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Sample records for cardiovascular health study

  1. Traffic noise and cardiovascular health in Sweden: The roadside study

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotta Eriksson; Nilsson, Mats E.; Saskia M Willers; Lars Gidhagen; Tom Bellander; Göran Pershagen

    2012-01-01

    Long-term exposure to traffic noise has been suggested to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, few studies have been performed in the general population and on railway noise. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of living near noisy roads and railways. This cross-sectional study comprised 25,851 men and women, aged 18-80 years, who had resided in Sweden for at least 5 years. All subjects participated in a National Environmental Health Survey, perf...

  2. Intelligence and cardiovascular health : epidemiological studies of swedish men

    OpenAIRE

    Wennerstad, Karin Modig

    2010-01-01

    Aim: A first aim of this thesis was to examine the relationship between intelligence in early adulthood and health outcomes, mainly cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, CVD, later in life using register-based data on Swedish men. A second aim was to increase understanding of the pathways between intelligence and CVD morbidity/mortality by studying the association between intelligence and smoking habits and nicotine dependence, who might act as mediators of the associat...

  3. Ventricular volume and dementia progression in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Owen T.; Kuller, L.H.; Lopez, O L.; Thompson, P.M.; Dutton, R A; Lu, A.; Lee, S. E.; Lee, J.Y.; Aizenstein, H.J.; Meltzer, C.C.; Liu, Y. X.; Toga, A.W.; Becker, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated cerebral ventricular volume may be associated with dementia risk and progression. A fully-automated technique that agreed highly with radiological readings was used to estimate lateral ventricle volume on MR scans done at baseline in 1997-99 of 377 subjects in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) from the Pittsburgh Center. 327 subjects were normal or diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline and were evaluated 4 years later. Baseline ventric...

  4. Traffic noise and cardiovascular health in Sweden: The roadside study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Eriksson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to traffic noise has been suggested to increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. However, few studies have been performed in the general population and on railway noise. This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of living near noisy roads and railways. This cross-sectional study comprised 25,851 men and women, aged 18-80 years, who had resided in Sweden for at least 5 years. All subjects participated in a National Environmental Health Survey, performed in 2007, in which they reported on health, annoyance reactions and environmental factors. Questionnaire data on self-reported doctor′s diagnosis of hypertension and/or CVD were used as outcomes. Exposure was assessed as Traffic Load (millions of vehicle kilometres per year within 500 m around each participant′s residential address. For a sub-population (n = 2498, we also assessed road traffic and railway noise in L den at the dwelling façade. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess Prevalence Odds Ratios (POR and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. No statistically significant associations were found between Traffic Load and self-reported hypertension or CVD. In the sub-population, there was no association between road traffic noise and the outcomes; however, an increased risk of CVD was suggested among subjects exposed to railway noise ≥50 dB(A; POR 1.55 (95% CI 1.00-2.40. Neither Traffic Load nor road traffic noise was, in this study, associated with self-reported cardiovascular outcomes. However, there was a borderline-significant association between railway noise and CVD. The lack of association for road traffic may be due to methodological limitations.

  5. Spousal Suffering and Partner’s Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Hebert, Randy S.; Martire, Lynn M.; Monin, Joan K.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Albert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of suffering in a spouse on prevalent and incident psychiatric (depression) and physical morbidity (cardiovascular disease, CVD) in their partner, controlling for known risk factors for depression and CVD. Design Descriptive longitudinal study. Participants 1330 older married couples enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a large epidemiologic study of the elderly. Measurements Predictor variables were physical, psychological, and existential/spiritual indicators of suffering. Primary outcomes were prevalent and incident depression and CVD. Results Controlling for known risk factors for depression, we found a dose-response relationship between suffering in a spouse and concurrent depression in their partner as well as a relationship between suffering and the partner’s future risk for depression. With respect to CVD, and controlling for sub-clinical CVD at baseline, husbands whose wives reported high levels of suffering also had higher rates of prevalent CVD, but there were not significant associations between wives suffering and husbands incident CVD. There were no associations between husbands’ suffering and wives’ prevalent or incident CVD. Conclusion Exposure to spousal suffering is an independent and unique source of distress in married couples that contributes to psychiatric and physical morbidity. More attention should be paid to the interpersonal effects of suffering in married couples, and to its role in contributing to morbidity. PMID:19454851

  6. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  7. Association of sedentary behavior time with ideal cardiovascular health: the ORISCAV-LUX study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina E Crichton

    Full Text Available Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. No studies have examined sedentary behaviors in relation to the newly defined construct of ideal cardiovascular health, which incorporates three health factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose and four behaviors (physical activity, smoking, body mass index, diet. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary behaviors, including sitting time, and time spent viewing television and in front of a computer, with cardiovascular health, in a representative sample of adults from Luxembourg.A cross-sectional analysis of 1262 participants in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study was conducted, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A Cardiovascular Health Score was calculated based on the number of health factors and behaviors at ideal levels. Sitting time on a weekday, television time, and computer time (both on a workday and a day off, were related to the Cardiovascular Health Score.Higher weekday sitting time was significantly associated with a poorer Cardiovascular Health Score (p = 0.002 for linear trend, after full adjustment for age, gender, education, income and occupation. Television time was inversely associated with the Cardiovascular Health Score, on both a workday and a day off (p = 0.002 for both. A similar inverse relationship was observed between the Cardiovascular Health Score and computer time, only on a day off (p = 0.04.Higher time spent sitting, viewing television, and using a computer during a day off may be unfavorably associated with ideal cardiovascular health.

  8. Cardiovascular health and cognitive function: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina E Crichton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all. Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition.

  9. The Effect of Widowhood on Husbands’ and Wives’ Physical Activity: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64 to 91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity...

  10. Depressive symptoms, physical inactivity and risk of cardiovascular mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Sithu; Parakh, Kapil; Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Gottdiener, John S.; Kop, Willem J.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressed older individuals have a higher mortality than older persons without depression. Depression is associated with physical inactivity, and low levels of physical activity have been shown in some cohorts to be a partial mediator of the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods A cohort of 5888 individuals (mean 72.8±5.6 years, 58% female, 16% African-American) from four US communities was followed for an average of 10.3 years. Self-repor...

  11. Transitions among Health States Using 12 Measures of Successful Aging in Men and Women: Results from the Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Thielke; Paula Diehr

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Successful aging has many dimensions, which may manifest differently in men and women at different ages. Methods. We characterized one-year transitions among health states in 12 measures of successful aging among adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The measures included self-rated health, ADLs, IADLs, depression, cognition, timed walk, number of days spent in bed, number of blocks walked, extremity strength, recent hospitalizations, feelings about life as a whole, and lif...

  12. Status of cardiovascular health among adults in a rural area of Northwest China: Results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Ruru; Pei, Leilei; Cao, Lei; Marshall, Roger J; Wang, Duolao

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a rural population in Northwest China and to determine the associated factors for cardiovascular health.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of Hanzhong in Northwest China. Interview, physical examination, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2693 adults. The construct of cardiovascular health and the definitions of cardiovascular health metrics proposed by the American Heart Association were used to assess cardiovascular health. The proportions of subjects with cardiovascular health metrics were calculated, adjusting for age and sex. The multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between ideal cardiovascular health and its associated factors.Only 0.5% (0.0% in men vs 0.9% in women, P = 0.002) of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 33.8% (18.0% in men vs 50.0% in women, P health, respectively. The prevalence of poor cardiovascular health increased with increasing age (P health metrics. Also, 22.2% of the participants presented with 3 or fewer ideal metrics. Only 19.4% of the participants presented with 6 or more ideal metrics. 24.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health factors, but only 1.1% of the participants had all 4 ideal health behaviors. Women were more likely to have ideal cardiovascular health, whereas adults aged 35 years or over and those who had a family history of hypertension were less likely to have ideal cardiovascular health.The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health was extremely low among the rural population in Northwest China. Most adults, especially men and the elderly, had a poor cardiovascular health status. To improve cardiovascular health among the rural population, efforts, especially lifestyle improvements, education and interventions to make healthier food choices, reduce salt intake, increase physical activities, and cease

  13. Secondhand Smoke, Vascular Disease, and Dementia Incidence: Findings From the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Haight, Thaddeus J; Mehta, Kala M.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Kuller, Lewis H; Tager, Ira B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have found that smoking is associated with an increased risk of dementia, but the effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) on dementia risk are not known to have previously been studied. The authors used Cox proportional hazards marginal structural models to examine the association between self-reported lifetime household SHS exposure and risk of incident dementia over 6 years among 970 US participants in the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study (performed from 1991 to 1999) who were...

  14. Cardiovascular Health in Pregnant Women and Their Children - The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem in the general adult population. 1 Cardiovascular disease leads to over 17.3 million deaths per year and is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide.1 In the Netherlands, cardiovascular disease accounts

  15. Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F.; Davey, Adam; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function. Methods A cross-sectional analysis emplo...

  16. Complaints of Sleep Disturbances Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Kirschner, Yvonne; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S.; Münzel, Thomas; Blettner, Maria; Schulz, Andreas; Lackner, Karl; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tschan, Regine; Tuin, Inka; Beutel, Manfred E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite their high prevalence, sleep disorders often remain unrecognized and untreated because of barriers to assessment and management. The aims of the present study were to examine associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular disease, related risk factors, and inflammation in the community and to determine the contribution of sleep disturbances to self-perceived physical health. Method The sample consists of n = 10.000 participants, aged 35 to 74 years of a population based community sample in Germany. Cross-sectional associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular risk factors and disease, biomarkers of inflammation, depression, anxiety, and physical health status were analyzed. Results 19% of our sample endorsed clinically significant sleep disturbances. In the unadjusted analyses severity of sleep disturbances increased with female sex, low socioeconomic status, living without a partnership, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, poor physical health, increased levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. After multivariate adjustment robust associations with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia remained. Complaints of sleep disturbances were strong and independent contributors to self-perceived poor physical health beyond depression, anxiety and medical disease burden. Conclusions Given the high prevalence of complaints of sleep disturbances and their strong impact on health status, increased efforts should be undertaken for their identification and treatment. PMID:25093413

  17. Psychological hardiness predicts cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Valdes, James J; Sandvik, Asle

    2016-09-01

    Many, but not all people experience diminished health, performance and well-being as a function of exposure to stress. However, the underlying neurophysiological processes which characterize hardy or resilient people are not well understood. This study examines psychological hardiness and several indicators of cardiovascular health, including body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol markers in a sample of 338 middle-aged adults enrolled in a national security education program. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that after controlling for the influence of age and sex, high hardiness is related to higher HDL - high density lipoprotein and less body fat (BMI). Lower hardiness is associated with greater total cholesterol to HDL ratio, a cardiovascular disease risk factor. These results suggest that psychological hardiness confers resilience in part through an influence on cholesterol production and metabolism. PMID:26652199

  18. Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, Genetic Factors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edward; Rimm, Eric; Qi, Lu; Rexrode, Kathryn; Albert, Christine M.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contributions of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHSs) to the understanding of cardiovascular disease etiology in women. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Diets low in trans fat, saturated fat, refined carbohydrates, and sugar-sweetened beverages and rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and sources of unsaturated fats are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Healthy lifestyle choices include smoking avoidance, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body mass index, and moderate alcohol consumption. Adherence to a combination of these healthy diet and lifestyle behaviors may prevent most vascular events. Studies also covered oral contraceptive use, postmenopausal hormone therapy, shift work, sleep duration, psychosocial factors, and various biomarkers and genetic factors. Findings, such as the association of trans fat with cardiovascular disease, have helped shaped medical guidelines and government policies. Conclusions. The NHS has provided compelling evidence that the majority of vascular events may be prevented by avoiding smoking, participating in regular physical activity, maintaining normal body mass index, and eating a healthy diet. PMID:27459449

  19. Nutrition, environment and cardiovascular health (NESCAV: protocol of an inter-regional cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannad Faiez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the remarkable technological progress in health care and treatment, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of premature death, prolonged hospitalization and disability in most European countries. In the population of the Greater Region (Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, Wallonia in Belgium, and Lorraine in France, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease is among the highest in Europe, warranting the need for a better understanding of factors contributing to this pattern. In this context, the cross-border "Nutrition, Environment and Cardiovascular Health-NESCAV" project is initiated by an inter-regional multi-disciplinary consortium and supported by the INTERREG IV A program "Greater Region", 2007-2013, to fight synergically and harmoniously against this major public health problem. Methods/design The objectives of the three-year planned project are to assess, in a representative sample of 3000 randomly selected individuals living at the Greater Region, 1 the cardiovascular health and risk profile, 2 the association between the dietary habits and the cardiovascular risk, 3 the association of occupational and environmental pollution markers with the cardiovascular risk, 4 the knowledge, awareness and level of control of cardiovascular risk factors, 5 the potential gaps in the current primary prevention, and finally, to address evidence-based recommendations enabling the development of inter-regional guidance to help policy-makers and health care workers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Discussion The findings will provide tools that may enable the Greater Region's decision-makers and health professionals to implement targeted and cost-effective prevention strategies.

  20. The Effect of Widowhood on Husbands’ and Wives’ Physical Activity: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64 to 91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity following the death of their spouse. However, this increased level of activity was not sustained and declines as time since spousal death passes. Moreover, during the year before spousal death, soon-to-be widowed men, but not women, increase their physical activity. Our results suggest that widowed men experience significant changes in physical activity and that the transition to widowhood contribute to these changes. PMID:23975417

  1. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  2. Socioeconomic position and incident mobility impairment in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haan Mary N

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated if personal socioeconomic position (SEP factors and neighborhood characteristics were associated with incident mobility impairment in the elderly. Methods We used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a longitudinal, population-based examination of coronary heart disease and stroke among persons aged 65 and older in the United States. Results Among 3,684 persons without baseline mobility impairment, lower baseline SEP was associated with increased risk of incident mobility disability during the 10-year follow-up period, although the strengths of these associations varied by socioeconomic indicator and race/sex group. Conclusion Among independent-living elderly, SEP affected development of mobility impairment into later life. Particular effort should be made to prevent or delay its onset among the elderly with low income, education, and/or who live in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  3. Integrating health education and physical activity programming for cardiovascular health promotion among female inmates: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Uma S; Jordan, Jeremy S; Funk, Daniel; Gavin, Kristin; Tibbetts, Erica; Collins, Bradley N

    2016-05-01

    Female inmate populations in the United States tend to be overweight, physically inactive, experience high stress, and have a history of nicotine and other drug dependence. Thus, they bear an elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease than the general population. However, few evidence-based health interventions exist for this population. This study will test proof of concept, feasibility, and potential efficacy of a multiple health behavior change intervention that integrates CV-health promotion education delivered during a physical activity (PA) program (indoor cycling) tailored to this population. This study uses a quasi-experimental 2-group design with two measurement time-points: baseline and 8-week end of treatment. N=120 incarcerated women (18-59years of age) who are medically cleared for participation in PA will be enrolled. Indoor cycling instructors will be trained to deliver five health education topics over an 8-week period during twice-weekly cycling classes. Topics match the American Heart Association recommendations for CV health: (a) nutrition, (b) PA promotion, (c) weight management, (d) stress management, and (e) smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Modes of intervention include instructor advice, written materials and audio/video clips reviewed during class. CV-related and mental health measures will be assessed at both time-points. Results will guide a full scale efficacy study. Future research in this area has potential to impact the health of female inmates, a high-risk population. Moreover, this multiple health behavior change intervention model represents a community approach to health promotion that could generalize to other underserved populations who may benefit most from similar intervention efforts. PMID:27020419

  4. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Filho Valter; de Campos Wagner; Bozza Rodrigo; Lopes Adair da

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH) among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males) that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess...

  5. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  6. Longitudinal Relationships between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Merrill, David A.; Eyre, Harris; Mallam, Sravya; Torosyan, Nare; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Gach, H. Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Longstreth, W.T.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can be neuroprotective and reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In assessing physical activity, caloric expenditure is a proxy marker reflecting the sum total of multiple physical activity types conducted by an individual. Objective:To assess caloric expenditure, as a proxy marker of PA, as a predictive measure of gray matter (GM) volumes in the normal and cognitively impaired elderly persons. Methods: All subjects in this study were recruited from the Institutional Review Board approved Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a multisite population-based longitudinal study in persons aged 65 and older. We analyzed a sub-sample of CHS participants 876 subjects (mean age 78.3, 57.5% F, 42.5% M) who had i) energy output assessed as kilocalories (kcal) per week using the standardized Minnesota Leisure-Time Activities questionnaire, ii) cognitive assessments for clinical classification of normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, and iii) volumetric MR imaging of the brain. Voxel-based morphometry modeled the relationship between kcal/week and GM volumes while accounting for standard covariates including head size, age, sex, white matter hyperintensity lesions, MCI or AD status, and site. Multiple comparisons were controlled using a False Discovery Rate of 5 percent. Results: Higher energy output, from a variety of physical activity types, was associated with larger GM volumes in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. High levels of caloric expenditure moderated neurodegeneration-associated volume loss in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, and cerebellar vermis. Conclusion:Increasing energy output from a variety of physical activities is related to larger gray matter volumes in the elderly, regardless of cognitive status. PMID:26967227

  7. Cardiovascular Health Outcomes of Latinos in the Affordable Housing as an Obesity Mediating Environment (AHOME) Study: A Study of Rental Assistance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Earle C.; Rosenbaum, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that households subsidized with vouchers live in higher quality units and exhibit fewer physical, mental, and social problems than do their peers living in public housing. However, none of these studies have included cardiovascular outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess if use/type of rental assistance is independently associated with poor cardiovascular health among Latino adults (ages ≥18) who are eligible for federal low-income rental assistance and living i...

  8. Percentage of Deaths Attributable to Poor Cardiovascular Health Lifestyle Factors: Findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xuemei Sui; Hongjuan Li; Jiajia Zhang; Li Chen; Ling Zhu; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We assessed the effects of the four newly defined American Heart Association (AHA) lifestyle factors on mortality by examining the associated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of these factors. Methods. Slightly modified AHA cardiovascular health factors (smoking, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet) were measured among 11,240 (24% women) participants from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study between 1987 and 1999. The cohort was followed to December 31, 200...

  9. mHealth in Cardiovascular Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Ariyarathna, Nilshan; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Redfern, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) has been defined as medical and public health practice supported by mobile devices, such as mobile phones, patient monitoring devices and personal digital assistants. Cardiovascular mHealth is, arguably, leading the mHealth space, through innovation, research and implementation, and especially in the areas of prevention, cardiac rehabilitation and education. mHealth includes simple strategies, such as the use of short message service (SMS) or text messages in successful short-term smoking-cessation, weight loss and diabetes management programs. The recent Australian Tobacco, Exercise and Diet Messages (TEXT ME) randomised clinical trial addressed multiple cardiovascular risk factors. mHealth can also involve more complex strategies, such as smart phone applications (apps), global positioning systems (GPS) and Bluetooth technologies. Although many apps could be considered suitable for primary prevention, they are largely unregulated and most are not evidence-based. Some have been well-developed, such as the Food Switch app and an iPhone electrocardiogram (ECG) system. The "explosion" of apps has driven initiatives such as the Mobile Applications Rating Scale (MARS). More recently, the use of sensors to monitor and provide feedback to patients and healthcare providers is being explored. With almost two billion people currently owning a Smartphone, and 50% of adults (globally) predicted to own one by 2018, mHealth provides the prospect of delivering efficient, affordable healthcare services to widespread populations both locally and globally. In particular, it has the potential to reduce socioeconomic disparity and alleviate the burden of cardiovascular disease. There is now a need to rethink traditional health service structures and bioengineering capacity, to ensure mHealth systems are also safe, secure and robust. PMID:27262389

  10. Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-08-23

    Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field. PMID:27539179

  11. Cardiovascular Health in Anxiety or Mood Problems Study (CHAMPS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Phillip J; Turnbull, Deborah A; Horowitz, John D; Beltrame, John F.; Selkow, Terina; Baune, Bernhard T; Markwick, Elizabeth; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Baumeister, Harald; Cosh, Suzanne; Gary A Wittert

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous psychological and pharmacological interventions have primarily focused on depression disorders in populations with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and the efficacy of anxiety disorder interventions is only more recently being explored. Transdiagnostic interventions address common emotional processes and the full range of anxiety and depression disorders often observed in populations with CVDs. The aim of CHAMPS is to evaluate the feasibility of a unified protocol (UP) for t...

  12. Prevalence of cardiovascular health and its relationship with job strain: a cross-sectional study in Taiwanese medical employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Ping; Tsai, Chiang-Chin; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence and associated factors of cardiovascular health as defined by the AHA among different job categories in health settings. Methods This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based survey. A total of 1329 medical professionals with a mean age of 38 years in a regional hospital in Taiwan were recruited. Information for seven combined indicators including blood pressure, fasting sugar, blood cholesterol, body mass index, time of physical activity, dietary pattern and smoking status was obtained from the employees' health profiles and questionnaires. Degree of job strain was evaluated by the Chinese version of the Job Content Questionnaire, which was derived from Karasek's demand-control model. Three types of cardiovascular health were identified as poor, intermediate and ideal. Results Prevalence of cardiovascular health in this study's population was ideal in 0.2% of the sample, intermediate in 20.6% and poor in 79.2%. There was a significantly higher percentage of poor health in workers with high strain (85.1%), and in the professions of nurse (85.3%) and physician assistant (83.1%). In the multivariate analysis, the only significant factor correlated with job strain was physical inactivity. After being adjusted, workers with high strain exhibit a higher prevalence of physical inactivity compared to those with low strain (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.38 to −2.81). Conclusions Physical inactivity is the only significant factor correlated with job strain and is associated with a work situation characterised by high strain and the professions of nurse and physician assistant. Strategies for workplace health promotion should focus on employee health literacy and motivation to exercise regularly. PMID:27044581

  13. Effects on cardiovascular disease risk of a web-based health risk assessment with tailored health advice: A follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Colkesen, Ersen; Ferket, Bart; Tijssen, Jan; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik; Kalken, Coenraad; Peters, Ron

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: A large proportion of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden can potentially be prevented by primary prevention programs addressing major causal risk factors. A Web- based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback for individual health promotion is a promising strategy. We evaluated the effect on CVD risk of such a program among employees of a Dutch worksite. Methods: We conducted a prospective follow-up study among 368 employees who voluntarily participat...

  14. Transition to retirement and risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective analysis of the US health and retirement study

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, J. Robin; Glymour, M. Maria; Subramanian, S V; Avendaño, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Transitioning from work to retirement could be either beneficial or harmful for health. We investigated the association between transition to retirement and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI). We followed US Health and Retirement Study participants age 50+ working full-time for pay and free of major cardiovascular disease (n=5,422) in 1998 up to 10 years for transition to full retirement and self- or proxy-report of either stroke or MI (CVD; 665 events). We used discrete-time survi...

  15. Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. CVD is an inflammatory disease associated with risk factors that include hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Furthermore, the evolution of this disease depends on the amount of modified lipoproteins (e.g. oxidized) present in the arterial subendothelium. Diet is considered the cornerstone for CVD treatment, as it can lower not only atherogenic lipoprotein levels and degree of oxidation, but also blood pressure, thrombogenesis and concentrations of some relevant factors (e.g. homocystein).Among different diets, the Mediterranean diet stands out due to their benefits on several health benefits, in particular with regard to CVD. Rich in vegetable foods, this diet contributes both quantitatively and qualitatively to essential fibre compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose, gums, mucilages, pectins, oligosaccharides, lignins, etc.). The present paper analyzes the effects of fibre consumption on a) cholesterol and lipoprotein levels; b) systolic and diastolic blood pressures; and c) antioxidant availability and profile. Some studies and meta-analysis are revised, as the possible mechanisms by which fibre may decrease plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure and to act as antioxidant, as well. In addition, author's own publications regarding the effect of fibre matrix (e.g. seaweeds) on arylesterase and the gene expression of some key antioxidant enzymes are reviewed. The paper also includes data concerning the possible interaction between fibre and some hypolipemic drugs, which may make it possible to attain similar hypolipemic effects with lower dosages, with the consequent decrease in possible side effects. The review concludes with a summary of nutritional objectives related to the consumption of carbohydrates and fibre supplements. PMID:22566302

  16. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874

  17. Changes in ideal cardiovascular health status and risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: The Kailuan prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxue; Shi, Jihong; Wang, Anxin; Song, Qiaofeng; Huang, Zhe; Zhu, Chenrui; Du, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Xizhu; Wu, Shouling

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the altered ideal cardiovascular health status (ΔCHS) and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the Kailuan population of China.We included 50,656 Chinese adults aged 18 years or older (11,704 men and 38,952 women) without baseline diabetes mellitus in this study. Information about 7 individual components of the cardiovascular health metrics during 2006 to 2008 was collected. A ΔCHS score was defined as the changes of ideal cardiovascular health status (CHS) from the year 2006 to 2008. New-onset diabetes was identified based on the history of diabetes, currently treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, or having a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7.0 mmol/L during the 2010 to 2011 and 2012 to 2013 surveys. After a mean follow-up period of 3.80 years, a total of 3071 (6.06%) participants developed diabetes mellitus. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the CHS change and new-onset diabetes.A strong inverse association between the positive CHS changes and lower risks of developing diabetes mellitus was observed. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and other potential confounders, the hazard ratios for new-onset diabetes were 0.73, 0.59, 0.49, and 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.82; P trend diabetes mellitus in this investigated Chinese population. PMID:27559955

  18. Abuse and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease among Midlife Women: The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Chang, Yuefang; Derby, Carol A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Harlow, Sioban D.; Janssen, Imke; Matthews, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Some evidence suggests that abuse may be related to CVD risk among women. However, this relation has largely been addressed using self-reported measures of CVD. We tested whether a history of abuse was related to subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) among midlife women without clinical CVD. Methods The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a longitudinal cohort study of women transitioning through the menopause. 1402 Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Chinese SWAN participants completed measures of childhood and adult physical and sexual abuse, underwent a blood draw, completed physical measures, and underwent a carotid artery ultrasound at SWAN study visit 12. Associations between abuse and IMT and plaque were tested in linear and multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age, site, race/ethnicity, financial strain, education, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, measures of insulin resistance, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and medication use. Results Findings indicated that a history of childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher IMT controlling for standard CVD risk factors and other confounders (beta (standard error)=0.022 (0.010), p<0.05; adjusted means, childhood sexual abuse: 0.800 mm vs. no childhood sexual abuse: 0.782 mm). Conclusions Childhood sexual abuse was associated with higher IMT controlling for CVD risk factors and other confounders. These findings indicate the importance of considering the potential impact of early life stressors on women’s later cardiovascular health. PMID:25034715

  19. The MyHealthCheckup study: Training graduate students to implement cardiovascular risk screening programs in community pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Banack, Hailey R.; Grover, Samuel; Kaouche, Mohammed; Marchand, Sylvie; Lowensteyn, Ilka

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite this fact and the development of effective antihypertensive drug therapy, hypertension is often poorly controlled. Community pharmacies are an ideal site for the management of hypertension and other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of the current study was to develop and assess a pharmacy-based cardiovascular risk screening program implemented by graduate students.

  20. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N. Blesso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized.

  1. Strategies and methods to study female-specific cardiovascular health and disease: a guide for clinical scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Pamela; Wenger, Nanette K.; Taylor, Doris; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Steiner, Meir; Shaw, Leslee J.; Berga, Sarah L.; Miller, Virginia M.; Merz, Noel Bairey

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2001, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) report, “Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?” advocated for better understanding of the differences in human diseases between the sexes, with translation of these differences into clinical practice. Sex differences are well documented in the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, the clinical manifestation and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the impact of risk factors on outcomes...

  2. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of natural, fat-soluble pigments found principally in plants. They have potential antioxidant biological properties because of their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. Epidemiologic studies supported the hypothesis that antioxidants could be used as an inexpensive means of both primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. In fact, the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL in the vessels plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The resistance of LDL to oxidation is increased by high dietary antioxidant intake, so that carotenoids, as part of food patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health too. Further properties of carotenoids leading to a potential reduction of cardiovascular risk are represented by lowering of blood pressure, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein, and improvement of insulin sensitivity in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues. In addition, recent nutrigenomics studies have focused on the exceptional ability of carotenoids in modulating the expression of specific genes involved in cell metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus attention to this effect of some carotenoids to prevent CVD.

  3. Measures of Body Size and Composition and Risk of Incident Atrial Fibrillation in Older People: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Maria G; Yee, Laura M; Biggs, Mary L; Djoussé, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Ix, Joachim H; Zieman, Susan J; Siscovick, David S; Gottdiener, John S; Rosenberg, Michael A; Kronmal, Richard A; Heckbert, Susan R; Kizer, Jorge R

    2016-06-01

    Various anthropometric measures, including height, have been associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). This raises questions about the appropriateness of using ratio measures such as body mass index (BMI), which contains height squared in its denominator, in the evaluation of AF risk. Among older adults, the optimal anthropometric approach to risk stratification of AF remains uncertain. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measures were obtained from 4,276 participants (mean age = 72.4 years) free of cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study. During follow-up (1989-2008), 1,050 cases of AF occurred. BMI showed a U-shaped association, whereas height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, fat mass, and fat-free mass were linearly related to incident AF. The strongest adjusted association occurred for height (per each 1-standard-deviation increment, hazard ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.51), which exceeded all other measures, including weight (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.29). Combined assessment of log-transformed weight and height showed regression coefficients that departed from the 1 to -2 ratio inherent in BMI, indicating a loss of predictive information. Risk estimates for AF tended to be stronger for hip circumference than for waist circumference and for fat-free mass than for fat mass, which was explained largely by height. These findings highlight the prominent role of body size and the inadequacy of BMI as determinants of AF in older adults. PMID:27188936

  4. Potential for the use of mHealth in the management of cardiovascular disease in Kerala: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Rebecca; Menon, Jaideep; Rajeev, Jaya G; Feinberg, Leo; Kumar, Raman Krishan; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the potential for using mHealth in cardiovascular disease (CVD) management in Kerala by exploring: (1) experiences and challenges of current CVD management; (2) current mobile phone use; (3) expectations of and barriers to mobile phone use in CVD management. Design Qualitative, semistructured, individual interviews. Setting 5 primary health centres in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India. Participants 15 participants in total from 3 stakeholder groups: 5 patients with CVD an...

  5. Relationship between Medication Use and Cardiovascular Disease Health Outcomes in the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. White

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though some medications have the potential to slow the progress of atherosclerosis and development of CVD, there are many at-risk individuals who continue to resist the benefits that are available by not following the advice of medical professionals. Non-adherence to prescribed drug regimens is a pervasive medical problem that negatively affects treatment outcomes. Information from standardized interviews of 5301 African Americans participating in the Jackson Heart Study was examined to determine the association between demographic parameters, behavior including adherence to prescribed medical regimens, and health outcomes. Data were also collected at Annual Follow-Up and Surveillance visits. During the two weeks prior to the examination visit, almost 52% of the participants reported taking blood pressure medication, 14% took cholesterol medication, 16% took medication for diabetes, and 19% took blood thinning medication. Of those who did not take the prescribed medications, the reasons given were the following: 47% were in a hurry, too busy, or forgot to take medications; 23% were trying to do without medications; 18% had no money to purchase medications; 19% indicated that the medications made them feel bad; 17% felt that they could not carry out daily functions when taking medications. The African American population can benefit from heightened awareness of the risk factors that are associated with CVD and the benefits of following a prescribed treatment regimen. Unacceptable secondary effects of prescribed medication comprised an important cause of non-compliance. Encouragement of this population to communicate with their healthcare providers to ensure that medication regimens are better tolerated could increase compliance and improve health outcomes.

  6. Adiponectin and Mortality in Smokers and Non-Smokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Graciela E; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A decreased concentration of adiponectin has been reported in smokers. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cigarette smoking on the concentration of adiponectin and potassium in active smokers (AS) and life-time non-smokers (NS) of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study, and the use of these two markers for risk prediction. Smoking status was assessed by a questionnaire and measurement of plasma cotinine concentration. The serum concentration of adiponectin was measured by ELISA. Adiponectin was binned into tertiles separately for AS and NS and the Cox regression was used to assess the effect on mortality. There were 777 AS and 1178 NS among the LURIC patients. Within 10 years (median) of follow-up 221 AS and 302 NS died. In unadjusted analyses, AS had lower concentrations of adiponectin. However, after adjustment for age and gender there was no significant difference in adiponectin concentration between AS and NS. In the Cox regression model adjusted for age and gender, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality in AS, but not in NS, with hazard ratio (95 % CI) of 1.60 (1.14-2.24) comparing the third with first tertile. In a model further adjusted for the risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, body mass index, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, adiponectin was significantly associated with mortality with hazard ratio of 1.83 (1.28-2.62) and 1.56 (1.15-2.11) for AS and NS, respectively. We conclude that increased adiponectin is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in both AS and NS. The determination of adiponectin concentration could be used to identify individuals at increased mortality risk. PMID:27358181

  7. Effects on cardiovascular disease risk of a web-based health risk assessment with tailored health advice: A follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.B. Colkesen (Ersen); B.S. Ferket (Bart); J.G.P. Tijssen (Jan); R.A. Kraaijenhagen (Roderik); C.K. Kalken (Coenraad); R.J. Peters (Ron)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: A large proportion of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden can potentially be prevented by primary prevention programs addressing major causal risk factors. A Web- based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback for individual health promotion is a promising st

  8. Effects on cardiovascular disease risk of a web-based health risk assessment with tailored health advice: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersen B Colkesen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ersen B Colkesen1,2, Bart S Ferket2,3, Jan GP Tijssen1, Roderik A Kraaijenhagen2, Coenraad K van Kalken2, Ron JG Peters11Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2NDDO Institute for Prevention and Early Diagnostics (NIPED, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the NetherlandsIntroduction: A large proportion of the cardiovascular disease (CVD burden can potentially be prevented by primary prevention programs addressing major causal risk factors. A Web-based health risk assessment (HRA with tailored feedback for individual health promotion is a promising strategy. We evaluated the effect on CVD risk of such a program among employees of a Dutch worksite.Methods: We conducted a prospective follow-up study among 368 employees who voluntarily participated in a Web-based HRA program at a single Dutch worksite in 2008. The program included a multicomponent HRA through a Web-based electronic questionnaire, biometrics, and laboratory evaluation. The results were combined with health behavior change theory to generate tailored motivational and educational health advice. On request, a health counseling session with the program physician was available. Follow-up data on CVD risk were collected 1 year after initial participation. The primary outcome was a change in Framingham CVD risk at 6 months relative to baseline. We checked for a possible background effect of an increased health consciousness as a consequence of program introduction at the worksite by comparing baseline measurements of early program participants with baseline measurements of participants who completed the program 6 months later.Results: A total of 176 employees completed follow-up measurements after a mean of 7 months. There was a graded relation between CVD risk changes and baseline risk, with a relative reduction of 17.9% (P = 0.001 in the high-risk category (baseline

  9. A Polypill for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: A feasibility study of the World Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunaratne Padma S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The feasibility of conducting a large-scale Polypill clinical trial in developing countries remains unclear. More information is needed regarding the efficacy in reducing the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD, side effects, improvement in adherence and physician/patient "acceptability" of the Polypill. Methods We conducted an open-label, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial involving three sites in Sri Lanka that enrolled a total of 216 patients without established CVD. The trial compared a Polypill (75 mg aspirin, 20 mg simvastatin, 10 mg lisinopril and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide to Standard Practice. After randomization, patients were followed monthly for three months. Pre-specified primary outcomes included reduction in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and estimated 10-year CVD risk. We also evaluated the recruitment process and acceptability of the Polypill by both physicians and patients. Results Patients were recruited in a six-month period as planned. Two hundred three patients (94.0% completed the treatment program and returned for their three-month follow-up visits. No safety concerns were reported. These findings suggest a high rate of patient acceptability, a finding that is bolstered by the majority of patients completing the trial (90% indicating that they would take the Polypill "for life" if proven to be effective in reducing CVD risk. Approximately 86% of the physicians surveyed agreed with and supported use of the Polypill for primary prevention and 93% for secondary prevention of CVD. Both the Polypill and Standard Practice resulted in marked reductions in systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and 10-year risk of CVD. However, the differences between the treatment groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions We successfully completed a Polypill feasibility trial in Sri Lanka. We were able to document high acceptability of the Polypill to patients and physicians. We

  10. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate. PMID:25976309

  11. Racial Disparities in Health Care Access and Cardiovascular Disease Indicators in Black and White Older Adults in the Health ABC Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rooks, Ronica N.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Klesges, Lisa M; Newman, Anne B; Ayonayon, Hilsa

    2008-01-01

    Black adults consistently exhibit higher rates and poorer outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) relative to other racial groups, even after accounting for differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Whether factors related to health care access can further explain racial disparities in CVD have not been thoroughly examined. Using logistic regression we examined racial and health care [i.e. health insurance and access to care] associations with CVD indicators [i.e. hypertension, low ankle-ar...

  12. The Role of Cardiolipin in Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheni; Ye, Cunqi; McCain, Keanna; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL), the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, is crucial for both mitochondrial function and cellular processes outside of the mitochondria. The importance of CL in cardiovascular health is underscored by the life-threatening genetic disorder Barth syndrome (BTHS), which manifests clinically as cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and growth retardation. BTHS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding tafazzin, the transacylase that carries out the second CL remodeling step. In addition to BTHS, CL is linked to other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and Tangier disease. The link between CL and CVD may possibly be explained by the physiological roles of CL in pathways that are cardioprotective, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, autophagy/mitophagy, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In this review, we focus on the role of CL in the pathogenesis of CVD as well as the molecular mechanisms that may link CL functions to cardiovascular health. PMID:26301254

  13. The Role of Cardiolipin in Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheni Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiolipin (CL, the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, is crucial for both mitochondrial function and cellular processes outside of the mitochondria. The importance of CL in cardiovascular health is underscored by the life-threatening genetic disorder Barth syndrome (BTHS, which manifests clinically as cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and growth retardation. BTHS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding tafazzin, the transacylase that carries out the second CL remodeling step. In addition to BTHS, CL is linked to other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and Tangier disease. The link between CL and CVD may possibly be explained by the physiological roles of CL in pathways that are cardioprotective, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, autophagy/mitophagy, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. In this review, we focus on the role of CL in the pathogenesis of CVD as well as the molecular mechanisms that may link CL functions to cardiovascular health.

  14. Percentage of Deaths Attributable to Poor Cardiovascular Health Lifestyle Factors: Findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Sui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We assessed the effects of the four newly defined American Heart Association (AHA lifestyle factors on mortality by examining the associated population attributable fractions (PAFs of these factors. Methods. Slightly modified AHA cardiovascular health factors (smoking, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, and diet were measured among 11,240 (24% women participants from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study between 1987 and 1999. The cohort was followed to December 31, 2003, or death. PAFs were calculated as the proportionate reduction in death attributable to identified risk factors. Results. During an average 12 years of followup, 268 deaths occurred. Low fitness had the highest PAFs at the 5th, 10th, and 15th year of followup, respectively: 6.6%, 6.4%, and 5.5%. Current smokers had the second highest PAFs at the 5th, 10th, and 15th year of followup, respectively: 5.4%, 5.2%, and 5.0%. Additional adjusting for other confounders in the model did not change the above associations. The PAFs for overweight or obesity and unhealthy diet were not significant in the current analyses. Conclusions. Assuming a causal relationship between smoking, low fitness, and mortality, avoidance of both would have prevented 13% of the deaths in the current population. Preventive interventions to increase physical activity and stop smoking would most likely promote longevity.

  15. Pomegranate for Your Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Aviram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate is a source of some very potent antioxidants (tannins, anthocyanins which are considered to be also potent anti-atherogenic agents. The combination of the above unique various types of pomegranate polyphenols provides a much wider spectrum of action against several types of free radicals. Indeed, pomegranate is superior in comparison to other antioxidants in protecting low-density lipoprotein (LDL, “the bad cholesterol” and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, “the good cholesterol” from oxidation, and as a result it attenuates atherosclerosis development and its consequent cardiovascular events. Pomegranate antioxidants are not free, but are attached to the pomegranate sugars, and hence were shown to be beneficial even in diabetic patients. Furthermore, pomegranate antioxidants are unique in their ability to increase the activity of the HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1, which breaks down harmful oxidized lipids in lipoproteins, in macrophages, and in atherosclerotic plaques. Finally, unique pomegranate antioxidants beneficially decrease blood pressure. All the above beneficial characteristics make the pomegranate a uniquely healthy fruit.

  16. Physical Activity and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Suneet Mittal, MD

    2008-01-01

    Retrospective case-control studies and case series of younger athletes and middle-aged adults have suggested an adverse association between physical activity and development of atrial fibrillation. However, these studies have evaluated subjects engaged in either vigorous exertion or endurance training. On the other hand, habitual physical activity might be expected through salutatory effects on blood pressure, vascular compliance, coronary disease, and heart failure to reduce the incidence of...

  17. Type D personality and health status in cardiovascular disease populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.;

    2012-01-01

    in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and...... health status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was...... associated with a two-fold increased odds for impaired physical health status (3035 patients, OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.49-2.52) and a 2.5-fold increased odds for impaired mental health status (2213 patients, OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.57-4.16). There was no significant heterogeneity between the studies on physical health...

  18. Diabetes mellitus and echocardiographic left ventricular function in free-living elderly men and women: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Gardin, J M; Lynch, J C; Smith, V E; Tracy, R P; Savage, P J; Szklo, M; Ward, B J

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the relation among diabetes, blood pressure, and prevalent cardiovascular disease, and echocardiographically measured left ventricular mass and filling (transmitral valve flow) velocities in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a cohort of 5201 men and women > or = 65 years of age. Ventricular septal and left posterior wall thicknesses were greater in diabetic than in nondiabetic subjects, showing a significant linear trend (p = 0.025 for ventricular septal thickness in both sexes combined, p = 0.002 for posterior wall thickness) with increased duration of diabetes. Increased wall thickness of the ventricular septum or the left posterior wall was not associated with prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD) in the cohort. Increased left ventricular mass was associated with diabetic persons not reporting CHD and with all subjects with CHD regardless of glucose tolerance status. After adjusting for body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and prevalent coronary or cerebrovascular disease, diabetes (as measured by glucose level, insulin use, oral hypoglycemic use, and a positive history of diabetes before baseline examination) remained an independent predictor of increased left ventricular mass among men and women (174.2 gm in diabetic men vs 169.8 gm in normal men, 138.2 gm in diabetic women vs 134.0 gm in normal women, p = 0.043 for both sexes combined). Both early and late diastolic transmitral peak flow velocities were higher with increased duration of diabetes, but the calculated ratio of the early peak flow velocity to the late velocity (E/A ratio) did not differ significantly between subjects with historical diabetes and those with normal fasting glucose (both genders combined, p = 0.190). Glucose level, insulin use, oral hypoglycemic use, and a positive history of diabetes before baseline examination were significant independent predictors of the late transmitral peak flow velocity and its integrated flow-velocity curve but not for the integral

  19. The prevalence and correlates of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health among Southern Brazil adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Barbosa Filho Valter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoption of health-related behaviors is an important part of adolescence. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of the isolated and simultaneous presence of behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular health (BRFCH among adolescents in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,628 adolescents (aged 11-17.9 years, 52.5% males that were randomly selected from 44 public schools. Self-report instruments were used to assess the variables. Six BRFCH were analyzed: insufficiently active, excessive TV watching, current alcohol and tobacco use, daily soft drinks consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption. Sociodemographic and behavioral variables were studied as possible correlates of the presence of BRFCH. Results The BRFCH with the highest prevalence were insufficiently active (50.5%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 48.0-52.9 and daily soft drinks consumption (47.6%, 95% CI: 45.1-50.0. Approximately 30% of the adolescents presented three or more BRFCH simultaneously. Girls, adolescents who did not participate in organized physical activity, and who used computer/video games daily were the main high-risk subgroups for insufficiently active. Boys and those who used computer/video games daily were the high-risk subgroups for daily soft drinks consumption. For excessive TV watching, we identified to be at risk those who were from a high economic class, unemployed, and who used computer/video games daily. For current alcohol use, we identified older adolescents, who were from a high economic class and who worked to be at risk. Older adolescents, who worked and who spent little active time during a physical education class were the high-risk subgroups for current tobacco use. For inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, we identified those who did not participate in organized physical activity to be at risk. Older adolescents, who were from a high economic class

  20. Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signa...

  1. Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

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    Erin Golden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.

