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Sample records for cardiovascular disease-related genes

  1. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. PMID:21913285

  2. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Pushpa M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: PROVIDI study-group

    2015-06-01

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  3. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  4. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who ...

  5. Cardiovascular disease relates to intestinal uptake of p-cresol in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Poesen, Ruben; Viaene, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Kristin; Augustijns, Patrick; Bammens, Bert; Claes, Kathleen; Kuypers, Dirk; Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) associates with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. PCS concentrations are determined by intestinal uptake of p-cresol, human metabolism to PCS and renal clearance. Whether intestinal uptake of p-cresol itself is directly associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with renal dysfunction has not been studied to date. Methods We performed a prospective study in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1 – 5 (NCT004416...

  6. Gender differences in HIV-positive persons in use of cardiovascular disease-related interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla Ingrid; Ryom, Lene; El-Sadr, Wafaa;

    2014-01-01

    /02/99 until the earliest of death, 6 months after last visit or 01/02/13. Rates of initiation of lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives and receipt of invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs; bypass, angioplasty, endarterectomy) were calculated in...... regression was used to assess whether rates of initiation were higher in men than women, after adjustment for these factors. RESULTS: At enrolment, women (n=13,039; median (interquartile range) 34 (29-40) years) were younger than men (n=36,664, 39 (33-46) years, p=0.001), and were less likely to be current...... smokers (29% vs. 39%, p=0.0001), to have diabetes (2% vs. 3%, p=0.0001) or to have hypertension (7% vs. 11%, p=0.0001). Of 49,071 individuals without a MI/stroke at enrolment, 0.6% women vs. 2.1% men experienced a MI while 0.8% vs. 1.3% experienced a stroke. Overall, women received ICPs at a rate of 0...

  7. Precision Modulation of Neurodegenerative Disease-Related Gene Expression in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heman-Ackah, Sabrina Mahalia; Bassett, Andrew Roger; Wood, Matthew John Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reprogram adult somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the subsequent development of protocols for their differentiation into disease-relevant cell types have enabled in-depth molecular analyses of multiple disease states as hitherto impossible. Neurons differentiated from patient-specific iPSCs provide a means to recapitulate molecular phenotypes of neurodegenerative diseases in vitro. However, it remains challenging to conduct precise manipulations of gene expression in iPSC-derived neurons towards modeling complex human neurological diseases. The application of CRISPR/Cas9 to mammalian systems is revolutionizing the utilization of genome editing technologies in the study of molecular contributors to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Here, we demonstrate that CRISPRa and CRISPRi can be used to exert precise modulations of endogenous gene expression in fate-committed iPSC-derived neurons. This highlights CRISPRa/i as a major technical advancement in accessible tools for evaluating the specific contributions of critical neurodegenerative disease-related genes to neuropathogenesis. PMID:27341390

  8. Relation of Serum α- and γ-Tocopherol Levels to Cardiovascular Disease-Related Mortality Among Japanese Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence regarding the relationship between serum tocopherol levels and cardiovascular disease. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study as part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for evaluation of cancer risk (JACC Study). Baseline serum samples were collected from 39 242 participants (age range, 40–79 years) between 1988 and 1990. During the 13-year follow-up, there were 530 stroke deaths (302 ischemic strokes and 210 hemorrhagic strokes) and 211 dea...

  9. Cardiovascular risk in lupus nephritis: Do renal disease-related and other traditional risk factors play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atukorala, Inoshi; Weeratunga, Praveen; Kalubowila, Janaka; Ranasinghe, Hasanthika; Gunawardena, Nalika; Lanerolle, Rushika; Rathnamalala, Nadeeka

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in a Sri Lankan cohort of lupus nephritis (LN) patients and to identify associations between traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) and LN-related risk factors with increased CIMT. Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven LN were evaluated for conventional CVD risk factors, renal parameters and extent of organ involvement in this cross-sectional study. Current disease activity and damage were assessed by the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG) score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) damage index, respectively. CIMT was assessed by B Mode grey scale ultrasonography. Increased CIMT was defined as CIMT more than the 75th percentile based on cutoffs from the "Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study." Forty patients (98% female), with a mean age of 38 years (age range of 20-50) and of South Asian descent, were evaluated. The mean duration of disease of 6.15 years (SD = 4.66). The overall prevalence of cardiovascular events was low and included previous acute coronary syndromes in 7.5%, stable angina in 5%, cerebrovascular accidents in 7.5% and transient ischemic attacks in 2.5% of the patients; 72.5% had hypertension (HTN) [mean blood pressure (BP) 140/80 mm Hg]; 32.5% had dyslipidemias (mean serum cholesterol 5.9; SD = 5.6) and 25% had diabetes (mean blood sugar 103.7; SD = 15.6). Forty percent were obese and 20% were overweight (Asian cutoffs). Increased CIMT (57.5%) and atherosclerotic plaques (15.36%) indicated a high CVD risk in this cohort. Diabetes (P = 0.016), HTN (P = 0.002), dyslipidemia (P = 0.002) and obesity (P = 0.048) were associated with thickened CIMT. The only LN-related risk factor associated with thickened CIMT (P <0.05) was the SLICC/ACR damage index. The independent predictors of thickened CIMT determined by logistic regression analysis were HTN and dyslipidemia. PMID

  10. Cardiovascular risk in lupus nephritis: Do renal disease-related and other traditional risk factors play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoshi Atukorala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of thickened carotid intima media thickness (CIMT in a Sri Lankan cohort of lupus nephritis (LN patients and to identify associations between traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD and LN-related risk factors with increased CIMT. Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven LN were evaluated for conventional CVD risk factors, renal parameters and extent of organ involvement in this cross-sectional study. Current disease activity and damage were assessed by the British Isles Lupus Activity Group (BILAG score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR damage index, respectively. CIMT was assessed by B Mode grey scale ultrasonography. Increased CIMT was defined as CIMT more than the 75th percentile based on cutoffs from the "Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study." Forty patients (98% female, with a mean age of 38 years (age range of 20-50 and of South Asian descent, were evaluated. The mean duration of disease of 6.15 years (SD = 4.66. The overall prevalence of cardiovascular events was low and included previous acute coronary syndromes in 7.5%, stable angina in 5%, cerebrovascular accidents in 7.5% and transient ischemic attacks in 2.5% of the patients; 72.5% had hypertension (HTN [mean blood pressure (BP 140/80 mm Hg]; 32.5% had dyslipidemias (mean serum cholesterol 5.9; SD = 5.6 and 25% had diabetes (mean blood sugar 103.7; SD = 15.6. Forty percent were obese and 20% were overweight (Asian cutoffs. Increased CIMT (57.5% and atherosclerotic plaques (15.36% indicated a high CVD risk in this cohort. Diabetes (P = 0.016, HTN (P = 0.002, dyslipidemia (P = 0.002 and obesity (P = 0.048 were associated with thickened CIMT. The only LN-related risk factor associated with thickened CIMT (P <0.05 was the SLICC/ACR damage index. The independent predictors of thickened CIMT determined by logistic regression analysis were HTN and dyslipidemia.

  11. Identification of "pathologs" (disease-related genes from the RIKEN mouse cDNA dataset using human curation plus FACTS, a new biological information extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socha Luis A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal in the post-genomic era is to identify and characterise disease susceptibility genes and to apply this knowledge to disease prevention and treatment. Rodents and humans have remarkably similar genomes and share closely related biochemical, physiological and pathological pathways. In this work we utilised the latest information on the mouse transcriptome as revealed by the RIKEN FANTOM2 project to identify novel human disease-related candidate genes. We define a new term "patholog" to mean a homolog of a human disease-related gene encoding a product (transcript, anti-sense or protein potentially relevant to disease. Rather than just focus on Mendelian inheritance, we applied the analysis to all potential pathologs regardless of their inheritance pattern. Results Bioinformatic analysis and human curation of 60,770 RIKEN full-length mouse cDNA clones produced 2,578 sequences that showed similarity (70–85% identity to known human-disease genes. Using a newly developed biological information extraction and annotation tool (FACTS in parallel with human expert analysis of 17,051 MEDLINE scientific abstracts we identified 182 novel potential pathologs. Of these, 36 were identified by computational tools only, 49 by human expert analysis only and 97 by both methods. These pathologs were related to neoplastic (53%, hereditary (24%, immunological (5%, cardio-vascular (4%, or other (14%, disorders. Conclusions Large scale genome projects continue to produce a vast amount of data with potential application to the study of human disease. For this potential to be realised we need intelligent strategies for data categorisation and the ability to link sequence data with relevant literature. This paper demonstrates the power of combining human expert annotation with FACTS, a newly developed bioinformatics tool, to identify novel pathologs from within large-scale mouse transcript datasets.

  12. Effects of Integrated Care on Disease-Related Hospitalisation and Healthcare Costs in Patients with Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Respiratory Illnesses: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Carola A.; Reich, Oliver; Früh, Mathias; Rosemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an ongoing discussion on the further promotion of integrated care models in many healthcare systems. Only a few data, which examine the effect of integrated care models on medical expenditures and quality of care in chronically ill patients, exist.Aims: To investigate the effect of integrated care models on disease-related hospitalisations as a quality indicator and healthcare costs in patients with either diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or respiratory illnesses.Methods...

  13. Comparative and functional analysis of cardiovascular-related genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jan-Fang; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-09-01

    The ability to detect putative cis-regulatory elements in cardiovascular-related genes has been accelerated by the availability of genomic sequence data from numerous vertebrate species and the recent development of comparative genomic tools. This improvement is anticipated to lead to a better understanding of the complex regulatory architecture of cardiovascular (CV) genes and how genetic variants in these non-coding regions can potentially play a role in cardiovascular disease. This manuscript reviews a recently established database dedicated to the comparative sequence analysis of 250 human CV genes of known importance, 37 of which currently contain sequence comparison data for organisms beyond those of human, mouse and rat. These data have provided a glimpse into the variety of possible insights from deep vertebrate sequence comparisons and the identification of putative gene regulatory elements.

  14. Progress in Chimeric Vector and Chimeric Gene Based Cardiovascular Gene Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chun-Song; YOON Young-sup; ISNER Jeffrey M.; LOSORDO Douglas W.

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy for cardiovascular diseases has developed from preliminary animal experiments to clinical trials. However, vectors and target genes used currently in gene therapy are mainly focused on viral, nonviral vector and single target gene or monogene. Each vector system has a series of advantages and limitations. Chimeric vectors which combine the advantages of viral and nonviral vector,chimeric target genes which combine two or more target genes and novel gene delivery modes are being developed. In this article, we summarized the progress in chimeric vectors and chimeric genes based cardiovascular gene therapy, which including proliferative or occlusive vascular diseases such as atheroslerosis and restenosis, hypertonic vascular disease such as hypertension and cardiac diseases such as myocardium ischemia, dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, even heart transplantation. The development of chimeric vector, chimeric gene and their cardiovascular gene therapy is promising.

  15. Peripheral Arterial Disease Study (PERART: Prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

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    Bundó Magda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and symptomatic in a general population of both sexes and determine its predictive value related to morbimortality (cohort study. Methods/Design This cross-over, cohort study consists of 2 phases: firstly a descriptive, transversal cross-over study to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and secondly, a cohort study to evaluate the predictive value of AAI in relation to cardiovascular morbimortality. From September 2006 to June 2007, a total of 3,010 patients over the age of 50 years will be randomly selected from a population adscribed to 24 healthcare centres in the province of Barcelona (Spain. The diagnostic criteria of peripheral arterial disease will be considered as an AAI Discussion In this study we hope to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, especially the silent forms, in the general population and establish its relationship with cardiovascular morbimortality. A low AAI may be a better marker of arterial disease than the classical cardiovascular risk factors and may, therefore, contribute to improving the predictive value of the equations of cardiovascular risk and thereby allowing optimisation of multifactorial treatment of atherosclerotic disease.

  16. Recent progress in gene therapy for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Ryuichi

    2002-12-01

    Gene therapy is emerging as a potential strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as peripheral arterial disease, ischemic heart disease, restenosis after angioplasty, vascular bypass graft occlusion and transplant coronary vasculopathy, for which no known effective therapy exists. The first human trial in cardiovascular disease started in 1994 treating peripheral vascular disease with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and since then, many different potent angiogenic growth factors have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. In addition, therapeutic angiogenesis using the VEGF gene has been used to treat ischemic heart disease since 1997. The results from these clinical trials have exceeded expectations; improvement in the clinical symptoms of peripheral arterial disease and ischemic heart disease has been reported. Another strategy for combating the disease processes, targeting the transcriptional process, has been tested in a human trial. IN particular, transfection of cis-element double-stranded (ds) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) (= decoy) is a powerful tool in a new class of anti-gene strategies. Transfection of ds-ODN corresponding to the cis sequence will attenuate the authentic cis-trans interaction, leading to removal of trans-factors from the endogenous cis-elements and subsequent modulation of gene expression. Genetically modified vein grafts transfected with a decoy against E2F, an essential transcription factor in cell cycle progression, appear to have long-term potency in human patients. There is great potential in gene therapy for cardiovascular disease. PMID:12499610

  17. Beta-Adrenergic gene therapy for cardiovascular disease

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    Koch Walter J

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene therapy using in vivo recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is an effective technique that offers great potential to improve existing drug treatments for the complex cardiovascular diseases of heart failure and vascular smooth muscle intimal hyperplasia. Cardiac-specific adenovirus-mediated transfer of the carboxyl-terminus of the β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARKct, acting as a Gβγ-β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARK1 inhibitor, improves basal and agonist-induced cardiac performance in both normal and failing rabbit hearts. In addition, βARKct adenovirus infection of vascular smooth muscle is capable of significantly diminishing neointimal proliferation after angioplasty. Therefore, further investigation is warranted to determine whether inhibition of βARK1 activity and sequestration of Gβγ via an adenovirus that encodes the βARKct transgene might be a useful clinical tool for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies.

  18. GeneSeeker: extraction and integration of human disease-related information from web-based genetic databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, van M.A.; Cuelenaere, K.; Kemmeren, P.P.C.W.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Brunner, H.G.; Vriend, G.

    2005-01-01

    The identification of genes underlying human genetic disorders requires the combination of data related to cytogenetic localization, phenotypes and expression patterns, to generate a list of candidate genes. In the field of human genetics, it is normal to perform this combination analysis by hand. W

  19. Supplementing High-Density SNP Microarrays for Additional Coverage of Disease-Related Genes: Addiction as a Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SacconePhD, Scott F [Washington University, St. Louis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Bierut, Laura J [Washington University, St. Louis; Kalivas, Peter J [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Lerman, Caryn [University of Pennsylvania; Saccone, Nancy L [Washington University, St. Louis; Uhl, George R [Johns Hopkins University; Li, Chuan-Yun [Peking University; Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Edenberg, Howard [Indiana University; Sherry, Steven [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Feolo, Michael [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Moyzis, Robert K [Johns Hopkins University; Rutter, Joni L [National Institute of Drug Abuse

    2009-01-01

    Commercial SNP microarrays now provide comprehensive and affordable coverage of the human genome. However, some diseases have biologically relevant genomic regions that may require additional coverage. Addiction, for example, is thought to be influenced by complex interactions among many relevant genes and pathways. We have assembled a list of 486 biologically relevant genes nominated by a panel of experts on addiction. We then added 424 genes that showed evidence of association with addiction phenotypes through mouse QTL mappings and gene co-expression analysis. We demonstrate that there are a substantial number of SNPs in these genes that are not well represented by commercial SNP platforms. We address this problem by introducing a publicly available SNP database for addiction. The database is annotated using numeric prioritization scores indicating the extent of biological relevance. The scores incorporate a number of factors such as SNP/gene functional properties (including synonymy and promoter regions), data from mouse systems genetics and measures of human/mouse evolutionary conservation. We then used HapMap genotyping data to determine if a SNP is tagged by a commercial microarray through linkage disequilibrium. This combination of biological prioritization scores and LD tagging annotation will enable addiction researchers to supplement commercial SNP microarrays to ensure comprehensive coverage of biologically relevant regions.

  20. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  1. Estrogen receptor-mediated neuroprotection: The role of the Alzheimer’s disease-related gene seladin-1

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    Alessandro Peri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Peri, Mario SerioDepartment of Clinical Physiopathology, Endocrine Unit, Center for Research, Transfer and High Education on Chronic, Inflammatory, Degenerative and Neoplastic Disorders for the Development of Novel Therapies (DENOThe, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyAbstract: Experimental evidence supports a protective role of estrogen in the brain. According to the fact that Alzheimer’s disease (AD is more common in postmenopausal women, estrogen treatment has been proposed. However, there is no general consensus on the beneficial effect of estrogen or selective estrogen receptor modulators in preventing or treating AD. It has to be said that several factors may markedly affect the efficacy of the treatment. A few years ago, the seladin-1 gene (for selective Alzheimer’s disease indicator-1 has been isolated and found to be down-regulated in brain regions affected by AD. Seladin-1 has been found to be identical to the gene encoding the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysterol delta-24-reductase, involved in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, which confers protection against β-amyloid-mediated toxicity and from oxidative stress, and is an effective inhibitor of caspase-3 activity, a key mediator of apoptosis. Interestingly, we found earlier that the expression of this gene is up-regulated by estrogen. Furthermore, our very recent data support the hypothesis that seladin-1 is a mediator of the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding the neuroprotective effects of seladin-1 and the relationship between this protein and estrogen.Keywords: seladin-1, DHCR24, estrogen, brain, Alzheimer’s disease

  2. New Aspects of Gene-Silencing for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Hans-Peter Wendel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD, mainly caused by atherosclerosis, represents the single leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Besides the classical interventional therapies new applications for treatment of vascular wall pathologies are appearing on the horizon. RNA interference (RNAi represents a novel therapeutic strategy due to sequence-specific gene-silencing through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA. The modulation of gene expression by short RNAs provides a powerful tool to theoretically silence any disease-related or disease-promoting gene of interest. In this review we outline the RNAi mechanisms, the currently used delivery systems and their possible applications to the cardiovascular system. Especially, the optimization of the targeting and transfection procedures could enhance the efficiency of siRNA delivery drastically and might open the way to clinical applicability. The new findings of the last years may show the techniques to new innovative therapies and could probably play an important role in treating CHD in the future.

  3. Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease Demonstrate Distinctive Pulmonary Gene Expressions for Vascular Response Genes: Impact of Ozone Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative gene expression profiling of multiple tissues from rat strains with genetic predisposition to diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can help decode the transcriptional program that governs organ-specific functions. We examined expressions of CVD genes in the lungs of ...

  4. Adrenergic gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk in the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Sharaf Barry L; McNamara Dennis M; Bittner Vera; Cooper-DeHoff Rhonda M; Johnson B Delia; Li Haihong; Zineh Issam; Pacanowski Michael A; Merz C Noel; Pepine Carl J; Johnson Julie A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Adrenergic gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes. We investigated the influence of adrenergic gene polymorphisms on cardiovascular risk in women with suspected myocardial ischemia. Methods We genotyped 628 women referred for coronary angiography for eight polymorphisms in the α1A-, β1-, β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors (ADRA1A, ADRB1, ADRB2, ADRB3, respectively), and their signaling proteins, G-protein β 3 subunit (GNB3) and G-protei...

  5. Gene polymorphisms in association with emerging cardiovascular risk markers in adult women

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling Nicole F; Hayes Donald; Ned Renée; Fang Jing; House Meaghan; Chang Man-huei; Yesupriya Ajay; Fan Amy Z; Mokdad Ali H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence on the associations of emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors/markers with genes may help identify intermediate pathways of disease susceptibility in the general population. This population-based study is aimed to determine the presence of associations between a wide array of genetic variants and emerging cardiovascular risk markers among adult US women. Methods The current analysis was performed among the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NH...

  6. Network-based association of hypoxia-responsive genes with cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular oxygen is indispensable for cellular viability and function. Hypoxia is a stress condition in which oxygen demand exceeds supply. Low cellular oxygen content induces a number of molecular changes to activate regulatory pathways responsible for increasing the oxygen supply and optimizing cellular metabolism under limited oxygen conditions. Hypoxia plays critical roles in the pathobiology of many diseases, such as cancer, heart failure, myocardial ischemia, stroke, and chronic lung diseases. Although the complicated associations between hypoxia and cardiovascular (and cerebrovascular) diseases (CVD) have been recognized for some time, there are few studies that investigate their biological link from a systems biology perspective. In this study, we integrate hypoxia genes, CVD genes, and the human protein interactome in order to explore the relationship between hypoxia and cardiovascular diseases at a systems level. We show that hypoxia genes are much closer to CVD genes in the human protein interactome than that expected by chance. We also find that hypoxia genes play significant bridging roles in connecting different cardiovascular diseases. We construct a hypoxia-CVD bipartite network and find several interesting hypoxia-CVD modules with significant gene ontology similarity. Finally, we show that hypoxia genes tend to have more CVD interactors in the human interactome than in random networks of matching topology. Based on these observations, we can predict novel genes that may be associated with CVD. This network-based association study gives us a broad view of the relationships between hypoxia and cardiovascular diseases and provides new insights into the role of hypoxia in cardiovascular biology. (paper)

  7. Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A family study

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán; José Francisco Muñoz-Valle; Eugenia Flores-Alfaro; Lorenzo Salgado-Goytia; Aralia Berenice Salgado-Bernabé; Isela Parra-Rojas

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the –174 G/C and –572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband) had obesity, wer...

