AKI) and gastrointestinal manifestations and can be life-threatening. We describe a case with unknown substance poisoning who developed AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation (...

  16. Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Rapid-Onset Natural Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Regens, James L.; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spati...

  17. Independent lung ventilation in a newborn with asymmetric acute lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Nardo Matteo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. Case presentation We present a case of independent lung ventilation in a 16-day-old infant of 3.5 kg body weight who had an asymmetric lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. We used independent lung ventilation applying conventional protective pressure controlled ventilation to the less-compromised lung, with a respiratory frequency proportional to the age of the patient, and a pressure controlled high-frequency ventilation to the atelectatic lung. This was done because a single tube conventional ventilation protective strategy would have exposed the less-compromised lung to a high mean airways pressure. The target of independent lung ventilation is to provide adequate gas exchange at a safe mean airways pressure level and to expand the atelectatic lung. Independent lung ventilation was accomplished for 24 hours. Daily chest radiograph and gas exchange were used to evaluate the efficacy of independent lung ventilation. Extubation was performed after 48 hours of conventional single-tube mechanical ventilation following independent lung ventilation. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the feasibility of independent lung ventilation with two separate tubes in neonates as a treatment of an asymmetric acute lung injury.

  18. Intramuscular delivery of rAAV-mediated kallikrein gene reduces hyper-tension and prevents cardiovascular injuries in model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao WANG; Ling-bo HOU; Zhen-jun LIU; Yan WANG; Chun-lian CHEN; Xiao XIAO; Dao-wen WANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The overexpression of the human tissue kallikrein (HK) gene can reduce blood pressure and ameliorate the secondary syndromes associated with hyper- tension in animal models. The current study was designed to investigate hy- potensive effect of intramuscular delivery of HK gene. Methods: We generated an recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing human tissue kallikrein under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter and administered the rAAV-HK vector to a spontaneously hypertensive rat model at a dose of 1× 1010 virons/rat through intramuscular injection. Results: A persistent, high-level ex- pression of HK post-gene delivery was confirmed by ELISA. The systolic blood pressure in the rats receiving rAAV-LacZ and saline increased from 171.3 mmHg to 182.3 mmHg 28 weeks' post injection. In contrast, the delivery of the HK gene by AAV vectors attenuated the increase of the systolic blood pressure in the treated group. The systolic blood pressure was only slightly lowered (from a level of 174 mmHg to 170.5 mmHg) post-vector administration. The difference in blood pres- sure between the treated group and the control groups is statistically significant at 12.6 mmHg. The hypotensive effect of rAAV-HK persisted until the end of the testing period. In addition, a significant amelioration of cardiovascular hypertrophy, renal injury, and collagen depositions in the rAAV-HK-treated ani- mals were also observed. Conclusion: All the effects are comparable with those of intravenous delivery. Therefore, the intramuscular administration of rAAV-HK may be used in gene therapy for hypertension.

  19. Selenium Pretreatment for Mitigation of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Cardiovascular Surgery: Influence on Acute Organ Damage and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Bilgic, Esra; Pinto, Antonio; Engels, Melanie; Wollschläger, Lena; Döhrn, Laura; Kellermann, Kristine; Boeken, Udo; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2016-08-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Multi-organ damage is associated with substantial decreases of blood selenium (Se) levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. We compared the influence of a dietary surplus of Se and pretreatment with ebselen, a mimic of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase, on IRI-induced tissue damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed either a Se-adequate diet containing 0.3 ppm Se or supplemented with 1 ppm Se (as sodium selenite) for 5 weeks. Two other groups of Se-adequate rats received intraperitoneal injection of ebselen (30 mg/kg) or DMSO (solvent control) before surgery. The animals were connected to a heart-lung-machine and underwent 45 min of global ischemia during circulatory arrest at 16 °C, followed by re-warming and reperfusion. Selenite and ebselen suppressed IRI-induced leukocytosis and the increase in plasma levels of tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, LDH, troponin) during surgery but did not prevent the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). Both Se compounds affected phosphorylation and expression of proteins related to stress response and inflammation: Ebselen increased phosphorylation of STAT3 transcription factor in the heart and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in the lungs. Selenite decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and HSP-70 expression in the heart. Pretreatment with selenite or ebselen protected against acute IRI-induced tissue damage during CPB and DHCA. Potential implications of their different actions with regard to molecular stress markers on the recovery after surgery represent promising targets for further investigation. PMID:27192987

  20. Erythrocyte Aggregation due to Surface Nanobubble Interactions During the Onset of Thermal Burn Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidner, Harrison S.

    Red Blood Cell (RBC) aggregation is an important hemorheological phenomenon especially in microcirculation. In healthy individuals, RBCs are known to aggregate and gravitate toward the faster flow in the center of vessels to increase their throughput for more efficient oxygen delivery. Their aggregation is known to occur during a variety of environmental, pathological, and physiological conditions and is reversible when aggregates are subject to the relatively high shear forces in the circulation. The likelihood that aggregates will monodisperse in flow is dependent on the conditions during which they form. In situations where such aggregates are not sheared to monodispersion their presence can impact the perfusion of microvascular networks. More specifically, aggregates subject to the low shear rates in the zone of stasis near regions of thermal burn injury are capable of occluding vessels in the microcirculation and inhibiting the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissue downstream. The basic mechanism leading to erythrocyte aggregation at the onset of thermal injury is unknown. This dissertation investigates parameters involved in erythrocyte aggregation, methods of measuring and testing erythrocyte aggregation, and incorporates modeling based on first principles ultimately to propose a mechanism of this phenomenon.

  1. PSYCHICAL THERAPY OF CHILDREN‘S FEARS DUE TO DISEASES AND SOMATIC INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivajlo PETROV

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Human civilization in all phases of its development has been accompanied by different kinds of fear related to disease, death, injury, separation, pain, loneliness, darkness, imagined creatures, natural appearances etc. Fear has become a constant part of human life and it has always required appropriate mechanisms for defense. It is very important to be mentioned that fears occur with children as well. Fears acquire specific form with physically disabled, ill children and children with poor health etc.A great number of authors explain children’s fears from many aspects connected with the factor and manifestations of certain forms of children’s fear.In that sense, it is pointed out that the reasons for children’s fears can be divided in three categories: innate, endured and imagined.Fear, both with adults and children, is accompanied by concrete physiological processes mainly of biochemical and functional nature.

  2. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  3. Evaluation and intervention for early cardiovascular injury in obese children%肥胖儿童早期心血管损害的评估和干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘戈力; 姜丽红

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in children and adolescents has become a public health problem of global attention.Although children obesity has less significant cardiovascular events,many obese children have early vascular lesion and endothelial dysfunction.Therefore,the risk factors of cardiovascular injury should be evaluated and intervented as soon as possible.%儿童青少年肥胖已经成为全球瞩目的公共卫生问题.尽管儿童肥胖较少有明显的心血管事件,但许多肥胖儿童已经出现早期血管病变和内皮功能障碍.因此,应及早对心血管损害的高危因素进行评估及干预.

  4. The years lived with disability due to road traffic accidents based on the nature of injuries in Kermanshah province (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Izadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traffic accidents, with lots of casualties and injuries, cause a lot of economic loss. This study was conducted to determine the Years Lived with Disability (YLD due to road traffic accidents according to the nature of injuries in Kermanshah province. Methods: following a pilot study, a sample of 3258 people was analyzed in order to calculate the YLD. Then, based on various factors, the age, gender and nature of injury of 10070 people were estimated. The YLD was calculated using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD (2010. The data concerning age and gender of the total population of the province was taken from the Statistical Center of Iran. All calculations were performed based on age and gender in Excel software. Results: The mean age of the injured people was 32.7±17.1. Men constituted 67.7 % of patients. The incidence rate of traffic accidents was 283.6 per 100,000. The highest levels of YLD in outpatients, men and women were reported for patella, tibia, fibula and ankle fractures and fractures of clavicle, scapula, humerus and skull, respectively. The highest rate of inpatient YLDs by nature of injury belonged to the fractures of sternum, ribs and face bone. The years lived with disability was calculated to be 2365.96 years (2.46 per 1000 and 1039.01 years (1.1 per 1000 for men and women, respectively. It was 3404.97 years (1.79 per 1000 in both genders. The highest YLD was in the age group of 15–29. Conclusion: Traffic accidents are high rate of YLD is resulted by traffic accidents. The most affected age group are youngsters and fracture are more frequent.

  5. Risk factors associated with sick leave due to work-related injuries in Dutch farmers: an exploratory case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Frankena, K.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Nielen, M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using data from an insurance company, the occurrence of sick leave among Dutch farmers due to work-related injuries, and the epidemiological risk factors were investigated. In this case-control study the cases had filed a sick leave claim for work-related injury from 19982001 and the controls had no

  6. Serum level of substance P in patients with lung injuries due to sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The SP may have a role in pulmonary complications of mustard gas. The lower level of SP in the moderate to severe patients may be due to corticosteroid consumption in such severe cases. However, further studies are needed to clarify the roles and mechanism of SP in this setting.

  7. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to brachial plexus injury: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superficial siderosis can be caused by hemosiderin deposition o the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuro-axis due to recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. Probable intrathecal bleeding sites must be investigated. In ut t 50% of the patients the bleeding source may be identified and the progression of the disease can be interrupted. In this study, the authors present a case of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system developed two decades after a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus.(author)

  8. Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: A preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to explore the correlation between the frequency of micronuclei in Trad-MN, measured across 28 biomonitoring stations during the period comprised between 11 of May and 2 of October, 2006, and adjusted mortality rates due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancer in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, an area with different sources of air pollution. For controlling purposes, mortality rate due to gastrointestinal diseases (an event less prone to be affected by air pollution) was also considered in the analysis. Spatial distribution of micronuclei frequency was determined using average interpolation. The association between health estimators and micronuclei frequency was determined by measures of Pearson's correlation. Higher frequencies of micronuclei were detected in areas with high traffic and close to a petrochemical pole. Significant associations were detected between micronuclei frequency and adjusted mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (r = 0.841, p = 0.036) and cancer (r = 0.890, p = 0.018). The association between mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases was positive but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.640, p = 0.172), probably because of the small number of events. Gastrointestinal mortality did not exhibit significant association with micronuclei frequency. Because the small number of observations and the nature of an ecological study, the present findings must be considered with caution and considered as preliminary. Further studies, performed in different conditions of contamination and climate should be done before considering Trad-MN in the evaluation of human health risk imposed by air pollutants. - Bioassay used to explore the correlation between air pollution exposition and mortality rates.

  9. Oxidized lipids and lipid-mediators are involved in cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms by which air pollutants induce cardiac and vascular injuries are unknown. We hypothesized that these injuries involve alterations in'aortic membrane lipids and lipid-mediators. We exposed male Wistar Kyoto rats (12-15 wk old), nose-only to air, ozone (03; 0.5 ppm),...

  10. The role of imaging studies in pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The role imaging studies play in the choice of treatment in traumatic pancreas damage remains unclear. This study was performed to gain insight into the role of radiological studies in children 16 years of age or younger admitted to our hospital with pancreatic damage due to a blunt abdominal trauma. Method: Retrospectively, the radiological as well as patient clinical records were reviewed of all children admitted to our hospital between 1975 and 2003 with a pancreatic lesion due to blunt abdominal trauma. Results: Thirty-four children with ages ranging from 3 to 14 years old were admitted with traumatic pancreas damage. Initially 33 children were treated conservatively for the pancreatic damage and only one had immediate surgery of the pancreas with a Roux-y pancreaticojejunostomy. Five other children had immediate surgery for other reasons. Overall, five children proved to have a pancreas transection on CT scans or during laparotomy. One child had a pancreas hematoma and 28 a pancreas contusion. In total 15 children developed a pseudocyst (44%), nine of which resolved spontaneously while six were treated by intervention. None of the children had residual morbidity, and there were no deaths. Considering the pancreas, the 11 available CT's were re-evaluated by two radiologists independently. Grade 3 pancreas damage (distal transection of the pancreatic duct) was diagnosed in five patients by radiologist A and four patients by radiologist B (80% match); Grade 1 was diagnosed in, respectively six and one patients (15% match). An US was performed on 19 children with 82 follow-up examinations, mostly for follow-up of the pseudocysts. Conclusion: Traumatic pancreas damage is a rare and difficult diagnosis. There is no straightforward answer for diagnostic imaging in blunt abdominal trauma in children. The diagnostic relevance of CT is limited. CT in combination with MRCP may be a better option for exclusion of pancreatic duct lesions

  11. Mortality due to cardiovascular disease in women during the reproductive age (15 to 49 years, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Haddad

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in women during the reproductive age (15 to 49 years in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 1995. METHODS: A list of all deaths and their underlying causes, coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, multiple causes of death, and estimates of the female population according to age groups were provided by the SEADE Foundation. Specific coefficients for 100 thousand women for each year as well as the medians of these coefficients related to 5 years, and the percentage of death by subgroups were calculated. RESULTS: Cerebrovascular diseases have the highest coefficients (14.24 for 100 thousand females, followed by ischemic heart disease (7.37, other heart diseases (6.39, hypertensive disease (3.03, chronic rheumatic heart disease (1.58, pulmonary vascular diseases (1.29, and active rheumatic fever (0.05. Systemic arterial hypertension, as an associated cause, occurred in 55.3% to 57.8% of all the deaths due to intracerebral hemorrhage and in 30.4% to 30.8% due to subarachnoid hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: The significance of cerebrovascular diseases, coronary artery disease, and systemic arterial hypertension as causes of mortality suggests the need to emphasize preventive actions for young women who have the potential to reproduce to avoid possible complications in future pregnancies, and premature mortality.

  12. Independent lung ventilation in a newborn with asymmetric acute lung injury due to respiratory syncytial virus: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nardo Matteo; Perrotta Daniela; Stoppa Francesca; Cecchetti Corrado; Marano Marco; Pirozzi Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Independent lung ventilation is a form of protective ventilation strategy used in adult asymmetric acute lung injury, where the application of conventional mechanical ventilation can produce ventilator-induced lung injury and ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Only a few experiences have been published on the use of independent lung ventilation in newborn patients. Case presentation We present a case of independent lung ventilation in a 16-day-old infant of 3.5 kg body weig...

  13. A RARE PRESENTATION OF A CONCOMITANT LUMBAR SPINE BURST FRACTURE WITH A DISTAL CORPUS STERNI FRACTURE DUE TO A FLEXION DISTRACTION INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar TV, GadiDaksh, Jain Vinay, Rangaswamy BT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sternum fractures are a rare entity and occur either due to direct trauma or indirectly associated to a flexion compression injury. Earlier literatures used to describe the association of sternum fractures with upper thoracic vertebral fractures. To the best of our knowledge very few cases have been described in literature with concomitant lumbar vertebral fracture with associated sternum fracture. We hereby report a rare presentation of a flexion distraction injury leading to a concomitant sternum fracture with a L1 vertebral burst fracture.

  14. Histologic evaluation of preventive measures for scald injury on the peritoneo-serosal surface due to intraoperative hyperthermic chemoperfusion for patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, S; Takahashi, M; Kobayashi, K; Mutou, T; Toyosawa, T; Izawa, E; Numai, T; Kondoh, F; Ohkubo, H

    1998-01-01

    To histologically assess the preventive efficacy of cimetidine against scald injury on the peritoneo-serosal surface during intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemoperfusion (IHCP) for advanced gastric cancer, a randomized histologic study using cimetidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, was performed for 20 patients with advanced or recurrent gastric cancer and peritoneal metastasis. Cimetidine 50 mg/kg was administered intravenously to 10 patients just prior to the IHCP (cimetidine group), and the remaining 10 patients underwent the IHCP without cimetidine (control group). The background factors and IHCP treatments of these two groups were nearly the same. Although the antitumour efficacy of the IHCP was not histologically different between the two groups, the histological analysis revealed that the peritoneo-serosal surface in the cimetidine group was protected against scald injury, compared with the control group. This finding suggests that pre-IHCP cimetidine is of great benefit for protecting the peritoneo-serosal surface from scald injury due to IHCP. PMID:9483448

  15. A finite element lower extremity and pelvis model for predicting bone injuries due to knee bolster loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Hoof, J. van; Barbir, A.; Made, R. van der; Slaats, P.M.A.; McCann, M.J.; Ridella, S.A.; Rupp, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Injuries to the knee-thigh-hip (KTH) complex in frontal motor vehicle crashes are of substantial concern because of their frequency and potential to result in long-term disability. Current frontal impact Anthropometric Test Dummies (ATDs) have been shown to respond differently than human cadavers un

  16. Cooperative Role of Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Caveolin-1 in Regulating the Vascular Response to Low Nitric Oxide-High Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiovascular Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojoga, Luminita H; Yao, Tham M; Opsasnick, Lauren A; Siddiqui, Waleed T; Reslan, Ossama M; Adler, Gail K; Williams, Gordon H; Khalil, Raouf A

    2015-10-01

    Aldosterone interacts with mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to stimulate sodium reabsorption in renal tubules and may also affect the vasculature. Caveolin-1 (cav-1), an anchoring protein in plasmalemmal caveolae, binds steroid receptors and also endothelial nitric oxide synthase, thus limiting its translocation and activation. To test for potential MR/cav-1 interaction in the vasculature, we investigated if MR blockade in cav-1-replete or -deficient states would alter vascular function in a mouse model of low nitric oxide (NO)-high angiotensin II (AngII)-induced cardiovascular injury. Wild-type (WT) and cav-1 knockout mice (cav-1(-/-)) consuming a high salt diet (4% NaCl) received Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (0.1-0.2 mg/ml in drinking water at days 1-11) plus AngII (0.7-2.8 mg/kg per day via an osmotic minipump at days 8-11) ± MR antagonist eplerenone (EPL) 100 mg/kg per day in food. In both genotypes, blood pressure increased with L-NAME + AngII. EPL minimally changed blood pressure, although its dose was sufficient to block MR and reverse cardiac expression of the injury markers cluster of differentiation 68 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in L-NAME+AngII treated mice. In aortic rings, phenylephrine and KCl contraction was enhanced with EPL in L-NAME+AngII treated WT mice, but not cav-1(-/-) mice. AngII-induced contraction was not different, and angiotensin type 1 receptor expression was reduced in L-NAME + AngII treated WT and cav-1(-/-) mice. In WT mice, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was enhanced with L-NAME + AngII treatment and reversed with EPL. Acetylcholine relaxation in cav-1(-/-) mice was greater than in WT mice, not modified by L-NAME + AngII or EPL, and blocked by ex vivo L-NAME, 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), or endothelium removal, suggesting the role of NO-cGMP. Cardiac endothelial NO synthase was increased in cav-1(-/-) versus WT mice, further increased with L-NAME + AngII, and not affected by EPL

  17. 盐酸丙帕他莫致急性肝损伤%Acute liver injury due to propacetamol hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思芸; 潘昭平; 胡玉兰; 柳华; 王龙飞; 胡晓燕

    2015-01-01

    1例45岁男性患者行左侧颌面部和颈部肿物切除术,术前丙氨酸转氨酶( ALT)19 U/L,天冬氨酸转氨酶(AST)32 U/L,γ-谷氨酰转移酶(GGT)146 U/L。术后给予盐酸丙帕他莫2.0 g入0.9%氯化钠注射液100 ml静脉滴注,1次/12 h。术后第8天复查肝功能示ALT 642 U/L,AST 692 U/L, GGT 368 U/L。患者无恶心、呕吐、腹胀、纳差等不适症状,皮肤、巩膜无黄染,肝区无压痛。考虑为盐酸丙帕他莫所致急性肝损伤。当日停用盐酸丙帕他莫,给予多烯磷脂酰胆碱、还原型谷胱甘肽、N-乙酰半胱氨酸等保肝治疗。停用盐酸丙帕他莫第8天,ALT 87 U/L,AST 341 U/L,GGT 354 U/L;第18天,ALT 84 U/L,AST 36 U/L,GGT 276 U/L;第32天,ALT 24 U/L,AST 17 U/L,GGT 36 U/L。%A 45-year-old male received a lump resection on left maxillofacial and cervical region. Before treatment,the laboratory test results were as follows:alanine aminotransferase( ALT)19 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase( AST)32 U/L,gamma glutamyltransferase( GGT)146 U/L. He was given an intravenous infusion of propacetamol hydrochloride 2. 0 g in 0. 9% sodium chloride 100 ml twice daily. The laboratory tests were as follows:alanine aminotransferase 642 U/L,aspartate aminotransferase 692 U/L, gamma glutamyltransferase 368 U/L on day 8 after operation. The patient had no symptoms of nausea, vomiting,abdominal distention,and poor appetite. There was no tenderness in his hepatic zones. He was considered as acute liver injury due to propacetamol hydrochloride. Propacetamol hydrochloride was discontinued immediately and liver-protective drugs such as polyene phosphatidylcholine, reduced glutathione,and N-acetyl cysteine were given. On day 8 of drug withdrawal,the results of laboratory tests were as follows:ALT 87 U/L,AST 341 U/L,GGT 354 U/L. On day 32 of drug withdrawal,the laboratory tests results were as follows:ALT 24 U/L,AST 17 U/L,GGT 36 U/L.

  18. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    OpenAIRE

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with ac...

  19. The age-dependent incidence of injuries due to road traffic accidents in Odense, Denmark from 1980 to 1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L B; Poulsen, T K; Johannsen, H G

    1995-01-01

    The study was based on data concerning persons treated at Odense University Hospital as a result of road traffic accidents in the period 1980-92. Incidence rates of road traffic accident injuries were calculated on the basis of the population in Odense municipality. The study group included persons...... older or even 65 years of age, while persons younger than 65 years of age were used as a reference group....

  20. Increased cardiac index due to terbutaline treatment aggravates capillary-alveolar macromolecular leakage in oleic acid lung injury in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Briot, Raphael; Bayat, Sam; Anglade, Daniel; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Grimbert, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We assessed the in vivo effects of terbutaline, a beta2-agonist assumed to reduce microvascular permeability in acute lung injury. Methods We used a recently developed broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) technique to repeatedly measure (every 15 min. for 4 hours) the time-course of capillary-alveolar leakage of a macromolecule (fluorescein-labeled dextran) in 19 oleic acid (OA) lung injured dogs. BAL was performed in a closed lung sampling site, using a bronchoscope fitted with an infl...

  1. Observation and nursing of complications due to high re-perfusion injury occurring after balloon angioplasty for diabetic vascular diseases of lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the symptomatic nursing in treating the complications caused by high re-perfusion which develops after balloon angioplasty for the treatment of diabetic vascular diseases of lower extremity. Methods: Eighteen patients with lower limb ischemia caused by diabetes mellitus developed high re-perfusion injury complications after receiving balloon angioplasty. The patients were randomly and equally divided into study group and control group. The special nursing measures designed by the author's department, including raising the diseased lower limb, enforcing the flexion and extension movement of the leg, cold compress, wound exposure, etc. were carried out for patients of study group, while no special nursing measures were adopted for patients of control group. The clinical results, such as limb pain, swelling and subcutaneous petechia after re-perfusion injury, were evaluated and compared between two groups. Results: After the treatment, the limb pain, swelling and subcutaneous petechia due to high re-perfusion injury in study group were relieved more markedly than that in control group, the difference in evaluation score between two groups was statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: The special symptomatic nursing measures are very effective in relieving the high re-perfusion injury after balloon angioplasty for the treatment of diabetic lower limb ischemia. (authors)

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INJURIES AND DISEASES DUE TO OVERUSE IN RUGBY: OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE PLAYERS OF “CUS PERUGIA RUGBY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bisaccia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rugby is a contact sport and for this reason is very demanding from a physical point of view. Up to now few studies describe the incidence and types of the most frequent traumas. The present study aims to evaluate the epidemiology of the major accidents related to the practice of this sport. Materials and methods: We collected data on a total of 321 players belonging to the Sports Club "CUS Rugby Perugia" for a total of three years taking into consideration the type of injury, the part of the body concerned, if the injury occurred during official competitions or in training, and also the lapse of time necessary for recovery. Results: We had a total of 240 accidents (45.8% of minor gravity, 36.6% of average gravity and 17.6% serious. In relation to the type of trauma, we noticed that minor injuries consisted in most cases and above all in facial injuries, while the average and the serious severity accidents affected in most cases the knees: (sprains, meniscal and ligamentous tears. Discussion: By analyzing the collected data we have noticedthat the highest number of accidents occurred during official competitions, and especially during the last minutes of the game, probably due to a greater muscle fatigue. The role of the players is also important because it correlates to a different type of risk. Conclusions: This study confirms that rugby has a higher accident rate than other contact sports. Therefore specific training strategies and techniques should be implemented, in order to reduce the incidence of injuries, especially at the level of the lower limbs.

  3. Accidental injury of the inferior alveolar nerve due to the extrusion of calcium hydroxide in endodontic treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yooseok; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Kim, Yemi; Kim, Taehyeon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-02-01

    During clinical endodontic treatment, we often find radiopaque filling material beyond the root apex. Accidental extrusion of calcium hydroxide could cause the injury of inferior alveolar nerve, such as paresthesia or continuous inflammatory response. This case report presents the extrusion of calcium hydroxide and treatment procedures including surgical intervention. A 48 yr old female patient experienced Calcipex II extrusion in to the inferior alveolar canal on left mandibular area during endodontic treatment. After completion of endodontic treatment on left mandibular first molar, surgical intervention was planned under general anesthesia. After cortical bone osteotomy and debridement, neuroma resection and neurorrhaphy was performed, and prognosis was observed. But no improvement in sensory nerve was seen following surgical intervention after 20 mon. A clinician should be aware of extrusion of intracanal medicaments and the possibility of damage on inferior alveolar canal. Injectable type of calcium hydroxide should be applied with care for preventing nerve injury. The alternative delivery method such as lentulo spiral was suggested on the posterior mandibular molar. PMID:26877992

  4. Recurrent Autonomic Dysreflexia due to Chronic Aortic Dissection in an Adult Male with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic dysreflexia is a hypertensive clinical emergency for persons with spinal cord injury at T-6 level or above. Recurrent autonomic dysreflexia is uncommon in spinal cord injury patients and is usually caused by noxious stimuli that cannot be removed promptly, e.g., somatic pain, abdominal distension. A 61-year-old man, who sustained tetraplegia at C-5 (ASIA-A 38 years ago, was admitted with chest infection. Computerised tomography (CT of the chest showed the ascending aorta to measure 4 cm in anteroposterior diameter; descending thoracic aorta measured 3.5 cm. No dissection was seen. Normal appearances of abdominal aorta were seen. He was treated with noninvasive ventilation, antibiotics, and diuretics. Nineteen days later, when there was sudden deterioration in his clinical condition, CT of the pulmonary angiogram was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. This showed no pulmonary embolus, but the upper abdominal aorta showed some dissection with thrombosis of the false lumen. Blood pressure was controlled with perindopril 2 mg, once a day, doxazosin 4 mg, twice a day, and furosemide 20 mg, twice a day. Since this patient did not show clinical features of mesenteric or lower limb ischaemia, the vascular surgeon did not recommend subdiaphragmatic aortic replacement.

  5. Short-term effect of dust storms on the risk of mortality due to respiratory, cardiovascular and all-causes in Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Thalib, Lukman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dust storms on short-term mortality in Kuwait. We analyzed respiratory and cardiovascular mortality as well as all-cause mortality in relation to dust storm events over a 5-year study period, using data obtained through a population-based retrospective ecological time series study. Dust storm days were identified when the national daily average of PM10 exceeded 200 μg/m3. Generalized additive models with Poisson link were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of age-stratified daily mortality associated with dust events, after adjusting for potential confounders including weather variables and long-term trends. There was no significant association between dust storm events and same-day respiratory mortality (RR = 0.96; 95 %CI 0.88-1.04), cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.98; 95 %CI 0.96-1.012) or all-cause mortality (RR = 0.99; 95 %CI 0.97-1.00). Overall our findings suggest that local dust, that most likely originates from crustal materials, has little impact on short-term respiratory, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality.