  2. Playing it safe: exercise and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhutia, Harshil; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-10-01

    Regular physical activity controls acquired cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Exercise is generally associated with a 50% reduction in adverse events from coronary artery disease (CAD). The benefits of exercise extend well beyond the cardiovascular system. Recent evidence suggests that exercise prevents cell senescence, and active individuals are at lower risk of developing certain malignancies including cancer of the prostate and the colon, osteoporosis, depression and dementia. Individuals who exercise regularly extend their life expectancy by three to seven years. Healthy individuals should engage in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity, aerobic exercise per week. Recent studies have demonstrated that even lower volumes of exercise below these recommendations confer health benefits, which is highly relevant to individuals with established cardiac disease including heart failure. Sudden cardiac death in athletes under 35 is rare with.estimates ranging from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 200,000. Hereditary and congenital abnormalities of the heart are the most common cause of nontraumatic death during sport in young athletes. In middle-aged recreational athletes more than 90% of sudden cardiac deaths occur in males and more than 90% are caused by atherosclerotic CAD. The AHA and the ESC advocate pre-participation screening of young athletes. The ECG has the ability to detect congenital accessory pathways and ion channelopathies, and is frequently abnormal in individuals with cardiomyopathy. Screening with a 12-lead ECG in older athletes is of limited value given the overwhelming contribution of atherosclerotic CAD to sudden cardiac death. PMID:26738247

  3. Community Engagement to Optimize the Use of Web-Based and Wearable Technology in a Cardiovascular Health and Needs Assessment Study: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingling, Leah R; Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Peters-Lawrence, Marlene; McClurkin, Michael; Cooper-McCann, Rebecca; Wiley Jr, Kenneth L; Mitchell, Valerie; Saygbe, Johnetta N; Johnson, Twanda D; Curry, Rev. Kendrick E; Johnson, Allan A; Graham, Avis P; Graham, Lennox A

    2016-01-01

    Background Resource-limited communities in Washington, D.C. have high rates of obesity-related cardiovascular disease in addition to inadequate physical activity (PA) facilities and limited Internet access. Engaging community members in the design and implementation of studies to address these health disparities is essential to the success of community-based PA interventions. Objective The objective of the study was to use qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of PA-monitoring wristbands and Web-based technology by predominantly African American, church-based populations in resource-limited Washington, D.C. neighborhoods. Methods To address cardiovascular health in at-risk populations in Washington, D.C., we joined community leaders to establish a community advisory board, the D.C. Cardiovascular Health and Obesity Collaborative (D.C. CHOC). As their first initiative, the Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health and Needs Assessment intends to evaluate cardiovascular health, social determinants of health, and PA-monitoring technologies. At the recommendation of D.C. CHOC members, we conducted a focus group and piloted the proposed PA-monitoring system with community members representing churches that would be targeted by the Cardiovascular Health and Needs Assessment. Participants (n=8) agreed to wear a PA-monitoring wristband for two weeks and to log cardiovascular health factors on a secure Internet account. Wristbands collected accelerometer-based data that participants uploaded to a wireless hub at their church. Participants agreed to return after two weeks to participate in a moderated focus group to share experiences using this technology. Feasibility was measured by Internet account usage, wristband utilization, and objective PA data. Acceptability was evaluated through thematic analysis of verbatim focus group transcripts. Results Study participants (5 males, 3 females) were African American and age 28-70 years

  4. The Role of Cardiolipin in Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Zheni Shen; Cunqi Ye; Keanna McCain; Greenberg, Miriam L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL), the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, is crucial for both mitochondrial function and cellular processes outside of the mitochondria. The importance of CL in cardiovascular health is underscored by the life-threatening genetic disorder Barth syndrome (BTHS), which manifests clinically as cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and growth retardation. BTHS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding tafazzin, the transacylase that carries out the secon...

  5. Astaxanthin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

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    Robert G. Fassett

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and β-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail is one such agent. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Limited, short duration and small sample size studies have assessed the effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers and have investigated bioavailability and safety. So far no significant adverse events have been observed and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation are attenuated with astaxanthin supplementation. Experimental investigations in a range of species using a cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion model demonstrated cardiac muscle preservation when astaxanthin is administered either orally or intravenously prior to the induction of ischaemia. Human clinical cardiovascular studies using astaxanthin therapy have not yet been reported. On the basis of the promising results of experimental cardiovascular studies and the physicochemical and antioxidant properties and safety profile of astaxanthin, clinical trials should be undertaken.

  6. Potential for the use of mHealth in the management of cardiovascular disease in Kerala: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca; Menon, Jaideep; Rajeev, Jaya G; Feinberg, Leo; Kumar, Raman Krishan; Banerjee, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the potential for using mHealth in cardiovascular disease (CVD) management in Kerala by exploring: (1) experiences and challenges of current CVD management; (2) current mobile phone use; (3) expectations of and barriers to mobile phone use in CVD management. Design Qualitative, semistructured, individual interviews. Setting 5 primary health centres in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India. Participants 15 participants in total from 3 stakeholder groups: 5 patients with CVD and/or its risk factors, 5 physicians treating CVD and 5 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs). Patients were sampled for maximum variation on the basis of age, sex, CVD diagnoses and risk factors. All participants had access to a mobile phone. Results The main themes identified relating to the current challenges of CVD were poor patient disease knowledge, difficulties in implementing primary prevention and poor patient lifestyles. Participants noted phone calls as the main function of current mobile phone use. The expectations of mHealth use are to: improve accessibility to healthcare knowledge; provide reminders of appointments, medication and lifestyle changes; save time, money and travel; and improve ASHA job efficacy. All perceived barriers to mHealth were noted within physician interviews. These included fears of mobile phones negatively affecting physicians’ roles, the usability of mobile phones, radiation and the need for physical consultations. Conclusions There are three main potential uses of mHealth in this population: (1) as an educational tool, to improve health education and lifestyle behaviours; (2) to optimise the use of limited resources, by overcoming geographical barriers and financial constraints; (3) to improve use of healthcare, by providing appointment and treatment reminders in order to improve disease prevention and management. Successful mHealth design, which takes barriers into account, may complement current practice and optimise use of limited

  7. Electronic health record-based assessment of cardiovascular health: The stroke prevention in healthcare delivery environments (SPHERE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foraker, Randi E; Shoben, Abigail B; Kelley, Marjorie M; Lai, Albert M; Lopetegui, Marcelo A; Jackson, Rebecca D; Langan, Michael A; Payne, Philip R O

    2016-12-01

    risk assessment, visualization, and decision-making tool that automatically populates with electronic health record (EHR) data during the encounter in order to encourage patient-centered CVH discussions among at-risk, yet under-treated, populations. We quantified five of the seven CVH behaviors and factors that were available in The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center's EHR at baseline (May-July 2013) and compared values to those ascertained at one-year (May-July 2014) among intervention (n = 109) and control (n = 42) patients. The CVH of women in the intervention clinic improved relative to the metrics of body mass index (16% to 21% ideal) and diabetes (62% to 68% ideal), but not for smoking, total cholesterol, or blood pressure. Meanwhile, the CVH of women in the control clinic either held constant or worsened slightly as measured using those same metrics. Providers need easy-to-use tools at the point-of-care to help patients improve CVH. We demonstrated that the EHR could deliver such a tool using an existing American Heart Association framework, and we noted small improvements in CVH in our patient population. Future work is needed to assess how to best harness the potential of such tools in order to have the greatest impact on the CVH of a larger patient population. PMID:27486559

  8. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  9. Calcium Fructoborate for Bone and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoşanu, George Dan; Biţă, Andrei; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Croitoru, Octavian; Rău, Gabriela; Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Florescu, Dan Nicolae; Neamţu, Johny; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2016-08-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CF), a natural sugar-borate ester found in fresh fruits and vegetables, is a source of soluble boron. CF contains three forms of borate (diester, monoester, and boric acid) and all are biologically active, both at the intracellular (as free boric acid) and extracellular level (as fructose-borate diester and monoester). At the cellular and molecular level, CF is superior to the boric acid/borate, exhibiting a complex "protective" effect against inflammatory response. CF is commercially available in the USA as a "nature-identical" complex, an active compound for dietary supplements. It provides effective and safe support against the discomfort and lack of flexibility associated with osteoarticular conditions (arthritis and joint degeneration), and improves Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) and McGill indexes. In addition, orally administered CF is effective in ameliorating symptoms of physiological response to stress, including inflammation of the mucous membranes, discomfort associated with osteoarthritis disorders, and bone loss, and also for supporting cardiovascular health. Clinical studies have exhibited the ability of CF to significantly modulate molecular markers associated with inflammatory mechanisms, mainly on the elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMID:26686846

  10. Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health | Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; L. González-Torres; Bravo, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pre...

  11. Depressive symptoms and cardiovascular health by the American Heart Association's definition in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study.

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    Ian M Kronish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are associated with increased incident and recurrent cardiovascular events. In 2010, the American Heart Association published the Life's Simple 7, a metric for assessing cardiovascular health as measured by 4 health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet and 3 biological measures (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose. The association between depressive symptoms and the Life's Simple 7 has not yet been explored. METHODS: Data from 20,093 participants ≥45 years of age who enrolled in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study between 2003 and 2007 and who had complete data available on Life's Simple 7 components were used for these analyses. The prevalence of ideal, intermediate, and poor health on each Life's Simple 7 component and total Life's Simple 7 scores were compared between participants with and without depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 4-item Centers for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale. RESULTS: Participants with depressive symptoms were more likely to have poor levels on each of the Life's Simple 7 components other than cholesterol [adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI: smoking 1.41 (1.29-1.55; physical activity 1.38 (1.31-1.46; body mass index 1.09 (1.04-1.15; diet 1.08 (1.06-1.10; blood pressure 1.11 (1.02-1.21; glucose 1.24 (1.09-1.41]. There was a graded association between increasing depressive symptoms and lower total Life's Simple 7 score. CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms are associated with worse cardiovascular health on the overall Life's Simple 7 and on individual components representing both health behaviors and biological factors.

  12. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

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    Steven van de Vijver

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design: Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC, collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results: The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year. The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO, and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Conclusion: Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by

  13. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, Ppathology basis of the influences of Shengyi on the four balance features and its relationship with the clinical outcome deserves further study. So the prospect of infrared thermal imaging is indicated as the suitable evaluation technique which could objectively reflect the whole balance regulation advantage of Chinese medicinal compounds.

  14. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Cohen Tervaert, Thijs; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela G; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlementswhere access to formal healthcare and resources is limited.Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sec...

  15. Rare cardiovascular diseases in the context of occupational health care

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    Agata Salska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Poland like in other European countries a favorable trend towards reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease has been observed. Nevertheless they are still one of the most important health problems in the population, responsible for nearly half of all deaths, including premature deaths. They also affect the quality of life in terms of health and socio-economic development, limiting the possibility of taking and/or continuing employment. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases have become more common among young, professionally active people. Their professional activity, work organization and exposure to a broad range of occupational factors and environmental conditions may significantly influence the development and course of the cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to present the relationship between occupation and some rarer diseases and cardiovascular pathologies, as well as those in which this relationship has not as yet been fully evidenced, however, they may play an important role in workers’ health care. In this paper tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy, aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, pericardial tamponade, Brugada syndrome and sudden cardiac death are discussed. In addition, the authors indicate new issues emerging along with the development of modern diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in cardiology, such as the care of patients with implanted pace-maker and the use of automated external defibrillators. These issues are presented in the context of their relationship with the occupation, taking into account the activities possibly to be undertaken under preventive care programs. Med Pr 2014;65(6:847–856

  16. Early Growth, Cardiovascular and Renal Development: The Generation R Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taal, Rob

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cardiovascular disease is a major health problem in the adult general population. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that early life events have an important role for the susceptibility to develop cardiovascular disease in later life. In the 1980’s, Barker and Osmond showed that areas of Britain with the highest neonatal mortality rates early in the 20th century also had the highest incidence of cardiovascular disease in adults, many decades later1. Birth we...

  17. Cardiovascular Risk Surveillance to Develop a Nationwide Health Promotion Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansilal, Sameer; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Woodward, Mark; Iyengar, Rupa; Hunn, Marilyn; Lewis, Marcelle; Francis, Lesley; Charney, Alexander; Graves, Claire; Farkouh, Michael E.; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The Grenada Heart Project aims to study the clinical, biological, and psychosocial determinants of the cardiovascular health in Grenada in order to develop and implement a nationwide cardiovascular health promotion program. METHODS We recruited 2,827 adults randomly selected from the national electronic voter list. The main outcome measures were self-reported cardiovascular disease and behavioral risk factors, anthropometric measures, blood pressure, point-of-care testing for glucose and lipids, and ankle-brachial index. Risk factors were also compared with the U.S. National Health and Nutritional Survey data. RESULTS Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors were: overweight and obesity—57.7% of the population, physical inactivity—23.4%, diabetes—13.3%, hypertension—29.7%, hypercholesterolemia—8.6%, and smoking—7%. Subjects who were physically active had a significantly lower 10-year Framingham risk score (p < 0.001). Compared with the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey data, Grenadian women had higher rates of adiposity, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, whereas Grenadian men had a higher rate of diabetes, a similar rate of hypertension, and lower rates of the other risk factors. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6%; stroke and coronary heart disease were equally prevalent at ~2%. CONCLUSION This randomly selected adult sample in Grenada reveals prevalence rates of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes significantly exceeding those seen in the United States. The contrasting, paradoxically low levels of prevalent cardiovascular disease support the concept that Grenada is experiencing an obesity-related “risk transition.” These data form the basis for the implementation of a pilot intervention program based on the Institute of Medicine recommendations and may serve as a model for other low- and middle-income countries. PMID:25691303

  18. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

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    Ms. V Luximon-Ramma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Current hypotheses favour the concept that lowering oxidative stress can have a health benefit. Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury and disease. Cardiovascular disease is one example of this process. This disorder continues to be the major cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins is considered an early step in the progression and eventual development of atherosclerosis, one of the leading causes to cardiovascular dysfunction. Compelling support for the involvement of free radicals in disease development originates from epidemiological studies showing that an enhanced antioxidant status is associated with reduced risk of several diseases. Dietary nutraceuticals such as vitamins C, E and polyphenolics and reduction of cardiovascular disease incidence are a notable example. This paper reviews the biology of ROS/RNS, their pathways through which they relate to the pathology of cardiovascular disease and discusses the putative roles that antioxidants, including phenolics, may play in controlling oxidative stress and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Phellodendron and Citrus extracts benefit cardiovascular health in osteoarthritis patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambliss Walter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this clinical study was to assess the potential benefit of a dietary supplement, NP 06-1, on cardiovascular protective properties in overweight and normal weight adults diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods An 8-week, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study was conducted with four groups, comparing the effects of NP 06-1 to placebo in overweight and normal weight subjects diagnosed with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. NP 06-1 (a combination of two botanical extracts; Phellodendron amurense bark and Citrus sinensis peel or matching placebo was given in a dose of two capsules (370 mg each twice daily. The outcome measures reported are lipid levels, weight, BMI, blood pressure and fasting glucose. Analyses of variance were used to compare changes of physiological measures over the trial period and between groups. Results Eighty (80 subjects were enrolled and 45 subjects completed the study. No serious adverse events were reported. NP 06-1 administration was associated with a general improvement in lipid levels. Both the overweight and normal weight treatment groups had significant reductions in triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, as well as a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol compared to their respective control groups. Overall there were decreases in blood pressure in both overweight and normal weight treatment groups compared to respective placebo groups. There was also a significant decrease in fasting glucose levels in the overweight treatment group compared to the start of the study and to the overweight placebo group. There was no change in fasting blood sugar for the normal weight groups. Both overweight and normal weight treatment groups lost a significant amount of weight compared to their respective placebo groups. The overweight treatment group lost an average of 5% body weight after 8 weeks, which was associated with a significant loss in BMI over time. Conclusion In

  20. Relationships of nativity and length of residence in the U.S. with favorable cardiovascular health among Hispanics/Latinos: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Giacinto, Rebeca Espinoza; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Isasi, Carmen R; Salgado, Hugo; Stamler, Jeremiah; Talavera, Gregory A; Tarraf, Wassim; Van Horn, Linda; Wu, Donghong; Daviglus, Martha L

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with favorable levels of all readily measured major CVD risk factors (low CV risk) during middle age incur lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, lower all-cause mortality, and lower Medicare costs at older ages compared to adults with one or more unfavorable CVD risk factors. Studies on predictors of low CV risk in Hispanics/Latinos have focused solely on Mexican-Americans. The objective of this study was to use data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL; enrolled 2008 to 2011) to assess relationships of nativity and length of residence in the US, a commonly used proxy for acculturation, with low CV risk (not currently smoking; no diabetes; untreated total cholesterol women, and Hispanic/Latino men and women identifying as other or >1 heritage. We also tested whether associations varied by Hispanic/Latino background. Women living in the USwomen after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, diet, physical activity, and self-reported experiences of ethnic discrimination. Findings varied in men by Hispanic/Latino background, but length of residence was largely unrelated to low CV risk. These findings highlight the role acculturative processes play in shaping cardiovascular health in Hispanics/Latinos. PMID:27196144

  1. Deaf Adolescents' Learning of Cardiovascular Health Information: Sources and Access Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott R; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-10-01

    Deaf individuals have more cardiovascular risks than the general population that are believed to be related to their cardiovascular health knowledge disparities. This phenomenological study describes where 20 deaf sign language-using adolescents from Rochester, New York, many who possess many positive characteristics to support their health literacy, learn cardiovascular health information and their lived experiences accessing health information. The goal is to ultimately use this information to improve the delivery of cardiovascular health education to this population and other deaf adolescents at a higher risk for weak health literacy. Deaf bilingual researchers interviewed deaf adolescents, transcribed and coded the data, and described the findings. Five major sources of cardiovascular health information were identified including family, health education teachers, healthcare providers, printed materials, and informal sources. Despite possessing advantageous characteristics contributing to stronger health literacy, study participants described significant challenges with accessing health information from each source. They also demonstrated inconsistencies in their cardiovascular health knowledge, especially regarding heart attack, stroke, and cholesterol. These findings suggest a great need for additional public funding to research deaf adolescents' informal health-related learning, develop accessible and culturally appropriate health surveys and health education programming, improve interpreter education, and disseminate information through social media. PMID:26048900

  2. Impact of beverage intake on metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Laura; Macdonald, Ian A

    2015-09-01

    studies that they are associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of this latter association has not been explained. In conclusion, there is a substantial amount of epidemiological evidence for benefits of tea and cocoa in relation to cardiovascular health. There is a growing literature describing randomized controlled trials, but more evidence is needed. Potential cardiovascular and metabolic health benefits of milk and orange juice needs further investigation. The associations of higher alcohol intakes and consumption of beverages sweetened with sugars and their increased health risks are of concern, and more attention should be focused on this area. PMID:26290297

  3. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Sá Carvalho

    Full Text Available The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health - ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system's resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health.

  4. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos de

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health - ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system's resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  5. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  6. Astaxanthin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and β-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seaf...

  7. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular heal...

  8. Equity of utilisation of cardiovascular care and mental health services in England: a cohort-based cross-sectional study using small-area estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Asthana, Sheena; Gibson, Alex; Bailey, Trevor; Moon, Graham; Hewson, Paul; Dibben, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: A strong policy emphasis on the need to reduce both health inequalities and unmet need in deprived areas has resulted in the substantial redistribution of English NHS funding towards deprived areas. This raises the question of whether or not socioeconomically disadvantaged people continue to be disadvantaged in their access to and utilisation of health care. Objectives: To generate estimates of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and common mental health disorders (...

  9. Implementing the European guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in the primary care setting in Cyprus: Lessons learned from a health care services study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philalithis Anastasios

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent guidelines recommend assessment and treatment of the overall risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD through management of multiple risk factors in patients at high absolute risk. The aim of our study was to assess the level of cardiovascular risk in patients with known risk factors for CVD by applying the SCORE risk function and to study the implications of European guidelines on the use of treatment and goal attainment for blood pressure (BP and lipids in the primary care of Cyprus. Methods Retrospective chart review of 1101 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2, or hypertension or hyperlipidemia in four primary care health centres. The SCORE risk function for high-risk regions was used to calculate 10-year risk of cardiovascular fatal event. Most recent values of BP and lipids were used to assess goal attainment to international standards. Most updated medications lists were used to compare proportions of current with recommended antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drug (LLD users according to European guidelines. Results Implementation of the SCORE risk model labelled overall 39.7% (53.6% of men, 31.3% of women of the study population as high risk individuals (CVD, DM2 or SCORE ≥5%. The SCORE risk chart was not applicable in 563 patients (51.1% due to missing data in the patient records, mostly on smoking habits. The LDL-C goal was achieved in 28.6%, 19.5% and 20.9% of patients with established CVD, DM2 (no CVD and SCORE ≥5%, respectively. BP targets were achieved in 55.4%, 5.6% and 41.9% respectively for the above groups. There was under prescription of antihypertensive drugs, LLD and aspirin for all three high risk groups. Conclusion This study demonstrated suboptimal control and under-treatment of patients with cardiovascular risk factors in the primary care in Cyprus. Improvement of documentation of clinical information in the medical records as well as GPs training for implementation

  10. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez-Juaristi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii disminuye la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Aunque no existe consenso sobre la cantidad óptima a consumir, puede sugerirse que el consumo diario de chocolate rico en cacao (y polifenoles es una buena elección para reducir, al menos parcialmente, el riesgo cardiovascular. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios que profundicen sobre la biodisponibilidad y mecanismos de acción de los componentes activos del chocolate. El estudio de la interacción del chocolate y sus componentes con genes candidatos aportará información fundamental de los individuos "diana" que podrían beneficiarse del potencial efecto saludable del chocolate en el tratamiento cardiovascular.Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the

  11. Red wine and cardiovascular health the "French Paradox" revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Lippi1, Massimo Franchini2, Gian Cesare Guidi31U.O. di Diagnostica Ematochimica, 2Servizio di Immunoematologia e Trasfusione, Dipartimento di Patologia e Medicina di Laboratorio, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy; 3Sezione di Chimica Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico-Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Verona, Verona, ItalyAbstract: The healthful and nutritive properties of wine have been acknowledged for thousands of years, but the observation that moderate consumption of red wine on a regular basis may be preventative against coronary disease is recent. Dr Renaud, a scientist working at the Bordeaux University in France, suggested wine consumption explains the “French Paradox”, the low incidence of heart attacks in France regardless of a remarkable dietary intake of saturated fats and alcohol. After nearly 20 years of research, there is now mounting evidence that light to moderate wine intake is beneficial for the cardiovascular health, acting through a variety of mechanisms that target all the crucial steps of atherosclerosis, from early formation of the atherosclerotic plaque to its life-threatening complications (ulceration, thrombosis, vessel occlusion and infarction. These effects are attributable to the synergic properties of several biochemical components of wine (alcohol, resveratrol, and especially polyphenolic compounds, particularly the red varieties. This article reviews the leading clinical observations and the hypothesized biological mechanisms that strongly support the cardiovascular benefits of moderate red wine consumption on cardiovascular health and that would make red wine a promising therapeutic supplement to prevent and even perhaps treat coronary artery disease.Keywords: wine, cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, atherosclerosis

  12. Kettlebell training for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Frisch, Dennis; Hansen, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    /shoulders decreased 2.1 points [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -3.7- -0.4] and pain intensity of the low back decreased 1.4 points (95% CI -2.7- -0.02) in the training group. Compared with the control group, the training group increased muscle strength of the trunk extensors (P<0.001), but not of the trunk flexors......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health. METHODS: This single-blind randomized controlled trial involved 40 adults from occupations with a high prevalence of...... reported musculoskeletal pain symptoms (mean age 44 years, body mass index 23 kg/m², 85% women, with pain intensity of the neck/shoulders 3.5 and of the low back 2.8 on a scale of 0-10). A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and follow-up. Participants were randomly assigned to training...

  13. Health Factors and Risk of All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality: Findings from the MONICA and HAPIEE Studies in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Luksiene, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle; Bernotiene, Gailute; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Virviciute, Dalia; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study investigated the trends and levels of the prevalence of health factors, and the association of all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality with healthy levels of combined risk factors among Lithuanian urban population. Methods Data from five general population surveys in Kaunas, Lithuania, conducted between 1983 and 2008 were used. Healthy factors measured at baseline include non-smoking, normal weight, normal arterial blood pressure, normal level of total serum cholesterol, normal physical activity and normal level of fasting glucose. Among 9,209 men and women aged 45–64 (7,648 were free from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke at baseline), 1,219 death cases from any cause, 589 deaths from CVD, and 342 deaths from CHD occurred during follow up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between health factors and mortality from all causes, CVD and CHD. Results Between 1983 and 2008, the proportion of subjects with 6 healthy levels of risk factors was higher in 2006–2008 than in 1983–1984 (0.6% vs. 0.2%; p = 0.09), although there was a significant increase in fasting glucose and a decline in intermediate physical activity. Men and women with normal or intermediate levels of risk factors had significantly lower all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality risk than persons with high levels of risk factors. Subjects with 5–6 healthy factors had hazard ratio (HR) of CVD mortality 0.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15–0.83) compared to average risk in the whole population. The hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was significant in men (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12–0.97) but not in women (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.09–1.67). Conclusions An inverse association of most healthy levels of cardiovascular risk factors with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was observed in this urban population-based cohort. A greater number of cardiovascular health factors were related with significantly lower risk of CVD mortality, particularly

  14. Health factors and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and coronary heart disease mortality: findings from the MONICA and HAPIEE studies in Lithuania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdonas Tamosiunas

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study investigated the trends and levels of the prevalence of health factors, and the association of all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD mortality with healthy levels of combined risk factors among Lithuanian urban population. METHODS: Data from five general population surveys in Kaunas, Lithuania, conducted between 1983 and 2008 were used. Healthy factors measured at baseline include non-smoking, normal weight, normal arterial blood pressure, normal level of total serum cholesterol, normal physical activity and normal level of fasting glucose. Among 9,209 men and women aged 45-64 (7,648 were free from coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke at baseline, 1,219 death cases from any cause, 589 deaths from CVD, and 342 deaths from CHD occurred during follow up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between health factors and mortality from all causes, CVD and CHD. RESULTS: Between 1983 and 2008, the proportion of subjects with 6 healthy levels of risk factors was higher in 2006-2008 than in 1983-1984 (0.6% vs. 0.2%; p = 0.09, although there was a significant increase in fasting glucose and a decline in intermediate physical activity. Men and women with normal or intermediate levels of risk factors had significantly lower all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality risk than persons with high levels of risk factors. Subjects with 5-6 healthy factors had hazard ratio (HR of CVD mortality 0.35 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.15-0.83 compared to average risk in the whole population. The hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was significant in men (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.97 but not in women (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.09-1.67. CONCLUSIONS: An inverse association of most healthy levels of cardiovascular risk factors with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was observed in this urban population-based cohort. A greater number of cardiovascular health factors were related with significantly lower risk of CVD mortality, particularly among

  15. Polyphenols: Benefits to the Cardiovascular System in Health and in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Khurana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging.

  16. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions to Promote Cardiovascular Health in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Jennifer L; Fleury, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well established, yet few older adults engage in adequate physical activity to optimize health. While yoga may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, few studies have focused on the efficacy of yoga-based physical activity to promote cardiovascular health in older adults. The objective of this review is to provide an evaluation of yoga interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults. Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions in older adults. Studies with cardiovascular outcomes were included. Literature searches identified nine articles eligible for review. Significant health benefits were reported, including favorable changes in blood pressure, body composition, glucose, and lipids. Yoga practices, participant characteristics, and outcome measures were variable. There was limited use of theory. Yoga is safe and feasible in older adults; additional research is warranted to examine the specific components of yoga interventions essential to reducing cardiovascular risk. PMID:26689218

  17. Deaf Adolescents' Learning of Cardiovascular Health Information: Sources and Access Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott R.; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hauser, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Deaf individuals have more cardiovascular risks than the general population that are believed to be related to their cardiovascular health knowledge disparities. This phenomenological study describes where 20 deaf sign language-using adolescents from Rochester, New York, many who possess many positive characteristics to support their health…

  18. CARDIOVASCULAR AND OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...

  19. A worksite intervention to reduce the cardiovascular risk: proposal of a study design easy to integrate within Italian organization of occupational health surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Marangi, Gianluca; Bontadi, Danilo; Fadda, Emanuela; Cegolon, Luca; Bortolotto, Melania; Fedeli, Ugo; Marchiori, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the substantial amount of knowledge on effectiveness of worksite health promotion (WHP) in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, WHP programs are not systematically applied in Italy. The aim was to design an intervention easy to integrate within the Italian organization of workplace health surveillance. Methods We used the “pretest-posttest design”. Workers were employed in multiple occupations and resident in Veneto region, Italy. Occupational physicians (OPs) perfor...

  20. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Health: Does Sexism Influence Women’s Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Molix, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes the sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and CVD but s...

  1. The Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Smokers and Non-Smokers of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Graciela E; Siekmeier, Rüdiger; Krämer, Bernhard K; Grübler, Martin; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E

    2016-01-01

    High concentrations of renin and aldosterone are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Enhanced activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by cigarette smoking has been reported. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of cigarette smoking on parameters of the RAAS in active smokers (AS) and life-time non-smokers (NS) of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study as well as the utility of RAAS parameter for risk prediction. We determined the concentration of aldosterone, renin, angiotensin-I and angiotensin-II in participants of the LURIC study. Smoking status was assessed by a questionnaire and the measurement of plasma cotinine concentration. Parameters were log transformed before entering analyses, where appropriate. We used a multivariate Cox regression analysis to assess the effect of parameters on mortality. From the 3316 LURIC participants 777 were AS and 1178 NS. Within a median observation period of 10 years 221 (28.4 %) AS and 302 (25.6 %) NS died. After adjustment for age, gender, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, only angiotensin-I was significantly different in AS compared to NS with an estimated marginal mean (95 % CI) of 1607 (1541-1673) ng/L and 1719 (1667-1772) ng/L, respectively. For both NS and AS renin and angiotensin-II were directly associated with mortality in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. Angiotensin-I was only associated with increased risk for mortality in NS (HR (95 % CI) of 0.69 (0.53-0.89)). We conclude that increased renin and angiotensin-II are independent predictors of mortality in AS and NS, while angiotensin-I was associated with reduced risk of death in NS only. PMID:27334735

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of New Cardiovascular Events or Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study Examining Health Behaviors and Health Care Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Christensen, Bo; Søndergaard, Jens; Vestergaard, Mogens

    bruges til at skærpe opmærksomheden over for denne patientgruppe hos de praktiserende læger, hvor op mod 90 % af alle patienter med depression bliver diagnosticeret og behandlet. Background: Depressive symptoms is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI......), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear and it remains unknown whether subgroups of patients are at a particularly high relative risk of adverse outcomes. We examined the risk of new cardiovascular events and/or death in patients with depressive symptoms following first-time MI taking into account...... 2009 and 31 December 2009, and followed up until 31 July 2012. Depressive symptoms were found in 18.6% using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D$8). A total of 239 new cardiovascular events, 95 deaths, and 288 composite events (239 new cardiovascular events and 49 deaths) occurred during...

  3. Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Roizen, Michael F; Mladen Golubic; Kristin Kirkpatrick; Bernstein, Adam M.; Brigid Titgemeier

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oa...

  4. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  5. Association of Suboptimal Health Status and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Urban Chinese Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yu X.; Dong, Jing; Liu, You Q.; Yang, Xing H.; Li, Man; Shia, Gilbert; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in urban China. Despite indications that SHS may be associated with progression or development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, there are few reports on SHS investigations. To explore the relationship between SHS and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 4,881 workers employed in 21 companies in urban Beijing. Blood pressure, glucose...

  6. Bushehr Elderly Health (BEH) Programme, phase I (cardiovascular system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar, Afshin; Nabipour, Iraj; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin; Darabi, Hossein; Vahdat, Katayoun; Ravanipour, Maryam; Mehrdad, Neda; Raeisi, Alireza; Heidari, Gholamreza; Shafiee, Gita; Haeri, Mohammadjavad; Pourbehi, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Farshad; Noroozi, Azita; Tahmasebi, Rahim; Aghaei Meybodi, Hamidreza; Assadi, Majid; Farrokhi, Shokrollah; Nemati, Reza; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Barekat, Maryam; Amini, Abdullatif; Salimipour, Houman; Dobaradaran, Sina; Moshtaghi, Darab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of the Bushehr Elderly Health Programme, in its first phase, is to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their association with major adverse cardiovascular events. Participants Between March 2013 and October 2014, a total of 3000 men and women aged ≥60 years, residing in Bushehr, Iran, participated in this prospective cohort study (participation rate=90.2%). Findings to date Baseline data on risk factors, including demographic and socioeconomic status, smoking and medical history, were collected through a modified WHO MONICA questionnaire. Vital signs and anthropometric measures, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumference, were also measured. 12-lead electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted on all participants, and total of 10 cc venous blood was taken, and sera was separated and stored at –80°C for possible future use. Preliminary data analyses showed a noticeably higher prevalence of risk factors among older women compared to that in men. Future plans Risk factor assessments will be repeated every 5 years, and the participants will be followed during the study to measure the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events. Moreover, the second phase, which includes investigation of bone health and cognition in the elderly, was started in September 2015. Data are available at the Persian Gulf Biomedical Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran, for any collaboration. PMID:26674503

  7. Cardiovascular Health and Exercise Rehabilitation in Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton, Darren E.R.; Eng, Janice J.; Krassioukov, Andrei; Sproule, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    There appears to be an increased prevalence and earlier onset of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons with SCI. Physical inactivity is thought to be a key factor in the increased risk for CVD. Physical inactivity is highly prevalent in persons with SCI and it appears that activities of daily living are not sufficient to maintain cardiovascular fitness and health. This systematic review examines the current literature regarding the risk for CVD and the effectiveness of varied exercise rehab...

  8. Cardiovascular health education intervention in the Prison of Soria

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Martínez-Delgado; C. Ramírez-López

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To promote awareness of healthy lifestyles, to help decrease the risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, through Health Education (HE). Material and Methods: Between November and December 2014 in the prison of Soria, HE intervention in cardiovascular diseases was performed. Participation was offered to 160 inmates at the Prison. The intervention consisted of individual interviews with anthropometric assessment and review o...

  9. Serum Uric Acid and Prehypertension Among Adults Free of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes: Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Baena, Cristina P; Santos, Itamar S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-02-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and prehypertension was evaluated in a racially admixed sample of civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, enrolled (2008-2010) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Health (ELSA-Brasil). Of the 15 105 patients who enrolled in the study, we analyzed 3412 after excluding those who reported previous cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or hypertension; were heavy drinkers; or had a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m(2). Among the men, logistic regression, adjusted for age, race, income, birth weight, salt intake, insulin resistance, BMI, and renal function revealed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prehypertension from the bottom quartile (referent) to the top quartile of SUA levels as follows: 0.84 (95% CI, 0.61-1.38), 0.97 (0.71-1.34) and 1.44 (1.04-2.0; P for trend .01). Analyzing for 1-standard deviation of change in SUA, the ORs were 1.19 (1.06-1.32). This association persisted in the subgroup analysis consisting of patients who were white, overweight, with a high salt intake but with normal renal function, and without metabolic syndrome. No association was found among women. In conclusion, SUA levels were associated with prehypertension among men. PMID:25972396

  10. HEAT WAVES, AGING, AND HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Kenney, W. Larry; Craighead, Daniel H.; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review is based on a President’s Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review is to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth’s average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress ...

  11. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Andrew R. Hall; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2013-01-01

    Significance: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles capable of changing their shape and distribution by undergoing either fission or fusion. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, which is under the control of specific mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, have been implicated in cell division, embryonic development, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. Although the machinery for modulating mitochondrial dynamics is present in the cardiovascular system, its function there has only recently be...

  12. Effects on cardiovascular disease risk of a web-based health risk assessment with tailored health advice: a follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Colkesen, Ersen B; Ferket, Bart S; Jan GP Tijssen; et al.

    2011-01-01

    Ersen B Colkesen1,2, Bart S Ferket2,3, Jan GP Tijssen1, Roderik A Kraaijenhagen2, Coenraad K van Kalken2, Ron JG Peters11Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2NDDO Institute for Prevention and Early Diagnostics (NIPED), Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the NetherlandsIntroduction: A large proportion of the cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden can potentially be prevente...

  13. Mass media, secular trends, and the future of cardiovascular disease health promotion: an interpretive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, J R; Viswanath, K; Hertog, J

    1999-12-01

    Mass media roles in promoting cardiovascular health in the context of lessons learned from major U.S. community studies, changing media technology, and emergent models of media-community partnerships are discussed. Three principal issues are explored: (1) implications of the current expansion, convergence, and harmonization of mass media technology;(2) recent trends in media coverage of heart disease and population practices; and (3) implications for the future relationship between the media and public health in cardiovascular health promotion. It is concluded that classic campaign models focusing on individual-level change have evolved to recognize environmental-level influences on behavior. Emergent public health campaign models have moved toward "agenda-building," in which the focus is on a more unified approach to influencing public and community agendas for social, behavioral, and policy change. Recent developments among the commercial mass media may offer new opportunities for public health partnerships to promote cardiovascular health. PMID:10641818

  14. Childhood Health Status and Adulthood Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity in Rural China: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons' early life, are expected to be effective and successful. PMID:27275829

  15. Childhood Health Status and Adulthood Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity in Rural China: Are They Related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between childhood health status and adulthood cardiovascular disease in rural China. Good childhood health was associated with reduced risk of adult CVDs. Given the long-term effects of childhood health on adulthood health later on, health policy and programs to improve the health status and well-being of Chinese populations over the entire life cycle, especially in persons’ early life, are expected to be effective and successful.

  16. Ethnic Pride and Cardiovascular Health among Mexican American Adults along the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; Balcazar, Hector G; Lee Rosenthal, E.; Cardenas, Victor M; Schulz, Leslie O.

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed the association between items from the General Acculturation Index (GAI) and cardiovascular health. Specifically, we assessed whether ethnic pride was associated with health outcomes after controlling for items regarding language, place where the childhood was spent, and ethnic interaction. The study was a cross-sectional…

  17. Workplace Digital Health Is Associated with Improved Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Frequency-Dependent Fashion: A Large Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jay Widmer

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Emerging employer-sponsored work health programs (WHP and Digital Health Intervention (DHI provide monitoring and guidance based on participants' health risk assessments, but with uncertain success. DHI-mobile technology including online and smartphone interventions-has previously been found to be beneficial in reducing CVD outcomes and risk factors, however its use and efficacy in a large, multisite, primary prevention cohort has not been described to date. We analyzed usage of DHI and change in intermediate markers of CVD over the course of one year in 30,974 participants of a WHP across 81 organizations in 42 states between 2011 and 2014, stratified by participation log-ins categorized as no (n = 14,173, very low (<12/yr, n = 12,260, monthly (n = 3,360, weekly (n = 651, or semi-weekly (at least twice per week. We assessed changes in weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, lipids, and glucose at one year, as a function of participation level. We utilized a Poisson regression model to analyze variables associated with increased participation. Those with the highest level of participation were slightly, but significantly (p<0.0001, older (48.3±11.2 yrs than non-participants (47.7±12.2 yr and more likely to be females (63.7% vs 37.3% p<0.0001. Significant improvements in weight loss were demonstrated with every increasing level of DHI usage with the largest being in the semi-weekly group (-3.39±1.06 lbs; p = 0.0013 for difference from weekly. Regression analyses demonstrated that greater participation in the DHI (measured by log-ins was significantly associated with older age (p<0.001, female sex (p<0.001, and Hispanic ethnicity (p<0.001. The current study demonstrates the success of DHI in a large, community cohort to modestly reduce CVD risk factors in individuals with high participation rate. Furthermore, participants previously

  18. Interaction of sleep quality and psychosocial stress on obesity in African Americans: the Cardiovascular Health Epidemiology Study (CHES)

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Yuan-Xiang; Chen Zhimin; Coverson Dorothy L; Din-Dzietham Rebecca; Bidulescu Aurelian; Buxbaum Sarah G; Gibbons Gary H; Welch Verna L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Compared with whites, sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation appear more prevalent in African Americans (AA). Long-term sleep deprivation may increase the risk of obesity through multiple metabolic and endocrine alterations. Previous studies have reported contradictory results on the association between habitual sleep duration and obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to assess whether sleep quality and duration are inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity and...

  19. Interaction of sleep quality and psychosocial stress on obesity in African Americans: the Cardiovascular Health Epidemiology Study (CHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yuan-Xiang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with whites, sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation appear more prevalent in African Americans (AA. Long-term sleep deprivation may increase the risk of obesity through multiple metabolic and endocrine alterations. Previous studies have reported contradictory results on the association between habitual sleep duration and obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to assess whether sleep quality and duration are inversely associated with body mass index (BMI and obesity and test whether these associations are modified by psychosocial stress, known to influence sleep quality. Methods A sample of 1,515 AA residents of metropolitan Atlanta, aged 30-65 years, was recruited by a random-digit-dialing method in 2007-08. The outcome obesity was defined by BMI (kg/m2 continuously and categorically (BMI ≥ 30 versus BMI Results The mean (standard deviation age was 47.5 (17.0 years, and 1,096 (72% were women. GSQ score categorized into tertiles was associated with BMI. Among women, after multivariable adjustment that included age, gender, physical activity, smoking status, education, total family income, financial stress and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and myocardial infarction, obesity was associated with sleep quality as assessed by GSQ continuous score, [odds ratio, OR (95% C.I.: 1.08 (1.03 - 1.12], and with a worse sleep disturbance subcomponent score [OR (95% C.I.: 1.48 (1.16 - 1.89]. Among all participants, stress modified the association between obesity and sleep quality; there was an increased likelihood of obesity in the medium stress category, OR (95% C.I.: 1.09 (1.02 - 1.17. Conclusion Sleep quality was associated with obesity in women. The association of sleep quality with obesity was modified by perceived stress. Our results indicate the need for simultaneous assessment of sleep and stress.

  20. Impact of income on the profile of cardiovascular risk factors among hypertensives in a Nigerian tertiary health centre: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Karaye, KM; Okeahialam, BN; Wali, SS

    2009-01-01

    Background In most developed countries, risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are more prevalent in low socio-economic classes. However, the pattern in developing countries appears to be different. This study sought to evaluate and compare risk factors for CVD as well as absolute CVD risk in hypertensive subjects grouped by income in Kano, Nigeria. Methods The study was cross-sectional in design and carried out in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Seventy treatment-naïve h...

  1. Trekking exercise promotes cardiovascular health and fitness benefits in older obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Trekking includes downhill walking and enhances lower limb strength. Muscle fitness is a predictor of mortality and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trekking on cardiovascular health and fitness in older obese women. The participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n= 32) and a control group (CG, n= 48). The EG participated in the trekking program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, and 90 min pe...

  2. Cardiovascular events in patients with COPD: TORCH study results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calverley, Peter M A; Anderson, Julie A; Celli, Bartolome; Ferguson, Gary T; Jenkins, Christine; Jones, Paul W; Crim, Courtney; Willits, Lisa R; Yates, Julie C; Vestbo, Jørgen; NN, NN

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that long-term use of beta agonists to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. In this post hoc analysis, data from the TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) study were used to...... investigate whether use of the long-acting beta(2) agonist salmeterol over 3 years increased the risk of cardiovascular adverse events in patients with moderate to severe COPD. METHODS: TORCH was a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study conducted at 444 centres in 42 countries. Patients (n=6184...... showed that salmeterol alone or in combination (SFC) did not increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with moderate to severe COPD....

  3. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: Finding the Perfect Recipe for Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Ravera; Valentina Carubelli; Edoardo Sciatti; Ivano Bonadei; Elio Gorga; Dario Cani; Enrico Vizzardi; Marco Metra; Carlo Lombardi

    2016-01-01

    The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite the progress in management entails the need of more effective preventive and curative strategies. As dietary-associated risk is the most important behavioral factor influencing global health, it appears the best target in the challenge against CVD. Although for many years, since the formulation of the cholesterol hypothesis, a nutrient-based approach was attempted for CVD prevention and treatment, in recent years a dietary-based ap...

  4. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

  5. Childhood Health Status and Adulthood Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity in Rural China: Are They Related?

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Wang; Jay J. Shen

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the top health problems of the Chinese population. Although mounting evidence suggests that early childhood health status has an enduring effect on late life chronic morbidity, no study so far has analyzed the issue in China. Using nationally representative data from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a Probit model and Two-Stage Residual Inclusion estimation estimator were applied to analyze the relationship between chil...