  8. Drug and Gene Delivery using Sonoporation for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Jason; Feinstein, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Using the improvements made in diagnostic contrast enhanced ultrasound, researchers have made significant progress in the field of ultrasound-mediated sonoporation for drug delivery. Many programs take advantage of commercial products; both ultrasound imaging systems and contrast agents to better enable translation from preclinical to first-in-man studies (Kotopoulis et al., Med Phys 40:072902, 2013). Particularly well-suited targets for this novel therapy are diseases of the cardiovascular system. This chapter will highlight several recent studies addressing treatment of both acute and chronic conditions. PMID:26486346

  9. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zodwa Dlamini; Tshidino, Shonisani C.; Rodney Hull

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 f...

  10. A1298C polymorphism in the MTHFR gene predisposes to cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino-Morales, Rogelio; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Tomás R.; Miranda-Filloy, J. A.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, B.; Martín, J.; González-Gay, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    [Introduction]: We determined the contribution of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C>T and 1298 A>C gene polymorphisms to the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also assessed whether these two MTHFR gene polymorphisms may be implicated in the development of cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis manifested by the presence of endothelial dysfunction, in a series of Spanish patients with RA. [Methods]: Six hundred and twelve patient...

  11. CHARACTERIZING THE ROLE OF THE NELL1 GENE IN CARDIOVASCULAR DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L. Y.; Culiat, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nell1{sup 6R} is a chemically-induced point mutation in a novel cell-signaling gene, Nell1, which results in truncation of the protein and degradation of the Nell16R transcript. Earlier studies revealed that loss of Nell1 function reduces expression of numerous extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins required for differentiation of bone and cartilage precursor cells, thereby causing severe skull and spinal defects. Since skeletal and cardiovascular development are closely linked biological processes, this research focused on: a) examining Nell16R mutant mice for cardiovascular defects, b) determining Nell1 expression in fetal and adult hearts, and c) establishing how ECM genes affected by Nell1 infl uence heart development. Structural heart defects in Nell16R mutant fetuses were analyzed by heart length and width measurements and standard histological methods (haematoxylin and eosin staining). Nell1 expression was assayed in fetal and adult hearts using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis using public databases (Stanford SOURCE Search, Integrated Cartilage Gene Database, Mouse Genome Informatics, and NCBI UniGene) was undertaken to investigate the relationship between cardiovascular development and each of twentyeight genes affected by Nell1. Nell1-defi cient mice have signifi cantly enlarged hearts (particularly the heart width), dramatically reduced blood fl ow out of the heart and unexpanded lungs. Isolation of total RNAs from hearts of adult (control and heterozygote) and fetal (control and homozygous mutant) mice have been completed and RT-PCR assays are in progress. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the majority of genes with reduced expression in Nell1-defi cient mice are normally expressed in the heart (79%; 22/28), blood vessels (71%; 20/28) and bone marrow (61%; 17/28). Moreover, mouse mutations in seven of these genes (Col15a1, Osf-2, Bmpr1a, Pkd1, Mfge8, Ptger4, Col5a1) manifest

  12. Bioinformatics Identification of Modules of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes by In Silico Promoter Analysis and Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Augustin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms and genetic risk factors underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis are only partly understood. To identify new factors, which may contribute to AD, different approaches are taken including proteomics, genetics, and functional genomics. Here, we used a bioinformatics approach and found that distinct AD-related genes share modules of transcription factor binding sites, suggesting a transcriptional coregulation. To detect additional coregulated genes, which may potentially contribute to AD, we established a new bioinformatics workflow with known multivariate methods like support vector machines, biclustering, and predicted transcription factor binding site modules by using in silico analysis and over 400 expression arrays from human and mouse. Two significant modules are composed of three transcription factor families: CTCF, SP1F, and EGRF/ZBPF, which are conserved between human and mouse APP promoter sequences. The specific combination of in silico promoter and multivariate analysis can identify regulation mechanisms of genes involved in multifactorial diseases.

  13. ALK7 Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Risk and Cardiovascular Remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Lv, Ruijuan [Department of Emergency, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Zhihao [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Department of Geriatrics, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Shang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yun; Zhong, Ming [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, Yuguo; Tang, Mengxiong, E-mail: tangmengxiongsdu8@163.com [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Department of Emergency, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2013-08-15

    Activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) is a type I receptor for the TGF-β superfamily and has recently been demonstrated to play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. To investigate the association of the ALK7 gene polymorphism with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular remodeling in MetS patients. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs13010956 in the ALK7 gene was genotyped in 351 Chinese subjects undergoing carotid and cardiac ultrasonography. The associations of the ALK7 gene polymorphism with the MetS phenotype, MetS parameters, and cardiovascular ultrasonic features were analyzed. The rs13010956 polymorphism in the ALK7 gene was found to be significantly associated with the MetS phenotype in females (p < 0.05) and was also significantly associated with blood pressure in the total (p < 0.05) and female populations (p < 0.01). Further analysis revealed that rs13010956 was associated with mean intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries in females (p < 0.05). After control for body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides, rs13010956 was also found to be significantly associated with left ventricular mass index in the total (p < 0.05) and female populations (p < 0.05). Our findings suggested that the ALK7 gene polymorphism rs13010956 was significantly associated with MetS risk in females and may be involved in cardiovascular remodeling in MetS patients.

  14. ALK7 Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome Risk and Cardiovascular Remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) is a type I receptor for the TGF-β superfamily and has recently been demonstrated to play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. To investigate the association of the ALK7 gene polymorphism with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular remodeling in MetS patients. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs13010956 in the ALK7 gene was genotyped in 351 Chinese subjects undergoing carotid and cardiac ultrasonography. The associations of the ALK7 gene polymorphism with the MetS phenotype, MetS parameters, and cardiovascular ultrasonic features were analyzed. The rs13010956 polymorphism in the ALK7 gene was found to be significantly associated with the MetS phenotype in females (p < 0.05) and was also significantly associated with blood pressure in the total (p < 0.05) and female populations (p < 0.01). Further analysis revealed that rs13010956 was associated with mean intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries in females (p < 0.05). After control for body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides, rs13010956 was also found to be significantly associated with left ventricular mass index in the total (p < 0.05) and female populations (p < 0.05). Our findings suggested that the ALK7 gene polymorphism rs13010956 was significantly associated with MetS risk in females and may be involved in cardiovascular remodeling in MetS patients

  15. Overexpression of the IGF-II/M6P receptor in mouse fibroblast cell lines differentially alters expression profiles of genes involved in Alzheimer's disease-related pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlin Wang

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common type of senile dementia affecting elderly people. The processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP leading to the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ peptide contributes to neurodegeneration and development of AD pathology. The endocytic trafficking pathway, which comprises of the endosomes and lysosomes, acts as an important site for Aβ generation, and endocytic dysfunction has been linked to increased Aβ production and loss of neurons in AD brains. Since insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II receptor plays a critical role in the transport of lysosomal enzymes from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes, it is likely that the receptor may have a role in regulating Aβ metabolism in AD pathology. However, very little is known on how altered levels of the IGF-II receptor can influence the expression/function of various molecules involved in AD pathology. To address this issue, we evaluated the expression profiles of 87 selected genes related to AD pathology in mouse fibroblast MS cells that are deficient in murine IGF-II receptor and corresponding MS9II cells overexpressing ∼ 500 times the human IGF-II receptors. Our results reveal that an elevation in IGF-II receptor levels alters the expression profiles of a number of genes including APP as well as enzymes regulating Aβ production, degradation and clearance mechanisms. Additionally, it influences the expression of various lysosomal enzymes and protein kinases that are involved in Aβ toxicity. IGF-II receptor overexpression also alters expression of several genes involved in intracellular signalling as well as cholesterol metabolism, which play a critical role in AD pathology. The altered gene profiles observed in this study closely match with the corresponding protein levels, with a few exceptions. These results, taken together, suggest that an elevation in IGF-II receptor levels can influence the expression profiles of transcripts as well as proteins

  16. Gene polymorphisms in association with emerging cardiovascular risk markers in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Nicole F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on the associations of emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors/markers with genes may help identify intermediate pathways of disease susceptibility in the general population. This population-based study is aimed to determine the presence of associations between a wide array of genetic variants and emerging cardiovascular risk markers among adult US women. Methods The current analysis was performed among the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III phase 2 samples of adult women aged 17 years and older (sample size n = 3409. Fourteen candidate genes within ADRB2, ADRB3, CAT, CRP, F2, F5, FGB, ITGB3, MTHFR, NOS3, PON1, PPARG, TLR4, and TNF were examined for associations with emerging cardiovascular risk markers such as serum C-reactive protein, homocysteine, uric acid, and plasma fibrinogen. Linear regression models were performed using SAS-callable SUDAAN 9.0. The covariates included age, race/ethnicity, education, menopausal status, female hormone use, aspirin use, and lifestyle factors. Results In covariate-adjusted models, serum C-reactive protein concentrations were significantly (P value controlling for false-discovery rate ≤ 0.05 associated with polymorphisms in CRP (rs3093058, rs1205, MTHFR (rs1801131, and ADRB3 (rs4994. Serum homocysteine levels were significantly associated with MTHFR (rs1801133. Conclusion The significant associations between certain gene variants with concentration variations in serum C-reactive protein and homocysteine among adult women need to be confirmed in further genetic association studies.

  17. Transcriptional Regulation of The Alzheimer's Disease-related Gene,Nicastrin%老年痴呆症相关基因Nicastrin的转录调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨眉; 蔡芳; 潘乾; 龙志高; 夏家辉; 夏昆; 张灼华

    2009-01-01

    APP蛋白经过降解,形成老年痴呆症患者脑内老年斑的主要成分.由PS(早老素),NCT,PEN-2和APH-14种膜蛋白组成的γ分泌酶催化该降解过程.为了了解人类nicastrin(NCT)基因的转录调控机制,确定了其在人脑中的转录起始位点以及其编码区上游大小不等片段的转录起始活性.EMSA分析证实NCT启动子区的4个AP-1结合位点和2个NFAT结合位点能够与相应的转录因子结合,能够改变转录因子调控能力的定点突变和PDTC诱导使得NCT启动子在HeLa细胞和人鼠皮质神经元中的启动活性都有所改变.以上结果说明:AP-1和NFAT确实参与了人类NCT基因的转录调控.%The gamma-secretase complex mediates the final cleavage of APP to generate the principal component of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients.Four integral membrane proteins (PS,NCT,PEN-2 and APH-1) are essential and sufficient for gamma-secretase activity.To identify the promoter of human nicastrin gene (NCT),its 5' -flanking region has been characterized and a 270 bp fragment containing the TSS (transcription start site) for the promoter activity has been identified.EMSA assays confirmed that all four AP-1 binding sites and two NFAT sites in the NCT promoter region were able to bind relative transcription factors in vitro.Mutations,as well as treatment with PDTC,which adjust the regulatory effect of AP-1 and NFAT,altered NCT promoter activity in both HeLa cells and rat cortical neurons.The results demonstrated that AP-1 and NFAT are involved in the regulation of hNCT transcription and suggest that balanced activation of AP-1 and NFAT ensures a strict temporal and tissue-specific control of NCT transcription.

  18. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Blackburn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribute to long-term risk reduction. Here we describe the lifestyle intervention, including clinical and molecular data collected, and provide details of the experimental methods and quality control parameters for the gene expression data generated from participants and non-intervention controls. Our findings suggest successful and sustained modulation of gene expression through healthy lifestyle changes may have beneficial effects on vascular health that cannot be discerned from traditional risk factor profiles. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, series GSE46097 and GSE66175.

  19. Identification of genes and networks driving cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse F2 intercross.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M J Derry

    Full Text Available To identify the genes and pathways that underlie cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes we performed an integrated analysis of a mouse C57BL/6JxA/J F2 (B6AF2 cross by relating genome-wide gene expression data from adipose, kidney, and liver tissues to physiological endpoints measured in the population. We have identified a large number of trait QTLs including loci driving variation in cardiac function on chromosomes 2 and 6 and a hotspot for adiposity, energy metabolism, and glucose traits on chromosome 8. Integration of adipose gene expression data identified a core set of genes that drive the chromosome 8 adiposity QTL. This chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature contains genes associated with mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation and maps to a subnetwork with conserved function in humans that was previously implicated in human obesity. In addition, human eSNPs corresponding to orthologous genes from the signature show enrichment for association to type II diabetes in the DIAGRAM cohort, supporting the idea that the chromosome 8 locus perturbs a molecular network that in humans senses variations in DNA and in turn affects metabolic disease risk. We functionally validate predictions from this approach by demonstrating metabolic phenotypes in knockout mice for three genes from the trans eQTL signature, Akr1b8, Emr1, and Rgs2. In addition we show that the transcriptional signatures for knockout of two of these genes, Akr1b8 and Rgs2, map to the F2 network modules associated with the chromosome 8 trans eQTL signature and that these modules are in turn very significantly correlated with adiposity in the F2 population. Overall this study demonstrates how integrating gene expression data with QTL analysis in a network-based framework can aid in the elucidation of the molecular drivers of disease that can be translated from mice to humans.

  20. Adrenergic gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk in the NHLBI-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharaf Barry L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenergic gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes. We investigated the influence of adrenergic gene polymorphisms on cardiovascular risk in women with suspected myocardial ischemia. Methods We genotyped 628 women referred for coronary angiography for eight polymorphisms in the α1A-, β1-, β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors (ADRA1A, ADRB1, ADRB2, ADRB3, respectively, and their signaling proteins, G-protein β 3 subunit (GNB3 and G-protein α subunit (GNAS. We compared the incidence of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure between genotype groups in all women and women without obstructive coronary stenoses. Results After a median of 5.8 years of follow-up, 115 women had an event. Patients with the ADRB1 Gly389 polymorphism were at higher risk for the composite outcome due to higher rates of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.63, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.17–11.28; Gly/Gly vs. Arg/Arg HR 4.14, 95%CI 0.88–19.6. The risk associated with ADRB1 Gly389 was limited to those without obstructive CAD (n = 400, Pinteraction = 0.03, albeit marginally significant in this subset (HR 1.71, 95%CI 0.91–3.19. Additionally, women without obstructive CAD carrying the ADRB3 Arg64 variant were at higher risk for the composite endpoint (HR 2.10, 95%CI 1.05–4.24 due to subtle increases in risk for all of the individual endpoints. No genetic associations were present in women with obstructive CAD. Conclusion In this exploratory analysis, common coding polymorphisms in the β1- and β3-adrenergic receptors increased cardiovascular risk in women referred for diagnostic angiography, and could improve risk assessment, particularly for women without evidence of obstructive CAD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000554.

  1. Effects of interacting networks of cardiovascular risk genes on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (the CODAM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feskens Edith JM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Genetic dissection of complex diseases requires innovative approaches for identification of disease-predisposing genes. A well-known example of a human complex disease with a strong genetic component is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM. Methods: We genotyped normal-glucose-tolerant subjects (NGT; n = 54, subjects with an impaired glucose metabolism (IGM; n = 111 and T2DM (n = 142 subjects, in an assay (designed by Roche Molecular Systems for detection of 68 polymorphisms in 36 cardiovascular risk genes. Using the single-locus logistic regression and the so-called haplotype entropy, we explored the possibility that (1 common pathways underlie development of T2DM and cardiovascular disease -which would imply enrichment of cardiovascular risk polymorphisms in "pre-diabetic" (IGM and diabetic (T2DM populations- and (2 that gene-gene interactions are relevant for the effects of risk polymorphisms. Results: In single-locus analyses, we showed suggestive association with disturbed glucose metabolism (i.e. subjects who were either IGM or had T2DM, or with T2DM only. Moreover, in the haplotype entropy analysis, we identified a total of 14 pairs of polymorphisms (with a false discovery rate of 0.125 that may confer risk of disturbed glucose metabolism, or T2DM only, as members of interacting networks of genes. We substantiated gene-gene interactions by showing that these interacting networks can indeed identify potential "disease-predisposing allele-combinations". Conclusion: Gene-gene interactions of cardiovascular risk polymorphisms can be detected in prediabetes and T2DM, supporting the hypothesis that common pathways may underlie development of T2DM and cardiovascular disease. Thus, a specific set of risk polymorphisms, when simultaneously present, increases the risk of disease and hence is indeed relevant in the transfer of risk.

  2. Autophagy in cardiovascular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lavandero, Sergio; Chiong, Mario; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. As such, there is great interest in identifying novel mechanisms that govern the cardiovascular response to disease-related stress. First described in failing hearts, autophagy within the cardiovascular system has been widely characterized in cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears to be critical to the mai...

  3. Interleukin-6 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A family study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the –174 G/C and –572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical and hematological parameters. High sensitivity C- reactive protein levels were measurement for nephelometric analysis. Screening for both polymorphisms studied was performed by PCR-RFLP. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. The genotypes –174 GC/CC were associated with T2D (OR = 1.23, IC95% 1.01–1.5 and highest levels of hsCRP (p = 0.02, whereas genotype –572 GG was associated with T2D (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.04–1.47 with an inflammatory state determined by the increase in the leukocyte count (OR = 1.24, IC95% 1.02–1.51. The genotypes –174 GC/CC and –572 GG may confer susceptibility for the development of subclinical inflammation and type 2 diabetes in Mexican families.

  4. 2 minute non-invasive screening for cardio-vascular diseases: relative limitation of C-Reactive Protein compared with more sensitive L-Homocystine as cardio-vascular risk factors; safe and effective treatment using the selective drug uptake enhancement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to the present practice of measurement of cardio-vascular risk factors or inflammatory risk factors such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP) from a blood sample from the vein of one arm, by using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Resonance Phenomena between 2 identical substances, one can non-invasively detect the approximate location on the body of abnormally increased risk factors in just 2 minutes, by detecting the resonance with L-Homocystine, even when blood CRP failed to detect any abnormality. This is performed by projecting a 0.5 to approximately 5mW red spectral laser beam with 560-670nm wavelength, to at least 6 standard parts of the body, when one of the control risk markers placed next to the laser beam also exists in the part of the body tested. It is generally believed that CRP is increased in the presence of acute myocardial infarct, chronic rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, metabolic abnormalities such as often detected in diabetes, inflammation and underlying infection of the cardio-vascular system, and in some cancers. However, in our study, when the clinical significance of CRP and L-Homocystine was compared, we found that CRP often was not increased when there was extensive infection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis as well as asymptomatic infection by Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus Type I, Human Herpes Virus Type 6, Borrelia Burgdorferi, or Chlamydia Trachomatis in the heart (and other parts of the body), particularly when there was liver cell dysfunction such as an increase in ALT. In contrast, L-Homocystine was often increased in the presence of localized infections of the heart and other parts of the body. For screening of Cardio-Vascular diseases by this method, 0.5mg of L-Homocystine as a control marker was found to be the most sensitive and reliable, compared with most effective amount of CRP, 0.5ng, for detecting early Cardio-Vascular problems due to various localized infections. About 0.5ng of cardiac Troponin T and cardiac

  5. Adiponectin gene SNP 276G → T, nutrient intakes, and cardiovascular disease risk in Korean type 2 DM patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, So Young; Ryu, Han Kyoung; Park, Hee Jung; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in adiponectin gene has been associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was performed to investigate the association of SNP 276G→T at adiponectin gene with CVD risk factors in Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. The subjects were 351 type 2 DM patients visited a DM clinic in Seoul, and the patients with known CVD were excluded. The adiponectin SNP 276G→T was analyzed and dietary intakes were assess...

  6. The effects of genes implicated in cardiovascular disease on blood pressure response to treatment among treatment-naive hypertensive African Americans in the GenHAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, A N; Lynch, A I; Claas, S A; Boerwinkle, E; Davis, B R; Ford, C E; Eckfeldt, J H; Tiwari, H K; Arnett, D K; Irvin, M R

    2016-09-01

    African Americans have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the United States. Blood pressure (BP) control is important to reduce cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality in this ethnic group. Genetic variants have been found to be associated with BP response to treatment. Previous pharmacogenetic studies of BP response to treatment in African Americans suffer limitations of small sample size as well as a limited number of candidate genes, and often focused on one antihypertensive treatment. Using 1131 African-American treatment-naive participants from the Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment Study, we examined whether variants in 35 candidate genes might modulate BP response to four different antihypertensive medications, including an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril), a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine), and an a-adrenergic blocker (doxazosin) as compared with a thiazide diuretic (chlorthalidone) after 6 months of follow-up. Several suggestive gene by treatment interactions were identified. For example, among participants with two minor alleles of renin rs6681776, diastolic BP response was much improved on doxazosin compared with chlorthalidone (on average -9.49 mm Hg vs -1.70 mm Hg) (P=0.007). Although several suggestive loci were identified, none of the findings passed significance criteria after correction for multiple testing. Given the impact of hypertension and its sequelae in this population, this research highlights the potential for genetic factors to contribute to BP response to treatment. Continued concerted research efforts focused on genetics are needed to improve treatment response in this high-risk group. PMID:26791477

  7. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress. PMID:23055331

  8. Cardiovascular actions of DOPA mediated by the gene product of ocular albinism 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshima, Yoshio; Nakamura, Fumio; Masukawa, Daiki; Chen, Sandy; Koga, Motokazu

    2014-01-01

    l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is the metabolic precursor of dopamine, and the single most effective agent in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. One problem with DOPA therapy for Parkinson's disease is its cardiovascular side effects including hypotension and syncope, the underlying mechanisms of which are largely unknown. We proposed that DOPA is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, but specific receptors for DOPA had not been identified. Recently, the gene product of ocular albinism 1 (OA1) was shown to possess DOPA-binding activity. It was unknown, however, whether or not OA1 is responsible for the actions of DOPA itself. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that OA1 was expressed in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). OA1-positive cells adjacent to tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell bodies and nerve fibers were detected in the depressor sites of the NTS. OA1 knockdown using oa1-specific shRNA-adenovirus vectors in the NTS reduced the expression levels of OA1 in the NTS. The prior injection of the shRNA against OA1 suppressed the depressor and bradycardic responses to DOPA but not to glutamate in the NTS of anesthetized rats. Thus OA-1 is a functional receptor of DOPA in the NTS, which warrants reexamination of the mechanisms for the therapeutic and untoward actions of DOPA. PMID:25185585

  9. Lack of Association between JAK3 Gene Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Disease in Spanish Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes García-Bermúdez; Raquel López-Mejías; Fernanda Genre; Santos Castañeda; Alfonso Corrales; Javier Llorca; Carlos González-Juanatey; Begoña Ubilla; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Trinitario Pina; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Benjamín Fernández-Gutiérrez; Alejandro Balsa; Dora Pascual-Salcedo

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a polygenic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality. JAK/STAT signalling pathway is involved in autoimmune diseases and in the atherosclerotic process. JAK3 is a highly promising target for immunomodulatory drugs and polymorphisms in JAK3 gene have been associated with CV events in incident dialysis patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the potential role of JAK3 polymorphisms in the develo...