  6. Short-term effect of dust storms on the risk of mortality due to respiratory, cardiovascular and all-causes in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Thalib, Lukman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dust storms on short-term mortality in Kuwait. We analyzed respiratory and cardiovascular mortality as well as all-cause mortality in relation to dust storm events over a 5-year study period, using data obtained through a population-based retrospective ecological time series study. Dust storm days were identified when the national daily average of PM10 exceeded 200 μg/m(3). Generalized additive models with Poisson link were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of age-stratified daily mortality associated with dust events, after adjusting for potential confounders including weather variables and long-term trends. There was no significant association between dust storm events and same-day respiratory mortality (RR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.88-1.04), cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.98; 95%CI 0.96-1.012) or all-cause mortality (RR = 0.99; 95%CI 0.97-1.00). Overall our findings suggest that local dust, that most likely originates from crustal materials, has little impact on short-term respiratory, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. PMID:23329278

  7. Visceral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W

    1992-06-01

    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  8. Static magnetic field effect on the arterial baroreflex-mediated control of microcirculation: implications for cardiovascular effects due to environmental magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrov, Juraj

    2007-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that time-varying and static magnetic fields in the environment might affect the cardiovascular system. To explore the underlying physiology, the effect of static magnetic fields (SMFs) on the carotid baroreflex control of microcirculation was studied. Twenty-four hemodynamic monitorings were performed in rabbits sedated by pentobarbital infusion (5 mg/kg/h) during experiments that lasted 120 min. Mean femoral artery blood pressure, heart rate, and ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, measured by microphotoelectric plethysmogram (MPPG), were simultaneously recorded before and after a 40 min exposure of the sinocarotid baroreceptors to Nd(2)-Fe(14)-B alloy magnets (n = 14) or sham magnets (n = 10, control series). The local SMF field was 350 mT, at the baroreceptors' site. Arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was estimated from heart rate/blood pressure response to intravenous bolus injections of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. A significant positive correlation was found between the SMF-induced increase in BRS (DeltaBRS = BRS(afterSMF) - BRS(priorSMF)) and the increment in microvascular blood flow (DeltaMPPG = MPPG(afterSMF) - MPPG(priorSMF)) (r = 0.66, p < 0.009). The SMF probably modulated the arterial baroreflex-mediated microcirculatory control. This could represent one possible mechanism how environmental magnetic fields act on the cardiovascular system, and a method how to complexly adjust macro- and microcirculation with potential clinical implementation. PMID:17530271

  9. Acute liver failure due to concomitant arterial, portal and biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is transplantation a valid life-saving strategy? A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldaracena Nicolas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined iatrogenic vascular and biliary injury during cholecystectomy resulting in ischemic hepatic necrosis is a very rare cause of acute liver failure. We describe a patient who developed fulminant liver failure as a result of severe cholestasis and liver gangrene secondary to iatrogenic combine injury or the hepatic pedicle (i.e. hepatic artery, portal vein and bile duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Case presentation A 40-years-old woman underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. During laparoscopy, a severe bleeding at the liver hilum motivated the conversion to open surgery. Many sutures were placed across the parenchyma for bleeding control. After 48 hours, she rapidly deteriorated with encephalopathy, coagulopathy, persistent hypotension and progressive organ dysfunction including acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation. An angiography documented an occlusion of right hepatic artery and right portal vein. In the clinical of acute liver failure secondary to liver gangrene, severe coagulopathy and progressive secondary multi-organ failure, the patient was included in the waiting list for liver transplantation. Two days later, the patient was successfully transplanted with initial adequate liver graft function. However, she developed bilateral pneumonia and severe gastrointestinal bleeding and finally died 24 days after transplantation due to bilateral necrotizing pneumonia. Conclusion The occurrence of acute liver failure due to portal triad injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a catastrophic complication. Probably, the indication of liver transplantation as a life-saving strategy in patients with late diagnosis, acute liver failure, severe coagulopathy and progressive secondary multi-organ failure could be considered but only minimizing immunosuppressive regimen to avoid postoperative infections.

  10. Assessing the economic burden of injuries due to accidents: methodological problems illustrated with some examples from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy); L.M. Bouter (Lex)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides a survey of methodological problems encountered In an assessment of the economic consequences of accidents In The Netherlands. A sound epidemiological basis for such calculations appears to be lacking due to inadequate data-registration systems. We also discuss some s

  11. Is montelukast as effective as N-acetylcysteine in hepatic injury due to acetaminophen intoxication in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    İçer, Mustafa; Zengin, Yilmaz; Gunduz, Ercan; Dursun, Recep; Durgun, Hasan Mansur; Turkcu, Gul; Yuksel, Hatice; Üstündağ, Mehmet; Guloglu, Cahfer

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the acute protective effect of montelukast sodium in hepatic injury secondary to acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. This study used 60 rats. The rats were grouped into 6 groups. The control group was administered oral distilled water 10 ml/kg, the APAP group oral APAP 1 g/kg, the montelukast sodium (MK) group oral MK 30 mg/kg, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine (APAP+NAC) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single dose of intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg three hours later, the acetaminophen+montelukast sodium (APAP+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later, the acetaminophen+N-acetylcysteine+montelukast sodium (APAP+NAC+MK) group oral APAP 1 g/kg, followed by a single intraperitoneal NAC 1.5 g/kg plus oral MK 30 mg/kg 3 h later. Blood and liver tissue samples were taken 24h after drug administration. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were studied from the blood samples. Liver tissue samples were used for histopathological examination. Compared with the control group, serum AST and ALT activities were higher in the APAP and APAP+NAC groups. APAP+NAC, APAP+MK, and APAP+NAC+MK groups had reduced serum ALT and AST activities than the group administered APAP alone. APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups had a lower serum ALP activity than the control group. Histopathologically, there was a difference between the group administered APAP alone and the APAP+MK and APAP+NAC+MK groups. MK is as protective as NAC in liver tissue in APAP intoxication in rats. PMID:26462568

  12. Severe muscle atrophy due to spinal cord injury can be reversed in complete absence of peripheral nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Boncompagni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, a new efficient treatment has been developed to treat paralyzed skeletal muscle of patients affected by spinal cord injury (SCI. The capability of the functional electrical stimulation (FES to improve trophism and in some cases muscle function, are now well documented both in animals after experimental cord lesion, and in humans, generally after traumatic cord lesion. This new findings makes FES an important tool for the rehabilitation of SCI patients. FES stimulation has been proven to be an effective method used to retard muscle atrophy and improve recovery after reinnervation. Sophisticated FES devices have been developed for restoring function in the upper and lower extremities, the bladder and bowel, and the respiratory system of SCI patients. However, there are SCI cases, such as those affected by flaccid paralysis, in which the musculature is not treated with FES rehabilitation therapy. This is because conventional FES apparatuses are designed for direct stimulation of peripheral nerves that need small currents to be depolarized, and are not effective in patients that have lost their peripheral nerves, and, therefore, require higher currents for the direct depolarization of the muscle fibers. Lack of muscle treatment generates, as a secondary problem, a long series of alterations to tissues other than muscle, such as bones (osteoporosis, skin (pressure sores, decubital ulcers, etc., that are a direct consequence of inactivity and poor blood supply to the denervated areas. These complications represent an extremely serious problem for the general health of the injured individuals, who usually have a shorter than normal life span. In the hopes of changing this common belief, an innovative rehabilitation procedure, based on FES, has been developed with the aim of reversing long-lasting muscle atrophy in the muscles of the lower extremities of SCI patients affected by complete lesion of the conus cauda, i.e. that have no

  13. Failure of Urological Implants in Spinal Cord Injury Patients due to Infection, Malfunction, and Implants Becoming Obsolete due to Medical Progress and Age-Related Changes in Human Body Making Implant Futile: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Any new clinical data, whether positive or negative, generated about a medical device should be published because health professionals should know which devices do not work, as well as those which do. We report three spinal cord injury patients in whom urological implants failed to work. In the first, paraplegic, patient, a sacral anterior root stimulator failed to produce erection, and a drug delivery system for intracavernosal administration of vasoactive drugs was therefore implanted; however, this implant never functioned (and, furthermore, such penile drug delivery systems to produce erection had effectively become obsolete following the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Subsequently, the sacral anterior root stimulator developed a malfunction and the patient therefore learned to perform self-catheterisation. In the second patient, also paraplegic, an artificial urinary sphincter was implanted but the patient developed a postoperative sacral pressure sore. Eight months later, a suprapubic cystostomy was performed as urethral catheterisation was very difficult. The pressure sore had not healed completely even after five years. In the third case, a sacral anterior root stimulator was implanted in a tetraplegic patient in whom, after five years, a penile sheath could not be fitted because of penile retraction. This patient was therefore established on urethral catheter drainage. Later, infection with Staphylococcus aureus around the receiver block necessitated its removal. In conclusion, spinal cord injury patients are at risk of developing pressure sores, wound infections, malfunction of implants, and the inability to use implants because of age-related changes, as well as running the risk of their implants becoming obsolete due to advances in medicine. Some surgical procedures such as dorsal rhizotomy are irreversible. Alternative treatments such as intermittent catheterisations may be less damaging than bladder stimulator in

  14. Failure of Urological Implants in Spinal Cord Injury Patients due to Infection, Malfunction, and Implants Becoming Obsolete due to Medical Progress and Age-Related Changes in Human Body Making Implant Futile: Report of Three Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter; Selmi, Fahed; Mansour, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Any new clinical data, whether positive or negative, generated about a medical device should be published because health professionals should know which devices do not work, as well as those which do. We report three spinal cord injury patients in whom urological implants failed to work. In the first, paraplegic, patient, a sacral anterior root stimulator failed to produce erection, and a drug delivery system for intracavernosal administration of vasoactive drugs was therefore implanted; however, this implant never functioned (and, furthermore, such penile drug delivery systems to produce erection had effectively become obsolete following the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). Subsequently, the sacral anterior root stimulator developed a malfunction and the patient therefore learned to perform self-catheterisation. In the second patient, also paraplegic, an artificial urinary sphincter was implanted but the patient developed a postoperative sacral pressure sore. Eight months later, a suprapubic cystostomy was performed as urethral catheterisation was very difficult. The pressure sore had not healed completely even after five years. In the third case, a sacral anterior root stimulator was implanted in a tetraplegic patient in whom, after five years, a penile sheath could not be fitted because of penile retraction. This patient was therefore established on urethral catheter drainage. Later, infection with Staphylococcus aureus around the receiver block necessitated its removal. In conclusion, spinal cord injury patients are at risk of developing pressure sores, wound infections, malfunction of implants, and the inability to use implants because of age-related changes, as well as running the risk of their implants becoming obsolete due to advances in medicine. Some surgical procedures such as dorsal rhizotomy are irreversible. Alternative treatments such as intermittent catheterisations may be less damaging than bladder stimulator in the long term. PMID

  15. Vacina contra o vírus da influenza e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares na cidade de São Paulo Vacuna contra el virus de la Influenza y mortalidad por enfermedades cardiovasculares en la Ciudad de São Paulo Vaccination against the influenza virus and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in the city of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2009-10-01

    programa de vacunación contra la gripe. Las estimativas de la población y los datos de mortalidad fueron, respectivamente, obtenidos del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br y del Ministerio de la Salud (www.datasus.gov.br para el período entre el 1980 y 2006. Se estimó el riesgo de muerte por el método directo de ajuste, en el que se utilizó la población estándar (mundial referente al 1960. RESULTADOS: Las comparaciones entre las inclinaciones de las líneas de regresión resultaron semejantes para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y CE (p = 0,941, sin embargo, para las EIC (p = 0,022, se observó significativa reducción de la línea del período postvacuna cuando comparada con la línea del período prevacuna. El cambio en la tendencia de la mortalidad tras el 1996 fue significativo sólo para las EIC (p = 0,022, permaneciendo inalterada para las ECbV (p = 0,931 y EE (p = 0,941. CONCLUSIÓN: La vacunación contra la gripe se asoció a la significativa reducción de la mortalidad por EIC.BACKGROUND: The effect of vaccination against the influenza virus on the mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mortality by CVD before and after the start of the vaccination against the Influenza virus in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed the mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD, cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD and external causes (EC in the population of the metropolitan region of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, aged > 60 years, before and after the start of the vaccination program against Influenza. The population estimates and mortality data were obtained, respectively, from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE; www.ibge.gov.br and from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (www.datasus.gov.br for the period between 1980 and 2006. The risk of death was adjusted by the direct method, using the 1960 world standard population. RESULTS: The comparisons between

  16. Valoración de las lesiones oculares producidas en los accidentes de tráfico Assessment of ocular injuries due to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Menéndez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar cómo se realiza, desde el punto de vista pericial, la valoración de las lesiones y secuelas oculares de los accidentes de tráfico en nuestro medio. Método: Hemos realizado un estudio retrospectivo de 127 informes sobre lesiones oculares realizados en la Sección de Oftalmología de la Clínica Médico Forense de Madrid durante cinco años (del 2002 al 2006, analizando las siguientes variables: la proporción que representan los accidentes de tráfico (ATF, el tipo de lesión producida en el ATF, la duración media de la baja, las secuelas más frecuentes y la puntuación total media asignada a estas secuelas oculares. Resultados: Los ATF son la causa de la cuarta parte de las secuelas oculares que vemos. Las lesiones más frecuentemente producidas son traumatismos cráneo-encefálicos, contusiones oculares directas y esguinces cervicales. Hemos hallado un alto porcentaje de casos (22%, en los que no encontramos lesiones objetivas que justifiquen las molestias alegadas por el lesionado, o bien estas no guardan relación evidente con el accidente de tráfico sufrido. Conclusiones: Que los ATF son una de las causas más frecuentes de secuelas oculares (diplopias, disminuciones de agudeza visual…, con una puntuación media de 15 puntos y una duración media de la baja de 71 días, hay un importante porcentaje de reclamaciones injustificadas. Considera necesario revisar el actual Baremo de la Ley 34/2003, subsanando los errores y deficiencias que presenta, e incluyendo secuelas oculares típicamente postraumáticas que actualmente no recoge, para facilitar la valoración de las secuelas oculares.Aim: To analyse how it is performed, from expert evidence view point, the assessment of ocular injuries and after-effects due to traffic accidents in our area. Method: We have accomplished a retrospective study of 127 reports on ocular injuries, carried out in the Ophthalmologic Section of the Medical Forensic Clinic of Madrid for

  17. Bicycling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  18. The role of autophagy in metabolic syndrome-related cardiovascular injury%自噬在代谢综合征心血管损害中的作用机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗福玲; 任骏

    2013-01-01

    代谢综合征(MS)是一种以多种心血管危险因素聚集为特征的临床综合征,其主要表现包括高血压、肥胖、脂质代谢异常和胰岛素抵抗(IR)等.MS的主要后果为心血管损害,由其导致的心脏结构和功能的改变、心力衰竭、冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(冠心病)等的危害性明显超过单纯性高血压和糖、脂代谢异常等各个组分的单独累加.近年来的研究发现,自噬参与了MS心血管损伤的发生和发展.MS病理机制中的肥胖、IR、高血压、脂代谢紊乱、氧化应激、慢性炎症等所致的心血管损伤过程均与自噬密切相关.该文就国际前沿对自噬在MS心血管损害中的重要作用及机制研究进展进行简要综述.%Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clinical syndrome which is characterized with a cluster of the following cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, etc. The major consequence of MS are cardiovascular damages such as pathological changes in cardiac structure and function, en route to heart failure, and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease. And these damages caused by MS are much more detrimental than any single component among the cluster of risk factors. Recent studies have indicated autophagy is important in the onset and development of MS cardiovascular injury. Autophagy is closely correlated with MS cardiovascular diseases inuced by obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. In this article, the pivotal role and pathogenesis of autophagy in MS cardiovascular damages are briefly reviewed based on international frontier research.

  19. [Cardiovascular prevention - 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértes, András; Szabados, Eszter

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of premature death worldwide despite the fact that cardiovascular mortality decreased significantly in the last few decades in financially developed countries. This reduction is partly due to the modern medical and revascularisation treatments, and partly because of the effectiveness of prevention strategies such as lowering blood pressure and cholesterol level, as well as successful strategies against smoking. However, this positive trend is undermined by the striking growth in obesity and in type 2 diabetes mellitus, which could also be successfully controlled by lifestyle changes. This summary is based on an overview of the recent (2016) European Guideline for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases. Here the authors describe preventive strategies and goals to be achieved, the most important lifestyle suggestions, and the secondary prevention medical treatment for patients with already established cardiovascular disease. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(38), 1526-1531. PMID:27640620

  20. [Foot defect with vascular and neural injury due to freshwater stingray sting: reconstruction with a lesser saphenous vein adipo-fascial flap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutran, M; Mojallal, A; Chekaroua, K; Martin, E; Braye, F

    2009-04-01

    The emergency care to stingrays envenomation permits, in the majority of cases, to limit the damage caused. In the case of delayed medical care, we can meet deep and extensive lesions that need to be thoroughly explored in order to better address their reconstruction. We report the case of a patient injured by freshwater stingray. He presented a necrotic defect of 6 cm in diameter under the right medial malleolus with bone exposure and neurovascular injury. We opted for a therapeutic strategy in two steps. The first step consisted in a large debridement of the necrotic defect, under appropriate antibiotics and negative pressure therapy. Three weeks later, we covered the defect with a distally based lesser saphenous vein veno-fascia-subcutaneous flap, covered with a split-thickness graft. The coverage of the defect was satisfactory. The infection was controlled with antibiotics, which we prolonged for one month. The patient presented, initially, hypoesthesia of the upper lateral foot in relation with a neurapraxis of the sural nerve. The symptoms resolved at two months. The foot edema due to venous stasis also resolved at two months. The donor site healed without complications. The ability to wear normal shoes was preserved. The patient resumed his daily activities promptly.

  1. Human aggrecanase generated synovial fluid fragment levels are elevated directly after knee injuries due to proteolysis both in the inter globular and chondroitin sulfate domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struglics, A; Hansson, M; Lohmander, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    To examine different aggrecanase generated fragments in synovial fluid (SF) from patients with acute and chronic knee injuries and from knee healthy subjects.......To examine different aggrecanase generated fragments in synovial fluid (SF) from patients with acute and chronic knee injuries and from knee healthy subjects....

  2. F-18-fluoride PET for early diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic outcome in patients with heterotopic ossification (HO) after recent paraplegia due to spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the presence of bone in soft tissue. The acquired form of HO most frequently is seen with either musculoskeletal trauma, spinal cord injury or central nervous system injury. Fever, swelling, erythema, and occasional joint tenderness seen in early HO can be difficult to distinguish from cellulitis, osteomyelitis or thrombophlebitis. As compared to paraplegia alone, combination of HO and paraplegia, especially excessive delay of diagnosis, is associated with a significantly higher incidence for thrombosis, immobilization, decubitus leading to a reduced expectation and quality of life. To evaluate the role of F-18-fluoride PET for the early diagnosis and the evaluation of the therapeutic outcome, 38 patients (56 PET examinations) were analyzed prospectively. Material and Methods: Within 8 weeks after acquired paraplegia, each patient was studied by F-18-fluoride PET in addition to clinical, serologic and conventional radiographic examinations. Whole-body PET studies (ECAT Exact 47, attenuation corrected, iterative reconstruction) were obtained 150 min. after injection of 12 MBq F-18-fluoride/kg body weight. For semi-quantitative analysis, standardized-uptake values (SUV) and the metabolic transverse diameters (MTD) of the lesions were assessed. To prevent post-traumatic neurogenic HO, patients received physiotherapy and NSA (indomethacin 3 x 50 mg per day for 4 months). In addition, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT, 1x7 Gy according to ICRU) was administered, if PET demonstrated HO. Therapeutic outcome was compared with a historical group of patients receiving only physiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier-Method, log-rank-, chi-square- and Wilcoxon-test were used for statistical analyses. Results: In the course of HO, 4/38 patients received EBRT with 1x7 Gy for a second time due to an increasing SUV and/or MTD and rising levels of alkaline phosphatase. Within a follow-up period of at least 30 months, none of the patients showed clinical

  3. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the underestimat

  4. Nrf2 and cardiovascular defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Reuben

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E) 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis). The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Nrf2 and Cardiovascular Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Howden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system is susceptible to a group of diseases that are responsible for a larger proportion of morbidity and mortality than any other disease. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with a failure of defenses against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and/or death, leading to organ dysfunction. The pleiotropic transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid (NF-E 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, regulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes and proteins through the antioxidant response element. Nrf2 is an important component in antioxidant defenses in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. Nrf2 is also involved in protection against oxidant stress during the processes of ischemia-reperfusion injury and aging. However, evidence suggests that Nrf2 activity does not always lead to a positive outcome and may accelerate the pathogenesis of some cardiovascular diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis. The precise conditions under which Nrf2 acts to attenuate or stimulate cardiovascular disease processes are unclear. Further studies on the cellular environments related to cardiovascular diseases that influence Nrf2 pathways are required before Nrf2 can be considered a therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Topographic Locomotive Analysis of 99mTc-HDP Uptake of Acute Rhabdomyolysis and Musculotendinous Unit Injury due to Excessive Swimming Exercise in Novice: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhabdomyolysis (RM), also referred to as myonecrosis, is not an uncommon disorder of skeletal muscle, the incidence of which is on the increase as endurance tests, sports and body build have become popular. RM is divided into diffuse muscle fiber damage and musculotendinous unit (MTU) injury. A recent study by Crenshaw et al. revealed that muscular fiber damage caused by racing was associated with elevated intra-muscular pressure, capillary damage, and ischchemia. It is to be remembered that myocytes are mainly destroyed in RM whereas perimysial connective is predominantly damaged in myositis ossificans. When muscle fibers disrupt myoglobin escapes into extracellular fluid and plasma resulting in myoglobinemia and often acute renal failure. Plasma creatine phosphokinase level becomes elevated. We report a case of strenuous swimming-related RM that occurred in the muscles of the shoulder girdles and chest wall analyzed using magnified 9:9mTc-HDP bone scan. Of interest magnified bone scan of RM in the present case showed not only ordinary muscular injury but also MTU injury. MRI is useful in the study of soft tissue injury and in recent years sonography has also become increasingly used. As mentioned 99mTc-HDP bone scan, especially magnification scan, sensitively depicts metabolic change that occurred in injured muscles and tendons. Unless injury is trivial the bone scan nearly always reveals pathological uptake in a damaged muscle, MTU, and/or tendinous insertion permitting the topographic distinction of injury. Thus, the diagnosis of myolysis, MTU injury, and enthesitis can specifically be made when one uses magnification technique

  7. Validated Contemporary Risk Model of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions: Insights From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry Cath‐PCI Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Thomas T.; Uptal D Patel; Chang, Tara I.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Masoudi, Frederick A; Michael E Matheny; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Amin, Amit P.; Weintraub, William S.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Messenger, John C.; Rumsfeld, John S; Spertus, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We developed risk models for predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) and AKI requiring dialysis (AKI‐D) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to support quality assessment and the use of preventative strategies. Methods and Results AKI was defined as an absolute increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL or a relative increase of 50% in serum creatinine (AKIN Stage 1 or greater) and AKI‐D was a new requirement for dialysis following PCI. Data from 947 012 consecutive PCI patients and 1253 sites ...

  8. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna;

    2014-01-01

    To deliver optimal patient care, evidence-based care is advocated and research is needed to support health care staff of all disciplines in deciding which options to use in their daily practice. Due to the increasing complexity of cardiac care across the life span of patients combined...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  9. Incidence of epidural haematoma and neurological injury in cardiovascular patients with epidural analgesia/anaesthesia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuay Henry J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidural anaesthesia is used extensively for cardiothoracic and vascular surgery in some centres, but not in others, with argument over the safety of the technique in patients who are usually extensively anticoagulated before, during, and after surgery. The principle concern is bleeding in the epidural space, leading to transient or persistent neurological problems. Methods We performed an extensive systematic review to find published cohorts of use of epidural catheters during vascular, cardiac, and thoracic surgery, using electronic searching, hand searching, and reference lists of retrieved articles. Results Twelve studies included 14,105 patients, of whom 5,026 (36% had vascular surgery, 4,971 (35% cardiac surgery, and 4,108 (29% thoracic surgery. There were no cases of epidural haematoma, giving maximum risks following epidural anaesthesia in cardiac, thoracic, and vascular surgery of 1 in 1,700, 1 in 1,400 and 1 in 1,700 respectively. In all these surgery types combined the maximum expected rate would be 1 in 4,700. In all these patients combined there were eight cases of transient neurological injury, a rate of 1 in 1,700 (95% confidence interval 1 in 3,300 to 1 in 850. There were no cases of persistent neurological injury (maximum expected rate 1 in 4,600. Conclusion These estimates for cardiothoracic epidural anaesthesia should be the worst case. Limitations are inadequate denominators for different types of surgery in anticoagulated cardiothoracic or vascular patients more at risk of bleeding.

  10. Electrical Injury-Induced Complete Atrioventricular Block: Is Permanent Pacemaker Required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Beton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable percentage of electrical injuries occur as a result of work activities. Electrical injury can lead to various cardiovascular disorders: acute myocardial necrosis, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, arrhythmias, hemorrhagic pericarditis, acute hypertension with peripheral vasospasm, and anomalous, nonspecific ECG alterations. Ventricular fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia resulting from electrical injury and is the leading cause of death in electrical (especially low voltage alternating current injury cases. Asystole, premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia, conduction disorders (various degrees of heart blocks, bundle-brunch blocks, supraventricular tachycardia, and atrial fibrillation are the other arrhythmic complications of electrical injury. Complete atrioventricular block has rarely been reported and permanent pacemaker was required for the treatment in some of these cases. Herein, we present a case of reversible complete atrioventricular block due to low voltage electrical injury in a young electrical technician.

  11. Electrical Injury-Induced Complete Atrioventricular Block: Is Permanent Pacemaker Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beton, Osman; Efe, Tolga Han; Kaya, Hakki; Bilgin, Murat; Dinc Asarcikli, Lale; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2015-01-01

    A considerable percentage of electrical injuries occur as a result of work activities. Electrical injury can lead to various cardiovascular disorders: acute myocardial necrosis, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, arrhythmias, hemorrhagic pericarditis, acute hypertension with peripheral vasospasm, and anomalous, nonspecific ECG alterations. Ventricular fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia resulting from electrical injury and is the leading cause of death in electrical (especially low voltage alternating current) injury cases. Asystole, premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia, conduction disorders (various degrees of heart blocks, bundle-brunch blocks), supraventricular tachycardia, and atrial fibrillation are the other arrhythmic complications of electrical injury. Complete atrioventricular block has rarely been reported and permanent pacemaker was required for the treatment in some of these cases. Herein, we present a case of reversible complete atrioventricular block due to low voltage electrical injury in a young electrical technician. PMID:26839721

  12. Failure of Urological Implants in Spinal Cord Injury Patients due to Infection, Malfunction, and Implants Becoming Obsolete due to Medical Progress and Age-Related Changes in Human Body Making Implant Futile: Report of Three Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan; Bakul Soni; Gurpreet Singh; Peter Hughes; Fahed Selmi; Paul Mansour

    2013-01-01

    Any new clinical data, whether positive or negative, generated about a medical device should be published because health professionals should know which devices do not work, as well as those which do. We report three spinal cord injury patients in whom urological implants failed to work. In the first, paraplegic, patient, a sacral anterior root stimulator failed to produce erection, and a drug delivery system for intracavernosal administration of vasoactive drugs was therefore implanted; howe...

  13. Injuries in orienteering.

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, F.

    1986-01-01

    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lo...