  6. Global cardiovascular health: urgent need for an intersectoral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Valentin; Kelly, Bridget B; Vedanthan, Rajesh

    2011-09-13

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with more than 80% of CVD deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There have been several calls for action to address the global burden of CVD, but there remains insufficient investment in and implementation of CVD prevention and disease management efforts in LMICs. To catalyze the action needed to control global CVD, the Institute of Medicine recently produced a report, Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A Critical Challenge to Achieve Global Health. This paper presents a commentary of the Institute of Medicine's report, focusing specifically on the intersectoral nature of intervention approaches required to promote global cardiovascular health. We describe 3 primary domains of intervention to control global CVD: 1) policy approaches; 2) health communication programs; and 3) healthcare delivery interventions. We argue that the intersectoral nature of global CVD interventions should ideally occur at 2 levels: first, all 3 domains of intervention must be activated and engaged simultaneously, rather than only 1 domain at a time; and second, within each domain, a synergistic combination of interventions must be implemented. A diversity of public and private sector actors, representing multiple sectors such as health, agriculture, urban planning, transportation, finance, broadcasting, education, and the food and pharmaceutical industries, will be required to collaborate for policies, programs, and interventions to be optimally aligned. Improved control of global CVD is eminently possible but requires an intersectoral approach involving a diversity of actors and stakeholders. PMID:21903051

  7. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2013-09-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24036417

  8. Cardiovascular Health Status by Occupational Group - 21 States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, Taylor M; Sussell, Aaron L; Odom, Erika C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for one of every three deaths in the United States, making it the leading cause of mortality in the country (1). The American Heart Association established seven ideal cardiovascular health behaviors or modifiable factors to improve CVD outcomes in the United States. These cardiovascular health metrics (CHMs) are 1) not smoking, 2) being physically active, 3) having normal blood pressure, 4) having normal blood glucose, 5) being of normal weight, 6) having normal cholesterol levels, and 7) eating a healthy diet (2). Meeting six or all seven CHMs is associated with a lower risk for all-cause, CVD, and ischemic heart disease mortalities compared with the risk to persons who meet none or only one CHM (3). Fewer than 2% of U.S. adults meet all seven of the American Heart Association's CHMs (4). Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality account for an estimated annual $120 billion in lost productivity in the workplace; thus, workplaces are viable settings for effective health promotion programs (5). With over 130 million employed persons in the United States, accounting for about 55% of all U.S. adults, the working population is an important demographic group to evaluate with regard to cardiovascular health status. To determine if an association between occupation and CHM score exists, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) industry and occupation module, which was implemented in 21 states. Among all occupational groups, community and social services employees (14.6%), transportation and material moving employees (14.3%), and architecture and engineering employees (11.6%) had the highest adjusted prevalence of meeting two or fewer CHMs. Transportation and material moving employees also had the highest prevalence of "not ideal" ("0" [i.e., no CHMs met]) scores for three of the seven CHMs: physical activity (54.1%), blood pressure (31.9%), and weight (body mass index [BMI]; 75.5%). Disparities

  9. Moving Focus from Weight to Health. What Are the Components Used in Interventions to Improve Cardiovascular Health in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Friedemann Smith

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood impacts on many areas of the child's current and future health, including their cardiovascular health. To date many attempts have been made to design interventions to tackle excess childhood weight but with limited success. We aimed to establish the components common to interventions in children that improve cardiovascular health parameters.We searched the following databases: EMBASE 1974-week 3 November 2014, Ovid Medline 1946 Present, and PsychINFO 1967-Present for studies reporting interventions in healthy young people under the age of 18. Included interventions had to contain an education component and have been carried out in a community, school, or clinical setting. Papers had to report on at least one of the pre-specified CVD risk parameters and at least one non-biological outcome from knowledge, attitudes or behaviours.We retrieved 2451 papers, from which 12 studies (18 papers of 3046 participants were included. From the selected papers we identified four component themes; Health Behaviours, Self-Concept, Practical and Cognitive Tools, and Intervention Characteristics. The subcomponents that made up these themes were fairly consistent across the studies analysed although the studies varied in their duration, settings and children with which they were carried out. Nine of the studies were able to bring about positive change in at least one biological and one non-biological aspect of child cardiovascular health.The component themes identified here were common to intervention studies that had success in improving parameters of cardiovascular health. We suggest that the focus of childhood health interventions be moved from weight onto cardiovascular health parameters and that future interventions use the lessons learned by their predecessors to incorporate those components that are associated with successful interventions.

  10. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhees, L; Geladas, N; Hansen, D;

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, as the first of a series of three on the importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity (PA) and exercise in the management of cardiovascular health within the general population, we concluded that, in the population at large, PA and aerobic exercise capacity...... clearly are inversely associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and that a dose–response curve on cardiovascular outcome has been demonstrated in most studies. More and more evidence is accumulated that engaging in regular PA and exercise...... interventions are essential components for reducing the severity of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity and abdominal fat, high BP, metabolic risk factors, and systemic inflammation. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic exercise, dynamic resistive...

  11. Association between self-reported health and sociodemographic characteristics with cardiovascular diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira de Arruda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the association of sociodemographic and self-rated health in the presence of cardiovascular diseases and the association of this perception with the type of disease. METHODS A cross-sectional population survey study carried out with 1,232 individuals aged between 20 and 59 years of both genders living in the metropolitan region of Maringá-PR. Data were analyzed using multiple and simple logistic regression. RESULTS In multivariate analysis, the age range and self-rated health were associated with cardiovascular disease, and in the univariate analysis self-rated regular health was associated with arterial hypertension, while self-rated poor health was associated to heart failure, stroke, and to acute myocardial infarction (heart attack. CONCLUSION The differences in association of self-rated health with these diseases can indicate how individuals with certain characteristics cope with the disease, allowing for more individualized and specific health care.

  12. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. V Luximon-Ramma; Mr. MA Soobrattee; Dr. T Bahorun; Prof. OI Aruoma

    2006-01-01

    Current hypotheses favour the concept that lowering oxidative stress can have a health benefit. Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury and disease. Cardiovascular disease is one example of this process. This disorder continues to be the major cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins is considered an early step in the progression and e...

  13. Movement and circulation: Population studies on physical activitiy and cardiovascular disease risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Mensink, G. B. M.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of leisure-time physical activity with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality was determined using data from the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study, conducted from 1984-1991. Three nationally representative crosssectional samples, with a total of 7 689 men and 7 747 women, ages 25-69, were part of this study, originally designed to estimate the impact of community intervention on cardiovascular health. Additionally we analyzed regional cross-sectional and follow-up sam...

  14. Cardiovascular health education intervention in the Prison of Soria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Martínez-Delgado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To promote awareness of healthy lifestyles, to help decrease the risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, through Health Education (HE. Material and Methods: Between November and December 2014 in the prison of Soria, HE intervention in cardiovascular diseases was performed. Participation was offered to 160 inmates at the Prison. The intervention consisted of individual interviews with anthropometric assessment and review of medical records and three group sessions with theoretical and practical content of these diseases, as well as dietary recommendations, Mediterranean diet and exercise. Knowledge gained from surveys conducted for that purpose was evaluated. Results: A total of 33 (21% of 160. Average age 38.2 (35.2 to 41.3. Prevalence: Normal weight (BMI 18 to 24.9 18 (54.5%, overweight BMI (25.0 to 29.9 11 (33.3%, obesity (IBMI from 30 4 (12. 1%. Cardiovascular risk (CVR as ICC (waist hip ratio 10 (30% high risk, REGICOR 4 (12.1% moderate risk. Relative risk of comorbidity in 2 (6.0% had a slightly increased risk, 4 (12.1% had increased risk. Conclusions: HE interventions are necessary and effective in modifying lifestyles. The calculation of CVT should serve to implement preventive measures to reduce the factors of cardiovascular risk.

  15. New perspectives on dairy and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Julie A; Hobbs, Ditte A

    2016-08-01

    CVD are the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. One of the key dietary recommendations for CVD prevention is reduction of saturated fat intake. Yet, despite milk and dairy foods contributing on average 27 % of saturated fat intake in the UK diet, evidence from prospective cohort studies does not support a detrimental effect of milk and dairy foods on risk of CVD. The present paper provides a brief overview of the role of milk and dairy products in the diets of UK adults, and will summarise the evidence in relation to the effects of milk and dairy consumption on CVD risk factors and mortality. The majority of prospective studies and meta-analyses examining the relationship between milk and dairy product consumption and risk of CVD show that milk and dairy products, excluding butter, are not associated with detrimental effects on CVD mortality or risk biomarkers that include serum LDL-cholesterol. In addition, there is increasing evidence that milk and dairy products are associated with lower blood pressure and arterial stiffness. These apparent benefits of milk and dairy foods have been attributed to their unique nutritional composition, and suggest that the elimination of milk and dairy may not be the optimum strategy for CVD risk reduction. PMID:26907978

  16. Cardiovascular risk factors in workers at Health Centre in Beočin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cardiovascular diseases are caused by atherosclerosis, which is a result of interactions between risk factors such as gender, age, blood lipid concentrations, blood pressure, glucose tolerance, adiposity, physical activity and cigarette smoking. Identification of risk factors is the first step in cardiovascular disease prevention. As health workers contribute significantly to cardiovascular morbidity, the aim of our study was to analyze prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and to assess the level of mentioned risk in health workers employed in Health Centre Beočin. The study group consisted of 50 health workers. Obesity was evaluated according to BMI and body fat (BF% values, while central obesity was defined using waist circumference. Serum lipid concentrations and glycaemia were used in metabolic profile definition. The level of physical activity was assessed using IPAQ, and information about smoking status and family history of cardiovascular diseases was obtained from self-report. Framingham point-scoring system was used to predict the risk for development of coronary heart disease in the 10-year period. Overweight was found in 36%, and obesity in 18% subjects. 42% of examined subjects had higher fat mass, while 24% of them had obesity. Central fat accumulation was observed in 50% subjects. We registered 56% smokers, 70% subjects with positive family history, 28% subjects with hypertension, and 56% subjects with dyslipidemia. According to IPAQ results 20% of exanimate subjects were minimally active and 70% were insufficiently active. Estimated risk of coronary heart disease was 7.38%, and 10% subjects had risk over 20%. In spite of lower cardiovascular risk level, our results showed high prevalence of overweight, smoking and physical inactivity in health workers, which suggests the importance of their own lifestyle modification. It should be the first step in increasing motivation of their patients.

  17. Cardiovascular Disease Self-Management: Pilot Testing of an mHealth Healthy Eating Program

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Pfaeffli Dale; Robyn Whittaker; Helen Eyles; Cliona Ni Mhurchu; Kylie Ball; Natasha Smith; Ralph Maddison

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is crucial in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet attendance is poor. Mobile technology (mHealth) offers a potential solution to increase reach of CR. This paper presents two development studies to determine mobile phone usage in adults with CVD and to evaluate the acceptability of an mHealth healthy eating CR program. Methods: CR attendees were surveyed to determine mobile phone usage rates. A second single-subject pilot study investigated percepti...

  18. Cardiovascular health promotion in schools of Delhi, India: A baseline evaluation of environment and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravneet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality. Most of the risk factors of CVDs develop early in childhood. Schools immensely influence the thinking pattern of students and can thus shape their behavior. However, no amount of knowledge and awareness can change health behaviours of students until they get support from enabling environment in the schools. The Ottawa charter has also emphasized on building healthy public policy and creating supportive environments for health promotion in schools. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in 10 schools in Delhi, India. School policies, environment, community participation and approach of school health agency were assessed by interviewing authorities, review of related documents and direct observation in schools. Results: It was found that none of the schools had any written health policy. Environment in most of the schools was not conducive for cardiovascular health promotion. Conclusion: The study highlights that the schools lack health policies and environment for cardiovascular health and also points out the approach of school health agency, focusing on medical check-ups and treatment of minor illnesses.

  19. Mobile Health Devices as Tools for Worldwide Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; List, Justin; Rana, Gurpreet K; Townsend, Whitney; Striplin, Dana; Heisler, Michele

    2015-11-24

    We examined evidence on whether mobile health (mHealth) tools, including interactive voice response calls, short message service, or text messaging, and smartphones, can improve lifestyle behaviors and management related to cardiovascular diseases throughout the world. We conducted a state-of-the-art review and literature synthesis of peer-reviewed and gray literature published since 2004. The review prioritized randomized trials and studies focused on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, but included other reports when they represented the best available evidence. The search emphasized reports on the potential benefits of mHealth interventions implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Interactive voice response and short message service interventions can improve cardiovascular preventive care in developed countries by addressing risk factors including weight, smoking, and physical activity. Interactive voice response and short message service-based interventions for cardiovascular disease management also have shown benefits with respect to hypertension management, hospital readmissions, and diabetic glycemic control. Multimodal interventions including Web-based communication with clinicians and mHealth-enabled clinical monitoring with feedback also have shown benefits. The evidence regarding the potential benefits of interventions using smartphones and social media is still developing. Studies of mHealth interventions have been conducted in >30 low- and middle-income countries, and evidence to date suggests that programs are feasible and may improve medication adherence and disease outcomes. Emerging evidence suggests that mHealth interventions may improve cardiovascular-related lifestyle behaviors and disease management. Next-generation mHealth programs developed worldwide should be based on evidence-based behavioral theories and incorporate advances in artificial intelligence for adapting systems automatically to patients' unique and changing needs

  20. Predicting the Quality of Life Based on Public Health, Social Support and Self Efficacy in Cardiovascular Patients

    OpenAIRE

    M Behnam Moghadam; A Behnam Moghadam; S Yarian; Hosseini SM; S. Mohammad Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds & aim: nowadays measuring the quality of life in the health care system is imperative. The purpose of this study was to predict the quality of life according to public health, social support and self-efficacy in patients with cardiovascular disease. Methods: the present descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 70 individuals with cardiovascular disease referred to medical centers and Yasuj clinics selected by purposeful sampling. The Research instruments included th...

  1. The connected health of cardiovascular medicine: current status and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Ansary, A.; Azuma, A; Komatireddy, R.; Barrett, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The technologies of cardiovascular connected health stand to dramatically alter the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease, a worldwide leading cause of death. The American Heart Association has outlined seven key health metrics including physical activity, adequate blood pressure control, weight and a healthy diet, which lie at the core of cardiovascular disease management. Controlling these metrics has been demonstrated to result in substantial reductions in cardiovascular mort...

  2. The concept of Maslow's pyramid for cardiovascular health and its impact on “change cycle”

    OpenAIRE

    Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Since the leading cause of morbidity and mortality is cardiovascular diseases, every individual should think regularly about possessing and maintaining cardiovascular health. In reality, this self-processing is delayed until the occurrence of complications related to cardiovascular inefficiency manifested as chest pain and/or dyspnea. However, people should be trained to think about their cardiovascular health issues as a vital need from early childhood. This goal is achievable by understandi...

  3. Uric Acid and Cardiovascular Events: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela; Grammer, Tanja B; Silbernagel, Günther; Huang, Jie; Krämer, Bernhard K; Ritz, Eberhard; März, Winfried

    2015-11-01

    Obesity and diets rich in uric acid-raising components appear to account for the increased prevalence of hyperuricemia in Westernized populations. Prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, CKD, and cardiovascular disease are also increasing. We used Mendelian randomization to examine whether uric acid is an independent and causal cardiovascular risk factor. Serum uric acid was measured in 3315 patients of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. We calculated a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) for uric acid concentration based on eight uric acid-regulating single nucleotide polymorphisms. Causal odds ratios and causal hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a two-stage regression estimate with the GRS as the instrumental variable to examine associations with cardiometabolic phenotypes (cross-sectional) and mortality (prospectively) by logistic regression and Cox regression, respectively. Our GRS was not consistently associated with any biochemical marker except for uric acid, arguing against pleiotropy. Uric acid was associated with a range of prevalent diseases, including coronary artery disease. Uric acid and the GRS were both associated with cardiovascular death and sudden cardiac death. In a multivariate model adjusted for factors including medication, causal HRs corresponding to each 1-mg/dl increase in genetically predicted uric acid concentration were significant for cardiovascular death (HR, 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.81) and sudden cardiac death (HR, 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 5.00). These results suggest that high uric acid is causally related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, especially sudden cardiac death. PMID:25788527

  4. Socio-economic differences in the health-related quality of life impact of cardiovascular conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, M.; Soljak, M.; Pledge, V.; Mindell, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Those responsible for planning and commissioning health services require a method of assessing the benefits and costs of interventions. Quality-adjusted life years, based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) estimates, can be used as part of this commissioning process. The purpose of this study was to generate nationally representative HRQoL estimates for cardiovascular disease (heart attack, angina and stroke) and predisposing conditions (diabetes, hypertension and obesity) ...

  5. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs. PMID:23719553

  6. THE INDOOR-OUTDOOR AIR-POLLUTION CONTINUUM AND THE BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE: AN OPPORTUNITY FOR IMPROVING GLOBAL HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Brook, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Current understanding of the association between household air-pollution (HAP) and cardiovascular disease is primarily derived from outdoor air-pollution studies. The lack of accurate information on the contribution of HAP to cardiovascular events has prevented inclusion of such data in global burden of disease estimates with consequences in terms of health care allocation and national/international priorities. Understanding the health risks, exposure characterization, epidemiology and econom...

  7. Air Pollution and Exercise: A REVIEW OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Paolo; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Bard, Robert L; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Ferri, Claudio; Brook, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Although regular aerobic exercise improves overall health, increased physical activity can lead to heightened exposures to a variety of air pollutants. As such, the cardiovascular health benefits of exercise may be abrogated to some degree by the harmful actions of inhaled pollutants. This review aims to provide an up-to-date summary for health professionals of the cardiovascular responses as well as the risks of exercising in air pollution. Aerobic exercise augments the overall inhaled air pollution dose, potentiates the diffusion of pollutants into circulating blood, and augments oxidative stress and inflammation. The inhalation of particulate matter during exercise can raise blood pressure, impair vascular function, and unfavorably affect autonomic balance. Several studies suggest that air pollutants can increase ischemic symptoms and signs during exercise and can even be capable of impairing exercise performance in some scenarios. The overall evidence supports that the risk-to-benefit ratio generally favors that health care providers continue to strongly encourage their patients to perform regular aerobic exercise. Nevertheless, a greater effort should be made to educate patients about the risks of air pollutant exposures during exercise, particularly those at heightened cardiovascular risk. Although no strategy has been directly tested to reduce morbidity and mortality rate, several prudent actions can be taken to lessen the degree of exposures during exercise which may thereby help mitigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on exercise performance and cardiovascular risk. PMID:26378494

  8. O perfil de saúde cardiovascular dos idosos brasileiros precisa melhorar: estudo de base populacional The profile of cardiovascular health of elderly brazilian people needs to improve: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Caldeira Pereira

    2008-07-01

    cardiovascular diseases in the elderly is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and clustering of risk factors and investigate their association with ischemic heart disease (IHD in elderly people. METHODS: All subjects >60 years of age participating in the "Inquérito domiciliar sobre comportamentos de risco e morbidade referida de doenças e agravos não transmissíveis" (Household Survey on Risk Behaviors and Reported Morbidity of Non Transmissible Diseases and Health Conditions carried out by the Ministry of Health, in 2002/2003 in 15 capitals and the Federal District were included. The prevalence of risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, inappropriate diet, and obesity and reported morbidity (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes was assessed, as well as the association between IHD and clustering of these factors using the Poisson regression model. RESULTS: Elderly individuals represented 13.4% (3,142/23,457, 59.4% women and 40.6% men. The mean age of the participants was 69.5 years. Approximately 50% of participants reported having hypertension, 33% hypercholesterolemia, and 18% diabetes. Smoking and hypercholesterolemia dropped significantly with age. Hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia were more prevalent among women. Clustering of two or more factors was observed in 71.3% of the elderly, and diminished with age. Elderly subjects with IHD had a four-fold higher prevalence of clusters with four or more factors (PR=4.1; 95% CI: 2.6-6.4. CONCLUSION: The relationship between IHD and a larger clustering of risk factors probably represents a greater accumulated risk throughout life, but it also indicates the need to improve the risk profile of these elderly people.

  9. The Role of Health Education in Reducing Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Hazavehei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are one of the 10 leading causes of death in the world and the first leading cause of death in Iran. Controlling the risk factors for these diseases can reduce more than 50% of disabilities resulted from these illnesses. In this regard, it is important to consider the behaviors associated with individuals’ lifestyles. The purpose of this study is to review the studies that have used educational interventions in order to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, based on methods, application of models, and theories of health education and health promotion and the effect of intervention on reducing risk factors. Methods: Electronic search of databases was performed using the key words in English and Persian. Databases reviewed were, Scientific Information Database (SID, Iran Medex, PubMed, Ebsco and Cochrane. The databases search was conducted from February 2012 to May 2012. Results: Interventions to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were divided into two types based on use of models and theories of health education and without use of models and theories of health education. In the 19 articles reviewed, 9 studies were conducted based on theories and models of health education,and 10 studies did not use theories and models of health education. Conclusion: The results indicate that training based on theories and models of health education and using the standardized programs have a greater impact on reducing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Time, place and length of intervention, the characteristics of the individuals and use of modern methods of training are important for some of the audience with regard to the effectiveness of the training in order to reduce risk factors.

  10. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: Finding the Perfect Recipe for Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Ravera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD despite the progress in management entails the need of more effective preventive and curative strategies. As dietary-associated risk is the most important behavioral factor influencing global health, it appears the best target in the challenge against CVD. Although for many years, since the formulation of the cholesterol hypothesis, a nutrient-based approach was attempted for CVD prevention and treatment, in recent years a dietary-based approach resulted more effective in reducing cardiovascular risk worldwide. After the publication of randomized trials on the remarkable effects of the Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet on CVD, new efforts were put on research about the effects of complex dietary interventions on CVD. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence on dietary interventions in the prevention and disease modification of CVD, focusing on coronary artery disease and heart failure, the main disease responsible for the enormous toll taken by CVD worldwide.

  11. Differential effects of adulterated versus unadulterated forms of linoleic acid on cardiovascular health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen D.Anton; Kacey Heekin; Carrah Simkins; Andres Acosta

    2013-01-01

    According to the classic "diet-heart" hypothesis,high dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol combined with low intake of polyunsaturated fats can increase levels of serum cholesterol and lead to the development of atherogenic plaques and ultimately cardiovascular diseases.Recently,the beneficial health effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids,particularly linoleic acid (LA),on cardiovascular health have been called into question with some scientists suggesting that consumption of LA should be reduced in Western countries.The focus of this critical review is on the controversy surrounding the effects of dietary intake of LA on cardiovascular health.Specifically,we critically examined the effects of both unadulterated and adulterated forms of LA on cardiovascular health outcomes based on findings from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.Additionally,we address common concerns surrounding dietary intake of LA regarding its relationship with arachidonic acid,the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids,and its relationship with inflammation.Our critical review indicates that unadulterated forms of LA are cardioprotective and should be consumed as part of a healthy diet.In contrast,abundant evidence now indicates that adulterated forms of LA,predominantly hydrogenated vegetable oils,are atherogenic and should not be considered part of a healthy diet.The ability to adulterate the natural omega-6 fatty acid,LA,has contributed to mixed findings regarding the effects of this fatty acid on cardiovascular health.Thus,it is critical that the source of LA be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the physiological effects of this fatty acid.The findings of the present review are in line with current dietary recommendations of the American Heart Association.

  12. Absolute risk representation in cardiovascular disease prevention: comprehension and preferences of health care consumers and general practitioners involved in a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Rebecca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicating risk is part of primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke, collectively referred to as cardiovascular disease (CVD. In Australia, health organisations have promoted an absolute risk approach, thereby raising the question of suitable standardised formats for risk communication. Methods Sixteen formats of risk representation were prepared including statements, icons, graphical formats, alone or in combination, and with variable use of colours. All presented the same risk, i.e., the absolute risk for a 55 year old woman, 16% risk of CVD in five years. Preferences for a five or ten-year timeframe were explored. Australian GPs and consumers were recruited for participation in focus groups, with the data analysed thematically and preferred formats tallied. Results Three focus groups with health consumers and three with GPs were held, involving 19 consumers and 18 GPs. Consumers and GPs had similar views on which formats were more easily comprehended and which conveyed 16% risk as a high risk. A simple summation of preferences resulted in three graphical formats (thermometers, vertical bar chart and one statement format as the top choices. The use of colour to distinguish risk (red, yellow, green and comparative information (age, sex, smoking status were important ingredients. Consumers found formats which combined information helpful, such as colour, effect of changing behaviour on risk, or comparison with a healthy older person. GPs preferred formats that helped them relate the information about risk of CVD to their patients, and could be used to motivate patients to change behaviour. Several formats were reported as confusing, such as a percentage risk with no contextual information, line graphs, and icons, particularly those with larger numbers. Whilst consumers and GPs shared preferences, the use of one format for all situations was not recommended. Overall, people across groups felt that risk

  13. Hypertension and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a community in Southeast Brazil: the Bambuí Health and Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Sandhi Maria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - A population-based prospective study was analysed to: a determine the prevalence of hypertension; b investigate the clustering of other cardiovascular risk factors and c verify whether older differed from younger adults in the pattern of clustering. METHODS - The data comprised a representative sample of the population of Bambuí, Brazil. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the independent association between hypertension and selected factors. RESULTS - A total of 820 younger adults (82.5% and 1494 older adults (85.9% participated in this study. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 24.8% (SE=1.4 %, being higher in women (26.9±1.5% than in men (22.0± 1.7% (p=0.033. Hypertension was positively and significantly associated with physical inactivity, overweight, hypercholesterolemia hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The coexistence of hypertension with 4 or more of these risk factors occurred 6 times more than expected by chance, after adjusting for age and sex (OR=6.3; 95%CI: 3.4-11.9. The pattern of risk factor clustering in hypertensive individuals differed with age. CONCLUSION - Our results reinforce the need to increase detection and treatment of hypertension and to approach patients' global risk profiles.

  14. Ezetimibe plus simvastatin cardiovascular outcomes study program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, Luis Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    Ezetimibe is a drug that impairs intestinal cholesterol absorption and decreases blood cholesterol levels. It has been shown that added to statins it can achieve a further reduction of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol of 18-20%, overcoming the increase in absorption that follow the reduction in cholesterol synthesis by statins. Four major outcome trials are underway to study the effect of ezetimibe plus simvastatin in different subsets of high-risk patients: familiar hypercholesterolemia, degenerative aortic stenosis, chronic kidney disease and acute coronary syndrome. Hopefully, in the next few years the information provided by these trials will allow us to further reduce the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease. PMID:18095904

  15. Early Origins of Adult Health Profile: Cardiovascular and Metabolic Profile and Gonadal Function in Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkhof, Gerthe

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the early 90’s epidemiological studies revealed an association between low birth weight and increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. These observations led to the initiation of studies investigating Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Some aspects in DOHaD, however, remained controversial, such as the role of preterm birth and postnatal growth patterns, which are highly related to low birth weight. In this doctoral thesis we investig...

  16. Trekking exercise promotes cardiovascular health and fitness benefits in older obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2014-08-01

    Trekking includes downhill walking and enhances lower limb strength. Muscle fitness is a predictor of mortality and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of trekking on cardiovascular health and fitness in older obese women. The participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, n= 32) and a control group (CG, n= 48). The EG participated in the trekking program for 12 weeks, 3 times per week, and 90 min per session, at a moderate intensity. Cardiovascular health (BMI, percentage of body fat, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol) and fitness (muscle strength, muscle endurance, balance, and flexibility) were measured before and after the 12-week program. A twoway repeated ANOVA was used to compare and analyze the group differences. Body weight, systolic blood pressure, and muscle strength were significantly different between the groups. These results indicate that trekking played a significant role in the reduction of weight and systolic blood pressure in obese women. The results of this study can be utilized to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with aging. PMID:25210697

  17. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk factors: A Mendelian randomisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Won, Sungho; Relton, Caroline L; Davey Smith, George; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Mendelian randomisation studies from Asia suggest detrimental influences of alcohol on cardiovascular risk factors, but such associations are observed mainly in men. The absence of associations of genetic variants (e.g. rs671 in ALDH2) with such risk factors in women - who drank little in these populations - provides evidence that the observations are not due to genetic pleiotropy. Here, we present a Mendelian randomisation study in a South Korean population (3,365 men and 3,787 women) that 1) provides robust evidence that alcohol consumption adversely affects several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure, waist to hip ratio, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels. Alcohol also increases HDL cholesterol and lowers LDL cholesterol. Our study also 2) replicates sex differences in associations which suggests pleiotropy does not underlie the associations, 3) provides further evidence that association is not due to pleiotropy by showing null effects in male non-drinkers, and 4) illustrates a way to measure population-level association where alcohol intake is stratified by sex. In conclusion, population-level instrumental variable estimation (utilizing interaction of rs671 in ALDH2 and sex as an instrument) strengthens causal inference regarding the largely adverse influence of alcohol intake on cardiovascular health in an Asian population. PMID:26687910

  18. Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Kumar Sharma; Madanmohan Trakroo,; Velkumary Subramaniam; Rajajeyakumar, M.; Bhavanani, Anand B; Ajit Sahai

    2013-01-01

    Context: Perceived stress is higher for students in various healthcare courses. Previous studies have shown that pranayama practice is beneficial for combating stress and improve cardiovascular functions but both fast and slow pranayama practice produce different physiological responses. Aim: Present study was conducted to compare the effects of commonly practiced slow and fast pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular functions in young health-care students. Materials and Method...

  19. Both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidity are related to health status in well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wermeling Paulien R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes patients have a decreased health-related quality of life compared to healthy persons, especially regarding physical functioning and well-being. Health-related quality of life is even lower in type 2 diabetes patients when other diseases co-exist. In contrast to earlier studies, we assessed the associations between the number and type of comorbidities and health status in well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients, in whom treatment goals for HbA1c, blood pressure and cholesterol had been reached. Approximately one in five type 2 diabetes patients belongs to this group. Methods Cross-sectional analysis was performed in 2086 well-controlled (HbA1c ≤58 mmol/mol, systolic blood pressure ≤145 mmHg, total cholesterol ≤5.2 mmol/l and not using insulin type 2 diabetes patients in general practice. Both number and type (cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular of comorbidities were determined for each patient. Health status was assessed with the questionnaires Short Form-36 (SF-36 and EuroQol (EQ. The SF-36 generates eight dimensions of health and a Physical and Mental Component Score (PCS and MCS, scale: 0–100. The EQ consists of two parts: EQ-5D and EQ Visual Analogue Scale. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to assess if number and type of comorbidities were associated with health status. Results Well-controlled type 2 diabetes patients with comorbidities had a much lower health status, with a decrease ranging from -1.5 for the MCS to -26.3 for role limitations due to physical problems, compared to those without. Health status decreased when the number of comorbidities increased, except for mental health, role limitations due to emotional problems, MCS and both EQ measures. In patients with both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidity, physical functioning, role limitations due to physical problems and PCS were significantly lower than in patients with only cardiovascular comorbidity

  20. Flavanols and Anthocyanins in Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia de Pascual-Teresa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is accepted that natural flavonoids present in fruits and plant-derived-foods are relevant, not only for technological reasons and organoleptic properties, but also because of their potential health-promoting effects, as suggested by the available experimental and epidemiological evidence. The beneficial biological effects of these food bioactives may be driven by two of their characteristic properties: their affinity for proteins and their antioxidant activity. Over the last 15 years, numerous publications have demonstrated that besides their in vitro antioxidant capacity, certain phenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, catechins, proanthocyanidins, and other non coloured flavonoids, may regulate different signaling pathways involved in cell survival, growth and differentiation. In this review we will update the knowledge on the cardiovascular effects of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins, as implied by the in vitro and clinical studies on these compounds. We also review the available information on the structure, distribution and bioavailability of flavanols (monomeric catechins and proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, data necessary in order to understand their role in reducing risk factors and preventing cardiovascular health problems through different aspects of their bioefficacy on vascular parameters (platelet agregation, atherosclerosis, blood pressure, antioxidant status, inflammation-related markers, etc., myocardial conditions, and whole-body metabolism (serum biochemistry, lipid profile, highlighting the need for better-designed clinical studies to improve the current knowledge on the potential health benefits of these flavonoids to cardiovascular and metabolic health.

  1. Educational technologies designed to promote cardiovascular health in adults: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Caetano de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Investigating the educational technologies developed for promoting cardiovascular health in adults. Method Integrative review carried out in the databases of PubMed, SciELO and LILACS, with 15 articles selected. Results Over half (60% of the studies were randomized clinical trials. The developed educational technologies were programs involving three strategies, with duration of one year, use of playful technologies with storytelling, computer programs or software for smartphones, and electronic brochure. These technologies resulted in reduction of blood pressure, weight, waist circumference, decreased hospitalizations and increased years of life. Conclusion The studies with better impact on the cardiovascular health of adults were those who brought the technology in the form of program and duration of one year.

  2. Development and evaluation of a patient-centered cardiovascular health education program among insured primary care patients with hypertension in rural Nigeria: The QUICK-II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Odusola

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are increasingly common in Nigeria and sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Poverty is rampant and quality of primary care substandard. Moreover adherence capacity for prescribed anti-hypertensive treatment is limited and blood pressure (BP) control consequently poor.

  3. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

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    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk

  4. Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to antioxidants, oxidative damage and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) t to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to antioxidants, oxidative damage and cardiovascular health. This guidance has been drawn from scientific......, endorsed by the NDA Panel on 25 March 2011, was released for public consultation from 26 April 2011 to 31 August 2011....

  5. Early-onset preeclampsia : Constitutional factors and consequences for future pregnancy outcome and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, maternal constitutional factors related to long-term cardiovascular health and subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with early-onset preeclampsia is addressed. Aims of the thesis: To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by early-onset preeclampsia and to study risk factors for recurrence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery; To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome in women with a first pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth ...

  6. Trans disciplinary cardiovascular and cancer health disparities training: Experiences of the centers for population health and health disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, SH; Ferketich, A; Boyington, J; Dugan, S.; Garroutte, E; Kaufmann, PG; Krok, J; Kuo, A; Ortega, AN; Purnell, T; Srinivasan, S

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities program promotes multilevel and multifactorial health equity research and the building of research teams that are transdisciplinary. We summarized 5 areas of scientific training for empowering the next generation of health disparities investigators with research methods and skills that are needed to solve disparities and inequalities in cancer and cardiovascular disease. These areas include social epidemiology, multilevel modeling, heal...

  7. Describing an Academic and Nonprofit Organization Partnership to Educate At-Risk Adolescents about Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Steven J.; Skager, Cherie; Kraiger, Anneliese

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging evidence to suggest community-based interventions can change community-wide behaviors and attitudes toward cardiovascular health. This article describes a partnership between an academic institution and a community nonprofit organization to develop and implement a cardiovascular health promotion program targeting at risk high…

  8. Kettlebell training for musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Frisch, Dennis; Hansen, Klaus;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health.......The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness of a worksite intervention using kettlebell training to improve musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health....

  9. Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health Fibra dietética y salud cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. CVD is an inflammatory disease associated with risk factors that include hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Furthermore, the evolution of this disease depends on the amount of modified lipoproteins (e.g. oxidized present in the arterial subendothelium. Diet is considered the cornerstone for CVD treatment, as it can lower not only atherogenic lipoprotein levels and degree of oxidation, but also blood pressure, thrombogenesis and concentrations of some relevant factors (e.g. homocystein.Among different diets, the Mediterranean diet stands out due to their benefits on several health benefits, in particular with regard to CVD. Rich in vegetable foods, this diet contributes both quantitatively and qualitatively to essential fibre compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose, gums, mucilages, pectins, oligosaccharides, lignins, etc.. The present paper analyzes the effects of fibre consumption on a cholesterol and lipoprotein levels; b systolic and diastolic blood pressures; and c antioxidant availability and profile. Some studies and meta-analysis are revised, as the possible mechanisms by which fibre may decrease plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure and to act as antioxidant, as well. In addition, author´s own publications regarding the effect of fibre matrix (e.g. seaweeds on arylesterase and the gene expression of some key antioxidant enzymes are reviewed. The paper also includes data concerning the possible interaction between fibre and some hypolipemic drugs, which may make it possible to attain similar hypolipemic effects with lower dosages, with the consequent decrease in possible side effects. The review concludes with a summary of nutritional objectives related to the consumption of carbohydrates and fibre supplements.La enfermedad cardiovascular (EC sigue siendo la causa más frecuente de morbi-mortalidad en los pa

  10. Distribution of ideal cardiovascular health by educational levels from 1978 to 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gitte S; Holm, Ann-Sofie S; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    index <25 kg/m(2), blood pressure ≤120/80 mmHg and total cholesterol ≤5 mmol/l. Results are presented adjusted for age and stratified according to sex and educational level as length of vocational training. RESULTS: The proportion of women with ideal cardiovascular health increased from 2% in 1978 to 13......BACKGROUND: The focus on improvements in ideal cardiovascular health is a relatively new approach and to our knowledge nobody has published the trend in regard to educational difference. DESIGN: Time trend analysis from six cross-sectional studies in 1978-2006 from the south-western part of the......% in 2006. From 1991, an educational difference occurred, increasing to a 5-fold difference in 2006 between the highest and lowest educated women. For men, a less pronounced increase occurred from 1% in 1978 to 5% in 2006; a change which was only significant among the highest educated. An educational...

  11. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lasse Gliemann; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    signaling and through an improved antioxidant capacity. We tested the hypothesis that resveratrol supplementation enhances training-induced improvements in cardiovascular health parameters in aged men. Twenty-seven healthy physically inactive aged men (age: 65 ± 1 years; BMI: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2; MAP: 95.8 ± 2.......02) and muscle TBX synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P <0.05). Resveratrol administration also abolished the positive effects of exercise on LDL, TC/HDL ratio and triglycerides concentrations in blood (P <0.05). Resveratrol did not potentiate the effect of exercise training on......Aging is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which, in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1...

  12. Exercise and autonomic function in health and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwinkel, E T; Bloomfield, D M; Arwady, M A; Goldsmith, R L

    2001-08-01

    Autonomic nervous system activity contributes to the regulation of cardiac output during rest, exercise, and cardiovascular disease. Measurement of HRV has been particularly useful in assessing parasympathetic activity, while its utility for assessing sympathetic function and overall sympathovagal balance remains controversial. Studies have revealed that parasympathetic tone dominates the resting state, while exercise is associated with prompt withdrawal of vagal tone and subsequent sympathetic activation. Conversely, recovery is characterized by parasympathetic activation followed by sympathetic withdrawal, although clarification of the normal trajectory and autonomic basis of heart rate decay following exercise is needed. Abnormalities in autonomic physiology--especially increased sympathetic activity, attenuated vagal tone, and delayed heart rate recovery--have been associated with increased mortality. Exercise training is associated with a relative enhancement of vagal tone, improved heart rate recovery after exercise, and reduced morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, whether exercise training leads to reduced mortality in this population because of its ability to specifically modulate autonomic function is unknown at the present time. Although the results of a recent randomized study in patients with CHF and a meta-analysis in the setting of a recent myocardial infarction determined that exercise training leads to improved outcomes in these populations, neither study measured autonomic function. Improved autonomic function due to exercise training is a promising rationale for explaining improvements in outcome, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:11570111

  13. Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: Review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contamination of groundwater by arsenic in Bangladesh is a major public health concern affecting 35-75 million people. Although it is evident that high levels (> 300 μg/L) of arsenic exposure from drinking water are related to adverse health outcomes, health effects of arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels (10-300 μg/L) are not well understood. We established the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) with more than 20,000 men and women in Araihazar, Bangladesh, to prospectively investigate the health effects of arsenic predominately at low-to-moderate levels (0.1 to 864 μg/L, mean 99 μg/L) of arsenic exposure. Findings to date suggest adverse effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure on the risk of pre-malignant skin lesions, high blood pressure, neurological dysfunctions, and all-cause and chronic disease mortality. In addition, the data also indicate that the risk of skin lesion due to arsenic exposure is modifiable by nutritional factors, such as folate and selenium status, lifestyle factors, including cigarette smoking and body mass index, and genetic polymorphisms in genes related to arsenic metabolism. The analyses of biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular functions support that there may be adverse effects of arsenic on these outcomes and call for confirmation in large studies. A unique strength of the HEALS is the availability of outcome data collected prospectively and data on detailed individual-level arsenic exposure estimated using water, blood and repeated urine samples. Future prospective analyses of clinical endpoints and related host susceptibility will enhance our knowledge on the health effects of low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure, elucidate disease mechanisms, and give directions for prevention.

  14. Sex, Race, and Age Differences in Observed Years of Life, Healthy Life, and Able Life among Older Adults in The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thielke, Stephen M.; Diehr, Paula H.; Yee, Laura M.; Arnold, Alice M.; Quiñones, Ana R.; Whitson, Heather E.; Mini E. Jacob; Newman, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Longevity fails to account for health and functional status during aging. We sought to quantify differences in years of total life, years of healthy life, and years of able life among groups defined by age, sex, and race. Design: Primary analysis of a cohort study. Setting: 18 years of annual evaluations in four U.S. communities. Participants: 5888 men and women aged 65 and older. Measurements: Years of life were calculated as the time from enrollment to death or 18 years. Years of...

  15. The role of noninvasive imaging in promoting cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Valentin; Vahl, Torsten P

    2010-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, and its prevalence is likely to increase in the near future. The morbidity and mortality associated with CVD causes an enormous economic burden, which has become a major problem for many societies across the globe. The current prevention strategies are aimed at identifying and reducing established risk factors for atherosclerosis including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. However, some of our prevention goals, such as reducing LDL cholesterol, change dramatically once a subject has been diagnosed with coronary atherosclerosis. At the present time, atherosclerosis is frequently diagnosed relatively late in the course of the disease, when a patient develops symptoms or presents with acute events such as an acute coronary syndrome or a stroke. Several studies have demonstrated that novel noninvasive imaging techniques have the potential to identify subclinical atherosclerosis and high-risk plaques. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis may enable clinicians to improve the control of cardiovascular risk factors in affected patients earlier, thereby helping to prevent some of the manifestations of CVD. PMID:20574768

  16. Time trends in the prescription of statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom: a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network primary care data

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keeffe, Aidan

    2016-01-01

    Aidan G O’Keeffe,1 Irwin Nazareth,2 Irene Petersen2 1Department of Statistical Science, 2Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK Background: Statins are widely prescribed for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Guidelines exist for statin prescriptions, but there is little recent analysis concerning prescription trends over time and how these vary with respect to demographic variables.Methods and results: Using The Health...

  17. Time trends in the prescription of statins for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the United Kingdom: a cohort study using The Health Improvement Network primary care data

    OpenAIRE

    O’Keeffe AG; Nazareth I; Petersen I.

    2016-01-01

    Aidan G O’Keeffe,1 Irwin Nazareth,2 Irene Petersen2 1Department of Statistical Science, 2Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK Background: Statins are widely prescribed for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Guidelines exist for statin prescriptions, but there is little recent analysis concerning prescription trends over time and how these vary with respect to demographic variables.Methods and results: Using The Health Imp...

  18. Cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts versus UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine

    OpenAIRE

    Herath HMM; Weerarathna TP; Umesha D

    2015-01-01

    Herath M Meththananda Herath, Thilak Priyantha Weerarathna, Dilini Umesha Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and assessment of their cardiac risk is important for preventive strategies. Purpose: The Ministry of Health of Sri Lanka has recommended World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts f...

  19. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  20. Chronic exposure to particulate matter and risk of cardiovascular mortality: cohort study from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Eva; Ho, Wen-Chao; Lin, Meng-Hung; Cheng, Tsun-Jen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Lin, Hsien-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular mortality is limited in Asian populations. Methods We conducted a cohort study on the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality using 43,227 individuals in a civil servants health service in Taiwan. Each participant was assigned an exposure level of particulate matter based on their district of residence using air pollution data collected by the Taiwan E...

  1. The effects of music on the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    Music may not only improve quality of life but may also effect changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to 'Va pensiero' from Verdi's 'Nabucco' (70.4±3.3 cm/s) compared with 'Libiam nei lieti calici' from Verdi's 'La Traviata' (70.2±3.1 cm/s) (pflow during rest (67.6±3.3 cm/s) or when listening to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (69.4±3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music significantly decreases the level of anxiety of patients in a preoperative setting (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-X-1 score 34)-to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (pmusic group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared with the midazolam group (STAI-X-1 score 34) (pmusic a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (pmusic produce significantly better correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals compared with music with a more uniform emphasis (pmusic and meditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. The music of many composers most effectively improves quality of life, will increase health and probably prolong life, particularly music by Bach, Mozart or Italian composers. PMID:21062776

  2. Does respiratory health contribute to the effects of long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Joachim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing epidemiological evidence that short-term and long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown an association between air pollution exposure and respiratory health. To what extent the association between cardiovascular mortality and air pollution is driven by the impact of air pollution on respiratory health is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether respiratory health at baseline contributes to the effects of long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution on cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of elderly women. Method We analyzed data from 4750 women, aged 55 at the baseline investigation in the years 1985–1994. 2593 of these women had their lung function tested by spirometry. Respiratory diseases and symptoms were asked by questionnaire. Ambient air pollution exposure was assessed by the concentrations of NO2 and total suspended particles at fixed monitoring sites and by the distance of residency to a major road. A mortality follow-up of these women was conducted between 2001 and 2003. For the statistical analysis, Cox' regression was used. Results Women with impaired lung function or pre-existing respiratory diseases had a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular causes. The impact of impaired lung function declined over time. The risk ratio (RR of women with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of less than 80% predicted to die from cardiovascular causes was RR = 3.79 (95%CI: 1.64–8.74 at 5 years survival time and RR = 1.35 (95%CI: 0.66–2.77 at 12 years. The association between air pollution levels and cardiovascular death rate was strong and statistically significant. However, this association did only change marginally when including indicators of respiratory health into the regression analysis. Furthermore, no interaction between air pollution and respiratory health

  3. Intergenerational educational mobility is associated with cardiovascular disease risk behaviours in a cohort of young Australian adults: The Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer Terence

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although educational disparity has been linked to single risk behaviours, it has not previously been studied as a predictor of overall lifestyle. We examined if current education, parental education or educational mobility between generations was associated with healthy lifestyles in young Australian adults. Methods In 2004-06, participant and parental education (high [bachelor degree or higher], intermediate [vocational training], low [secondary school only] were assessed. Educational mobility was defined as: stable high (participant and parent in high group, stable intermediate (participant and parent in intermediate group, stable low (participant and parent in low group, downwardly (lower group than parent and upwardly (higher group than parent mobile. We derived a lifestyle score from 10 healthy behaviours (BMI, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and six components of diet. Scores >4 indicated a high healthy lifestyle score. We estimated the likelihood of having a high healthy lifestyle score by education (participant and parent and educational mobility. Results Complete data were available for 1973 participants (53% female, age range 26 to 36 years. Those with lower education were less likely to have healthy lifestyles. Parental education was not associated with having a high healthy lifestyle score after adjustment for participant's education. Those who moved upward or downward were as likely to have a high healthy lifestyle score as those in the group they attained. Conclusions We found clear disparities in health behaviour by participant education and intergenerational educational mobility. People attaining a higher level of education than their parents appeared protected from developing an unhealthy lifestyle suggesting that population-wide improvements in education may be important for health.