  10. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2015-01-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, an...

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in the Adiponectin Gene and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    Dear Editor, The recent article by Mohammadzadeh et al.[1] on the latest issue of this Journal showed that the T allele +276G/T SNP of ADIPOQ gene is more associated with the increasing risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Adipocytes were described in myocardial tissue of CAD patients and their role recently discussed[2,3]. Susceptibility to CAD by polymorphism in the Q gene of adiponectin has been reported for 3'-UTR, which harbours some genetic loci associated with metabolic risks and atherosclerosis[4]. Actually, previous studies have shown that the haplotype SNP +276G>T was associated with a decreased risk of CAD, after adjustment for potential confounding factors, therefore some controversial opinion still exists[5]. This evidence should be associated with the role exerted by adipocytes and adiponectin in heart physiology. In particular, in hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP), by investigating the population frequency of alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely +45T>G (rs2241766) and +276G>T (rs1501299), some authors found that the SNP +276 TT genotype was significantly associated with protection against HDCP, when compared to the pooled G genotypes[6]. Moreover, the same +276G/T SNP haplotype was strongly associated with biliary atresia, an intractable neonatal inflammatory and obliterative cholangiopathy, leading to progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis[7]. CAD is closely related to adiponectin biology. The same isoforms of adiponectin seem to be not associated to CAD severity but to glucose metabolism and its impairment[8]. In the paper by Mohammadzadeh et al.[1], T allele in +276G/T SNP haplotype is highly associated with CAD in subjects with type 2 diabetes, but this linkage should be reappraised if related much more to diabetes rather than CAD. Association of T allele in the indicated SNP with CAD may be an indirect consequence of type 2 diabetes, as reported

  12. Finding Optimal Set of Genes effective Diagnostics and Prognosis of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltus, Václav; Adášková, Jana; Zvárová, Jana

    Brno : Masaryk University, 2007 - (Horová, I.; Hřebíček, J.). s. 36-36 ISBN 978-80-210-4333-6. [TIES 2007. Annual Meeting of the International Environmental Society /18./. 16.08.2007-20.08.2007, Mikulov] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data model * cardiovascular diseases * DNA Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  13. Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Variants, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Myocardial Infarction in the Costa Rica Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aslibekyan, S.; Jensen, M K; Campos, H.; Linkletter, C. D.; Loucks, E. B.; Ordovas, J. M.; Deka, R.; Rimm, E. B.; Baylin, A

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, rs174589, rs174627), intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) in a matched population based case–control study of Costa Rican adults (n = 1756). Generalized...

  14. Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk: Variations in Visfatin Gene Can Modify the Obesity Associated Cardiovascular Risk. Results from the Segovia Population Based-Study. Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Larrad, María Teresa; Corbatón Anchuelo, Arturo; Fernández Pérez, Cristina; Pérez Barba, Milagros; Lazcano Redondo, Yera; Serrano Ríos, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to investigate if genetic variations in the visfatin gene (SNPs rs7789066/ rs11977021/rs4730153) could modify the cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk) despite the metabolic phenotype (obesity and glucose tolerance). In addition, we investigated the relationship between insulin sensitivity and variations in visfatin gene. Material and Methods A population-based study in rural and urban areas of the Province of Segovia, Spain, was carried out in the period of 2001–2003 years. A total of 587 individuals were included, 25.4% subjects were defined as obese (BMI ≥30 Kg/m2). Results Plasma visfatin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with DM2 than in other categories of glucose tolerance. The genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP was significantly associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) after adjustment for gender, age, BMI and waist circumference. The obese individuals carrying the CC genotype of the rs11977021 SNP showed higher circulating levels of fasting proinsulin after adjustment for the same variables. The genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP seems to be protective from CV-risk either estimated by Framingham or SCORE charts in general population; and in obese and non-obese individuals. No associations with CV-risk were observed for other studied SNPs (rs11977021/rs7789066). Conclusions In summary, this is the first study which concludes that the genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP appear to protect against CV-risk in obese and non–obese individuals, estimated by Framingham and SCORE charts. Our results confirm that the different polymorphisms in the visfatin gene might be influencing the glucose homeostasis in obese individuals. PMID:27166797

  15. Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk: Variations in Visfatin Gene Can Modify the Obesity Associated Cardiovascular Risk. Results from the Segovia Population Based-Study. Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Martínez Larrad

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate if genetic variations in the visfatin gene (SNPs rs7789066/ rs11977021/rs4730153 could modify the cardiovascular-risk (CV-risk despite the metabolic phenotype (obesity and glucose tolerance. In addition, we investigated the relationship between insulin sensitivity and variations in visfatin gene.A population-based study in rural and urban areas of the Province of Segovia, Spain, was carried out in the period of 2001-2003 years. A total of 587 individuals were included, 25.4% subjects were defined as obese (BMI ≥30 Kg/m2.Plasma visfatin levels were significantly higher in obese subjects with DM2 than in other categories of glucose tolerance. The genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP was significantly associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance after adjustment for gender, age, BMI and waist circumference. The obese individuals carrying the CC genotype of the rs11977021 SNP showed higher circulating levels of fasting proinsulin after adjustment for the same variables. The genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP seems to be protective from CV-risk either estimated by Framingham or SCORE charts in general population; and in obese and non-obese individuals. No associations with CV-risk were observed for other studied SNPs (rs11977021/rs7789066.In summary, this is the first study which concludes that the genotype AA of the rs4730153 SNP appear to protect against CV-risk in obese and non-obese individuals, estimated by Framingham and SCORE charts. Our results confirm that the different polymorphisms in the visfatin gene might be influencing the glucose homeostasis in obese individuals.

  16. Adiponectin gene and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetic patients: a review of evidences O gene da adiponectina e o risco cardiovascular em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2: uma revisão das evidiencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A.F. Ferrarezi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a 3-fold higher risk of developing atherosclerosis and its clinical complications as compared to non-diabetic individuals. Part of the cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes is probably due to genetic determinants influencing both glucose homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis. However, type 2 diabetes frequently coexists with other cardiovascular risk factors like arterial hypertension, central obesity and dyslipidemia. Genetic variability affecting many areas such as lipid and energy metabolisms, hypertension and haemodynamic mechanisms, blood clotting homeostasis, inflammation, and matrix turnover in the vascular wall will have an impact on the development of macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. Adiponectin is abundantly secreted by adipocytes. It plays important roles in lipid and glucose metabolisms and has direct anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects. In this review, we summarize recent data from the literature suggesting an implication of allelic variations of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ in the genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease in diabetic subjects.Os pacientes com diabetes apresentam risco três vezes maior de desenvolverem aterosclerose e suas complicações quando comparados a indivíduos sem hiperglicemia. Parte desse risco associado ao diabetes é provavelmente relacionado a determinantes genéticos que influenciam tanto a homeostase glicídica quanto o desenvolvimento da aterosclerose. Entretanto, o diabetes tipo 2 freqüentemente coexiste com outros fatores de risco cardiovascular, tais como hipertensão arterial, obesidade central e dislipidemia. A variabilidade genética interfere em várias áreas tais como o metabolismo lipídico, o metabolismo energético, hipertensão, mecanismos hemodinâmicos, mecanismos de coagulação, inflamação e na formação da matriz na parede vascular, que podem estar envolvidos nas complicações macrovasculares dos

  17. Association between the Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor Gene and Cardiovascular Death in Older Men

    OpenAIRE

    Biros, Erik; Moran, Corey S.; Norman, Paul E; Hankey, Graeme J; Yeap, Bu B; OSVALDO P. ALMEIDA; Flicker, Leon; White, Richard; Jones, Rhondda; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (AGER) signaling has been implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a common genetic variation in the AGER gene is associated with cardiovascular (CV) death. We included 1304 older men who were genotyped for rs1035798:C>T, which is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapped to the third intron of AGER. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to estimate the association of rs1035798:C>T with CV death. ...

  18. Naturally Occurring Variations in the Human Cholinesterase Genes: Heritability and Association with Cardiovascular and Metabolic Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Anne M.; Radić, Zoran; Rana, Brinda K.; Mahboubi, Vafa; Wessel, Jennifer; Shih, Pei-an Betty; Rao, Fangwen; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Taylor, Palmer

    2011-01-01

    Cholinergic neurotransmission in the central and autonomic nervous systems regulates immediate variations in and longer-term maintenance of cardiovascular function with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity that is critical to temporal responsiveness. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), largely confined to the liver and plasma, subserves metabolic functions. AChE and BChE are found in hematopoietic cells and plasma, enabling one to correlate enzyme levels in whole blood with hereditary traits in twi...

  19. INFLUÊNCIA DE INTERAÇÕES ENTRE GENE-AMBIENTE SOBRE DOENÇAS CARDIOVASCULARES E NUTRIÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ, Carlos Syllas Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sudden appearance of cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem, with this objective with literature review is to study the influence of gene-environment interactions on the presence of cardiovascular disease and nutrition. There is evidence which clearly demonstrate a number of interactions between gene and environment. Studies describe the epigenetic mechanisms that allow cells to respond quickly to environmental changes and to establish a link between genes and environment, thus was evaluated the association of the polymorphism-514C/T with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism measures (HDL- C which depends on the amount and type of fat consumed. Apolipoprotein (Apo AI is a key component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL. The term nutrigenomics concerns the assessment of the complete genome of the effects of dietary factors. Cardiovascular diseases are influenced gene-environment interaction in which are evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases and also identify genetic variations associated with nutrients from food. O súbito aparecimento de doenças cardiovasculares é um importante problema de saúde pública, com isso objetivou-se com está revisão de literatura estudar as influências de interações gene-ambiente sobre a presença de doenças cardiovasculares e nutrição. Existe evidências que demonstram claramente um certo número de interações entre gene e ambiente. Estudos sobre epigenética descrevem os mecanismos que permitem que as células respondam rapidamente às mudanças ambientais e estabeleçam uma ligação entre genes e ambiente, com isso foi avaliado a associação do polimorfismo-514C/T com medidas de metabolismo de lipoproteína de alta densidade colesterol (LAD-C que depende da quantidade e do tipo de gordura consumida. A apolipoproteína (Apo AI é um componente chave da lipoproteína de alta densidade (LAD. O termo nutrigenômica diz respeito à avaliação do genoma completo dos

  20. Polymorphisms in LEP and NPY genes modify the response to soluble fibre Plantago ovata husk intake on cardiovascular risk biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenti, Anna; Solà, Rosa; Valls, Rosa M; Anguera, Anna; Arola, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The satiating effect of fibre consumption has been related to gut hormones, such as peptide YY and leptin. These peptides may also influence cardiovascular (CVD) risk biomarkers. Nevertheless, there is wide interindividual variation in metabolic responses to fibre consumption. The objective was to investigate differences in the effects of soluble fibre, in the form of Plantago ovata husk (Po-husk) treatment, on CVD risk biomarkers according to selected polymorphisms in genes related to satiety. The study was a multi-centred, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel and randomised trial in mild-moderate hypercholesterolaemic patients (age range: 43-67 years). Eight polymorphisms in three genes related to satiety (LEP, NPY and PYY) were identified in 178 participants; 88 patients in the placebo (microcrystalline cellulose 14 g/day) group and 90 in the Po-husk (14 g/day) group, which had added to a low-saturated-fat diet for 8 weeks. The CVD biomarkers measured included the following: lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), glucose, insulin, hs-CRP, oxidised LDL and IL-6. Relative to the placebo, Po-husk consumption lowered the plasma total cholesterol concentration by 3.3 % according to rs7799039 polymorphism in the LEP gene (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the Po-husk reduced systolic BP (mean [95 % CI]) by -8 mmHg (-14.16; -1.90) and hs-CRP by 24.9 % in subjects with the AA genotype of the rs16147 polymorphism in the NPY gene (32 % of our total population; p < 0.05), which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the LEP and NPY genes potentiate the response to Po-husk, particularly the effects on systolic BP and the hs-CRP plasma concentration. PMID:22669627

  1. Intramuscular delivery of rAAV-mediated kallikrein gene reduces hyper-tension and prevents cardiovascular injuries in model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao WANG; Ling-bo HOU; Zhen-jun LIU; Yan WANG; Chun-lian CHEN; Xiao XIAO; Dao-wen WANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The overexpression of the human tissue kallikrein (HK) gene can reduce blood pressure and ameliorate the secondary syndromes associated with hyper- tension in animal models. The current study was designed to investigate hy- potensive effect of intramuscular delivery of HK gene. Methods: We generated an recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing human tissue kallikrein under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter and administered the rAAV-HK vector to a spontaneously hypertensive rat model at a dose of 1× 1010 virons/rat through intramuscular injection. Results: A persistent, high-level ex- pression of HK post-gene delivery was confirmed by ELISA. The systolic blood pressure in the rats receiving rAAV-LacZ and saline increased from 171.3 mmHg to 182.3 mmHg 28 weeks' post injection. In contrast, the delivery of the HK gene by AAV vectors attenuated the increase of the systolic blood pressure in the treated group. The systolic blood pressure was only slightly lowered (from a level of 174 mmHg to 170.5 mmHg) post-vector administration. The difference in blood pres- sure between the treated group and the control groups is statistically significant at 12.6 mmHg. The hypotensive effect of rAAV-HK persisted until the end of the testing period. In addition, a significant amelioration of cardiovascular hypertrophy, renal injury, and collagen depositions in the rAAV-HK-treated ani- mals were also observed. Conclusion: All the effects are comparable with those of intravenous delivery. Therefore, the intramuscular administration of rAAV-HK may be used in gene therapy for hypertension.

  2. Inference of Disease-Related Molecular Logic from Systems-Based Microarray Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Varadan, Vinay; Anastassiou, Dimitris

    2006-01-01

    Computational analysis of gene expression data from microarrays has been useful for medical diagnosis and prognosis. The ability to analyze such data at the level of biological modules, rather than individual genes, has been recognized as important for improving our understanding of disease-related pathways. It has proved difficult, however, to infer pathways from microarray data by deriving modules of multiple synergistically interrelated genes, rather than individual genes. Here we propose ...

  3. Gene therapy and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases today: a model for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Valentin; Sanz, Javier

    2007-02-01

    Clinical trials looking at ways to promote myocardial regeneration have reported that the administered therapies have either neutral effects or modest benefits of questionable impact. These somewhat disappointing results should emphasize the need for translational research, with bidirectional feedback between the basic research laboratory and the clinical arena. Such a translational pathway is illustrated by the quest to find an effective therapy for restenosis, which culminated in the development of sirolimus. At this point a move away from the bedside and a return to the bench seems necessary to better understand the mechanisms of action of progenitor cells and stimulating factors. Without such basic knowledge research might be prematurely discouraged and the opportunity to fully understand the true potential of cardiovascular regenerative therapy might be missed. PMID:17230204

  4. Lack of Association between JAK3 Gene Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Disease in Spanish Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes García-Bermúdez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a polygenic disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV mortality. JAK/STAT signalling pathway is involved in autoimmune diseases and in the atherosclerotic process. JAK3 is a highly promising target for immunomodulatory drugs and polymorphisms in JAK3 gene have been associated with CV events in incident dialysis patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the potential role of JAK3 polymorphisms in the development of CV disease in patients with RA. 2136 Spanish RA patients were genotyped for the rs3212780 and rs3212752 JAK3 gene polymorphisms by TaqMan assays. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated in 539 of these patients by carotid ultrasonography (US. No statistically significant differences were found when each polymorphism was assessed according to carotid intima-media thickness values and presence/absence of carotid plaques in RA, after adjusting the results for potential confounders. Moreover, no significant differences were obtained when RA patients were stratified according to the presence/absence of CV events after adjusting for potential confounders. In conclusion, our results do not confirm association between JAK3 polymorphisms and CV disease in RA.

  5. The effects of angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms on cardiovascular disease outcomes during antihypertensive treatment in the GenHAT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnhN.Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality substantially increases in hypertensive patients, especially among those with inadequate blood pressure control. Two common antihypertensive drug classes including thiazide diuretics and angiotensinogen converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors affect different enzymes in the renin angiotensinogen aldosterone system (RAAS. In the RAAS, angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin II which increases blood pressure through vasoconstriction. Using a case-only design with 3,448 high-risk hypertensive individuals from the Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment (GenHAT study, we examined whether 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the angiotensinogen gene (AGT interact with three classes of antihypertensive drugs including chlorthalidone (a thiazide diuretic, lisinopril (an ACE inhibitor, and amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker to modify the risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD and heart failure (HF among Caucasian and African American participants, separately. We found no gene by treatment interactions to be statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. However, some suggestive results were found. African American participants with the minor allele of rs11122576 had over two-fold higher risk of CHD when using chlorthalidone compared to using amlodipine, or lisinopril compared to amlodipine (p=0.006, and p=0.01, respectively. Other marginal associations are also reported among both race groups. The findings reported here suggest that rs11122576 could contribute to future personalization of antihypertensive treatment among African Americans though more studies are needed.

  6. Association between the Advanced Glycosylation End Product-Specific Receptor Gene and Cardiovascular Death in Older Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Biros

    Full Text Available Advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor (AGER signaling has been implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a common genetic variation in the AGER gene is associated with cardiovascular (CV death. We included 1304 older men who were genotyped for rs1035798:C>T, which is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP mapped to the third intron of AGER. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to estimate the association of rs1035798:C>T with CV death. In addition we analyzed total RNA extracted from carotid atherosclerosis biopsies of 18 patients that did or did not have recent symptoms of cerebral embolization by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. The minor T-allele of rs1035798:C>T was found to be associated with CV death under dominant (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.02, P = 0.04 and recessive (HR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.11-3.81, P = 0.02 models of inheritance even after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between rs1035798:C>T and non-CV death. qRT-PCR results suggested that median relative expression of AGER isoform 1 and isoform 6 transcripts were approximately 6- (P = 0.01 and 2-fold (P = 0.02 greater, respectively, within carotid biopsies of symptomatic compared to asymptomatic patients. These data suggest that the minor (T allele of rs1035798:C>T represents an independent susceptibility factor for CV death. The expression of AGER isoforms is different in atheroma from patients with recent symptoms. Further studies are needed to investigate if rs1035798:C>T influences the alternative splicing of AGER.

  7. Evaluating gene by sex and age interactions on cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger José E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In family studies, it is important to evaluate the impact of genes and environmental factors on traits of interest. In particular, the relative influences of both genes and the environment may vary in different strata of the population of interest, such as young and old individuals, or males and females. Methods In this paper, extensions of the variance components model are used to evaluate heterogeneity in the genetic and environmental variance components due to the effects of sex and age (the cutoff between young and old was 43 yrs. The data analyzed were from 81 Brazilian families (1,675 individuals of the Baependi Family Heart Study. Results The models allowing for heterogeneity of variance components by sex suggest that genetic and environmental variances are not different in males and females for diastolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol, independent of the covariates included in the models. However, for systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and triglycerides, the evidence for heterogeneity was dependent on the covariates in the model. For instance, in the presence of sex and age covariates, heterogeneity in the genetic variance component was suggested for fasting glucose. But, for systolic blood pressure, there was no evidence of heterogeneity in any of the two variance components. Except for the LDL-cholesterol, models allowing for heterogeneity by age provide evidence of heterogeneity in genetic variance for triglycerides and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. There was evidence of heterogeneity in environmental variance in fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Conclusions Our results suggest that heterogeneity in trait variances should not be ignored in the design and analyses of gene-finding studies involving these traits, as it may generate additional information about gene effects, and allow the investigation of more sophisticated models such as the model including sex

  8. Liver-directed gene therapy corrects cardiovascular lesions in feline mucopolysaccharidosis type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Christian; Bell, Peter; Gurda, Brittney L.; Wang, Qiang; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Zhu, Yanqing; Bagel, Jessica; O’Donnell, Patricia; Sikora, Tracey; Ruane, Therese; Wang, Ping; Haskins, Mark E.; Wilson, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), a genetic deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-l-iduronidase (IDUA), exhibit accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in tissues, with resulting diverse clinical manifestations including neurological, ocular, skeletal, and cardiac disease. MPS I is currently treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or weekly enzyme infusions, but these therapies have significant drawbacks for patient safety and quality of life and do not effectively address some of the most critical clinical sequelae, such as life-threatening cardiac valve involvement. Using the naturally occurring feline model of MPS I, we tested liver-directed gene therapy as a means of achieving long-term systemic IDUA reconstitution. We treated four MPS I cats at 3–5 mo of age with an adeno-associated virus serotype 8 vector expressing feline IDUA from a liver-specific promoter. We observed sustained serum enzyme activity for 6 mo at ∼30% of normal levels in one animal, and in excess of normal levels in three animals. Remarkably, treated animals not only demonstrated reductions in glycosaminoglycan storage in most tissues, but most also exhibited complete resolution of aortic valve lesions, an effect that has not been previously observed in this animal model or in MPS I patients treated with current therapies. These data point to clinically meaningful benefits of the robust enzyme expression achieved with hepatic gene transfer that extend beyond the economic and quality of life advantages over lifelong enzyme infusions. PMID:25267637

  9. [The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphism in development of metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynohradova, S V

    2005-01-01

    The role of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphism in development of cardiovascular pathology (CVP), metabolic syndrom and insulin-independent diabet associated with such metabolic disorders as glucose intolerance and hyperglicemia, intolerance to insulin and hyperinsulinemia, dyslipiproteinemia (DLP) and obesity is discussed. Most of authors consider D-allel and DD genotype to be assosiated with development of DLP and such CVP as ishemic heart disease and myocardial infarction. PMID:16018179

  10. Analysis of the interferon gamma (rs2430561, +874T/A) functional gene variant in relation to the presence of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes García-Bermúdez; Raquel López-Mejías; Carlos González-Juanatey; Alfonso Corrales; Gema Robledo; Santos Castañeda; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Ricardo Blanco; Benjamín Fernández-Gutiérrez; Alejandro Balsa; Isidoro González-Alvaro; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Javier Llorca; Javier Martín; Miguel A. González-Gay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Since interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has a direct effect on inflammation, in this study we assessed the potential association of the IFNG functional gene variant rs2430561 with CV disease in patients with RA. Methods: One thousand six hundred and thirty-five patients fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for RA were geno...