  14. Differences in lumbopelvic control and occupational behaviours in female nurses with and without a recent history of low back pain due to back injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiolakis, Corinne S; Kuk, Jennifer L; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is highly prevalent in nurses. This study aimed to determine which physical fitness, physical activity (PA) and biomechanical characteristics most clearly distinguish between nurses with [recently injured (RInj)] and without [not recently injured (NRInj)] a recent back injury. Twenty-seven (8 RInj, 19 NRInj) female nurses completed questionnaires (pain, work, PA), physical fitness, biomechanical and low back discomfort measures, and wore an accelerometer for one work shift. Relative to NRInj nurses, RInj nurses exhibited reduced lumbopelvic control (41.4% more displayed a moderate loss of frontal plane position), less active occupational behaviours (less moderate PA; less patient lifts performed alone; more sitting and less standing time) and more than two times higher low back discomfort scores. Despite no physical fitness differences, the lumbopelvic control, occupational behaviours and discomfort measures differed between nurses with and without recent back injuries. It is unclear whether poor lumbopelvic control is causal or adaptive in RInj nurses and may require further investigation. Practitioner Summary: It is unclear which personal modifiable factors are most clearly associated with low back pain in nurses. Lumbopelvic control was the only performance-based measure to distinguish between nurses with and without recent back injuries. Future research may investigate whether reduced lumbopelvic control is causal or adaptive in recently injured nurses. PMID:25400080

  15. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  16. Neuropeptides in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1984-12-01

    Neuropeptides can affect cardiovascular function in various ways. They can serve as cotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system; for example, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is released with acetylcholine and neuropeptide Y with norepinephrine from postganglionic neurons. Substance P and, presumably, other peptides can can affect cardiovascular function when released near blood vessels by antidromically conducted impulses in branches of stimulated sensory neurons. In the central nervous system, many different neuropeptides appear to function as transmitters or contransmittes in the neural pathways that regulate the cardiovascular system. In addition neuropeptides such as vasopressin and angiotensin II also circulate as hormones that are involved in cardiovascular control. Large doses of exogenous vasopressin are required to increase blood pressure in normal animals because the increase in total peripheral resistance produced by the hormones is accompanied by a decrease in cardiac output. However, studies with synthetic peptides that selectively antagonize the vasopressor action of vasopressin indicate that circulating vasopressin is important in maintaining blood pressure when animals are hypovolemic due to dehydration, haemorrhage or adrenocortical insufficiency. VIP dilates blood vessels and stimulates renin secretion by a direct action on the juxtaglomerular cells. Renin secretion is stimulated when the concentration of VIP in plasma exceeds 75 pmol/litre, and higher values are seen in a number of conditions. Neostigmine, a drug which increases the secretion of endogenous VIP, also increases renin secretion, and this increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Thus, VIP may be a physiologically significant renin stimulating hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Guyon's canal syndrome due to tortuous ulnar artery with DeQuervain stenosing tenosynovitis, ligamentous injuries and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome, a rare presentation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Farhan; Kanwal, Darakhshan; Khalid, Qazi Saad Bin; Ahmed, Muhammad Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    The Guyon's canal syndrome is a well known clinical entity and may have significant impact on patient's quality of life. We report a case of 43-year-old male who presented with complaints of pain and numbness in right hand and difficulty in writing for past one month. On imaging diagnosis of Guyon's canal syndrome because of tortuous ulnar artery was made with additional findings of DeQuervain's stenosing tenosynovitis and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome with ligamentous injury and subsequently these were confirmed on surgery.Although it is a rare syndrome, early diagnosis and treatment prevents permanent neurological deficits and improve patient's quality of life. PMID:20076781

  18. Understanding the application of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma RK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rakesh K Sharma, Donald J Voelker, Roma Sharma, Hanumanth K ReddyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Medical Center of South Arkansas, El Dorado, AR, USAAbstract: Throughout their lifetime, an individual may sustain many injuries and recover spontaneously over a period of time, without even realizing the injury in the first place. Wound healing occurs due to a proliferation of stem cells capable of restoring the injured tissue. The ability of adult stem cells to repair tissue is dependent upon the intrinsic ability of tissues to proliferate. The amazing capacity of embryonic stem cells to give rise to virtually any type of tissue has intensified the search for similar cell lineage in adults to treat various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The ability to convert adult stem cells into pluripotent cells that resemble embryonic cells, and to transplant those in the desired organ for regenerative therapy is very attractive, and may offer the possibility of treating harmful disease-causing mutations. The race is on to find the best cells for treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for the ideal stem cell, delivery strategies, myocardial retention, and time of administration in the ideal patient population. There are multiple modes of stem cell delivery to the heart with different cell retention rates that vary depending upon method and site of injection, such as intra coronary, intramyocardial or via coronary sinus. While there are crucial issues such as retention of stem cells, microvascular plugging, biodistribution, homing to myocardium, and various proapoptotic factors in the ischemic myocardium, the regenerative potential of stem cells offers an enormous impact on clinical applications in the management of cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: stem cell therapy, stem cell delivery, cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy

  19. [Study on mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhiza treating cardiovascular disease through auxiliary mechanism elucidation system for Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuai-bing; Zhang, Bai-xia; Wang, Hui-hui; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-10-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and is widely used as a clinically medication for its efficiency in treating cardiovascular disease. Due to TCM is a comprehensive system, the mechanism of S. miltiorrhiza treating cardiovascular disease through integrated multiple pathways are still unclear in some aspects. With the rapid progress of bioinformatics and systems biology, network pharmacology is considered as a promising approach toward reveal the underlying complex relationship between an herb and the disease. In order to discover the mechanism of S. miltiorrhiza treating cardiovascular disease systematically, we use the auxiliary mechanism elucidation system for Chinese medicine, built up a molecule interaction network on the active component targets of S. miltiorrhiza and the therapeutic targets of cardiovascular disease to offer an opportunity for deep understanding the mechanism of S. miltiorrhiza treating cardiovascular disease from the perspective of network pharmacology. The results showed that S. miltiorrhiza treating cardiovascular disease through ten pathways as follows: improve lipid metabolism, anti-inflammation, regulate blood pressure, negatively regulates blood coagulation factor and antithrombotic, regulate cell proliferation, anti-stress injury, promoting angiogenesis, inhibited apoptosis, adjust vascular systolic and diastolic, promoting wound repair. The results of this paper provide theoretical guidance for the development of new drugs to treat cardiovascular disease and the discovery of new drugs through component compatibility. PMID:26975090

  20. Longitudinal changes in the structure and inflammatory response of the intervertebral disc due to stab injury in a murine organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adam C; Liu, Jennifer W; Tang, Simon Y

    2016-08-01

    Despite the significant public health impact of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and low back pain, it remains challenging to investigate the multifactorial molecular mechanisms that drive the degenerative cascade. Organ culture model systems offer the advantage of allowing cells to live and interact with their native extracellular matrix, while simultaneously reducing the amount of biological variation and complexity present at the organismal level. Murine organ cultures in particular also allow the use of widely available genetically modified animals with molecular level reporters that would reveal insights on the degenerative cascade. Here, we utilize an organ culture system of murine lumbar functional spinal units where we are able to maintain the cellular, metabolic, and structural, and mechanical stability of the whole organ over a 21-day period. Furthermore, we describe a novel approach in organ culture by using tissues from animals with an NF-κB-luc reporter in combination with a mechanical injury model, and are able to show that proinflammatory factors and cytokines such as NF-κB and IL-6 produced by IVD cells can be monitored longitudinally during culture in a stab injury model. Taken together, we utilize a murine organ culture system that maintains the cellular and tissue level behavior of the intervertebral disc and apply it to transgenic animals that allow the monitoring of the inflammatory profile of IVDs. This approach could provide important insights on the molecular and metabolic mediators that regulate the homeostasis of the IVD. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1431-1438, 2016. PMID:27273204

  1. 军事训练致膝关节损伤的关节镜下诊断和治疗%Arthroscopy in diagnosis and therapy of knee joint injuries due to military training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹庆; 赵新华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the arthroscopy in early diagnosis of knee joint injuries due to military training and its and treatment effect. Methods The clinical data of the 171 patients of knee joint injuries from military training which performed with early arthroscopic examination and therapy in our hospital from January 2002 to October 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. The characteristics of knee joint injuries due to military training were summarized. All patients underwent knee MRI examination, and arthroscopic surgery or clearing. Compare the accuracy of MUI findings. Lysholm scores evaluation and the patients' subjective e-valuation of pre-operation and post-operation were performed. Results All patients were followed up for 10 to 22 months. The pre-operative Lysholm scores were (42. 1 ?.7) points and postoperative were (84. 3 ?.3) points. No surgery-related vascular and nerve injury and infection and other complications were observed. Conclusion MRI has high diagnostic value of knee joint injuries in military training and that also is a treat method. Arthroscopic examination in knee joint injuries from military training can evaluate the extent of knee joint injury completely and minimally invasive treat the knee joint injury. It has the obvious superiority compared with the other treatment.%目的 探讨关节镜对军事训练所致膝关节损伤的诊断及其治疗效果.方法 回顾性分析我院2002年1月-2009年10月收治的171例军事训练所致膝关节损伤官兵临床资料,总结军事训练所致膝关节损伤的特点.所有病例均行膝关节MRI检查,并在关节镜下行手术治疗或关节探查清理.对比MRI检查结果的准确率.术前、术后均对所有病例行膝关节Lysholm评分及主观评价.结果 本组病例随访时间10~ 22月,Lysholm评分术前(42.1±3.7)分,术后为(84.3±2.3)分.无因手术而症状加重及发生血管神经损伤及感染等并发症.结论 关节镜既有诊断价值又是治疗

  2. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  3. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  4. Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Angela

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Canadian women and men. In general, women present with a wider range of symptoms, are more likely to delay seeking medial care and are less likely to be investigated and treated with evidence-based medications, angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft than men. Key Findings In 1998, 78,964 Canadians died from CVD, almost half (39,197 were women. Acute myocardial infarction, which increases significantly after menopause, was the leading cause of death among women. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 21% of all hospital admissions for Canadian women over age 50 in 1999. Admissions to hospital for ischemic heart disease were more frequent for men, but the mean length of hospital stay was longer for women. Mean blood pressure increases with age in both men and women. After age 65, however, high blood pressure is more common among Canadian women. More than one-third of postmenopausal Canadian women have hypertension. Diabetes increases the mortality and morbidity associated with CVD in women more than it does in men. Depression also contributes to the incidence and recovery from CVD, particularly for women who experience twice the rate of depression as men. Data Gaps and Recommendations CVD needs to be recognized as a woman's health issue given Canadian mortality projections (particularly heart failure. Health professionals should be trained to screen, track, and address CVD risk factors among women, including hypertension, elevated lipid levels, smoking, physical inactivity, depression, diabetes and low socio-economic status.

  5. Alteration of default mode network in high school football athletes due to repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Poole, Victoria N; Breedlove, Evan L; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E

    2015-03-01

    Long-term neurological damage as a result of head trauma while playing sports is a major concern for football athletes today. Repetitive concussions have been linked to many neurological disorders. Recently, it has been reported that repetitive subconcussive events can be a significant source of accrued damage. Since football athletes can experience hundreds of subconcussive hits during a single season, it is of utmost importance to understand their effect on brain health in the short and long term. In this study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to study changes in the default mode network (DMN) after repetitive subconcussive mild traumatic brain injury. Twenty-two high school American football athletes, clinically asymptomatic, were scanned using the rs-fMRI for a single season. Baseline scans were acquired before the start of the season, and follow-up scans were obtained during and after the season to track the potential changes in the DMN as a result of experienced trauma. Ten noncollision-sport athletes were scanned over two sessions as controls. Overall, football athletes had significantly different functional connectivity measures than controls for most of the year. The presence of this deviation of football athletes from their healthy peers even before the start of the season suggests a neurological change that has accumulated over the years of playing the sport. Football athletes also demonstrate short-term changes relative to their own baseline at the start of the season. Football athletes exhibited hyperconnectivity in the DMN compared to controls for most of the sessions, which indicates that, despite the absence of symptoms typically associated with concussion, the repetitive trauma accrued produced long-term brain changes compared to their healthy peers.

  6. Rho kinases in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology: the effect of fasudil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wei, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA. ROCK family, consisting of ROCK1 and ROCK2, plays central roles in the organization of actin cytoskeleton and is involved in a wide range of fundamental cellular functions, such as contraction, adhesion, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. Due to the discovery of effective inhibitors, such as fasudil and Y27632, the biological roles of ROCK have been extensively explored with particular attention on the cardiovascular system. In many preclinical models of cardiovascular diseases, including vasospasm, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure, ROCK inhibitors have shown a remarkable efficacy in reducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypercontraction, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory cell recruitment, vascular remodeling, and cardiac remodeling. Moreover, fasudil has been used in the clinical trials of several cardiovascular diseases. The continuing utilization of available pharmacological inhibitors and the development of more potent or isoform-selective inhibitors in ROCK signaling research and in treating human diseases are escalating. In this review, we discuss the recent molecular, cellular, animal, and clinical studies with a focus on the current understanding of ROCK signaling in cardiovascular physiology and diseases. We particularly note that emerging evidence suggests that selective targeting ROCK isoform based on the disease pathophysiology may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the disease treatment including cardiovascular diseases.

  7. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury and Remodeling: Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Gino A; Rajagopal, Rashmi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Rajesh, Mohanraj

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative and reductive stress are dual dynamic phases experienced by the cells undergoing adaptation towards endogenous or exogenous noxious stimulus. The former arises due to the imbalance between the reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant defenses, while the latter is due to the aberrant increase in the reducing equivalents. Mitochondrial malfunction is the common denominator arising from the aberrant functioning of the rheostat that maintains the homeostasis between oxidative and reductive stress. Recent experimental evidences suggest that the maladaptation during oxidative stress could play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of major cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infraction, atherosclerosis, and diabetic cardiovascular complications. In this review we have discussed the role of oxidative and reductive stress pathways in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). Furthermore, we have provided impetus for the development of subcellular organelle targeted antioxidant drug therapy for thwarting the deterioration of the failing myocardium in the aforementioned cardiovascular conditions. PMID:27313825

  8. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury and Remodeling: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino A. Kurian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and reductive stress are dual dynamic phases experienced by the cells undergoing adaptation towards endogenous or exogenous noxious stimulus. The former arises due to the imbalance between the reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant defenses, while the latter is due to the aberrant increase in the reducing equivalents. Mitochondrial malfunction is the common denominator arising from the aberrant functioning of the rheostat that maintains the homeostasis between oxidative and reductive stress. Recent experimental evidences suggest that the maladaptation during oxidative stress could play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of major cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infraction, atherosclerosis, and diabetic cardiovascular complications. In this review we have discussed the role of oxidative and reductive stress pathways in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM. Furthermore, we have provided impetus for the development of subcellular organelle targeted antioxidant drug therapy for thwarting the deterioration of the failing myocardium in the aforementioned cardiovascular conditions.

  9. Stress and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent major advances in medical science have introduced a wide variety of treatments against atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular diseases, which has led to a significant reduction in mortality associated with these diseases. However, atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death. Furthermore, progress in medical science has demonstrated the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease to be complicated, with a wide variety of underlying factors. Among these factors, stress is thought to be pivotal. Several types of stress are involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress, mental stress, hemodynamic stress and social stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, induce oxidative stress in the vasculature. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, hypertension and remodeling of blood vessels. Meanwhile, mental stress is a well-known major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular system is constantly exposed to hemodynamic stress by the blood flow and/or pulsation, and hemodynamic stress exerts profound effects on the biology of vascular cells and cardiomyocytes. In addition, social stress, such as that due to a lack of social support, poverty or living alone, has a negative impact on the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there are interactions between mental, oxidative and hemodynamic stress. The production of reactive oxygen species is increased under high levels of mental stress in close association with oxidative stress. These stress responses and their interactions play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis-based cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the pathophysiological and clinical implications of stress are discussed in this article.

  10. Cardiovascular death and manic-depressive psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, A; Juel, K; Vaeth, M

    2013-01-01

    In order to study if tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCA) in therapeutic doses increase the risk of death due to cardiovascular causes, the relative mortality from cardiovascular diseases was studied in two large groups of first hospitalized manic-depressive patients, one from the TCA era, the ot...

  11. An Unusual Laryngeal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kohli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injuries to the anterior neck are most commonly due to road traffic accidents but the incidence of such types of injuries are decreasing probably due to stricter laws pertaining to seat belts and drunken driving. Experience in managing such injuries is limited due to their rarity. The mainstay of management revolves around establishing and maintaining a patent airway and integrity of the spine. Here we document a case of a 25 year old male who met with a Road traffic accident while driving a motorbike and sustained a clear cut linear wound on the right side of the neck with minimal airleak due to the helmet clip. On exploration, he was found to have massive epiglottic edema, mucosal abrasions, lacerations and a thyroid cartilage fracture. The mechanism of injury was probably a combination of penetrating and blunt trauma neck. This case highlights the mechanism of laryngeal injury, its presentation and management

  12. Liposomes for cardiovascular targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Tatyana S; Hartner, William C; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2012-04-01

    Liposome-based pharmaceuticals used within the cardiovascular system are reviewed in this article. The delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents by plain liposomes and liposomes with surface-attached targeting antibodies or polyethylene glycol to prolong their circulation time and accumulation at vascular injuries, ischemic zones or sites of thrombi are also discussed. An overview of the advantages and disadvantages of liposome-mediated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo targeting is presented, including discussion of the targeting of liposomes to pathological sites on the blood vessel wall and a description of liposomes that can be internalized by endothelial cells. Diagnostic liposomes used to target myocardial infarction and the relative importance of liposome size, targetability of immunoliposomes and prolonged circulation time on the efficiency of sealing hypoxia-induced plasma membrane damage to cardiocytes are discussed as a promising approach for therapy. The progress in the use of targeted liposomal plasmids for the transfection of hypoxic cardiomyocytes and myocardium is presented. Stent-mediated liposomal-based drug delivery is also reviewed briefly. PMID:22834079

  13. AT2 Receptor and Tissue Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namsolleck, Pawel; Recarti, Chiara; Foulquier, Sébastien;

    2014-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of tissue injuries in the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The detrimental actions of the AT1 receptor (AT1R) in hypertension and vascular injury, myocardial infarction and brain ischemia are well...

  14. Fatores relacionados a hospitalizações por injúrias em crianças e adolescentes Factors related to hospitalization due to injuries in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. V. Gaspar

    2004-12-01

    1st, 1999 to November 30th, 2000. The sample included 696 children and adolescents hospitalized for injuries, ages ranging from 0 to 19 years old. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th version was used as a parameter to classify the types of injuries and sites where they happened. RESULTS: The injuries represented 9.9% of children and adolescents' hospitalizations, of which, 69.7% were male patients. As for the informants' opinion about causes of injuries, 57.2% attributed then to human failure, 18% believed they were due to fate and 12.7% did not know how to express their opinions. Only 23.1% of the informants had received previous orientation about prevention and the main sources were media, school and work place. A total of 31.9% of the events took place at home. Transportation injuries caused 34.5% of hospitalizations; falls, 33.2%; exposure to inanimate mechanical forces, 9%; contact with poisonous animals, 5.2%; aggression, 5%; burns, 4.9%; exposure to animated mechanical forces, 3.3%; intoxication, 2.3%; and other types, 2.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Males were more affected than females. Only a low percentage of the informants had received previous orientation about injury prevention. The most affected age group was between 15 and 19 years. Transportation accidents and falls were the most frequent causes of injuries.

  15. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  16. Cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prejbisz, A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Januszewicz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical expression of phaeochromocytoma may involve numerous cardiovascular manifestations, but usually presents as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension associated with other signs and symptoms of catecholamine excess. Most of the life-threatening cardiovascular manifestations of phaeochromocytoma,

  17. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  18. Sent to destroy: the ubiquitin proteasome system regulates cell signaling and protein quality control in cardiovascular development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Monte S; Townley-Tilson, W H Davin; Kang, Eunice Y; Homeister, Jonathon W; Patterson, Cam

    2010-02-19

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in biological processes integral to the development of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases. The UPS prototypically recognizes specific protein substrates and places polyubiquitin chains on them for subsequent destruction by the proteasome. This system is in place to degrade not only misfolded and damaged proteins, but is essential also in regulating a host of cell signaling pathways involved in proliferation, adaptation to stress, regulation of cell size, and cell death. During the development of the cardiovascular system, the UPS regulates cell signaling by modifying transcription factors, receptors, and structural proteins. Later, in the event of cardiovascular diseases as diverse as atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, and ischemia/reperfusion injury, ubiquitin ligases and the proteasome are implicated in protecting and exacerbating clinical outcomes. However, when misfolded and damaged proteins are ubiquitinated by the UPS, their destruction by the proteasome is not always possible because of their aggregated confirmations. Recent studies have discovered how these ubiquitinated misfolded proteins can be destroyed by alternative "specific" mechanisms. The cytosolic receptors p62, NBR, and histone deacetylase 6 recognize aggregated ubiquitinated proteins and target them for autophagy in the process of "selective autophagy." Even the ubiquitination of multiple proteins within whole organelles that drive the more general macro-autophagy may be due, in part, to similar ubiquitin-driven mechanisms. In summary, the crosstalk between the UPS and autophagy highlight the pivotal and diverse roles the UPS plays in maintaining protein quality control and regulating cardiovascular development and disease. PMID:20167943

  19. The application of super-selective arterial embolization in treating renal hemorrhage due to iatrogenic injuries%超选择性动脉栓塞在医源性肾出血中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊斌; 江广斌; 郑传胜; 冯敢生; 梁惠民; 叶天和

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the value of super-selective arterial embolization in treating renal hemorrhage caused by iatrogenic injuries. Methods During the period from Dec. 2009 to Feb. 2012, a total of 11 patients with renal hemorrhage caused by iatrogenic injuries were admitted to authors' hospital. The iatrogenic injuries included nephrostomy (n = 3), percutaneous nephrolithotomy(n = 3) partial nephrectomy for renal tumors (n=3) and holmium laser therapy (n = 2). By using super - selective catheterization technique, the catheter was placed into the bleeding artery, which was followed by embolization management with PVA particles, coils and/or micro-coils. Results The embolization was successfully accomplished with single manipulation in all patients. Angiography demonstrated that arteriovenous fistula, contrast extravasation and retention, the formation of pseudoaneurysm, etc. existed in diseased kidney. The hemorrhage disappeared soon after the embolization treatment and no obvious renal dysfunction was seen in all patients. During the clinical follow-up period lasting for 4 — 35 months, no recurrent hemorrhage occurred. Conclusion For the treatment of renalhemorrhage due to iatrogenic injuries, super - selective arterial embolization is safe and effective. This technique should be recommended in clinical practice.%目的 探讨超选择性动脉栓塞在医源性损伤导致的肾出血中的应用价值.方法 2009年12月至2012年2月收治11例医源性损伤导致的肾出血患者,其中肾造瘘术后出血3例,经皮肾镜取石术术后出血3例,肾肿瘤部分性肾切除术后出血3例,钬激光术后2例.采用超选择方法将导管置于出血动脉,用聚乙烯醇颗粒及弹簧圈或(和)微弹簧圈栓塞治疗.结果 所有患者均一次性成功进行出血动脉栓塞治疗,造影过程中可见动静脉瘘,对比剂外溢、滞留及假性动脉瘤形成.所有患者在栓塞治疗后出血症状均消失,未观察到明显

  20. [The use of a method of sequential mathematical analysis for the differential diagnosis of trauma from a fall from a height and of trauma due to the collision of a moving automobile with a pedestrian by the chest injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solokhin, A A; Gaĭvoronskaia, V I; Baranov, Iu I

    1997-01-01

    Fifty cadavers of subjects dead after falling from height and 50 cadavers of subjects dead as a result of collisions between moving cars and pedestrians were examined. Under study were injuries to soft tissues of the chest, thoracic bones and viscera, and combinations thereof. Mathematical probability successive analysis after Gubler (1978) helped distinguish 64 highly informative injuries-signs which permit determining the type of injury. Diagnostic coefficients and informative value of these signs are presented in the differential diagnostic table.

  1. [Cardiovascular safety of antidiabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aline Roth, Pressl-Wenger; Jornayvaz, François R

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a high risk of micro- and macro-vascular complications. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. In this context, the search for molecules decreasing cardiovascular mortality makes sense. Until the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study published late 2015, showing a reduction of cardiovascular mortality of patients treated with empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, there was no molecule known to decrease cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the various existing antidiabetic molecules and their impact (positive/neutral/negative) on cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27487675

  2. The Role of Cardiolipin in Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheni Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiolipin (CL, the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, is crucial for both mitochondrial function and cellular processes outside of the mitochondria. The importance of CL in cardiovascular health is underscored by the life-threatening genetic disorder Barth syndrome (BTHS, which manifests clinically as cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and growth retardation. BTHS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding tafazzin, the transacylase that carries out the second CL remodeling step. In addition to BTHS, CL is linked to other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and Tangier disease. The link between CL and CVD may possibly be explained by the physiological roles of CL in pathways that are cardioprotective, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, autophagy/mitophagy, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. In this review, we focus on the role of CL in the pathogenesis of CVD as well as the molecular mechanisms that may link CL functions to cardiovascular health.

  3. Lasers in Cardiovascular Surgery—Current Status

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, John G.; Dixon, John A.

    1985-01-01

    The argon, carbon dioxide and neodymium-YAG lasers have been proposed as effective instruments for surgical procedures of the intact cardiovascular system. While argon and CO2 lasers cause superficial (0 to 1 mm) thermal injury, the Nd:YAG laser is better suited for effecting deep thermal necrosis (3 to 4 mm). Microsurgical vessel anastomoses can be done by “tissue welding” with any of the three clinical lasers. Myocardial revascularization may be accomplished by drilling “neocapillaries” in ...

  4. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  5. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  6. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  7. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  8. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Consumer Opinion Surveys Home / Research & Statistics Injury Statistics This is the statistic reports page for scientific ... Home Appliances, Maintenance and Construction Injury Statistics Injury Statistics September 30, 2012 Submersions Related to Non-Pool ...

  9. Injuries in classical ballet

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães; Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external ...

  10. Cardiovascular Alterations and Multiorgan Dysfunction After Birth Asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polglase, Graeme R; Ong, Tracey; Hillman, Noah H

    2016-09-01

    The cardiovascular response to asphyxia involves redistribution of cardiac output to maintain oxygen delivery to critical organs such as the adrenal gland, heart, and brain, at the expense of other organs such as the gut, kidneys and skin. This redistribution results in reduced perfusion and localized hypoxia/ischemia in these organs, which, if severe, can result in multiorgan failure. Liver injury, coagulopathy, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction, and pulmonary and gastrointestinal injury all result from hypoxia, underperfusion, or both. Current clinical therapies need to be considered together with therapeutic hypothermia and cardiovascular recovery. PMID:27524448

  11. Biomechanics of whiplash injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-bin; King H YANG; WANG Zheng-guo

    2009-01-01

    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics,facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3)The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury,potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains within

  12. Oxidative stress and cardiovascular complications in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyderali, Barkath Nisha; Mala, Kanchana

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine condition which is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular complications. It is elevated to a metabolic disorder with significant long term health ramification due to the high prevalence of insulin resistance (IR), impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), dyslipidemia and numerous cardiovascular risk factors in PCOS women. This article concentrates on the recent developments in the regulation of oxidative stress (OS) in PCOS and on the association between PCOS and CVD outcomes. The prognostic events that define the severity of PCOS and involvement of cardiovascular risk in PCOS include endothelial dysfunction (ED) and impaired cardiac structure. Fact is that, in PCOS women, the circulating biomarkers of OS are in abnormal levels that are independent of overweight, which depicts the participation of OS in the pathophysiology of this common derangement. In addition, hyperglycemia (HG) per se, promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in PCOS. When the destructive ROS outbalances the concentration of physiological antioxidants, OS occurs. The resultant OS, directly stimulates hyperandrogenism and causes extensive cellular injury, DNA damage and/or cell apoptosis. To further the burden, the total serum antioxidant level in PCOS women is compromised, which diminishes the body's defense against an oxidative milieu. Thus, it is evident that OS regulates several cellular mechanisms in PCOS. Improving our understanding about the regulation of OS, critical role of ROS and protein biomarkers in PCOS should lead to novel therapeutic strategies in addressing PCOS-induced CVD. Besides, it is possible that the beneficial effects of dietary or therapeutic antioxidants have significant clinical relevance in PCOS.