  4. Estimation of the Cardiovascular Risk Using World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) Risk Prediction Charts in a Rural Population of South India

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Gangadhar Ghorpade; Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava; Sitanshu Sekhar Kar; Sonali Sarkar; Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi; Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    Background World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts have been employed to predict the risk of cardiovascular outcome in heterogeneous settings. The aim of this research is to assess the prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors and to estimate the cardiovascular risk among adults aged >40 years, utilizing the risk charts alone, and by the addition of other parameters. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in two o...

  5. Health Social Networks as Online Life Support Groups for Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of patients who use the internet in search for information that might improve their health conditions has increased. Among them, those looking for virtual environments to share experiences, doubts, opinions, and emotions, and to foster relationships aimed at giving and getting support stand out. Therefore, there is an increasing need to assess how those environments can affect the patients' health. This study was aimed at identifying scientific studies on the proliferation and impact of virtual communities, known as health social networks or online support groups, directed to cardiovascular diseases, which might be useful to patients with certain conditions, providing them with information and emotional support. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with articles published from 2007 to 2012, related to cardiovascular diseases and collected from the following databases: PubMed; Association for Computing Machinery(ACM); and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The results were interesting and relevant from the health viewpoint, identifying therapeutic benefits, such as provision of emotional support, greater compliance to treatment, and information sharing on diseases and on life experiences

  6. Health Social Networks as Online Life Support Groups for Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Edhelmira Lima, E-mail: edhyly@ic.uff.br; Loques, Orlando Filho [Instituto de Computação - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco [Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    The number of patients who use the internet in search for information that might improve their health conditions has increased. Among them, those looking for virtual environments to share experiences, doubts, opinions, and emotions, and to foster relationships aimed at giving and getting support stand out. Therefore, there is an increasing need to assess how those environments can affect the patients' health. This study was aimed at identifying scientific studies on the proliferation and impact of virtual communities, known as health social networks or online support groups, directed to cardiovascular diseases, which might be useful to patients with certain conditions, providing them with information and emotional support. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with articles published from 2007 to 2012, related to cardiovascular diseases and collected from the following databases: PubMed; Association for Computing Machinery(ACM); and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The results were interesting and relevant from the health viewpoint, identifying therapeutic benefits, such as provision of emotional support, greater compliance to treatment, and information sharing on diseases and on life experiences.

  7. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  8. Simulating and Evaluating Local Interventions to Improve Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Homer, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous local interventions for cardiovascular disease are available, but resources to deliver them are limited. Identifying the most effective interventions is challenging because cardiovascular risks develop through causal pathways and gradual accumulations that defy simple calculation. We created a simulation model for evaluating multiple approaches to preventing and managing cardiovascular risks. The model incorporates data from many sources to represent all US adults who have never had a cardiovascular event. It simulates trajectories for the leading direct and indirect risk factors from 1990 to 2040 and evaluates 19 interventions. The main outcomes are first-time cardiovascular events and consequent deaths, as well as total consequence costs, which combine medical expenditures and productivity costs associated with cardiovascular events and risk factors. We used sensitivity analyses to examine the significance of uncertain parameters. A base case scenario shows that population turnover and aging strongly influence the future trajectories of several risk factors. At least 15 of 19 interventions are potentially cost saving and could reduce deaths from first cardiovascular events by approximately 20% and total consequence costs by 26%. Some interventions act quickly to reduce deaths, while others more gradually reduce costs related to risk factors. Although the model is still evolving, the simulated experiments reported here can inform policy and spending decisions.

  9. Cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts versus UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herath HMM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Herath M Meththananda Herath, Thilak Priyantha Weerarathna, Dilini Umesha Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka Introduction: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and assessment of their cardiac risk is important for preventive strategies. Purpose: The Ministry of Health of Sri Lanka has recommended World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH charts for cardiac risk assessment in individuals with T2DM. However, the most suitable cardiac risk assessment tool for Sri Lankans with T2DM has not been studied. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of two cardiac risk assessments tools; WHO/ISH charts and UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS risk engine. Methods: Cardiac risk assessments were done in 2,432 patients with T2DM attending a diabetes clinic in Southern Sri Lanka using the two risk assessment tools. Validity of two assessment tools was further assessed by their ability to recognize individuals with raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL and raised diastolic blood pressure in a cohort of newly diagnosed T2DM patients (n=332. Results: WHO/ISH charts identified 78.4% of subjects as low cardiac risk whereas the UKPDS risk engine categorized 52.3% as low cardiac risk (P<0.001. In the risk categories of 10%–<20%, the UKPDS risk engine identified higher proportions of patients (28% compared to WHO/ISH charts (7%. Approximately 6% of subjects were classified as low cardiac risk (<10% by WHO/ISH when UKPDS recognized them as cardiac risk of >20%. Agreement between the two tools was poor (κ value =0.144, P<0.01. Approximately 82% of individuals categorized as low cardiac risk by WHO/ISH had higher LDL cholesterol than the therapeutic target of 100 mg/dL. Conclusion: There is a significant discrepancy between the two assessment tools with WHO/ISH risk chart recognizing higher proportions of patients

  10. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS: characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Mari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers.

  11. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  12. The Biological Relevance of Direct Antioxidant Effects of Polyphenols for Cardiovascular Health in Humans Is Not Established

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Cassidy, A.; Comte, B.; Heinonen, M.; Richelle, M.; Richling, E.; Serafini, M.; Scalbert, A.; Sies, H.; Vidry, S.

    2011-01-01

    Human studies provide evidence for beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich foods on cardiovascular health. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols potentially explains these effects, but is the antioxidant activity a reliable predictor for these effects? An International Life Sciences Institute Europe

  13. Modified Ideal Cardiovascular Health Status is Associated with Lower Prevalence of Stroke in Rural Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the American Heart Association developed a new definition of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH based on seven cardiovascular health metrics. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between modified ideal CVH metrics and the risk of stroke in the rural population of Northeast China. Methods: We included 11,417 adults from the rural population in Northeast China and collected all the information, including the baseline characteristics, history of stroke, and the seven ideal CVH metrics. Results: Our results showed that the presence of stroke was associated with high body mass index (BMI, poor diet score (salt intake, high total cholesterol (TC, high blood pressure (BP, and high fasting plasma glucose (FPG. The prevalence of stroke increased as the number of ideal CVH metrics decreased, and peaked to 13.1% among those with only one ideal CVH metric. Participants with only one ideal CVH had a 4.40-fold increased susceptibility of stroke than those with all seven ideal health metrics. Conclusion: This study revealed that people with a better CVH status had a lower prevalence of stroke and the susceptibility of stroke increased with the decreasing of the number of ideal CVH metrics.

  14. Transdisciplinary cardiovascular and cancer health disparities training: experiences of the centers for population health and health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Ferketich, Amy; Boyington, Josephine; Dugan, Sheila; Garroutte, Eva; Kaufmann, Peter G; Krok, Jessica; Kuo, Alice; Ortega, Alexander N; Purnell, Tanjala; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2015-07-01

    The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities program promotes multilevel and multifactorial health equity research and the building of research teams that are transdisciplinary. We summarized 5 areas of scientific training for empowering the next generation of health disparities investigators with research methods and skills that are needed to solve disparities and inequalities in cancer and cardiovascular disease. These areas include social epidemiology, multilevel modeling, health care systems or health care delivery, community-based participatory research, and implementation science. We reviewed the acquisition of the skill sets described in the training components; these skill sets will position trainees to become leaders capable of effecting significant change because they provide tools that can be used to address the complexities of issues that promote health disparities. PMID:25905828

  15. Introduction to the special issue Disparities in cardiovascular health: Examining the contributions of social and behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, John M; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disability and death in the United States, accounting for 31.3% of all deaths in a given year (Mozaffarian et al., 2016). Importantly, risk factors for CVD, the incidence of CVD, and adverse outcomes associated with CVD are not experienced equally by all segments of society. This special issue is an opportunity to highlight contributions of health psychology to the understanding of disparities in cardiovascular health. The 12 papers published here include eight full manuscripts, two brief reports, and two invited commentaries. Sampling in these studies is largely restricted to healthy adults, with one paper focused on early life adversity and subsequent health in adolescents and a second examining social support in adolescence as a predictor of CVD risk in adulthood. These papers offer windows into cuttingedge themes, methodologies, challenges, and future directions in understanding psychosocial factors and sociocultural sequelae as they relate to cardiovascular health disparities. Examined together, the papers begin to elucidate the ways in which the social context drives biopsychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27018721

  16. Vegan diet, subnormal vitamin B-12 status and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kam S; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Celermajer, David S

    2014-08-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80%) in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases. PMID:25195560

  17. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam S. Woo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products. Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians in Australia, Germany, Italy and Austria, and in vegans (80% in Hong Kong and India, where vegans rarely take vitamin B-12 fortified food or vitamin B-12 supplements. Similar deficiencies exist in northern Chinese rural communities consuming inadequate meat, egg or dairy products due to poverty or dietary habits. Vascular studies have demonstrated impaired arterial endothelial function and increased carotid intima-media thickness as atherosclerosis surrogates in such metabolic vitamin B-12 deficient populations, but not in lactovegetarians in China. Vitamin B-12 supplementation has a favourable impact on these vascular surrogates in Hong Kong vegans and in underprivileged communities in northern rural China. Regular monitoring of vitamin B-12 status is thus potentially beneficial for early detection and treatment of metabolic vitamin B-12 deficiency in vegans, and possibly for prevention of atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  18. Mediterranean versus vegetarian diet for cardiovascular disease prevention (the CARDIVEG study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sofi, Francesco; Dinu, Monica; Pagliai, Giuditta; Cesari, Francesca; Marcucci, Rossella; Casini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrition is able to alter the cardiovascular health of the general population. However, the optimal dietary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention is still far from being defined. Mediterranean and vegetarian diets are those reporting the greatest grade of evidence in the literature, but no experimental studies comparing these two dietary patterns are available. Methods/design This is an open randomized crossover clinical trial including healthy subjects with a low-to-medi...

  19. Cardiovascular risk assessment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of the World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension risk prediction charts versus UK Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Herath M Meththananda; Weerarathna, Thilak Priyantha; Umesha, Dilini

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, and assessment of their cardiac risk is important for preventive strategies. Purpose The Ministry of Health of Sri Lanka has recommended World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts for cardiac risk assessment in individuals with T2DM. However, the most suitable cardiac risk assessment tool for Sri Lankans with T2DM has not been studied. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of two cardiac risk assessments tools; WHO/ISH charts and UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine. Methods Cardiac risk assessments were done in 2,432 patients with T2DM attending a diabetes clinic in Southern Sri Lanka using the two risk assessment tools. Validity of two assessment tools was further assessed by their ability to recognize individuals with raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and raised diastolic blood pressure in a cohort of newly diagnosed T2DM patients (n=332). Results WHO/ISH charts identified 78.4% of subjects as low cardiac risk whereas the UKPDS risk engine categorized 52.3% as low cardiac risk (P20%. Agreement between the two tools was poor (κ value =0.144, P<0.01). Approximately 82% of individuals categorized as low cardiac risk by WHO/ISH had higher LDL cholesterol than the therapeutic target of 100 mg/dL. Conclusion There is a significant discrepancy between the two assessment tools with WHO/ISH risk chart recognizing higher proportions of patients having low cardiac risk than the UKPDS risk engine. Risk assessment by both assessment tools demonstrated poor sensitivity in identifying those with treatable levels of LDL cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. PMID:26622181

  20. Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health Fibra dietética y salud cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. CVD is an inflammatory disease associated with risk factors that include hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Furthermore, the evolution of this disease depends on the amount of modified lipoproteins (e.g. oxidized) present in the arterial subendothelium. Diet is considered the cornerstone for CVD treatment, as it can lower not only atherogenic lipoprotein levels and degree of oxidation, but...

  1. Cardiovascular outcomes associated with use of clarithromycin: population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, AY; Root, A.; Douglas, IJ; Chui, CS; Chan, EW; Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Y.; Siu, CW; Smeeth, L; Wong, IC

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION:  What is the association between clarithromycin use and cardiovascular outcomes? METHODS:  In this population based study the authors compared cardiovascular outcomes in adults aged 18 or more receiving oral clarithromycin or amoxicillin during 2005-09 in Hong Kong. Based on age within five years, sex, and calendar year at use, each clarithromycin user was matched to one or two amoxicillin users. The cohort analysis included patients who received clarithromycin (n=108 988) or ...

  2. Overcoming Barriers in the Management of Hypertension: The Experience of the Cardiovascular Health Program in Chilean Primary Health Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sandoval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the blood pressure control and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in a population of hypertensive patients with access to care under a government-financed program, the Cardiovascular Health Program (CHP. Design. A cross-sectional and multicenter study. Setting. 52 primary care centers, metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile. Participants. 1,194 patients were selected by a systematic random sampling from a universe of 316,654 hypertensive patients. Key Measurements. Demographic information, blood pressure (BP measurements, and CVRF were extracted from medical records of patients followed for a 12-month period. Results. 59.7% of patients reached target BP <140/90 mmHg. More women were captured in the sampling (2.1 : 1, achieving better BP control than men. Diabetic patients (26.4% had worse BP control than nondiabetics. Antihypertensive medications were used in 91.5%, with multidrug therapy more frequent in patients with higher BP and more difficult control. Conclusions. The success in improving the BP control to values <140/90 mmHg from 45.3% to 59.7% underscores the contribution of this program in the Chilean primary care cardiovascular preventive strategies. However, fewer hypertensive men than women were captured by this program, and it is of concern the underperforming of BP control observed in diabetics.

  3. A Web-Based Intervention for Health Professionals and Patients to Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Attributable to Physical Inactivity: Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Mesters, Ilse; Crutzen, Rik; Cremers, Anita; Vanhees, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with cardiovascular risk factors can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing their physical activity and their physical fitness. According to the guidelines for cardiovascular risk management, health professionals should encourage their patients to engage in physical activity. Objective In this paper, we provide insight regarding the systematic development of a Web-based intervention for both health professionals and patients with cardiovascular risk fact...

  4. Is procrastination a vulnerability factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease? Testing an extension of the procrastination–health model

    OpenAIRE

    Sirois, F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Personality is an important epidemiological factor for understanding health outcomes. This study investigated the associations of trait procrastination with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (HT/CVD) and maladaptive coping by testing an extension of the procrastination–health model among individuals with and without HT/CVD. Individuals with self-reported HT/CVD (N = 182) and healthy controls (N = 564), from a community sample, completed an online survey including measures of personality...

  5. Assessment of Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease Using Heart Rate Variability in Postmenopausal Women: A Comparative Study between Urban and Rural Indian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mirajkar, Amrit M.; Shailaja Moodithaya; Harsha Halahalli; Nikhil Narayanaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. A major determinant of cardiovascular health is the status of autonomic nervous system and assessment of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Heart Rate Variability is a noninvasive and sensitive technique to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic control. Reduced HRV is an independent risk factor for the development of heart disease. This study evaluated the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases using HRV...

  6. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 to 2014. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  7. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion in the French speaking community of Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Y; Béduwé, C; Collignon, J L; Hubens, V; Levêque, A

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the first cause of mortality in Belgium and are a priority for the Five-year program of health promotion in the French speaking Community. It is declined in operational programs by priority thematics, including the heart health. With this framework, it appeared necessary to operationalize cardiovascular priorities. A process of systemic and participative planning was set up in order to seek operational strategies and actions, and to cover the whole population and actors concerned with these health problems. The various cardiovascular risk factors, which potentiate one another, are approached together and in a global way. Upstream to the risk factors, social health determinants play an important role in cardiovascular diseases and others diseases like cancers. Tracking cardiovascular risk factors among people 30 to 75 years is also proposed. It makes it possible to identify people at risk and to put forward individual and adapted measures. The plan integrates actions of health promotion (acting on the health determinants and factors which influence them) as well as actions aiming at improving tracking and the accompaniment of the patients in secondary and tertiary prevention. Actions on health determinants and the factors influencing them present moreover the advantage of being often common to many chronic diseases. PMID:20687443

  8. Health-related quality of life and health condition of community-dwelling populations with cancer, stroke, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunkyoung

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate health conditions and HRQoL (health-related quality of life) of community-dwelling populations with cancer, stroke, and CVD (cardiovascular disease) based on standardized data. [Subjects] The study subjects numbered 422 in total: 179 patients had cancer, 128 were stroke patients, and 115 were CVD patients. [Methods] This study used data collected during health interviews carried out as part of the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Face-to-face health interviews were conducted by trained surveyors who visited households during 2013. The contents of the interviews included data on demographic factors, physical condition, psychological condition, and HRQoL. [Results] Stress perceptions related to health condition differed significantly across the populations of cancer, stroke, and CVD patients. The HRQoL items of mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression also differed significantly across these populations. [Conclusion] Healthcare teams will now be in a position to plan programs for improvement in these areas according to the features of each disease. PMID:26355816

  9. Accumulating Brisk Walking for Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk, and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marie; Nevill, Alan; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne

    2002-01-01

    Compared the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. Data on adults who completed either short-bout or long-bout walking programs found that three short bouts of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day were as effective…

  10. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gómez-Juaristi; L. González-Torres; L. Bravo; M. P. Vaquero; Bastida, S.; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii) disminuye la presión a...

  11. Development and evaluation of a patient centered cardiovascular health education program for insured patients in rural Nigeria (QUICK - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osibogun Akin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sub Saharan Africa, the incidence of hypertension and other modifiable cardiovascular risk factors is growing rapidly. Poor adherence to prescribed prevention and treatment regimens by patients can compromise treatment outcomes. Patient-centered cardiovascular health education is likely to improve shortcomings in adherence. This paper describes a study that aims to develop a cardiovascular health education program for patients participating in a subsidized insurance plan in Nigeria and to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness in patients at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods/Design Design: The study has two parts. Part 1 will develop a cardiovascular health education program, using qualitative interviews with stakeholders. Part 2 will evaluate the effectiveness of the program in patients, using a prospective (pre-post observational design. Setting: A rural primary health center in Kwara State, Nigeria. Population: For part 1: 40 patients, 10 healthcare professionals, and 5 insurance managers. For part 2: 150 patients with uncontrolled hypertension or other cardiovascular risk factors after one year of treatment. Intervention: Part 2: patient-centered cardiovascular health education program. Measurements: Part 1: Semi-structured interviews to identify stakeholder perspectives. Part 2: Pre- and post-intervention assessments including patients' demographic and socioeconomic data, blood pressure, body mass index and self-reporting measures on medication adherence and perception of care. Feasibility of the intervention will be measured using process data. Outcomes: For program development (part 1: overview of healthcare professionals' perceptions on barriers and facilitators to care, protocol for patient education, and protocol implementation plan. For program evaluation (part 2: changes in patients' scores on adherence to medication and life style changes, blood pressure, and other physiological and self

  12. Major cereal grain fibers and psyllium in relation to cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Adam M; Titgemeier, Brigid; Kirkpatrick, Kristin; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F

    2013-05-01

    Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake. PMID:23628720

  13. Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roizen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. β-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in β-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake.

  14. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda W. Campbell Jenkins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jackson Heart Study (JHS is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1 an enrichment curriculum; (2 a learning community; (3 quarterly seminars; and (4 a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1 Applied Biostatistics; (2 Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3 Social Epidemiology; (4 Emerging Topics; and (5 Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs.

  15. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Addison, Clifton; Wilson, Gregory; Young, Lavon; Fields, Regina; Woodberry, Clevette; Payton, Marinelle

    2016-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson Heart Study data. This study describes the structured programs developed by JHS GTEC seeking to alleviate the shortage of trained professionals in cardiovascular epidemiology by training graduate students while they complete their academic degrees. The DHWS program provides: (1) an enrichment curriculum; (2) a learning community; (3) quarterly seminars; and (4) a Summer Institute. Students attend enrichment activities comprising: (1) Applied Biostatistics; (2) Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology; (3) Social Epidemiology; (4) Emerging Topics; and (5) Research Writing. Training focuses on developing proficiency in cardiovascular health knowledge. The DHWS program is a unique strategy for incorporating rigorous academic and career-focused training to graduate students and has enabled the acquisition of competencies needed to impact cardiovascular disease management programs. PMID:26703701

  16. A study of cardiovascular autonomic function in normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Panja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the physiological responses to noninvasive cardiovascular autonomic function tests in normal pregnancy and compare them with non- pregnant controls. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of 90 apparently healthy, pregnant women divided equally into three groups based on their period of gestation and 30 otherwise healthy, non-pregnant women as controls. The standard autonomic function tests based on cardiovascular reflexes, including heart rate response tests and blood pressure response tests were performed. Result: It was observed that variability of mean between and within all the population groups and controls was significantly different. Multiple comparison analysis revealed a significantly lower Deep Breathing Difference in pregnant subjects, significant difference in Valsalva Ratio in third trimester group, a significantly lower Postural Tachycardia Index only during last trimester and a significantly higher fall in systolic blood pressure on standing only during 1st trimester. A significantly lower alteration in diastolic blood pressure during isometric handgrip in later trimesters and a significant increase in overall cardiovascular autonomic score between and within all groups were also observed. Conclusion: The observations serve to corroborate that the cardiovascular indices in pregnant women are significantly altered in comparison to non-pregnant women, thus highlighting the importance of cardiovascular monitoring during pregnancy. The study also helped to reaffirm the efficacy of simple cardiovascular reflex tests in research on pregnancy physiology.

  17. Increased Soluble ST2 Predicts Long-term Mortality in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease : Results from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieplinger, Benjamin; Egger, Margot; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Kleber, Marcus E.; Scharnagl, Hubert; Silbernagel, Guenther; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Maerz, Winfried; Mueller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) has emerged as a strong prognostic biomarker in patients with heart failure and myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the longterm prognostic value of sST2 in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS

  18. Caring for Others, but Not Themselves: Implications for Health Care Interventions in Women with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle DiGiacomo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the largest killer of women internationally and women often suffer inferior outcomes following an acute cardiac event as compared to men. A gendered approach to investigating cardiovascular disease in women incorporates the unique social, cultural, and economic circumstances that being a woman brings to the health encounter. The multiple roles enacted by many women may be important factors in this health discrepancy. In order to more fully understand the impact of the roles of women on health, a questionnaire was administered to participants of the Heart Awareness for Women group cardiac rehabilitation program which assessed women's role perceptions followed by discussions. We found that caregiving can be both positive and negative. It gives a sense of purpose, meaning, and community connection as well as burden and conflict. Emphasis must be placed on promoting strategies in women to achieve a balance between caregiving responsibilities and prioritisation of cardiovascular health.

  19. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    6th grade) on health related outcomes in children. The objectives are: 1.To describe the Svendborg Project and the CHAMPS study-DK (paper I). 2.To evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons per week in primary schools on body composition and weight status in children aged 8 to 13 (paper II). 3.To......Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that more than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight and ten per cent of the world’s school aged children are estimated to carry excess body fat. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of immediate...... Intervention had beneficial, but non significant effect on mean BMI or mean Total Body Fat percentage (TBF%), but a significant beneficial effect on overweight and obesity prevalence, as children at intervention schools had a significant reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese after 2 school years...

  20. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  1. High-intensity intermittent swimming improves cardiovascular health status for women with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika;

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT...... health and physical performance...

  2. Religiousness/Spirituality, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: Cultural Integration for Health Research and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Kevin S.; Hooker, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recently, behavioral scientists have developed greater interest in understanding the relations between religiousness and spirituality (R/S) and health. Our objectives were to (a) provide an overview of the R/S and health literature specific to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, (b) discuss the importance of religious culture…

  3. Cardiovascular regulation by skeletal muscle reflexes in health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Megan N.; Mizuno, Masaki; Mitchell, Jere H.; Smith, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate and blood pressure are elevated at the onset and throughout the duration of dynamic or static exercise. These neurally mediated cardiovascular adjustments to physical activity are regulated, in part, by a peripheral reflex originating in contracting skeletal muscle termed the exercise pressor reflex. Mechanically sensitive and metabolically sensitive receptors activating the exercise pressor reflex are located on the unencapsulated nerve terminals of group III and group IV afferent...

  4. Vegan Diet, Subnormal Vitamin B-12 Status and Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kam S. Woo; Timothy C.Y. Kwok; Celermajer, David S

    2014-01-01

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with atherosclerosis protection, with healthier atherosclerosis risk profiles, as well as lower prevalence of, and mortality from, ischemic heart disease and stroke. However, there are few data concerning the possible cardiovascular effects of a vegan diet (with no meat, dairy or egg products). Vitamin B-12 deficiency is highly prevalent in vegetarians; this can be partially alleviated by taking dairy/egg products in lact-ovo-vegetarians. However, metabo...

  5. Elevated cardiovascular risk among adults with obstructive and restrictive airway functioning in the United States: a cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Earl S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reasons for the excess risk for cardiovascular disease among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the cardiovascular risk profile for adults with obstructive and restrictive impairments of lung functioning in a representative sample of adults from the United States. Methods We used data from adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2010 and had a pulmonary function test. The severity of obstructive impairment was defined by adapting the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Results Among 7249 participants, 80.9% had a normal pulmonary function test, 5.7% had a restrictive impairment, 7.9% had mild obstructive impairment, and 5.5% had moderate or severe/very severe obstructive impairment. Participants with obstructive impairment had high rates of smoking and increased serum concentrations of cotinine. Compared to participants with normal pulmonary functioning, participants with at least moderate obstructive impairment had elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein but lower concentrations of total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Among participants aged 50–74 years, participants with at least a moderate obstructive impairment or a restrictive impairment had an elevated predicted 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The high rates of smoking among adults with impaired pulmonary functioning, particularly those with obstructive impairment, point to a need for aggressive efforts to promote smoking cessation in these adults. In addition, adults with restrictive impairment may require increased attention to and fine-tuning of their cardiovascular risk profile.

  6. Cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function analysis with electron beam computed tomography in health Chinese people (50 cases report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantitatively measure cardiovascular diameters and function parameters by using electron beam computed tomography, EBCT. Methods: Men 50 health Chinese people accepted EBCT common transverse and short-axis enhanced movie scan (27 men, 23 women, average age 47.7 years.). The transverse scan was used to measure the diameters of the ascending aorta, descending aorta, pulmonary artery and left atrium. The movie study was used to measure the left ventricular myocardium thickness and analysis global, sectional and segmental function of the right and left ventricles. Results: The cardiovascular diameters and cardiac functional parameters were calculated. The diameters and most functional parameters (end syspoble volume, syspole volume, ejection fraction, cardiac-output, cardiac index) of normal Chinese men were greater than those of women (P>0.05). However, the EDV and MyM(myocardium mass) of both ventricles were significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: EBCT is a minimally invasive method for cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function evaluation

  7. Depression and Anxiety in a Cardiovascular Outpatient Clinic: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktash Bayani MD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiac diseases are psycho-somatic disorders, and psychological aspects play an essential role in their initiation and exacerbation. The aim of this study was to gain appropriate knowledge in the epidemiology of co-morbid depression and anxiety disorder in cardiovascular outpatients.Method: This study is descriptive with a sample of patients attending a cardio-vascular clinic. 238 individuals were included in this study using a consecutive sampling method. The study instrument was Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire, which is a clinical scale for assessing anxiety and depression.Results: Of the 238 participants in this study, 93(38.7% were male and 146 (61.3% female. 28.5% of patients suffered from anxiety disorders , and 41.9% had depression. Regarding comorbid diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, the severity of depression was just related to hypertension. There was a meaningful relationship between gender and symptoms of anxiety so that symptoms were more severe in women. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients suffering from cardio-vascular diseases, it is necessary to screen psychological disorders in patients with cardio-vascular diseases and improve their cardio-vascular health and quality of life as mush as possible.

  8. What Do Studies of Exercise and Cardiovascular Mortality Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Robert A

    1982-01-01

    Studies of exercise and cardiovascular mortality were reviewed to determine whether leisure-time or work activity affects mortality. Twenty-one prospective cohort and 12 rehabilitation case-control studies were reviewed based on epidemiological criteria. Most studies suffered from design deficits.

  9. Elucidating the Hemodynamic Origin of Ballistocardiographic Forces: Toward Improved Monitoring of Cardiovascular Health at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Abdul Qadir; Ashouri, Hazar; Tridandapani, Srini; Inan, Omer T

    2016-01-01

    The ballistocardiogram (BCG), a signal describing the reaction forces of the body to cardiac ejection of blood, has recently gained interest in the research community as a potential tool for monitoring the mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health for patients at home and during normal activities of daily living. An important limitation in the field of BCG research is that while the BCG signal measures the forces of the body, the information desired (and understood) by clinicians and caregivers, regarding mechanical health of the cardiovascular system, is typically expressed as blood pressure or flow. This paper aims to explore, using system identification tools, the mathematical relationship between the BCG signal and the better-understood impedance cardiography (ICG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms, with a series of human subject studies designed to asynchronously modulate cardiac output and blood pressure and with different magnitudes. With this approach, we demonstrate for 19 healthy subjects that the BCG waveform more closely maps to the ICG (flow) waveform as compared with the finger-cuff-based ABP (pressure) waveform, and that the BCG can provide a more accurate estimate of stroke volume ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) as compared with pulse pressure changes ([Formula: see text]). We also examined, as a feasibility study, for one subject, the ability to calibrate the BCG measurement tool with an ICG measurement on the first day, and then track changes in stroke volume on subsequent days. Accordingly, we conclude that the BCG is a signal more closely related to blood flow than pressures, and that a key health parameter for titrating care-stroke volume-can potentially be accurately measured with BCG signals at home using unobtrusive and inexpensive hardware, such as a modified weighing scale, as compared with the state-of-the-art ICG and ABP devices, which are expensive and obtrusive for use at home. PMID:27620621

  10. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management. PMID:26907579

  11. Putting a health inequalities focus on the Northern Ireland cardiovascular service framework

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    The PHA, supported by the Institute of Public Health in Ireland (IPH) and other agencies and individuals, has completed a health impact assessment (HIA) on the Cardiovascular Service Framework (CVSFW) for Northern Ireland.The CVSFW is the first in a series of service frameworks developed in Northern Ireland to guide HSC provision from prevention and health improvement over early intervention in communities and general practice into hospital and other institutional settings towards rehabilitat...

  12. Implications of market integration for cardiovascular and metabolic health among an indigenous Amazonian Ecuadorian population

    OpenAIRE

    Liebert, MA; Snodgrass, JJ; Madimenos, FC; Cepon, TJ; Blackwell, AD; Sugiyama, LS

    2013-01-01

    Background: Market integration (MI), the suite of social and cultural changes that occur with economic development, has been associated with negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease; however, key questions remain about how this transition manifests at the local level. Aim: The present paper investigates the effects of MI on health among Shuar, an indigenous lowland Ecuadorian population, with the goal of better understanding the mechanisms responsible for this health transition...

  13. STUDY OF CULTURING CARDIOVASCULAR TISSUE IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成少飞; 叶清

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of utilizing vascular cells combined with folded and framed culture model to develop completely autologous human tissue without using any scaffold material under the principles of Tissue Engineering. Methods Human vascular cells cultured from ascending aorta (group A) and saphenous vein (group B) were seeded into 15cm-dishes (each n =12 ) and cultured to form cell sheets over a period of four weeks with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with lmmol/L L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate. Thereafter, cell sheets (6 samples of each group) were four-layer folded and cultured in a newly developed frame device for additional four weeks. Controls remained under standard culture conditions. Tissue development was evaluated by light and electron microscopy, biochemical assays. Results The formation of multi-layered cell sheets and production of extracellular matrix were observed in each group after the initial four weeks. Analysis of the folded and framed neo-tissue revealed a solid structure with increased matrix formation and tissue organization compared to the control groups after additional four weeks. DNA assay indicated significantly lower cell proliferation in folded and framed cell sheets than in that of unframed counterparts. Yet hydroxyproline assay demonstrated significant increase of collagen content in the framed aortic and venous derived tissues, which contained 82 % and 42 % that of human pericardium. Conclusion It is feasible to obtain completely autologous human cardiovascular tissue with the alternative new approach. Numerous issues including improvement of mechanical strength of neo-tissue remain to be investingated.

  14. Cardiovascular disease prevention in rural Nigeria in the context of a community based health insurance scheme: QUality Improvement Cardiovascular care Kwara-I (QUICK-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Shade

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a leading contributor to the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries. Guidelines for CVD prevention care in low resource settings have been developed but little information is available on strategies to implement this care. A community health insurance program might be used to improve patients' access to care. The operational research project "QUality Improvement Cardiovascular care Kwara - I (QUICK-I" aims to assess the feasibility of CVD prevention care in rural Nigeria, according to international guidelines, in the context of a community based health insurance scheme. Methods/Design Design: prospective observational hospital based cohort study. Setting: a primary health care centre in rural Nigeria. Study population: 300 patients at risk for development of CVD (patients with hypertension, diabetes, renal disease or established CVD who are enrolled in the Hygeia Community Health Plan. Measurements: demographic and socio- economic data, physical and laboratory examination, CVD risk profile including screening for target organ damage. Measurements will be done at 3 month intervals during 1 year. Direct and indirect costs of CVD prevention care will be estimated. Outcomes: 1 The adjusted cardiovascular quality of care indicator scores based on the "United Kingdom National Health Services Quality and Outcome Framework". 2 The average costs of CVD prevention and treatment per patient per year for patients, the clinic and the insurance company. 3 The estimated net health care costs of standard CVD prevention care per quality-adjusted life year gained. Analysis: The primary outcomes, the score on CVD quality indicators and cost data will be descriptive. The quality scores and cost data will be used to describe the feasibility of CVD prevention care according to international guidelines. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be done using a Markov model. Discussion Results of QUICK-I can

  15. 10-Year cardiovascular event risks for women who experienced hypertensive disorders in late pregnancy: the HyRAS study

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    Ponjee Gabrielle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the cause of death in 32% of women in the Netherlands. Prediction of an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease is difficult, in particular in younger women due to low sensitive and specific tests for these women. 10% to 15% of all pregnancies are complicated by hypertensive disorders, the vast majority of which develop only after 36 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in later life show both features of "the metabolic syndrome" and atherosclerosis. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and cardiovascular disease may develop by common pathophysiologic pathways initiated by similar vascular risk factors. Vascular damage occurring during preeclampsia or gestational hypertension may contribute to the development of future cardiovascular disease, or is already present before pregnancy. At present clinicians do not systematically aim at the possible cardiovascular consequences in later life after a hypertensive pregnancy disorder at term. However, screening for risk factors after preeclampsia or gestational hypertension at term may give insight into an individual's cardiovascular risk profile. Methods/Design Women with a history of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension will be invited to participate in a cohort study 2 1/2 years after delivery. Participants will be screened for established modifiable cardiovascular risk indicators. The primary outcome is the 10-year cardiovascular event risk. Secondary outcomes include differences in cardiovascular parameters, SNP's in glucose metabolism, and neonatal outcome. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the potential health gains of a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor screening program for women whose pregnancy was complicated by hypertension or preeclampsia. The calculation of individual 10-year cardiovascular event risks will allow identification of those women who will benefit from primary prevention by tailored

  16. Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the dose makes the poison…or the remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Bajwa, Ata; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J

    2014-03-01

    Habitual light to moderate alcohol intake (up to 1 drink per day for women and 1 or 2 drinks per day for men) is associated with decreased risks for total mortality, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and stroke. However, higher levels of alcohol consumption are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Indeed, behind only smoking and obesity, excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of premature death in the United States. Heavy alcohol use (1) is one of the most common causes of reversible hypertension, (2) accounts for about one-third of all cases of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, (3) is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation, and (4) markedly increases risks of stroke-both ischemic and hemorrhagic. The risk-to-benefit ratio of drinking appears higher in younger individuals, who also have higher rates of excessive or binge drinking and more frequently have adverse consequences of acute intoxication (for example, accidents, violence, and social strife). In fact, among males aged 15 to 59 years, alcohol abuse is the leading risk factor for premature death. Of the various drinking patterns, daily low- to moderate-dose alcohol intake, ideally red wine before or during the evening meal, is associated with the strongest reduction in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Health care professionals should not recommend alcohol to nondrinkers because of the paucity of randomized outcome data and the potential for problem drinking even among individuals at apparently low risk. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed for the 15-year period 1997 through 2012 using the search terms alcohol, ethanol, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, and mortality. Studies were considered if they were deemed to be of high quality, objective, and methodologically sound. PMID:24582196

  17. Sleep as a Potential Fundamental Contributor to Cardiovascular Health Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Chandra L.; Redline, Susan; Emmons, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal sleep is integral to health but is commonly not obtained. Despite its wide ranging public health impact, sleep health is under-appreciated by the general public and is only rarely considered by policy makers, employers, schools, and others whose policies and structures can adversely affect sleep. Inadequate sleep duration and quality are prevalent in minority and low-income populations and may play a fundamental role in racial and socioeconomic status (SES) inequities for a wide range...

  18. Health status as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Spertus, John A;

    2009-01-01

    Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence on the influ......Patient-perceived health status is receiving increased recognition as a patient-centered outcome in chronic heart failure (CHF) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but poor health status is also associated with adverse prognosis. In this systematic review, we examined current evidence...

  19. Health State Valuation in Iran: An Exercise on Cardiovascular Diseases Using Visual Analogue Scale Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bakhshandeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Disability Weights (DWs are main components for computing summary measure of population health (SMPH and economic studies. They are specific for each community, but there are no previous studies in Iran. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of health state valuation (HSV in Iranian population."nMethods: Twelve cardiologists in 3 sessions of expert panels, defined 25 states, related to cardiovascular diseases (3 major and 22 specific diseases. From January to March 2008, 80 persons in 4 groups including: physicians, patients, patients' families and general publics (each group 20, were interviewed and valuated the states, using visual analogue scale (VAS method. SPSS® 15 for window® (SPSS Corporation, Chicago, Illinois was used for statistical analysis."nResults: Data showed that the defined health states had various severities. All the 4 groups ranked the "3 major-dis­eases" and "very-mild" and "very-severe" states, similarly. Non-physicians were not able to differentiate among "val­vular-dis­eases" and "pacemakers" properly. The reliability of responses was acceptable."nConclusion: VAS is an appropriate and reliable method for HSV in Iranian population. Non-physicians' opinions can be consider in major cardiac diseases. Valuation of more specific situations must perform by physicians.

  20. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Clennin, Morgan N.; Payne, Jonathan P.W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed ...

  1. Race and ethnicity, obesity, metabolic health, and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Mackey, Rachel H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity unaccompanied by metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk across racial and ethnic subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 14 364 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative who had data on fasting...... serum lipids and serum glucose and no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline. We categorized women by body mass index (in kg/m(2)) as normal weight (body mass index 18.5 to <25), overweight (body mass index 25 to <30), or obese (body mass index ≥30) and by metabolic health, defined......, overweight women had similar risk to normal weight women (HR 0.92, interaction P=0.05). Obese black women without metabolic syndrome had higher adjusted risk (HR 1.95) than obese white women (HR 1.07; interaction P=0.02). Among women with only 2 metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk was increased in...

  2. Short-term street soccer improves fitness and cardiovascular health status of homeless men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Petersen, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Juel;

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of 12 weeks of small-sided street soccer (2.2 ± 0.7 sessions/week) and fitness center training (0.5 ± 0.2 sessions/week) on physical fitness and cardiovascular health profile for homeless men. Exercise capacity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), body composition (DXA...... daily-life activities. During a 60 min 4 versus 4 street soccer session 182 ± 62 intense running bouts were performed; mean HR was 82 ± 4% HR(max) and HR was >90% HR(max) for 21 ± 12% (±SD) of total time. On a day without training the participants performed 10,733 ± 4,341 steps and HR was >80% HR...

  3. Football training improves cardiovascular health profile in sedentary, premenopausal hypertensive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Lindenskov, A; Holm, P M;

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of short-term recreational football training on blood pressure (BP), fat mass, and fitness in sedentary, 35-50-year-old premenopausal women with mild hypertension. Forty-one untrained, hypertensive women were randomized into a football training group (n = 21......; FTG) and a control group (n = 20; CON). FTG performed 45 ± 1 1-h small-sided football training sessions during the 15-week intervention period. BP, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), blood lipid profile, and fitness level were determined pre- and post-intervention. After 15 weeks...... period. In conclusion, short-term football training resulted in a marked reduction in BP and induced multiple improvements in fitness and cardiovascular health profile of untrained, premenopausal women with mild hypertension....

  4. Quality of life and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in a community health care program population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mário Baptista Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life in a population that attended a specific community event on health care education, and to investigate the association of their quality of life with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors INTRODUCTION: Interest in health-related quality of life is growing worldwide as a consequence of increasing rates of chronic disease. However, little is known about the association between quality of life and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: This study included 332 individuals. Demographics, blood pressure, body mass index, and casual glycemia were evaluated. The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire on quality of life was given to them. The medians of the scores obtained for the physical, psychological, emotional, and environmental domains were used as cutoffs to define "higher" and "lower" scores. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to define the parameters associated with lower scores. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity were associated with lower scores in the physical domain. Dyslipidemia was also associeted with lower scores in the psychological domain. Male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. Aging was inversely associated with decreased quality of life in the environmental domain. CONCLUSION: The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to a decreased quality of life. Conversely, male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. These findings suggest that exercising should be further promoted by health-related public programs, with a special focus on women.

  5. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress. PMID:23055331

  6. Modifying health behavior to prevent cardiovascular diseases: a nationwide survey among German primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Diehl, Katharina; Bock, Christina; Herr, Raphael M; Mayer, Manfred; Görig, Tatiana

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Primary care is considered to be the ideal setting for CVD prevention. Therefore, more than 4,000 German primary care physicians (PCPs) were asked about their attitudes towards and their activities regarding the prevention of CVD in the nationwide ÄSP-kardio Study. The focus of the study was on health behavior modification. Two thirds of the participating PCPs stated that they routinely provided brief inventions to assist patients in reducing both their tobacco (72%) and alcohol (61%) consumption, to encourage them to increase their levels of physical activity (72%), and to assist them in adjusting to a more healthy diet (66%), and in achieving a healthy body weight (69%). However, only between 23% (quitting smoking) and 49% (diet modification) of PCPs felt that they had been successful in helping patients modify their lifestyles. Insufficient reimbursement, cultural diversity and a lack of time were reported to be the most problematic barriers to successful intervention in the primary care setting. Despite these obstacles, the majority of German PCPs was engaged in prevention and health behavior intervention to reduce the incidence and progression of CVD. PMID:24739770

  7. Modifying Health Behavior to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases: A Nationwide Survey among German Primary Care Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schneider

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of death in developed countries. Primary care is considered to be the ideal setting for CVD prevention. Therefore, more than 4,000 German primary care physicians (PCPs were asked about their attitudes towards and their activities regarding the prevention of CVD in the nationwide ÄSP-kardio Study. The focus of the study was on health behavior modification. Two thirds of the participating PCPs stated that they routinely provided brief inventions to assist patients in reducing both their tobacco (72% and alcohol (61% consumption, to encourage them to increase their levels of physical activity (72%, and to assist them in adjusting to a more healthy diet (66%, and in achieving a healthy body weight (69%. However, only between 23% (quitting smoking and 49% (diet modification of PCPs felt that they had been successful in helping patients modify their lifestyles. Insufficient reimbursement, cultural diversity and a lack of time were reported to be the most problematic barriers to successful intervention in the primary care setting. Despite these obstacles, the majority of German PCPs was engaged in prevention and health behavior intervention to reduce the incidence and progression of CVD.