  11. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with prevalent kidney but not prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Langefeld, Carl D.; Divers, Jasmin; Nicholas M. Pajewski; Hawfield, Amret T.; Reboussin, David M.; Bild, Diane E.; Kaysen, George A.; Kimmel, Paul L; Raj, Dominic; Ricardo, Ana C.; Wright, Jackson T; Sedor, John R.; Rocco, Michael V.; Freedman, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans. Here APOL1 association was tested with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2,571 African Americans from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), a trial assessing effects of systolic blood pressure reduction on renal and CVD outcomes. Logist...

  12. R353Q polymorphism in the factor VII gene and cardiovascular risk in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Jiménez Francisco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH is a genetic disorder characterized by a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Certain polymorphisms of the factor VII gene have been associated with the development of coronary artery disease and there is a known association between factor VII levels and polymorphic variants in this gene. To date, no study has evaluated the association between factor VII and coronary artery disease in patients with FH. Results This case-control study comprised 720 patients (546 with FH and 174 controls. We determined the prevalence and allele frequencies of the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII, the plasma levels of factor VII antigen (FVII Ag and whether they could be predictive factors for cardiovascular risk. 75% (410 of the patients with FH were RR, 23% (127 RQ and 1.6% (9 QQ; in the control group 75.3% (131 were RR, 21.3% (37 RQ and 3.4% (6 QQ (p = 0.32. No statistically significant associations were observed in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies between case (FH and control groups. Nor did we find differences when we evaluated the relationship between the R353Q polymorphism and cardiovascular risk (including coronary disease, ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease, either in the univariate analysis or after adjustment for sex, age, arterial hypertension, body mass index, xanthomas, diabetes, smoking, HDLc and LDLc and lipid-lowering treatment. The FVII Ag concentrations behaved in a similar fashion, with no differences for the interaction between controls and those with FH (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.96. In the subgroup of patients with FH no association was found among cardiovascular disease, genotype and FVII Ag levels (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.97. Conclusions Our study did not find a direct relationship between cardiovascular risk in patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII and FVII Ag levels.

  13. A functional polymorphism in the 5HTR2C gene associated with stress responses also predicts incident cardiovascular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly H Brummett

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that a functional nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6318 of the 5HTR2C gene located on the X-chromosome is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to a stress recall task, and with endophenotypes associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD. These findings suggest that individuals carrying the rs6318 Ser23 C allele will be at higher risk for CVD compared to Cys23 G allele carriers. The present study examined allelic variation in rs6318 as a predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD severity and a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial infarction (MI among Caucasian participants consecutively recruited through the cardiac catheterization laboratory at Duke University Hospital (Durham, NC as part of the CATHGEN biorepository. Study population consisted of 6,126 Caucasian participants (4,036 [65.9%] males and 2,090 [34.1%] females. A total of 1,769 events occurred (1,544 deaths and 225 MIs; median follow-up time = 5.3 years, interquartile range = 3.3-8.2. Unadjusted Cox time-to-event regression models showed, compared to Cys23 G carriers, males hemizygous for Ser23 C and females homozygous for Ser23C were at increased risk for the composite endpoint of all-cause death or MI: Hazard Ratio (HR = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.17, 1.84, p = .0008. Adjusting for age, rs6318 genotype was not related to body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking history, number of diseased coronary arteries, or left ventricular ejection fraction in either males or females. After adjustment for these covariates the estimate for the two Ser23 C groups was modestly attenuated, but remained statistically significant: HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.73, p = .005. These findings suggest that this functional polymorphism of the 5HTR2C gene is associated with increased risk for CVD mortality and morbidity, but this association is apparently not explained by the association of rs

  14. O polimorfismo do gene AKL7 está associado ao risco de síndrome metabólica e à remodelação cardiovascular ALK7 gene polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome risk and cardiovascular remodeling

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    Wenchao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Quinase Tipo Receptor de Ativina 7 (ALK7 é um tipo de receptor I para a superfamília TGF-β e recentemente apresentou ter uma função importante na manutenção de homeostase metabólica. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação do polimorfismo do gene ALK7 à síndrome metabólica (SMet e remodelação cardiovascular em pacientes com SMet. MÉTODOS: O polimorfismo de nucleotídeo único rs13010956 no gene ALK7 foi genotipado em 351 indivíduos chineses submetidos à ultrassonografia cardíaca e das carótidas. As associações do polimorfismo do gene ALK7 ao fenótipo e aos parâmetros da síndrome metabólica e características ultrassônicas cardiovasculares foram analisadas. RESULTADOS: O polimorfismo de rs13010956 no gene ALK7 foi considerado significativamente relacionado ao fenótipo de SMet em mulheres (p BACKGROUND: Activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7 is a type I receptor for the TGF-β superfamily and has recently been demonstrated to play an important role in the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of the ALK7 gene polymorphism with metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular remodeling in MetS patients. METHODS: The single nucleotide polymorphism rs13010956 in the ALK7 gene was genotyped in 351 Chinese subjects undergoing carotid and cardiac ultrasonography. The associations of the ALK7 gene polymorphism with the MetS phenotype, MetS parameters, and cardiovascular ultrasonic features were analyzed. RESULTS: The rs13010956 polymorphism in the ALK7 gene was found to be significantly associated with the MetS phenotype in females (p < 0.05 and was also significantly associated with blood pressure in the total (p < 0.05 and female populations (p < 0.01. Further analysis revealed that rs13010956 was associated with mean intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries in females (p < 0.05. After control for body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides, rs

  15. Interaction between Smoking and HLA-DRB1*04 Gene Is Associated with a High Cardiovascular Risk in Brazilian Amazon Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boechat, Narjara de Oliveira; Ogusku, Mauricio Morish; Boechat, Antonio Luiz; Sadahiro, Aya

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the joints that affects approximately 1% of the population worldwide. The HLA-DRB1 gene locus plays a major role in genetic susceptibility to RA, a condition that has been associated with a high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in many studies. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of this work was to investigate which types of HLA class II genes are associated with RA in patients from the Brazilian Amazon and their influence on high cardiovascular risk status in this population. For this purpose, a case-control study was carried out with a total of 350 non-Indian individuals made up of a cohort of 132 consecutive RA sufferers and 218 healthy controls. A χ2 test showed that HLADRB1*04 (p<0.0016; OR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.29–2.79) and HLADRB1*10 (p = 0.0377; OR = 3.81; 95% CI = 1.16–12.50) are the major HLA genes associated with susceptibility to RA. A logistic regression model also showed that the interaction between HLADRB1*04 (p = 0.027; OR = 6.02; 95% CI = 1.21–29.7), age (p = 0.0001; OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.13–1.39) and smoking (p = 0.0001; OR = 23.6; 95% CI = 4.25–32.1) is associated with a probability of a high cardiovascular risk status at an early age. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study show for the first time that HLA class II type is associated with RA in Brazilian Amazon populations and that a specific interaction between the HLA-DRB1*04 gene and smoking is associated with a high cardiovascular risk status, as initially reported in the European population. This study therefore contributes to an understanding of gene-environment interactions in RA patients. PMID:22912672

  16. Cardiovascular disease-related parameters and oxidative stress in SHROB rats, a model for metabolic syndrome.

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    Eunice Molinar-Toribio

    Full Text Available SHROB rats have been suggested as a model for metabolic syndrome (MetS as a situation prior to the onset of CVD or type-2 diabetes, but information on descriptive biochemical parameters for this model is limited. Here, we extensively evaluate parameters related to CVD and oxidative stress (OS in SHROB rats. SHROB rats were monitored for 15 weeks and compared to a control group of Wistar rats. Body weight was recorded weekly. At the end of the study, parameters related to CVD and OS were evaluated in plasma, urine and different organs. SHROB rats presented statistically significant differences from Wistar rats in CVD risk factors: total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apoA1, apoB100, abdominal fat, insulin, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, ICAM-1 and PAI-1. In adipose tissue, liver and brain, the endogenous antioxidant systems were activated, yet there was no significant oxidative damage to lipids (MDA or proteins (carbonylation. We conclude that SHROB rats present significant alterations in parameters related to inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, thrombotic activity, insulin resistance and OS measured in plasma as well as enhanced redox defence systems in vital organs that will be useful as markers of MetS and CVD for nutrition interventions.

  17. Differential adipose tissue gene expression profiles in abacavir treated patients that may contribute to the understanding of cardiovascular risk: a microarray study.

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    Mohsen Shahmanesh

    Full Text Available To compare changes in gene expression by microarray from subcutaneous adipose tissue from HIV treatment naïve patients treated with efavirenz based regimens containing abacavir (ABC, tenofovir (TDF or zidovidine (AZT.Subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained before, at 6- and 18-24-months after treatment, and from HIV negative controls. Groups were age, ethnicity, weight, biochemical profile, and pre-treatment CD4 count matched. Microarray data was generated using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Microarray. Identification of differentially expressed genes and genomic response pathways was performed using limma and gene set enrichment analysis.There were significant divergences between ABC and the other two groups 6 months after treatment in genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing, with some convergence at 18-24 months. Compared to controls the ABC group, but not AZT or TDF showed enrichment of genes controlling adherence junction, at 6 months and 18-24 months (adjusted p<0.05 and focal adhesions and tight junction at 6 months (p<0.5. Genes controlling leukocyte transendothelial migration (p<0.05 and ECM-receptor interactions (p = 0.04 were over-expressed in ABC compared to TDF and AZT at 6 months but not at 18-24 months. Enrichment of pathways and individual genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing were specifically dysregulated in the ABC group in comparison with other treatments. There was little difference between AZT and TDF.After initiating treatment, there is divergence in the expression of genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing between ABC and both TDF and AZT in subcutaneous adipose tissue. If similar changes are also taking place in other tissues including the coronary vasculature they may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular events reported in patients recently started on abacavir-containing regimens.

  18. GEGEINTOOL: A Computer-Based Tool for Automated Analysis of Gene-Gene Interactions in Large Epidemiological Studies in Cardiovascular Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Coltell; José M. Ordovás; Carmen Saiz; Manuel Forner; Francisco Gabriel; Dolores Corella

    2013-01-01

    Current methods of data analysis of gene-gene interactions in complex diseases, after taking into account environmental factors using traditional approaches, are inefficient. High-throughput methods of analysis in large scale studies including thousands of subjects and hundreds of SNPs should be implemented. We developed an integrative computer tool, GEGEINTOOL (GEne- GEne INTeraction tOOL), for large-scale analysis of gene-gene interactions, in human studies of complex diseases including a l...

  19. Anchoring of self-assembled plasmid DNA/ anti-DNA antibody/cationic lipid micelles on bisphosphonate-modified stent for cardiovascular gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma G

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Guilei Ma,1,# Yong Wang,1,# Ilia Fishbein,2 Mei Yu,1 Linhua Zhang,1 Ivan S Alferiev,2 Jing Yang,1 Cunxian Song,1 Robert J Levy2 1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Abramson Research Building, Philadelphia, PA, USA #These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the anchoring of plasmid DNA/anti-DNA antibody/cationic lipid tri-complex (DAC micelles onto bisphosphonate-modified 316 L coronary stents for cardiovascular site-specific gene delivery. Methods: Stents were first modified with polyallylamine bisphosphonate (PAA-BP, thereby enabling the retention of a PAA-BP molecular monolayer that permits the anchoring (via vector-binding molecules of DAC micelles. DAC micelles were then chemically linked onto the PAA-BP-modified stents by using N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol-propionate (SPDP as a crosslinker. Rhodamine-labeled DNA was used to assess the anchoring of DAC micelles, and radioactive-labeled antibody was used to evaluate binding capacity and stability. DAC micelles (encoding green fluorescent protein were tethered onto the PAA-BP-modified stents, which were assessed in cell culture. The presence of a PAA-BP molecular monolayer on the steel surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscope analysis. Results: The anchoring of DAC micelles was generally uniform and devoid of large-scale patches of defects. Isotopic quantification confirmed that the amount of antibody chemically linked on the stents was 17-fold higher than that of the physical adsorbed control stents and its retention time was also significantly longer. In cell culture, numerous green fluorescent protein-positive cells were found on the PAA-BP modified stents, which demonstrated high localization and efficiency of gene delivery. Conclusion: The DAC micelle

  20. Concept, design and implementation of a cardiovascular gene-centric 50 k SNP array for large-scale genomic association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J Keating

    Full Text Available A wealth of genetic associations for cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes in humans has been accumulating over the last decade, in particular a large number of loci derived from recent genome wide association studies (GWAS. True complex disease-associated loci often exert modest effects, so their delineation currently requires integration of diverse phenotypic data from large studies to ensure robust meta-analyses. We have designed a gene-centric 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array to assess potentially relevant loci across a range of cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory syndromes. The array utilizes a "cosmopolitan" tagging approach to capture the genetic diversity across approximately 2,000 loci in populations represented in the HapMap and SeattleSNPs projects. The array content is informed by GWAS of vascular and inflammatory disease, expression quantitative trait loci implicated in atherosclerosis, pathway based approaches and comprehensive literature searching. The custom flexibility of the array platform facilitated interrogation of loci at differing stringencies, according to a gene prioritization strategy that allows saturation of high priority loci with a greater density of markers than the existing GWAS tools, particularly in African HapMap samples. We also demonstrate that the IBC array can be used to complement GWAS, increasing coverage in high priority CVD-related loci across all major HapMap populations. DNA from over 200,000 extensively phenotyped individuals will be genotyped with this array with a significant portion of the generated data being released into the academic domain facilitating in silico replication attempts, analyses of rare variants and cross-cohort meta-analyses in diverse populations. These datasets will also facilitate more robust secondary analyses, such as explorations with alternative genetic models, epistasis and gene-environment interactions.

  1. Effect of the rs2259816 polymorphism in the HNF1A gene on circulating levels of c-reactive protein and coronary artery disease (the ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study)

    OpenAIRE

    Renner Wilfried; Grammer Tanja B; Kleber Marcus E; März Winfried

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background C-reactive protein is a well established marker of inflammation and has been used to predict future cardiovascular disease. It is still controversial if it plays an active role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Recently, polymorphisms in the gene for HNF1α have been linked to the levels of C-reactive protein and coronary artery disease. Methods We investigated the association of the rs2259816 polymorphism in the HNF1A gene with the circulating level of C-reacti...

  2. Validation of Parkinsonian Disease-Related Metabolic Brain Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, Laura K.; Renken, Remco J.; Mudali, Deborah; De Jong, Bauke M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to validate disease-related metabolic brain patterns for Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Methods: The study included 20 patients with Parkinson’s disease, 21 with multiple system atrophy, and 17 with progre

  3. The association of ADH and ALDH gene variants with alcohol drinking habits and cardiovascular disease risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Fenger, Mogens; Friedrich, Nele;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in ethanol metabolism may have an influence on both alcohol drinking habits and the susceptibility to health effects of alcohol drinking. Such influences are likely to bias exposure-disease associations in epidemiologic studies of health effects of alcohol drinking. In...... a Caucasian population, we examined the association of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genetic variants with alcohol drinking habits, biomarkers of alcohol exposure, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,216 Danish men...... and women aged 15-77 years participating in a health examination in 1998. The health examination included a self-administered questionnaire (alcohol drinking habits), a physical examination (blood pressure), and various blood tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume...

  4. Modulation by means of candidate genes of intermediate and final phenotypes of cardiovascular diseases in mediterranean and german populations : approach to the study of gene-diet interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Arregui Rementería, María

    2013-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) constituyen la principal causa de mortalidad en todo el mundo. Su etiología es multifactorial y compleja e incluye la interacción de factores de estilo de vida, ambientales y genéticos. Mediante estudios de asociación acerca de la influencia de polimorfismos de un sólo nucleótido (SNP) sobre fenotipos intermedios y finales de ECV, es posible identificar rutas metabólicas implicadas en ECV. De todos los factores de riesgo modificables de ECV, la dieta es...

  5. Early diagnosis of connective tissue disease-related pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Funauchi, Masanori; Kishimoto, Kazuya; Yano, Tomohiro; Hino, Shoichi; Kinoshita, Koji

    2009-01-01

    It is known that prognosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH), especially connective tissue disease related PH (CTD-PH), is serious. CTD-PH is caused by not only pulmonary arterial hypertension, but also interstitial pneumonitis, hypoxia, chronic thromboembolism of pulmonary artery, or left heart diseases. Recently, prognosis of PH has improved by progress of diagnostic measures including echocardiography and development of effective vasodilators. However, early diagnosis of PH is necessary for f...

  6. Deletion of exon 20 of the Familial Dysautonomia gene Ikbkap in mice causes developmental delay, cardiovascular defects, and early embryonic lethality.

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    Paula Dietrich

    Full Text Available Familial Dysautonomia (FD is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects 1/3,600 live births in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, and leads to death before the age of 40. The disease is characterized by abnormal development and progressive degeneration of the sensory and autonomic nervous system. A single base pair substitution in intron 20 of the Ikbkap gene accounts for 98% of FD cases, and results in the expression of low levels of the full-length mRNA with simultaneous expression of an aberrantly spliced mRNA in which exon 20 is missing. To date, there is no animal model for the disease, and the essential cellular functions of IKAP--the protein encoded by Ikbkap--remain unknown. To better understand the normal function of IKAP and in an effort to generate a mouse model for FD, we have targeted the mouse Ikbkap gene by homologous recombination. We created two distinct alleles that result in either loss of Ikbkap expression, or expression of an mRNA lacking only exon 20. Homozygosity for either mutation leads to developmental delay, cardiovascular and brain malformations, accompanied with early embryonic lethality. Our analyses indicate that IKAP is essential for expression of specific genes involved in cardiac morphogenesis, and that cardiac failure is the likely cause of abnormal vascular development and embryonic lethality. Our results also indicate that deletion of exon 20 abolishes gene function. This implies that the truncated IKAP protein expressed in FD patients does not retain any significant biological function.

  7. Chimeric smooth muscle-specific enhancer/promoters: valuable tools for adenovirus-mediated cardiovascular gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, S; Neuville, P; Méchine-Neuville, A; Augé, F; Parlakian, A; Gabbiani, G; Paulin, D; Calenda, V

    2001-03-16

    Gene transfer with adenoviral vectors is an attractive approach for the treatment of atherosclerosis and restenosis. However, because expression of a therapeutic gene in nontarget tissues may have deleterious effects, artery-specific expression is desirable. Although expression vectors containing transcriptional regulatory elements of genes expressed solely in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have proved efficient to restrict expression of the transgene, their use in the clinical setting can be limited by their reduced strength. In the present study, we show that low levels of transgene expression are obtained with the smooth muscle (SM)-specific SM22alpha promoter compared with the viral cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer/promoter. We have generated chimeric transcriptional cassettes containing either a SM (SM-myosin heavy chain) or a skeletal muscle (creatine kinase) enhancer combined with the SM22alpha promoter. With both constructs we observed significantly stronger expression that remains SM-specific. In vivo, reporter gene expression was restricted to arterial SMCs with no detectable signal at remote sites. Moreover, when interferon-gamma expression was driven by one of these two chimeras, SMC growth was inhibited as efficiently as with the CMV promoter. Finally, we demonstrate that neointima formation in the rat carotid balloon injury model was reduced to the same extent by adenoviral gene transfer of interferon-gamma driven either by the SM-myosin heavy chain enhancer/SM22alpha promoter or the CMV promoter. These results indicate that such vectors can be useful for the treatment of hyperproliferative vascular disorders. PMID:11249869

  8. Study of association of CD40-CD154 gene polymorphisms with disease susceptibility and cardiovascular risk in Spanish rheumatoid arthritis patients.