  13. Estrogen and estrogen receptors in cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Loza, Paula-Anahi; Muehlfelder, Melanie; Pelzer, Theo

    2013-05-01

    The cardiovascular system of a premenopausal woman is prepared to adapt to the challenges of increased cardiac output and work load that accompany pregnancy. Thus, it is tempting to speculate whether enhanced adaptability of the female cardiovascular system might be advantageous under conditions that promote cardiovascular disease. In support of this concept, 17β-estradiol as the major female sex hormone has been shown to confer protective cardiovascular effects in experimental studies. Mechanistically, these have been partially linked to the prevention and protection against oxidative stress. Current evidence indicates that estrogens attenuate oxidative stress at two levels: first, by preventing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, second, by scavenging ROS in the myocardium and in the vasculature. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on current concepts on conditions and mechanisms by which estrogens protect the cardiovascular system against ROS-mediated cellular injury.

  14. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate.

  15. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate. PMID:25976309

  16. De waarde van preventieve adviezen en keuringen bij beginnende hardlopers met het oog op cardiovasculaire gebeurtenissen en blessures : The value of preventive advice and examination focusing on cardiovascular events and injury for novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerver, J.; Bessem, B.; Buist, I.; Diercks, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    - Novice runners often seek advice from a physician about training responsibly. Common concerns include sudden cardiac arrest, advice on running injuries and how to avoid these events. - Cardiologic screening and ergometry are only beneficial if the athlete has a high-risk profile. - In the world of

  17. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the mai...

  18. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R. W.; Roos, A. (Anna); Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  19. Syndesmosis injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis commonly result from high-energy ankle injuries. They can occur as isolated ligamentous injuries and can be associated with ankle fractures. Syndesmotic injuries can create a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for musculoskeletal physicians. Recent literature has added considerably to the body of knowledge pertaining to injury mechanics and treatment outcomes, but there remain a number of controversies regarding diagnostic tests, imp...

  20. Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Y. Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. In addition to skin and joint involvement, there is increasing evidence suggesting that patients with PsA also have an increase in risk of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular diseases, mostly due to accelerating atherosclerosis. Both conventional and nonconventional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in PsA. Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in PsA, acting independently and/or synergistically with the conventional risk factors. In this paper, we discuss the current literature indicating that patients with PsA are at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Arsenic and cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of epidemiologic, experimental and clinical evidence shows that arsenic may exert relevant cardiovascular effects with early damage such as endothelial dysfunction. Early biomarkers of cardiovascular damage together with markers of exposure, genetic and epigenetic effects, DNA damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress remain unexplored and a study is ongoing in Italy.

  2. Cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Vairamani Kandan; Sathyamurthy P; Rajkumar M; Lavanya Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well known that thyroid hormone directly affects the heart and peripheral vascular system. In hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular manifestations are frequent findings. Atrial arrhythmias, limitations in exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure were reported to occur more common in older patients as a result of hyperthyroidism. Cardiovascular signs of hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, widened pulse pressure, marked increase in cardiac output with impaired cardiovascula...

  3. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  4. [Anesthesiological approach for patients with spinal cord injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, A; Litz, R J; Zahn, P

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are serious medical conditions, which are associated with severe and potentially fatal risks and complications depending on the location and extent of injury. Traffic accidents, falls and recreational activities are the leading causes for traumatic SCI (TSCI) worldwide whereas non-traumatic spinal cord injuries (NTSCI) are mostly due to tumors and congenital diseases. As chronification of the injuries progresses other organ systems are affected including anatomical changes, the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and endocrinological pathways. All these effects have to be considered in the anesthesiological management of patients with SCI. Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is the most dangerous and life-threatening complication in patients with chronic SCI above T6 that results from an overstimulation of sympathetic reflex circuits in the upper thoracic spine and can be fatal. This article summarizes the specific pathophysiology of SCI and how AD can be avoided as well as also providing anesthetists with strategies for perioperative and intensive care management of patients with SCI. PMID:27371543

  5. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of edible oils: a comparison between four popular edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J

    2010-12-01

    Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health. PMID:20849681

  7. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians ... For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  8. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  9. Cardiovascular comorbiditiy in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurcharan Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis is also thought to predispose patients to other diseases with an inflammatory component, the most notable being cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolite disorders. This concept is supported by studies showing that psoriasis is associated with cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and diseases including MI. Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular co morbidities in patients, dermatologists treating psoriasis need to approach the disease as a potentially multisystem disorder and must alert these patients to the potentially negative effects of their disease.

  10. Antidiabetic treatment with gliptins: focus on cardiovascular effects and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Enrique Z; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The traditional oral pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been based on the prescription of metformin, a biguanide, as first line antihyperglycemic agent world over. It has been demonstrated that after 3 years of treatment, approximately 50% of diabetic patients could achieve acceptable glucose levels with monotherapy; but by 9 years this had declined to only 25%. Therefore, the implementation of a combined pharmacological therapy acting via different pathways becomes necessary, and its combination with a compound of the sulfonylurea group was along decades the most frequently employed prescription in routine clinical practice. Meglitinides, glitazones and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors were subsequently developed, but the five mentioned groups of oral antihyperglycemic agents are associated with variable degrees of undesirable or even severe cardiovascular events. The gliptins-also called dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors--are an additional group of antidiabetic compounds with increasing clinical use. We review the status of the gliptins with emphasis on their capabilities to positively or negatively affect the cardiovascular system, and their potential involvement in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Alogliptin, anagliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, teneligliptin and vildagliptin are the compounds currently in clinical use. Regardless differences in chemical structure and metabolic pathways, gliptins as a group exert favorable changes in experimental models. These changes, as an almost general rule, include improved endothelial function, reduction of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress ischemia/reperfusion injury and atherogenesis. In addition, increased adiponectin levels and modest decreases in lipidemia and blood pressure were reported. In clinical settings, several trials--notably the longer one, employing sitagliptin, with a mean follow-up period of 3 years--did not show an increased risk for ischemic

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Duan; Yongfen Qi; Chaoshu Tang

    2009-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves several important functions, mainly post-translational modification, folding and assembly of newly synthesized secretary proteins, synthesizing lipids and cellular calcium storage. Various factors can disrupt ER homeostasis and disturb its functions, which leads to the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins and to potential cellular dysfunction and pathological consequences, collectively termed ER stress. Recent progress suggests that ER stress plays a key role in the immune response, diabetes, tumor growth, and some neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, ER stress is involved in several processes of cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Further research on the relation of ER stress to cardiovascular diseases will greatly enhance the understanding of these pathological processes and provide novel avenues to potential therapies.

  12. microRNAs and Cardiovascular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Koh

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality attributable largely to structural changes in the heart and with associated cardiac dysfunction. Remodeling is defined as alteration of the mass, dimensions, or shape of the heart (termed cardiac or ventricular remodeling) and vessels (vascular remodeling) in response to hemodynamic load and/or cardiovascular injury in association with neurohormonal activation. Remodeling may be described as physiologic or pathologic; alternatively, remodeling may be classified as adaptive or maladaptive. The importance of remodeling as a pathogenic mechanism has been controversial because factors leading to remodeling as well as the remodeling itself may be major determinants of patients' prognosis. The basic mechanisms of cardiovascular remodeling, and especially the roles of microRNAs in HF progression and vascular diseases, will be reviewed here.

  13. Acute complications of spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ellen Merete

    2015-01-18

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of acute complications of spinal cord injury (SCI). Along with motor and sensory deficits, instabilities of the cardiovascular, thermoregulatory and broncho-pulmonary system are common after a SCI. Disturbances of the urinary and gastrointestinal systems are typical as well as sexual dysfunction. Frequent complications of cervical and high thoracic SCI are neurogenic shock, bradyarrhythmias, hypotension, ectopic beats, abnormal temperature control and disturbance of sweating, vasodilatation and autonomic dysreflexia. Autonomic dysreflexia is an abrupt, uncontrolled sympathetic response, elicited by stimuli below the level of injury. The symptoms may be mild like skin rash or slight headache, but can cause severe hypertension, cerebral haemorrhage and death. All personnel caring for the patient should be able to recognize the symptoms and be able to intervene promptly. Disturbance of respiratory function are frequent in tetraplegia and a primary cause of both short and long-term morbidity and mortality is pulmonary complications. Due to physical inactivity and altered haemostasis, patients with SCI have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism and pressure ulcers. Spasticity and pain are frequent complications which need to be addressed. The psychological stress associated with SCI may lead to anxiety and depression. Knowledge of possible complications during the acute phase is important because they may be life threatening and/ or may lead to prolonged rehabilitation. PMID:25621207

  14. Non-communicable diseases and injuries in Pakistan: strategic priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar, Tazeen H; Haaland, Benjamin A; Rahman, Atif; Razzak, Junaid A; Bilger, Marcel; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-06-29

    Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, diabetes, and mental disorders, and injuries have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Tobacco use and hypertension are the leading attributable risk factors for deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and respiratory diseases. Pakistan has the sixth highest number of people in the world with diabetes; every fourth adult is overweight or obese; cigarettes are cheap; antismoking and road safety laws are poorly enforced; and a mixed public-private health-care system provides suboptimum care. Furthermore, almost three decades of exposure to sociopolitical instability, economic uncertainty, violence, regional conflict, and dislocation have contributed to a high prevalence of mental health disorders. Projection models based on the Global Burden of Disease 2010 data suggest that there will be about 3·87 million premature deaths by 2025 from cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases in people aged 30-69 years in Pakistan, with serious economic consequences. Modelling of risk factor reductions also indicate that Pakistan could achieve at least a 20% reduction in the number of these deaths by 2025 by targeting of the major risk factors. We call for policy and legislative changes, and health-system interventions to target readily preventable non-communicable diseases in Pakistan. PMID:23684257

  15. Elevation of urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein after cardiac catheterization related to cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamijo-Ikemori A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atsuko Kamijo-Ikemori,1,3 Nobuyuki Hashimoto,2 Takeshi Sugaya,1 Katsuomi Matsui,1 Mikako Hisamichi,1 Yugo Shibagaki,1 Fumihiko Miyake,2 Kenjiro Kimura1 1Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, 2Department of Cardiology, 3Department of Anatomy, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Purpose: Contrast medium (CM induces tubular hypoxia via endothelial damage due to direct cytotoxicity or viscosity. Urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP increases along with tubular hypoxia and may be a detector of systemic circulation injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of detecting increases in urinary L-FABP levels due to administration of CM, as a prognostic biomarker for cardiovascular disease in patients without occurrence of CM-induced nephropathy undergoing cardiac catheterization procedure (CCP. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal analyses of the relationship between urinary L-FABP levels and occurrence of cardiovascular events were performed (n=29. Urinary L-FABP was measured by ELISA before CCP, and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after CCP. Results: Urinary L-FABP levels were significantly higher at 12 hours (P<0.05 and 24 hours (P<0.005 after CCP compared with before CCP, only in the patients with occurrence of cardiovascular events (n=17, but not in those without cardiovascular events (n=12. The parameter with the largest area under the curve (0.816 for predicting the occurrence of cardiovascular events was the change in urinary L-FABP at 24 hours after CCP. The difference in urinary L-FABP levels (ΔL-FABP ≥11.0 µg/g creatinine between before CCP and at 24 hours after CCP was a risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 4.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.27–19.13; P=0.021. Conclusion: Measurement of urinary L-FABP before CCP and at 24 hours after CCP in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction may be an important indicator for risk

  16. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  17. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-01

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. PMID:26846952

  18. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  19. Head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureibi, K A; McLatchie, G R

    2010-05-01

    Head injury is one of the commonest injuries in sport. Most are mild but some can have serious outcomes. Sports medicine doctors should be able to recognise the clinical features and evaluate athletes with head injury. It is necessary during field assessment to recognise signs and symptoms that help in assessing the severity of injury and making a decision to return-to-play. Prevention of primary head injury should be the aim. This includes protective equipment like helmets and possible rule changes. PMID:20533694

  20. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavry, Anthony A; Limacher, Marian C

    2014-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women. In fact, the cardiovascular disease mortality rate among women exceeds the rate in men. Unfortunately, many minority women are still unaware of the importance of this disease. All women, including those with no history of cardiovascular disease, should have an accurate estimate of the probability of a cardiovascular disease event (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) usually within the next decade. Such an estimate will help determine if women are candidates for preventive measures and specific therapies such as aspirin. Data from the Framingham Heart Study were used to construct a risk score, which is now widely used; however, other risk scores are available. To prevent cardiovascular disease, women should refrain from smoking, maintain a healthy weight, eat a heart-healthy diet, be physically active, and have normal blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Aspirin can be considered for primary prevention, with expected benefit to prevent ischemic stroke; however, this needs to be balanced against potential bleeding risk. Hormone therapy is no longer recommended due to an increase in adverse events (most consistently seen as increased ischemic stroke risk). Folic acid is also no longer recommended due to lack of benefit.

  1. Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection following rifle butt recoil chest injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mamatha; Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Mukhaini, Mohammed; Al-Jufaili, Mahmood; Valiath, John

    2011-11-01

    Ischemic stroke secondary to aortic dissection is not uncommon. We present a patient with left hemiplegia secondary to Stanford type A aortic dissection extending to the supra-aortic vessels, which was precipitated by rifle butt recoil chest injury. The diagnosis of aortic dissection was delayed due to various factors. Finally, the patient underwent successful Bentall procedure with complete resolution of symptoms. This case emphasizes the need for caution in the use of firearms for recreation and to take precautions in preventing such incidents. In addition, this case illustrates the need for prompt cardiovascular physical examination in patients presenting with stroke.

  2. Fast pitch softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, M C; Brown, B R; Bloom, J A

    2001-01-01

    The popularity of fast pitch softball in the US and throughout the world is well documented. Along with this popularity, there has been a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. Nearly 52% of cases qualify as major disabling injuries requiring 3 weeks or more of treatment and 2% require surgery. Interestingly, 75% of injuries occur during away games and approximately 31% of traumas occur during nonpositional and conditioning drills. Injuries range from contusions and tendinitis to ligamentous disorders and fractures. Although head and neck traumas account for 4 to 12% of cases, upper extremity traumas account for 23 to 47% of all injuries and up to 19% of cases involve the knee. Approximately 34 to 42% of injuries occur when the athlete collides with another individual or object. Other factors involved include the quality of playing surface, athlete's age and experience level, and the excessive physical demands associated with the sport. Nearly 24% of injuries involve base running and are due to poor judgement, sliding technique, current stationary base design, unorthodox joint and extremity position during ground impact and catching of cleats. The increasing prevalence of overtraining syndrome among athletes has been attributed to an unclear definition of an optimal training zone, poor communication between player and coach, and the limited ability of bone and connective tissue to quickly respond to match the demands of the sport. This has led routinely to arm, shoulder and lumbar instability, chronic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and time loss injuries in 45% of pitching staff during a single season. Specific attention to a safer playing environment, coaching and player education, and sport-specific training and conditioning would reduce the risk, rate and severity of fast pitch traumas. Padding of walls, backstops, rails and dugout areas, as well as minimising use of indoor facilities, is suggested to decrease the number of collision

  3. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Psychological Issues After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury Psychological Health After Spinal Cord Injury The Psychologist's Role After ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities After Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Psychological Realities after Spinal Cord Injury Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Psychology of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation How Psychologists Help ...

  7. Application of Acute Kidney Injury Criteria and Classification to Predict Mortality Following Cardiovascular Surgery%急性肾损伤定义及分期系统评估心脏手术患者预后的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭冬; 车妙琳; 谢波; 连锋; 刘沙; 胡振雷; 薛松

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解心脏手术后急性肾损伤(AKI)的发病及预后情况,探讨急性肾损伤网络(AKIN)会议推荐的AKI分期预测患者院内死亡的应用价值. 方法 将2004年1月至2007年6月上海交通大学医学院附属仁济医院收治的所有成年心脏手术患者1 056例纳入研究,采用AKIN推荐的AKI定义及分期标准评估心脏手术后AKI的发病率及住院病死率,并采用单因素和logistic多因素回归分析法对术前、术中、术后与AKI发生可能相关的危险因素进行分析. 结果 在1 056例行心脏手术的患者中,328例发生AKI,发生率为31.06%; AKI患者的住院病死率显著高于非AKI患者(11.59% vs.0.69%,P<0.05).Logistic多因素回归分析显示:年龄每增加10岁(OR=1.40)、术前高尿酸血症(OR=1.97)、术前左心功能不全(OR=2.53)、冠状动脉旁路移植术(CABG)加心瓣膜手术(OR=2.79)、手术时间每增加1 h (OR=1.43)和术后循环血容量不足(OR=11.08)是心脏手术后发生AKI的独立危险因素.AKIN分期预测患者院内死亡的ROC曲线下面积为0.865,95%可信区间为0.801-0.929. 结论 随着AKIN分期的上升,心脏手术患者住院病死率逐步升高.年龄高、术前高尿酸血症、术前左心功能不全、CABG加心瓣膜手术、手术时间延长和术后循环血容量不足是心脏手术后并发AKI的独立危险因素.AKIN分期可以有效预测心脏手术患者发生院内死亡的风险,为及早对高危人群采取有效的预防干预措施提供依据.%Objective To evaluate the incidence and prognosis of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients after cardiovascular surgery, and analyse the value of AKI criteria and classification using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) definition to predict their in-hospital mortality. Methods A total of 1 056 adult patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery in Renji Hospital of School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University from Jan. 2004 to Jun. 2007

  8. Autonomic consequences of spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shaoping; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

    2014-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results not only in motor and sensory deficits but also in autonomic dysfunctions. The disruption of connections between higher brain centers and the spinal cord, or the impaired autonomic nervous system itself, manifests a broad range of autonomic abnormalities. This includes compromised cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, gastrointestinal, thermoregulatory, and sexual activities. These disabilities evoke potentially life-threatening symptoms that severely interfere with the daily living of those with SCI. In particular, high thoracic or cervical SCI often causes disordered hemodynamics due to deregulated sympathetic outflow. Episodic hypertension associated with autonomic dysreflexia develops as a result of massive sympathetic discharge often triggered by unpleasant visceral or sensory stimuli below the injury level. In the pelvic floor, bladder and urethral dysfunctions are classified according to upper motor neuron versus lower motor neuron injuries; this is dependent on the level of lesion. Most impairments of the lower urinary tract manifest in two interrelated complications: bladder storage and emptying. Inadequate or excessive detrusor and sphincter functions as well as detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia are examples of micturition abnormalities stemming from SCI. Gastrointestinal motility disorders in spinal cord injured-individuals are comprised of gastric dilation, delayed gastric emptying, and diminished propulsive transit along the entire gastrointestinal tract. As a critical consequence of SCI, neurogenic bowel dysfunction exhibits constipation and/or incontinence. Thus, it is essential to recognize neural mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying various complications of autonomic dysfunctions after SCI. This overview provides both vital information for better understanding these disorders and guides to pursue novel therapeutic approaches to alleviate secondary complications. PMID:25428850

  9. Electrical Injury-Induced Complete Atrioventricular Block: Is Permanent Pacemaker Required?

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Beton; Tolga Han Efe; Hakki Kaya; Murat Bilgin; Lale Dinc Asarcikli; Mehmet Birhan Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    A considerable percentage of electrical injuries occur as a result of work activities. Electrical injury can lead to various cardiovascular disorders: acute myocardial necrosis, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, arrhythmias, hemorrhagic pericarditis, acute hypertension with peripheral vasospasm, and anomalous, nonspecific ECG alterations. Ventricular fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia resulting from electrical injury and is the leading cause of death in electrical (especially low vo...

  10. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition and oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases: possible therapeutic targets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Luc; Lorin, Julie; Zeller, Marianne; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Lorgis, Luc; Cottin, Yves; Vergely, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthetized enzymatically from l-arginine (l-Arg) by three NO synthase isoforms, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS. The synthesis of NO is selectively inhibited by guanidino-substituted analogs of l-Arg or methylarginines such as asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), which results from protein degradation in cells. Many disease states, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, are associated with increased plasma levels of ADMA. The N-terminal catalytic domain of these NOS isoforms binds the heme prosthetic group as well as the redox cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) associated with a regulatory protein, calmodulin (CaM). The enzymatic activity of NOS depends on substrate and cofactor availability. The importance of BH(4) as a critical regulator of eNOS function suggests that BH(4) may be a rational therapeutic target in vascular disease states. BH(4) oxidation appears to be a major contributor to vascular dysfunction associated with hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases as it leads to the increased formation of oxygen-derived radicals due to NOS uncoupling rather than NO. Accordingly, abnormalities in vascular NO production and transport result in endothelial dysfunction leading to various cardiovascular disorders. However, some disorders including a wide range of functions in the neuronal, immune and cardiovascular system were associated with the over-production of NO. Inhibition of the enzyme should be a useful approach to treat these pathologies. Therefore, it appears that both a lack and excess of NO production in diseases can have various important pathological implications. In this context, NOS modulators (exogenous and endogenous) and their therapeutic effects are discussed.

  11. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  12. Pulmonary Toxicity and Modifications in Iron Homeostasis Following Libby Amphibole Asbestos Exposure in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Individuals suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) develop iron dysregulation which may influence pulmonary toxicity and injury upon exposure to asbestos. We hypothesized spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats woul...

  13. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  14. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  15. Molecular Characterization of Reactive Oxygen Species in Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingyang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury is experienced by individuals suffering from cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart diseases and subsequently undergoing reperfusion treatments in order to manage the conditions. The occlusion of blood flow to the tissue, termed ischemia, can be especially detrimental to the heart due to its high energy demand. Several cellular alterations have been observed upon the onset of ischemia. The danger created by cardiac ischemia is somewhat paradoxical in that a return of blood to the tissue can result in further damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been studied intensively to reveal their role in myocardial I/R injury. Under normal conditions, ROS function as a mediator in many cell signaling pathways. However, stressful environments significantly induce the generation of ROS which causes the level to exceed body’s antioxidant defense system. Such altered redox homeostasis is implicated in myocardial I/R injury. Despite the detrimental effects from ROS, low levels of ROS have been shown to exert a protective effect in the ischemic preconditioning. In this review, we will summarize the detrimental role of ROS in myocardial I/R injury, the protective mechanism induced by ROS, and potential treatments for ROS-related myocardial injury.

  16. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  17. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    After the introduction of statins, clinical emphasis first focussed on LDL cholesterol-lowering, then on the potential for raising HDL cholesterol, with less focus on lowering triglycerides. However, the understanding from genetic studies and negative results from randomised trials that low HDL...... cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...

  18. May the best friend be an enemy if not recognized early: possible role of omega-3 against cardiovascular abnormalities due antipsychotics in the treatment of autism Pode um melhor amigo ser um inimigo se não reconhecido a tempo: possível papel do ômega-3 nos efeitos cardiovasculares secundários ao tratamento antipsicótico de pacientes com autismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M. Cysneiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are neurodevelopment disorders that cause severe and pervasive impairment in socialization, communication, and behavior. Although the availability of antipsychotic treatment in ASD has expanded, we will be very careful with side effects of these pharmacological agents. Following this reasoning, emerging data indicate that some antipsychotics may be associated with cardiovascular adverse events (e.g., QT interval prolongation, suggesting that this could be correlated to sudden death. Quite interesting, substantial evidence from epidemiological and case-control studies indicates that omega-3 reduces the risk of cardiovascular mortality, particularly sudden cardiac death. In accordance to the above mentioned findings, as omega-3 fatty acids per se have a direct cardiovascular protective role, our paper hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in ASD patients treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs may reduce cardiac arrhythmias and hence sudden cardiac death.As desordens do espectro autista (DEA são um grupo de doenças do desenvolvimento que causam um grave comprometimento na socialização, comunicação e comportamento. Embora o tratamento na DEA com drogas antipsicóticas tenha se expandido, é necessária a observação cuidadosa de efeitos colaterais destes fármacos. Nesta linha, dados recentes têm associado o uso de antipsicóticos com efeitos adversos cardiovasculares (como prolongamento do intervalo QT, sugerindo que possa haver uma correlação com morte súbita. Evidências originadas em dados epidemiológicos e estudos de caso-controle indicam que o Omega-3 reduz o risco de mortalidade por causa cardiovascular, particularmente a morte súbita de origem cardíaca. Concordante com estes achados, como o Omega-3 per se tem um papel protetor cardiovascular direto, nosso artigo levanta a hipótese que a suplementação de ácidos graxos Omega-3 em pacientes com DEA tratados com drogas antipsic

  19. Vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, V; Corrocher, R; Choi, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is not a frequent finding nowadays in medical practice, evidence suggests that insufficiency of this vitamin is rather widespread in a quite large portion of the population such as the elderly or in not unusual conditions such as that of alcohol addiction. Moreover, a mild deficiency in B6 vitamin is a state that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence from case control and prospective studies have suggested that low dietary intake or reduced blood concentrations of vitamin B6 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although most recent trials demonstrated the ineffectiveness of vitamin B6 supplementation on the prevention of cardiovascular events recurrence. Due to limited and somewhat inconsistent data together with the ample variety of critical functions in which vitamin B6 is involved in the human body, it is very challenging to attempt at establishing a cause and effect relationship between vitamin B6 and risk of cardiovascular disease as it is to delineate the exact mechanism(s) by which vitamin B6 may modulate such risk. In the present chapter we review the currently available knowledge deriving from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies designed to define potential candidate mechanisms for the association of vitamin B6 impairment and risk of cardiovascular disease development. PMID:22116704

  20. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  1. Clocks and cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Sarah C.; Haines, Philip; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks in central and peripheral tissues enable the temporal synchronization and organization of molecular and physiological processes of rhythmic animals, allowing optimum functioning of cells and organisms at the most appropriate time of day. Disruption of circadian rhythms, from external or internal forces, leads to widespread biological disruption and is postulated to underlie many human conditions, such as the incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro methodology relevant to studying the role of circadian rhythms in cardiovascular function and dysfunction PMID:25707279

  2. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed.  ...

  3. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2008-01-01

    and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction....... The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed....

  4. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  5. [Cardiovascular complications of diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Yoshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Several lines of epidemical evidence have shown that type 2 diabetes is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It has been shown that the risk of primary prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes is equal to that of the secondary prevention in general population. In this manuscript, recent reports on the cardiac tests to detect the cardiovascular lesions will be reviewed. The data suggest that MDCT is a promising test even in the patients with diabetes. Furthermore, recent evidence of the treatment of diabetes with insulin or the drugs available recently such as DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors will be reviewed. PMID:26666152

  6. Head Injury, from Men to Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. van den Brink (Willem Aart)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn well developed countries, injury is the leading cause of death and disability among young adults. In less developed countries the incidence of injury is high and rapidly increasing, but the relative mortality due to injuries is overshadowed by other causes, such as infections and maln

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid enzymes in acute brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I.R. Maas (Andrew)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractSevere brain injury is a major cause of death, especially in young men. In 1972, over 20% of all deaths occurring in England and Wales in men aged 15-25 years were due to head injury (Field, 1976). The mortality rate after severe brain injuries is higb. Jennett et al. (1977) reporting on

  8. Quadriceps tendon injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of study was to analyze risk factors, mechanisms of injury, symptoms and time that elapsed from injury until operation of complete quadriceps tendon ruptures. Material and Methods. This retrospective multicenter study included 30 patients operated for this injury, of whom 28 (93.3% were men. The average age was 53.7 years (18-73. Twenty-six patients had reconstruction of unilateral rupture and four of bilateral one. Results. Eighty percent of them had some risk factors for rupture of the tendon with degenerative changes. Eight patients had diabetes, seven patients were on renal dialysis, two patients had secondary hyperparathyroidism, five patients were obese and two patients had former knee operations. These injuries occurred in 80% following minor trauma caused by falls on stairs, on flat surfaces and squatting. The most frequent symptoms were: pain, swelling, lack of extension of knee and defect above patella, and three cases were initially misdiagnosed. During the first 10 days after injury, acute and chronic ruptures were reconstructed in 22 (73.3% and 8 patients, respectively. Conclusion. Quadriceps tendon injuries most often happen to male patients with predisposing conditions in their fifth and sixth decade of life due to trivial trauma. Patients on renal dialysis are the most vulnerable population group.