  8. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  9. Serum Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among U.S. adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balluz Lina S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C measures all atherogenic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and predicts risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The association of non-HDL-C with risk of death from CVD in diabetes is not well understood. This study assessed the hypothesis that, among adults with diabetes, non-HDL-C may be related to the risk of death from CVD. Methods We analyzed data from 1,122 adults aged 20 years and older with diagnosed diabetes who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey linked mortality study (299 deaths from CVD according to underlying cause of death; median follow-up length, 12.4 years. Results Compared to participants with serum non-HDL-C concentrations of 35 to 129 mg/dL, those with higher serum levels had a higher risk of death from total CVD: the RRs were 1.34 (95% CI: 0.75-2.39 and 2.25 (95% CI: 1.30-3.91 for non-HDL-C concentrations of 130-189 mg/dL and 190-403 mg/dL, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend after adjustment for demographic characteristics and selected risk factors. In subgroup analyses, significant linear trends were identified for the risk of death from ischemic heart disease: the RRs were 1.59 (95% CI: 0.76-3.32 and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.28-4.89 (P = 0.006 for linear trend, and stroke: the RRs were 3.37 (95% CI: 0.95-11.90 and 5.81 (95% CI: 1.96-17.25 (P = 0.001 for linear trend. Conclusions In diabetics, higher serum non-HDL-C concentrations were significantly associated with increased risk of death from CVD. Our prospective data support the notion that reducing serum non-HDL-C concentrations may be beneficial in the prevention of excess death from CVD among affected adults.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Outcomes of Ideal Cardiovascular Health in US and Non-US Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Adnan; Aneni, Ehimen C; Spatz, Erica S; Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Roberson, Lara; Ogunmoroti, Oluseye; Malik, Rehan; Ali, Shozab S; Aziz, Muhammad; Feldman, Theodore; Virani, Salim S; Maziak, Wasim; Agatston, Arthur S; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2016-05-01

    Several population-based studies have examined the prevalence and trends of the American Heart Association's ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics as well as its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related morbidity and mortality and with non-CVD outcomes. However, no efforts have been made to aggregate these studies. Accordingly, we conducted a systematic review to synthesize available data on the distribution and outcomes associated with ideal CVH metrics in both US and non-US populations. We conducted a systematic search of relevant studies in the MEDLINE and CINAHL databases, as well as the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Search terms used included "life's simple 7", "AHA 2020" and "ideal cardiovascular health". We included articles published in English Language from January 1, 2010, to July 31, 2015. Of the 14 US cohorts, the prevalence of 6 to 7 ideal CVH metrics ranged from as low as 0.5% in a population of African Americans to 12% in workers in a South Florida health care organization. Outside the United States, the lowest prevalence was found in an Iranian study (0.3%) and the highest was found in a large Chinese corporation (15%). All 6 mortality studies reported a graded inverse association between the increasing number of ideal CVH metrics and the all-cause and CVD-related mortality risk. A similar relationship between ideal CVH metrics and incident cardiovascular events was found in 12 of 13 studies. Finally, an increasing number of ideal CVH metrics was associated with a lower prevalence and incidence of non-CVD outcomes such as cancer, depression, and cognitive impairment. The distribution of ideal CVH metrics in US and non-US populations is similar, with low proportions of persons achieving 6 or more ideal CVH metrics. Considering the strong association of CVH metrics with both CVD and non-CVD outcomes, a coordinated global effort for improving CVH should be considered a priority. PMID:27040086

  11. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  12. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A rural study

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Vishal R.; Annil Mahajan; Sudhaa Sharma; Anil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The present observational, cross-sectional prospective study was conducted during the period of 1 year in one of the rural health centers to study prevalence of conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVRFs) in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Five hundred consecutive postmenopausal women were screened for detailed information regarding common menopausal symptoms, the presence or absence of conventional CVRFs. Physical activity was measured, and dietary lifestyle...

  13. A STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SELENIUM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN LAMPUNG, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutakin; Rivai, Ida F; Setiawan, Andi; Abdulah, Rizky; Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Nakazawa, Minato; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Selenium deficient areas have been associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in some countries. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cardiovascular disease prevalence and selenium concentration in paddy soil and rice grains, the main staple food in Lampung, Indonesia. Paddy soil and rice samples (n(s) = 35) from eight regencies (n(d) = 8) in Lampung were analyzed for selenium content. The prevalences of heart disease, stroke, and hypertension in those regencies were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Indonesia. The Shapiro-Wilk's test was used to examine the data distribution. The Pearson's correlation was used to examine the correlation between cardiovascular disease prevalence and selenium concentration in the paddy soil and rice grains. Heart disease prevalence was negatively correlated with the selenium concentration in the paddy soil (r = -0.77, p = 0.02) and rice grain (r = -0.71, p = 0.05). A negative correlation was seen for stroke prevalence and selenium concentration in paddy soil (r = -0.76, p = 0.02). Hypertension prevalence was negatively correlated with the selenium concentration in the rice grains (r = -0.83, p = 0.01). These findings suggest that the selenium concentration in paddy soil and rice grains in the Lampung area may play a role in the fact the area has the lowest cardiovascular disease prevalence in Indonesia. Keywords: selenium, cardiovascular diseases, paddy soil, rice grain, Indonesia PMID:27244968

  14. Effects of slow breathing exercise on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions & galvanic skin resistance in healthy human volunteers - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Turankar, A.V.; Jain, S.; Patel, S.B.; Sinha, S.R.; A. D. Joshi; B N Vallish; Mane, P.R.; Turankar, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Regular practice of slow breathing has been shown to improve cardiovascular and respiratory functions and to decrease the effects of stress. This pilot study was planned to evaluate the short term effects of pranayama on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) which mirrors sympathetic tone, and to evaluate the changes that appear within a short span of one week following slow breathing techniques. Methods: Eleven normal health...

  15. Cardiovascular risks and brain function: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of executive function in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Yi-Fang; Eldreth, Dana; Kirk I Erickson; Varma, Vijay; Harris, Gregory; Fried, Linda P.; Rebok, George W.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive impairment and risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms linking them are not clear. This study aims to investigate the association between aggregate CV risk, assessed by the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile, and functional brain activation in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Sixty participants (mean age: 64.6 years) from the Brain Health ...

  16. Cardiovascular health knowledge and preventive practices in people living with HIV in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Temu, Tecla M.; Kirui, Nicholas; Wanjalla, Celestine; Ndungu, Alfred M.; Kamano, Jemima H.; Inui, Thomas S; Bloomfield, Gerald S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contribute to increase risk of CVD in people living with HIV (PLWH). Of all world regions, sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of HIV yet little is known about PLWH’s CVD knowledge and self- perceived risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we assessed PLWH’s knowledge, perception and attitude towards cardiovascular diseases and their prevention. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in the largest...

  17. Is There Disparity in Cardiovascular Health Between Migrant Workers and Native Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Cho, Sunghye; Kim, Yune Kyong; Kim, Jung Hee

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the probability of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MS) risk factors among middle-aged Korean Chinese (KC) migrant women workers compared to comparable native Korean (NK) women workers. Using matched samples based on the propensity score matching method, 10-year CVD risk was calculated and MS risk factors identified. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis were conducted. The probability of KC migrants' 10-year CVD risk was significantly lower (6.4%) than NK women risk (7.8%, t = 1.99, p = .048). Blood pressure of 130/85 mmHg or higher was found to be a significant risk factor for 10-year CVD risk in both groups. The findings support existing knowledge about the healthy immigrant effect on CVD and MS risk factors. The findings could be the basis for occupational health professionals to pursue policy initiatives and public health and occupational health interventions to improve CVD outcomes among migrant women workers including KC migrants. PMID:27143145

  18. ‘Maintaining balance and harmony’: Javanese perceptions of health and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa S.T. Dewi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Community intervention programmes to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors within urban communities in developing countries are rare. One possible explanation is the difficulty of designing an intervention that corresponds to the local context and culture. Objectives: To understand people's perceptions of health and CVD, and how people prevent CVD in an urban setting in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Methods: A qualitative study was performed through focus group discussions and individual research interviews. Participants were selected purposively in terms of socio-economic status (SES, lay people, community leaders and government officers. Data were analysed by using content analysis. Results: Seven categories were identified: (1 heart disease is dangerous, (2 the cause of heart disease, (3 men have no time for health, (4 women are caretakers for health, (5 different information-seeking patterns, (6 the role of community leaders and (7 patterns of lay people's action. Each category consists of sub-categories according to the SES of participants. The main theme that emerged was one of balance and harmony, indicating the necessity of assuring a balance between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ habits. Conclusions: The basic concepts of balance and harmony, which differ between low and high SES groups, must be understood when tailoring community interventions to reduce CVD risk factors.

  19. Assessing Cardiovascular Health Using Life's Simple 7 in a Chinese Population Undergoing Stroke Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong Yang; Bin Zhang; Pan Deng; Lu Chen; Jing-Ran Wang; Dong-Sheng Fan

    2015-01-01

    Background:The American Heart Association/American Stroke Association proposed a metric called Life's Simple 7 (LS7) to define cardiovascular health (CVH).The presence of a large number of ideal components of CVH is associated with lower cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.We aimed to assess CVH using LS7 in a Chinese population undergoing primary and secondary stroke prevention.Methods:Patients with either ischemic stroke or cardiovascular risk factors were enrolled in the study from October 2010 to July 2013.LS7 components were scored as poor (0 points),intermediate (1 point),or ideal (2 points).The overall LS7 score was categorized as inadequate (0-4),average (5-9),or optimal (10-14) CVH.The Chi-square test,Mann-Whitney U-test,and Kruskal-Wallis test were used.Results:In total,706 patients were enrolled.(1) The distribution of the overall LS7 score (n =255) indicated that 9.4%,82.4%,and 8.2% of the patients had inadequate,average,and optimal CVH,respectively.The proportion of patients with optimal CVH undergoing secondary stroke prevention was lower than that for patients undergoing primary stroke prevention (3.8% vs.12.8%,P =0.005).The vast majority of participants (76.1%) presented with ≤2 ideal health components.(2) The proportions of patients with poor,intermediate,and ideal status,respectively,for the following LS7 components were assessed:Total cholesterol (n =275; 5.1%,73.8%,and 21.1%),blood pressure (n =351 ;32.5%,59.0%,and 8.5%),blood glucose (n =280; 9.3%,39.6%,and 51.1%),physical activity (n =540; 90.7%,8.7%,and 0.6%),diet (n =524;0.2%,92.4%,and 7.4%),smoking (n =619; 20.7%,2.9%,and 76.4%),and body mass index (n =259; 6.6%,35.5%,and 57.9%).Conclusions:Few Chinese patients undergoing stroke prevention had optimal CVH (determined using LS7).Additionally,fewer patients undergoing secondary prevention had optimal CVH than those undergoing primary prevention.In particular,physical activity

  20. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka V. Gadiraju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week. Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying, temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  1. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress, and Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence from Human Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Joachim Eisele; Philipp Markart; Richard Schulz

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a frequent disease mainly affecting obese people and caused by repetitive collapse of the upper airways during sleep. The increased morbidity and mortality of OSA are mainly thought to be the consequence of its adverse effects on cardiovascular (CV) health. In this context, oxidative stress induced by nocturnal intermittent hypoxia has been identified to play a major role. This is suggested by biomarker studies in OSA patients showing excessively generated rea...

  3. Cardiovascular Complications Secondary to Graves’ Disease: A Prospective Study from Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Tsymbaliuk, Iryna; Unukovych, Dmytro; Shvets, Nataliia; Dinets, Andrii

    2015-01-01

    Background Graves’ disease (GD) is a common cause of hyperthyroidism resulting in development of thyrotoxic heart disease (THD). Objectives to assess cardiovascular disorders and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with THD secondary to GD. Patients and Methods All patients diagnosed with THD secondary to GD between January 2011 and December 2013 were eligible for this study. Clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at the follow-up visit after the restoring of euthyro...

  4. The Role of DNA Methylation in Cardiovascular Risk and Disease: Methodological Aspects, Study Design, and Data Analysis for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia; Agha, Golareh; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that genetic, environmental, behavioral, and clinical factors contribute to cardiovascular disease development. How these risk factors interact at the cellular level to cause cardiovascular disease is not well known. Epigenetic epidemiology enables researchers to explore critical links between genomic coding, modifiable exposures, and manifestation of disease phenotype. One epigenetic link, DNA methylation, is potentially an important mechanism underlying these associations. In the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of epidemiological studies investigating cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in relation to DNA methylation, but many gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying cause and biological implications. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the biology and mechanisms of DNA methylation and its role in cardiovascular disease. In addition, we summarize the current evidence base in epigenetic epidemiology studies relevant to cardiovascular health and disease and discuss the limitations, challenges, and future directions of the field. Finally, we provide guidelines for well-designed epigenetic epidemiology studies, with particular focus on methodological aspects, study design, and analytical challenges. PMID:26837743

  5. Comparative Investigation of Health Literacy Level of Cardiovascular Patients Hospitalized in Private and Educational Hospitals of Kerman City, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Sajedeh; Azami, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Moghadameh; Motamedi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: literacy involves a complex set of abilities to understand and use symbolic systems of a culture for personal development and social development in a diverse set of skills required as an adult to exercise behavior are considered in society Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate Comparative investigation of health literacy level of cardiovascular patients hospitalized in private and public educational hospitals of Kerman city Methods: This study used survey methods, analytical and cross-sectional manner. Data was collected through questionnaires distributed among 200 patients of cardiovascular-hospitalization took place in the city of Kerman. To analyze the data in the description of the mean, standard deviation and frequency distribution tables and the level of analysis to determine the relationship between gender and marital status of health literacy test or nonparametric test Mann-Whitney T-Test and, for the relationship between group employment and residence, a one-way analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis test, to evaluate the relationship between age and income, Pearson and Spearman correlation to investigate the relationship between level of education and health literacy of SPPS software version 21 was used. Results: The results showed that 10% of patients at educational hospitals in Kerman adequate health literacy, and 48% of patients in private hospitals had adequate health literacy. As a result, there is a significant difference of health literacy between the two types of hospital (p-value <0/0001). Conclusions: The results showed that most patients had inadequate and border health literacy have been. Health plans, preparation of simple educational system and understanding, spending more time and have a discussion with the lower speed In connection with the patient’s doctor and medical staff, Including ways to help patients with low health literacy and improve their health literacy is. PMID:27041812

  6. Systemic Inflammation in Cardiovascular and Periodontal Disease: Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Glurich, Ingrid; Grossi, Sara; Albini, Boris; Ho, Alex; Shah, Rashesh; Zeid, Mohamed; Baumann, Heinz; Genco, Robert J.; De Nardin, Ernesto

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated periodontal disease (PD) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These studies addressed the premise that local infection may perturb the levels of systemic inflammatory mediators, thereby promoting mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Levels of inflammatory mediators in the sera of subjects with only PD, only CVD, both diseases, or neither condition were compared. Subjects were assessed for levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), se...

  7. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardio-vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  8. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance guided electrophysiology studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lardo Albert C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Catheter ablation is a first line treatment for many cardiac arrhythmias and is generally performed under x-ray fluoroscopy guidance. However, current techniques for ablating complex arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia are associated with suboptimal success rates and prolonged radiation exposure. Pre-procedure 3D CMR has improved understanding of the anatomic basis of complex arrhythmias and is being used for planning and guidance of ablation procedures. A particular strength of CMR compared to other imaging modalities is the ability to visualize ablation lesions. Post-procedure CMR is now being applied to assess ablation lesion location and permanence with the goal of indentifying factors leading to procedure success and failure. In the future, intra-procedure real-time CMR, together with the ability to image complex 3-D arrhythmogenic anatomy and target additional ablation to regions of incomplete lesion formation, may allow for more successful treatment of even complex arrhythmias without exposure to ionizing radiation. Development of clinical grade CMR compatible electrophysiology devices is required to transition intra-procedure CMR from pre-clinical studies to more routine use in patients.

  9. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia...

  10. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Sun [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Park, Sung Kyun; Hu, Howard [Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lee, Sundong, E-mail: sdlee@sangji.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University, Wonju, Kangwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 {mu}g/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 {mu}g/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  11. Cadmium exposure and cardiovascular disease in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Limited epidemiologic data are available concerning the cardiovascular effects of cadmium exposure, although recent studies suggest associations with myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. We examined the associations of cadmium exposure with cardiovascular disease in nationally representative general Korean adults. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on blood cadmium and self-reported diagnoses of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and hypertension in a sub-sample of 1908 adults, aged 20 years and older, who participated in the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We used survey logistic regression models accounting for the complex sampling design to estimate the odds ratios (OR), adjusting for age, education, income, alcohol, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of hypertension, blood pressure, and blood lead. Results: The geometric mean of blood cadmium was 1.53 μg/L. After adjusting for potential confounders, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in blood cadmium (0.91 μg/L) was found to be associated with an increased risk for IHD (OR 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4). An IQR increase in blood cadmium was found to be associated with an elevated risk for hypertension only among men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8) but not among women. No association was observed with stroke in both genders. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cadmium in blood may be associated with an increased risk for IHD and hypertension in the general Korean adult population.

  12. Cardiovascular Disease Self-Management: Pilot Testing of an mHealth Healthy Eating Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pfaeffli Dale

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac rehabilitation (CR is crucial in the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD, yet attendance is poor. Mobile technology (mHealth offers a potential solution to increase reach of CR. This paper presents two development studies to determine mobile phone usage in adults with CVD and to evaluate the acceptability of an mHealth healthy eating CR program. Methods: CR attendees were surveyed to determine mobile phone usage rates. A second single-subject pilot study investigated perceptions of a 4-week theory-based healthy eating mHealth program and explored pre-post changes in self-efficacy. Results: 74 adults with CVD completed the survey (50/74 male; mean age 63 ± 10. Nearly all had mobile phones (70/74; 95% and used the Internet (69/74; 93%, and most were interested in receiving CR by text message (57/74; 77%. 20 participants took part in the healthy eating pilot study. Participants read all/most of the text messages, and most (19/20 thought using mobile technology was a good way to deliver the program. The website was not widely used as visiting the website was reported to be time consuming. Exploratory t-tests revealed an increase in heart healthy eating self-efficacy post program, in particular the environmental self-efficacy subset (Mean = 0.62, SD = 0.74, p = 0.001. Conclusions: Text messaging was seen as a simple and acceptable way to deliver nutrition information and behavior change strategies; however, future research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such programs.

  13. Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Patil, Harshal R; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-09-17

    Coffee, after water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared. Regardless, a growing body of data suggests that habitual coffee consumption is neutral to beneficial regarding the risks of a variety of adverse CV outcomes including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Moreover, large epidemiological studies suggest that regular coffee drinkers have reduced risks of mortality, both CV and all-cause. The potential benefits also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases, improved asthma control, and lower risk of select gastrointestinal diseases. A daily intake of ∼2 to 3 cups of coffee appears to be safe and is associated with neutral to beneficial effects for most of the studied health outcomes. However, most of the data on coffee's health effects are based on observational data, with very few randomized, controlled studies, and association does not prove causation. Additionally, the possible advantages of regular coffee consumption have to be weighed against potential risks (which are mostly related to its high caffeine content) including anxiety, insomnia, tremulousness, and palpitations, as well as bone loss and possibly increased risk of fractures. PMID:23871889

  14. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2010-01-01

    Although there are a number of studies on the coexistence of heart disease and COPD among patients acutely admitted to hospital, this relationship has not been accurately described in the general population. Especially data on the prevalence of both reduced lung function and impaired left...... the participants a randomly selected subgroup of 3,469 individuals underwent both spirometry and echocardiography. The participants were classified according to COPD stage using the international GOLD staging according to FEV(1) in % of predicted. The prevalence of COPD was 5.7% for mild COPD (GOLD...... stage 1), 9.4% for moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2) and 2.5% for severe and very severe COPD (GOLD stages 3+4). Individuals withCOPD were older and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Among the echocardiographical findings, only the...

  15. Cardiovascular morbidity in COPD: A study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Marott, Jacob Louis; Vestbo, Jørgen; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2010-01-01

    Although there are a number of studies on the coexistence of heart disease and COPD among patients acutely admitted to hospital, this relationship has not been accurately described in the general population. Especially data on the prevalence of both reduced lung function and impaired left...... the participants a randomly selected subgroup of 3,469 individuals underwent both spirometry and echocardiography. The participants were classified according to COPD stage using the international GOLD staging according to FEV(1) in % of predicted. The prevalence of COPD was 5.7% for mild COPD (GOLD...... stage 1), 9.4% for moderate COPD (GOLD stage 2) and 2.5% for severe and very severe COPD (GOLD stages 3+4). Individuals with COPD were older and had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Among the echocardiographical findings, only the...

  16. Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population based longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK, 4.4% (SCORE and 14.5% (Framingham had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females.

  17. Characteristics of Smokers from a National Sample Who Engaged in Any Physical Activity: Implications for Cardiovascular Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Lenhart, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, and current treatments lack long-term efficacy. Promoting physical activity may be a viable population-level approach to improving cardiovascular health among smokers. Purpose: To characterize smokers engaging in any physical activity based on demographics, quitting behaviors, health…

  18. Implementation of Management Strategies for Diabetes and Hypertension: from Local to Global Health in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Boulware, L. Ebony; Califf, Robert M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Peterson, Eric D.; Li, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and hypertension are chronic conditions that are growing in prevalence as major causal factors for cardiovascular disease. The need for chronic illness surveillance, population risk management, and successful treatment interventions are critical to reduce the burden of future cardiovascular disease. In order to address these problems, it will require population risk stratification, task sharing and shifting, and community- as well as network -based care. Information technology tools also provide new opportunities for identifying those at risk and for implementing comprehensive approaches to achieving the goal of improved health locally, regionally, nationally and globally. This article discusses ongoing efforts at one university health center in the implementation of management strategies for diabetes and hypertension at the local, regional, national, and global levels. PMID:25754564

  19. Systematic review of health disparities for cardiovascular diseases and associated factors among American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Newlin Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: American Indians and Alaska Native (AI/AN populations experience significant health disparities compared to non-Hispanic white populations. Cardiovascular disease and related risk factors are increasingly recognized as growing indicators of global health disparities. However, comparative reports on disparities among this constellation of diseases for AI/AN populations have not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: We performed a literature review on the prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease; and associated morbidity and mortality among AI/AN. DATA SOURCES: A total of 203 articles were reviewed, of which 31 met study criteria for inclusion. Searches were performed on PUBMED, MEDLINE, the CDC MMWR, and the Indian Health Services. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Published literature that were published within the last fifteen years and provided direct comparisons between AI/AN to non-AI/AN populations were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: We abstracted data on study design, data source, AI/AN population, comparison group, and. outcome measures. A descriptive synthesis of primary findings is included. RESULTS: Rates of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are clearly higher for AI/AN populations. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia differences are more equivocal. Our analysis also revealed that there are likely regional and gender differences in the degree of disparities observed. LIMITATIONS: Studies using BRFSS telephone surveys administered in English may underestimate disparities. Many AI/AN do not have telephones and/or speak English. Regional variability makes national surveys difficult to interpret. Finally, studies using self-reported data may not be accurate. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: Profound health disparities in cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors for AI/AN populations persist

  20. A Case control study of cardiovascular disease and arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Millions of people are at risk from the adverse effects of waterborne arsenic. Although the cardiovascular effects of high exposures to arsenic have been well documented, few individual level prospective studies have assessed cardiovascular risk at moderate exposures....

  1. HeartHealth: A cardiovascular disease home-based rehabilitation system

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzitofis, Anargyros; Monaghan, David; Mitchell, Edmond; Honohan, Freddie; ZARPALAS, Dimitrios; O'Connor, Noel E.; Daras, Petros

    2015-01-01

    The increasing pressure on medical institutions around the world requires health care professionals to be prescribing homebased exercise rehabilitation treatments to empower patients to self-monitor their rehabilitation journey. Home-based exercise rehabilitation has shown to be highly effective in treating conditions such as Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). However, adherence to home-based exercise rehabilitation remains low. Possible causes for this are that patients are not monitored, they ca...

  2. Toothbrushing, inflammation, and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from Scottish Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Cesar; Watt, Richard; Hamer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if self reported toothbrushing behaviour is associated with cardiovascular disease and markers of inflammation (C reactive protein) and coagulation (fibrinogen). Design National population based survey. Setting Scottish Health Survey, which draws a nationally representative sample of the general population living in households in Scotland. Participants 11 869 men and women, mean age 50 (SD 11). Main outcome measures Oral hygiene assessed from self reported frequency of to...

  3. Is tree loss associated with cardiovascular-disease risk in the Women's Health Initiative? A natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Michael, Yvonne L; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Prestemon, Jeffrey P; Whitsel, Eric A

    2015-11-01

    Data from the Women's Health Initiative were used to quantify the relationship between the loss of trees to an invasive forest pest-the emerald ash borer-and cardiovascular disease. We estimated a semi-parametric Cox proportional hazards model of time to cardiovascular disease, adjusting for confounders. We defined the incidence of cardiovascular disease as acute myocardial infarction requiring overnight hospitalization, silent MI determined from serial electrocardiograms, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or death from coronary heart disease. Women living in a county infested with emerald ash borer had an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (HR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.20-1.31). PMID:26335885

  4. Inuit Health in Transition: the Nuka study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    biological samples. The studies in Nunavik and Greenland are not identical but share protocols on diabetes, heart disease, diet, smoking, social capital, self rated health, gambling and many other topics. The study is being geographically expanded to cover also Nunavut, Labrador and East Greenland, and...... of cardiovascular health such as smoking, drinking and physical activity will be explored....... comparable studies have yielded data from Alaska Natives and Norwegian Sami. A number of researchers will present results from the study at this meeting and we shall hear a lot about the link between diet and health. I will take one step back and look at the social determinants of dietary patterns in...

  5. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns (“vegetable pattern”, “meat pattern”, and “animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern”) were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  6. Dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy Chinese women: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2016-05-01

    Little is known of the relationships between dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in China. We therefore designed a 3-year longitudinal study to evaluate the impacts of dietary patterns on changes in these factors among Chinese women. A total of 1,028 subjects who received health examination in 2011 and 2014 were recruited. Three major dietary patterns ("vegetable pattern", "meat pattern", and "animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern") were derived by principal component analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires. Cardiovascular risk factors were standardized to create within-cohort z-scores and the changes in them were calculated as the differences between 2011 and 2014. Relationships between dietary patterns and changes in cardiovascular risk factors were assessed using general linear model. After adjustment for potential confounders, changes in total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose decreased across the tertiles of vegetable pattern (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). While, changes in diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased across the tertiles of animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern (p for trend = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively). The findings suggest that vegetable pattern was beneficially related to cardiovascular risk factors, whereas animal offal-dessert-and-alcohol pattern was detrimental related to these factors among apparently healthy Chinese women. PMID:27257349

  7. Assessment of adherence to cardiovascular medicines in rural population: An observational study in patients attending a tertiary care hospital

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    Gouranga Santra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nonadherence to cardiovascular medicines is a major concern. It increases the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular patients. The work was conducted to evaluate the adherence to cardiovascular medicines in patients of rural India. Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Medicine involving rural patients with essential hypertension (HTN, congestive cardiac failure (CCF, and ischemic heart disease (IHD over 12 months period. Patients were prescribed with cardiovascular medicines at the initial visit and adherence to medicines was assessed in the subsequent visit. Four items Morisky's Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-4 was used for assessing medication adherence. Patients were considered adherent to medication if they answered negatively to all four questions. Results: Overall adherence to medication was 20.83%, 28.37% and 32% in HTN, CCF, and IHD patients, respectively. Nonadherence was highest in patients of HTN. Among the four reasons of nonadherence assessed by MMAS-4, carelessness was the most common and forgetfulness was the least common cause of nonadherence in all the three groups of patients. Conclusion: Patients of rural India adhere poorly to cardiovascular medicines. Nonadherence should be considered as a public health problem. Strategies for detecting the level of adherence of cardiovascular medicines, its barriers, and subsequent interventions should be developed by policy-makers to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disorders.

  8. Cardiovascular diseases in the developing countries: dimensions, determinants, dynamics and directions for public health action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Srinath

    2002-02-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, principally due to a sharp rise in the developing countries which are experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: demographic shifts with altered population age profiles; lifestyle changes due to recent urbanisation, delayed industrialisation and overpowering globalisation; probable effects of foetal undernutrition on adult susceptibility to vascular disease and possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets and diminished physical activity are critical factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across developing regions with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must integrate policies and programmes that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of these diseases and provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives that espouse and enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health. An empowered community, an enlightened policy and an energetic coalition of health professionals must ensure that development is not accompanied by distorted nutrition and disordered health. PMID:12027289

  9. Measures of Cardiovascular Health and Physical Function after an Aerobic Exercise Intervention in a Patient Fifteen Days Post-Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Angela A; Mattlage, Anna E; Ashenden, Abigail L; Rippee, Michael A; Billinger, Sandra A

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: Case Study Background: Changes in cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness post-stroke severely impact an individual's quality of life. The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate whether a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise program would improve cardiovascular fitness, and physical performance measures in a participant following discharge from acute stroke rehabilitation. The participant is a 58 year-old female who experienced an ischemic stroke 15 days prior to beginning the exercise intervention. Case Description: The participant was provided a supervised 8-week exercise intervention on a Total Body Recumbent Stepper (TBRS). The exercise intervention consisted of three sessions per week; the first 4 weeks the participant exercised at a moderate intensity of 50-59% heart rate reserve (HRR) calculated from the baseline exercise test; the last 4 weeks the intensity was increased to 60-69% HRR. Exercise duration began at 20 minutes with the goal of reaching 30 minutes of continuous exercise at a specified workload. Outcomes: Following 8-weeks of intervention, the participant showed improvement in cardiovascular measures including: resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (HR), VO2 peak, and the maximum distance walked (6-MWT). Conclusion: The use of a moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise intervention may be effective for participants in the sub-acute phase of stroke recovery in order to improve cardiovascular health and physical function. PMID:24772455

  10. The prevalence of natural health product use in patients with acute cardiovascular disease.

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    Aws Alherbish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural health products (NHP use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. RESULTS: 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes. Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%, diabetes (26% and renal impairment (19%. NHP use was common (78% of patients and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73% followed by herbal products (20%, traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%, homeopathic preparations (1% and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%. In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]. When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%. NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. CONCLUSIONS: NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance

  11. Comparison of primary care models in the prevention of cardiovascular disease - a cross sectional study

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    Hogg William

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care providers play an important role in preventing and managing cardiovascular disease. This study compared the quality of preventive cardiovascular care delivery amongst different primary care models. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a larger randomized control trial, known as the Improved Delivery of Cardiovascular Care (IDOCC through Outreach Facilitation. Using baseline data collected through IDOCC, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 82 primary care practices from three delivery models in Eastern Ontario, Canada: 43 fee-for-service, 27 blended-capitation and 12 community health centres with salary-based physicians. Medical chart audits from 4,808 patients with or at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease were used to examine each practice's adherence to ten evidence-based processes of care for diabetes, chronic kidney disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, weight management, and smoking cessation care. Generalized estimating equation models adjusting for age, sex, rurality, number of cardiovascular-related comorbidities, and year of data collection were used to compare guideline adherence amongst the three models. Results The percentage of patients with diabetes that received two hemoglobin A1c tests during the study year was significantly higher in community health centres (69% than in fee-for-service (45% practices (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 2.4 [95% CI 1.4-4.2], p = 0.001. Blended capitation practices had a significantly higher percentage of patients who had their waistlines monitored than in fee-for-service practices (19% vs. 5%, AOR = 3.7 [1.8-7.8], p = 0.0006, and who were recommended a smoking cessation drug when compared to community health centres (33% vs. 16%, AOR = 2.4 [1.3-4.6], p = 0.007. Overall, quality of diabetes care was higher in community health centres, while smoking cessation care and weight management was higher in the blended-capitation models. Fee-for-service practices

  12. Targeting Preschool Children to Promote Cardiovascular Health: Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Jaime; Briceño, German; Farkouh, Michael E.; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Baxter, Jorge; Leal, Martha; Boffetta, Paolo; Woodward, Mark; Hunn, Marilyn; Dennis, Rodolfo; Fuster, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND School programs can be effective in modifying knowledge, attitudes, and habits relevant to long-term risk of chronic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles. As part of a long-term research strategy, we conducted an educational intervention in preschool facilities to assess changes in preschoolers’ knowledge, attitudes, and habits toward healthy eating and living an active lifestyle. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 14 preschool facilities in Bogotá, Colombia to a 5-month educational and playful intervention (7 preschool facilities) or to usual curriculum (7 preschool facilities). A total of 1216 children aged 3–5 years, 928 parents, and 120 teachers participated. A structured survey was used at baseline, at the end of the study, and 12 months later to evaluate changes in knowledge, attitudes, and habits. RESULTS Children in the intervention group showed a 10.9% increase in weighted score, compared with 5.3% in controls. The absolute adjusted difference was 3.90 units (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.64–6.16; P <.001). Among parents, the equivalent statistics were 8.9% and 3.1%, respectively (absolute difference 4.08 units; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.12; P <.001), and among teachers, 9.4% and 2.5%, respectively (absolute difference 5.36 units; 95% CI, −0.29–11.01; P = .06). In the intervened cohort 1 year after the intervention, children still showed a significant increase in weighted score (absolute difference of 6.38 units; P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A preschool-based intervention aimed at improving knowledge, attitudes, and habits related to healthy diet and active lifestyle is feasible, efficacious, and sustainable in very young children. PMID:23062403

  13. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Jui-Hua Huang; Shu-Ling Huang; Ren-Hau Li; Ling-Hui Wang; Yu-Ling Chen; Feng-Cheng Tang

    2014-01-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochem...

  14. Impact of ovarian function on cardiovascular health in women: focus on hypertension

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    Maric-Bilkan C

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Christine Maric-Bilkan,1 Emily L Gilbert,2 Michael J Ryan21Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Arterial blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are generally lower in premenopausal women compared with age-matched men. The lower blood pressure levels in premenopausal women are associated with a lower risk of the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. In contrast, menopause, a state characterized by a physiologic reduction in ovarian hormone levels, is associated with progressive increases in blood pressure and an overall increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. These observations suggest an association between blood pressure regulation and changes in ovarian hormone levels, estrogens in particular. In addition to menopause, the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease is also dramatically increased in premenopausal women with chronic diseases such as diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. Studies suggest that these chronic diseases may be associated with an imbalance in ovarian hormones, which may explain the increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in these women. However, the use of hormone therapy to manage the risk and prevent the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in women remains controversial. The precise mechanisms by which estrogens contribute to the regulation of blood pressure are still not completely understood. However, accumulating evidence suggests that modulating the activity of locally active hormone systems is one of the major mechanisms by which estrogens exert their effects on target organs, including the vasculature, kidneys, and immune system. In particular, the interaction between estrogens and the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in the regulation of blood

  15. Estimation of the Cardiovascular Risk Using World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH Risk Prediction Charts in a Rural Population of South India

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    Arun Gangadhar Ghorpade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH charts have been employed to predict the risk of cardiovascular outcome in heterogeneous settings. The aim of this research is to assess the prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD risk factors and to estimate the cardiovascular risk among adults aged >40 years, utilizing the risk charts alone, and by the addition of other parameters. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in two of the villages availing health services of a medical college. Overall 570 subjects completed the assessment. The desired information was obtained using a pretested questionnaire and participants were also subjected to anthropometric measurements and laboratory investigations. The WHO/ISH risk prediction charts for the South-East Asian region was used to assess the cardiovascular risk among the study participants. Results The study covered 570 adults aged above 40 years. The mean age of the subjects was 54.2 (±11.1 years and 53.3% subjects were women. Seventeen percent of the participants had moderate to high risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular events by using WHO/ISH risk prediction charts. In addition, CVD risk factors like smoking, alcohol, low High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were found in 32%, 53%, 56.3%, and 61.5% study participants, respectively. Conclusion Categorizing people as low (20% risk is one of the crucial steps to mitigate the magnitude of cardiovascular fatal/non-fatal outcome. This cross-sectional study indicates that there is a high burden of CVD risk in the rural Pondicherry as assessed by WHO/ISH risk prediction charts. Use of WHO/ISH charts is easy and inexpensive screening tool in predicting the cardiovascular event.

  16. Estimation of the cardiovascular risk using World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) risk prediction charts in a rural population of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Arun Gangadhar; Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Sarkar, Sonali; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna; Roy, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) charts have been employed to predict the risk of cardiovascular outcome in heterogeneous settings. The aim of this research is to assess the prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors and to estimate the cardiovascular risk among adults aged >40 years, utilizing the risk charts alone, and by the addition of other parameters. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in two of the villages availing health services of a medical college. Overall 570 subjects completed the assessment. The desired information was obtained using a pre-tested questionnaire and participants were also subjected to anthropometric measurements and laboratory investigations. The WHO/ISH risk prediction charts for the South-East Asian region was used to assess the cardiovascular risk among the study participants. Results: The study covered 570 adults aged above 40 years. The mean age of the subjects was 54.2 (±11.1) years and 53.3% subjects were women. Seventeen percent of the participants had moderate to high risk for the occurrence of cardiovascular events by using WHO/ISH risk prediction charts. In addition, CVD risk factors like smoking, alcohol, low High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were found in 32%, 53%, 56.3%, and 61.5% study participants, respectively. Conclusion: Categorizing people as low (20%) risk is one of the crucial steps to mitigate the magnitude of cardiovascular fatal/non-fatal outcome. This cross-sectional study indicates that there is a high burden of CVD risk in the rural Pondicherry as assessed by WHO/ISH risk prediction charts. Use of WHO/ISH charts is easy and inexpensive screening tool in predicting the cardiovascular event PMID:26340393

  17. Cohort Profile: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS): overview of milestones in cardiovascular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Connie W; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2015-12-01

    The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) has conducted seminal research defining cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and fundamentally shaping public health guidelines for CVD prevention over the past five decades. The success of the Original Cohort, initiated in 1948, paved the way for further epidemiological research in preventive cardiology. Due to the keen observations suggesting the role of shared familial factors in the development of CVD, in 1971 the FHS began enroling the second generation cohort, comprising the children of the Original Cohort and the spouses of the children. In 2002, the third generation cohort, comprising the grandchildren of the Original Cohort, was initiated to additionally explore genetic contributions to CVD in greater depth. Additionally, because of the predominance of White individuals of European descent in the three generations of FHS participants noted above, the Heart Study enrolled the OMNI1 and OMNI2 cohorts in 1994 and 2003, respectively, aimed to reflect the current greater racial and ethnic diversity of the town of Framingham. All FHS cohorts have been examined approximately every 2-4 years since the initiation of the study. At these periodic Heart Study examinations, we obtain a medical history and perform a cardiovascular-focused physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood and urine samples testing and other cardiovascular imaging studies reflecting subclinical disease burden.The FHS has continually evolved along the cutting edge of cardiovascular science and epidemiological research since its inception. Participant studies now additionally include study of cardiovascular imaging, serum and urine biomarkers, genetics/genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and social networks. Numerous ancillary studies have been established, expanding the phenotypes to encompass multiple organ systems including the lungs, brain, bone and fat depots, among others. Whereas the FHS was originally conceived and designed to study the

  18. [Satisfaction scales with health care to cardiovascular diseases: CARDIOSATIS--patient and team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Bandeira, Marina; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Oliveira, Graziella Lage; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Satisfaction is an important measure of quality care, of adherence to the treatment and adequate use of health services. The objective here is to build two scales which evaluates team' and patients' satisfaction with cardiovascular disease treatment provided through a distance telecardiology project. The procedure followed international standards for development of measure instruments, including operational definition of satisfaction contents and its area for evaluation; item definition; pre-test and pilot study. The literature review, focal groups and discussion with specialists had delimited the domains to be included in the scales and the elaboration of its items. The CARDIOSATIS-Team included 15 items and the CARDIOSATIS-Patient included 11. Satisfaction was measured through a five-point Likert scale. The scales' items comprised satisfaction with physical structure, human resources, capacity of resolution, attention and care offered by the service and the satisfaction with the received/given care. The scales also included open questions. CARDIOSATIS scales have showed to be an easy and accessible instrument very well accepted by medical team and patients. Preliminary results presented good characteristics of validity and reliability. PMID:21503491

  19. Insights on cholesterol nutrition: shift to a new paradigm for better cardiovascular health

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    Ghose Bishwajit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an extremely important biological molecule involved in a multitude of biological processes regarded as vital for our survival. Yet, the function that has attracted more attention is its contribution to the development of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of blood vessels, which constitutes an underlying cause of coronary heart disease. Atherosclerosis is the principal cause of myocardial and cerebral infarction and remains the chief cause of death across many parts of the globe. Shockingly, despite its extreme physiological importance, cholesterol remains the most controversial nutrient ever. Misconception continues to exist not only among the people lacking knowledge in nutrition, but also among many nutrition researchers. The misconceptions surrounding cholesterol have been so pronounced and persistent that its beneficial effects are hardly heard of. Pharmaceutical companies are using this mass (cholesterolphobia to flourish their business. However, recent studies demonstrate that cholesterol plays a minor role in cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this article are twofold. Firstly we review research articles to analyze the existing ideas regarding the link between heart diseases and cholesterol. Then we provide an up-to-date information about some health impacts of cholesterol and highlight the effects of anti-cholesterol drugs based on the researches performed to date.

  20. The PreCardio-study protocol – a randomized clinical trial of a multidisciplinary electronic cardiovascular prevention programme

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    Jacobs Nele

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the leading cause of death and the third cause of disability in Europe. Prevention programmes should include interventions aimed at a reduction of medical risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterol, hyperglycemia, overweight and obesity as well as behavioural risk factors (sedentary lifestyle, high fat intake and low fruit and vegetable intake, smoking. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a multifaceted, multidisciplinary electronic prevention programme on cardiovascular risk factors. Methods/Design In a randomized controlled trial, one group will receive a maximal intervention (= intervention group. The intervention group will be compared to the control group receiving a minimal intervention. An inclusion of 350 patients in total, with a follow-up of 3 years is foreseen. The inclusion criteria are age between 25–65 and insured by the Onderlinge Ziekenkas, insuring for guaranteed income in case of illness for self-employed. The maximal intervention group receives several prevention consultations by their general practitioner (GP using a new type of cardiovascular risk calculator with personalised feedback on behavioural risk factors. These patients receive a follow-up with intensive support of health behaviour change via different methods, i.e. a tailored website and personal advice of a multidisciplinary team (psychologist, physiotherapist and dietician. The aim of this strategy is to reduce cardiovascular risk factors according to the guidelines. The primary outcome measures will be cardiovascular risk factors. The secondary outcome measures are cardiovascular events, quality of life, costs and incremental cost effectiveness ratios. The control group receives prevention consultations using a new type of cardiovascular risk calculator and general feedback. Discussion This trial incorporates interventions by GPs and other health professionals aiming at a reduction of

  1. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the

  2. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga, E-mail: thiagoveiga@cardiol.br; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Povoa, Thais Rolim [Faculdade de Educação Física - Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the

  3. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Veiga Jardim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students, of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample, of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men, followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05 were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05. Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05. Conclusion

  4. Glycated haemoglobin and the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, K; Jensen, M T; Galatius, S;

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a considerably elevated risk of developing serious health problems including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Long-term elevated levels of blood glucose in nondiabetic individuals may also be associated with increased risk of CVD. The aim of this study was...

  5. A STUDY OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

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    Jorige Archana et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (15mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The organism showed resistance to aqueous extract giving an inhibition zone of 0.3mm. The data suggest that Tinospora cordifolia could be of benefit in arrhythmias and microbial infections.

  6. The aging diver: endothelial biochemistry and its potential implications for cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji Ardestani, Simin; Buzzacott, Peter; Eftedal, Ingrid

    2015-12-01

    Divers are exposed to circulatory stress that directly affects the endothelial lining of blood vessels, and even asymptomatic dives are associated with inflammatory responses, microparticle release and endothelial dysfunction. As humans age, there is a relative increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, attributed in part to declining endothelial function. Whether extensive diving in the older diver increases the risk of disease as a result of accumulated circulatory stress or provides protection through processes of acclimatization remains an open question. We provide a brief review of current knowledge about the separate effects of diving and aging on the vascular endothelium in humans and rodents, and discuss the available data on their combined effects. The aim is to elucidate possible outcomes of the interplay between exogenous and endogenous stress factors for endothelial function and to question potential implications for cardiovascular health in the aging diver. PMID:26687310

  7. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

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    Renée Chevrier-Lamoureux

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD, remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario. Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people‟s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1 place and access to health resources; 2 time and food culture; and 3 itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities.

  8. Women at cardiac risk: is HRT the route to maintaining cardiovascular health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Sørensen, M B

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women of postmenopausal age. Data from observational studies suggest that the risk of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women can be reduced by 30-50% by estrogen replacement therapy. The protective effect of estrogen is multifactoria...

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among children of different socioeconomic status in Istanbul, Turkey: Directions for public health and nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin Yasar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.