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    Mercedes García-Bermúdez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular (CV mortality. Since CD40-CD154 binding has direct consequences on inflammation process initiation, we aimed to replicate previous findings related to disease susceptibility in Spanish RA population. Furthermore, as the major complication in RA disease patients is the development of CV events due to accelerated atherosclerosis, and elevated levels of CD40L/CD154 are present in patients with acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the potential association of CD40 and CD154/CD40L gene variants with CV risk in Spanish RA patients. METHODS: One thousand five hundred and seventy-five patients fulfilling the 1987 ACR classification criteria for RA and 1600 matched controls were genotyped for the CD40 rs1883832, rs4810485 and rs1535045 and CD154 rs3092952 and rs3092920 gene polymorphisms, using predesigned TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. Afterwards, we investigated the influence of CD40-CD154 gene variants in the development of CV events. Also, in a subgroup of 273 patients without history of CV events, we assessed the influence of these polymorphisms in the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis determined by carotid ultrasonography. RESULTS: Nominally significant differences in the allele frequencies for the rs1883832 CD40 gene polymorphism between RA patients and controls were found (p=0.038. Although we did not observe a significant association of CD40-CD154 gene variants with the development of CV events, an ANCOVA model adjusted for sex, age at the time of the ultrasonography assessment, follow-up time, traditional CV risk factors and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies disclosed a significant association (p=0.0047 between CD40 rs1535045 polymorphism and carotid intima media thickness, a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Data from our pilot study indicate a potential association of rs

  9. Analysis of the interferon gamma (rs2430561, +874T/A functional gene variant in relation to the presence of cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Mercedes García-Bermúdez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality. Since interferon-gamma (IFN-γ has a direct effect on inflammation, in this study we assessed the potential association of the IFNG functional gene variant rs2430561 with CV disease in patients with RA. METHODS: One thousand six hundred and thirty-five patients fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for RA were genotyped for the IFNG (rs2430561, +874T/A gene polymorphism using TaqMan genotyping assay. Patients were stratified according to the presence of CV events or not. Logistic regression models to explain the presence of CV disease according to the IFNG rs2430561 allele distribution were performed. The potential influence of this variant in the development of subclinical atherosclerosis was also analyzed in a subgroup of patients with no history of CV events to determine carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT (n = 286 and presence of carotid plaques. Levels of the cytokine were determined in a subgroup of patients by ELISA. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression model disclosed that presence of the minor allele A was not associated with increased risk of suffering CV events in RA patients. Besides, differences did not achieve statistical significance regarding carotid IMT and presence of carotid plaques in RA patients carrying IFNG rs2430561 variant allele. Levels of IFN-γ were higher in patients who had suffered CV events compared to patients who did not. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support a role of IFNG rs2430561 (+874T/A functional gene variant in the development of CV disease in RA patients.

  10. Molecular regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene, MTP : Functional genetic studies in relation to cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ledmyr, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, MTP, is expressed mainly in the liver, intestine and in the heart. It is crucial for the assembly and secretion of apob-containing lipoproteins, chylomicrons in the intestine and very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in the liver. MTP's role in the heart is not fully understood, but it is likely to provide an export system for excess triglycerides from the heart muscle. We hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in the MTP gene...

  11. Effects of interacting networks of cardiovascular risk genes on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (the CODAM study)

    OpenAIRE

    Feskens Edith JM; Schiffers Paul MH; Kallen Carla JH; Zhang Jian; van Greevenbroek Marleen MJ; de Bruin Tjerk WA

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background: Genetic dissection of complex diseases requires innovative approaches for identification of disease-predisposing genes. A well-known example of a human complex disease with a strong genetic component is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We genotyped normal-glucose-tolerant subjects (NGT; n = 54), subjects with an impaired glucose metabolism (IGM; n = 111) and T2DM (n = 142) subjects, in an assay (designed by Roche Molecular Systems) for detection of 68 polymorphis...

  12. Estrogen Signaling and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system. The mechanisms by which estrogen confers these pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular function is under active investigation. Until a decade ago, all estrogen signaling was thought to occur by estrogen binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), which bind to DNA and function as ligand activated transcription factors. Estrogen binding to the receptor alters gene expression thereby altering cell function. In 2000 estrogen w...

  13. Maternal diabetes induces congenital heart defects in mice by altering the expression of genes involved in cardiovascular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tay Samuel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital heart defects are frequently observed in infants of diabetic mothers, but the molecular basis of the defects remains obscure. Thus, the present study was performed to gain some insights into the molecular pathogenesis of maternal diabetes-induced congenital heart defects in mice. Methods and results We analyzed the morphological changes, the expression pattern of some genes, the proliferation index and apoptosis in developing heart of embryos at E13.5 from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Morphological analysis has shown the persistent truncus arteriosus combined with a ventricular septal defect in embryos of diabetic mice. Several other defects including defective endocardial cushion (EC and aberrant myofibrillogenesis have also been found. Cardiac neural crest defects in experimental embryos were analyzed and validated by the protein expression of NCAM and PGP 9.5. In addition, the protein expression of Bmp4, Msx1 and Pax3 involved in the development of cardiac neural crest was found to be reduced in the defective hearts. The mRNA expression of Bmp4, Msx1 and Pax3 was significantly down-regulated (p p p Conclusion It is suggested that the down-regulation of genes involved in development of cardiac neural crest could contribute to the pathogenesis of maternal diabetes-induced congenital heart defects.

  14. Apolipoprotein L1 gene variants associate with prevalent kidney but not prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langefeld, Carl D; Divers, Jasmin; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Hawfield, Amret T; Reboussin, David M; Bild, Diane E; Kaysen, George A; Kimmel, Paul L; Raj, Dominic S; Ricardo, Ana C; Wright, Jackson T; Sedor, John R; Rocco, Michael V; Freedman, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) G1 and G2 coding variants are strongly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans (AAs). Here APOL1 association was tested with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR), and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 2571 AAs from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), a trial assessing effects of systolic blood pressure reduction on renal and CVD outcomes. Logistic regression models that adjusted for potentially important confounders tested for association between APOL1 risk variants and baseline clinical CVD (myocardial infarction, coronary, or carotid artery revascularization) and CKD (eGFR under 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and/or UACR over 30 mg/g). AA SPRINT participants were 45.3% female with a mean (median) age of 64.3 (63) years, mean arterial pressure 100.7 (100) mm Hg, eGFR 76.3 (77.1) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and UACR 49.9 (9.2) mg/g, and 8.2% had clinical CVD. APOL1 (recessive inheritance) was positively associated with CKD (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.73) and log UACR estimated slope (β) 0.33) and negatively associated with eGFR (β -3.58), all significant. APOL1 risk variants were not significantly associated with prevalent CVD (1.02, 0.82-1.27). Thus, SPRINT data show that APOL1 risk variants are associated with mild CKD but not with prevalent CVD in AAs with a UACR under 1000 mg/g. PMID:25029429

  15. Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases-related hepatic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Fu-Kui Zhang; Xiao-Ning Wu; Tai-Ling Wang; Ji-Dong Jia; Bao-En Wang

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic injury is rarely associated with undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTD).We report,here,a case of a middle-aged woman with UCTD-related hepatic injury,including its case history,clinical manifestations,laboratory findings,treatment and its short-term effect.The patient was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of fatigue,anorexia,low-grade fever and skin rashes.She had a past history of left knee joint replacement.Laboratory tests showed elevated levels of serum transaminase,IgG and globulin,accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate,eosinophilia and a high titer of antinuclear antibodies (1:320).Imaging studies showed interstitial pneumonitis and hydropericardium.Liver biopsy showed the features which were consistent with those of connective tissue diseases-related polyangitis.After treatment with a low-dose of oral prednisone,both symptoms and laboratory findings were significantly improved.UCTD-related hepatic injury should be considered in the differential diagnosis of connective tissue diseases with abnormal liver function tests.Lowdose prednisone may effectively improve both symptoms and laboratory tests.

  16. Disease-related mutations among Caribbean Hispanics with familial dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Joseph H.; Kahn, Amanda; Cheng, Rong; Reitz, Christiane; Vardarajan, Badri; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin; Jiménez-Velázquez, Ivonne Z.; Williamson, Jennifer; Nagy, Peter; Mayeux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in the three known genes – the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2) – are known to cause familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tend to be associated with early-onset AD. However, the frequency and risk associated with these mutations vary widely. In addition, mutations in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) genes – the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), granulin (GRN) – have also been found to be associated with clin...

  17. Hedgehog morphogen in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the basic biology of the important developmental Hedgehog ( Hh) protein family, its general function in development, pathway mechanisms, and gene discovery and nomenclature. Hh function in cardiovascular development and recent findings concerning Hh signaling in ischemia

  18. Cardiovascular group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  19. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein -164 T > C gene polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from the EPIC-Potsdam case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Giuseppe Romina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP is encoded by the MTTP gene that is regulated by cholesterol in humans. Previous studies investigating the effect of MTTP on ischemic heart disease have produced inconsistent results. Therefore, we have tested the hypothesis that the rare allele of the -164T > C polymorphism in MTTP alters the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, depending on the cholesterol levels. Methods The -164T > C polymorphism was genotyped in a case-cohort study (193 incident myocardial infarction (MI and 131 incident ischemic stroke (IS cases and 1 978 non-cases nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC–Potsdam study, comprising 27 548 middle-aged subjects. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall study (30 CVD cases and 1 188 controls was used to replicate our findings. Results Genotype frequencies were not different between CVD and CVD free subjects (P = 0.79. We observed an interaction between the -164T > C polymorphism and total cholesterol levels in relation to future CVD. Corresponding stratified analyses showed a significant increased risk of CVD (HRadditve = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.78 for individuals with cholesterol levels additive was 1.06, 95% CI: 0.33 to 3.40 for individuals in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. A borderline significant decrease in CVD risk was observed in subjects with cholesterol levels ≥200 mg/dL (HRadditve = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.03 in the EPIC-Potsdam study. A similar trend was observed in the independent cohort (HRadditve = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.25. Conclusions Our study suggests an interaction between MTTP -164T > C functional polymorphism with total cholesterol levels. Thereby risk allele carriers with low cholesterol levels may be predisposed to an increased risk of developing CVD, which seems to be abolished among risk allele carriers with high cholesterol levels.

  20. Disease related tissue damage and subsequent changes in fillet structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fish meat quality is influenced by many biological and physical factors like e.g. rearing, feeding, slaughtering, processing and storage. Observations from practical fish farming indicate that infections in e.g. salmon caused by Moritella viscosus or Pancreas Disease (PD) results in downgrading......, extracellular matrix molecules, soluble mediators and cytokines. In order to describe the molecular mechanisms and processes of wound repair, a panel of genes covering immunological factors and tissue regeneration were used to measure changes at the mRNA level following mechanical tissue damage in rainbow trout...

  1. Clinical significance of cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deedwania Prakash C

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although diabetes mellitus is predominantly a metabolic disorder, recent data suggest that it is as much a vascular disorder. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death and disability in patients with diabetes mellitus. A number of recent reports have emphasized that many patients already have atherosclerosis in progression by the time they are diagnosed with clinical evidence of diabetes mellitus. The increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients is related to the frequently associated dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and endothelial dysfunction. The evolving knowledge regarding the variety of metabolic, hormonal, and hemodynamic abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus has led to efforts designed for early identification of individuals at risk of subsequent disease. It has been suggested that insulin resistance, the key abnormality in type II diabetes, often precedes clinical features of diabetes by 5–6 years. Careful attention to the criteria described for the cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome should help identify those at risk at an early stage. The application of nonpharmacologic as well as newer emerging pharmacologic therapies can have beneficial effects in individuals with cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome and/or diabetes mellitus by improving insulin sensitivity and related abnormalities. Early identification and implementation of appropriate therapeutic strategies would be necessary to contain the emerging new epidemic of cardiovascular disease related to diabetes.

  2. Modelos experimentales de enfermedad cardiovascular Experimental models of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gil Hernández

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe los modelos experimentales de utilidad clínica en el estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y hace énfasis en los modelos usados para determinar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la aterosclerosis, así como para evaluar los efectos de productos nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo de este proceso inflamatorio complejo común a muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se revisan los modelos animales en los que se puede inducir aterosclerosis por cambios en la composición de la dieta y los modelos animales en los que la alteración de uno o más genes (animales knock-out y knock-in, o la incorporación de genes foráneos de otras especies, da lugar a la aparición de hiperlipidemia con riesgo asociado de aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular temprana. Por otra parte, se consideran algunas de las líneas celulares más utilizadas en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la aterogénesis y de evaluación de sustancias con interés nutricional o farmacológico.The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals, or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered.

  3. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk

  4. Study of Association of CD40-CD154 Gene Polymorphisms with Disease Susceptibility and Cardiovascular Risk in Spanish Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes García-Bermúdez; Carlos González-Juanatey; Raquel López-Mejías; María Teruel; Alfonso Corrales; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Santos Castañeda; Alejandro Balsa; Benjamín Fernández-Gutierrez; Isidoro González-Álvaro; Carmen Gómez-Vaquero; Ricardo Blanco; Javier Llorca; Javier Martín; Miguel A. González-Gay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Since CD40-CD154 binding has direct consequences on inflammation process initiation, we aimed to replicate previous findings related to disease susceptibility in Spanish RA population. Furthermore, as the major complication in RA disease patients is the development of CV events due to accelerated atherosclerosis, and elevated levels of CD40L/CD154 are present in pati...

  5. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  6. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  7. Cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Sørensen, Kristian Dahl Kragholm; Schjerning, Ole; Graff, Claus; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2016-01-01

    cardiovascular risk factors. Areas covered: This clinical overview summarizes the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics by focusing on the wide range of associated adverse effects. In addition, we also discuss current guidelines regarding routine electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. Expert opinion: As SCD in......, as this may increase risk of Torsades de Pointes and eventually SCD. However, other serious cardiovascular complications of antipsychotics also include Brugada syndrome phenotype, myocardial infarction, and myocarditis. Increased awareness of the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics can allow...

  8. CD-REST: a system for extracting chemical-induced disease relation in literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wang, Jingqi; Lee, Hee-Jin; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mining chemical-induced disease relations embedded in the vast biomedical literature could facilitate a wide range of computational biomedical applications, such as pharmacovigilance. The BioCreative V organized a Chemical Disease Relation (CDR) Track regarding chemical-induced disease relation extraction from biomedical literature in 2015. We participated in all subtasks of this challenge. In this article, we present our participation system Chemical Disease Relation Extraction SysTem (CD-REST), an end-to-end system for extracting chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. CD-REST consists of two main components: (1) a chemical and disease named entity recognition and normalization module, which employs the Conditional Random Fields algorithm for entity recognition and a Vector Space Model-based approach for normalization; and (2) a relation extraction module that classifies both sentence-level and document-level candidate drug-disease pairs by support vector machines. Our system achieved the best performance on the chemical-induced disease relation extraction subtask in the BioCreative V CDR Track, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed machine learning-based approaches for automatic extraction of chemical-induced disease relations in biomedical literature. The CD-REST system provides web services using HTTP POST request. The web services can be accessed fromhttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr The online CD-REST demonstration system is available athttp://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. Database URL:http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr;http://clinicalnlptool.com/cdr/cdr.html. PMID:27016700

  9. [Cardiovascular safety of antidiabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aline Roth, Pressl-Wenger; Jornayvaz, François R

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a high risk of micro- and macro-vascular complications. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. In this context, the search for molecules decreasing cardiovascular mortality makes sense. Until the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study published late 2015, showing a reduction of cardiovascular mortality of patients treated with empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, there was no molecule known to decrease cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the various existing antidiabetic molecules and their impact (positive/neutral/negative) on cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27487675

  10. Nrf2-related gene expression and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in elderly subjects with cardiovascular disease: An exploratory panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkopp, Sharine; Staimer, Norbert; Tjoa, Thomas; Stinchcombe, Timothy; Daher, Nancy; Schauer, James J; Shafer, Martin M; Sioutas, Constantinos; Gillen, Daniel L; Delfino, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression changes are linked to air pollutant exposures in in vitro and animal experiments. However, limited data are available on how these outcomes relate to ambient air pollutant exposures in humans. We performed an exploratory analysis testing whether gene expression levels were associated with air pollution exposures in a Los Angeles area cohort of elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Candidate genes (35) were selected from published studies of gene expression-pollutant associations. Expression levels were measured weekly in 43 subjects (≤ 12 weeks) using quantitative PCR. Exposures included gaseous pollutants O3, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and CO; particulate matter (PM) pollutants elemental and black carbon (EC, BC); and size-fractionated PM mass. We measured organic compounds from PM filter extracts, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and determined the in vitro oxidative potential of particle extracts. Associations between exposures and gene expression levels were analyzed using mixed-effects regression models. We found positive associations of traffic-related pollutants (EC, BC, primary organic carbon, PM 0.25-2.5 PAH and/or PM 0.25 PAH, and NOx) with NFE2L2, Nrf2-mediated genes (HMOX1, NQO1, and SOD2), CYP1B1, IL1B, and SELP. Findings suggest that NFE2L2 gene expression links associations of traffic-related air pollution with phase I and II enzyme genes at the promoter transcription level. PMID:25564368

  11. Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Effects of New and Emerging Antidiabetic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Pelbreton C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Ferdinand, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable declines in US cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality over the last several decades, the prevalence of risk factors such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension remains high, associated with increasing obesity rates. Although optimal glycemic control remains a primary focus to decrease the disease burden, the FDA has issued guidance recommendations for documenting cardiovascular disease-related safety with research trials on new antidiabetic agents with more demanding r...

  12. Cardiovascular molecular MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, H J; van der Meer, R. W.; Roos, A. (Anna); Bax, J J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving field of research, aiming to image and quantify molecular and cellular targets in vivo. MR imaging has some inherent properties that make it very suitable for cardiovascular molecular imaging. Until now, only a limited number of studies have been published on cardiovascular molecular imaging using MR imaging. Review In the current review, MR techniques that have already shown potential are discussed. Metabolic MR imaging can ...

  13. Epigenetic Changes in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Samuel T; Plutzky, Jorge; El-Osta, Assam

    2016-05-27

    Cardiovascular complications remain the leading causes of morbidity and premature mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Studies in humans and preclinical models demonstrate lasting gene expression changes in the vasculopathies initiated by previous exposure to high glucose concentrations and the associated overproduction of reactive oxygen species. The molecular signatures of chromatin architectures that sensitize the genome to these and other cardiometabolic risk factors of the diabetic milieu are increasingly implicated in the biological memory underlying cardiovascular complications and now widely considered as promising therapeutic targets. Atherosclerosis is a complex heterocellular disease where the contributing cell types possess distinct epigenomes shaping diverse gene expression. Although the extent that pathological chromatin changes can be manipulated in human cardiovascular disease remains to be established, the clinical applicability of epigenetic interventions will be greatly advanced by a deeper understanding of the cell type-specific roles played by writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin modifications in the diabetic vasculature. This review details a current perspective of epigenetic mechanisms of macrovascular disease in diabetes mellitus and highlights recent key descriptions of chromatinized changes associated with persistent gene expression in endothelial, smooth muscle, and circulating immune cells relevant to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges associated with pharmacological targeting of epigenetic networks to correct abnormal or deregulated gene expression as a strategy to alleviate the clinical burden of diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:27230637

  14. Future of Pharmacogenetics in Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    van Schie, Rianne; Verhoef, Talitha; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; de Boer, Anthonius; van der Meer, F. J. M.; Redekop, Ken; Thariani, Rahber

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Pharmacogenetics is the study of variations in DNA sequence as related to drug response (European Medicines Agency [EMA], 2007). Several gene-drug interactions have been discovered in the field of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). These gene-drug interactions can help to identify nonresponse to drugs, estimate dose requirements or identify an increased risk of developing adverse drug reactions. An individualized approach based on pharmacogenetic testing will provide ph...

  15. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  16. Cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Vairamani Kandan; Sathyamurthy P; Rajkumar M; Lavanya Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well known that thyroid hormone directly affects the heart and peripheral vascular system. In hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular manifestations are frequent findings. Atrial arrhythmias, limitations in exercise tolerance, and congestive heart failure were reported to occur more common in older patients as a result of hyperthyroidism. Cardiovascular signs of hyperthyroidism include tachycardia, widened pulse pressure, marked increase in cardiac output with impaired cardiovascula...