  9. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  10. Searching for preventive measures of cardiovascular events in aged Japanese taxi drivers--the daily rhythm of cardiovascular risk factors during a night duty day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, M; Azami, Y

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that Japanese taxi drivers are exposed to more risk factors and have a higher mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease than other occupational groups. We investigated the effect of night taxi driving with a view to preventing acute events of cardiovascular disease among aged taxi drivers. Twenty-nine taxi drivers (41-67 years old) were examined for urine normetanephrine/creatinine, von Willebrand factor, anti-thrombin III, t-plasminogen activator-plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-complex, hematocrit, blood glucose and blood pressure in the morning and at midnight during a duty day and in the following morning. At the same time, the blood pressure and blood glucose of 46 taxi drivers (43-67 years old) in the morning after a night duty with little sleep and in the morning after daytime work and subsequent night sleep were compared. The results obtained indicate that the aggravation of sympathetic nervous system functions with disturbed circadian rhythms, increased blood coagulation and blood concentration, endothelial injury and the elevation of blood glucose at midnight or the next morning were induced by their night work. These conditions are supposed to favour acute vascular events in aged taxi drivers. Preventive measures considered include social support for anticoagulant food and water intake, short exercise and walking as well as taking a rest and a nap during night work.

  11. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ballesteros, M. F., Sleet, D. A. (2008). CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional injuries among 0-19 ... American Academy of Pediatrics. (2008). Management of pediatric trauma. Pediatrics, 121 , 849–854. [top] How many people are ... may slightly increase childhood risk of neurological impairment, NIH study suggests All ...

  12. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465

  13. Acute and chronic cardiovascular effects of hyperkalemia: new insights into prevention and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Peter A; Beaver, Thomas M; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott; Emmett, Michael; Fonarow, Gregg C; Goyal, Abhinav; Herzog, Charles A; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Palmer, Biff F

    2014-01-01

    The plasma pool of potassium is a partial reflection of the overall body, transient cellular shifts, and potassium elimination regulated by the kidneys. Potassium concentrations elevating above the upper limit of normal (> 5.0 mEq/L) have become more common in cardiovascular practice due to the growing population of patients with chronic kidney disease and the broad applications of drugs that modulate potassium excretion by either reducing production of angiotensin II (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, direct renin inhibitors, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists), blocking angiotensin II receptors (angiotensin receptor blockers), or antagonizing the action of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists). In addition, acute kidney injury, critical illness, crush injuries, and massive red blood cell transfusions can result in hyperkalemia. Progressively more severe elevations in potassium are responsible for abnormalities in cardiac depolarization and repolarization and contractility. Untreated severe hyperkalemia results in sudden cardiac death. Traditional management steps have included reducing dietary potassium and discontinuing potassium supplements; withdrawal of exacerbating drugs; acute treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate, insulin, and glucose; nebulized albuterol; correction of acidosis with sodium bicarbonate for short-term shifts out of the plasma pool; and, finally, gastrointestinal ion exchange with oral sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol, which is mainly used in the hospital and is poorly tolerated due to gastrointestinal adverse effects. This review explores hyperkalemia as a complication in cardiovascular patients and highlights new acute, chronic, and preventative oral therapies (patiromer calcium, cross-linked polyelectrolyte, ZS-9) that could potentially create a greater margin of safety for vulnerable patients with combined heart and kidney disease.

  14. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWhereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relativel

  15. Cardiovascular effects of gliptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2013-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (commonly referred to as gliptins) are a novel class of oral antihyperglycaemic agents with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preclinical data and mechanistic studies have indicated a possible beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-dependent and GLP-1-independent effects. DPP-4 inhibition increases the concentration of many peptides with potential vasoactive and cardioprotective effects. Clinically, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several risk factors in patients with T2DM. They improve blood glucose control (mainly by reducing postprandial glycaemia), are weight neutral (or even induce modest weight loss), lower blood pressure, improve postprandial lipaemia, reduce inflammatory markers, diminish oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function. Some positive effects on the heart have also been described in patients with ischaemic heart disease or congestive heart failure, although their clinical relevance requires further investigation. Post-hoc analyses of phase II-III, controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend for a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with gliptins than with placebo or active agents. However, the actual relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials with predefined cardiovascular outcomes and involving various DPP-4 inhibitors are now underway in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile.

  16. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  17. Adult presentation with vascular ring due to double aortic arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Henryk; Uebing, Anselm; Mohiaddin, Raad

    2006-11-01

    This is a case report on the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose vascular ring due to double aortic arch in an adult presenting with an abnormal chest X-ray. The experience in this case and the literature review identify the benefits of using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to clarify complex aortic arch anatomy.

  18. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Repetitive Stress Injuries Print ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  19. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Hwan; Stephen J Nicholls; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  20. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  1. A Speedy Cardiovascular Diseases Classifier Using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah Ching Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year, some 30 percent of global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases. This figure is worsening due to both the increasing elderly population and severe shortages of medical personnel. The development of a cardiovascular diseases classifier (CDC for auto-diagnosis will help address solve the problem. Former CDCs did not achieve quick evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. In this letter, a new CDC to achieve speedy detection is investigated. This investigation incorporates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP-based multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA to develop feature vectors using a Support Vector Machine. The MCDA facilitates the efficient assignment of appropriate weightings to potential patients, thus scaling down the number of features. Since the new CDC will only adopt the most meaningful features for discrimination between healthy persons versus cardiovascular disease patients, a speedy detection of cardiovascular diseases has been successfully implemented.

  2. Cardiac Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Following Instillation of 20 nm Citrate-capped Nanosilver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Nathan A.; Becak, Daniel P.; Shanahan, Jonathan H.; Brown, Jared M.; Carratt, S. A.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Wang, Chong M.; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Baer, Donald R.; Sumner, Susan J.; Fennell, T. R.; Lust, R. M.; Wingard, Chistopher J.

    2015-02-26

    Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have garnered much interest due to their antimicrobial properties, becoming one of the most utilized nano scale materials. However, any potential evocable cardiovascular injury associated with exposure has not been previously reported. We have previously demonstrated expansion of myocardial infarction after intratracheal (IT) instillation of other nanomaterials. We hypothesized that pulmonary exposure to Ag core AgNP induces persistent increase in circulating cytokines, expansion of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated with altered coronary vessel reactivity. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 200 µg of 20 nm citrate capped Ag core AgNP, or a citrate vehicle intratracheally (IT). One and 7 days following IT instillation lungs were evaluated for inflammation and silver presence, serum was analyzed for concentrations of selected cytokines, and cardiac I/R injury and coronary artery reactivity was assessed. Results: AgNP instillation resulted in modest pulmonary injury with detection of silver in lung tissue and infiltrating cells, elevation of serum cytokines: G-CSF, MIP-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-13, IL-10, IL-18, IL-17, TNFα, and RANTES, expansion of I/R injury and depression of the coronary vessel reactivity at 1 day post IT compared to vehicle treated rats. Seven days post IT instillation was associated with persistent detection of silver in lungs, elevation in cytokines: IL-2, IL-13, and TNFα and expansion of I/R injury. Conclusions: Based on these data, IT instillation of AgNP increases circulating levels of several cytokines, which may contribute to persistent expansion of I/R injury possibly through an impaired vascular responsiveness.

  3. Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide: A New Member of Gasotransmitter Family in the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yaqian; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was previously regarded as a toxic gas in atmospheric pollutants. But it has been found to be endogenously generated from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in mammals through transamination by aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). SO2 could be produced in cardiovascular tissues catalyzed by its synthase AAT. In recent years, studies revealed that SO2 had physiological effects on the cardiovascular system, including vasorelaxation and cardiac function regulation. In addition, the pathophysiological effects of SO2 were also determined. For example, SO2 ameliorated systemic hypertension and pulmonary hypertension, prevented the development of atherosclerosis, and protected against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. These findings suggested that endogenous SO2 was a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system and provided a new therapy target for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26839635

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors regulate the expression of vascular endothelin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Sun, Yang; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    , cigarette smoking and hypertension (both strongly related to arterial wall injury), inflammation and atherosclerosis. The vascular endothelin receptors are a protein family that belongs to the larger family of G-protein coupled receptors. They mediate vascular smooth muscle contraction, proliferation......-activated protein kinase pathways and downstream transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB. Understanding the mechanisms involved in vascular endothelin receptor upregulation during cardiovascular disease may provide novel therapeutic approaches....

  5. Novel Approaches to Treat Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Bradford C.

    2007-01-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide have been identified as important chemical processes that regulate signal transduction. The findings of increased ROS in association with endothelial dysfunction has given rise to the “antioxidant hypothesis”: since ROS are increased in hypertension, atherosclerosis and vascular injury, then inhibiting oxidative stress with antioxidants should decrease cardiovascular even...

  6. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. V Luximon-Ramma; Mr. MA Soobrattee; Dr. T Bahorun; Prof. OI Aruoma

    2006-01-01

    Current hypotheses favour the concept that lowering oxidative stress can have a health benefit. Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury and disease. Cardiovascular disease is one example of this process. This disorder continues to be the major cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins is considered an early step in the progression and e...

  7. T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance in acute cardiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eitel Ingo; Friedrich Matthias G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using T2-weighted sequences can visualize myocardial edema. When compared to previous protocols, newer pulse sequences with substantially improved image quality have increased its clinical utility. The assessment of myocardial edema provides useful incremental diagnostic and prognostic information in a variety of clinical settings associated with acute myocardial injury. In patients with acute chest pain, T2-weighted CMR is able to identify acu...

  8. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  9. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine. PMID:26170595

  10. Rowing Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously publish...

  11. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  12. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  13. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  14. Lesões abdominais por uso do fio guia em ensaios cirúrgicos do quadril: estudo em cadáver Abdominal injuries due to the use of guide wire in hip surgery experiments: cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Freitas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre lesões abdominais e a introdução de fios guia em ensaios cirúrgicos do quadril, propor um sistema de escorização e conduta médica em função da distância percorrida pelo fio guia a partir da placa quadrilátera e a estrutura anatômica lesionada. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 18 quadris de cadáveres, um fio de Steimann de 3.2 x 300 mm, um perfurador elétrico e um paquímetro. Introduziu-se o fio no centro do colo femoral por via de acesso lateral no quadril sob visualização direta. Por via de acesso abdominal mediana longitudinal estendida à região pélvica, observou-se a placa quadrilátera até o fio a transfixar. A partir deste ponto, prolongou-se a inserção por mais 140 mm, a fim de observar seu trajeto abdominal e descrever as lesões apresentadas em função da distância percorrida. RESULTADOS: Houve cinco (27% lesões de cólon sigmóide e uma (5% lesão transfixante do nervo obturador. Artérias e veias ilíacas comuns contra laterais ao quadril fixado não foram lesionadas. CONCLUSÃO: O fio guia não deve ultrapassar a placa quadrilátera. Medidas de prevenção são importantes no pré e intra-operatório e o escore e a conduta médica propostos neste estudo devem ser criteriosamente observados nos casos de lesão comprovada.OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the relationship between abdominal injuries and the introduction of guide wire in experimental hip surgery, to propose a scoring system and a medical management based on the distance traveled by the guide wire from the quadrilateral plate until the damaged anatomical structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 18 cadaveric hips, a Steimann pin of 3.2 x 300mm, an electric drill and a caliper were used. The wire was inserted in the center of the femoral neck through a lateral approach in the hip under direct visualization. Via median abdominal extended approach to the pelvic region, the quadrilateral plate was observed until the wire crossed it. From

  15. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  16. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    R. Corti; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  17. Modelling cardiovascular disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alimadad, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD), which sits under the chronic disease umbrella, is the number one cause of death globally. Over time, we have witnessed different trends that have influenced the prevalence of CVD. One of the ways of decreasing CVD and its social costs and global fatalities is through influencing preventable CVD risk factors. Though many risk factors such as age and gender are not preventable, there are several effective behaviours...

  18. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, L

    2015-01-01

    Many peri- and postmenopausal women suffer from a reduced quality of life due to menopausal symptoms and preventable diseases. The importance of cardiovascular disease in women must be emphasized, as it is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in women. It is well known that female hormones...... contribute to the later onset of cardiovascular disease in women. The effect of estrogens has for decades been understood from observational studies of postmenopausal women treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Later, treatment with HRT was disregarded due to the fear of side......-effects and an ambiguity of the cardiovascular advantages. Accumulating knowledge from the large number of trials and studies has elucidated the cause for the disparity in results. In this paper, the beneficial effects of HRT, with emphasis on cardiovascular disease are explained, and the relative and absolute risks...

  19. Cardiovascular tissues contain independent circadian clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, A. J.; London, B.; Block, G. D.; Menaker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular events exhibit a circadian rhythm in the frequency of occurrence. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not yet fully understood, but they may be due to rhythmicity inherent in the cardiovascular system. We have begun to characterize rhythmicity of the clock gene mPer1 in the rat cardiovascular system. Luciferase activity driven by the mPer1 gene promoter is rhythmic in vitro in heart tissue explants and a wide variety of veins and arteries cultured from the transgenic Per1-luc rat. The tissues showed between 3 and 12 circadian cycles of gene expression in vitro before damping. Whereas peak per1-driven bioluminescence consistently occurred during the late night in the heart and all arteries sampled, the phases of the rhythms in veins varied significantly by anatomical location. Varying the time of the culture procedure relative to the donor animal's light:dark cycle revealed that, unlike some other rat tissues such as liver, the phases of in vitro rhythms of arteries, veins, and heart explants were affected by culture time. However, phase relationships among tissues were consistent across culture times; this suggests diversity in circadian regulation among components of the cardiovascular system.

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  1. Sports injury of the pediatric musculoskeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Karen; Strouse, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Sports related injuries are common in children and adolescents, with a reported incidence of around one in ten children each year. Boys incur more and severer sports injuries than girls, and chance for injury is greater with contact or jumping sports. Sports injuries seen in children under 10-years of age are non-specific, including contusions, mild sprains, and extremity fractures, usually Salter fractures of the physes (growth plate) or plastic fractures. In the very young athlete, sports injury of the ligaments or muscle is rare as are spine or head injuries. With growth and adolescence, the intensity of sports involvement increases. Pre-pubertal children still have open physes that are prone to injury, both acute or due to stress from a repetitive activity. In addition to injury of the physes of the long bones, injuries to the physes of apophyses are common. Ligamentous injury is uncommon before physeal closure, but can occur. After the physes fuse, ligamentous injury is seen with patterns similar to adults. This review will include a description of sports related injuries seen in children and adolescents. We will concentrate on injuries that are specific for the growing skeleton, with a brief mention of those seen after fusion of the physes.

  2. Characteristics of Traumatic Brain Injury Hospitalized Patients due to Traffic Accidents in a General Hospital in Shantou City, 2008-2012%汕头市某综合医院2008-2012年颅脑交通伤住院患者特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑶; 李丽萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysis the epidemiological characteristics of road-related traumatic brain injury hospitalized patients. Explore the influence factors of severe traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents so as to provide scientific basis for prevention of the severe traumatic brain injury. Methods ICD-10 coding was used to retrospectively analysis the epidemiological characteristics of the traumatic brain injury admitted from January 1 2008 to December 31 2012 in neurosurgery department and the factors affecting the severe traumatic brain injury were discussed. Results There were 1 858 patients, with 1 343 males (72.3%) and 515 females (27.7%), male-to-female ratio was 2.61:1. The highest frequency of severe traumatic brain injury was among the age group 15~44 (44.3%). Majority of the victims were motorcyclists (44.3%), followed by pedestrians (21.5%). The mean hospital stay was 30.40±42.22 days, the average hospital cost was 29 146.30± 43 243.00 RMB. Chi-square test showed that age, sex, marital status, type of road users, patients on admission conditions, multiple trauma patients with traumatic brain injury was statistically significant difference between the groups. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that gender, age, admissions, patients with multiple injuries that affect the severity of the traumatic brain injury due to traffic accidents. Conclusions Men, children under 14, admitted the situation is urgent and multiple injuries as risk factors for severe traumatic brain injury due to traffic accidents.%目的:分析汕头市某综合医院2008─2012年交通事故致颅脑损伤住院患者的流行病学特征,探索交通事故致严重颅脑损伤的影响因素,为严重颅脑交通伤的预防控制提供科学依据。方法采用国际疾病分类标准ICD-10,对某大型综合性医院2008年1月1日至2012年12月31日神经外科收治的因道路交通伤害入院的颅脑损伤患者进行回顾性分析,并探讨

  3. Chest Traumas due to Fall in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Falls are the most common reason for childhood traumas. The aim of this study is to investigate the causes, types, monthly frequencies and results f injuries due to fall of children in our region and to recommend somep recautions for preventing these injuries. Material and Methods: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 47 pediatric patients admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery during 2006-2009 with a diagnosis of chest trauma due to fall. For every patient, a pediatric trauma score (PTS was calculated. Descriptive statistics were performed for PTS and the duration of hospital stay. Results: The mean PTS of the cases who had additional system injuries were significantly worse than the cases who had isolated chest traumas. Similarly, the length of hospital stay was also much longer in the cases with associated system injuries.Conclusions: Injuries occur mostly in summer season. It may be due to the fact that the children do not go to the school and usually spend their times outside in this period. The children and their parents should be educated about the prevention of these accidents. Additionally, the accident and injury rates may also be reduced by constructing safer games and sports grounds with robust infrastructure.

  4. Autophagy protects cardiomyocytes from the myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury through the clearance of CLP36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiguo; Liu, Chao; Gu, Lei; Wang, Lina; Shang, Yongliang; Liu, Qiong; Wan, Junyi; Shi, Jian; Wang, Fang; Xu, Zhiliang; Ji, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of the death worldwide. An increasing number of studies have found that autophagy is involved in the progression or prevention of CVD. However, the precise mechanism of autophagy in CVD, especially the myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (MI/R injury), is unclear and controversial. Here, we show that the cardiomyocyte-specific disruption of autophagy by conditional knockout of Atg7 leads to severe contractile dysfunction, myofibrillar disarray and vacuolar cardiomyocytes. A negative cytoskeleton organization regulator, CLP36, was found to be accumulated in Atg7-deficient cardiomyocytes. The cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of Atg7 aggravates the MI/R injury with cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, myofibrillar disarray and severe cardiac fibrosis, most probably due to CLP36 accumulation in cardiomyocytes. Altogether, this work reveals autophagy may protect cardiomyocytes from the MI/R injury through the clearance of CLP36, and these findings define a novel relationship between autophagy and the regulation of stress fibre in heart. PMID:27512143

  5. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang;

    2012-01-01

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association.......Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association....

  6. Persistent giant U wave inversion with anoxic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Matthew N.; Katz, Morgan J.; Howell, Lucius A.; Moscona, John C.; Turnage, Thomas A.; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Various electrocardiographic changes have been reported in the setting of acute neurological events, among them large, upright U waves. In contrast, the occurrence of inverted U waves is strongly suggestive of cardiovascular disease, most commonly hypertension, coronary artery disease, or valvular abnormalities. Presented herein is the case of a 29-year-old man with previous anoxic brain injury (but without apparent cardiovascular disease) whose electrocardiogram demonstrated persistent giant...

  7. The potential for clinical use of cannabinoids in treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Ronen; Lotan, Chaim

    2011-02-01

    Cannabinoids, the constituents of the marijuana plant and their analogs, have not only neurobehavioral but also cardiovascular effects. Great advances in the last couple of decades have led to better understanding of the physiological effects of the cannabinoids and of their role in various cardiovascular pathologies. The potential therapeutic use of cannabinoids in various cardiac diseases, such as ischemic injury, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, has been studied in animal models. The purpose of this article is to review the physiological cardiovascular properties of cannabinoids and to summarize the knowledge related to their potential therapeutic use. PMID:20946323

  8. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in diabetic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Maiese, Kenneth

    2012-07-16

    Diabetes mellitus currently affects more than 170 million individuals worldwide and is expected to afflict another 200 million individuals in the next 30 years. Complications of diabetes as a result of oxidant stress affect multiple systems throughout the body, but involvement of the cardiovascular system may be one of the most severe in light of the impact upon cardiac and vascular function that can result in rapid morbidity and mortality for individuals. Given these concerns, the signaling pathways of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) offer exciting prospects for the development of novel therapies for the cardiovascular complications of diabetes. In the cardiovascular and metabolic systems, mTOR and its multi-protein complexes of TORC1 and TORC2 regulate insulin release and signaling, endothelial cell survival and growth, cardiomyocyte proliferation, resistance to β-cell injury, and cell longevity. Yet, mTOR can, at times, alter insulin signaling and lead to insulin resistance in the cardiovascular system during diabetes mellitus. It is therefore vital to understand the complex relationship mTOR and its downstream pathways hold during metabolic disease in order to develop novel strategies for the complications of diabetes mellitus in the cardiovascular system.

  9. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. V Luximon-Ramma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Current hypotheses favour the concept that lowering oxidative stress can have a health benefit. Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury and disease. Cardiovascular disease is one example of this process. This disorder continues to be the major cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins is considered an early step in the progression and eventual development of atherosclerosis, one of the leading causes to cardiovascular dysfunction. Compelling support for the involvement of free radicals in disease development originates from epidemiological studies showing that an enhanced antioxidant status is associated with reduced risk of several diseases. Dietary nutraceuticals such as vitamins C, E and polyphenolics and reduction of cardiovascular disease incidence are a notable example. This paper reviews the biology of ROS/RNS, their pathways through which they relate to the pathology of cardiovascular disease and discusses the putative roles that antioxidants, including phenolics, may play in controlling oxidative stress and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.;

    2014-01-01

    Group housing of horses is not very widespread, despite obvious advantages for their development and mental well-being. One often expressed rationale for this is that horse owners are worried about the risk of injuries due to kicks, bites or being chased into obstacles. To address this concern, we...... developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...

  11. Impact of exercise training on oxidative stress in individuals with a spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Hesse, E.; Janssen, T.; Wodzig, W.; Scheffer, P.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) have an increased cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that (anti)oxidative imbalance is associated with the increased cardiovascular risk in SCI, while exercise can reverse this status. The aim of the study is to compare baseline levels of oxidative stress

  12. YOGA IMPROVES CARDIOVASCULAR PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod P. Kadu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yoga in ancient technique practices by sage for a desirable and healthy life. Yogic exercise and Pranayam may modulate cardiovascular function. To assess the cardiovascular parameter in control and study group. We selected 90 healthy volunteers between age group 35 – 50 years and divided into two groups. i Study group – 45 ii Control group – 45. Control group was not doing any type of exercise or yoga during 1 yr of period whereas yoga group did yogic exercise for 1 yr under supervision of yoga expert. In both the group heart rate SBP and DBP evaluate at 0, 6 and 12 month period. In control group heart rate, SBP, and DBP showed no significant change at 0, 6, and 12 month reading, whereas study group (yoga 81.96±5.65 showed significant decreased heart rate From 81.96 ±5.65 to 75.60 ± 3.44 at 6 month and 73.75 ± 11.36 at 12 month (p<0.001 SBP decreased from 128 ± 7.66 to 120.97 ± 4.21 at 6 month and 120.48± 3.86 at 12 months (p<0.001. DBP showed significant decreased from 88.44 ± 5.25 to 80.53 ± 3.44 at 6 months and 80.53 ± 2.53 at 12months (p<0.001. Yogic exercise and Pranayam done regularly at long term improve cardiovascular efficiency.

  13. [Acute cardiovascular disease and job retention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Tellart, Anne-Sophie; Cambier-Langrand, Evodie; Fassier, Jean Baptiste; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Since it allows a better quality of life, return to work must be considered ever since the early stages of the health care pathway following a cardiovascular disease. Seeing the occupational physician beforehand, so as to anticipate the return to work, is crucial. Dialogue between cardiologists, general practitioners and occupational physician, still observing medical confidentiality, must allow a better quality of return to work. Being recognized as a handicapped worker is a key element in the prevention of socio-professional exclusion. Even when dealing with long sick leave, permanent functional injuries or job loss, guiding the patients towards the appropriate person can improve return to work and job retention in the long term. PMID:27021479

  14. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  15. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  16. Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

    2015-02-01

    Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes.

  17. Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeftha, A; Holmes, H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

  18. Neurobiology of premature brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Salmaso, Natalina; Jablonska, Beata; Scafidi, Joseph; Vaccarino, Flora M.; Gallo, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Every year in the United States, an estimated 500,000 babies are born preterm (before 37 completed weeks of gestation), and this number is rising, along with the recognition of brain injuries due to preterm delivery. A common underlying pathogenesis appears to be perinatal hypoxia induced by immature lung development, which causes injury to vulnerable neurons and glia. Abnormal growth and maturation of susceptible cell types, particularly neurons and oligodendrocytes, in preterm babies with v...

  19. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to brachial plexus injury: a case report; Siderose superficial do sistema nervoso central por lesao do plexo braquial: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setogutti, Enio Tadashi; Cassuriaga, Jefferson; Valduga, Simone Gianella [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Cardiologia. Setor de Ressonancia Magnetica]. E-mails: pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br; editoracao-pc@cardiologia.org.br; Lorenzzoni, Pablo Longhi; Severgnini, Giancarlo Muraro [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Cardiologia; Feldman, Carlos Jader [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Cardiologia. Setor de Radiologia

    2005-10-15

    Superficial siderosis can be caused by hemosiderin deposition o the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuro-axis due to recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. Probable intrathecal bleeding sites must be investigated. In ut t 50% of the patients the bleeding source may be identified and the progression of the disease can be interrupted. In this study, the authors present a case of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system developed two decades after a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus.(author)

  20. Wrestling injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    The sport of wrestling has a history dating back to ancient times as one of the original Olympic sports. It particularly appeals to adolescents as equally matched opponents engage in competition. There can be no argument that participation in sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity, those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. This article will discuss wrestling injuries and recommend prevention strategies to keep athletes safe. PMID:18521035

  1. SDF-1α and CXCR4 as therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Jessica; Zhang, Jian-qing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Yigang

    2011-01-01

    SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling is important for endogenous processes, including organogenesis and hematopoeisis, as well as in response to tissue injury. The secretion of SDF-1α acts as a chemoattractant to facilitate the homing of circulating CXCR4 positive cells as well as other stem cells to the site of injury for the initiation organ regeneration and repair. In the case of cardiovascular disease, and particularly myocardial infarction, this signaling axis is implicated in many of these processes,...

  2. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csányi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine.

  3. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  4. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  5. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  6. Arterial hypertension and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Lorenzo A; Caielli, Paola; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Rossi, Gianpaolo

    2013-08-01

    The dramatic change of the natural history of HIV-infected patients by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has exposed these patients to cardiovascular risk, including cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In HIV-infected patients, the development of arterial hypertension, at least in the medium-long term is an established feature, although recognized predictors of its development have not been clearly identified. In addition, conflicting data regarding the influence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) are reported. The presence of a proinflammatory state and oxidative stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction seem, however, to play a pathophysiologic role. In this review, we examine and provide a comprehensive, literature based, consideration of the pathophysiologic aspects of hypertension in these patients. HIV-infected patients, independently of the presence of hypertension, remain at very high cardiovascular risk due to the presence of the same cardiovascular risk factors recognized for the general population with, in addition, the indirect influence of the ART, essentially via its effect on lipid metabolism. This review based on the evidence from the literature, concludes that the management of HIV-infected patients in terms of cardiovascular prevention emerges as a priority. The consideration of cardiovascular risk in these patients should receive the same emphasis given for the general population at high cardiovascular risk, including adequate blood pressure control according to international guidelines.