  10. Initial results of 'Language for Health': cardiovascular disease nutrition education for English-as-a-second-language students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J P; Candelaria, J; Woodruff, S I; Golbeck, A L; Criqui, M H; Talavera, G A; Rupp, J W; Domier, C P

    1998-12-01

    Low literacy skills may negatively affect health through misuse of medication, inability to follow medical directions or due to limitations placed on the consumer's ability to access health information. The association between low literacy among adults and cardiovascular disease has not been thoroughly investigated in some ethnic groups. The purpose of this comprehensive study is to describe the results of a nutritional-related cardiovascular health program for limited English proficient adults enrolled in English-as-a-second-language (ESL) classes. Subjects (n = 408), nearly 87% of whom were Latino, were exposed to either nutrition education (intervention group) or stress management (attention-placebo control group) classes designed specifically for ESL classes. Subjects completed physiological measures assessing blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, waist and hip circumference, and body mass. Self-report surveys were administered to collect students' nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Data were collected at baseline, 3 month post-test and 6 month follow-up. Analyses showed that differential group change was seen for fat avoidance, nutrition knowledge, HDL and total cholesterol:HDL ratio, but, for the two latter variables, the effect was not maintained at the 6 month follow-up. Both groups showed positive changes in blood pressure, total cholesterol and nutrition-related attitudes. Results showed moderate success of the intervention, but suggest contamination between experimental groups may have occurred. PMID:10345907

  11. Modeling the Effects of Indoor Passive Smoking at Home, Work, or Other Households on Adult Cardiovascular and Mental Health: The Scottish Health Survey, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Shiue

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Passive smoking has contributed increased risks of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and mortality, but the cumulative effects from work or other households were less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to model the effects of indoor passive smoking from own home, work, and other households in a country-wide, population-based setting. Data in the Scottish Health Survey between 2008 and 2011 after the law banning smoking in public places were analyzed. Information including demographics, lifestyle factors, and self-reported cardiovascular disease and mental health was obtained by household interview. Analyses included chi-square test and survey-weighted logistic regression modeling. After full adjustment, it was observed that being exposed to indoor passive smoking, in particular in more than two places of exposure, was significantly associated with risks of stroke, angina, heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, and GHQ ≥ 12. The significance remained for angina, GHQ ≥ 12 and probably heart attack in never smokers. The cumulative risks also impacted on sleep problems, self-recognition, making decisions, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, happiness and self-worth. The significance remained for sleep problems, self-confidence, under strain constantly, depressed, and happiness in never smokers. Elimination of indoor passive smoking from different sources should still be a focus in future public health programs.

  12. Cardiovascular risk rate in hypertensive patients attended in primary health care units: the influence of pharmaceutical care

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    Paulo Yuri Milen Firmino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular complications are relevant due to their frequency and severity on the hypertension scenario. Studies refer Pharmaceutical Care (PC as capable of decreasing cardiovascular risk rate (%CVR on hypertensive patients. This study aimed to investigate, through a randomized clinical assay, the influence of PC service on the %CVR of hypertensive patients assisted in a health primary care unit from Fortaleza-Ceará. Two study groups were formed: i. Intervention Group (IG, which received orientation about taking medicines, actions aiming to prevent/solve medicine interactions and adverse effects and non-pharmacological interventions for 9 months and, ii. Control Group (CG, which received traditional assistance of the unit and was monitored during the same period. It was observed a statistically significant reduction on %CVR (10.76 to 7.86; p=0.04 and systolic blood pressure levels (SBP (137.69 to 131.54; p<0.01 in the IG, while, in the CG, there was no significant alteration. 151 Drug Related Problem (DRP were identified and it was realized 124 pharmaceutical interventions, with 89.2% of them resulting on solution/prevention of the problem. Our findings indicated that the inclusion of the PC service in the hypertensive health assistance was more effective at the %CVR and the SBP reduction in comparison to the traditional assistance offered.

  13. Predictive Value of Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Risk Assessment in Cohort of Shiraz Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk assessment for fast growing burden of cardiovascular diseases is very important and dif- ficult. As a response to this challenge, in particular, genetic risk factors which potentially modify risk, we conducted a survey of primary data registry of Shiraz Heart Study on integration and application of family history data in prevention of cardiovascular disorders.Method: This study is a longitudinal cohort project to be extended from subpopulations of different job groups to the community.Results: Parental family history of MI, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia (HPL, hypertension (HTN was reported more frequently among females than males. Histories of MI, DM, HPL, and HTN in both parents were respectively positive in 2.6%, 2%, 4.6%, and 7.9 % of the participants. Odd ratios (OR for risk of MI from family history of MI were 2.7; risk of DM from family history of DM 4.5; risk of HPL from family history of HPL 2.04; and risk of HTN from family history HTN 4.7. Also, family history of MI modifies risk of HPL (OR=1.7, P<0.0001; and family history of DM modifies risk of HPL (OR=2.04, P<0.0001.Conclusion: Our primary result shows potent application of family history data in risk assessment of cardiovascular outcome. In particular, HTN appears as a silent and leading risk modifier. In regard to the course of continuing Shiraz Heart Study integration of family history of risk factors crucial in public health we suggest to adopt a network of electronic health records from the “Health House” to the “Heart House”.

  14. Nutritional strategies for skeletal and cardiovascular health: hard bones, soft arteries, rather than vice versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bergman, Nathaniel; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Fontes-Villalba, Maélan; DiNicolantonio, James J; Cordain, Loren

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to explore better strategies for optimising bone strength and reducing risk of fracture, while at the same time decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. The majority of Americans do not consume the current recommended dietary allowance for calcium, and the lifetime risk of osteoporosis is about 50%. However, traditional mononutrient calcium supplements may not be ideal. We comprehensively and systematically reviewed the scientific literature in order to determine the optimal dietary strategies and nutritional supplements for long-term skeletal health and cardiovascular health. To summarise, the following steps may be helpful for building strong bones while maintaining soft and supple arteries: (1) calcium is best obtained from dietary sources rather than supplements; (2) ensure that adequate animal protein intake is coupled with calcium intake of 1000 mg/day; (3) maintain vitamin D levels in the normal range; (4) increase intake of fruits and vegetables to alkalinise the system and promote bone health; (5) concomitantly increase potassium consumption while reducing sodium intake; (6) consider increasing the intake of foods rich in vitamins K1 and K2; (7) consider including bones in the diet; they are a rich source of calcium-hydroxyapatite and many other nutrients needed for building bone. PMID:27042317

  15. Implementation of a Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Program among School-Aged Children: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavon Young

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test students’ knowledge of cardiovascular disease information and to determine if a carefully structured training program administered to high school students would increase their knowledge about cardiovascular disease and risk factors that are preventable. A pilot study was conducted during which fifty high school students from nine counties in the State of Mississippi were measured for their knowledge of hypertension both at baseline and after the completion of an intervention training activity. There were significant gains in knowledge between the pre-test and the post-test that the students completed. The gains in knowledge indicate that elimination of risk factors is possible if all health care and school-based prevention programs are implemented to positively impact changes in eating and physical activity behaviors. Students’ involvement in such activities could translate into significant changes in risk factors at these ages and throughout their lifetime. It is widely accepted that these behavioral changes, if sustained into adulthood, could have the potential to influence cardiovascular risk reduction.

  16. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  17. High-Intensity Intermittent Swimming Improves Cardiovascular Health Status for Women with Mild Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Magni Mohr; Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg; Annika Lindenskov; Hildigunn Steinholm; Hans Petur Nielsen; Jann Mortensen; Pal Weihe; Peter Krustrup

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT performed 6–10 × 30 s all-out swimming interspersed by 2 min recovery and MOD swam continuously for 1 h at moderate intensity for a 15-week period completing in total 44 ± 1 and 43 ± 1 sessions, respectivel...

  18. Interrelation of Cadmium, Smoking, and Cardiovascular Disease (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eric M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Lee, David J; Hennekens, Charles H; Hlaing, WayWay M

    2016-07-15

    Cadmium biomarker levels are associated with both cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease. In this cross-sectional survey, we explore whether the association between cadmium and cardiovascular disease differs between cigarette smoking states. A cross-sectional analysis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2003 to 2012 was performed accounting for the nationally representative complex sampling design. All participants 45 to 79 years old with blood and urinary cadmium levels were included (n = 12,511). We explored the inter-relationships of blood and urine cadmium levels with cigarette smoking and a composite cardiovascular outcome that included self-reported myocardial infarction or stroke or both. We used multivariable logistic regressing models to further adjust for age, income, gender, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, diabetes, smoking intensity, and time period of smoking cessation. Of the 12,511 participants, 1,330 (8.5%) had previous myocardial infarction or stroke or both. The crude prevalence ratio (PR) comparing those in the lowest tertile of blood cadmium with those in the highest tertile for the composite outcome was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49 to 2.01). After adjustment for age, gender, income, self-reported diabetes, self-reported hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, and smoking status, the PR was 1.54 (95% CI 1.30 to 1.84). The adjusted PRs for each smoking subgroup were 1.54 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.18) for never-smokers, 1.57 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.23) for current smokers, and 1.31 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.78) for former smokers. These descriptive data from a nationally representative sample suggest that cadmium is related to cardiovascular outcomes even after adjustment for smoking status. PMID:27316775

  19. Effect of the rs2259816 polymorphism in the HNF1A gene on circulating levels of c-reactive protein and coronary artery disease (the ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study)

    OpenAIRE

    Renner Wilfried; Grammer Tanja B; Kleber Marcus E; März Winfried

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background C-reactive protein is a well established marker of inflammation and has been used to predict future cardiovascular disease. It is still controversial if it plays an active role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Recently, polymorphisms in the gene for HNF1α have been linked to the levels of C-reactive protein and coronary artery disease. Methods We investigated the association of the rs2259816 polymorphism in the HNF1A gene with the circulating level of C-reacti...

  20. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  1. Lactation and cardiovascular risk factors in mothers in a population-based study: the HUNT-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natland Siv T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactation has beneficial short term effects on maternal metabolic health, but the long term effects are less well known. Methods We studied the association between lifetime duration of lactation and cardiovascular risk factors in mothers later in life among 21,368 parous women aged 20 to 85 years attending the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2 in 1995–1997, Norway, a cross-sectional population-based study. General linear modelling was used to calculate mean values of known cardiovascular risk factor levels in five categories of lifetime duration of lactation. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate odds ratios of hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Results Among women aged 50 years or younger, lifetime duration of lactation was significantly and inversely associated with body mass index (P-trend, P-trend, P-trends, P-trends, Conclusion Lifetime duration of lactation was associated with long term reduced cardiovascular risk levels in mothers aged 50 years or younger.

  2. National Institutes of Health Career Development Awards for Cardiovascular Physician-Scientists: Recent Trends and Strategies for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Brian R; Tong, Carl W; Carlson, Drew E; Balke, C William; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Madhur, Meena S; Barac, Ana; Abdalla, Marwah; Brittain, Evan L; Desai, Nihar; Kates, Andrew M; Freeman, Andrew M; Mann, Douglas L

    2015-10-20

    Nurturing the development of cardiovascular physician-scientist investigators is critical for sustained progress in cardiovascular science and improving human health. The transition from an inexperienced trainee to an independent physician-scientist is a multifaceted process requiring a sustained commitment from the trainee, mentors, and institution. A cornerstone of this training process is a career development (K) award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). These awards generally require 75% of the awardee's professional effort devoted to research aims and diverse career development activities carried out in a mentored environment over a 5-year period. We report on recent success rates for obtaining NIH K awards, provide strategies for preparing a successful application and navigating the early career period for aspiring cardiovascular investigators, and offer cardiovascular division leadership perspectives regarding K awards in the current era. Our objective is to offer practical advice that will equip trainees considering an investigator path for success. PMID:26483107

  3. 2015 ACC Health Policy Statement on Cardiovascular Team-Based Care and the Role of Advanced Practice Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, John E; Handberg, Eileen M; Biga, Cathleen; Birtcher, Kim K; Bove, Alfred A; Casale, Paul N; Clark, Michael G; Garson, Arthur; Hines, Jerome L; Linderbaum, Jane A; Rodgers, George P; Shor, Robert A; Thourani, Vinod H; Wyman, Janet F

    2015-05-19

    The mission of the American College of Cardiology is "to transform cardiovascular care and improve heart health." Cardiovascular team-based care is a paradigm for practice that can transform care, improve heart health, and help meet the demands of the future. One strategic goal of the College is to help members successfully transition their clinical practices to the future, with all its complexity, challenges, and opportunities. The ACC's strategic plan is aligned with the triple aim of improved care, improved population health, and lower costs per capita. The traditional understanding of quality, access, and cost is that you cannot improve one component without diminishing the others. With cardiovascular team-based care, it is possible to achieve the triple aim of improving quality, access, and cost simultaneously to also improve cardiovascular health. Striving to serve the best interests of patients is the true north of our guiding principles. Cardiovascular team-based care is a model that can improve care coordination and communication and allow each team member to focus more on the quality of care. In addition, the cardiovascular team-based care model increases access to cardiovascular care and allows expansion of services to populations and geographic areas that are currently underserved. This document will increase awareness of the important components of cardiovascular team-based care and create an opportunity for more discussion about the most creative and effective means of implementing it. We hope that this document will stimulate further discussions and activities within the ACC and beyond about team-based care. We have identified areas that need improvement, specifically in APP education and state regulation. The document encourages the exploration of collaborative care models that should enable team members to optimize their education, training, experience, and talent. Improved team leadership, coordination, collaboration, engagement, and efficiency

  4. Estado nutricional, consumo alimentar e risco cardiovascular: um estudo em universitários Nutritional status, food consumption and cardiovascular risk: a study on university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Moraes Vasconcelos Petribú

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a proporção de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares, dando ênfase aos fatores nutricionais, em alunos da área de saúde de uma universidade pública do Recife. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 250 estudantes por um questionário que abordou aspectos biossociais, dados sobre estilo de vida, história familiar para doenças cardiovasculares, variáveis antropométricas e consumo alimentar, avaliado pelo Recordatório de 24horas. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada a seguinte freqüência para os fatores de risco analisados: tabagismo (2,8%, sedentarismo (41,7%, excesso de peso (35,5% e 5,3% nos sexos masculino e feminino, respectivamente pOBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the proportion of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, emphasizing nutritional factors, among health students from a public university in Recife, Brazil. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty students were assessed through a questionnaire that addressed biosocial aspects, lifestyle data, family history for cardiovascular diseases, anthropometric variables and food consumption determined by the 24-hour recall. RESULTS: The following rates were found for the assessed risk factors: smoking (2.8%, inactivity (41.7%, overweight (35.5% among men and 5.3% among women, p<0,01, family history of hypertension (35.5%, diabetes (11.3%, obesity (20.2% and death of close relatives before age 50 due to cardiovascular diseases (14.8%. Regarding food consumption, a high percentage of individuals had inappropriate energy intake and a low percentage had inappropriate protein and carbohydrate intakes. Regarding the fat profile of the diet, more than 40.0% of the students consumed more cholesterol than the recommended levels and 17.9% of the men and 44.8% of the women consumed high amounts of saturated fat (p<0.01. The consumption of linoleic acid and monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was inadequate in more than 95% of the individuals under study. CONCLUSION: The

  5. Education to a Healthy Lifestyle Improves Symptoms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors – AsuRiesgo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Chaves

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the current leading causes of death and disability globally. Objective: To assess the effects of a basic educational program for cardiovascular prevention in an unselected outpatient population. Methods: All participants received an educational program to change to a healthy lifestyle. Assessments were conducted at study enrollment and during follow-up. Symptoms, habits, ATP III parameters for metabolic syndrome, and American Heart Association’s 2020 parameters of cardiovascular health were assessed. Results: A total of 15,073 participants aged ≥ 18 years entered the study. Data analysis was conducted in 3,009 patients who completed a second assessment. An improvement in weight (from 76.6 ± 15.3 to 76.4 ± 15.3 kg, p = 0.002, dyspnea on exertion NYHA grade II (from 23.4% to 21.0% and grade III (from 15.8% to 14.0% and a decrease in the proportion of current active smokers (from 3.6% to 2.9%, p = 0.002 could be documented. The proportion of patients with levels of triglycerides > 150 mg/dL (from 46.3% to 42.4%, p 100 mg/dL (from 69.3% to 65.5%, p < 0.001 improved. A ≥ 20% improvement of AHA 2020 metrics at the level graded as poor was found for smoking (-21.1%, diet (-29.8%, and cholesterol level (-23.6%. A large dropout as a surrogate indicator for low patient adherence was documented throughout the first 5 visits, 80% between the first and second assessments, 55.6% between the second and third assessments, 43.6% between the third and fourth assessments, and 38% between the fourth and fifth assessments. Conclusion: A simple, basic educational program may improve symptoms and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, but shows low patient adherence.

  6. Cardiovascular risk during early adult life. Risk markers among participants in "Live for Life" health promotion programme in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, L. G.; Lindstrom, K.; Lingfors, H; Bengtsson, C; Lissner, L

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study differences in cardiovascular lifestyle risk factors and biological risk markers in early adult life, with special attention to age and sex differences. Lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors included dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol habits, psychosocial strain, and mental stress. Biological risk markers included anthropometric variables, arterial blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration. DESIGN: A combined individual and communit...

  7. Most frequent emotional states in convalescent patients of myocardial infarction and its relationship to cardiovascular health state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. García Martín

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: There was a predominance of partially offset somatic state of health. High levels of anxiety and depression states were identified and it was found the existence of an important relation between anxiety-depression emotional states, and the somatic state of health relating to the cardiovascular system in patients convalescent from myocardial infarction.

  8. Cardiovascular complications secondary to Graves' disease: a prospective study from Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Tsymbaliuk

    Full Text Available Graves' disease (GD is a common cause of hyperthyroidism resulting in development of thyrotoxic heart disease (THD.to assess cardiovascular disorders and health related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with THD secondary to GD.All patients diagnosed with THD secondary to GD between January 2011 and December 2013 were eligible for this study. Clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at the follow-up visit after the restoring of euthyroid state. HRQoL was studied with a questionnaire EQ-5D-5L.Follow-up data were available for 61 patients, but only 30 patients with THD secondary to GD were consented to participate in investigation of their HRQoL. The frequency of cardiovascular complications was significantly reduced as compared before and after the antithyroid therapy as follows: resting heart rate (122 vs. 74 bpm, blood pressure: systolic (155 vs. 123 mm Hg, diastolic (83 vs. 66 mm Hg, supraventricular premature contractions (71% vs. 7%, atrial fibrillation (72% vs. 25%, congestive heart failure (69% vs. 20%, thyrotoxic cardiomyopathy (77% vs. 26%, all p<0.01. Anti-TSH receptor antibodies were determined as independent predictor of left ventricular geometry changes, (b-coefficient = 0.04, 95%CI 0.01-0.07, p = 0.02. HRQoL was improved in all domains and self-rated health increased from 43 to 75 units by visual analogue score (p<0.001.Restoring of euthyroid state in patients with GD is associated with significant elimination of cardiovascular disorders and improvement of HRQoL. To our knowledge this is the first study evaluating Ukrainian patients with THD secondary to GD with focus on HRQoL.

  9. Depression and cardiovascular disease: The role of diet, lifestyle and health

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphuis, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Engelstalig abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) were the main causes of mortality world wide in 2002 and are also projected to stay the main causes of mortality till 2030. In addition, depression and CVD are both predicted to become main contributors of disability in 2030. Not only are depression and CVD highly prevalent and main contributors of disability, many studies have also shown that they are more closely related and indicate that depression may be causally related to CVD. However, ...

  10. European Practice Assessment of Cardiovascular risk management (EPA Cardio: protocol of an international observational study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lieshout Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite important improvements in available prevention and treatment, cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Not all high-risk patients and patients with CVD have healthy lifestyles and receive the best possible healthcare. Internationally comparative data are needed to compare cardiovascular risk management in different countries, and to examine the impact of improvement programs and others factors. Objectives This study aims to provide internationally comparative data on cardiovascular risk management provided in primary care and on health-related lifestyles of patients in Europe. The study will also explore the views of doctors and patients on innovative preventive services for CVDs. Design and methods An observational cross-sectional study is planned. In 10 European countries, stratified samples of 36 practices per country will be recruited. In each practice, three samples of 15 patients each will be sampled: patients with coronary heart disease, patients at high risk for CVD, and healthy adult patients. The quality of cardiovascular risk management has been specified in terms of 44 performance indicators that resulted from an international Delphi-procedure with general practitioners. Most indicators are based on medical records, and some on a structured interview with a contact person of the practice. Lifestyle (smoking, physical exercise, diet will be measured with previously validated questionnaires that are completed by patients. Additional measures include practice characteristics and exposure to programs to improve cardiovascular care.

  11. Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description

    OpenAIRE

    Casasnovas José A; Alcaide Victor; Civeira Fernando; Guallar Eliseo; Ibañez Borja; Borreguero Jesús; Laclaustra Martin; León Montserrat; Peñalvo José; Ordovás José M; Pocovi Miguel; Sanz Ginés; Fuster Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to des...

  12. The health effects of a forest environment on subclinical cardiovascular disease and heath-related quality of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ming Tsao

    Full Text Available Assessment of health effects of a forest environment is an important emerging area of public health and environmental sciences.To demonstrate the long-term health effects of living in a forest environment on subclinical cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and health-related quality of life (HRQOL compared with that in an urban environment.This study included the detailed health examination and questionnaire assessment of 107 forest staff members (FSM and 114 urban staff members (USM to investigate the long-term health effects of a forest environment. Air quality monitoring between the forest and urban environments was compared. In addition, work-related factors and HRQOL were evaluated.Levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting glucose in the USM group were significantly higher than those in the FSM group. Furthermore, a significantly higher intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery was found in the USM group compared with that in the FSM group. Concentrations of air pollutants, such as NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, CO, PM2.5, and PM10 in the forest environment were significantly lower compared with those in the outdoor urban environment. Working hours were longer in the FSM group; however, the work stress evaluation as assessed by the job content questionnaire revealed no significant differences between FSM and USM. HRQOL evaluated by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire showed FSM had better HRQOL scores in the physical health domain.This study provides evidence of the potential beneficial effects of forest environments on CVDs and HRQOL.

  13. A pilot study on pupillary and cardiovascular changes induced by stereoscopic video movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Norihiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taking advantage of developed image technology, it is expected that image presentation would be utilized to promote health in the field of medical care and public health. To accumulate knowledge on biomedical effects induced by image presentation, an essential prerequisite for these purposes, studies on autonomic responses in more than one physiological system would be necessary. In this study, changes in parameters of the pupillary light reflex and cardiovascular reflex evoked by motion pictures were examined, which would be utilized to evaluate the effects of images, and to avoid side effects. Methods Three stereoscopic video movies with different properties were field-sequentially rear-projected through two LCD projectors on an 80-inch screen. Seven healthy young subjects watched movies in a dark room. Pupillary parameters were measured before and after presentation of movies by an infrared pupillometer. ECG and radial blood pressure were continuously monitored. The maximum cross-correlation coefficient between heart rate and blood pressure, ρmax, was used as an index to evaluate changes in the cardiovascular reflex. Results Parameters of pupillary and cardiovascular reflexes changed differently after subjects watched three different video movies. Amplitudes of the pupillary light reflex, CR, increased when subjects watched two CG movies (movies A and D, while they did not change after watching a movie with the real scenery (movie R. The ρmax was significantly larger after presentation of the movie D. Scores of the questionnaire for subjective evaluation of physical condition increased after presentation of all movies, but their relationship with changes in CR and ρmax was different in three movies. Possible causes of these biomedical differences are discussed. Conclusion The autonomic responses were effective to monitor biomedical effects induced by image presentation. Further accumulation of data on multiple autonomic

  14. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases in patients attending a dental or periodontal clinic. Methods: Data were collected from 1,276 randomly selected dental records from patients attending a dental (n = 588) or ...

  15. Primary Hyperparathyroidism : A Study of Cardiovascular Dysfunction and its Reversibility After Parathyroidectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Inga-Lena

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk in primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is controversial, and studies mainly from Europe associate HPT with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular morphology and function were evaluated prospectively in 31 consecutive HPT patients (mean serum calcium 2.97±0.04) and randomly enrolled controls matched for age and sex. Patients were re-examined at normocalcemia about one year after parathyroidectomy. HPT patients showed an operatively reversible distur...

  16. Cardiovascular disease, risk factors and heart rate variability in the elderly general population: Design and objectives of the CARdiovascular disease, Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss Oliver

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the ageing population of industrialized nations requires an intensive search for means of reducing this epidemic. In order to improve prevention, detection, therapy and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases on the population level in Eastern Germany, it is necessary to examine reasons for the East-West gradient of CVD morbidity and mortality, potential causal mechanisms and prognostic factors in the elderly. Psychosocial and nutritional factors have previously been discussed as possible causes for the unexplained part of the East-West gradient. A reduced heart rate variability appears to be associated with cardiovascular disease as well as with psychosocial and other cardiovascular risk factors and decreases with age. Nevertheless, there is a lack of population-based data to examine the role of heart rate variability and its interaction with psychosocial and nutritional factors regarding the effect on cardiovascular disease in the ageing population. There also is a paucity of epidemiological data describing the health situation in Eastern Germany. Therefore, we conduct a population-based study to examine the distribution of CVD, heart rate variability and CVD risk factors and their associations in an elderly East German population. This paper describes the design and objectives of the CARLA Study. Methods/design For this study, a random sample of 45–80 year-old inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale in Eastern Germany was drawn from the population registry. By the end of the baseline examination (2002–2005, 1750 study participants will have been examined. A multi-step recruitment strategy aims at achieving a 70 % response rate. Detailed information is collected on own and family medical history, socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors. Medical examinations include anthropometric measures, blood pressure of arm and ankle, a 10-second and a 20

  17. Socioeconomic position in childhood and adult cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and function: cardiovascular risk in Young Finns study

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimäki, M; Davey Smith, G.; Juonala, M; Ferrie, J. E.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Elovainio, M; Pulkki-Råback, L; Vahtera, J.; Leino, M.; Viikari, J. S. A.; Raitakari, O. T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) with adult cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and vascular function in a contemporary population of young adults. Design: Population based prospective cohort study with baseline assessment in 1980. Setting: Finland. Participants: 856 men and 1066 women whose childhood SEP was determined by parental occupational status (manual, lower non-manual, upper non-manual) at age 3–18 years. Mai...

  18. Alterations in vascular function in primary aldosteronism: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Mark, P. B.; Boyle, S; Zimmerli, L U; McQuarrie, E.P.; Delles, C.; Freel, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Excess aldosterone is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Aldosterone has a permissive effect on vascular fibrosis. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows study of vascular function by measuring aortic distensibility. We compared aortic distensibility in primary aldosteronism (PA), essential hypertension (EH) and normal controls and explored the relationship between aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Methods: We studied PA (n=14)...

  19. Social status and cardiovascular disease: a Mediterranean case. Results from the Italian Progetto CUORE cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilotto Lorenza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social factors could offer useful information for planning prevention strategy for cardiovascular diseases. This analysis aims to explore the relationship between education, marital status and major cardiovascular risk factors and to evaluate the role of social status indicators in predicting cardiovascular events and deaths in several Italian cohorts. Methods The population is representative of Italy, where the incidence of the disease is low. Data from the Progetto CUORE, a prospective study of cohorts enrolled between 1983-1997, were used; 7520 men and 13127 women aged 35-69 years free of previous cardiovascular events and followed for an average of 11 years. Educational level and marital status were used as the main indicators of social status. Results About 70% of the studied population had a low or medium level of education (less than high school and more than 80% was married or cohabitating. There was an inverse relationship between educational level and major cardiovascular risk factors in both genders. Significantly higher major cardiovascular risk factors were detected in married or cohabitating women, with the exception of smoking. Cardiovascular risk score was lower in married or cohabitating men. No relationship between incidence of cardiac events and the two social status indicators was observed. Cardiovascular case-fatality was significantly higher in men who were not married and not cohabitating (HR 3.20, 95%CI: 2.21-4.64. The higher cardiovascular risk observed in those with a low level of education deserves careful attention even if during the follow-up it did not seem to determine an increase of cardiac events. Conclusions Preventive interventions on cardiovascular risk should be addressed mostly to people with less education. Cardiovascular risk score and case-fatality resulted higher in men living alone while cardiovascular factors were higher in women married or cohabitating. Such gender differences seem

  20. Electrocardiographic study in subjects with positive and negative serology for Trypanosoma Cruzi - asymptomatic patients coming from the Chicamocha study (cardiovascular health investigation from Colombia to assess the markers and outcomes of Chagas Disease)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrocardiographic study made in 2.130 blood donors in the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia between 1999 and 2004 is presented. The findings between 486 seropositive T (+) patients in relation with 1.644 seronegative T (-) for trypanosome Cruzi are compared. Differences in percentages that were statistically significant were found in the T (+) population respect to the T (-) regarding the following parameters: right bundle branch block (6, 1/2,6 p<0,001), anterosuperior left hemi- block (5, 7/2,3 p<0,001), atrioventricular block (2,7/1 p=0,006), ventricular extrasystoles (2,5/0,9 .p=0,009 flattening or inversion of T wave (16,4/10,8 p=0,001) and bordering pr (6,9/4,1 p=0,009). likewise, significant differences favoring T (-) group with regard to right bundle branch block (9,9/5,9 p=0,007) and non specific conduction disorders (42,5/34,1 i p=0,001), were found. on the subject of supraventricular extra systole or the presence of pathological T waves no statistically significant differences were found. also, if conduction disorders and rhythm disorders are associated, to have at least one of them is more frequent in T (+) group (16,8/11,3 p<0,001) and this is even more significant if two or more associated disorders are present (3,0/0,9 p<0,001)

  1. Health related quality of life in coronary patients and its association with their cardiovascular risk profile: Results from the EUROASPIRE III survey.

    OpenAIRE

    De Smedt, Delphine; Clays, Els; Annemans, Lieven; Doyle, Frank; Kotseva, Kornelia; Pająk, Andrzej; Prugger, Christof; Jennings, Catriona; Wood, David; De Bacquer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular patients are likely to have an impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) due to functional and psycho-social limitations. The main objective of this study was to assess the distribution of HRQoL scores in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients across 22 European countries and to identify factors associated with the variation between patients. METHODS: Data from the EUROASPIRE III survey (European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention by Intervention to Red...

  2. High-Intensity Intermittent Swimming Improves Cardiovascular Health Status for Women with Mild Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Magni; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lindenskov, Annika; Steinholm, Hildigunn; Nielsen, Hans Petur; Mortensen, Jann; Weihe, Pal; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n = 21; HIT), moderate-intensity (n = 21; MOD), and control groups (n = 20; CON). HIT performed 6–10 × 30 s all-out swimming interspersed by 2 min recovery and MOD swam continuously for 1 h at moderate intensity for a 15-week period completing in total 44 ± 1 and 43 ± 1 sessions, respectively. In CON, all measured variables were similar before and after the intervention period. Systolic BP decreased (P < 0.05) by 6 ± 1 and 4 ± 1 mmHg in HIT and MOD; respectively. Resting heart rate declined (P < 0.05) by 5 ± 1 bpm both in HIT and MOD, fat mass decreased (P < 0.05) by 1.1 ± 0.2 and 2.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively, while the blood lipid profile was unaltered. In HIT and MOD, performance improved (P < 0.05) for a maximal 10 min swim (13 ± 3% and 22 ± 3%), interval swimming (23 ± 3% and 8 ± 3%), and Yo-Yo IE1 running performance (58 ± 5% and 45 ± 4%). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance in sedentary women with mild hypertension. Adaptations are similar with high- and moderate-intensity training, despite markedly less total time spent and distance covered in the high-intensity group. PMID:24812628

  3. High-Intensity Intermittent Swimming Improves Cardiovascular Health Status for Women with Mild Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magni Mohr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that high-intensity swim training improves cardiovascular health status in sedentary premenopausal women with mild hypertension, sixty-two women were randomized into high-intensity (n=21; HIT, moderate-intensity (n=21; MOD, and control groups (n=20; CON. HIT performed 6–10 × 30 s all-out swimming interspersed by 2 min recovery and MOD swam continuously for 1 h at moderate intensity for a 15-week period completing in total 44±1 and 43±1 sessions, respectively. In CON, all measured variables were similar before and after the intervention period. Systolic BP decreased (P<0.05 by 6±1 and 4±1 mmHg in HIT and MOD; respectively. Resting heart rate declined (P<0.05 by 5±1 bpm both in HIT and MOD, fat mass decreased (P<0.05 by 1.1±0.2 and 2.2±0.3 kg, respectively, while the blood lipid profile was unaltered. In HIT and MOD, performance improved (P<0.05 for a maximal 10 min swim (13±3% and 22±3%, interval swimming (23±3% and 8±3%, and Yo-Yo IE1 running performance (58±5% and 45±4%. In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent swimming is an effective training strategy to improve cardiovascular health and physical performance in sedentary women with mild hypertension. Adaptations are similar with high- and moderate-intensity training, despite markedly less total time spent and distance covered in the high-intensity group.

  4. A retrospective cohort study on lifestyle habits of cardiovascular patients: how informative are medical records?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Fouwels; S.J.H. Bredie; H. Wollersheim; G.M. Schippers

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the vigilance of medical specialists as to the lifestyle of their cardiovascular outpatients by comparing lifestyle screening as registered in medical records versus a lifestyle questionnaire (LSQ), a study was carried out at the cardiovascular outpatient clinic of

  5. A retrospective cohort study on lifestyle habits of cardiovascular patients: how informative are medical records?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouwels, A.J.; Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Schippers, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the vigilance of medical specialists as to the lifestyle of their cardiovascular outpatients by comparing lifestyle screening as registered in medical records versus a lifestyle questionnaire (LSQ), a study was carried out at the cardiovascular outpatient clinic of the univer

  6. Movement and circulation: Population studies on physical activitiy and cardiovascular disease risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, G.B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship of leisure-time physical activity with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality was determined using data from the German Cardiovascular Prevention Study, conducted from 1984-1991. Three nationally representative crosssectional samples, with a total of 7 689 men and 7 747 women, ag

  7. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Charlot, Mette Gitz;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged...

  8. Diet and physical activity for children's health: a qualitative study of Nepalese mothers’ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Oli, Natalia; Vaidya, Abhinav; Subedi, Madhusudan; Eiben, Gabriele; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Non-communicable diseases account for 50% of all deaths in Nepal and 25% result from cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies in Nepal indicate a high burden of behavioural cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting a low level of knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour regarding cardiovascular health. The behavioural foundation for a healthy lifestyle begins in early childhood, when mothers play a key role in their children's lives. This qualitative study, conducted in a Nepalese...

  9. Shift work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a study at age 45 years in the 1958 British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Claudia; Power, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study examined associations between exposure to shift-work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the associations are explained by socio-economic circumstances, occupational factors or health behaviours. Biological risk factors for CVD were measured in 7,839 participants of the 1958 British birth cohort at age 45 years who were in paid employment. Regular (?1/week) shift-workers included 46% working evenings (1800?2200), 28% weekends, 13% night...

  10. Relationship between flow-mediated vasodilation and cardiovascular risk factors in a large community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Soga, Junko; Fujimura, Noritaka; Idei, Naomi; Mikami, Shinsuke; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Kajikawa, Masato; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Hidaka, Takayuki; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Noma, Kensuke; Nakashima, Ayumu; Goto, Chikara; Tomiyama, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationships between flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and cardiovascular risk factors, and to evaluate confounding factors for measurement of FMD in a large general population in Japan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 5314 Japanese adults recruited from people who underwent health screening from 1 April 2010 to 31 August 2012 at 3 general hospitals in Japan. Patients’ risk factors (age, Body Mass Index, blood pressure, cholesterol parameters, g...

  11. Sedentary leisure time behavior, snacking habits and cardiovascular biomarkers: the Inter99 Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenlund, Gitte; Jørgensen, Torben; Toft, Ulla;

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore the association between sedentary leisure time behavior (SLTB) and cardiovascular biomarkers, taking into account snacking habits, alcohol intake and physical activity level. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Study participants were recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a...... population-based intervention study, The Inter99 Study (1999-2006, Copenhagen, Denmark). A group of 6536 men and women, aged 35-65, was invited to attend a health examination and fill in a self-report questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied. Results: Response rate was 69% (N = 4511...... non-significant in men (ß = 0.9924, [0.9839; 1.0011]) and women (ß = 0.9932, [0.8605; 1.0014]). Conclusion: SLTB appears to be an independent CVD risk factor, regardless of snacking habits and physical activity....

  12. Social-Strata-Related Cardiovascular Health Disparity and Comorbidity in an Aging Society: Implications for Professional Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Carrigan, Lynn T.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise in the aging population of the United States. Heart disease is the leading cause of death, hospital bed use, and social security disability. Enhancing knowledge about CVD may improve social work's professional role in the health care system. This article focuses on a pressing CVD-related issue that needs…

  13. Effect of fast and slow pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular parameters in young health-care students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that both types of pranayama practice are beneficial in reducing PSS in the healthy subjects but beneficial effect on cardiovascular parameters occurred only after practicing slow pranayama.

  14. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Cardiovascular Risks Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Cardiovascular Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) evaluated several cardiovascular risks associated with space flight along with the ongoing and emerging plans to study these issues and potentially propose and/or develop countermeasures. The areas of focus included: 1) The risk of cardiac rhythm problems during prolonged space flight, and 2) Issues related to the risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity. An emerging area of concern is radiation associated vascular injury. The risk of cardiac rhythm disturbances has emerged based on case reports only. No systematic study of this risk has been published. However, concerns about this risk are heightened by the age range of astronauts, the structural changes in the heart that occur during space flight, and the potential shifts in fluids and electrolytes. The current plan is to use prolonged Holter monitor EKG records made as part of the "Integrated Cardiovascular SMO" in space to determine more about the frequency and magnitude of this problem and to link this data to complementary data from the nutrition group on electrolytes. The SRP was supportive of this approach. The SRP also felt that any data related to cardiovascular risk in space should be better coordinated with the medical screening data that all astronauts undergo at regular intervals. Additionally, while there are potential privacy issues related to this suggestion, many of the current barriers to better coordination of experimental and clinical data appear to reflect longstanding cultural traditions at NASA that need rethinking. The risk of orthostatic intolerance during re-exposure to gravity was seen by the SRP as an area supported by a wealth of published physiological evidence. The SRP also felt that moving forward with the planned approach to countermeasures was reasonable and that extensive additional hypothesis testing on the physiology of orthostatic intolerance was not needed at this time. There was support for developing

  15. (SPartners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnert Scott T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA. In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(Spartner" with elementary school physical education (PE teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (Spartnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1 improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2 increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3 increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. Methods/Design This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students

  16. Systemic Inflammation in Cardiovascular and Periodontal Disease: Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glurich, Ingrid; Grossi, Sara; Albini, Boris; Ho, Alex; Shah, Rashesh; Zeid, Mohamed; Baumann, Heinz; Genco, Robert J.; De Nardin, Ernesto

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated periodontal disease (PD) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These studies addressed the premise that local infection may perturb the levels of systemic inflammatory mediators, thereby promoting mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Levels of inflammatory mediators in the sera of subjects with only PD, only CVD, both diseases, or neither condition were compared. Subjects were assessed for levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), ceruloplasmin, α1-acid-glycoprotein (AAG), α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), and the soluble cellular adhesion molecules sICAM-1 and sVCAM by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent and/or radial immunodiffusion assays. CRP levels in subjects with either condition alone were elevated twofold above subjects with neither disease, whereas a threefold increase was noted in subjects with both diseases (P = 0.0389). Statistically significant increases in SAA and ACT were noted in subjects with both conditions compared to those with one or neither condition (P = 0.0162 and 0.0408, respectively). Ceruloplasmin levels were increased in subjects with only CVD (P = 0.0001). Increases in sVCAM levels were noted in all subjects with CVD (P = 0.0054). No differences in sICAM levels were noted among subject groups. A trend toward higher levels of AAG was noted in subjects with both conditions and for ACT in subjects with only PD. Immunohistochemical examination of endarterectomy specimens of carotid arteries from subjects with atherosclerosis documented SAA and CRP deposition in association with atheromatous lesions. The data support the hypothesis that localized persistent infection may influence systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Changes in inflammatory mediator levels potentially impact inflammation-associated atherosclerotic processes. PMID:11874889

  17. The role of physicians in a community-wide program for prevention of cardiovascular disease: the Minnesota Heart Health Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Mittelmark, M B; Leupker, R V; Grimm, R; Kottke, T. E.; Blackburn, H

    1988-01-01

    The Minnesota Heart Health Program (MHHP) aims to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality by reducing risk factors among the mass of residents in three midwestern communities. A major aspect of the program is the involvement of community physicians because they have high credibility as citizen leaders, especially on health issues. In the MHHP, physicians contributed in a number of ways. The initial contacts with physicians resulted in their providing support and introducti...

  18. Is procrastination a vulnerability factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease? Testing an extension of the procrastination-health model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Fuschia M

    2015-06-01

    Personality is an important epidemiological factor for understanding health outcomes. This study investigated the associations of trait procrastination with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (HT/CVD) and maladaptive coping by testing an extension of the procrastination-health model among individuals with and without HT/CVD. Individuals with self-reported HT/CVD (N = 182) and healthy controls (N = 564), from a community sample, completed an online survey including measures of personality, coping, and health outcomes. Logistic regression analysis controlling for demographic and higher order personality factors found that older age, lower education level and higher procrastination scores were associated with HT/CVD. Moderated mediation analyses with bootstrapping revealed that procrastination was more strongly associated with maladaptive coping behaviours in participants with HT/CVD than the healthy controls, and the indirect effects on stress through maladaptive coping were larger for the HT/CVD sample. Results suggest procrastination is a vulnerability factor for poor adjustment to and management of HT/CVD. PMID:25804373

  19. Pollutant sources, thermal transport, and cardiovascular studies win NSF grants

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Pinpointing sources of unhealthy air pollutants, investigating nanoscale thermal transport, and understanding cardiovascular flows are the goals of three Virginia Tech College of Engineering researchers who recently received Faculty Early Career Development Program (CAREER) awards, the National Science Foundation's most prestigious grants for creative junior faculty considered likely to become academic leaders of the future.

  20. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find Resveratrol helps protect against cardiovascular disease in animal study June 3, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound found ... translatable to humans. Multiple studies on resveratrol in animal models, however, have presented ample evidence to support ...

  1. Diet and physical activity for children’s health: a qualitative study of Nepalese mothers’ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Oli, Natalia; Vaidya, Abhinav; Subedi, Madhusudan; Eiben, Gabriele; Krettek, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Non-communicable diseases account for 50% of all deaths in Nepal and 25% result from cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies in Nepal indicate a high burden of behavioural cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting a low level of knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour regarding cardiovascular health. The behavioural foundation for a healthy lifestyle begins in early childhood, when mothers play a key role in their children’s lives. This qualitative st...

  2. Cardiovascular medication after cancer at a young age in Finland: A nationwide registry linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, A E; Madanat-Harjuoja, L M; Järvelä, L S; Malila, N; Matomäki, J; Lähteenmäki, P M

    2016-08-01

    Despite improved survival rates, childhood and young adult (YA) cancer survivors face elevated risks for life-threatening morbidities, especially cardiovascular complications. Our nationwide Finnish registry study investigated the purchases of cardiovascular medication from 1993 to 2011 in patients diagnosed with cancer aged below 35 years (N = 8,197) between 1993 and 2004 compared to siblings (N = 29,974) via linkage to the drug purchase registry. The cumulative incidence for purchasing cardiovascular medications was higher in childhood and YA cancer patients compared to siblings with a rising trend over time. After childhood cancer, the highest hazard ratio (HR) was found for purchasing anticoagulants (HR 19.8, 95% CI 8.5-45.9). The HRs for any cardiovascular medication (HR 7.2, 95% CI 5.1-10.1) and cardiac medication (HR 4.8, 95% CI 3.3-6.9) were markedly elevated after childhood cancer as well. Regarding YA cancer patients, the respective HRs were 2.5 (95% CI 2.0-3.2) for anticoagulants, HR 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) for any cardiovascular medication and HR 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.7) for cardiac medication. Among cancer patients, highest HRs for cardiovascular medication were observed after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and bone tumors (HR 10.2, 95% CI 6.8-15.5 and HR 7.4, 95% CI 4.0-13.7) and YA ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (HR 5.1, 95% CI 3.5-7.1 and HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.8-4.0). Our study demonstrated increased HRs for purchasing cardiovascular medication after early-onset cancer compared to siblings reflecting elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Thus, the implementation of long-term cardiovascular disease screening is imperative to prevent, detect and adequately treat cardiovascular late effects after cancer at a young age. PMID:26610262

  3. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  4. Long-range ozone transport and its impact on respiratory and cardiovascular health in the north of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Jezabel M.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; de Fátima Andrade, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Ozone dynamics depend on meteorological characteristics such as wind, radiation, sunshine, air temperature and precipitation. The aim of this study was to determine ozone trajectories along the northern coast of Portugal during the summer months of 2005, when there was a spate of forest fires in the region, evaluating their impact on respiratory and cardiovascular health in the greater metropolitan area of Porto. We investigated the following diseases, as coded in the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases: hypertensive disease (codes 401-405); ischemic heart disease (codes 410-414); other cardiac diseases, including heart failure (codes 426-428); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions, including bronchitis and asthma (codes 490-496); and pneumoconiosis and other lung diseases due to external agents (codes 500-507). We evaluated ozone data from air quality monitoring stations in the study area, together with data collected through HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model analysis of air mass circulation and synoptic-scale zonal wind from National Centers for Environmental Prediction data. High ozone levels in rural areas were attributed to the dispersion of pollutants induced by local circulation, as well as by mesoscale and synoptic scale processes. The fires of 2005 increased the levels of pollutants resulting from the direct emission of gases and particles into the atmosphere, especially when there were incoming frontal systems. For the meteorological case studies analyzed, peaks in ozone concentration were positively associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, although there were no significant associations between ozone peaks and admissions for respiratory diseases.