  17. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  18. Analysis of selected glutathione S-transferase gene polymorphisms in Malaysian type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, A; Vasudevan, R; Aziz, A F A; Yusof, A K M; Khazaei, S; Fawzi, N; Jamalpour, S; Arkani, M; Mohammad, N A; Ismail, P

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms result in decreased or absent enzyme activity and altered oxidative stress, and have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The present study assessed the effect of GST polymorphisms on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals of Malaysian Malay ethnicity. A total of 287 subjects, consisting of 87 T2DM and 64 CVD/T2DM patients, as well as 136 healthy gender- and age-matched controls were genotyped for selected polymorphisms to evaluate associations with T2DM susceptibility. Genomic DNA was extracted using commercially available kits, and GSTM1, GSTT1, and α-globin sequences were amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Biochemical parameters were measured with a Hitachi autoanalyzer. The Fisher exact test, the chi-square statistic, and means ± standard deviations were calculated using the SPSS software. Overall, we observed no significant differences regarding genotype and allele frequencies between each group (P = 0.224 and 0.199, respectively). However, in the combined analysis of genotypes and blood measurements, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels, followed by age, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and history of T2DM significantly differed according to GST polymorphism (P ˂ 0.05). Genetically induced absence of the GSTT1 enzyme is an independent and powerful predictor of premature vascular morbidity and death in individuals with T2DM, and might be triggered by cigarette smoking's oxidative effects. These polymorphisms could be screened in other ethnicities within Malaysia to determine further possible risk factors. PMID:27173202

  19. Relación del polimorfismo rs9939609 del gen FTO con factores de riesgo cardiovascular y niveles de adipocitoquinas en pacientes con obesidad mórbida Relation of the rs9939609 gene variant in FTO with cardiovascular risk factor and serum adipokine levels in morbid obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. de Luis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Algunos polimorfismos del gen asociado con la masa grasa y la obesidad (FTO se han relacionado con la obesidad y parámetros bioquímicos. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar la relación del polimorfismo rs9939609 del gen FTO con el peso corporal, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los niveles séricos de adipocitoquinas en una muestra de pacientes con obesidad mórbida. Material y métodos: Una muestra de 129 pacientes con obesidad mórbida (IMC > 40 se analizó en un diseño de corte transversal. A todos los pacientes se les determinó el peso, presión arterial, glucemia basal, proteína C reactiva (PCR, insulina, resistencia a la insulina (HOMA-R, colesterol total, LDL-colesterol, HDL-colesterol, triglicéridos y adipocitoquinas (adiponectina leptina, resistina, TNF-alfa, y los niveles de interleucina-6. Se evaluó la masa grasa mediante bioimpedancia tetrapolar y registró prospectivamente la ingesta de nutrientes durante tres días. En todos ellos se genotipo el polimorfismo del gen FTO (rs9939609. Resultados: Cuarenta y un pacientes (31,8% tenían el genotipo TT (grupo genotipo salvaje, 55 pacientes (42,6% el genotipo TA y 33 pacientes (25,6% el genotipo AA. El índice de masa corporal (43,6 (2,6 kg/m² vs. 44,1 (2,9 kg/m²; p Background: Common polymorphisms of the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO have been linked to obesity in some populations. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationship of the rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism on body weight, cardiovascular risk factors and serum adipokine levels in morbid obese patients. Material and methods: A sample of 129 patients with obesity was analyzed in a cross sectional design. Weight, blood pressure, basal glucose, creactive protein (CRP, insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides blood and adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, TNF alpha, and interleukin 6 levels were measured. A tetrapolar

  20. Association of ADIPOR2 gene variants with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes risk in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Johan G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Two receptors for adiponectin, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, have been characterized that mediate effects of adiponectin in various tissues. We examined whether genetic variation in ADIPOR2 predicts the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD and/or Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT participating the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS. Methods CVD morbidity and mortality data were collected during a median follow-up of 10.2 years (range 1-13 years and conversion from IGT to T2DM was assessed during a median follow-up of 7 years (range 1-11 years. Altogether eight SNPs in the ADIPOR2 locus were genotyped in 484 participants of the DPS. Moreover, the same SNPs were genotyped and the mRNA expression levels of ADIPOR2 were determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples derived from 56 individuals participating in the Genobin study. Results In the DPS population, four SNPs (rs10848554, rs11061937, rs1058322, rs16928751 were associated with CVD risk, and two remained significant (p = 0.014 for rs11061937 and p = 0.020 for rs1058322 when all four were included in the same multi-SNP model. Furthermore, the individuals homozygous for the rare minor alleles of rs11061946 and rs11061973 had increased risk of converting from IGT to T2DM. Allele-specific differences in the mRNA expression levels for the rs1058322 variant were seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from participants of the Genobin study. Conclusions Our results suggest that SNPs in the ADIPOR2 may modify the risk of CVD in individuals with IGT, possibly through alterations in the mRNA expression levels. In addition an independent genetic signal in ADIPOR2 locus may have an impact on the risk of developing T2DM in individuals with IGT. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  1. Polymorphism of the CD36 Gene and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Manifested at a Young Age

    OpenAIRE

    Rać, Monika Ewa; Suchy, Janina; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Kurlapska, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rać, Michał; Sagasz-Tysiewicz, Dagmara; Krzystolik, Andrzej; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Krupa, Beata; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates potential associations between CD36 gene variants and the presence of risk factors in Caucasians with coronary artery disease (CAD) manifested at a young age. The study group consisted of 90 patients; the men were ≤ 50 years old and the women were ≤ 55 years old. Amplicons of exons 4 and 5 including fragments of introns were analyzed by DHPLC. Two polymorphisms were found: IVS3-6 T/C (rs3173798) and IVS4-10 G/A (rs3211892). The C allele of the IVS3-6 T/C polymorphism w...

  2. Recent advancements in the cardiovascular drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljeet; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the disease that affects the cardiovascular system, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. Despite of all advances in pharmacological and clinical treatment, heart failure is a leading cause of morbidness and mortality worldwide. Many new therapeutic advance strategies, including cell transplantation, gene delivery or therapy, and cytokines or other small molecules, have been research to treat heart failure. The main aim of this review article is to focus on nano carriers advancement and addressing the problems associated with old and modern therapeutics such as nonspecific effects and poor stability. PMID:25046615

  3. Cardiovascular tissues contain independent circadian clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, A. J.; London, B.; Block, G. D.; Menaker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Acute cardiovascular events exhibit a circadian rhythm in the frequency of occurrence. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not yet fully understood, but they may be due to rhythmicity inherent in the cardiovascular system. We have begun to characterize rhythmicity of the clock gene mPer1 in the rat cardiovascular system. Luciferase activity driven by the mPer1 gene promoter is rhythmic in vitro in heart tissue explants and a wide variety of veins and arteries cultured from the transgenic Per1-luc rat. The tissues showed between 3 and 12 circadian cycles of gene expression in vitro before damping. Whereas peak per1-driven bioluminescence consistently occurred during the late night in the heart and all arteries sampled, the phases of the rhythms in veins varied significantly by anatomical location. Varying the time of the culture procedure relative to the donor animal's light:dark cycle revealed that, unlike some other rat tissues such as liver, the phases of in vitro rhythms of arteries, veins, and heart explants were affected by culture time. However, phase relationships among tissues were consistent across culture times; this suggests diversity in circadian regulation among components of the cardiovascular system.

  4. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  5. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  6. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  7. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European...... descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals...... disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for cardiovascular health....

  8. Pharmacogenomic determinants of response to cardiovascular drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Karmen M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances in cardiovascular pharmacology, significant inter-individual variability in response to drugs affects both their efficacy and safety profile. Drug-gene associations have emerged as important factors determining a spectrum of response to therapy. Pharmacogenomic interactions in cardiovascular medicine are also involved in etiology of adverse effects that may be life-threatening, such as statininduced myopathy or a hemorrhage/thrombosis event during anticoagulant therapy. Introduction of genetic tests prior to the initiation of therapy and implementation of genetically-guided therapy represent a step forward to achieving a goal of individualized medicine in cardiology, already present in recommendations for warfarin and clopidogrel. However, further investigations addressing genomic predictors of variability in response to drugs are still needed and translating these findings into routine clinical practice remains a substantial challenge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41012

  9. The Role of Cardiolipin in Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheni; Ye, Cunqi; McCain, Keanna; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL), the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, is crucial for both mitochondrial function and cellular processes outside of the mitochondria. The importance of CL in cardiovascular health is underscored by the life-threatening genetic disorder Barth syndrome (BTHS), which manifests clinically as cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and growth retardation. BTHS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding tafazzin, the transacylase that carries out the second CL remodeling step. In addition to BTHS, CL is linked to other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and Tangier disease. The link between CL and CVD may possibly be explained by the physiological roles of CL in pathways that are cardioprotective, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, autophagy/mitophagy, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In this review, we focus on the role of CL in the pathogenesis of CVD as well as the molecular mechanisms that may link CL functions to cardiovascular health. PMID:26301254

  10. The Role of Cardiolipin in Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheni Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiolipin (CL, the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, is crucial for both mitochondrial function and cellular processes outside of the mitochondria. The importance of CL in cardiovascular health is underscored by the life-threatening genetic disorder Barth syndrome (BTHS, which manifests clinically as cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and growth retardation. BTHS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding tafazzin, the transacylase that carries out the second CL remodeling step. In addition to BTHS, CL is linked to other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and Tangier disease. The link between CL and CVD may possibly be explained by the physiological roles of CL in pathways that are cardioprotective, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, autophagy/mitophagy, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. In this review, we focus on the role of CL in the pathogenesis of CVD as well as the molecular mechanisms that may link CL functions to cardiovascular health.

  11. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  12. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  13. Polymorphism of the CD36 Gene and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Manifested at a Young Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rać, Monika Ewa; Suchy, Janina; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Kurlapska, Agnieszka; Safranow, Krzysztof; Rać, Michał; Sagasz-Tysiewicz, Dagmara; Krzystolik, Andrzej; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Krupa, Beata; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates potential associations between CD36 gene variants and the presence of risk factors in Caucasians with coronary artery disease (CAD) manifested at a young age. The study group consisted of 90 patients; the men were ≤ 50 years old and the women were ≤ 55 years old. Amplicons of exons 4 and 5 including fragments of introns were analyzed by DHPLC. Two polymorphisms were found: IVS3-6 T/C (rs3173798) and IVS4-10 G/A (rs3211892). The C allele of the IVS3-6 T/C polymorphism was associated with higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes, higher hsCRP, lower Lp(a) serum concentrations, and younger age at myocardial infarction. The A allele of the IVS4-10 G/A polymorphism was associated with older age of myocardial infarction and higher white blood cell count. The functional role of CD36 polymorphisms in CAD development needs further research. PMID:22113854

  14. A genome-wide scan reveals important roles of DNA methylation in human longevity by regulating age-related disease genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hui Xiao

    Full Text Available It is recognized that genetic factors contribute to human longevity. Besides the hypothesis of existence of longevity genes, another suggests that a lower frequency of risk alleles decreases the incidence of age-related diseases in the long-lived people. However, the latter finds no support from recent genetic studies. Considering the crucial role of epigenetic modification in gene regulation, we then hypothesize that suppressing disease-related genes in longevity individuals is likely achieved by epigenetic modification, e.g. DNA methylation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the genome-wide methylation profile in 4 Chinese female centenarians and 4 middle-aged controls using methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. 626 differentially methylated regions (DMRs were observed between both groups. Interestingly, genes with these DMRs were enriched in age-related diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. This pattern remains rather stable after including methylomes of two white individuals. Further analyses suggest that the observed DMRs likely have functional roles in regulating disease-associated gene expressions, with some genes [e.g. caspase 3 (CASP3] being down-regulated whereas the others [i.e. interleukin 1 receptor, type 2 (IL1R2] up-regulated. Therefore, our study suggests that suppressing the disease-related genes via epigenetic modification is an important contributor to human longevity.

  15. Cardiovascular risk and hippocampal thickness in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donix, Markus; Scharf, Maria; Marschner, Kira; Werner, Annett; Sauer, Cathrin; Gerner, Antje; Nees, Josef A; Meyer, Shirin; Donix, Katharina L; Von Kummer, Rüdiger; Holthoff, Vjera A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this regional cortical thinning would be modulated by cardiovascular risk factors. We utilized high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique to determine the cortical thickness of medial temporal subregions in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using a sex-specific multivariable risk score. Greater cardiovascular risk was associated with cortical thinning in the hippocampus CA2/3/dentate gyrus area but not other hippocampal and medial temporal subregions. APOE genotype, a family history of Alzheimer's disease, and age did not influence cortical thickness. Alzheimer's disease-related atrophy could mask the influence of genetic risk factors or age on regional cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe regions, whereas the impact of vascular risk factors remains detectable. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24228185

  16. Cardiovascular Risk and Hippocampal Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Donix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this regional cortical thinning would be modulated by cardiovascular risk factors. We utilized high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique to determine the cortical thickness of medial temporal subregions in 30 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using a sex-specific multivariable risk score. Greater cardiovascular risk was associated with cortical thinning in the hippocampus CA2/3/dentate gyrus area but not other hippocampal and medial temporal subregions. APOE genotype, a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, and age did not influence cortical thickness. Alzheimer’s disease-related atrophy could mask the influence of genetic risk factors or age on regional cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe regions, whereas the impact of vascular risk factors remains detectable. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

  17. Toxicity of Lanthanum Against Rhizoctonia solani and Its Effect on Disease-Related Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Kangguo; Zhang Fusuo; Cui Jianyu; Zhang Wenji; Hu Lin

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of lanthanum (La) to mycelial growth and three disease-related enzymes of Rhizoctonia solani were studied. The results showed that lanthanum inhibits the growth of Rhizoctonia solani strongly. EC50 and EC95 of La were 171.9 and 667.7 mg · L-1 measured in solid culture media respectively, while 111.4 and 500.7 mg · L-1 measured in liquid culture media respectively. Lanthanum also has activating effects on disease-related enzymes of the fungus such as pectinase, protease and cellulase. However, the quantity or the activity of the total enzymes decreases significantly because of the strong blockage of mycelial growth when the La2O3 concentration is over 50 mg · L-1, and the virulence of pathogen decreases as well.

  18. Development of a classification scheme for disease-related enzyme information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söhngen Carola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase, http://www.brenda-enzymes.org is a major resource for enzyme related information. First and foremost, it provides data which are manually curated from the primary literature. DRENDA (Disease RElated ENzyme information DAtabase complements BRENDA with a focus on the automatic search and categorization of enzyme and disease related information from title and abstracts of primary publications. In a two-step procedure DRENDA makes use of text mining and machine learning methods. Results Currently enzyme and disease related references are biannually updated as part of the standard BRENDA update. 910,897 relations of EC-numbers and diseases were extracted from titles or abstracts and are included in the second release in 2010. The enzyme and disease entity recognition has been successfully enhanced by a further relation classification via machine learning. The classification step has been evaluated by a 5-fold cross validation and achieves an F1 score between 0.802 ± 0.032 and 0.738 ± 0.033 depending on the categories and pre-processing procedures. In the eventual DRENDA content every category reaches a classification specificity of at least 96.7% and a precision that ranges from 86-98% in the highest confidence level, and 64-83% for the smallest confidence level associated with higher recall. Conclusions The DRENDA processing chain analyses PubMed, locates references with disease-related information on enzymes and categorises their focus according to the categories causal interaction, therapeutic application, diagnostic usage and ongoing research. The categorisation gives an impression on the focus of the located references. Thus, the relation categorisation can facilitate orientation within the rapidly growing number of references with impact on diseases and enzymes. The DRENDA information is available as additional information in BRENDA.

  19. Feasible Simulation of Diseases Related to Bone Remodelling and of Their Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Václav; Maršík, František

    Rijeka: InTech, 2011 - (Klika, V.), s. 187-210 ISBN 978-953-307-851-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/08/0557 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : bone remodelling * biomechanics Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/feasible-simulation-of-diseases-related-to-bone-remodelling-and-of-their-treatment

  20. Cost of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Bahia, Luciana; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Pepe, Camila Ribeiro; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society. PMID:27305403

  1. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare: A Latin American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere

    2016-03-01

    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms-increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients' clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.'s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use. PMID:25883116

  2. A crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong Shu; Bravo, Àlex; Furlong, Laura I; Good, Benjamin M; Su, Andrew I

    2016-01-01

    Relations between chemicals and diseases are one of the most queried biomedical interactions. Although expert manual curation is the standard method for extracting these relations from the literature, it is expensive and impractical to apply to large numbers of documents, and therefore alternative methods are required. We describe here a crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text as part of the BioCreative V Chemical Disease Relation challenge. Five non-expert workers on the CrowdFlower platform were shown each potential chemical-induced disease relation highlighted in the original source text and asked to make binary judgments about whether the text supported the relation. Worker responses were aggregated through voting, and relations receiving four or more votes were predicted as true. On the official evaluation dataset of 500 PubMed abstracts, the crowd attained a 0.505F-score (0.475 precision, 0.540 recall), with a maximum theoretical recall of 0.751 due to errors with named entity recognition. The total crowdsourcing cost was $1290.67 ($2.58 per abstract) and took a total of 7 h. A qualitative error analysis revealed that 46.66% of sampled errors were due to task limitations and gold standard errors, indicating that performance can still be improved. All code and results are publicly available athttps://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relexDatabase URL:https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex. PMID:27087308

  3. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  4. Ozone and cardiovascular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainaldi Giuseppe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular diseases in urban communities. The potential detrimental effects are both acute and chronic having a strong impact on morbidity and mortality. The acute exposure to pollutants has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias. The long-terms effects are related to the lifetime risk of death from cardiac causes. The WHO estimates that air pollution is responsible for 3 million premature deaths each year. The evidence supporting these data is very strong nonetheless, epidemiologic and observational data have the main limitation of imprecise measurements. Moreover, the lack of clinical experimental models makes it difficult to demonstrate the individual risk. The other limitation is related to the lack of a clear mechanism explaining the effects of pollution on cardiovascular mortality. In the present review we will explore the epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence of the effects of ozone on cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiologic consequences of air pollutant exposures have been extensively investigated in pulmonary systems, and it is clear that some of the major components of air pollution (e.g. ozone and particulate matter can initiate and exacerbate lung disease in humans 1. It is possible that pulmonary oxidant stress mediated by particulate matter and/or ozone (O3 exposure can result in downstream perturbations in the cardiovasculature, as the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems are intricately associated, and it is well documented that specific environmental toxins (such as tobacco smoke 2 introduced through the lungs can initiate and/or accelerate cardiovascular disease development. Indeed, several epidemiologic studies have proved that there is an association between PM and O3 and the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity

  5. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  6. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  7. The Role of Cardiolipin in Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Zheni Shen; Cunqi Ye; Keanna McCain; Greenberg, Miriam L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL), the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, is crucial for both mitochondrial function and cellular processes outside of the mitochondria. The importance of CL in cardiovascular health is underscored by the life-threatening genetic disorder Barth syndrome (BTHS), which manifests clinically as cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and growth retardation. BTHS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding tafazzin, the transacylase that carries out the secon...

  8. Cardiovascular Involvement in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhossein Amirhakimi; Zohreh Karamizadeh; Gholamhossein Ajami; Homa Ilkhanipoor; Hamdollah Karamifar; Ali-Mohammad Shakiba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary disease resulting from mutation in type I procollagen genes. One of the extra skeletal manifestations of this disease is cardiac involvement. The prevalence of cardiac involvement is still unknown in the children with osteogenesis imperfecta. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities in these patients.Methods: 24 children with osteogenesis imperfecta and 24 normal children who were matched with the ...

  9. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  10. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  11. [Cardiovascular complications of diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Yoshihiko

    2015-12-01

    Several lines of epidemical evidence have shown that type 2 diabetes is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). It has been shown that the risk of primary prevention of CVD in patients with diabetes is equal to that of the secondary prevention in general population. In this manuscript, recent reports on the cardiac tests to detect the cardiovascular lesions will be reviewed. The data suggest that MDCT is a promising test even in the patients with diabetes. Furthermore, recent evidence of the treatment of diabetes with insulin or the drugs available recently such as DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors will be reviewed. PMID:26666152

  12. Research in cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Deaton, Christi; Fitzsimmons, Donna;

    2014-01-01

    To deliver optimal patient care, evidence-based care is advocated and research is needed to support health care staff of all disciplines in deciding which options to use in their daily practice. Due to the increasing complexity of cardiac care across the life span of patients combined...... of the body of knowledge that is needed to further improve cardiovascular care. In this paper, knowledge gaps in current research related to cardiovascular patient care are identified, upcoming challenges are explored and recommendations for future research are given....

  13. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-01-01

    The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES), a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxi...

  14. Fibulins and Their Role in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cangemi, Claudia; Hansen, Maria Lyck; Argraves, William Scott;

    2014-01-01

    Fibulins are a group of extracellular matrix proteins of which many are present in high amounts in the cardiovascular system. They share common biochemical properties and are often found in relation to basement membranes or elastic fibers. Observations in humans with specific mutations in fibulin...... genes, together with results from genetically engineered mice and data from human cardiovascular tissue suggest that the fibulin family of proteins play important functional roles in the cardiovascular system. Moreover, fibulin-1 circulates in high concentrations in plasma and may function as a...

  15. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  16. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  17. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWhereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relativel

  18. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  19. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  20. The rat - Cardiovascular pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotomayor-Herazo Aristides

    2012-06-01

    ón del médico, implica conoceraspecto como la historia de los medicamentos,sus orígenes, aspectos bioquímicos y fisiológicos,mecanismos de acción, absorción, distribución,su biotransformación, excreción, principales usosterapéuticos, efectos secundarios, efectos adversos,contraindicaciones, interacciones medicamentosas,entre otras.Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen anivel mundial importantes causas de morbimortalidad,por ello debe realizarse orientación e instruccionesprecisas en prevención, diagnóstico ytratamiento. Estos tópicos son de obligado abordajeen los programas académicos.El doctor Luis Mendoza Goez, con ampliaexperiencia en la atención de urgencias médicas ymagister en farmacología, profesor de la Facultadde Medicina de la Universidad de Cartagena desdehace varios años, se ha dedicado a la enseñanzade la farmacología en el Departamento de CienciasBásicas, donde se ha distinguido por su esfuerzoen lograr que los estudiantes comprendan laimportancia de la disciplina y aprendan losaspectos más importantes y de mayor interéspara tener mañana un excelente desempeño alservicio de los pacientes.El doctor Mendoza tiene un amplio dominio de lafarmacología clínica en general, y ha mostradoparticular predilección por la enseñanza del áreacardiovascular, tal vez estimulado por sus experienciasen las salas de emergencias en las quesuele realizar actividad asistencial. El autor deeste didáctico libro se ha caracterizado por su vocacióncomo educador y formador, y con las herramientas adquiridasen años de trabajo entregacompendiados losaspectos básicos, paranutrir a estudiantes depregrado, postgrados ya profesionales de lasdiversas ramas de lasalud.Sin pretender incluirlotodo, presenta los principalesgrupos de medicamentoscardiovascularescomo los antihipertensivos, antiarrítmicos, vasodilatadores,trombolíticos y antiagradantes, inotrópicos,vasopresores, diuréticos e hipolipemiantes.Dedica espacios importantes a temas que

  1. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  2. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  3. Nonstandard finite difference scheme for SIRS epidemic model with disease-related death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriah, Z.; Suryanto, A.