  7. Circulating endothelial cells in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Christopher J; Lip, Gregory Y H; Blann, Andrew D

    2006-10-17

    Quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in peripheral blood is developing as a novel and reproducible method of assessing endothelial damage/dysfunction. The CECs are thought to be mature cells that have detached from the intimal monolayer in response to endothelial injury and are a different cell population to endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The EPCs are nonleukocytes derived from the bone marrow that are believed to have proliferative potential and may be important in vascular regeneration. Currently accepted methods of CEC quantification include the use of immunomagnetic bead separation (with cell counting under fluorescence microscopy) and flow cytometry. Several recent studies have shown increased numbers of CECs in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and critical limb ischemia, but no change in stable intermittent claudication, essential hypertension, or atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, CEC quantification at 48 h after acute myocardial infarction has been shown to be an accurate predictor of major adverse coronary events and death at both 1 month and 1 year. This article presents an overview of the pathophysiology of CECs in the setting of cardiovascular disease and a brief comparison with EPCs. PMID:17045885

  8. Optimization in Cardiovascular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid mechanics plays a key role in the development, progression, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Advances in imaging methods and patient-specific modeling now reveal increasingly detailed information about blood flow patterns in health and disease. Building on these tools, there is now an opportunity to couple blood flow simulation with optimization algorithms to improve the design of surgeries and devices, incorporating more information about the flow physics in the design process to augment current medical knowledge. In doing so, a major challenge is the need for efficient optimization tools that are appropriate for unsteady fluid mechanics problems, particularly for the optimization of complex patient-specific models in the presence of uncertainty. This article reviews the state of the art in optimization tools for virtual surgery, device design, and model parameter identification in cardiovascular flow and mechanobiology applications. In particular, it reviews trade-offs between traditional gradient-based methods and derivative-free approaches, as well as the need to incorporate uncertainties. Key future challenges are outlined, which extend to the incorporation of biological response and the customization of surgeries and devices for individual patients.

  9. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  10. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  11. Role of Adipokines in Atherosclerosis: Interferences with Cardiovascular Complications in Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morena Scotece

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatic patients, these alterations do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Obesity and its pathologic alteration of fat mass and dysfunction, due to an altered pattern of secretion of proinflammatory adipokines, could be one of the links between cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Indeed, the incidence of CVDs is augmented in obese individuals with rheumatic disorders. Thus, in this paper we explore in detail the relationships among adipokines, rheumatic diseases, and cardiovascular complications by giving to the reader a holistic vision and several suggestions for future perspectives and potential clinical implications.

  12. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Experts \\ Spinal Cord Injury 101 Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... in countries outside the US ? A spinal cord injury affects the entire family FacingDisability is designed to ...

  14. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  15. Basketball injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  16. Basketball injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  17. Injury in professional Irish dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Roisin; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2013-12-01

    Despite the evolution of Irish dance to professional status in recent decades, only scant investigation of musculoskeletal pain and injury among professional Irish dancers (PIDs) has been undertaken. This study investigated the rate of injury and associated factors among 178 PIDs, using an online questionnaire. One hundred and thirty-seven PIDs (76.7%) reported a previous injury, with the foot (67.9%) and ankle (60.6%) most commonly affected. A mean career rate of 2.25 injuries per dancer was computed. The majority of injuries were minor in nature, and almost half occurred midway through a tour. Sixty subjects (33.7%) reported that they often or always danced in pain. The main contributory factors to injury were accidents, fatigue or overwork, repetitive movements, and unsafe stages. Warm-up (98.8%) and cool-down (84.3%) were almost universally practised, with cross-training engaged in by 124 PIDs (74.7%). Popular treatments used to prevent and manage injuries were massage (N = 137, or 83.0% of PIDs), stretching (N = 117, or 70.1%) and physiotherapy (N = 105, or 62.9%). There was a moderate level of psychological distress among the participants, with "interpersonal difficulties" and "tension with people" the main problems cited. PIDs who were older (p = 0.008) and more experienced (p = 0.002) reported missing a greater number of performances due to injury. There were no other significant relationships between injury and factors, including gender, frequency of dancing in pain, use of warm-up, cool-down, or cross-training. Further prospective studies of PIDs should consider both physical and biopsychosocial elements to generate an appropriate screening process to predict those at risk of injury. PMID:24565330

  18. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise van Kempen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental noise on public health, in The Netherlands, is limited: Less than 1% of the myocardial infarction cases per year are attributable to long-term exposure to road traffic noise. Furthermore, although the Dutch noise policy is not directed to prevent cardiovascular disease due to noise exposure, health does play a role in Dutch noise policy. These are the main conclusions of a systematic review of Dutch observational studies, investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Since 1970, 14 Dutch studies were published investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Within these studies a large variety of outcomes were investigated, ranging from blood pressure changes to cardiovascular mortality. The results of the studies were not consistent and only weak associations were found.

  19. The Impact of NSAID Treatment on Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. M. S.; Fosbol, E. L.; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2014-01-01

    This MiniReview describes the present evidence for the relationship between cardiovascular risk and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with special focus using Danish register-based data. NSAIDs are among the most widely used drugs worldwide and mainly used for management of pain...... observational studies is accumulating, suggesting that NSAIDs are a major public health concern due to the widespread use of these drugs. Although it seems unlikely that we can completely avoid use of NSAIDs, even among high-risk patients, these results highlight the importance of balancing the benefit versus...... and inflammatory conditions. Through the past decade, much attention has been given to the cardiovascular safety of these drugs, and several studies have shown increased risk of adverse cardiovascular effects associated with NSAID use. Current guidelines discourage any use of NSAIDs in patients with cardiovascular...

  20. Cardiovascular complications in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, G; Pivonello, R; Lombardi, G; Colao, A

    2004-09-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased in acromegaly. In fact, GH and IGF-I excess induces a specific cardiomyopathy. The early stage of acromegaly is characterized by the hyperkinetic syndrome (high heart rate and increased systolic output). Frequently, concentric biventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction occur in acromegaly, leading to an impaired systolic function ending in heart failure if the disease is untreated or unsuccessfully untreated. Besides, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and of valves have been also described in acromegaly. The coexistence of other complications, such as arterial hypertension and diabetes, aggravates the acromegalic cardiomyopathy. The suppression of GH/IGF-I following an efficacious therapy could decrease left ventricular mass and improve cardiac function. In conclusion, a careful evaluation of cardiac function, morphology and activity seems to be mandatory in acromegaly.

  1. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  2. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... of CVD compared to butter intake with an equal fat content. It was found that cheese intake lowered total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and increased glucose concentrations when compared to butter. Additionally, butter intake resulted in higher...... total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol when compared to habitual diet whereas no difference was observed between cheese intake and habitual diet. Calcium has been suggested to increase fecal fat and bile acid excretions which could explain the lower cholesterol concentrations with cheese intake. Although...

  3. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  4. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  5. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  6. Serious eye injury in badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, S P

    1987-10-01

    Serious eye injury can occur in badminton players and may become more frequent. The causes and nature of such injuries in this sport in six patients are discussed. All were playing competitive doubles matches. Penetrating eye injury due to a shattered glass spectacle lens occurred. Players should be advised not to wear spectacles with glass lenses. Ocular protection in this sport is desirable, and the forward player should hold the racket in front of the face.

  7. Interindividual variation in platelets and the cardiovascular response to haemorrhage in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin;

    2011-01-01

    The platelet count varies two-fold among healthy individuals. Considering the haemostatic role of platelets, this study evaluated the relation between cardiovascular and metabolic responses to uncontrolled haemorrhage and the pretrauma platelet count in pigs. A laceration liver injury was inflict...

  8. Cardiovascular Disease in Women: Primary and Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghavi, Monika; Gulati, Martha

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease requires involvement of an extended health care team. Obstetricians and gynecologists are uniquely positioned within the health care system because they are often the primary or only contact women have with the system. This review article discusses initial assessment, treatment recommendations, and practical tips regarding primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women with a focus on coronary heart disease; discussion includes peripheral and cerebrovascular disease. PMID:27212092

  9. Pharmacogenomics in cardiovascular disorders: Steps in approaching personalized medicine in cardiovascular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Barone, Shaymaa S Mousa, Shaker A MousaThe Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Some of the most commonly prescribed medications are those for cardiovascular maladies. The beneficial effects of these medications have been well documented. However, there can be substantial variation in response to these medications among patients, which may be due to genetic variation. For this reason pharmacogenomic studies are emerging across all aspects of cardiovascular medicine. The goal of pharmacogenomics is to tailor treatment to an individual’s genetic makeup in order to improve the benefit-to-risk ratio. This review examines the potential pharmacogenomic parameters which may lead to a future of personalized medicine. For example, it has been found that patients with CYP2C9 and VKORC1 gene variations have a different response to warfarin. Other studies looking at β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, diuretics and statins have shown some results linking genetic variations to pharmacologic response. However these studies have not impacted clinical use yet, unlike warfarin findings, as the small retrospective studies need to be followed up by larger prospective studies for definitive results.Keywords: cardiovascular, pharmacogenomics, genetics, cardiovascular medicine, personalized medicine, polymorphism

  10. Determination of Vascular Reactivity of Middle Cerebral Arteries from Stroke and Spinal Cord Injury Animal Models Using Pressure Myography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mohammad A; Eid, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and other neurovascular derangements are main causes of global death. They, along with spinal cord injuries, are responsible for being the principal cause of disability due to neurological and cognitive problems. These problems then lead to a burden on scarce financial resources and societal care facilities as well as have a profound effect on patients' families. The mechanism of action in these debilitating diseases is complex and unclear. An important component of these problems arises from derangement of blood vessels, such as blockage due to clotting/embolism, endothelial dysfunction, and overreactivity to contractile agents, as well as alteration in endothelial permeability. Moreover, the cerebro-vasculature (large vessels and arterioles) is involved in regulating blood flow by facilitating auto-regulatory processes. Moreover, the anterior (middle cerebral artery and the surrounding region) and posterior (basilar artery and its immediate locality) regions of the brain play a significant role in triggering the pathological progression of ischemic stroke particularly due to inflammatory activity and oxidative stress. Interestingly, modifiable and non-modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for driving ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and spinal cord injury. There are different stroke animal models to examine the pathophysiology of middle cerebral and basilar arteries. In this context, arterial myography offers an opportunity to determine the etiology of vascular dysfunction in these diseases. Herein, we describe the technique of pressure myography to examine the reactivity of cerebral vessels to contractile and vasodilator agents and a prelude to stroke and spinal cord injury. PMID:27604741

  11. Cocaine, Marijuana, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Ghadiani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is used by more than 14 million people worldwide, about 0.3 percent of the global population age is 15 to 64 years. After alcohol, cocaine is the most common cause of acute drug-related emergency department visits in the United States. Cocaine consumption is more frequently associated with acute cardiovascular illness.  Cocaine stimulates α1, α2, β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors through increased levels of norepinephrine and a lesser extent epinephrine. The cardiovascular effects of cocaine are thought to be similar and regardless to the route of consumption. An acute coronary syndrome is the most common cardiac problem including myocardial ischemia and infarction even in young persons without atherosclerosis, aortic dissection and rupture, arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, asystole and finally sudden death. Other cardiovascular effects that caused by cocaine include coronary artery aneurysm, palpitation, sinus tachycardia, increased systemic vascular resistance and hypertension crisis, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis, bundle branch block, heart block, supraventricular arrhythmia, accelerated atherosclerosis, hypotension, bradycardia and infective endocarditis  among intravenous users.Cocaine by three mechanisms cause ischemia: 1. increased myocardial oxygen demand, 2. decreased coronary blood flow due to coronary artery vasoconstriction and spasm and 3. Coronary artery thrombosis via activation of platelets, stimulation of platelet aggregation and potentiation of thromboxane production.

  12. Liver injury from Herbals and Dietary Supplements in the US Drug Induced Liver Injury Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Victor J.; Barnhart, Huiman; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Davern, Timothy; Fontana, Robert J.; Grant, Lafaine; Reddy, K. Rajender; Seeff, Leonard B.; Serrano, Jose; Sherker, Averell H.; Stolz, Andrew; Talwalkar, Jayant; Vega, Maricruz; Vuppalanchi, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network (DILIN) studies hepatotoxicity due to conventional medications as well as herbals and dietary supplements (HDS). Rationale To characterize hepatotoxicity and its outcomes from HDS versus medications, patients with hepatotoxicity attributed to medications or HDS were enrolled prospectively between 2004 and 2013. The study took place among eight US referral centers that are part of the DILIN. Consecutive patients with liver injury referred to a DILIN center were eligible. The final sample comprised 130 (15.5%) of all subjects enrolled (839) who were judged to have experienced liver injury due to HDS. Hepatotoxicity due to HDS was evaluated by expert opinion. Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcome assessments including death and liver transplantation were ascertained. Cases were stratified and compared according to the type of agent implicated in liver injury; 45 had injury due to bodybuilding HDS, 85 due to non-bodybuilding HDS, and 709 due to medications. Main Results Liver injury due to HDS increased from 7% to 20% (p Bodybuilding HDS caused prolonged jaundice (median 91 days) in young men but did not result in any fatalities or liver transplantation. The remaining HDS cases presented as hepatocellular injury, predominantly in middle-aged women and more frequently led to death or transplantation compared to injury from medications (13% vs. 3%, p bodybuilding HDS is more severe than from bodybuilding HDS or medications, as evidenced by differences in unfavorable outcomes; death and transplantation. PMID:25043597

  13. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  15. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  16. Anaphylaxis due to thiopental sodium anesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Dolovich, J; Evans, S.; Rosenbloom, D; Goodacre, R; Rafajac, F O

    1980-01-01

    Anaphylaxis due to an anesthetic is one type of cardiovascular emergency that can occur during general anesthesia. Anaphylactic reactions to muscle relaxants have been documented. Barbiturates, used as sedatives, are well known to produce cutaneous reactions, but anaphylaxis after their ingestion seems to be rare. Generalized allergic reactions to thiopental sodium during anesthesia are mentioned in the product monograph for Penthothal sodium, and rare case reports of anaphylactic reactions t...

  17. Maternal mortality due to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Vivian Carolina; Pearlman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of adequacy of health care in our society. Improvements in the obstetric care system as well as advances in technology have contributed to reduction in maternal mortality rates. Trauma complicates up to 7% of all pregnancies and has emerged as the leading cause of maternal mortality, becoming a significant concern for the public health system. Maternal mortality secondary to trauma can often be prevented by coordinated medical care, but it is essential that caregivers recognize the unique situation of providing simultaneous care to 2 patients who have a complex physiologic relationship. Optimal management of the pregnant trauma victim requires a multidisciplinary team, where the obstetrician plays a central role. This review focuses on the incidence of maternal mortality due to trauma, the mechanisms involved in traumatic injury, the important anatomic and physiologic changes that may predispose to mortality due to trauma, and finally, preventive strategies that may decrease the incidence of traumatic maternal death.

  18. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  19. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  20. Changes in Fat Distribution in Children Following Severe Burn Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Pavankumar; Hanaa S. Sallam; Ali, Arham; Chandalia, Manisha; Suman, Oscar; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N; Abate, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with severe cutaneous burn injury show persistent metabolic abnormalities, including inflammation and insulin resistance. Such abnormalities could potentially increase their future risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This could be related to changes in body composition and fat distribution.

  1. Simulations of the Cardiovascular System Using the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-León, Gabriela; Vílchez-Monge, Marta; Montero-Rodríguez, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present document, six mathematical models of the cardiovascular system are studied and implemented in MATLAB R2013a using an updated version of the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox proposed by O. Barnea at the Tel-Aviv University. All the mathematical models are based on electrical lumped-parameter analogies. The results of the simulations are compared with a list of expected hemodynamic parameters and contrasted with laboratory values.

  2. Should We Use PPAR Agonists to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer G. Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR agonists have shown mixed results for cardiovascular prevention. Fibrates are PPAR- agonists that act primarily to improve dyslipidemia. Based on low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and HDL effects, gemfibrozil may be of greater cardiovascular benefit than expected, fenofibrate performed about as expected, and bezafibrate performed worse than expected. Increases in both cardiovascular and noncardiovascular serious adverse events have been observed with some fibrates. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are PPAR- agonists used to improve impaired glucose metabolism but also influence lipids. Pioglitazone reduces atherosclerotic events in diabetic subjects, but has no net cardiovascular benefit due to increased congestive heart failure risk. Rosiglitazone may increase the risk of atherosclerotic events, and has a net harmful effect on the cardiovascular system when congestive heart failure is included. The primary benefit of TZDs appears to be the prevention of diabetic microvascular complications. Dual PPAR-/ agonists have had unacceptable adverse effects but more selective agents are in development. PPAR- and pan-agonists are also in development. It will be imperative to prove that future PPAR agonists not only prevent atherosclerotic events but also result in a net reduction on total cardiovascular events without significant noncardiovascular adverse effects with long-term use.

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with a New Injury Coping with a New Injury Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair ... after an injury? What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? What are the ...

  4. SIRT3 in cardiovascular diseases: Emerging roles and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Yi-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Han; Cai, Zhe-Jun; Xiang, Mei-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    SIRT3 belongs to a highly conserved protein family of histone deacetylases and it is rich in mitochondria. As acetyl-modification is one of the important post-translational modifications that prevail in the mitochondria, it is not surprising that SIRT3 plays a key regulatory role in this organelle. SIRT3 has a wide range of substrates that are involved in the physiological and pathological processes of oxidative stress, ischemia-reperfusion injury, mitochondrial metabolism homeostasis and cellular death. These pathophysiological processes are considered as the underlying mechanisms of diseases like cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction and heart failure, indicating the potential roles of SIRT3 in cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we will summarize the emerging roles and therapeutic implications of SIRT3 in cardiovascular diseases by providing an update on the latest understanding of its functions. PMID:27393852

  5. Wartime major venous vessel injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to declare our experience and to identify the important factors that influence the mortality and morbidity in patients with combat-related penetrating wounds of the abdomen (CR-PWA) with major venous vessel injuries. Twenty-six wounded with combat-related injuries of major abdominal venous vessels, admitted in the University Clinic cardiovascular surgery department during the period from 1 August 1991 through 30 October 1995, were analyzed. Patients with concomitant injured arteries and extra-abdominal injuries (n=150; 85.2%) were excluded from this study. The Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) score for each patient was calculated. Fifteen patients (57.69%) sustained with PATI score greater than 25 died. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16 days (range 0-86). The average hospitalization time for those surviving their complications was 17 days with a PATI of 25 or less, and 43 days with a score more than 25. Three clinical assessments of the long-term outcome were performed after a median of about 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Surviving patients (42.31%) were symptom free and had normal Duplex scans as well as no other surgical related complications. Higher PATI scores, postoperative complications and reoperations exert an unfavorable effect on patient outcome. PMID:18006557

  6. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, J P; Nguyen, K-L; Han, F; Zhou, Z; Salusky, I; Ayad, I; Hu, P

    2016-08-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications. PMID:27221526

  7. CARDIOGUI: An Interface Guide to Simulate Cardiovascular Respiratory System during Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Marie Ntaganda; Benjamin Mampassi

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at the presentation of an interface to simulate cardiovascular respiratory system. The authors are interested in the resolution of optimal control problem related to the performance of a 30 years old woman. The results show in the most case the determinant parameters of cardiovascular respiratory system reach the equilibrium value due to its controls that is heart rate and alveolar ventilation.

  8. The Cardiovascular Risk Profile of Atherosclerotic Gastrointestinal Ischemia Is Different from Other Vascular Beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Renzo P.; ter Steege, Rinze W. F.; Geelkerken, Robert H.; Huisman, Ad B.; Kolkman, Jeroen J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic gastrointestinal ischemia due to atherosclerosis of the splanchnic vessels (chronic splanchnic syndrome) is not well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular risk factor pattern in patients

  9. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, K Y; Ma, L; Wong, S S; Ng, W F

    1993-01-01

    A patient who succumbed to fulminant necrotizing fasciitis due to Vibrio damsela after injury by a rabbitfish is described. Despite the absence of any known underlying illness, he did not respond to appropriate antibiotic therapy and radical surgical intervention. This represents the first documented case of necrotizing fasciitis due to this organism, and is also the first reported case in Southeast Asia inflicted by rabbitfish.

  10. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol...

  11. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  12. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health. PMID:27671918

  13. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Rubio, María Antonia; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; Frías López, María del Carmen; Solera Albero, Juan; Bermejo López, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: Valorar si el hipotiroidismo subclínico puede comportarse como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular o un modificador del mismo, identificando variables epidemiológicas y riesgo cardiovascular estimado en una muestra de sujetos diagnosticados en la provincia de Albacete. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal realizado en Albacete durante la primera quincena de enero de 2012 en pacientes de ambos géneros con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: glucemia basal, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, TSH, T4, peso, talla, I.M.C., tensión arterial, antecedentes de patología cardiovascular, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y riesgo cardiovascular estimado. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 326 pacientes, con predominio femenino (79,2 %), menores de 65 años en el 78% y sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el 48,61%. La prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular identificados fué: tabaquismo (33,2%), diabetes mellitus (24,9%), hipertensión arterial (23,4%), alteraciones lipídicas (28,9%) y fibrilación auricular (4,9 %). No se encontró asociación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico y la mayoría de los parámetros del perfil lipídico que condicionan un perfil pro-aterogénico, salvo con la hipertrigliceridemia. Asimismo, tampoco se constató asociación con riesgo cardiovascular aumentado. Conclusiones: El perfil del paciente con hipotiroidismo subclínico es una mujer de mediana edad sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la mitad de casos. Se ha encontrado relación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico e hipertrigliceridemia, pero no con el resto de parámetros del perfil lipídico, otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular o con aumento de dicho riesgo. Sin embargo, un 25% de diabéticos y un 22% de no diabéticos están en situación de riesgo cardiovascular moderado-alto.

  14. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  15. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    OpenAIRE

    Villalón, Carlos; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT receptor classification, the authors reanalyse the cardiovascular responses mediated by 5-HT receptors and discuss the established and potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT ligands in the trea...

  16. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  17. Estrogen Signaling and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system. The mechanisms by which estrogen confers these pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular function is under active investigation. Until a decade ago, all estrogen signaling was thought to occur by estrogen binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), which bind to DNA and function as ligand activated transcription factors. Estrogen binding to the receptor alters gene expression thereby altering cell function. In 2000 estrogen w...

  18. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of...

  19. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  20. Measurement of severity of sports injuries : an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R; Kingma, J; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH; Ten Duis, HJ

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the severity of sports injuries in relation to the severity of injuries due to other causes and in relation to type of sport, using generally applied measures of injury severity. Subjects: A total of 12 403 patients, 4-50 years old, who were treated in the trauma department of

  1. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations.

  2. Spinal injury - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - spinal injury ... The following organizations are good resources for information on spinal injury : National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov The National Spinal Cord Injury ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? What is the "Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems" program? ... family FacingDisability is designed to provide Internet-based information and support for people with spinal cord injuries ...

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Empowering the Patient After Spinal ...

  7. An innovative surgical technique for treating penile incarceration injury caused by heavy metallic ring

    OpenAIRE

    Baruah, S. J.; Bagchi, P. K.; S K Barua; Deka, P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Penile incarceration injury by heavy metallic ring is a rare genital injury. A man may place metal object for erotic or autoerotic purposes, for masturbation or increasing erection, and due to psychiatric disturbances are some of the reasons for a penile incarceration injury. The incarcerating injury results in reduced blood flow distal to the injury, leading to edema, ischemia, and sometimes gangrene. These injuries are divided into five grades and their treatment options are divided into fo...

  8. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G;

    2008-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  9. Cardiovascular genetics : Technological advancements and applicability for dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, G. J M; Baas, A. F.; Harakalova, M.; van der Smagt, J. J.; Asselbergs, F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Genetics plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, and is increasingly being integrated into clinical practice. Since 2008, both capacity and cost-efficiency of mutation screening of DNA have been increased magnificently due to the technological advancement obtained

  10. Technical competence in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography; Competencia tecnica em ressonancia e tomografia cardiovascular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Juliano Lara; Shiozaki, Afonso Akio; Azevedo Filho, Clerio Francisco de; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Pinto, Ibraim Marciarelli Francisco; Lopes, Marly Maria Uellendahl; Schvartzman, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: jlaraf@fcm.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP/GERT) SP (Brazil). Grupo de Estudo em Ressonancia e Tomografia Cardiovascular

    2009-10-15

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography have evolved as very practical and useful techniques applied in clinical cardiology. Due to their rapid acceptance in the cardiology community and widespread use, training of both cardiologists and radiologists on this subspecialty has not been homogeneous so far. This in part explains significant differences observed in the diverse background found in today’s practicing physicians who execute these exams. In order to guide training facilities as well as both payers, contractors and general cardiologists ordering the exam, this document provides a minimum standard that should be accomplished by all physicians who pursue education in the field and for those who already practice in it. The clinical competences listed in this statement are by no means thorough but should be required by all those involved in cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography as the customary requirements for current and future practitioners. (author)

  11. Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. CVD is an inflammatory disease associated with risk factors that include hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Furthermore, the evolution of this disease depends on the amount of modified lipoproteins (e.g. oxidized) present in the arterial subendothelium. Diet is considered the cornerstone for CVD treatment, as it can lower not only atherogenic lipoprotein levels and degree of oxidation, but also blood pressure, thrombogenesis and concentrations of some relevant factors (e.g. homocystein).Among different diets, the Mediterranean diet stands out due to their benefits on several health benefits, in particular with regard to CVD. Rich in vegetable foods, this diet contributes both quantitatively and qualitatively to essential fibre compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose, gums, mucilages, pectins, oligosaccharides, lignins, etc.). The present paper analyzes the effects of fibre consumption on a) cholesterol and lipoprotein levels; b) systolic and diastolic blood pressures; and c) antioxidant availability and profile. Some studies and meta-analysis are revised, as the possible mechanisms by which fibre may decrease plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure and to act as antioxidant, as well. In addition, author's own publications regarding the effect of fibre matrix (e.g. seaweeds) on arylesterase and the gene expression of some key antioxidant enzymes are reviewed. The paper also includes data concerning the possible interaction between fibre and some hypolipemic drugs, which may make it possible to attain similar hypolipemic effects with lower dosages, with the consequent decrease in possible side effects. The review concludes with a summary of nutritional objectives related to the consumption of carbohydrates and fibre supplements. PMID:22566302

  12. Laparascopic Splenectomy Due to Splenic Injury after Colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Bunyami; Kisaoglu, Abdullah; Bayramoglu, Atıf; Kara, Salih; Aksungur, Nurhak

    2016-06-01

    Colonoscopy, which is routinely performed in diagnosis and treatment of colorectal disorders, is a reliable procedure. Its most frequent complications are bleeding and perforation. Splenic rupture is a very rarely met complication of colonoscopy, and delay in its diagnosis leads to increased morbidity and mortality. We presented a 69 years old female patient, who was diagnosed by computerized abdominal tomography, performed for her abdominal pain, which started following the colonoscopy. After 15 days of medical treatment and follow-up, laparoscopic splenectomy was performed one month after her colonoscopy. The patient was discharged on her 4(th) postoperative day, with uneventful recovery. In patients who have complaint of abdominal pain following colonoscopy, an intraabdominal pathological condition should be considered and computerized abdominal tomography should be performed. If there is no detected intraperitoneal bleeding, in other words, if there is a sub-capsular hematoma of the spleen, medical management by monitoring the vital signs may be preferred. Then, splenectomy should be performed at an appropriate time. PMID:27551182

  13. Chronic neck pain disability due to an acute whiplash injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marc J.; Hermens, Hermie J.; IJzerman, Maarten J.; Turk, Dennis C.; Zilvold, Gerrit

    2003-01-01

    Several theories about musculoskeletal pain syndromes such as whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) suggest that pain and muscle activity interact and may contribute to the chronicity of symptoms. Studies using surface electromyography (sEMG) have demonstrated abnormal muscle activation patterns of the

  14. Celiac Injury Due to Arcuate Ligament: An Endovascular Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zini, Chiara, E-mail: zini.chiara@gmail.com; Corona, Mario, E-mail: mario.corona@uniroma.it; Boatta, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.boatta@yahoo.it; Wlderk, Andrea, E-mail: a.wlderk@virgilio.it; Salvatori, Filippo Maria, E-mail: filippomaria.salvatori@uniroma1.it; Fanelli, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.fanelli@uniroma1.it [' Sapienza,' -University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Radiology, Oncology and Pathology Department (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Celiac trunk injures are rare events, with high mortality rates and difficult management. Endovascular treatment may be considered to avoid bleeding. We report a case of severe bleeding in a 37-year-old man resulting from celiac trunk stretching after a motorcycle crash. Because direct celiac trunk catheterization was not possible, a retrograde catheterization of the common hepatic artery was performed via the superior mesenteric artery. Two vascular plugs (type IV) were released, and the exclusion of the celiac trunk origin was completed with the deployment of an aortic cuff. The patient's clinical condition immediately improved, and after 6 months' follow-up, imaging confirmed the complete exclusion of the celiac trunk.