  5. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini

    2016-01-01

    The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360

  6. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet's Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini

    2016-01-01

    The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360

  7. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Fitó

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data.

  8. Evolving role of vitamin K2-7(Menaquinone) in Osteoporosis & cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Faruqui A.Ahmad M Asrar A

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis & cardiovascular disorders are one of the commonest global problem. These two disorders not only affect the quality of life but also put a huge financial burden on the family and the nation as a whole. Since ages we have been using calcium supplements for the management of osteoporosis and the recent reports have shown that it can lead to increased cardiovascular complications. Vitamin K2 ,an age old vitamin has been shown to take care of osteoporosis and cardiovascular compl...

  9. Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, O; Gislason, G H; Charlot, M;

    2011-01-01

    Southern Denmark, Copenhagen; Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Hellerup; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark) Psoriasis is associated with clinically significant cardiovascular risk: a Danish nationwide cohort study. J Intern Med 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02310.x. Objective. The...... magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is debated. We therefore investigated the psoriasis-related risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Design, setting and subjects. We conducted a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged =18 years followed from...

  10. Advances in the study on endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review summarized the current advances in understanding the role of the novel gasotransmitter,sulfur dioxide (SO2),in the cardiovascular system.Data sources Articles on the advances in the study of the role of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the cardiovascular system were accessed from PubMed and CNKI from 2003 to 2013,using keywords such as "endogenous sulfur dioxide" and "cardiovascular system".Study selection Articles with regard to the role of SO2 in the regulation of cardiovascular system were selected.Results Recently,scientists discovered that an endogenous SO2 pathway is present in the cardiovascular system and exerts physiologically significant effects,such as regulation of the cardiac function and the pathogenesis of various cardiopulmonary diseases such as hypoxic pulmonary hypertension,hypertension,coronary atherosclerosis,and cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury,in the cardiovascular system.Conclusions Endogenous SO2 is a novel member of the gasotransmitter family in addition to the nitric oxide (NO),carbon monoxide (CO),and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).Studies indicated that it has a role in regulating the cardiovascular disease.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases: results of the cardiovascular in rheumatology [CARMA] study

    OpenAIRE

    Urruticoechea Arana, Ana; Martín Martínez, María A.; Castañeda Sanz, Santos; Sánchez Piedra, Carlos A.; González Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca Díaz, Francisco Javier; Díaz González, Federico; González-Gay Mantecón, Miguel Ángel; CARMA Project Collaborative Group

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim was to study the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and the clinical characteristics of patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRD). Methods We studied a cross-section from the baseline visit of the CARMA project (CARdiovascular in rheuMAtology), a 10-year prospective study evaluating the risk of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients, and non-CIRD patien...

  12. Effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk of cardiovascular disease among workers with different body mass index levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Huang, Shu-Ling; Li, Ren-Hau; Wang, Ling-Hui; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) when body mass index (BMI) is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score) were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers' cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels. PMID:24785541

  13. Effects of Nutrition and Exercise Health Behaviors on Predicted Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Workers with Different Body Mass Index Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace health promotion programs should be tailored according to individual needs and efficient intervention. This study aimed to determine the effects of nutrition and exercise health behaviors on predicted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD when body mass index (BMI is considered. In total, 3350 Taiwanese workers were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to measure their nutrition and exercise behaviors. Data on anthropometric values, biochemical blood determinations, and predicted CVD risk (using the Framingham risk score were collected. In multiple regression analyses, the nutrition behavior score was independently and negatively associated with CVD risk. Exercise was not significantly associated with the risk. However, the interactive effect of exercise and BMI on CVD risk was evident. When stratified by BMI levels, associations between exercise and CVD risk were statistically significant for ideal weight and overweight subgroups. In conclusion, nutrition behavior plays an important role in predicting the CVD risk. Exercise behavior is also a significant predictor for ideal weight and overweight workers. Notably, for underweight or obese workers, maintaining health-promoting exercise seems insufficient to prevent the CVD. In order to improve workers’ cardiovascular health, more specific health-promoting strategies should be developed to suit the different BMI levels.

  14. An Update of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 and PGE2 Receptors in Cardiovascular Health and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangrui; Chen, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors, are among the most widely used drugs to treat pain and inflammation. However, clinical trials have revealed that these inhibitors predisposed patients to a significantly increased cardiovascular risk, consisting of thrombosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Thus, microsomal prostaglandin E (PGE) synthase-1 (mPGES-1), the key terminal enzyme involved in the synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and the four PGE2 receptors (EP1-4) have gained much attention as alternative targets for the development of novel analgesics. The cardiovascular consequences of targeting mPGES-1 and the PGE2 receptors are substantially studied. Inhibition of mPGES-1 has displayed a relatively innocuous or preferable cardiovascular profile. The modulation of the four EP receptors in cardiovascular system is diversely reported as well. In this review, we highlight the most recent advances from our and other studies on the regulation of PGE2, particularly mPGES-1 and the four PGE2 receptors, in cardiovascular function, with a particular emphasis on blood pressure regulation, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. This might lead to new avenues to improve cardiovascular disease management strategies and to seek optimized anti-inflammatory therapeutic options. PMID:27594972

  15. Study of pulp microflora in patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Safarov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 335 patients aged 20 to 60 years with various parodontitis inflammatory diseases have been selected for research. All patients have been divided into four groups of different age: with rheumatism - 96 persons, with heart ischemic illness - 82 persons, with arterial hypertension - 89 persons, with neurocirculatory dystonia - 68 persons. The presented results of supervision show diagnostic significant changes of pulp microflora with odontogenic infection in patients, suffering cardiovascular diseases

  16. Hyperleptinemia May Protect From Cardio-Vascular Complications: A Small Georgian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Zerekidze

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Leptin might act as a preventive measure for cardiovascular complications only in the presence of sufficient amount of fat mass. Further studies are warranted in order to support these results.

  17. A cluster-randomised clinical trial comparing two cardiovascular health education strategies in a child population: the Savinghearts project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Gómez Luis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes a methodology for comparing the effects of an eduentertainment strategy involving a music concert, and a participatory class experience involving the description and making of a healthy breakfast, as educational vehicles for delivering obesity-preventing/cardiovascular health messages to children aged 7–8 years. Methods/design This study will involve a cluster-randomised trial with blinded assessment. The study subjects will be children aged 7–8 years of both sexes attending public primary schools in the Madrid Region. The participating schools (n=30 will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1 Group MC, in which the children will attend a music concert that delivers obesity-preventing/cardiovascular health messages, or 2 Group HB, in which the children will attend a participatory class providing the same information but involving the description and making of a healthy breakfast. The main outcome measured will be the increase in the number of correct answers scored on a knowledge questionnaire and in an attitudes test administered before and after the above interventions. The secondary outcome recorded will be the reduction in BMI percentile among children deemed overweight/obese prior to the interventions. The required sample size (number of children was calculated for a comparison of proportions with an α of 0.05 and a β of 0.20, assuming that the Group MC subjects would show values for the measured variables at least 10% higher than those recorded for the subjects of Group HB. Corrections were made for the design effect and assuming a loss to follow-up of 10%. The maximum sample size required will be 2107 children. Data will be analysed using summary measurements for each cluster, both for making estimates and for hypothesis testing. All analyses will be made on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The intervention providing the best results could be recommended as part of health

  18. Impact of psychosocial factors on cardiovascular morbimortality: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Castañer, Olga; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Ros, Emilio; Diéz-Espino, Javier; Basora, Josep

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Mejía-Lancheros et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Background: Whilst it is well known that psychosocial determinants may contribute to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), data from specific groups are scarce. The present study aims to determine the contribution of psychosocial determinants in increasing the risk of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke), and death from CVD, in a high risk adult population.Methods: Longitudinal prospective study of 7263 patients (57.5% w...

  19. Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Variants, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Myocardial Infarction in the Costa Rica Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aslibekyan, S.; Jensen, M K; Campos, H.; Linkletter, C. D.; Loucks, E. B.; Ordovas, J. M.; Deka, R.; Rimm, E. B.; Baylin, A

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, rs174589, rs174627), intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in a matched population based case–control study of Costa Rican adults (n = 1756). Generalized...

  20. Cardiovascular health promotion for children: a model for a Parish (County)-wide program (implementation and preliminary results).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Gerald S

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in childhood result in a lifetime burden on the CV system. The Bogalusa Heart Study, a prevention program for children, addresses behaviors and lifestyles associated with CV risk. This prevention program utilizes the substructure of a Parish (County) that can be a model for other areas. All aspects in educating school children-the classroom, physical activity, cafeteria, teachers, and parents with community involvement-are included. The program requires cooperation of parents, schools, physicians, and political and business personnel. Their collaboration helps implement and sustain the program. Understanding the origin of coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and now the obesity epidemic shows the need to develop a framework for improving lifestyles and behaviors beginning in childhood. In addition to nutrition and exercise, the program addresses tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and societal problems such as dropping out of school, violent behavior, and teenage pregnancy. An initial accomplishment is the entry into all elementary schools, representing approximately 7000 children. Early results show reduction in obesity, increased physical activity, improved decision making, and healthy attitudes. This public health model is inexpensive by utilizing prior research findings and integrating into community resources. Health education of children is an important aspect of preventive cardiology with a need for pediatric and adult cardiologists' involvement. PMID:20021623

  1. Selenium Status and Blood Lipids: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stranges, S; Tabák, AG; Guallar, E; Rayman, MP; Akbaraly, TN; Laclaustra, M; Alfthan, G; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, H; Viikari, JS; Raitakari, OT; Kivimäki, M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract.  Stranges S, Tabák AG, Guallar E, Rayman MP, Akbaraly TN, Laclaustra M, Alfthan G, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Viikari JSA, Raitakari OT, Kivimäki M (Health Sciences Research Institute, University of Warwick Medical School, Coventry; University College London, London, UK; Semmelweis University Faculty of Medicine, Budapest, Hungary; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; National Center for Cardiovascular Research (CNIC), Madrid, Spain; University of Surrey, UK...

  2. THE COMPETITION BETWEEN METHYLMERCURY RISKS AND OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID BENEFITS: A REVIEW OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE ON FISH CONSUMPTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-10-31

    The health concerns of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of seafood have recently been extended to include cardiovascular effects, especially premature mortality. Although the fatty acids (fish oils) found in most species are thought to confer a wide range of health benefits, especially to the cardiovascular system, some epidemiological studies have suggested that such benefits may be offset by adverse effects of MeHg. This comprehensive review is based on searches of the NIH MEDLINE database and compares and contrasts 145 published studies involving cardiovascular effects and exposures to mercury and other fish contaminants, intake of fatty acids including dietary supplements of fish oils, and rates of seafood consumption. Since few of these studies include adequate simultaneous measurements of all of these potential predictor variables, we summarized their effects separately, across the available studies of each, and then drew conclusions based on the aggregated findings. It is important to realize that studies of seafood consumption encompass the net effects of all of these predictor variables, but that seafood intake studies are rarely supported by human biomarker measurements that reflect the actual uptake of harmful as well as beneficial fish ingredients. As a result, exposure measurement error is an issue when comparing studies and predictor variables. It is also possible that the observed benefits of eating fish may relate more to the characteristics of the consumers than to those of the fish. We found the evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of MeHg to be sparse and unconvincing. Studies of cardiovascular mortality show net benefits, and the findings of adverse effects are mainly limited to studies Finland at high mercury exposure levels. By contrast, a very consistent picture of beneficial effects is seen for fatty acids, after recognizing the effects of exposure uncertainties and the presence of threshold effects. Studies based on measured

  3. Heart valve health, disease, replacement, and repair: a 25-year cardiovascular pathology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Frederick J; Gotlieb, Avrum I

    2016-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed major advances in the understanding of the structure, function, and biology of native valves and the pathobiology and clinical management of valvular heart disease. These improvements have enabled earlier and more precise diagnosis, assessment of the proper timing of surgical and interventional procedures, improved prosthetic and biologic valve replacements and repairs, recognition of postoperative complications and their management, and the introduction of minimally invasive approaches that have enabled definitive and durable treatment for patients who were previously considered inoperable. This review summarizes the current state of our understanding of the mechanisms of heart valve health and disease arrived at through innovative research on the cell and molecular biology of valves, clinical and pathological features of the most frequent intrinsic structural diseases that affect the valves, and the status and pathological considerations in the technological advances in valvular surgery and interventions. The contributions of many cardiovascular pathologists and other scientists, engineers, and clinicians are emphasized, and potentially fruitful areas for research are highlighted. PMID:27242130

  4. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed by aggregating momentary experience samples of happiness over a working day and was inversely related to cortisol output over the day, independently of age, gender, socioeconomic position, body mass, and smoking. Similar patterns were observed on a leisure day. Happiness was also inversely related to heart rate assessed by using ambulatory monitoring methods over the day. Participants underwent mental stress testing in the laboratory, where plasma fibrinogen stress responses were smaller in happier individuals. These effects were independent of psychological distress, supporting the notion that positive well-being is directly related to health-relevant biological processes. PMID:15840727

  5. Spatial patterns of links between temperature extremes and cardiovascular health in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    Avignon : The Spatial Statistics Society, 2015. [Spatial Statistics 2015: Emerging Patterns. 09.06.2015-12.06.2015, Avignon] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : temperature extremes * cardiovascular mortality * cardiovascular morbidity * cluster analysis * geographically weighted regression Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.spatialstatisticsconference.com/index.html

  6. Cardiovascular disease treatment among patients with severe mental illness : a data linkage study between primary and secondary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhead, C.; Ashworth, M; Broadbent, B.; Callard, F.; HOTOPF, M; Schofield, P; Soncul, M.; Stewart, R. J.; Henderson, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Suboptimal treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among patients with severe mental illness (SMI) may contribute to physical health disparities. Aim To identify SMI characteristics associated with meeting CVD treatment and prevention guidelines. Design and setting Population-based electronic health record database linkage between primary care and the sole provider of secondary mental health care services in south east London, UK. Method Cardiovascular disease preval...

  7. Rationale and design of the EXenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Rury R; Bethel, Mary Angelyn; George, Jyothis; Sourij, Harald; Doran, Zoë; Keenan, Joanne; Khurmi, Nardev S; Mentz, Robert J; Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Buse, John B; Chan, Juliana C; Iqbal, Nayyar; Kundu, Sudeep; Maggioni, Aldo P; Marso, Steven P; Öhman, Peter; Pencina, Michael J; Poulter, Neil; Porter, Lisa E; Ramachandran, Ambady; Zinman, Bernard; Hernandez, Adrian F

    2016-04-01

    Exenatide once-weekly is an extended release formulation of exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, which can improve glycemic control, body weight, blood pressure, and lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The EXenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering (EXSCEL) will compare the impact of adding exenatide once-weekly to usual care with usual care alone on major cardiovascular outcomes. EXSCEL is an academically led, phase III/IV, double-blind, pragmatic placebo-controlled, global trial conducted in 35 countries aiming to enrol 14,000 patients with T2DM and a broad range of cardiovascular risk over approximately 5 years. Participants will be randomized (1:1) to receive exenatide once-weekly 2 mg or matching placebo by subcutaneous injections. The trial will continue until 1,360 confirmed primary composite cardiovascular end points, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke, have occurred. The primary efficacy hypothesis is that exenatide once-weekly is superior to usual care with respect to the primary composite cardiovascular end point. EXSCEL is powered to detect a 15% relative risk reduction in the exenatide once-weekly group, with 85% power and a 2-sided 5% alpha. The primary safety hypothesis is that exenatide once-weekly is noninferior to usual care with respect to the primary cardiovascular composite end point. Noninferiority will be concluded if the upper limit of the CI is <1.30. EXSCEL will assess whether exenatide once-weekly can reduce cardiovascular events in patients with T2DM with a broad range of cardiovascular risk. It will also provide long-term safety information on exenatide once-weekly in people with T2DM. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01144338. PMID:26995376

  8. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks. PMID:24731635

  9. Contributions of the Nurses’ Health Studies to Reproductive Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Farland, Leslie V.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Zhang, Cuilin; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the Nurses’ Health Study’s (NHS’s) contribution to identifying risk factors and long-term health consequences of reproductive events. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the NHS I, NHS II, NHS3, and Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) publications between 1976 and 2016. Results. Collection of detailed reproductive history to identify breast cancer risk factors allowed the NHS to document an association between menstrual irregularities, a proxy for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The NHS II found that infertility associated with ovulation problems and gestational diabetes are largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modification. It also identified developmental and nutritional risk factors for pregnancy loss, endometriosis, and uterine leiomyomata. As women in NHS II age, it has become possible to address questions regarding long-term health consequences of pregnancy complications and benign gynecologic conditions on chronic disease risk. Furthermore, the NHS3 and GUTS are allowing new lines of research into human fertility, PCOS, and transgenerational effects of environmental exposures. Conclusions. The multigenerational resources of the NHSs and GUTS, including linkages of related individuals across cohorts, can improve women’s health from preconception through late adulthood and onto the next generation. PMID:27459445

  10. Medical Tourism in Romania. The Case Study of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation in Covasna

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Oana Darabont; Paul Suceveanu; Mihaela Suceveanu; Clara Alexandra Volintiru

    2014-01-01

    Romania has one of the highest mortality rates in Europe for ischemic heart disease and, especially, for cerebrovascular disease. Taking into account the actual prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, an augmentation of the demand for specialized medical services is expected. As this paper argues, this situation can have an important impact on medical tourism. We analyze original data on the case study of a hospital, specialized in cardiovascular treatment, in the Romanian county of Covasna, w...

  11. Implementing a Graduate Certificate Program in Cardiovascular Epidemiology: The Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Clifton Addison; Gregory Wilson; Lavon Young; Regina Fields; Clevette Woodberry; Marinelle Payton

    2015-01-01

    The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) is committed to providing opportunities for expanding the understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The JHS Graduate Training and Education Center (GTEC) has initiated the Daniel Hale Williams Scholar (DHWS) program where students are afforded the opportunity to interact with epidemiologists and other biomedical scientists to learn to identify, predict, and prevent cardiovascular disease using the Jackson ...

  12. Creencias en fumadores pertenecientes a un programa de salud cardiovascular Crenças entre fumantes em um programa de saúde cardiovascular Beliefs among smokers in a cardiovascular health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Virginia González Consuegra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación identifica las creencias de consumidores de tabaco, usuarios de un programa de promoción de la salud cardiovascular en la ciudad de Bogota-Colombia, mediante abordaje cuanti-cualitativa. A partir, de entrevista a profundidad grabada por 15 personas del grupo de promoción de la salud cardiovascular, quienes voluntariamente constituyeron la muestra hasta lograr la saturación de la temática en cuestión. Los datos fueron analizados y posibilitaron una descripción holistica de la interpretación frente a al cultura y al habito de consumir tabaco. Se obtuvo información que se consideró lográndose con ello una descripción amplia de motivaciones y factores desalentadores para la cesación del habito del tabaquismo.Este estudo identificou as crenças de tabagistas usuários de um programa de promoção à saúde cardiovascular da cidade de Bogotá-Colômbia, pela abordagem metodológica quanti-qualitativa. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade com 15 pessoas do grupo de promoção à saúde cardiovascular, que voluntariamente constituíram a amostra até obter-se a saturação da temática em questão. Os dados foram analisados e possibilitaram uma descrição ampla e holística da interpretação frente à cultura e ao hábito de fumar. Os resultados forneceram uma ampla descrição das motivações e dos fatores e desencorajadores para a cessação do hábito do tabagismo.The present investigation by means of boarding quanti-qualitative, identifies the beliefs of tobacco consumers, users of a program of promotion of the cardiovascular health in the city of Bogotá-Colombia. The information harvesting became from recorded interviews in depth of 15 persons of the promotion group, who voluntarily constituted the provisory sample until obtaining the thematic saturation of the issue one. The data were analysed and the results considered by the culture. We obtained with it a large description of motivations and

  13. Third National Survey of Cardiac Rehabilitation Service Provision in Ireland: progress on the 1999 National Cardiovascular Health Strategy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Mary; Flynn, Rachel; Kiernan, Marian; Doyle, Frank; Lonergan, Moira; Ingram, Shirley; McGee, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    Background: The National Cardiovascular Health Strategy, including specific plans for cardiac rehabilitation, was launched in Ireland in 1999. A survey of cardiac rehabilitation services was conducted in 2006 to evaluate progress on service provision. Aim: To establish levels of service provision and service formats of cardiac rehabilitation services in 2005, compare them with the status pre-Strategy (1998) and to ascertain areas in which additional resources may be needed to achieve the 10 n...

  14. Improving metabolic and cardiovascular health at an Early Psychosis Intervention program in Vancouver, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane H. Fredrikson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotic disorders most commonly appear during the late teenage years and early adulthood. A focused and rapid clinical response by an integrated health team can help to improve the quality of life of the patient, leading to a better long-term prognosis. The Vancouver Coastal Health Early Psychosis Intervention program covers a catchment area of approximately 800,000 people in the cities of Vancouver and Richmond, Canada. The program provides a multidisciplinary approach to supporting patients under the age of 30 who have recently experienced first-break psychosis. The program addresses the needs of the treatment environment, medication and psychological therapies. A critical part of this support includes a program to specifically improve patients’ physical health. Physical health needs are addressed through a two-pronged, parallel approach. Patients receive routine metabolic health assessments during their first year in the program where standard metabolic parameters are recorded. Based on the results of clinical interviews and laboratory tests, specific actionable interventions are recommended. The second key strategy is a program that promotes healthy lifestyle goal development. Patients work closely with occupational therapists to develop goals to improve cardiometabolic health. These programs are supported by an active research environment where patients are able to engage in studies with a focus on improving their physical health. These studies include a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of integrated health coaching on maintaining cardiometabolic health in patients recently admitted to the program, as well as a clinical study which evaluates the effects of low versus higher metabolic risk antipsychotic drugs on central adiposity. An additional pharmacogenomic study is helping to identify genetic variants that may predict cardiometabolic changes following treatment with antipsychotic drugs.

  15. Improving metabolic and cardiovascular health at an early psychosis intervention program in vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrikson, Diane H; Boyda, Heidi N; Tse, Lurdes; Whitney, Zachary; Pattison, Mark A; Ott, Fred J; Hansen, Laura; Barr, Alasdair M

    2014-01-01

    Psychotic disorders most commonly appear during the late teenage years and early adulthood. A focused and rapid clinical response by an integrated health team can help to improve the quality of life of the patient, leading to a better long-term prognosis. The Vancouver Coastal Health early psychosis intervention program covers a catchment area of approximately 800,000 people in the cities of Vancouver and Richmond, Canada. The program provides a multidisciplinary approach to supporting patients under the age of 30 who have recently experienced first-break psychosis. The program addresses the needs of the treatment environment, medication, and psychological therapies. A critical part of this support includes a program to specifically improve patients' physical health. Physical health needs are addressed through a two-pronged, parallel approach. Patients receive routine metabolic health assessments during their first year in the program, where standard metabolic parameters are recorded. Based on the results of clinical interviews and laboratory tests, specific actionable interventions are recommended. The second key strategy is a program that promotes healthy lifestyle goal development. Patients work closely with occupational therapists to develop goals to improve cardiometabolic health. These programs are supported by an active research environment, where patients are able to engage in studies with a focus on improving their physical health. These studies include a longitudinal evaluation of the effects of integrated health coaching on maintaining cardiometabolic health in patients recently admitted to the program, as well as a clinical study that evaluates the effects of low versus higher metabolic risk antipsychotic drugs on central adiposity. An additional pharmacogenomic study is helping to identify genetic variants that may predict cardiometabolic changes following treatment with antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25249985

  16. Personalized prevention approach with use of a web-based cardiovascular risk assessment with tailored lifestyle follow-up in primary care practice - a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brekel-Dijkstra, Karolien; Rengers, Antonia H; Niessen, Maurice Aj; de Wit, NJ; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this prospective implementation study is to evaluate feasibility of a personalized prevention approach with use of a web-based health risk assessment for cardiovascular diseases combined with tailored lifestyle feedback and interventions in the community setting. METHODS: A random s

  17. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundle Andrew

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1 to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2 to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3 to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2, heart rate (HR, percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR, metabolic equivalents (METs, and energy expenditure (kcal. Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1 for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio

  18. National differences in screening programmes for cardiovascular risks could obstruct understanding of cardiovascular prevention studies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Thio; T.B. Twickler; M.J. Cramer; P. Giral

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In North-West Europe, cardiovascular disease is still a major cause of death and despite several efforts (e.g. European guidelines and conferences) cardiovascular risk factors are still inconsistently diagnosed and treated. Methods We evaluated the first consultations of patients in two

  19. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  20. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  1. Cardiovascular risk assessment in prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus study: International collaboration research overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to develop a screening protocol for the risk of future cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in people with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes; and to establish a framework for early identification and intervention of prediabetes including strategies for holistic management and monitoring of progression. The first phase is to identify prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in volunteers who are ≥18-years-old for 5 years. Point-of-care testing and questionnaire will be used to screen for prediabetes and cardiovascular disease. We anticipate screening more than 2000 individuals of both genders by the end of first phase. The second and third phases which shall run for 5-10 years will be longitudinal study involving participants identified in the first phase as having prediabetes without dyslipidaemia, or clinically established cardiovascular disease. The second phase shall focus on preventive management of risk of progress to diabetes with explicit diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress measurements will be performed cum evaluation of the use of antioxidants, exercise, and nutrition. The third phase will include probing the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Binomial logistic regression would be performed to generate and propose a model chart for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk in prediabetes.

  2. Evolving role of vitamin K2-7(Menaquinone in Osteoporosis & cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruqui A.Ahmad M Asrar A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis & cardiovascular disorders are one of the commonest global problem. These two disorders not only affect the quality of life but also put a huge financial burden on the family and the nation as a whole. Since ages we have been using calcium supplements for the management of osteoporosis and the recent reports have shown that it can lead to increased cardiovascular complications. Vitamin K2 ,an age old vitamin has been shown to take care of osteoporosis and cardiovascular complications, since it plays an important role in carboxylation of certain proteins in bone and blood vessel. This review article summarizes the ­­role of vitamin K2 in osteoporosis 7 cardiovascular disorders and also throws light on the clinical evidences available for the same.

  3. Association of periodontal and cardiovascular diseases: South-Asian studies 2001–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Akhtar Hussain Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large proportion of Asian populations have moderate to severe periodontal disease and a substantial number are anticipated to be at high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. This study reviews epidemiology and association of periodontal and CVDs from the South-Asian region. Observational studies and clinical trials published during January 2001–December 2012 focusing association between periodontitis and CVDs in South-Asian countries were retrieved from various databases and studied. Current evidence suggests that both periodontal and CVDs are globally prevalent and show an increasing trend in developing countries. Global data on epidemiology and association of periodontal and CVDs are predominantly from the developed world; whereas Asia with 60% of the world's population lacks substantial scientific data on the link between periodontal and CVDs. During the search period, 14 studies (5 clinical trials, 9 case–controls were reported in literature from South-Asia; 100% of clinical trials and 77% case–control studies have reported a significant association between the oral/periodontal parameters and CVD. Epidemiological and clinical studies from South-Asia validate the global evidence on association of periodontal disease with CVDs. However, there is a need for meticulous research for public health and scientific perspective of the Periodontal and CVDs from South-Asia.

  4. Behavioural Risk Factors and Health Promotional Activities in Adults at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a South Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auras Atreya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: India along with other South Asian countries significantly contributes to the global burden of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown Indians to exhibit higher prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease and coronary risk factors as compared with Caucasians. These risk factors are compounded by behavioural risk factors such as regular tobacco use, low physical activity as well as a high saturated fat intake and this places a need for effective behavioural modification. Objective: To identify behavioural risk factors among patients at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the general medical practice and to identify if these high-risk patients were subjected to any health promotional activities to modify their risk behaviour.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at the general medical clinics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in coastal Karnataka, India. A total of 68 patients who were at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease attending these outpatient services during a two month period were recruited into the study. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the relevant data.Results: Seventy three percent of the participants were older than 50 years of age. Majority (79% were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes. Most of the participants (66% were engaged in light physical activity, and almost 48% were observed to have a high Body Mass Index (BMI. None of the 8 smokers identified in the study had been subjected to any stage based behaviour change therapy. Although diet modification was advised in up to 95% of the cases, only 19% received a supervised diet plan. A marginal improvement in the BMI was noted among these individuals.Conclusion: These findings indicate the paucity of behavioural change intervention in the day to day care of chronic patients. A targeted behavioural counselling imparted by trained professionals is the need of the hour to bring about the desired change among patients at risk of

  5. Four-year analysis of cardiovascular disease risk factors, depression symptoms, and antidepressant medicine use in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trial of weight loss in diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE To study the association of depressive symptoms or antidepressant medicine (ADM) use with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor status in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial of weight loss in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (n = 5,1...

  6. Potential Motivators and Barriers for Encouraging Health Screening for Cardiovascular Disease Among Latino Men in Rural Communities in the Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Sobralske, Mary C; Fackenthall, Chelane

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death across all races and ethnicities. In particular, Latino men suffer disproportionately from conditions that lead to CVD such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes. There are easy and inexpensive ways to screen for certain cardiovascular conditions, yet Latino men are not benefiting from these. It is important to identify motivators and barriers to screening among this population. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to determine what motivates Latino men to participate in health screening for diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. Self-identified Latino men (n = 17) were interviewed following a community health screening targeting Latinos. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted in either Spanish or English after giving written consent. Trained interpreters were used for Spanish interviews. Emerging themes include motivating factors and barriers to participate in screening. Data findings direct future studies and provide culturally meaningful and relevant strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25823419

  7. UNANI DRUGS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: A REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON ARJUN AND ZAFRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Rabbani Syed Arman; Ali Syed Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death and disability in the world. They have emerged as a major health threat in develop¬ing countries contrary to the prior belief that they were confined primarily to industrialized nations. The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases is escalating, principally due to a sharp rise in the developing countries which are experiencing rapid health transition. An estimated 17.3 million people died from CVDs in 2008 and over ...

  8. Importance of characteristics and modalities of physical activity and exercise in defining the benefits to cardiovascular health within the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhees, L; De Sutter, J; GeladaS, N;

    2012-01-01

    of these characteristics for cardiovascular health in the population at large. The guidance offered in this series of papers is aimed at medical doctors, health practitioners, kinesiologists, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists, politicians, public health policy makers, and the individual member of the public...

  9. Statistical Validation of a Web-Based GIS Application and Its Applicability to Cardiovascular-Related Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There is abundant evidence that neighborhood characteristics are significantly linked to the health of the inhabitants of a given space within a given time frame. This study is to statistically validate a web-based GIS application designed to support cardiovascular-related research developed by the NIH funded Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI Translational Research Network (RTRN Data Coordinating Center (DCC and discuss its applicability to cardiovascular studies. Methods: Geo-referencing, geocoding and geospatial analyses were conducted for 500 randomly selected home addresses in a U.S. southeastern Metropolitan area. The correlation coefficient, factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha (α were estimated to quantify measures of the internal consistency, reliability and construct/criterion/discriminant validity of the cardiovascular-related geospatial variables (walk score, number of hospitals, fast food restaurants, parks and sidewalks. Results: Cronbach’s α for CVD GEOSPATIAL variables was 95.5%, implying successful internal consistency. Walk scores were significantly correlated with number of hospitals (r = 0.715; p < 0.0001, fast food restaurants (r = 0.729; p < 0.0001, parks (r = 0.773; p < 0.0001 and sidewalks (r = 0.648; p < 0.0001 within a mile from homes. It was also significantly associated with diversity index (r = 0.138, p = 0.0023, median household incomes (r = −0.181; p < 0.0001, and owner occupied rates (r = −0.440; p < 0.0001. However, its non-significant correlation was found with median age, vulnerability, unemployment rate, labor force, and population growth rate. Conclusion: Our data demonstrates that geospatial data generated by the web-based application were internally consistent and demonstrated satisfactory validity. Therefore, the GIS application may be useful to apply to cardiovascular-related studies aimed to investigate potential impact of geospatial factors on diseases and/or the long

  10. Cardiovascular function and psychological distress in urbanised black South Africans : the SABPA study / Nyiko Mashele

    OpenAIRE

    Mashele, Nyiko

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with the greatest mortality rates occurring in low and middle income countries. The increase in the prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa has led in an increase of the prevalence of CVD. It remains largely unclear whether psychological distress and more specifically the perception of own health and / depression may contribute to this observed increas...

  11. Risk of Major Osteoporotic Fracture After Cardiovascular Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Tsai, Pang-Yao; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Pei-Chun; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the risk of major osteoporotic fracture in Taiwan. Methods Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database for the period 2000–2007, we classified 43 874 patients aged 50 years or older with newly diagnosed CVD (coronary artery disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral atherosclerosis) as the CVD group and 43 874 subjects without CVD (frequency-matched by sex, age, and date selected) a...

  12. Increased Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Max; Rysinska, Agata; Garland, Anne; Rolfson, Ola; Aspberg, Sara; Eisler, Thomas; Garellick, Göran; Stark, André; Hailer, Nils P; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-02-01

    Total hip arthroplasty is a common and important treatment for osteoarthritis patients. Long-term cardiovascular effects elicited by osteoarthritis or the implant itself remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine if there is an increased risk of late cardiovascular mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty surgery.A nationwide matched cohort study with data on 91,527 osteoarthritis patients operated on, obtained from the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. A control cohort (n = 270,688) from the general Swedish population was matched 1:3 to each case by sex, age, and residence. Mean follow-up time was 10 years (range, 7-21).The exposure was presence of a hip replacement for more than 5 years. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality after 5 years. Secondary outcomes were total mortality and re-admissions due to cardiovascular events.During the first 5 to 9 years, the arthroplasty cohort had a lower cardiovascular mortality risk compared with the control cohort. However, the risk in the arthroplasty cohort increased over time and was higher than in controls after 8.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.0-10.5). Between 9 and 13 years postoperatively, the hazard ratio was 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.17). Arthroplasty patients were also more frequently admitted to hospital for cardiovascular reasons compared with controls, with a rate ratio of 1.08 (95% CI 1.06-1.11).Patients with surgically treated osteoarthritis of the hip have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality many years after the operation when compared with controls. PMID:26871792

  13. Evaluation of effectiveness of sojourn in a health center of miners with cardiovascular pathology and residual manifestation of craniocerebral trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydova, N.N.; Nirenburg, K.G.; Kokorina, N.P.; Dyatlova, L.A.; Anikin, B.S.; Pokhlenko, V.B.; Belyaeva, N.G. (Meditsinskii Institut, Kemerovo (USSR))

    1989-02-01

    Evaluates effectiveness of the sojourn in a health center using standard methods of treatment and diet therapy of underground miners of the Kuzbass with early forms of arterial hypertension and manifestations of craniocerebral trauma. Miners were divided into three groups: (1) with hypertension; (2) with neuro-circulatory dystonia; and (3) with craniocerebral trauma. During 24 days at health center, groups 1 and 2 received sedatives, hypertensive medicines and physiotherapy, group 3 biostimulators and dehydrogenating preparations. Changes in conditions of patients were observed. Using the mathematical approach of Markov chains and the method of discrimination of samples to evaluate changes in arterial pressure, stroke volume of blood, pulse, latent period of visual-motor reactions, stability of understanding, and other tests of physiologic status of miners before and after treatment, investigators concluded that a stay in a health center is effective for miners suffering from cardiovascular pathology and mild cerebrocranil trauma under 40 years of age and with an underground work period of less than 10 years. For underground miners suffering cardiovascular pathology and cerebral trauma over 40 years of age and more than 10 years working underground, treatment in a health center at least twice a year is necessary. 5 refs.

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress, and Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence from Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Hans-Joachim; Markart, Philipp; Schulz, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a frequent disease mainly affecting obese people and caused by repetitive collapse of the upper airways during sleep. The increased morbidity and mortality of OSA are mainly thought to be the consequence of its adverse effects on cardiovascular (CV) health. In this context, oxidative stress induced by nocturnal intermittent hypoxia has been identified to play a major role. This is suggested by biomarker studies in OSA patients showing excessively generated reactive oxygen species from leukocytes, reduced plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate, increased lipid peroxidation, and reduced antioxidant capacity. Biopsy studies complement these findings by demonstrating reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and increased nitrotyrosine immunofluorescence in the vasculature of these patients. Furthermore, oxidative stress in OSA correlates with surrogate markers of CV disease such as endothelial function, intima-media thickness, and high blood pressure. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy reverses oxidative stress in OSA. The same may be true for antioxidants; however, more studies are needed to clarify this issue. PMID:26167241

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Oxidative Stress, and Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence from Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Eisele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a frequent disease mainly affecting obese people and caused by repetitive collapse of the upper airways during sleep. The increased morbidity and mortality of OSA are mainly thought to be the consequence of its adverse effects on cardiovascular (CV health. In this context, oxidative stress induced by nocturnal intermittent hypoxia has been identified to play a major role. This is suggested by biomarker studies in OSA patients showing excessively generated reactive oxygen species from leukocytes, reduced plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate, increased lipid peroxidation, and reduced antioxidant capacity. Biopsy studies complement these findings by demonstrating reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and increased nitrotyrosine immunofluorescence in the vasculature of these patients. Furthermore, oxidative stress in OSA correlates with surrogate markers of CV disease such as endothelial function, intima-media thickness, and high blood pressure. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy reverses oxidative stress in OSA. The same may be true for antioxidants; however, more studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  16. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  17. A Prelimenary Result of the Cardiovascular Risk factors Intervention Study (Pikom Study): Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension and their Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mafauzy; WINN, Than; Rampal, GR Lekhraj; Abdul Rashid, AR; Mustaffa, BE

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death since the last three decades in Malaysia and diabetes mellitus and hypertension are considered as major risk factors. A study to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the community (PIKOM) through education and lifestyle changes was undertaken. The study population was from four different areas in Peninsular Malaysia – Kota Bharu and Bachok in Kelantan ; Raub in Pahang; Gunung Besout in Perak and Felda Palong in ...

  18. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    AH Herdy; F López-Jiménez; CP Terzic; Milani, M.; R Stein; T Carvalho; S. Serra; CG Araujo; PC Zeballos; CV Anchique; G Burdiat; González, K.; González, G.; R. Fernández; C Santibáñez

    2014-01-01

    In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR). In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopul...

  19. Population-based investigations to study the association of cardiovascular polymorphisms and adverse pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Young, Bradford;

    2007-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcome refers to placenta-mediated complications that may share a common etiopathogenesis in some cases. Unraveling associations between prothrombotic genetic predispositions and these pregnancy disorders, namely recurrent fetal loss, stillbirth, severe preeclampsia, intrauteri...... pro-thrombotic and cardiovascular genetic polymorphisms. These studies are urgently needed to accurately assess the linkage between family history, presence of adverse pregnancy outcome, and long-term cardiovascular risk....... growth restriction, and placental abruption, requires rigorous epidemiological studies involving large cohorts of patients with sufficient numbers of the adverse pregnancy outcomes in question. Such is the case with the Denmark National Birth Cohort, which was initiated in 1996 and followed pregnant...

  20. Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A family study

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán; José Francisco Muñoz-Valle; Eugenia Flores-Alfaro; Lorenzo Salgado-Goytia; Aralia Berenice Salgado-Bernabé; Isela Parra-Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the –174 G/C and –572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband) had obesity, wer...

  1. Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Froberg, Karsten; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether muscle strength in youth is related to cardiovascular risk later in life independent of cardiorespiratory fitness is unclear. METHODS: We examined the independent association of isometric muscle strength in youth with cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood using data...... from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and...... cardiorespiratory fitness was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Cardiovascular risk factors were obtained in youth and in young adulthood. Associations were examined using multivariable-adjusted regression models including major confounding factors. RESULTS: Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle...

  2. Medical Tourism in Romania. The Case Study of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation in Covasna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Oana Darabont

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Romania has one of the highest mortality rates in Europe for ischemic heart disease and, especially, for cerebrovascular disease. Taking into account the actual prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, an augmentation of the demand for specialized medical services is expected. As this paper argues, this situation can have an important impact on medical tourism. We analyze original data on the case study of a hospital, specialized in cardiovascular treatment, in the Romanian county of Covasna, which is offering specific balneal procedures, such as CO2 .hydrotherapy, alongside regular rehabilitation programs. The aim of our study is to evaluate the demographic characteristics, and the pathology of the hospitalized patients, as well as the specific rehabilitation procedures. Our findings suggest that the interest of patients, with cardiovascular diseases, for medical tourism can be influenced by accessibility, by some particularities of the location, but also by the holistic nature of the rehabilitation procedures.

  3. Cocoa Intake, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Mortality : the Zutphen eldery study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, G.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Small, short-term, intervention studies indicate that cocoa-containing foods improve endothelial function and reduce blood pressure. We studied whether habitual cocoa intake was cross-sectionally related to blood pressure and prospectively related with cardiovascular mortality. Methods:

  4. Regional differences in the impacts of temperature extremes on cardiovascular health in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Aleš; Kyselý, Jan

    Toulouse: ICUC9, 2015. [International Conference on Urban Climate /9./. 20.06.2015-24.6.2015, Toulouse] Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : temperature extremes * cardiovascular mortality and morbidity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology https://www.conftool.com/icuc9/index.php?page=browseSessions&abstracts=show&form_session=110&presentations=show

  5. Socioeconomic Impact on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Wallonia, Belgium: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Streel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Monitoring the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs and their determinants is important to develop appropriate recommendations to prevent cardiovascular diseases in specific risk groups. The NESCaV study was designed to collect standardized data to estimate the prevalence of CRFs in relation to socioeconomic parameters among the general adult population in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium. Methods. A representative stratified random sample of 1017 subjects, aged 20–69 years, participated in the NESCaV study (2010–2012. A self-administered questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests were performed on participants. CRFs included hypertension, dyslipidemia, global obesity, abdominal obesity, diabetes, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Covariates were education and subjective and objective socioeconomic levels. Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, global obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity was higher in subjects with low education and who considered themselves “financially in need.” Living below poverty threshold also increased the risk of global and abdominal obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Conclusion. The study shows that socioeconomic factors impact the prevalence of CRFs in the adult population of Wallonia. Current public health policies should be adjusted to reduce health inequalities in specific risk groups.

  6. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Superconducting magnetometry for cardiovascular studies and an application of adaptive filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitive magnetic detectors utilizing Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) have been developed and used for studying the cardiovascular system. The theory of magnetic detection of cardiac currents is discussed, and new experimental data supporting the validity of the theory is presented. Measurements on both humans and dogs, in both health and diseased states, are presented using the new technique, which is termed vector magnetocardiography. In the next section, a new type of superconducting magnetometer with a room temperature pickup is analyzed, and techniques for optimizing its sensitivity to low-frequency sub-microamp currents are presented. Performance of the actual device displays significantly improved sensitivity in this frequency range, and the ability to measure currents in intact, in vivo biological fibers. The final section reviews the theoretical operation of a digital self-optimizing filter, and presents a four-channel software implementation of the system. The application of the adaptive filter to enhancement of geomagnetic signals for earthquake forecasting is discussed, and the adaptive filter is shown to outperform existing techniques in suppressing noise from geomagnetic records.

  8. Effectiveness of exercise intervention and health promotion on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    From, Svetlana; Liira, Helena; Leppävuori, Jenni; Remes-Lyly, Taina; Tikkanen, Heikki; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2013-01-01

    Background Although cardiovascular disease has decreased, there is still potential for prevention as obesity and diabetes increase. Exercise has a positive effect on many cardiovascular risk factors, and it can significantly reduce the components of metabolic syndrome. The main challenge with exercise in primary care is how to succeed in motivating the patients at risk to change and increase their exercise habits. The objective of this study is to modify the cardiovascular risk in middle-aged...