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that SIRS epidemic with disease-related death can be described by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NL ODEs). This model has two equilibrium points where their existence and stability properties are determined by the basic reproduction number [1]. Besides the qualitative properties, it is also often needed to solve the system of NL ODEs. Euler method and 4th order Runge-Kutta (RK4) method are often used to solve the system of NL ODEs. However, both methods may produce inconsistent qualitative properties of the NL ODEs such as converging to wrong equilibrium point, etc. In this paper we apply non-standard finite difference (NSFD) scheme (see [2,3]) to approximate the solution of SIRS epidemic model with disease-related death. It is shown that the discrete system obtained by NSFD scheme is dynamically consistent with the continuous model. By our numerical simulations, we find that the solutions of NSFD scheme are always positive, bounded and convergent to the correct equilibrium point for any step size of integration (h), while those of Euler or RK4 method have the same properties only for relatively small h.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and mortality in stable coronary heart disease: relation to gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Charlotte; Køber, Lars; Faber, Jens;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with subsequent development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the general population. The impact of MS on mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease is less well defined, and the association of prognosis to gender...... follow-up of 9.2 years. RESULTS: At follow-up 296 (28%) patients had died. 315 (30%) patients had MS based on the definition by the World Health Organization. Patients with MS more frequently had diabetes and three-vessel disease of the coronary arteries. Men had a more severe risk profile than women.......0 (95% CI: 0.5-1.9), p=0.93]. CONCLUSIONS: MS provides prognostic information in women, but not in men. This association was independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors including previously unrecognised diabetes, and angiographic coronary artery disease....

  5. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS: characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Mari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers.

  6. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  7. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  8. Prodrugs in Cardiovascular Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Tabrizian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Prodrugs are biologically inactive derivatives of an active drug intended to solve certain problems of the parent drug such as toxicity, instability, minimal solubility and non-targeting capabilities. The majority of drugs for cardiovascular diseases undergo firstpass metabolism, resulting in drug inactivation and generation of toxic metabolites, which makes them appealing targets for prodrug design. Since prodrugs undergo a chemical reaction to form the parent drug once inside the body, this makes them very effective in controlling the release of a variety of compounds to the targeted site. This review will provide the reader with an insight on the latest developments of prodrugs that are available for treating a variety of cardiovascular diseases. In addition, we will focus on several drug delivery methodologies that have merged with the prodrug approach to provide enhanced target specificity and controlled drug release with minimal side effects.

  9. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year's cardiovascular section demonstrates a continued growth in the number of digests on cardivascular and general interventional topics and continued progress in MRI studies. The reader will also notice fewer digests on DSA and percutaneous stone removal compared with the 1985 and 1986 Year Books. While newer technology, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, has significantly reduced the number of percutaneous procedures for renal calculi, other interventional procedures, such as those involving fibrinolysis, are increasing by leaps and bounds. A number of digests on benign and malignant bile duct strictures continue to shed light on the management of these difficult cases. While abscess drainage is growing and well accepted by most surgeons, articles on esophageal dilatations seem to be declining in the radiology literature, probably on the basis of fewer operations being performed by us and more being performed by endoscopists. Digests on MRI in the cardiovascular system continue to report excellent images of the aorta and of congenital heart disease

  10. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99/sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  11. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Khanicheh, Elham

    2009-01-01

    Although there have been significant improvements in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases they still remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Currently available diagnostic approaches may not be adequate to detect pathologic changes during the early disease stages, which may be valuable for risk stratification and also to assess a response to a therapy. Therefore molecular imaging techniques such as Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEU) molecular imaging to noninvasively i...

  12. Cardiovascular safety of etoricoxib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Meticulous attention is paid to the cardiovascular safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, the so-called selective cyclooxy-genase 2 (COX-2 inhibitors in particular. The author considers precisely this matter in case of Russia's recent NSAID etoricoxib that has been tested along with other most studied medications from this group, by applying one of the latest meta-analyses. The EULAR recommendations to use NSAIDs are given.

  13. Modelling cardiovascular disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alimadad, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD), which sits under the chronic disease umbrella, is the number one cause of death globally. Over time, we have witnessed different trends that have influenced the prevalence of CVD. One of the ways of decreasing CVD and its social costs and global fatalities is through influencing preventable CVD risk factors. Though many risk factors such as age and gender are not preventable, there are several effective behaviours...

  14. Cholinesterase inhibitors for Parkinson’s disease-related visual hallucinations unresponsive to atypical antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Sobow

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering lack of accepted guideline in cases of Parkinson’s disease-related visual hallucinations with poor response or intolerance to antipsychotics, and their possible cholinergic pathogenesis, the trial with cholinesterase inhibitors seems to be legitimated. Material and methods: Five patients with PD (with or without dementia complicated by VH and unresponsive to atypical antipsychotics were offered a 12-week, open-label trial of a cholinesterase inhibitor. Results: All 5 subjects completed the trial with no major adverse effects and, noteworthy, no discontinuations due to adverse events. VH resolved in 4 subjects and were markedly diminished in one person. Neither changes in UPDRS scores nor exaggeration of subjective complaints about extrapyramidal symptoms were noted during treatment. Conclusions: Cholinesterase inhibitors, rivastigmine or donepezil, might represent a useful alternative to antipsychotics for patients with PD accompanied by VH even in the absence of dementia.

  15. Structural Insight into Processive Human Mitochondrial DNA Synthesis and Disease-Related Polymerase Mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Sam; Kennedy, W. Dexter; Yin, Y. Whitney; (Texas)

    2010-09-07

    Human mitochondrial DNA polymerase (Pol {gamma}) is the sole replicase in mitochondria. Pol {gamma} is vulnerable to nonselective antiretroviral drugs and is increasingly associated with mutations found in patients with mitochondriopathies. We determined crystal structures of the human heterotrimeric Pol {gamma} holoenzyme and, separately, a variant of its processivity factor, Pol {gamma}B. The holoenzyme structure reveals an unexpected assembly of the mitochondrial DNA replicase where the catalytic subunit Pol {gamma}A interacts with its processivity factor primarily via a domain that is absent in all other DNA polymerases. This domain provides a structural module for supporting both the intrinsic processivity of the catalytic subunit alone and the enhanced processivity of holoenzyme. The Pol {gamma} structure also provides a context for interpreting the phenotypes of disease-related mutations in the polymerase and establishes a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of toxicity of anti-retroviral drugs targeting HIV reverse transcriptase.

  16. Symposium on diseases related to ultraviolet radiation: A risk-management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A symposium on diseases related to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), sponsored by the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control was attended by 50 national and international experts in the fields of dermatology, ophthalmology and epidemiology, as well as representatives from various national and provincial public health organizations. The objectives of the symposium were as follows: to review the evidence relating UVR to the incidence of melanoma of the skin and eye, non melanotic cancer of the skin and lip, nonmalignant skin conditions and cataract; to review the effectiveness of primary prevention and early detection of UVR-related diseases; and to recommend strategies for risk management through regulation, public education and screening programs, as well as research priorities. Fourteen experts presented papers on issues related to UVR exposure. After the presentations the participants met in working groups to discuss questions pertaining to the identification, assessment and management of health risks relating to UVR. (author)

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease Study (PERART): Prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Bundó Magda; Llussà Judith; Albaladejo Carlos; Reina María; Pera Guillem; Vicheto Marisa; Toran Pere; Forés Rosa; Sorribes Marta; Baena-Díez José; Alzamora María; Sancho Amparo; Heras Antonio; Rubiés Joan; Arenillas Juan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI) is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease) is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and sympto...

  18. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    OpenAIRE

    Sady Montes Amador; Mikhail Benet Rodríguez; Lenia Ramos Rodríguez; Esther Cano Andino; Erick Andrés Pérez Martín

    2015-01-01

    Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: ag...

  19. Microarray, SAGE and their applications to cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The wealth of DNA data generated by the human genome project coupling with recently invented high-throughput gene expression profiling techniques has dramatically sped up the process for biomedical researchers on elucidating the role of genes in human diseases. One powerful method to reveal insight into gene functions is the systematic analysis of gene expression. Two popular high-throughput gene expression technologies, microarray and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) are capable of producing large amounts of gene expression data with the potential of providing novel insights into fundamental disease processes, especially complex syndromes such as cardiovascular disease, whose etiologies are due to multiple genetic factors and their interplay with the environment. Microarray and SAGE have already been used to examine gene expression patterns of cell-culture, animal and human tissues models of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we will first give a brief introduction of microarray and SAGE technologies and point out their limitations. We will then discuss the major discoveries and the new biological insightsthat have emerged from their applications to cardiovascular diseases. Finally we will touch upon potential challenges and future developments in this area.

  20. Regulatory MicroRNA Networks: Complex Patterns of Target Pathways for Disease-related and Housekeeping MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachli Zafari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood-based microRNA (miRNA signatures as biomarkers have been reported for various pathologies, including cancer, neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and also infections. The regulatory mechanism behind respective miRNA patterns is only partially understood. Moreover, “preserved” miRNAs, i.e., miRNAs that are not dysregulated in any disease, and their biological impact have been explored to a very limited extent. We set out to systematically determine their role in regulatory networks by defining groups of highly-dysregulated miRNAs that contribute to a disease signature as opposed to preserved housekeeping miRNAs. We further determined preferential targets and pathways of both dysregulated and preserved miRNAs by computing multi-layer networks, which were compared between housekeeping and dysregulated miRNAs. Of 848 miRNAs examined across 1049 blood samples, 8 potential housekeepers showed very limited expression variations, while 20 miRNAs showed highly-dysregulated expression throughout the investigated blood samples. Our approach provides important insights into miRNAs and their role in regulatory networks. The methodology can be applied to systematically investigate the differences in target genes and pathways of arbitrary miRNA sets.

  1. Cardiovascular comorbidity in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmohamed, Michael T; Heslinga, Maaike; Kitas, George D

    2015-12-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) have an increased risk of premature death compared with the general population, mainly because of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is similar in patients with RA and in those with diabetes mellitus. Pathogenic mechanisms and clinical expression of cardiovascular comorbidities vary greatly between different rheumatic diseases, but atherosclerosis seems to be associated with all IJDs. Traditional risk factors such as age, gender, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity and diabetes mellitus, together with inflammation, are the main contributors to the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with IJDs. Although cardiovascular risk assessment should be part of routine care in such patients, no disease-specific models are currently available for this purpose. The main pillars of cardiovascular risk reduction are pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as tight control of disease activity. PMID:26282082

  2. Are There Genetic Paths Common to Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444

  3. Cardiovascular determinants of life span

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Y; Camici, G G; Lüscher, T. F.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases rises with aging and is one of the main causes of mortality in western countries. In view of the progressively aging population, there is an urge for a better understanding of age-associated cardiovascular diseases and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The risk factors for cardiovascular diseases include unhealthy diet, diabetes, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and aging. Increased production of oxygen-derived free radic...

  4. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  5. Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeftha, A; Holmes, H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

  6. [Hyperuricemia, gout and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Karsten; Burkard, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia, gout as well as arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrom are highly prevalent and clinicians are frequently confronted with both conditions in the same patient. Hyperuricemia and gout are associated with cardiovascular comorbidities and a high cardiovascular risk. Despite coherent pathophysiological concepts, it remains to be determined, if this association is independent and causal. In daily clinical practice, cardiovascular risk factors should be thoroughly identified and consequently treated in all patients with hyperuricemia and gout. If preventive treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia with urate-lowering agents may improve cardiovascular risk and outcomes remains to be determined and is recommended only in special situations like young patients with severe hyperuricemia. PMID:27008446

  7. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csányi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine.

  8. Effect of Alpinia zerumbet components on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chompoo Jamnian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin is chronically exposed to endogenous and environmental pro-oxidant agents, leading to the harmful generation of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant is vital substances which possess the ability to protect the body from damage cause by free radicals induce oxidative stress. Alpinia zerumbet, a traditionally important economic plant in Okinawa, contains several interesting bioactive constituents and possesses health promoting properties. In this regard, we carried out to test the inhibitory effect of crude extracts and isolated compounds from A. zerumbet on antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Methods The antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH radical scavenging. Collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase were designed for enzymatic activities to investigate the inhibitory properties of test samples using a continuous spectrophotometric assay. The inhibitory capacity of test samples was presented at half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50. Results The results showed that aqueous extract of the rhizome was found to have greater inhibitory effects than the others on both of antioxidant and skin diseases-related enzymes. Furthermore, 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK and 8(17,12-labdadiene-15,16-dial (labdadiene, isolated from rhizome, were tested for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitions. We found that DK showed higher inhibitory activities on DPPH, ABTS and PMS-NADH scavenging (IC50 = 122.14 ± 1.40, 110.08 ± 3.34 and 127.78 ± 4.75 μg/ml, respectively. It also had stronger inhibitory activities against collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase and tyrosinase (IC50 = 24.93 ± 0.97, 19.41 ± 0.61, 19.48 ± 0.24 and 76.67 ± 0.50 μg/ml, respectively than DDK and labdadiene. Conclusion Our results indicate that the rhizome aqueous extract proved to be the source of bioactive compounds against enzymes responsible for

  9. Functions of microRNAs in cardiovascular biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    In 1993, lin-4 was discovered as a critical modulator of temporal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and, most notably, as the first in the class of small, single-stranded noncoding RNAs now defined as microRNAs (miRNAs). Another eight years elapsed before miRNA expression was detected in mammalian cells. Since then, explosive advancements in the field of miRNA biology have elucidated the basic mechanism of miRNA biogenesis, regulation, and gene-regulatory function. The discovery of this new class of small RNAs has augmented the complexity of gene-regulatory programs as well as the understanding of developmental and pathological processes in the cardiovascular system. Indeed, the contributions of miRNAs in cardiovascular development and function have been widely explored, revealing the extensive role of these small regulatory RNAs in cardiovascular physiology. PMID:23157557

  10. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  11. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  12. Imaging Alzheimer's disease-related protein aggregates in human cells using a selenium label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation of proteins and peptides is associated with a range of pathological conditions from the systemic amyloidoses to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. While this link is well established there is a lack of understanding of the exact role protein aggregates play in disease pathogenesis. Part of the reason for this is that it has proved extremely challenging to characterise the localisation and structure of amyloid fibrils within the cellular environment due to a lack of contrast between the carbon rich protein aggregates and the carbon rich cell. We report a novel method for visualising Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid fibrils inside human cells without the use of invasive or unreliable stains or tags. The naturally occurring sulfur atom in the amyloid-β peptide is replaced with a selenium atom, a heavier element in the same group of the periodic table of elements. Using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) the selenium-labelled aggregates can be identified within the cellular environment.

  13. Individual, Psycho-Social and Disease-Related Risk Factors in Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuropathy is the mostly prevalent of complications and the major cause of amputation, pain and disability in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of individual, psycho-social, and disease-related risk factors in neuropathy of type 2 diabetes patients.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 271 patients with type 2 diabetes were selected by convenience sampling in diabetic outpatient clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the Iranian Diabetic Association. The data were collected by demographical and disease characteristics questionnaires and DASS-42, QOLS, DSMS, and DKS scales. Then, the data were analyzed by r binary logistic regression along with PASW software.Results: Socio-economic status, glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index, diabetes self-management, depression, quality of life, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes duration were significantly able to differentiate diabetic patients with neuropathy from diabetic patients without neuropathy (p0.05. The total regression model explained that 95.2% of cases were classified correctly.Conclusion: Inappropriate socio-economic status, glycosylated hemoglobin over 9%, being overweight and obesity, poor diabetes self-management, clinical depression, low quality of life, poor diabetes knowledge, and longer diabetes duration contribute to the incidence of neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes and attention must be paid to them for neuropathy prevention.

  14. Resected Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Patterns of Failure and Disease-Related Outcomes With or Without Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare and have better disease-related outcomes compared with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Surgical resection remains the standard of care, although many patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Little is known regarding the use of radiotherapy in the prevention of local recurrence after resection. To better define the role of radiotherapy, we performed an analysis of resected patients at our institution. Methods: Between 1994 and 2009, 33 patients with NET of the pancreatic head and neck underwent treatment with curative intent at Duke University Medical Center. Sixteen patients were treated with surgical resection alone while an additional 17 underwent resection with adjuvant or neoadjuvant radiation therapy, usually with concurrent fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy (CMT). Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy and median follow-up 28 months. Results: Thirteen patients (39%) experienced treatment failure. Eleven of the initial failures were distant, one was local only and one was local and distant. Two-year overall survival was 77% for all patients. Two-year local control for all patients was 87%: 85% for the CMT group and 90% for the surgery alone group (p = 0.38). Two-year distant metastasis-free survival was 56% for all patients: 46% and 69% for the CMT and surgery patients, respectively (p = 0.10). Conclusions: The primary mode of failure is distant which often results in mortality, with local failure occurring much less commonly. The role of radiotherapy in the adjuvant management of NET remains unclear.

  15. Resected Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Patterns of Failure and Disease-Related Outcomes With or Without Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagar, Timothy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); White, Rebekah R. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Tyler, Douglas S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Papavassiliou, Paulie [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Papalezova, Katia T. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Guy, Cynthia D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Broadwater, Gloria [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Clough, Robert W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Czito, Brian G., E-mail: czito001@mc.duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare and have better disease-related outcomes compared with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Surgical resection remains the standard of care, although many patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Little is known regarding the use of radiotherapy in the prevention of local recurrence after resection. To better define the role of radiotherapy, we performed an analysis of resected patients at our institution. Methods: Between 1994 and 2009, 33 patients with NET of the pancreatic head and neck underwent treatment with curative intent at Duke University Medical Center. Sixteen patients were treated with surgical resection alone while an additional 17 underwent resection with adjuvant or neoadjuvant radiation therapy, usually with concurrent fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy (CMT). Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy and median follow-up 28 months. Results: Thirteen patients (39%) experienced treatment failure. Eleven of the initial failures were distant, one was local only and one was local and distant. Two-year overall survival was 77% for all patients. Two-year local control for all patients was 87%: 85% for the CMT group and 90% for the surgery alone group (p = 0.38). Two-year distant metastasis-free survival was 56% for all patients: 46% and 69% for the CMT and surgery patients, respectively (p = 0.10). Conclusions: The primary mode of failure is distant which often results in mortality, with local failure occurring much less commonly. The role of radiotherapy in the adjuvant management of NET remains unclear.

  16. Identification of diet-disease relations through dietary pattern approach: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Esmaillzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • Recently, diet-disease relations have been recommended to be looked for through dietary pattern approach rather than traditional approach (nutrient or food-oriented approach. Dietary pattern analysis allows consideration of the entire diet, rather than individual foods or ingredients. This approach can be particularly useful when traditional analyses in nutritional epidemiology cannot move beyond weak associations. The dietary pattern approach is more realistic than the food-based or nutrient approach, in that inter-correlations and biological interactions between foods and nutrients confound the associations of a single food or nutrient with a certain chronic disease. Several studies provide evidence supporting use of the dietary pattern approach in nutritional epidemiology. Most of these studies indicate that empirically derived food intake patterns by statistical methods are related to chronic diseases. This review aims to provide more detailed information about the methods of measurement, advantages and disadvantages of the dietary pattern approach and to assess whether major dietary patterns are related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance.
    • KEYWORDS: Dietary patterns, factor analysis, cluster analysis, diet, dietary assessment.

  17. Carotenoids: potential allies of cardiovascular health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of natural, fat-soluble pigments found principally in plants. They have potential antioxidant biological properties because of their chemical structure and interaction with biological membranes. Epidemiologic studies supported the hypothesis that antioxidants could be used as an inexpensive means of both primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD prevention. In fact, the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL in the vessels plays a key role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The resistance of LDL to oxidation is increased by high dietary antioxidant intake, so that carotenoids, as part of food patterns such as the Mediterranean diet, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health too. Further properties of carotenoids leading to a potential reduction of cardiovascular risk are represented by lowering of blood pressure, reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation (such as C-reactive protein, and improvement of insulin sensitivity in muscle, liver, and adipose tissues. In addition, recent nutrigenomics studies have focused on the exceptional ability of carotenoids in modulating the expression of specific genes involved in cell metabolism. The aim of this review is to focus attention to this effect of some carotenoids to prevent CVD.

  18. Apolipoprotein E genotype, cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Tauseef A; Shah, Tina; Prieto, David;

    2013-01-01

    At the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, genotypes of the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are also associated with higher coronary risk. However, the association of APOE genotype with other cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of ischaemic stroke is less c...

  19. CardioGenBase: A Literature Based Multi-Omics Database for Major Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandar V

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs account for high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Both, genetic and epigenetic factors are involved in the enumeration of various cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, a vast amount of multi-omics data are accumulated in the field of cardiovascular research, yet the understanding of key mechanistic aspects of CVDs remain uncovered. Hence, a comprehensive online resource tool is required to comprehend previous research findings and to draw novel methodology for understanding disease pathophysiology. Here, we have developed a literature-based database, CardioGenBase, collecting gene-disease association from Pubmed and MEDLINE. The database covers major cardiovascular diseases such as cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD, hypertensive heart disease, inflammatory heart disease, ischemic heart disease and rheumatic heart disease. It contains ~1,500 cardiovascular disease genes from ~2,4000 research articles. For each gene, literature evidence, ontology, pathways, single nucleotide polymorphism, protein-protein interaction network, normal gene expression, protein expressions in various body fluids and tissues are provided. In addition, tools like gene-disease association finder and gene expression finder are made available for the users with figures, tables, maps and venn diagram to fit their needs. To our knowledge, CardioGenBase is the only database to provide gene-disease association for above mentioned major cardiovascular diseases in a single portal. CardioGenBase is a vital online resource to support genome-wide analysis, genetic, epigenetic and pharmacological studies.