  15. Severe lung injuries due to SO/sub 2/ inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, P.; Leupold, W.; Mittenzwey, K.W.; Rupprecht, E.

    1982-01-01

    By accident a 12 year old boy had to spend 4 hours in a SO/sub 2/-enriched atmosphere (concentration 13.8 mg per cubicmeter = 4.8 ppm). The course of the following intoxication was tetraphasic: 1. acute irritation of the mucous membranes of the upper airways and of the eye: rhinopharyngitis, laryngitis and bronchitis, conjunctivitis and corneal lesions (duration: 5 days), 2. symptom free interval (duration: 3 days), 3. subacute destruction of the low airways and the lung: destructing bronchitis, bronchiolitis, alveolitis, emphysema of the lung, mediastinum and skin, gradual development of bronchiectasis (duration: 9-12 months) and 4. gradual transition into terminal scarification: emphysema of the lung, continuous partial respiratory insufficiency with combined, especially obstructive disturbance of ventilation (without alterations observed during the last 4 years). On occasions of this fateful and therapeutically hardly influenced course recommendations are given for initial general and topical administration of very high doses of corticosteroids in each case of inhalative intoxication as the only measure which probably would have prevented it.

  16. Knee and ankle injuries from playing football

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.)

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work ...

  18. Reduciendo el trauma y la mortalidad asociada a los accidentes de tránsito en los peatones en el Perú: intervenciones que pueden funcionar Reducing pedestrian deaths and injuries due to road traffic injuries in Peru: interventions that can work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alex Quistberg

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los peatones peruanos se constituyen como el grupo que sufre la mayor proporción de fatalidades causadas por los accidentes de tránsito en el mundo. El año 2009 los peatones fueron involucrados en 27% de los accidentes de tránsito en el Perú. Este es un problema significativo para la salud pública del país, pues tiene repercusiones económicas importantes. En este artículo se revisa la evidencia disponible para algunas intervenciones implementadas en otros países y enfocadas a la prevención de los atropellos, las que podrían funcionar bien en Perú. De manera consistente, la implementación de intervenciones tales como el calmar el tráfico en áreas específicas a través de reductores de velocidad ("rompemuelles", minirotondas ("óvalos", mejor alumbramiento, calles unidireccionales, desvíos y bloqueos de las calles, tiene una fuerte evidencia en reducir las lesiones y fatalidades en los peatones. Otras intervenciones vinculadas con actividades de educación y hacer cumplir las leyes, podrían tener una función en contextos muy específicos, sin embargo, diseñar y modificar el medio ambiente físico se constituye como una de las intervenciones más importantes.Pedestrians in Peru are the victims of the greatest proportion of road traffic fatalities in the world. In 2009, pedestrians were involved in 27% of road traffic incidents in Peru. This is a significant public health problem in Peru and it has important economic effects as well. We review the evidence for some of the solutions and interventions implemented in other countries that may work well in Peru to confront this problem via preventing pedestrian-vehicle incidents. Most importantly, deploying interventions such as area-wide traffic calming through speed bumps, roundabouts, better lighting, one-way streets, detours, and blocking some roads has the strongest evidence for reducing injuries and fatalities in pedestrians. Other interventions related to education and

  19. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  20. Advances in the study on endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review summarized the current advances in understanding the role of the novel gasotransmitter,sulfur dioxide (SO2),in the cardiovascular system.Data sources Articles on the advances in the study of the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system were accessed from PubMed and CNKI from 2003 to 2013,using keywords such as "endogenous sulfur dioxide" and "cardiovascular system".Study selection Articles with regard to the role of SO2 in the regulation of cardiovascular system were selected.Results Recently,scientists discovered that an endogenous SO2 pathway is present in the cardiovascular system and exerts physiologically significant effects,such as regulation of the cardiac function and the pathogenesis of various cardiopulmonary diseases such as hypoxic pulmonary hypertension,hypertension,coronary atherosclerosis,and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury,in the cardiovascular system.Conclusions Endogenous SO2 is a novel member of the gasotransmitter family in addition to the nitric oxide (NO),carbon monoxide (CO),and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).Studies indicated that it has a role in regulating the cardiovascular disease.

  1. Esophageal Thermal Injury by Hot Adlay Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Young A; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sae Hee; Lim, Sin Hyung

    2007-01-01

    Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus as the result of drinking hot liquids has been reported to generate alternating white and red linear mucosal bands, somewhat reminiscent of a candy cane. This phenomenon is associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Here, we report a case of thermal injury to the esophageal and oral cavity due to the drinking of hot tea, including odynophagia and dysphagia. A 69-year-old man was referred due to a difficulty in swallowing...

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Montes Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.

  3. Sports injuries of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G A

    1972-07-01

    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  4. Child Mortality and Injury in Asia: Policy and programme implications

    OpenAIRE

    Michael (et al.) Linnan

    2007-01-01

    Special Series on Child Injury no.4 This paper presents a summary of the findings of the national and sub-national surveys and discusses the implications of the results on child health policy and programmes.The principal finding is that injury has generally been unrecognized as a leading cause of child death. This is largely because the previous estimates of child mortality causality were unable to include injury due to technical issues. The surveys provide convincing evidence that injury is ...

  5. Finger avulsion injuries: A report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejjal N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury that occurs to a finger wearing a ring though rare can have grave consequences. It is a preventable injury which has a peculiar mode of trauma that is usually occupational. Injury ranges from simple contusion to degloving of soft tissues to traumatic amputation. We hereby report our experience of four cases of finger avulsion injuries due to a ring and discuss their variable clinical presentation and individualized management.

  6. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  7. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varun Kumar Singh; Gauresh Shantaram Vargaonkar

    2014-01-01

    Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle.Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare.We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male.Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test.Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result.

  8. The rat - Cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor-Herazo Aristides

    2012-06-01

    locura inducida porlas sustancias, donde la culpa proyectada y la negación campean a la par dela visión del mundo degradado y alucinante como construcción alterna de larealidad del drogadicto.A falta de una vida plena llena de realizaciones, el vacío interno, los sentimientosde soledad, la futilidad mediatizada, la ausencia de un verdadero sentido de lavida, el existir solo por el principio del placer, constituyen modos de vida sinsignificado, donde comanda el cerebro del reptil que llevamos dentro, no digoque el de mamífero porque sería ofender a tan nobles animales.En el desarrollo de esta obra, y en la realidad, vemos como se encuentratrastocado, cuando no ausente, el sentido de lo espiritual. La incapacidad paraexperimentar el dolor del prójimo, posiblemente se deba a una falla del hazde neuronas conocidas como “neuronas espejo” descubiertas por el equipoinvestigador de la Universidad de Parma, liderado por Giacomo Rizzolatti en1996. El sistema de “neuronas espejo” permite hacer propias las acciones, sensaciones y emociones de los demás; sirve paraexplicar las bases neurobiológicas de la empatíay, su ausencia o daño, ayudaría a comprender lasbases del trastorno antisocial de la personalidado psicopatía. Grave patología caracterizadapor la imposibilidad del sujeto para vivenciarlos sentimientos de sus iguales, por lo mismo,son incapaces para sentir culpa o ansiedad, losque los lleva a una ausencia de moralidad y decapacidad para experimentar compasión por elotro, eso los convierte en depredadores de los herdemás.La droga prospera en estos individuosy daña las conexiones lógicas de sus funciones,socio-patizándolos aún más; así nos impresionaArístides, con unos personajes desalmados,afectados por este destructor flagelo. Esta esla saga en la que nos introduce con magistralhabilidad el autor.CHISTIAN AYOLA GÓMEZMédico Especialista en PsiquiatriaFARMACOLOGIA CARDIOVASCULAR:El conocimiento de la farmacología, ciencia vitalen la formaci

  9. Osteoporosis y enfermedad cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarahí Mendoza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV y la osteoporosis son causas frecuentes de morbilidad en la población adulta, cuya frecuencia aumenta con la edad, por lo que al aumentar la expectativa de vida, constituyen importantes problemas de salud. El riesgo a padecer ambas patologías depende de factores de riesgo, y la prevención consiste en controlar los modificables. Las ECV y la osteoporosis presentan factores etiológicos comunes que involucran la biosíntesis del colesterol y la oxidación lipídica, cuya dilucidación representa una línea priorizada de investigación. El crecimiento y mantenimiento del esqueleto depende del equilibrio entre la formación y la resorción ósea a través de los procesos de modelado y remodelado óseo, controlados por células óseas (osteoblastos -OB-, osteoclastos -OC- y osteocitos, los OB son responsables de la formación ósea, los OC de la resorción ósea y los osteocitos de la red mecano sensorial. Entre los nexos de las ECV y la osteoporosis se encuentra el papel de la vía del mevalonato en la síntesis de colesterol y en la activación de OC, y el papel de los lípidos oxidados en el desarrollo de la aterosclerosis y en la transformación de las células precursoras de OB en adipocitos, disminuyendo la formación de OB activos y favoreciendo la osteoporosis. Ello justifica que sustancias hipolipemiantes y antioxidantes puedan ejercer efectos protectores sobre el hueso, y que la búsqueda de sustancias que actúen sobre ambos blancos sea un aspecto de interés en la prevención o el manejo de estas enfermedades.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of acrylic bone cement in rabbits and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, D; Butterworth, K R

    1973-06-16

    The cardiovascular responses to forcing acrylic bone cement, Plasticine, or soft paraffin wax into the medullary cavity of the femur have been studied in rabbits and cats. An acute fall in blood pressure, occurring within a few seconds of insertion, was demonstrated with each substance. In a few of the animals the blood pressure response had a second more protracted component and it is suggested that more than one mechanism is involved. The cardiovascular effects that have been observed in man when acrylic cement is used in prosthetic hip surgery also may be due to more than one mechanism. PMID:4714847

  11. Nanomedicine: Addressing Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Tissue Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchwey, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is becoming an increasingly significant problem. In attempts to overcome many of the traditional hurdles of cardiovascular disease treatment, therapeutic approaches have been gradually moving beyond an exclusive focus on orally delivered drugs towards the development of nanoscale applications. These technologies exploit molecular scale events to improve drug and gene delivery applications, enhance preventative medicine and diagnostic strategies, and create biomimicking substrates for vascular tissue engineering. As nanoscale treatments enter the arena of clinical medicine, new ways of thinking about and routes for applying nanomedicine to cardiovascular health issues are emerging. With focuses on drug delivery, gene therapy, and biomimetics, this article will provide a comprehensive review of various nanomedicine applications for combating atherosclerosis and for improving upon current vascular tissue engineering designs.

  12. Injuries in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS & DIMITRIOS PHILLIPOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety players of 8 teams in 2 male team basketball senior divisions were observed prospectively for 1 season to study the injury incidence in relation to exposure in games and practices. Forty-six injuries were recorded. Injury incidence was evaluated at 2.5 injuries per 1000 player-hours, with a significantly higher incidence in game injuries (14.3 injuries per 1000 game-hours compared with practice injuries(0.6 injuries per 1000 practice-hours.Practice injury incidence was higher in the lower performance level group, and game injury incidence was higher in the high-level group. The upper extremity was involved in 37% of the injuries, and the lower extremity in 54%.The knee was the most commonly injured joint, followed by the finger, ankle, and shoulder. Knee injuries were the most severe injuries, and they were more frequent in high-level players. There was an increase in the severity of injury with respect to performance level. The injury mechanism revealed a high number of offensive injuries, one-third of them occurring during a counterattack. The injury pattern showed certain variations with respect to player position and performance level.

  13. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina

    2009-11-01

    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  14. The impact of high fructose on cardiovascular system: Role of α-lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, M; Asci, H; Cankara, F N; Bayram, D; Yesilot, S; Candan, I A; Alp, H H

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on oxidative damage and inflammation that occur in endothelium of aorta and heart while constant consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). The rats were randomly divided into three groups with each group containing eight rats. The groups include HFCS, HFCS + α-LA treatment, and control. HFCS was given to the rats at a ratio of 30% of F30 corn syrup in drinking water for 10 weeks. α-LA treatment was given to the rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally for the last 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed by cervical dislocation. The blood samples were collected for biochemical studies, and the aortic and cardiac tissues were collected for evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant system, tissue bath, and pathological examination. HFCS had increased the levels of malondialdehyde, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, and uric acid and showed significant structural changes in the heart of the rats by histopathology. Those changes were improved by α-LA treatment as it was found in this treatment group. Immunohistochemical expressions of tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased in HFCS group, and these receptor levels were decreased by α-LA treatment. All the tissue bath studies supported these findings. Chronic consumption of HFCS caused several problems like cardiac and endothelial injury of aorta by hyperuricemia and induced oxidative stress and inflammation. α-LA treatment reduced uric acid levels, oxidative stress, and corrected vascular responses. α-LA can be added to cardiac drugs due to its cardiovascular protective effects against the cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25825413

  15. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Singh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle. Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare. We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male. Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test. Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result. Key words: Serratus anterior tear; Scapula; Wounds and injuries

  16. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  17. [Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, I; Magyari, M; Stief, L

    1998-08-30

    The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism. 42 patients with cardiovascular disease (mean age 65 +/- 13 yr, 16 males) were investigated if iodine insufficiency can play a role as a risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. The patients were divided in 5 subgroups on the ground of the presence of hypertension, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, coronary disfunction and arrhythmia. Urine iodine concentration (5.29 +/- 4.52 micrograms/dl) was detected with Sandell-Kolthoff colorimetric reaction. The most decreased urine iodine concentration was detected in the subgroups with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure (4.7 +/- 4.94 micrograms/dl and 4.9 +/- 4.81 micrograms/dl, respectively). An elevated TSH level was found by 3 patients (5.3 +/- 1.4 mlU/l). An elevation in lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglyceride) associated with all subgroups without arrhythmia. In conclusion, the occurrence of iodine deficiency in cardiovascular disease is frequent. Iodine supplementation might prevent the worsing effect of iodine deficiency on cardiovascular disease.

  18. Injury Rates in Iranian Taekwondo Athletes; a Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Taekwondo, as the most popular martial art among Iranian sportsmen, might lead to injury for the athletes of this sport during competitions. We decided to report the incidence rate of injuries sustained by the athletes of this sport during national competitions. Methods All competitions of Iran national championship taekwondo league in 2006-2007 with 204 athletes were observed prospectively to detect the occurrence of injuries. The severity of injuries was classified into four groups (mild, moderate, severe, and critical according to the involvement of medical care team in the contest, ability of the athletes to resume and duration of probable absence of injured athletes from future competitions and training sessions. Athlete-Exposure (A-E was defined as the number of competitions multiplied by two. On this base, the rate of injury incidence per 1000 A-Es, the rate of injuries per time unit and the rate of injury occurred for each 100 athletes were considered as the major outcomes of this study. Results Of totally 1,338 A-Es, 93 injuries were recorded during the competitions. The rate of injury incidence was found to be 69.5 injuries per 1000 A-Es and the rate of injuries per minute of competitions was 0.023 which corresponded to 23.3 injuries per 1000 minutes of competitions. 45.6 injuries were occurred for each 100 athletes during the course of competitions. The most frequent injuries were mild (68.8% and critical injuries (24.7%, followed by moderate and severe injuries; 4.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The rate of injury we found was lower than that of western countries. In spite of finding the lower limbs as the most frequent place of injuries in other studies, we found the upper limbs as the most predisposed place of injuries which might be due to difference in the method of combat of Iranian athletes with other athletes.

  19. Meeting report from the 2nd International Symposium on New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research. Protecting the cardiovascular system from ischemia: between bench and bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Fuentes, Hector A; Alba-Alba, Corina; Aragones, Julian; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Boisvert, William A; Bøtker, Hans E; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Fleming, Ingrid; Garcia-Dorado, David; Lecour, Sandrine; Liehn, Elisa; Marber, Michael S; Marina, Nephtali; Mayr, Manuel; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Miura, Tetsuji; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Salinas-Estefanon, Eduardo M; Ong, Sang-Bing; Schnittler, Hans J; Sanchez-Vega, Jose T; Sumoza-Toledo, Adriana; Vogel, Carl-Wilhelm; Yarullina, Dina; Yellon, Derek M; Preissner, Klaus T; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in basic cardiovascular research as well as their translation into the clinical situation were the focus at the last "New Frontiers in Cardiovascular Research meeting". Major topics included the characterization of new targets and procedures in cardioprotection, deciphering new players and inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic heart disease as well as uncovering microRNAs and other biomarkers as versatile and possibly causal factors in cardiovascular pathogenesis. Although a number of pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion injury or atherosclerosis can be simulated and manipulated in diverse animal models, also to challenge new drugs for intervention, patient studies are the ultimate litmus test to obtain unequivocal information about the validity of biomedical concepts and their application in the clinics. Thus, the open and bidirectional exchange between bench and bedside is crucial to advance the field of ischemic heart disease with a particular emphasis of understanding long-lasting approaches in cardioprotection. PMID:26667317

  20. Cardiovascular genetics: technological advancements and applicability for dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummeling, G J M; Baas, A F; Harakalova, M; van der Smagt, J J; Asselbergs, F W

    2015-07-01

    Genetics plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, and is increasingly being integrated into clinical practice. Since 2008, both capacity and cost-efficiency of mutation screening of DNA have been increased magnificently due to the technological advancement obtained by next-generation sequencing. Hence, the discovery rate of genetic defects in cardiovascular genetics has grown rapidly and the financial threshold for gene diagnostics has been lowered, making large-scale DNA sequencing broadly accessible. In this review, the genetic variants, mutations and inheritance models are briefly introduced, after which an overview is provided of current clinical and technological applications in gene diagnostics and research for cardiovascular disease and in particular, dilated cardiomyopathy. Finally, a reflection on the future perspectives in cardiogenetics is given.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of current and future anti-obesity drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte;

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have...... reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased...... side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol...

  2. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD, myocardial infarction (MI, and heart failure (HF.

  3. Synaptic Mechanisms of Blast Induced Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ePrzekwas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blast wave-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the most common injuries to military personnel. Brain tissue compression/tension due to blast-induced cranial deformations and shear waves due to head rotation may generate diffuse micro-damage to neuro-axonal structures and trigger a cascade of neurobiological events culminating in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders. Although diffuse axonal injury is regarded as a signature wound of mild TBI (mTBI, blast loads may also cause synaptic injury wherein neuronal synapses are stretched and sheared. This synaptic injury may result in temporary disconnect of the neural circuitry and transient loss in neuronal communication. We hypothesize that mTBI symptoms such as loss of consciousness or dizziness, which start immediately after the insult could be attributed to synaptic injury. Although empirical evidence is beginning to emerge; the detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic injury are still elusive. Coordinated in vitro - in vivo experiments and mathematical modeling studies can shed light into the synaptic injury mechanisms and their role in the potentiation of mTBI symptoms.

  4. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI), is a leading cause of child maltreatment deaths in the United States. Meeting the ... Awareness Additional Prevention Resources Childhood Injuries Concussion in Children and Teens Injuries from Violence Injuries from Motor Vehicle Crashes Teen Driver Safety ...

  5. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goonasekera C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  6. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    OpenAIRE

    A. Goonasekera C; Esufali S

    2005-01-01

    We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  7. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt;

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  8. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy;

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and glycaemic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests...

  9. [Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Małgorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

  10. ¿Existe relación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y periodontitis? Are there relation between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Mª Tejerina Lobo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available La hipótesis infecciosa de la aterosclerosis ha permitido un rápido avance en el conocimiento sobre los mecanismos patogénicos de la enfermedad coronaria. Más aun, el concepto de la enfermedad coronaria como una enfermedad inflamatoria ha abierto nuevos caminos para la investigación en el campo de la cardiopatía isquémica. Estudios recientes han sugerido que el empleo de marcadores de inflamación ayudaría en la identificación de pacientes con alto riesgo de padecer eventos cardiovasculares. También los estudios epidemiológicos han implicado a la periodontitis como un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de la enfermedad cardiovascular. La enfermedad periodontal proporciona una fuente de bacterias o de sus productos, y citoquinas de respuesta hiperinflamatoria del huésped por largos periodos de tiempo. Dada la cronicidad de la enfermedad cardiovascular y de la enfermedad periodontal probablemente comparten algunos caminos de común etiologia.The infectious theory to explain atherosclerosis has allowed researchers to advance quickly on the knowledge about pathogenia of cardiovascular disease. Even more, the concept of coronary disease as an inflammatory disease has developed new pathways for investigating the ischaemic cardiac. Recent investigations suggest that the use of inflammatory markers may help for early detecting patients who present high risk of cardiovascular strokes appearance. Also, epidemiological essays have revealed that periodontitis is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease to develop. Periodontitis is a source of bacterias or their wastes, and provoke a hyperinflammatory response on the hostage, liberating cytokines for long periods. Due to chronicity of both cardiovascular and periodontal disease, they may have some similar ethilogycal ways.

  11. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke. A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92 comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long

  12. Epidemiology of injury in rural Pondicherry, India

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    T.Mahalakshmy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To find out the prevalence of ‘all’ injuries, its nature, outcome and sources of treatment among rural population of Pondicherry. METHODS: It was a triangulated study of quantitative (survey and qualitative (Focus Group Discussion, FGD methods. The trained second year medical undergraduate students paid house visits to all houses in five feasibly selected villages of our field practice area. The students interviewed the housewife and obtained information for all injuries for each family member in last one year and its sources of treatment. We could obtain information for 1,613 (96.7% households. Post-survey, FGDs were undertaken to explore the various traditional treatments for the common injuries. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi_info 6.04d software package. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of all injury among all age groups was 30.6% in last one year. Injuries were significantly more after 18 years of age and among men (p<0.001. About 99.2% injuries reported were accidental and majority (58.2% went to government doctor for treatment. Most common causes of injuries were fall on the ground from height or due to slip (7.4%, road traffic accidents (5.6%, agriculture related injuries (5% and bites by scorpion/insects/snakes/dogs (4.1%. FGDs explored some potentially harmful traditional remedial measures at village level such as application of mud or cow dung on the injury and burning the site of thorn prick on foot sole. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of all injuries related to road traffic accidents, fall from height and agriculture work related injuries across all age groups, especially among men and some potentially harmful traditional treatments, an intervention in the form of targeted injury prevention program for different age and sex group, focusing health education efforts based on local epidemiology and behavioral practices is needed.

  13. Injuries in professional footballers.

    OpenAIRE

    Muckle, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of injuries in footballers is described. Nearly half of footballer's injuries involve the knee, with vertical tearing of the meniscus being common; surgical intervention may be required. Approximately one third of injuries involve the ankle, and will often require immobilisation. Other injuries include muscle damage, spondylosis of L4 or L5, concussion, and dislocations. The importance of prompt and correct treatment of injuries is emphasised.

  14. Roles of lysophosphatidic acid in cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Susan S; Cheng, Hsin-Yuan; Miriyala, Sumitra; Panchatcharam, Manikandan; Morris, Andrew J

    2008-09-01

    The bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) exerts a range of effects on the cardiovasculature that suggest a role in a variety of critical cardiovascular functions and clinically important cardiovascular diseases. LPA is an activator of platelets from a majority of human donors identifying a possible role as a regulator of acute thrombosis and platelet function in atherogenesis and vascular injury responses. Of particular interest in this context, LPA is an effective phenotypic modulator of vascular smooth muscle cells promoting the de-differentiation, proliferation and migration of these cells that are required for the development of intimal hyperplasia. Exogenous administration of LPA results in acute and systemic changes in blood pressure in different animal species, suggesting a role for LPA in both normal blood pressure regulation and hypertension. Advances in our understanding of the molecular machinery responsible for the synthesis, actions and inactivation of LPA now promise to provide the tools required to define the role of LPA in cardiovascular physiology and disease. In this review we discuss aspects of LPA signaling in the cardiovasculature focusing on recent advances and attempting to highlight presently unresolved issues and promising avenues for further investigation.

  15. Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.

  16. Cardiovascular safety monitoring during oncology drug development and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J Rick; Panicker, Gopi Krishna; Karnad, Dilip R; Cabell, Christopher H; Lieberman, Ronald; Kothari, Snehal

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of cardiac and cardiovascular toxicity are prominent components of drug safety endeavors during drug development and clinical practice. Oncologic drugs bring several challenges to both domains. First, during drug development, it is necessary to adapt the ICH E14 "Thorough QT/QTc Study" because the cytotoxic nature of many oncologics precludes their being administered to healthy individuals. Second, appropriate benefit-risk assessments must be made by regulators: given the benefit these drugs provide in life-threatening illnesses, a greater degree of risk may be acceptable when granting marketing authorization than for drugs for less severe indications. Third, considerable clinical consideration is needed for patients who are receiving and have finished receiving pharmacotherapy. Paradoxically, although such therapy has proved very successful in many cases, with disease states going into remission and patients living for many years after cessation of treatment, cardiotoxicities can manifest themselves relatively soon or up to a decade later. Oncologic drugs have been associated with various off-target cardiovascular responses, including cardiomyopathy leading to heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmias, thromboembolic events, and hypertension. Follow-up attention and care are, therefore, critical. This article reviews the process of benefit-risk estimation, provides an overview of nonclinical and preapproval clinical assessment of cardiovascular safety of oncology drugs, and discusses strategies for monitoring and management of patients receiving drugs with known cardiotoxicity risk. These measures include cardiac function monitoring, limitation of chemotherapy dose, use of anthracycline analogs and cardioprotectants, and early detection of myocardial cell injury using biomarkers. PMID:24451296

  17. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. METHODS: We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. RESULTS: The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake

  18. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  19. Nutrigenomic programming of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Over twenty five years ago epidemiological studies revealed that there was a relationship between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, discordant siblings and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment plays an important role in mediating these relationships. Early nutrition is one such important environmental factor. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted and the underlying mechanisms starting to emerge. These include: (1) Permanent structural changes in an organ due to exposure to suboptimal levels of essential hormones or nutrients during a critical period of development leading to permanent changes in tissue function (2) Persistent epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications and miRNAs leading to changes in gene expression. (3) Permanent effects on regulation of cellular ageing through increases in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to DNA damage and telomere shortening. Further understanding of these processes will enable the development of preventative and intervention strategies to combat the burden of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26461282

  20. Dairy and cardiovascular health: Friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, O; Vasilopoulou, D; Givens, D I; Lovegrove, J A

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence at a global level is predicted to increase substantially over the next decade due to the increasing ageing population and incidence of obesity. Hence, there is an urgent requirement to focus on modifiable contributors to CVD risk, including a high dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). As an important source of SFA in the UK diet, milk and dairy products are often targeted for SFA reduction. The current paper acknowledges that milk is a complex food and that simply focusing on the link between SFA and CVD risk overlooks the other beneficial nutrients of dairy foods. The body of existing prospective evidence exploring the impact of milk and dairy consumption on risk factors for CVD is reviewed. The current paper highlights that high milk consumption may be beneficial to cardiovascular health, while illustrating that the evidence is less clear for cheese and butter intake. The option of manipulating the fatty acid profile of ruminant milk is discussed as a potential dietary strategy for lowering SFA intake at a population level. The review highlights that there is a necessity to perform more well-controlled human intervention-based research that provides a more holistic evaluation of fat-reduced and fat-modified dairy consumption on CVD risk factors including vascular function, arterial stiffness, postprandial lipaemia and markers of inflammation. Additionally, further research is required to investigate the impact of different dairy products and the effect of the specific food matrix on CVD development. PMID:25400508

  1. Prospective epidemiological study of basketball injuries during one competitive season: ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Meeusen, Romain

    2007-01-01

    highest inactivity and should therefore also be prevented.Most of the injuries are due to contact mechanisms and therefore the definition of basketball as a non contact sport is questionable.Highest injury risks are found in women and in the lower levels. PMID:24149330

  2. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  3. Development of an Ontology for Rehabilitation: Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) rehabilitation interventions are very heterogeneous due to injury characteristics and pathology, patient demographics, healthcare settings, caregiver variability, and individualized, multi-discipline treatment plans. Consequently, comparing and generalizing the effectiveness of interventions is limited largely due to…

  4. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  5. Iron deficiency and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Jankowska, Ewa A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects up to one-third of the world's population, and is particularly common in elderly individuals and those with certain chronic diseases. Iron excess can be detrimental in cardiovascular illness, and research has now also brought anaemia and iron deficiency into the focus of card

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  7. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  8. Cardiovascular physiology at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, T; Mellor, A

    2011-03-01

    The role of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygenated blood to the tissues and remove metabolic effluent. It is clear that this complex system will have to adapt to maintain oxygen deliver in the profound hypoxia of high altitude. The literature on the adaptation of both the systemic and pulmonary circulations to high altitude is reviewed.