  9. Health Benefits of Blue-Green Algae: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Chai Siah; Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-01-01

    Blue-green algae (BGA) are among the most primitive life forms on earth and have been consumed as food or medicine by humans for centuries. BGA contain various bioactive components, such as phycocyanin, carotenoids, γ-linolenic acid, fibers, and plant sterols, which can promote optimal health in humans. Studies have demonstrated that several BGA species or their active components have plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering properties due to their modulation of intestinal cholester...

  10. Ozone exposure and cardiovascular-related mortality in the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CANCHEC) by spatial synoptic classification zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Chris; Vanos, Jennifer; Crouse, Dan L; Burnett, Rick

    2016-07-01

    Our objective is to analyse the association between long term ozone exposure and cardiovascular related mortality while accounting for climate, location, and socioeconomic factors. We assigned subjects with 16 years of follow-up in the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC) to one of seven regions based on spatial synoptic classification (SSC) weather types and examined the interaction of exposure to both fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ground level ozone and cause of death using survival analysis, while adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics and individual confounders. Correlations between ozone and PM2.5 varied across SSC zones from -0.02 to 0.7. Comparing zones using the most populated SSC zone as a reference, a 10 ppb increase in ozone exposure was associated with increases in hazard ratios (HRs) that ranged from 1.007 (95% CI 0.99, 1.015) to 1.03 (95% CI 1.02, 1.041) for cardiovascular disease, 1.013 (95% CI 0.996, 1.03) to 1.058 (95% CI 1.034, 1.082) for cerebrovascular disease, and 1.02 (95% CI 1.006, 1.034) for ischemic heart disease. HRs remained significant after adjustment for PM2.5. Long term exposure to ozone is related to an increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases; the risk varies by location across Canada and is not attenuated by adjustment for PM2.5. This research shows that the SSC can be used to define geographic regions and it demonstrates the importance of accounting for that spatial variability when studying the long term health effects of air pollution. PMID:27131819

  11. Cardiovascular events in patients with atherothrombotic disease: a population-based longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherothrombotic diseases including cerebrovascular disease (CVD, coronary artery disease (CAD, and peripheral arterial disease (PAD, contribute to the major causes of death in the world. Although several studies showed the association between polyvascular disease and poor cardiovascular (CV outcomes in Asian population, there was no large-scale study to validate this relationship in this population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a diagnosis of CVD, CAD, or PAD from the database contained in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau during 2001-2004. A total of 19954 patients were enrolled in this study. The atherothrombotic disease score was defined according to the number of atherothrombotic disease. The study endpoints included acute coronary syndrome (ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, in hospital mortality, and so on. The event rate of ischemic stroke (18.2% was higher than that of acute myocardial infarction (5.7% in our patients (P = 0.0006. In the multivariate Cox regression analyses, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of each increment of atherothrombotic disease score in predicting ACS, all strokes, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were 1.41, 1.66, 1.30, and 1.14, respectively (P≦0.0169. CONCLUSIONS: This large population-based longitudinal study in patients with atherothrombotic disease demonstrated the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke was higher than that of subsequent AMI. In addition, the subsequent adverse CV events including ACS, all stroke, vascular procedures, and in hospital mortality were progressively increased as the increase of atherothrombotic disease score.

  12. CHASE: Cardiovascular health in mothers and offspring after pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia or diabetes mellitus. : Focus on diet and physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular associated diseases (CVAD) in both mother and offspring after pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE) and diabetes mellitus (DM). The mechanisms behind this altered risk in health status are still scarcely unravelled. However, PE, DM and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have several features in common, including shared risk factors and similar pathophysiology. Components of the metabolic syndrome a...

  13. Long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther; Klein Hesselink, Mariëlle; de Bock, Truuske; Gansevoort, Ronald; Bakker, Stephan; Vredeveld, Eline; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; van der Horst, Iwan; Kamphuisen, Pieter Willem; Plukker, John; Links, Thera P.; Lefrandt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim was to study the risk of cardiovascular mortality in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Secondary aims were to evaluate all-cause mortality and explore the relation between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotropin) level and these outcome

  14. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

  15. Pulse pressure, left ventricular function and cardiovascular events during antihypertensive treatment (the LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, Eva; Franklin, Stanley; Rieck, Ashild;

    2009-01-01

    systolic function and cardiovascular events was assessed in 883 patients with electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy during 4.8 years of randomized losartan- or atenolol-based treatment within the echocardiographic substudy of the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study...

  16. Antioxidants, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular diseases : cross-cultural comparisons and prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants in plant foods have been proposed to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. The objective was to confirm prospective studies on CVD and traditional antioxidants (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol), and to investigate emerging antioxidant

  17. Autonomic dysfunction: a link between depression and cardiovascular mortality? The FINE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.H.; Geerlings, M.I.; Dekker, J.M.; Giampaoli, S.; Nissinen, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Depression is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in vascular patients as well as in the general population. We investigated whether autonomic dysfunction could explain this relationship. Design: The Finland, Italy and The Netherlands Elderly (FINE) Study i

  18. Impact of Urate Level on Cardiovascular Risk in Allopurinol Treated Patients. A Nested Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft Larsen, Kasper; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, Hanne M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gout gives rise to increased risk of cardiovascular events. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs, and allopurinol potentially reduces cardiovascular risk. What target level of urate is required to reduce cardiovascular risk is not known. OBJECTIVES: To...... investigate the effect of achieving target plasma urate with allopurinol on cardiovascular outcomes in a case-control study nested within long-term users of allopurinol. METHODS: We identified long-term users of allopurinol in Funen County, Denmark. Among these, we identified all cases of cardiovascular......, laboratory values and in- and outpatient contacts. RESULTS: No association between treatment-to-target urate level and cardiovascular events were found (adjusted odds ratio of 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.28). No significant effect was seen in any subgroup defined by age, gender, renal function...

  19. Impact of ovarian function on cardiovascular health in women: focus on hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Christine Maric-Bilkan,1 Emily L Gilbert,2 Michael J Ryan21Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Arterial blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are generally lower in premenopausal women compared with age-matched men. The lower blood pressure levels in premenopausal women are associated with a lower risk of the ...

  20. Inorganic nitrate: a major player in cardiovascular health benefits of vegetables?

    OpenAIRE

    Machha, Ajay; Schechter, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests protective effect for higher consumption of vegetables against cardiovascular disease risk. Impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), a critical regulator of vascular homeostasis, in the vasculature represents a major problem for CVD. Classically, vascular endothelium is suggested to be a sole source of bioactive NO in the vasculature. However, emerging literature associates nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, in which endogenous nitrate undergoes reduction to n...

  1. Positive affect and health-related neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and inflammatory processes

    OpenAIRE

    Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Marmot, M.

    2005-01-01

    Negative affective states such as depression are associated with premature mortality and increased risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and disability. It has been suggested that positive affective states are protective, but the pathways through which such effects might be mediated are poorly understood. Here we show that positive affect in middle-aged men and women is associated with reduced neuroendocrine, inflammatory, and cardiovascular activity. Positive affect was assessed b...

  2. Steps Forward: Review and Recommendations for Research on Walkability, Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lovasi, Gina S.; Stephanie Grady; Andrew Rundle

    2011-01-01

    Built environments that support walking and other physical activities have the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). Walkable neighborhoods—characterized by density, land use diversity, and well-connected transportation networks—have been linked to more walking, less obesity, and lower coronary heart disease risk. Yet ongoing research on pedestrian-friendly built environments has the potential to address important gaps. While much of the literature has focused on urban form and pl...

  3. Physical activity ameliorates cardiovascular health in elderly subjects: the functional role of the β adrenergic system

    OpenAIRE

    GaetanoSantulli; MicheleCiccarelli

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a complex process characterized by a gradual decline in organ functional reserves, which eventually reduces the ability to maintain homeostasis. An exquisite feature of elderly subjects, which constitute a growing proportion of the world population, is the high prevalence of cardiovascular disorders, which negatively affect both the quality of life and the life expectancy. It is widely acknowledged that physical activity represents one of the foremost interventions capable in reducin...

  4. Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Moira McAllister Pryde; William Bernard Kannel

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive bene...

  5. Six physical education lessons a week can reduce cardiovascular risk in school children aged 6–13 years: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Klakk, Heidi; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heidemann, Malene; Møller, Niels Christian; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) originates during childhood and adolescence. Schools are potentially effective settings for early public health prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of six physical education (PE) lessons on children’s CVD risk. Methods: This longitudinal study in 10 public schools (1218 children, aged 6–13 years), 6 intervention and 4 control schools evaluates a natural experiment, where intervention schools tripled PE to six lessons per w...

  6. Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Wang; Yuna He; Yanping Li; Dechun Luan; Fengying Zhai; Xiaoguang Yang; Guansheng Ma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water'' (high consumption ...

  7. Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta predicts cardiovascular events: a transesophageal echocardiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havasi Kálmán

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Previous studies have shown that atherosclerosis of the descending aorta detected by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE is a good marker of coexisting coronary artery disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the presence of atherosclerosis on the descending aorta during TEE has any prognostic impact in predicting cardiovascular events. Material and Methods The study group consisted of 238 consecutive in-hospital patients referred for TEE testing (135 males, 103 females, mean age 58 +/- 11 years with a follow up of 24 months. The atherosclerotic lesions of the descending aorta were scored from 0 (no atherosclerosis to 3 (plaque >5 mm and/or "complex" plaque with ulcerated or mobile parts. Results Atherosclerosis was observed in 102 patients, (grade 3 in 16, and grade 2 in 86 patients whereas 136 patients only had an intimal thickening or normal intimal surface. There were 57 cardiovascular events in the follow-up period. The number of events was higher in the 102 patients with (n = 34 than in the 136 patients without atherosclerosis (n = 23, p =2 (HR 2.4, CI 1.0–5.5 predicted hard cardiovascular events. Conclusion Atherosclerosis of the descending aorta observed during transesophageal echocardiography is a useful predictor of cardiovascular events.

  8. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Design Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Setting Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. Participants A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of w...

  9. Effect of cold spells and their modifiers on cardiovascular disease events: evidence from two prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Claudio; Barry, Sarah J. E.; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H.; Lennon, Lucy; Ford, Ian; Morris, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a tr...

  10. Effect of cold spells and their modifiers on cardiovascular disease events: evidence from two prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, C.; Barry, S.J.E.; Wannamethee, S. G.; Whincup, P H; Lennon, L; Ford, I; Morris, R W

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. / Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a trial of pra...

  11. Studying health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions in...

  12. A Dose – Response Study of Magnesium Sulfate in Suppressing Cardiovascular Responses to Laryngoscopy & Endotracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Montazeri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of pretreatment with magnesium on cardiovascular responses associated with intubation have been studied previously. In this study we wanted to find optimal dose of magnesium that causes decreased cardiovascular responses after laryngoscopy & endotracheal intubation. Methods: In a double-blind , randomized, clinical trial ,120 ASA-1 patients with ages between 15-50 years old , who were candidates for elective surgery, were selected and classified in 6 groups (20 patients in each . The pulse rate and arterial blood pressure were measured and recorded at 5 minutes before taking any drug then, according to different groups, patients took magnesium sulfate (10, 20, 30, 40, 50mg/kg and lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg. The induction of anesthesia was same in all groups and the pulse rate and arterial blood pressure were measured and recorded just before intubation and also at 1, 3 , and 5 minutes after intubation (before surgical incision . Statistical analysis was performed by use of ANOVA, Post Hoc test (Duncan, Pearson correlation, and Chi square test. Results: there were no statistically significant differences in blood pressure, pulse rate, Train Of Four (TOF, and complications between groups who received magnesium but the significant differences in these parameters were seen between magnesium and lidocaine groups. Conclusion: We concluded that pretreatment with different doses of magnesium sulfate have a safe decreasing effect on cardiovascular responses that is more effective than pretreatment with lidocaine. Keywords: magnesium sulfate, cardiovascular responses, lidocaine.

  13. Retinal vascular caliber is associated with cardiovascular biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation: the POLA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Daien

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Retinal vascular caliber has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk and is predictive of cardiovascular pathology, including stroke and coronary heart disease. Oxidative stress, as well as inflammatory mechanisms, plays a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, plaque rupture and vascular thrombotic propensity. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between retinal vascular calibers and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation, in subjects free of cardiovascular pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis from a community-dwelling cohort comprising 1224 individuals aged 60 years and over, without a history of coronary or peripheral artery disease or stroke. Retinal vascular caliber was measured from fundus photographs using semi-automated standardized imaging software. Oxidative stress was evaluated using plasma superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3 activities, and inflammatory state was assessed using plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and orosomucoid. RESULTS: In a multivariate model controlling for cardiovascular risk factors, larger retinal arteriolar caliber was independently related to higher level of GPx-3 activity (p = 0.003 whereas larger venular caliber was associated with higher levels of hsCRP (p = 0.0001 and orosomucoid (p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: In the present study, biomarkers of oxidative stress regulation and inflammation were independently associated with retinal vascular calibers. This suggests that an assessment of retinal vessels may offer early and non-invasive detection of subclinical vascular pathology.

  14. Effect of depression on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in type 2 diabetes mellitus after 3 years follow up. The DIADEMA study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Burgos-Lunar Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent diseases that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. There is evidence about a bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, prognostic implications of the joint effects of these two diseases on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well-known. Method/design A three-year, observational, prospective, cohort study, carried out in Primary Health Care Centres in Madrid (Spain. The project aims to analyze the effect of depression on cardiovascular events, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to estimate a clinical predictive model of depression in these patients. The number of patients required is 3255, all them with type 2 diabetes mellitus, older than 18 years, who regularly visit their Primary Health Care Centres and agree to participate. They are chosen by simple random sampling from the list of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of each general practitioner. The main outcome measures are all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity; and exposure variable is the major depressive disorder. There will be a comparison between depressed and not depressed patients in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, coronary artery disease and stroke using the Chi-squared test. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. To assess the effect of depression on the mortality, a survival analysis will be used comparing the two groups using the log-rank test. The control of potential confounding variables will be performed by the construction of a Cox regression model. Discussion Our study’s main contribution is to evaluate the increase in the risk of

  15. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silva-Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281 and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii those who worked exclusively at night (n=340 and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71 compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24. Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep for night workers.

  16. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Costa, A. [Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Griep, R.H.; Rotenberg, L. [Laboratório de Educação em Ambiente e Saúde, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-11-21

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i) day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281) and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii) those who worked exclusively at night (n=340) and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71) compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24). Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep) for night workers.

  17. Disentangling the effects of insomnia and night work on cardiovascular diseases: a study in nursing professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are known to be associated with poor sleep quality in general populations, but they have not been consistently associated with specific work schedules. Studies of CVD generally do not simultaneously consider sleep and work schedules, but that approach could help to disentangle their effects. We investigated the association between insomnia and a self-reported physician diagnosis of CVD in day and night workers, considering all sleep episodes during nocturnal and diurnal sleep. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1307 female nursing professionals from 3 public hospitals, using baseline data from the “Health and Work in Nursing - a Cohort Study.” Participants were divided into two groups: i) day workers with no previous experience in night shifts (n=281) and whose data on insomnia were related to nocturnal sleep and ii) those who worked exclusively at night (n=340) and had data on both nocturnal and diurnal sleep episodes, as they often sleep at daytime. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. Among day workers, insomnia complaints increased the odds of CVD 2.79-fold (95% CI=1.01-6.71) compared with workers who had no complaints. Among night workers, reports of insomnia during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep increased the odds of reported CVD 3.07-fold (95% CI=1.30-7.24). Workers with insomnia had similar probabilities of reporting CVD regardless of their work schedule, suggesting a relationship to insomnia and not to night work per se. The results also highlighted the importance of including evaluation of all sleep episodes (diurnal plus nocturnal sleep) for night workers

  18. The effect of a periodontal intervention on cardiovascular risk markers in Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease: the PerioCardio study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience an overwhelming burden of chronic disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Periodontal disease (inflammation of the tissues surrounding teeth is also widespread, and may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases via pathogenic inflammatory pathways. This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease, and determine if intensive periodontal therapy improves these measures over a 12 month follow-up. The aims of the study are: (i to determine whether there is a dose response relationship between extent and severity of periodontal disease and measures of vascular health and inflammation among Indigenous Australian adults with moderate to severe periodontal disease; and (ii to determine the effects of periodontal treatment on changes in measures of vascular health and inflammation in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design This study will be a randomised, controlled trial, with predominantly blinded assessment of outcome measures and blinded statistical analysis. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits (with the intervention delayed 12 months in participants who are randomised to the control arm. Participants will be Indigenous adults aged ≥25 years from urban centres within the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants assessed to have moderate or severe periodontal disease will be randomised to the study's intervention or control arm. The intervention involves intensive removal of subgingival and supragingival calculus and plaque biofilm by scaling and root-planing. Study visits at baseline, 3 and 12 months, will incorporate questionnaires, non-fasting blood and urine samples, body measurements, blood pressure, periodontal assessment and non-invasive measures of vascular health (pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness. Primary outcome

  19. Predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in type 2 diabetes: Diabetes Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Raffield, Laura M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Cox, Amanda J.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies evaluated the best predictors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies examined the factors most strongly associated with mortality in T2D. The Diabetes Heart Study (DHS), an intensively phenotyped family-based cohort enriched for T2D, provided an opportunity to address this question. Methods Associations with mortality were examined in 1022 European Americans affected by T2D from 476 DHS families. All-cause mor...

  20. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Caroline S

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a common disorder and an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Framingham Heart Study (FHS) is a population-based epidemiologic study that has contributed to our knowledge of CVD and its risk factors. This review will focus on the contemporary contributions of the FHS to the field of diabetes epidemiology, including data on diabetes trends, genetics, and future advances in population-based studies.

  1. Population-based investigations to study the association of cardiovascular polymorphisms and adverse pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Young, Bradford;

    2007-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcome refers to placenta-mediated complications that may share a common etiopathogenesis in some cases. Unraveling associations between prothrombotic genetic predispositions and these pregnancy disorders, namely recurrent fetal loss, stillbirth, severe preeclampsia, intrauterine...... study focuses on pro-thrombotic and cardiovascular genetic polymorphisms in a nested-case control study comparing pregnancies with and without an adverse pregnancy outcome in the index pregnancy. This study will be adequately powered to determine the relationship between adverse pregnancy outcome and...

  2. Homocysteine status and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A-M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative, cutaneous disorder with the potential to lower levels of folate. This may result in raised levels of homocysteine, an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to compare levels of red-cell folate (RCF) and homocysteine in patients with psoriasis and in healthy controls. Levels of homocysteine were also examined in the context of other major cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In total, 20 patients with psoriasis and 20 controls had their RCF, homo-cysteine and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors assessed. RESULTS: Patients with psoriasis had a trend towards lower levels of RCF. Significantly raised levels of homocysteine were found in patients with psoriasis compared with controls (P = 0.007). There was no correlation between homocysteine levels, RCF levels or disease activity as measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with psoriasis had higher body mass index (P < 0.004) and higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) than controls. This may contribute to the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in patients with psoriasis.

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration: the Tromso Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erke, M. G.; Bertelsen, G.; Peto, T.;

    2014-01-01

    regression analyses were performed based on questionnaires addressing habits of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, health and medication; and physical examination comprising anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and blood sampling. Cardiovascular disease status was obtained from a...... validated end-point registry. ResultsGradable photographs were available for 2631 participants, of whom 92 (3.5%) subjects had late AMD. In the multivariable analysis of late AMD, significant interactions were found between sex and the variables age, triglyceride level, use of lipid-lowering drugs and...

  4. Study Guide in Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, George; Jablon, Bert

    Prepared to assist students at Empire State College in developing learning contracts for the study of the economics of health care delivery, this study guide discusses various aspects of the topic, suggests student projects, and provides an extensive bibliography. First, introductory material discusses the relationship of economics to health care…

  5. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20–100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose–response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

  6. Impact of a pedometer-based workplace health program on cardiovascular and diabetes risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Wolfe, Rory; Backholer, Kathryn;

    2011-01-01

    voluntarily enrolled in a workplace programme, the Global Corporate Challenge®, aimed at increasing physical activity were recruited. Data included demographic, behavioural, anthropometric and biomedical measurements. Measures were compared between baseline and four-months. RESULTS: 762 participants were.......1(0.0, 0.1) mmol/L). CONCLUSION: Completion of this four-month, pedometer-based, physical activity, workplace programme was associated with improvements in behavioural and anthropometric risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Long-term evaluation is required to evaluate the potential of such...

  7. The deleterious effects of arteriovenous fistula-creation on the cardiovascular system: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundon BK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin K Dundon,1–3 Kim Torpey,3 Adam J Nelson,1 Dennis TL Wong,1,2 Rae F Duncan,1 Ian T Meredith,2 Randall J Faull,1,3 Stephen G Worthley,1,4 Matthew I Worthley1,4 1Cardiology Department, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 2Monash Cardiovascular Research Centre, MonashHEART, Monash Health, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; 3Central Northern Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Adelaide, SA, Australia; 4South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia Aim: Arteriovenous fistula-formation remains critical for the provision of hemodialysis in end-stage renal failure patients. Its creation results in a significant increase in cardiac output, with resultant alterations in cardiac stroke volume, systemic blood flow, and vascular resistance. The impact of fistula-formation on cardiac and vascular structure and function has not yet been evaluated via "gold standard" imaging techniques in the modern era of end-stage renal failure care. Methods: A total of 24 patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease undergoing fistula-creation were studied in a single-arm pilot study. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken at baseline, and prior to and 6 months following fistula-creation. This gold standard imaging modality was used to evaluate, via standard brachial flow-mediated techniques, cardiac structure and function, aortic distensibility, and endothelial function. Results: At follow up, left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged, while mean cardiac output increased by 25.0% (P<0.0001. Significant increases in left and right ventricular end-systolic volumes (21% [P=0.014] and 18% [P<0.01], left and right atrial area (11% [P<0.01] and 9% [P<0.01], and left ventricular mass were observed (12.7% increase (P<0.01. Endothelial

  8. A Follow-Up Study of Medical Students' Biomedical Understanding and Clinical Reasoning Concerning the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Olkinuora, Erkki; Kaapa, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Novice medical students usually hold initial conceptions concerning medical domains, such as the cardiovascular system, which may contradict scientific explanations and thus hinder learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate which kinds of biomedical representations medical students constructed of the central cardiovascular system in…

  9. Optimizing Cardiovascular Benefits of Exercise: A Review of Rodent Models

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Brittany; Moriguchi, Takeshi; Sumpio, Bauer

    2013-01-01

    Although research unanimously maintains that exercise can ward off cardiovascular disease (CVD), the optimal type, duration, intensity, and combination of forms are yet not clear. In our review of existing rodent-based studies on exercise and cardiovascular health, we attempt to find the optimal forms, intensities, and durations of exercise. Using Scopus and Medline, a literature review of English language comparative journal studies of cardiovascular benefits and exercise was performed. This...

  10. The relation of metabolic syndrome according to five definitions to cardiovascular risk factors - a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ming-May

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, International Diabetes Federation (IDF, American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI, World Health Organization (WHO, and the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS have been commonly used by studies, little is known about agreement among these five definitions. We examined the agreement among these five definitions and explored their relationship with risk factors of cardiovascular disease in a Taiwan population. Methods A total of 1305 subjects aged 40 years and over in Taiwan were analyzed. Biomedical markers and anthropometric indices were measured. Agreement among definitions was determined by the kappa statistic. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate the odds of a high cardiovascular risk group for five definitions of MetS. Results The agreement among the NCEP, IDF, and AHA/NHLBI definitions was from substantial to very good, and agreement between the WHO and EGIR definitions was also substantial. All MetS definitions were significantly associated prevalence of microalbuminuria, elevated highly sensitive CRP (hs-CRP, and arterial stiffness only in women. In men, MetS by NCEP and AHA/NHLBI was associated with elevated level of hs-CRP and arterial stiffness. MetS by WHO and EGIR were significantly associated with microalbuminuria. And MetS by WHO was the only MetS definition that significantly associated with prevalence of arterial stiffness (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.19. Conclusions The associations of these five definitions with cardiovascular risk factors were similar in women, and it was evident that the five definitions performed better in women than in men, with higher ORs observed in relation to arterial stiffness, elevated hs-CRP, and higher Framingham risk scores.

  11. Cardiovascular studies in the rhesus monkey. [brain circulation during stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. L.; Sandler, H.

    1977-01-01

    Criteria are given for selecting the macaca mulatta as the analogue of the human in the study of cerebral circulation, particularly the control of the cerebral vascular bed during normal and stressful conditions. Topics discussed include surgical preparation of subject; responses to changes in arterial pressure, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; innervation of cerebral vessels; cerebral flow response to acceleration; and cerebral blood flow and cerebellar stimulation.

  12. CCR5Δ32 variant and cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Luis; González Juanatey, Carlos; García Bermúdez, Mercedes; Vázquez Rodríguez, Tomás R.; Miranda Filloy, José Alberto; Fernández Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Llorca Díaz, Javier; Martín Ibáñez, Javier; González-Gay Mantecón, Miguel Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism in the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A total of 645 patients fulfilling the American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised classification criteria for RA were studied. Patients were genotyped for the CCR5 rs333 polymorphism using predesigned TaqMan assays. Also, HLA DRB1 genotyping was performed using mo...

  13. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Swedish Sami – a controlled cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Edin-Liljegren, A; S. Hassler; Sjölander, P.; Daerga, L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the occurrence of clinical, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among reindeer herding (RS) and non-reindeer herding Sami (NRS). Study Design. A retrospective cohort study, comparing risk factors behind CVD between Sami and non-Sami, RS and NRS, and Sami men and women. Methods. A cohort of 611 Swedish Sami (276 men and 335 women) was constructed from national population registers. A twice as large control cohort of non-Sami was...

  14. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  15. [Future directions of cardiovascular surgery in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S S

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular surgery in China has achieved great progress both on scale and technology though development over the past thirty years. However, the technical predominance of cardiovascular surgery in therapies for some diseases has been weakened, along with developments of new drugs and interventional technology. Besides, the change of doctor-patient relationship result from internet medical information service and less attraction of cardiovascular surgery discipline to talents bring certain challenge to the development of cardiovascular surgery. Currently, cardiovascular surgeons should practice the "patient first" principle, carry out individual customized treatment and precision therapy, absorb the advantages of other subjects like intervention and imaging in order to achieve technological breakthroughs, create new treatment technologies and models with smaller trauma and better outcome, establish heart team to provide patient oriented treatment. Besides, cardiovascular surgeons should improve knowledge system by learning related technology and science, become hybrid doctors of research. Cardiovascular surgeons should pay high attention to critical effect of research on the disciplinary development, carry out question and demand oriented clinical studies, change the medical practice by virtue of research achievements, direct the treatment for cardiovascular diseases, and finally provide better health service and rebuild the predominance of cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27502127

  16. Overview of Space Radiation Health Risks (Cancer, Cognition, Cardiovascular) and Potential Common Pathways Such as Senescence and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration, manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy, high charge (HZE) particles as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. Understanding the quantitative and qualitative differences in biological responses produced by galactic cosmic radiation compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. The major health issues of concern are epithelial carcinogenesis, central nervous system effects that may result in acute (inflight) cognitive impairment and late neurological disorders, degenerative tissue effects including cardiovascular, digestive and respiratory risks as well as possible acute radiation syndromes in the event of an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. In this presentation, we review evidence for health risks associated with heavy ion exposure and research strategies to enable manned space flight outside low Earth orbit. We are currently focused on common risk pathways that can be targeted for mitigation via countermeasures, and senescence and inflammation are prime areas for investigation.

  17. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  18. Baseline comparison of three health utility measures and the feeling thermometer among participants in the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisch Dennis W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health utility (HU measures are used as overall measures of quality of life and to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs in economic analyses. We compared baseline values of three HUs including Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D, and Health Utilities Index, Mark II and Mark III (HUI2 and HUI3 and the feeling thermometer (FT among type 2 diabetes participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD trial. We assessed relationships between HU and FT values and patient demographics and clinical variables. Methods ACCORD was a randomized clinical trial to test if intensive controls of glucose, blood pressure and lipids can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular disease (CVD events in type 2 diabetes patients with high risk of CVD. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL sub-study includes 2,053 randomly selected participants. Interclass correlations (ICCs and agreement between measures by quartile were used to evaluate relationships between HU’s and the FT. Multivariable regression models specified relationships between patient variables and each HU and the FT. Results The ICCs were 0.245 for FT/SF-6D, 0.313 for HUI3/SF-6D, 0.437 for HUI2/SF-6D, 0.338 for FT/HUI2, 0.337 for FT/HUI3 and 0.751 for HUI2/HUI3 (P P P  Conclusions The agreements between the different HUs were poor except for the two HUI measures; therefore HU values derived different measures may not be comparable. The FT had low agreement with HUs. The relationships between HUs and demographic and clinical measures demonstrate how severity of diabetes and other clinical and demographic factors are associated with HUs and FT measures. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620

  19. Factors Related to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction in Midlife and Older Women: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Folta, PhD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death for women in the United States. A healthy diet and appropriate physical activity can help reduce the risk for CVD. However, many women do not follow recommendations for these behaviors. In this study, we used qualitative methods to better understand knowledge and awareness about CVD in women, perceived threat of CVD, barriers to heart-healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention strategies for behavior change.MethodsWe conducted four focus groups with 38 white women aged 40 years or older in Kansas and Arkansas. We also interviewed 25 Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service agents in those states. Environmental audits of grocery stores and the physical environment were done in three communities.ResultsMost women were aware of the modifiable risk factors for CVD. Although they realized they were susceptible, they thought CVD was something they could overcome. Common barriers to achieving a heart-healthy diet included time and concern about wasting food. Most women had positive attitudes toward physical activity and reported exercising in the past, but found it difficult to resume when their routine was disrupted. The environmental audits suggested that there are opportunities to be physically active and that with the exception of fresh fish in Kansas, healthful foods are readily available in local food stores.ConclusionInterventions to change behavior should be hands-on, have a goal-setting component, and include opportunities for social interaction. It is especially important to offer interventions as awareness increases and women seek opportunities to build skills to change behavior.

  20. Physical distress is associated with cardiovascular events in a high

    OpenAIRE

    Klemsdal Tor O; Ekeberg Øivind; Einvik Gunnar; Sandvik Leiv; Hjerkinn Elsa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-reported health perceptions such as physical distress and quality of life are suggested independent predictors of mortality and morbidity in patients with established cardiovascular disease. This study examined the associations between these factors and three years incidence of cardiovascular events in a population of elderly men with long term hyperlipidemia. Methods We studied observ...

  1. Adipokines as Possible New Predictors of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The secretion of several adipocytokines, such as adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP, and visfatin, is altered in subjects with abdominal adiposity; these endocrine alterations could contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship among adiponectin, RBP4, aFABP, and visfatin, and incident cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results. A case-control study, nested within a prospective cohort, on 2945 subjects enrolled for a diabetes screening program was performed. We studied 18 patients with incident fatal or nonfatal IHD (Ischemic Heart Disease or CVD (Cerebrovascular Disease, compared with 18 matched control subjects. Circulating adiponectin levels were significantly lower in cases of IHD with respect to controls. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD and decreased in IHD with respect to controls. Circulating aFABP4 levels were significantly increased in CVD, while no difference was associated with IHD. Circulating visfatin levels were significantly lower in cases of both CVD and IHD with respect to controls, while no difference was associated with CVD. Conclusions. The present study confirms that low adiponectin is associated with increased incidents of IHD, but not CVD, and suggests, for the first time, a major effect of visfatin, aFABP, and RBP4 in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Efficacy of dietary behavior modification for preserving cardiovascular health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Moira McAllister; Kannel, William Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol. PMID:21253499

  3. Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira McAllister Pryde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol.

  4. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    OpenAIRE

    Charumathi Sabanayagam; Anoop Shankar; Dedra Buchwald; R. Turner Goins

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American Indians. It is not known if symptoms of insomnia are associated with CVD in this population. Methods. We examined 449 American Indians aged ≥55 years from the Native Elder Care Study. The main outcome-of-interest was self-reported CVD. Results. Short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep were positively associated with CVD after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and clinic...

  5. Five-year incidence of cardiovascular disease and its predictors in Greece: the ATTICA study

    OpenAIRE

    Demosthenes B Panagiotakos; Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Ioannis; STEFANADIS, Christodoulos

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Abstract The 5-year incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its determinants, in a sample of men and women from Greece, was evaluated. From May 2001 to December 2002, 1514 men and 1528 women (> 18 years old) without any clinical evidence of CVD, living in the Attica area, Greece, were enrolled in the ATTICA study. In 2006, a group of experts performed the 5-year follow-up (941 of the 3042 (31%) participants were lost to follow-up)...

  6. C reactive protein and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors: a population based cross sectional study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendall, M. A.; Patel, P; Ballam, L.; Strachan, D.; Northfield, T C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that minor chronic insults such as smoking, chronic bronchitis, and two persistent bacterial infections may be associated with increases in C reactive protein concentration within the normal range and that variations in the C reactive protein concentration in turn may be associated with levels of cardiovascular risk factors and chronic coronary heart disease. DESIGN--Population based cross sectional study. SETTING--General practices in Merton, Sutton, and Wan...

  7. Cross sectional study of effects of drinking green tea on cardiovascular and liver diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, K; Nakachi, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between consumption of green tea and various serum markers in a Japanese population, with special reference to preventive effects of green tea against cardiovascular disease and disorders of the liver. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--Yoshimi, Japan. SUBJECTS--1371 men aged over 40 years resident in Yoshimi and surveyed on their living habits including daily consumption of green tea. Their peripheral blood samples were subjected to several bioc...

  8. Cardiovascular risk assessment in prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus study: International collaboration research overview

    OpenAIRE

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose; Ross Stuart Richards; Kester Digban; Philip Taderera Bwititi; Gretchen Ennis; Kwang Choon Yee; Victor Maduabuchi Oguoma; Selma Liberato

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to develop a screening protocol for the risk of future cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in people with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes; and to establish a framework for early identification and intervention of prediabetes including strategies for holistic management and monitoring of progression. The first phase is to identify prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in volunteers who are ≥18-years-old for 5 years. Point-of-care testing and questionnaire will be us...

  9. Study of cardiovascular disease biomarkers among tobacco consumers, part 2: biomarkers of biological effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nordskog, Brian K.; Brown, Buddy G.; Marano, Kristin M.; Campell, Leanne R.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Borgerding, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL...

  10. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO: a longitudinal cohort study of the cardiovascular experience of individuals at high risk for diabetes recruited from Danish primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Nanna B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening programmes for type 2 diabetes inevitably find more individuals at high risk for diabetes than people with undiagnosed prevalent disease. While well established guidelines for the treatment of diabetes exist, less is known about treatment or prevention strategies for individuals found at high risk following screening. In order to make better use of the opportunities for primary prevention of diabetes and its complications among this high risk group, it is important to quantify diabetes progression rates and to examine the development of early markers of cardiovascular disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from Danish primary care. Methods/Design ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006. All individuals with impaired glucose regulation at screening, those who developed diabetes following screening, and a random sub-sample of those at lower levels of diabetes risk were invited to attend a follow-up health assessment in 2009–2011 (n = 4,188, of whom 2,082 (50% attended. The health assessment included detailed measurement of anthropometry, body composition, biochemistry, physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors including aortic stiffness and central blood pressure. All ADDITION-PRO participants are being followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death. Discussion The ADDITION-PRO study is designed to increase understanding of cardiovascular risk and its underlying mechanisms among individuals at high risk of diabetes

  11. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guasch-Ferre, M. (Marta); Hu, F.B.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A.; Fito, M. (Montserrat); Bullo, M. (Mónica); Estruch, R.; Ros, E.; D. Corella; Recondo, J. (Javier); Gomez-Gracia, E. (Enrique); Fiol, M; Lapetra, J.; L. Serra-Majem; Muñoz, M. A.; Pinto, X. (Xavier)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvención ...

  12. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Hu, Frank B; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Fitó, Montserrat; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Corella, Dolores; Recondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Pintó, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvenció...

  13. The effects of ProAlgaZyme novel algae infusion on metabolic syndrome and markers of cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildreth DeWall J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome, or Syndrome X, is characterized by a set of metabolic and lipid imbalances that greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The syndrome is highly prevalent in the United States and worldwide, and treatments are in high demand. ProAlgaZyme, a novel and proprietary freshwater algae infusion in purified water, has been the subject of several animal studies and has demonstrated low toxicity even with chronic administration at elevated doses. The infusion has been used historically for the treatment of several inflammatory and immune disorders in humans and is considered well-tolerated. Here, the infusion is evaluated for its effects on the cardiovascular risk factors present in metabolic syndrome in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 60 overweight and obese persons, ages 25–60. All participants received four daily oral doses (1 fl oz of ProAlgaZyme (N = 22 or water placebo (N = 30 for a total of 10 weeks, and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Blood sampling and anthropometric measurements were taken at the beginning of the study period and after 4, 8 and 10 weeks of treatment. Eight participants did not complete the study. Results ProAlgaZyme brought about statistically significant (p Conclusion ProAlgaZyme (4 fl oz daily consumption resulted in significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while significantly improving serum lipid profiles and reducing markers of inflammation, thus improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects over a course of 10 weeks with an absence of adverse side effects. Trial Registration US ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00489333

  14. Saturated fatty acids, palm oil and cardiovascular health – where do we stand today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Khosla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For  almost  sixty years dietary fat  has  been  the  focal  point  for reducing the risk  from  coronary  heart  disease (CHD.  With  evidence  based  largely on  animal  and  observational  studies documenting that  saturated fatty acids (SFA  increase LDL-C (with the latter being associated with increased CHD risk, the notion that SFA increased CHD, became etched in folklore. As a consequence,   decreasing   SFA   to   <10%   of   total   calories,   became   the corner-stone   of   global   dietary recommendations. Ironically, the fact that SFA increased the large buoyant LDL particles (as opposed to small-dense atherogenic LDL particles, or that they increased the cardio-protective HDL-C and in some instances, lowered the atherogenic Lp(a, went largely unnoticed. However a spate of studies starting in 2009 has dramatically challenged our thinking on the “widely accepted” role of SFA.  Twenty year follow up data from prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that only two classes of fatty acids affect CHD risk, namely trans monounsaturated fatty acids (resulting principally from the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA – which increase and decrease risk, respectively. These studies suggested that when  replacing/removing  SFA   from  the  diet,  the  replacement  nutrient  may  be  as important. Thus SFA replacement with PUFA may provide small benefits, but the replacement represents a dramatic shift in dietary regimen. The effects of replacing SFA with MUFA were inconclusive. If SFA are replaced with carbohydrates, then the quality of the carbohydrate (as measured by the glycemic index is also important. Earlier this year, a highly publicized study found no benefit on CHD even when SFA were replaced by PUFA, and questioned the usefulness of this public health message. The data on SFA has had a profound effect on the perceived role of

  15. Measures of health and disease in Africa: are current methods giving us useful information about trends in cardiovascular diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard S; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    An enormous burst of interest in the public health burden from chronic disease in Africa has emerged as a consequence of efforts to estimate global population health. Detailed estimates are now published for Africa as a whole and each country on the continent. These data have formed the basis for warnings about sharp increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the coming decades. In this essay we briefly examine the trajectory of social development on the continent and its consequences for the epidemiology of CVD and potential control strategies. Since full vital registration has only been implemented in segments of South Africa and the island nations of Seychelles and Mauritius - formally part of WHO-AFRO - mortality data are extremely limited. Numerous sample surveys have been conducted but they often lack standardization or objective measures of health status. Trend data are even less informative. However, using the best quality data available, age-standardized trends in CVD are downward, and in the case of stroke, sharply so. While acknowledging that the extremely limited available data cannot be used as the basis for inference to the continent, we raise the concern that general estimates based on imputation to fill in the missing mortality tables may be even more misleading. No immediate remedies to this problem can be identified, however bilateral collaborative efforts to strength local educational institutions and governmental agencies rank as the highest priority for near term development. PMID:24267434

  16. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  17. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garcia-Arellano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported an association between a more pro-inflammatory diet profile and various chronic metabolic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII was used to assess the inflammatory potential of nutrients and foods in the context of a dietary pattern. We prospectively examined the association between the DII and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD: myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study including 7216 high-risk participants. The DII was computed based on a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals of CVD risk were computed across  quartiles of the DII where the lowest (most anti-inflammatory quartile is the referent. Risk increased across the quartiles (i.e., with increasing inflammatory potential: HRquartile2 = 1.42 (95%CI = 0.97–2.09;  HRquartile3 = 1.85 (1.27–2.71; and HRquartile4 = 1.73 (1.15–2.60. When fit as continuous the multiple-adjusted hazard ratio for each additional standard deviation of the DII was 1.22 (1.06–1.40. Our results provide direct prospective evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular clinical events.

  18. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients - The CORDIAL Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are scarce epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in Brazil. The CORDIAL study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and follow up a hemodialysis population in a Brazilian metropolitan city. All patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure in all fifteen nephrology centers of Porto Alegre were considered for inclusion in the baseline phase of the CORDIAL study. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were obtained in medical records and in structured individual interviews performed in all patients by trained researchers. A total of 1215 patients were included (97.3% of all hemodialysis patients in the city of Porto Alegre). Their average age was 58.3 years old, 59.5% were male and 62.8% were white. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors observed was 87.5% for hypertension, 84.7% for dyslipidemia, 73.1% for sedentary lifestyle, 53.7% for tobacco use, and 35.8% for diabetes. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we found that sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.032, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), dyslipidemia (p = 0.019, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), and obesity (p < 0.001, PR 1.96 - 95%CI: 1.45-2.63) were more frequent in women; and hypertension (p = 0.018, PR 1.06 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.11) and tobacco use (p = 0.006, PR 2.7 - 95%CI: 1.79-4.17) were more often found among patients under 65 years old. Sedentary lifestyle was independently associated with time in dialysis less than 12 months (p < 0.001, PR 1.23 - 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Hemodialysis patients in this southern metropolitan Brazilian city have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors resembling many northern countries

  19. Bayesian network modeling: A case study of an epidemiologic system analysis of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster-Parra, P; Tauler, P; Bennasar-Veny, M; Ligęza, A; López-González, A A; Aguiló, A

    2016-04-01

    An extensive, in-depth study of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) seems to be of crucial importance in the research of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in order to prevent (or reduce) the chance of developing or dying from CVD. The main focus of data analysis is on the use of models able to discover and understand the relationships between different CVRF. In this paper a report on applying Bayesian network (BN) modeling to discover the relationships among thirteen relevant epidemiological features of heart age domain in order to analyze cardiovascular lost years (CVLY), cardiovascular risk score (CVRS), and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is presented. Furthermore, the induced BN was used to make inference taking into account three reasoning patterns: causal reasoning, evidential reasoning, and intercausal reasoning. Application of BN tools has led to discovery of several direct and indirect relationships between different CVRF. The BN analysis showed several interesting results, among them: CVLY was highly influenced by smoking being the group of men the one with highest risk in CVLY; MetS was highly influence by physical activity (PA) being again the group of men the one with highest risk in MetS, and smoking did not show any influence. BNs produce an intuitive, transparent, graphical representation of the relationships between different CVRF. The ability of BNs to predict new scenarios when hypothetical information is introduced makes BN modeling an Artificial Intelligence (AI) tool of special interest in epidemiological studies. As CVD is multifactorial the use of BNs seems to be an adequate modeling tool. PMID:26777431

  20. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients - The CORDIAL Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo, E-mail: jb.nefro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Mosmann, Camila Borges [Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Costa, Veridiana Borges [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Faculdade de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Saraiva, Ramiro Tubino; Grandi, Renata Rech; Bastos, Juliano Peixoto [Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gonçalves, Luiz Felipe [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Faculdade de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital Mãe de Deus - Departamento de Nefrologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rosito, Guido Aranha [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil - Curso de Medicina, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    There are scarce epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in Brazil. The CORDIAL study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and follow up a hemodialysis population in a Brazilian metropolitan city. All patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure in all fifteen nephrology centers of Porto Alegre were considered for inclusion in the baseline phase of the CORDIAL study. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were obtained in medical records and in structured individual interviews performed in all patients by trained researchers. A total of 1215 patients were included (97.3% of all hemodialysis patients in the city of Porto Alegre). Their average age was 58.3 years old, 59.5% were male and 62.8% were white. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors observed was 87.5% for hypertension, 84.7% for dyslipidemia, 73.1% for sedentary lifestyle, 53.7% for tobacco use, and 35.8% for diabetes. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we found that sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.032, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), dyslipidemia (p = 0.019, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), and obesity (p < 0.001, PR 1.96 - 95%CI: 1.45-2.63) were more frequent in women; and hypertension (p = 0.018, PR 1.06 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.11) and tobacco use (p = 0.006, PR 2.7 - 95%CI: 1.79-4.17) were more often found among patients under 65 years old. Sedentary lifestyle was independently associated with time in dialysis less than 12 months (p < 0.001, PR 1.23 - 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Hemodialysis patients in this southern metropolitan Brazilian city have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors resembling many northern countries.