  9. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  10. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Villalón (Carlos); P.A.M. de Vries (Peter); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT

  11. Epac and the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Sand, Carsten; Jakobs, Karl H.; Michel, Martin C.; Weernink, Paschal A. Oude

    2007-01-01

    Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) - a cyclic AMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases - has emerged as a novel mediator of pivotal processes in the cardiovascular system, including cellular calcium handling, hypertrophy, integrin-mediated cell adhesion, est

  12. Hedgehog morphogen in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the basic biology of the important developmental Hedgehog ( Hh) protein family, its general function in development, pathway mechanisms, and gene discovery and nomenclature. Hh function in cardiovascular development and recent findings concerning Hh signaling in ischemia

  13. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  14. Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Virginia M; Kaplan Jay R; Schork Nicholas J; Ouyang Pamela; Berga Sarah L; Wenger Nanette K; Shaw Leslee J; Webb R Clinton; Mallampalli Monica; Steiner Meir; Taylor Doris A; Merz C; Reckelhoff Jane F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, economic status, marital status and access to healthcare contribute to sex differences in adverse outcomes, physiological and molecular bases of differences between women and men that contribute to development of cardiovascular disease and response to therapy remain und...

  15. The altered complexity of cardiovascular regulation in depressed patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major depressive disorders (MDD) are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Even if it is known that MDD are accompanied by an autonomic dysbalance with increased sympathetic and/or reduced parasympathetic activity, to date only limited information is available about the degree and complexity of cardiovascular regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of MDD on the autonomous nervous system and cardiovascular complexity by means of linear and nonlinear indices from heart rate and blood pressure variability (HRV, BPV). From 57 non-medicated patients and 57 matched healthy controls with respect to age and gender HRV and BPV in time and frequency domain, symbolic dynamics, compression entropy, multiscale entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, Poincaré plot analysis and baroreflex sensitivity were analysed from 30 min short-term recordings. Complexity indices from nonlinear dynamics demonstrated considerable changes in autonomous regulation due to MDD. For the first time we could show that non-medicated depressed patients who were matched with respect to age and gender reveal a significantly changed short-term as well as long-term complexity of cardiovascular regulation. These results suggest substantial changes in autonomic control probably due to a change of interactions between different physiological control loops in MDD

  16. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  17. Cardiovascular Reactivity and its Association with the Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are no studies that confirm the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. The universe consisted of the population aged 15 to 74 years in Cienfuegos municipality; the sample included 644 people. The variables were: sex, skin color, age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking, baseline systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity was calculated by applying the Framingham Risk Functions. The Pearson’s Chi-square test and the prevalence ratio were used with a 95 % confidence interval. The direction of the relationship between cardiovascular reactivity, age, and systolic blood pressure was analyzed considering the Eta value. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was higher among people aged 65 to 74 years and males. A higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity was observed in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals. There is an association between non-optimal systolic blood pressure, increasing age, and high risk of cardiovascular morbidity in cardiovascular hyperreactive people. Conclusions: the risk of cardiovascular morbidity is higher in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals than in normoreactive people. Age and systolic blood pressure showed greater association with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity.

  18. Modelos experimentales de enfermedad cardiovascular Experimental models of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gil Hernández

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe los modelos experimentales de utilidad clínica en el estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y hace énfasis en los modelos usados para determinar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la aterosclerosis, así como para evaluar los efectos de productos nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo de este proceso inflamatorio complejo común a muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se revisan los modelos animales en los que se puede inducir aterosclerosis por cambios en la composición de la dieta y los modelos animales en los que la alteración de uno o más genes (animales knock-out y knock-in, o la incorporación de genes foráneos de otras especies, da lugar a la aparición de hiperlipidemia con riesgo asociado de aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular temprana. Por otra parte, se consideran algunas de las líneas celulares más utilizadas en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la aterogénesis y de evaluación de sustancias con interés nutricional o farmacológico.The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals, or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered.

  19. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dormand, Helen; Mohiaddin, Raad H

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of Marfan syndrome with an emphasis on cardiovascular complications and cardiovascular imaging. Both pre- and post-operative imaging is addressed with an explanation of surgical management. All relevant imaging modalities are discussed with a particular focus on cardiovascular MR.

  20. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maceira Alicia M; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue char...

  1. 不同剂量脑醒喷鼻剂对再灌注损伤脑组织自由基及一氧化氮合酶变化的干预%Changes of free radicals and nitric oxide synthase in rat brain following ischemia-reperfusion injury due to different dosage brain-awakening nasal sprayer intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 吴伟; 陈宏珪; 黄衍寿; 刘煜德; 杨开清

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain-awakening nasal sprayer is composed of many herbs,such as Chuanxiong and Shichangpu, which were regarded by "Shennong Bencaojing" as having the function of "preventing stroke in the brain".OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of free radicals and nitric oxide synthase in rat brain following focal ischemic-reperfusional injury due to brain-awakening nasal sprayer intervention and compare with that due to classical nimodipine.DESIGN: A randomized controlled study.SETTING: Department of internal medicine of a hospital affiliated to a traditional Chinese medical university.MATERIALS: Seventy adult male Wistar rats of clean grade, were randomly divided into seven groups: brain-awakening nasal sprayer of higher dosage group, moderate dosage group, lower dosage group, nimodipine intraperitoneal injection group, physical saline nasal sprayer group, menstruum nasal sprayer group, and sham operation group with 10 rats in each.METHODS: Focal brain ischemia-reperfusion model was established by blocking the left cerebral middle artery in rats of all the groups except sham operation group. Three days before model establishment and during reperfusion, rats were given different dosages of brain-awakening nasal sprayer composed of Chuanxiongqin and Shichangpu of 5.4, 2.7, 1.08 mg/(kg · d) and 1.35, 0. 54, 0.27 g/(kg· d), respectively, three times a day; which was replaced by physical saline and menstruum nasal sprayer of 0. 18 mL/ (kg · d),three times a day in physical saline nasal sprayer group and menstruum nasal sprayer group; rats in nimodipine intraperitoneal injection group received intraperitoneal injection of nimodipine by 0. 8 mg/(kg · d) twice a day. Rats in sham operation group were routinely raised. The content of prodialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide synthase were measured with colorimetric method.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① The changes of prodialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide synthase activity in rat brain

  2. Mortality of mothers from cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following pregnancy complications in first delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Lockwood, Charles J;

    2010-01-01

    The combined effects of preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, placental abruption and stillbirth on early maternal death from cardiovascular causes have not previously been described in a large cohort. We investigated the effects of pregnancy...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes following preterm delivery, small-for-gestational-age offspring and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We found that preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age were both associated with subsequent death of mothers from cardiovascular and non...... cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes, while hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are markers of early death of mothers from cardiovascular causes....

  3. Imaging of sports injuries in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raissaki, Maria [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Apostolaki, Eleni [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece)]. E-mail: apolsen@yahoo.com

    2007-04-15

    Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes.

  4. Imaging of sports injuries in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes

  5. Self-esteem and injury in competitive field hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolt, G S; Roberts, P D

    1998-08-01

    A volunteer sample of 50 competitive field hockey players completed the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory at pre- and postseason and prospectively collected injury data over a 20-wk. season. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between scores on Self-esteem and the number of injuries, the participation time affected due to injury, and sex of players. Further multiple regression analysis showed that frequency of the more severe injuries significantly predicted scores on Self-esteem. This finding can be interpreted as evidence of the relationship between low self-esteem and injury in sport. PMID:9760670

  6. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  7. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  8. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  9. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn

    2009-01-01

    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  10. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucia Pacifico; Valerio Nobili; Caterina Anania; Paola Verdecchia; Claudio Chiesa

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver histology severity and outcomes in the absence of chronic alcohol use. The mildest form is simple steatosis in which triglycerides accumulate within hepatocytes. A more advanced form of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, includes inflammation and liver cell injury, progressive to cryptogenic cirrhosis. NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity likely explains the NAFLD epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is strongly associated with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and most patients have evidence of insulin resistance. Thus, NAFLD shares many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a highly atherogenic condition, and this has stimulated interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with a significantly greater overall mortality than in the general population, as well as with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of classical atherosclerotic risk factors. Yet, several studies including the pediatric population have reported independent associations between NAFLD and impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation and increased carotid artery intimal medial thickness-two reliable markers of subclinical atherosclerosis-after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Therefore, the rising prevalence of obesity-related MetS and NAFLD in childhood may lead to a parallel increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In children, the cardiovascular system remains plastic and damage-reversible if early and appropriate interventions are established effectively. Therapeutic goals for NAFLD should address nutrition, physical activity, and avoidance of smoking to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also CVD.

  11. Role of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in cardiovascular regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapru, Hreday N

    2013-04-01

    Recently the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) has been implicated in cardiovascular regulation. Both pressor and depressor responses can be elicited by the chemical stimulation of the Arc. The direction of cardiovascular responses (increase or decrease) elicited from the Arc depends on the baseline blood pressure. The pressor responses are mediated via increase in sympathetic nerve activity and involve activation of the spinal ionotropic glutamate receptors. Arc-stimulation elicits tachycardic responses which are mediated via inhibition of vagal input and excitation of sympathetic input to the heart. The pathways within the brain mediating the pressor and tachycardic responses elicited from the Arc have not been delineated. The depressor responses to the Arc-stimulation are mediated via the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Gamma aminobutyric acid type A receptors, neuropeptide Y1 receptors, and opiate receptors in the PVN mediate the depressor responses elicited from the Arc. Some circulating hormones (e.g., leptin and insulin) may reach the Arc via the leaky blood-brain barrier and elicit their cardiovascular effects. Although the Arc is involved in mediating the cardiovascular responses to intravenously injected angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-12), these effects may not be due to leakage of these peptides across the blood-brain barrier in the Arc; instead, circulating angiotensins may act on neurons in the SFO and mediate cardiovascular actions via the projections of SFO neurons to the Arc. Cardiovascular responses elicited by acupuncture have been reported to be mediated by direct and indirect projections of the Arc to the RVLM. PMID:23260431

  12. Hospitalisations due to falls in older persons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, D

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes hospitalisations due to falls among people aged 65 years and over resident in the Eastern Region of Ireland. Of the 2,029 hospitalisations recorded for 2002, 78% were female and 68% were aged 75 years and over. Fractures accounted for 1,697 or 84% of cases with nearly half of them (841) sustained to the hip. Females were more likely to have a limb fracture whereas males were more likely to have a head injury. The total inpatient costs of the 2,029 hospitalisations were estimated at 10.6 million euros. Hip fractures were the costliest injuries as they accounted for 7.4 million euros (70%) of inpatient costs. There are also substantial additional costs implications for hip fractures as they constituted the majority (56%) of cases transferred to nursing\\/convalescent homes or long-stay health facilities. In keeping with an ageing population, the problem of injuries in older people is likely to increase over time and as falls are the dominant cause of those injuries, all acute and long-stay health facilities need to develop and implement fall prevention strategies for older people.

  13. Age and sex pattern of cardiovascular mortality, hospitalisation and associated cost in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Srivastava

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Though the cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in India, little is known about the human and economic loss attributed to the disease. The aim of this paper is to account the age and sex pattern of mortality, hospitalisation and the cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. DATA AND METHODS: Data for the present study has been drawn from multiple sources; 52(nd and 60(th rounds of the National Sample Survey, Special Survey of Death, 2001-03 and the Sample Registration System 2004-2010. Under the changing demographics and constant assumptions of mortality, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation, we have estimated the deaths, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India during 2004 to 2021. Descriptive analyses and multivariate techniques were used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. FINDINGS: In India, the cardiovascular diseases accounted for an estimated 1.4 million deaths in 2004 and it is likely to be 2.1 million in 2021. An estimated 6.7 million people were hospitalised for cardiovascular diseases in 2004, and projected to be 10.9 million by 2021. Unlike mortality, majority of the hospitalisation due to cardiovascular diseases will be in the prime working age group (25-59. The estimated cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was 94/- billion rupees in 2004 and expected to be 152/- billion rupees by 2021, at 2004 prices. The cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was significantly high in private health centres, high fertility states and among high socio-economic groups. CONCLUSION: The cardiovascular mortality and hospitalisation will be largely concentrated in the prime working age group and the cost of hospitalisation is expected to increase substantially in coming years. This calls for mobilising resources, increasing access to health insurance and

  14. Tendon Transfers for Combined Peripheral Nerve Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarewich, Christopher A; Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2016-08-01

    Combined peripheral nerve injuries present a unique set of challenges to the hand surgeon when considering tendon transfers. They are often associated with severe soft tissue trauma, including lacerations to remaining innervated muscles and tendons, significant scar formation, and substantial sensory loss. In the case of combined nerve injuries, there are typically fewer options for tendon transfers due to fewer tendons of shared function that are expendable as well as associated injuries to tendon or muscle bellies. As such, careful preoperative planning must be performed to make the most of remaining muscle tendon units. PMID:27387081

  15. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manzar Hussain; Muhammad Ehsan Bari

    2013-01-01

    Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma,although there are various reports of blast or gunshot injuries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails.In our case,a 30-year-old man presented to neurosurgery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weakness after suicide bomb attack.The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail.Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surrounding normal brain tissue.At 6 months' follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity.

  16. Comparison of low-versus high-intensity focused ultrasound in treating pain due to chronic soft tissue injury%低强度和高强度聚焦超声治疗慢性软组织损伤性疼痛效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐城; 刘丹彦

    2015-01-01

    目的 比较低强度和高强度聚焦超声治疗慢性软组织损伤性疼痛的效果.方法 慢性软组织损伤性疼痛病人93例,性别不限,年龄18~ 80岁,BMI 18~31 kg/m2,病程3个月~ 10年,数字评估量表评分4~8分,采用随机数字表法,将病人分为2组:低强度组(LI组,n=49)和高强度组(HI组,n=44).LI组以能感受到(酸、麻、胀、痛)的最小聚焦超声强度持续治疗10 min;HI组以不能耐受的聚焦超声强度治疗1 min,停止1 min,共治疗10 min;1次/d,2组疗程均为5d.治疗期间当数字评估量表评分仍>4分时肌肉注射帕瑞昔布钠40 mg;根据疗效指数和活动功能改善情况评估疗效,并进行生活质量评分和抑郁评分,记录治疗有关不良事件的发生情况.结果 LI组和HI组治疗总有效率分别为98%和84%;与HI组比较,LI组治疗总有效率升高,生活质量评分升高(P<0.05),抑郁评分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).LI组无一例病人使用帕瑞昔布钠,未见治疗有关不良事件发生,HI组有1例病人(2%)使用帕瑞昔布钠,皮肤灼伤、神经损伤和异常疼痛的发生率分别为4%、2%和2%,未见组织肿胀发生.结论 与高强度聚焦超声比较,低强度聚焦超声治疗慢性软组织损伤性疼痛的疗效高,且安全性良好.%Objective To compare the low-intensity focused ultrasound (LIFU) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in treating pain due to chronic soft tissue injury.Methods Ninety-three patients with pain due to chronic soft tissue injury, aged 18-80 yr, with body mass index of 18-31 kg/m2,course of the disease 3 months-10 yr, and pain intensity of 4-8 in a numeric rating scale, were randomly divided into 2 groups using a random number table: low intensity group (group LI, n =49) and high intensity group (group HI, n =44).In group LI, the patients received LIFU with the minimum ultrasonic intensity causing senses (acid, hemp, swelling, pain) , and the treatment was continued

  17. The effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 on cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, Jacob; Rosenmeier, Jaya; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    on cardiovascular parameters. These effects, possibly independent of the glucose-lowering activity, include changes in blood pressure, endothelial function, body weight, cardiac metabolism, lipid metabolism, left ventricular function, atherosclerosis, and the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thus, GLP-1...... agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, an enzyme that degrades endogenous GLP-1, have established effectiveness in lowering glucose levels and are routinely used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. These agents regulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms and have several effects......-based therapies could potentially target both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This Review highlights the mechanisms targeted by GLP-1-based therapies, and emphasizes current developments in incretin research that are relevant to cardiovascular risk and disease, as well as treatment with GLP-1...

  18. GDF-15 as a Target and Biomarker for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases: A Translational Prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Ramu Adela; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a stress responsive cytokine. It is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes, adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in normal and pathological condition. GDF-15 increases during tissue injury and inflammatory states and is associated with cardiometabolic risk. Increased GDF-15 levels are associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertrophy, heart failure, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, obesity, ins...

  19. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  20. Cardiovascular safety of type 2 diabetes medications: Review of existing literature and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Sílvia; Matta-Coelho, Claudia; Monteiro, Ana Margarida; Brás, Alice; Marques, Olinda; Alves, Marta; Ribeiro, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the cardiovascular effect of antidiabetic drugs are today critical medical issues, with the prevalence of T2DM in particular showing a steep increase worldwide, mainly due to unhealthy lifestyle habits. T2DM in association with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors, results in the development of CVD, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with T2DM. Thus, treatment of T2DM is an individualized and complex challenge in which targeting cardiovascular risk factors is an important component in the decision making. Given the cardiovascular adverse events associated with rosiglitazone, both the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency currently require the demonstration of cardiovascular safety of new antidiabetic drugs. Consequently, clinical trials to guarantee their cardiovascular safety are now obligatory. This review aims to summarize the available evidence on the cardiovascular effects and safety of the major drugs used in T2DM treatment and also to provide an overview of upcoming and ongoing clinical trials in this field. Our belief is that this review will be of substantial assistance to all medical doctors who are treating diabetic patients, namely primary care physicians, internal medicine doctors, endocrinologists, diabetologists and less well experienced personnel such as young doctors in training. PMID:27376421

  1. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  2. Teeth Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Teeth Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Teeth Injuries ... or young child injures the gums or baby teeth: Apply pressure to the area (if it's bleeding) ...

  3. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  4. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? What is "Braingate" research? What is the status of stem-cell research? How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? ...

  6. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children are admitted to the hospital for these reasons or if they were unconscious even briefly or had a seizure. Children are also admitted to the hospital if child abuse is suspected. Severe head injury If the injury ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Partnerships How Social Workers Help Transitions How Social Workers Help Transitions Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury Occupational Therapy After Spinal Cord Injury How Occupational Therapists Work How Occupational Therapists Work Occupational Therapy Enables Daily ...

  8. Nuclear imaging of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging methods provide noninvasive indexes of myocardial function, perfusion, and metabolism and are well accepted in clinical cardiology. Advances in prevention and treatment of cardiac disease have resulted in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations. The improvement in therapeutic options has increased the demand for diagnostic tests that might guide clinical decision making. Information beyond the pure anatomic characterization of coronary stenoses is required. Nuclear imaging can be used for early detection and monitoring of the severity and extent of disease. The prognostic potential of such functional testing is being increasingly appreciated and used to guide therapy, thereby resulting in improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Extensive clinical validation has resulted in growing acceptance of these techniques. Furthermore, ongoing improvement of imaging techniques and development of new radiopharmaceuticals will pave the way for disease-specific, molecular-targeted cardiac imaging in the future. (orig.)

  9. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    . The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one...... reported no association in men but a decreased risk in women. In addition, results from four intervention studies indicated no harmful effect on cholesterol concentrations when comparing fat intake from cheese with fat from butter. The underlying mechanisms for these findings still need to be elucidated.......Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  10. Chiral cardiovascular drugs: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, Vasant V; Somberg, John C

    2005-01-01

    Stereochemistry in drug molecules is rapidly becoming an important aspect in drug research, design, and development. Recently, individual stereoisomers of drug molecules with asymmetric centers such as fexofenadine, cetirizine, verapamil, fluoxetine, levalbutarol, and amphetamine, for example, have been separated and developed as individual drugs. These stereoisomers have different therapeutic activity, and each isomer has contributed differently with respect to its formulation's pharmacologic activity, side effects, and toxicity. The present overview discusses chirality among a select group of cardiovascular drugs, their stereochemical synthesis/preparation, isolation techniques using chiral chromatography, methods for confirmation of their enantiomeric purity, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics. Chirality has been visualized as an important factor in cardiovascular research. It is also becoming evident in other areas of therapeutics.

  11. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  12. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones......, a progressively increased risk in people with different levels of reduced TSH to a physiologically 'dose-dependent' effect of thyroid hormones on the heart in overt hyperthyroidism. Heart failure represents an intriguing clinical situation in which triiodothyronine treatment might be beneficial. In conclusion...

  13. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciafone, R.A.; Rhodes, A.R.; Audley, M.; Freedberg, I.M.; Abelmann, W.H.

    1980-11-01

    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed.

  14. Psychological hardiness predicts cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Valdes, James J; Sandvik, Asle

    2016-09-01

    Many, but not all people experience diminished health, performance and well-being as a function of exposure to stress. However, the underlying neurophysiological processes which characterize hardy or resilient people are not well understood. This study examines psychological hardiness and several indicators of cardiovascular health, including body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol markers in a sample of 338 middle-aged adults enrolled in a national security education program. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that after controlling for the influence of age and sex, high hardiness is related to higher HDL - high density lipoprotein and less body fat (BMI). Lower hardiness is associated with greater total cholesterol to HDL ratio, a cardiovascular disease risk factor. These results suggest that psychological hardiness confers resilience in part through an influence on cholesterol production and metabolism. PMID:26652199

  15. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular performance in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eVigorito

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Progressive Aging induces several structural and functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, among whom particularly important are a reduced number of myocardial cell and of increased interstitial collagen fibers, which result in impaired LV diastolic function. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, aging is strongly associated to a age-related reduced maximal aerobic capacity. This is due to a variety of physiological changes both at central and at peripheral level; among central factors, a reduced maximal heart rate (HR response to exercise due to beta1 receptors down-regulation plays a major role; among peripheral factors, progressive aging is associated to peripheral muscle cell biochemical and functional changes including reduction of skeletal muscle cells, decrease of Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC I and IIa muscle fibers and impaired muscle oxidative capacity

  16. The Triage of Injured Patients: Mechanism of Injury, Regardless of Injury Severity, Determines Hospital Destination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, Kristan; Wang, N Ewen; Weiser, Thomas G; Maggio, Paul; Mackersie, Robert C; Spain, David; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-04-01

    The target rate for trauma undertriage is high as 30 to 40 per cent in many trauma systems. We hypothesized that high undertriage rates were due to the tendency to undertriage injured elderly patients and a growing elderly population. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all hospital visits in California using the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development Database over a 5-year period. All hospital admissions and emergency department visits associated with injury were longitudinally linked. The primary outcome was triage pattern. Triage patterns were stratified across three dimensions: age, mechanism of injury, and access to care. A total of 60,182 severely injured patients were included in the analysis. Fall-related injuries were frequently undertriaged compared with injuries from motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and penetrating trauma (52% vs 12% and 10%, respectively). This pattern was true for all age groups. Conversely, MVCs and penetrating traumas were associated with high rates of overtriage (>70% for both). In conclusion, in contrast to our hypothesis, we found that triage is largely determined by mechanism of injury regardless of injury severity. High rates of undertriage are largely due to the undertriage of fall-related injuries, which occurs in both younger and older adults. Patients injured after MVCs and penetrating trauma victims are brought to trauma centers regardless of injury severity, resulting in high rates of overtriage. These findings suggest an opportunity to improve trauma system performance. PMID:27097630

  17. 10-year cardiovascular event risks for women who experienced hypertensive disorders in late pregnancy : the HyRAS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Wietske; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W.; van der Post, Joris A.; Porath, Martina; Ponjee, Gabrielle; Tamsma, Jouke T.; Mol, Ben W.; de Groot, Christianne J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the cause of death in 32% of women in the Netherlands. Prediction of an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease is difficult, in particular in younger women due to low sensitive and specific tests for these women. 10% to 15% of all pregnancies are complicat

  18. A systematic review on the application of cardiovascular risk prediction models in pharmacoeconomics, with a focus on primary prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanovic, Jelena; Postma, Maarten J.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros

    2012-01-01

    Background: Long-term trials on the effectiveness of pharmacological treatment for primary cardiovascular disease prevention are scant. For that reason risk prediction models are used as a tool to project changes in cardiovascular disease incidence due to changes in risk factor levels observed in sh

  19. Exposure to Agrochemicals and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matome M. Sekhotha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the agricultural world there is a continuous loss of food, fiber and other commodities due to pests, disease and weeds before harvesting time. These losses had create lots of financial burden to the farm owners that might lead to shutting down of their daily business. Worldwide, there is an overall very high loss of agricultural products due to weeds growth alone. To counteract this problem most farmers resort to the use of agrochemicals to increase their production but compromising the health of their farmworkers. The purpose of the study will be to assess the relationship between the agrochemical particles and cardiovascular diseases among farmworkers. Method: Non-systematic review was used to collect data. The following database were use: Medline, EBSCO, and Science Direct to search for the existing journal articles. Results: This study addresses the relationship between agrochemicals particles and cardiovascular diseases in the farming industries using literature review. Discussion: Other researchers had already done an extensive research on the pathway of potential mechanisms linking the ultrafine particulate matter to cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of those investigations were the clinical results of events that might lead to the development of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure (CHF, stroke, arrhythmia and sudden death. Xenobiotic compounds that maybe implicated in the pathophysiology of human cardiovascular diseases, will be examined and included in this study. There is compelling evidence suggesting that toxic free radicals of pesticides play an important role in human health. Conclusion: There is a close relationship between agrochemicals particle and cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Disparities in women's cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Souder, Elaine; Rhoads, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and disparities affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of CVD for women. Biology, genetics, and race contribute to these disparities. Obstetric-gynecologic health care providers routinely encounter women who are at risk for developing CVD and are uniquely positioned as a point of access to intervene to improve/prevent CVD by assessing for risks and discussing healthy lifestyle changes during routine visits.