  20. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  1. Cardiovascular toxicities of biological therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    effects. One serious adverse effect is the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction. Some targeted therapies, eg, treatment with monoclonal antibodies or angiogenesis inhibitors, have shown an increased risk of cardiac events. Their influence on the cardiovascular system, however, seems to be transient, but...

  2. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  3. Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2008-01-01

    without adequate plasma volume expansion, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion, peritoneovenous shunting and surgery. Cardiac failure is an important cause of mortality after liver transplantation, but improved liver function has also been shown to reverse the cardiac......Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and...... abnormalities. No specific treatment can be recommended, and cardiac failure should be treated as in non-cirrhotic patients with sodium restriction, diuretics, and oxygen therapy when necessary. Special care should be taken with the use of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin antagonists in these patients. The...

  4. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  5. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  6. Relación del polimorfismo rs9939609 del gen FTO con factores de riesgo cardiovascular y niveles de adipocitoquinas en pacientes con obesidad mórbida Relation of the rs9939609 gene variant in FTO with cardiovascular risk factor and serum adipokine levels in morbid obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. De Luis; R. Aller; Conde, R.; O. Izaola; B. de la Fuente; M. González Sagrado; D. Primo; M. Ruiz Mambrilla

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Algunos polimorfismos del gen asociado con la masa grasa y la obesidad (FTO) se han relacionado con la obesidad y parámetros bioquímicos. Nuestro objetivo fue analizar la relación del polimorfismo rs9939609 del gen FTO con el peso corporal, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los niveles séricos de adipocitoquinas en una muestra de pacientes con obesidad mórbida. Material y métodos: Una muestra de 129 pacientes con obesidad mórbida (IMC > 40) se analizó en un diseño de corte tra...

  7. Proton therapy for pediatric cranial tumors: preliminary report on treatment and disease-related morbidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accelerated protons were used in an attempt to limit treatment-related morbidity in children with tumors in or near the developing brain, by reducing the integral dose to adjacent normal tissues. Methods and Materials: Children treated with protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center between August 1991 and December 1994 were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-eight children, aged 1 to 18 years, were identified as at risk for brain injury from treatment. Medical records, physical examinations, and correspondence with patients, their parents, and referring physicians were analyzed. The investigators tabulated post-treatment changes in pre-treatment signs and symptoms and made judgments as to whether improvement, no change, or worsening related to disease or treatment had supervened. Magnetic resonance images were correlated with clinical findings and radiographic impressions were tabulated. Results: Follow-up ranged from 7 to 49 months (median 25 months). Four instances of treatment-related morbidity were identified. Forty-one instances of site-specific, disease-related morbidity were identified: 15 improved or resolved and 26 remained unchanged after treatment. Four patients had radiographic evidence of local failure. Three of these patients, including two with high-grade glioma, have died. Conclusion: Early treatment-related morbidity associated with proton therapy is low. Tumor progression remains a problem when treating certain histologies such as high-grade glioma. Escalating the dose delivered to target volumes may benefit children with tumors associated with poor rates of local control. Long-term follow-up, including neurocognitive testing, is in progress to assess integral-dose effects on cognitive, behavioral and developmental outcomes in children with cranial tumors

  8. Disease related knowledge and quality of life: a descriptive study focusing on hypertensive population in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Atif, Muhammad; ul Haq, Noman; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to evaluate association between Health related quality of lifeand disease state knowledge among hypertensive population of Pakistan. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a representative cohort of hypertension patients. Using prevalence based sampling technique, a total of 385 hypertensive patients were selected from two public hospitals of Quetta city, Pakistan. Hypertension Fact Questionnaire (HFQ) and European Quality of Life scale (EQ-5D) were used for data collection. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 16.0 was used to compute descriptive analysis of patients’ demographic and disease related information. Categorical variables were described as percentages while continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify the association between study variables. Results: The mean (SD) age of the patients was 39.02 (6.59), with 68.8% males (n=265). The mean (SD) duration of hypertension was 3.01 (0.93) years. Forty percent (n=154) had bachelor degree with 34.8% (n=134) working in private sector. Almost forty one percent (n=140) had monthly income of more than 15000 Pakistan rupees per month with 75.1% (n=289) having urban residency. The mean EQ-5D descriptive score (0.46±0.28) and EQ-VAS score (63.97±6.62) indicated lower HRQoL in our study participants. Mean knowledge score was 8.03 ± 0.42. Correlation coefficient between HRQoL and knowledge was 0.208 (p< 0.001), indicating a week positive association. Conclusion: Results of this study highlight hypertension knowledge to be weakly associated with HRQoL suggesting that imparting knowledge to patients do not necessarily improve HRQoL. More attention should be given to identify individualized factors affecting HRQoL. PMID:23093899

  9. The Huntington's disease-related cardiomyopathy prevents a hypertrophic response in the R6/2 mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mielcarek

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is neurodegenerative disorder for which the mutation results in an extra-long tract of glutamines that causes the huntingtin protein to aggregate. It is characterized by neurological symptoms and brain pathology that is associated with nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates and with transcriptional deregulation. Despite the fact that HD has been recognized principally as a neurological disease, there are multiple epidemiological studies showing that HD patients exhibit a high rate of cardiovascular events leading to heart failure. To unravel the mechanistic basis of cardiac dysfunction in HD, we employed a wide range of molecular techniques using the well-established genetic R6/2 mouse model that develop a considerable degree of the cardiac atrophy at end stage disease. We found that chronic treatment with isoproterenol, a potent beta-adrenoreceptor agonist, did not change the overall gross morphology of the HD murine hearts. However, there was a partial response to the beta-adrenergenic stimulation by the further re-expression of foetal genes. In addition we have profiled the expression level of Hdacs in the R6/2 murine hearts and found that the isoproterenol stimulation of Hdac expression was partially blocked. For the first time we established the Hdac transcriptional profile under hypertrophic conditions and found 10 out of 18 Hdacs to be markedly deregulated. Therefore, we conclude that R6/2 murine hearts are not able to respond to the chronic isoproterenol treatment to the same degree as wild type hearts and some of the hypertrophic signals are likely attenuated in the symptomatic HD animals.

  10. Variability in the Responsiveness to Low-Dose Aspirin: Pharmacological and Disease-Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Rocca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main pharmacological aspects of pharmacodynamics (PD and pharmacokinetics (PK of aspirin as antiplatelet agent were unravelled between the late sixties and the eighties, and low-dose aspirin given once daily has been shown to be a mainstay in the current treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disorders. Nevertheless, several PD and PK aspects of aspirin in selected clinical conditions have recently emerged and deserve future clinical attention. In 1994, the term “aspirin resistance” was used for the first time, but, until now, no consensus exists on definition, standardized assay, underlying mechanisms, clinical impact, and possible efficacy of alternative therapeutic interventions. At variance with an undefined aspirin-resistant status, in the last 5 years, the concept of variability in response to aspirin due to specific pathophysiological mechanisms and based on PK and/or PD of the drug has emerged. This growing evidence highlights the existence and possible clinical relevance of an interindividual variability of pharmacological aspirin response and calls for new, large studies to test new low-dose aspirin-based regimens which may ameliorate platelet acetylation, reduce variability in drug responsiveness, and improve clinical efficacy on selected populations.

  11. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  12. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of some of the molecular mechanisms involved in regulating lifespan and health, including mitochondria, telomeres, stem cells, sirtuins, Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. We also provide future perspectives of lifespan and health, which are intimately linked fields. SUMMARY: Aging remains the biggest non-modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The biological, structural and mechanical changes in senescent cardiovascular system are thought to contribute in increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease in aging. Understanding the mechanisms contributing to such changes is therefore crucial for both prevention and development of treatment for cardiovascular diseases. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular aging, mitochondria, telomeres, sirtuin, stem cells.

  14. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez-Juaristi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii disminuye la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Aunque no existe consenso sobre la cantidad óptima a consumir, puede sugerirse que el consumo diario de chocolate rico en cacao (y polifenoles es una buena elección para reducir, al menos parcialmente, el riesgo cardiovascular. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios que profundicen sobre la biodisponibilidad y mecanismos de acción de los componentes activos del chocolate. El estudio de la interacción del chocolate y sus componentes con genes candidatos aportará información fundamental de los individuos "diana" que podrían beneficiarse del potencial efecto saludable del chocolate en el tratamiento cardiovascular.Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the

  15. Dietary fibre and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in developed countries. CVD is an inflammatory disease associated with risk factors that include hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Furthermore, the evolution of this disease depends on the amount of modified lipoproteins (e.g. oxidized) present in the arterial subendothelium. Diet is considered the cornerstone for CVD treatment, as it can lower not only atherogenic lipoprotein levels and degree of oxidation, but also blood pressure, thrombogenesis and concentrations of some relevant factors (e.g. homocystein).Among different diets, the Mediterranean diet stands out due to their benefits on several health benefits, in particular with regard to CVD. Rich in vegetable foods, this diet contributes both quantitatively and qualitatively to essential fibre compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose, gums, mucilages, pectins, oligosaccharides, lignins, etc.). The present paper analyzes the effects of fibre consumption on a) cholesterol and lipoprotein levels; b) systolic and diastolic blood pressures; and c) antioxidant availability and profile. Some studies and meta-analysis are revised, as the possible mechanisms by which fibre may decrease plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure and to act as antioxidant, as well. In addition, author's own publications regarding the effect of fibre matrix (e.g. seaweeds) on arylesterase and the gene expression of some key antioxidant enzymes are reviewed. The paper also includes data concerning the possible interaction between fibre and some hypolipemic drugs, which may make it possible to attain similar hypolipemic effects with lower dosages, with the consequent decrease in possible side effects. The review concludes with a summary of nutritional objectives related to the consumption of carbohydrates and fibre supplements. PMID:22566302

  16. Simulations of the Cardiovascular System Using the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-León, Gabriela; Vílchez-Monge, Marta; Montero-Rodríguez, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present document, six mathematical models of the cardiovascular system are studied and implemented in MATLAB R2013a using an updated version of the Cardiovascular Simulation Toolbox proposed by O. Barnea at the Tel-Aviv University. All the mathematical models are based on electrical lumped-parameter analogies. The results of the simulations are compared with a list of expected hemodynamic parameters and contrasted with laboratory values.

  17. Genomics in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Robert; Marian, A.J.; Dandona, Sonny; Alexandre F R Stewart

    2013-01-01

    A paradigm shift towards biology occurred in the 1990’s subsequently catalyzed by the sequencing of the human genome in 2000. The cost of DNA sequencing has gone from millions to thousands of dollars with sequencing of one’s entire genome costing only $1,000. Rapid DNA sequencing is being embraced for single gene disorders, particularly for sporadic cases and those from small families. Transmission of lethal genes such as associated with Huntington’s disease can, through in-vitro fertilizatio...

  18. Cardiovascular MRI with ferumoxytol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, J P; Nguyen, K-L; Han, F; Zhou, Z; Salusky, I; Ayad, I; Hu, P

    2016-08-01

    The practice of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) has changed significantly in the span of a decade. Concerns regarding gadolinium (Gd)-associated nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in those with severely impaired renal function spurred developments in low-dose CEMRA and non-contrast MRA as well as efforts to seek alternative MR contrast agents. Originally developed for MR imaging use, ferumoxytol (an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle), is currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in adults with renal disease. Since its clinical availability in 2009, there has been rising interest in the scientific and clinical use of ferumoxytol as an MR contrast agent. The unique physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of ferumoxytol, including its long intravascular half-life and high r1 relaxivity, support a spectrum of MRI applications beyond the scope of Gd-based contrast agents. Moreover, whereas Gd is not found in biological systems, iron is essential for normal metabolism, and nutritional iron deficiency poses major public health challenges worldwide. Once the carbohydrate shell of ferumoxytol is degraded, the elemental iron at its core is incorporated into the reticuloendothelial system. These considerations position ferumoxytol as a potential game changer in the field of CEMRA and MRI. In this paper, we aim to summarise our experience with the cardiovascular applications of ferumoxytol and provide a brief synopsis of ongoing investigations on ferumoxytol-enhanced MR applications. PMID:27221526

  19. Radiopharmaceuticals in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high incidence of cardiovascular disorders and the attendant morbidity and mortality have encouraged the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and localisation of coronary diseases. Myocardial perfusion imaging is an invaluable tool for the demonstration of transient ischemia and infarction in heart and identification of viable and non-viable myocardial tissue. Thallium chloride (Tl-201) is the agent currently in wide use but its drawbacks have been well recognised. Hence tremendous amount of research work has been carried out to develop a suitable Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical for this purpose which has resulted in the introduction of two Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals HEXAMIBI and BATO. These are being tried as myocardial imaging agents these days and the choice amongst these depends on concrete clinical situation. The experimental work involving the synthesis of ligand MIBI, formulation into freeze dried KIT form, quality control procedure, biodistribution studies and finally clinical evaluation of locally produced KIT in human volunteers has now been reported here. Our KIT has been produced for the first time in Pakistan and has been tried on forty five patients in Nuclear Medical Centre, AFIP (Rawalpindi). The results obtained are comparable to those of Ti-201 with a slightly higher liver background in case of MIBI but because of the easy availability MIBI has become agent of choice for myocardial perfusion studies. (author)

  20. Elucidating the functional interplay between Parkinson’s disease-related proteins and the mitochondrion

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolin, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology, affecting nearly 5% of the world population over the age of 80. Nearly 10% of PD cases are familial forms with Mendelian inheritance pattern. Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been suspected to play a role in the physiopathology of sporadic PD. This possibility has been recently corroborated by major discoveries in the field of autosomal recessive PD. Parkin and PINK1, the products of two genes associated wi...

  1. Integrating heterogeneous high-throughput data for meta-dimensional pharmacogenomics and disease-related studies

    OpenAIRE

    Holzinger, Emily R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2012-01-01

    The current paradigm of human genetics research is to analyze variation of a single data type (i.e., DNA sequence or RNA levels) to detect genes and pathways that underlie complex traits such as disease state or drug response. While these studies have detected thousands of variations that associate with hundreds of complex phenotypes, much of the estimated heritability, or trait variability due to genetic factors, remain unexplained. We may be able to account for a portion of the missing heri...

  2. Sex differences in cardiovascular function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587. ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  3. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  4. Human and equine cardiovascular endocrinology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vekens, Nicky Van Der; Hunter, Ingrid; Gøtze, Jens Peter;

    2013-01-01

    important species differences, which can partly be explained by variations in physiology or pathophysiology. Most important are physiological differences in heart rate, cardiovascular response to exercise, food and water intake, and molecular elimination in plasma. Pathological differences are even more...

  5. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streja, Elani; Wu, Chunsen; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP) and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular...... disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were...... used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th) birthday. RESULTS: We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow...

  6. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD, myocardial infarction (MI, and heart failure (HF.

  7. Exercise and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Golbidi; Ismail Laher

    2012-01-01

    There are alarming increases in the incidence of obesity, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The risk of these diseases is significantly reduced by appropriate lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity. However, the exact mechanisms by which exercise influences the development and progression of cardiovascular disease are unclear. In this paper we review some important exercise-induced changes in cardiac, vascular, and blood tissues and discuss...

  8. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  9. Integrative approaches for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Mimi; Mercado, Nestor; Suhar, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, $2.5 trillion is spent on healthcare annually. Seven chronic diseases account for half of all this expense. Of these 7, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes mellitus are largely preventable. Integrative cardiology programs that focus on risk-factor modification through lifestyle change combined with early detection and advanced lipid management offer a new paradigm to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19955547

  10. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    OpenAIRE

    Villalón, Carlos; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT receptor classification, the authors reanalyse the cardiovascular responses mediated by 5-HT receptors and discuss the established and potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT ligands in the trea...

  11. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Andi Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. CONTENT: We provide an overview of...

  13. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  14. Adipose tissue gene expression and metabolic health of obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S K; Ma, L; Sharma, N K

    2015-05-01

    Obese subjects with a similar body mass index (BMI) exhibit substantial heterogeneity in gluco- and cardiometabolic heath phenotypes. However, defining genes that underlie the heterogeneity of metabolic features among obese individuals and determining metabolically healthy and unhealthy phenotypes remain challenging. We conducted unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue transcripts from 30 obese men and women ⩾40 years old. Despite similar BMIs in all subjects, we found two distinct subgroups, one metabolically healthy (group 1) and one metabolically unhealthy (group 2). Subjects in group 2 showed significantly higher total cholesterol (P=0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.006), 2-h insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (P=0.015) and lower insulin sensitivity (SI, P=0.029) compared with group 1. We identified significant upregulation of 141 genes (for example, MMP9 and SPP1) and downregulation of 17 genes (for example, NDRG4 and GINS3) in group 2 subjects. Intriguingly, these differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cardiovascular disease-related processes (P=2.81 × 10(-11)-3.74 × 10(-02)) and pathways involved in immune and inflammatory response (P=8.32 × 10(-5)-0.04). Two downregulated genes, NDRG4 and GINS3, have been located in a genomic interval associated with cardiac repolarization in published GWASs and zebra fish knockout models. Our study provides evidence that perturbations in the adipose tissue gene expression network are important in defining metabolic health in obese subjects. PMID:25520251

  15. Congenital cerebral palsy, child sex and parent cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elani Streja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Genes associated with cardiovascular disease may also be risk factors for congenital cerebral palsy (CP and these associations may be modified by sex, since there is an increased risk of CP in male children. We investigated the association between CP of the child with cardiovascular disease in parents, taking sex of the child into consideration. METHODS: All parents of non-adopted singletons born in Denmark between 1973 and 2003 were included. Parents of a child with CP, confirmed by the Danish National CP registry, were considered exposed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to model risk of cardiovascular outcomes for exposed parents compared to all other parents beginning at the child's 10(th birthday. RESULTS: We identified 733,730 mothers and 666,652 fathers among whom 1,592 and 1,484, respectively, had a child with CP. The mean age for mothers at end of follow up was 50 ± 8 years. After adjustment for maternal age, parental education, child's sex, child's residence, child being small for gestational age and maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy, mothers of CP male children had an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.16-2.00, attributable mostly to an increased incidence of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. After additional adjustment for preterm birth, the association was markedly attenuated for cardiovascular disease (1.34, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.76, became nonsignificant for hypertension, but remained significant for cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.45- 5.12. There was no increased risk of cardiovascular events in mothers of female CP children, or fathers of CP children of any sex. CONCLUSIONS: Women that have a male child with CP are at increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Part of this association may be related to risk factors for preterm births.

  16. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2016-05-27

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. PMID:27230640

  17. Targeted cancer gene therapy : the flexibility of adenoviral gene therapy vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rots, MG; Curiel, DT; Gerritsen, WR; Haisma, HJ

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors are promising reagents for therapeutic interventions in humans, including gene therapy for biologically complex diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In this regard, the major advantage of adenoviral vectors is their superior in vivo gene transfer efficienc

  18. A method for automatically extracting infectious disease-related primers and probes from the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rey David

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primer and probe sequences are the main components of nucleic acid-based detection systems. Biologists use primers and probes for different tasks, some related to the diagnosis and prescription of infectious diseases. The biological literature is the main information source for empirically validated primer and probe sequences. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for researchers to navigate this important information. In this paper, we present a four-phase method for extracting and annotating primer/probe sequences from the literature. These phases are: (1 convert each document into a tree of paper sections, (2 detect the candidate sequences using a set of finite state machine-based recognizers, (3 refine problem sequences using a rule-based expert system, and (4 annotate the extracted sequences with their related organism/gene information. Results We tested our approach using a test set composed of 297 manuscripts. The extracted sequences and their organism/gene annotations were manually evaluated by a panel of molecular biologists. The results of the evaluation show that our approach is suitable for automatically extracting DNA sequences, achieving precision/recall rates of 97.98% and 95.77%, respectively. In addition, 76.66% of the detected sequences were correctly annotated with their organism name. The system also provided correct gene-related information for 46.18% of the sequences assigned a correct organism name. Conclusions We believe that the proposed method can facilitate routine tasks for biomedical researchers using molecular methods to diagnose and prescribe different infectious diseases. In addition, the proposed method can be expanded to detect and extract other biological sequences from the literature. The extracted information can also be used to readily update available primer/probe databases or to create new databases from scratch.

  19. Other cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005198 Study on the relationship of plasma fib-rinogen, platelet aggregation rate ad peripheral arterial occlusive disease. WANG Jie(王洁), et al. Dept Emerg, Gene Hosp Chin People’s Armed Police Forces, Beijing 100039. Chin J Epidemiol, 2005; 26 (1):1-4. Objective: To detect the relationship of plasma fibrinogen, platelet aggregation rate and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) in the elderly.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Hyperreactivity in Young Venezuelans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Montes Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: cardiovascular hyperreactivity in young people has been associated with different risk factors and a family history of hypertension. Objective: to determine the association between a family history of hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors with cardiovascular hyperreactivity. Method: a correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in a universe of 77 young individuals aged 18 to 40 years from the Churuguara parish of the Falcon State in Venezuela. The variables were: age, sex, skin color, family history of hypertension, medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, salt intake, physical activity and body mass index. The diastolic and systolic blood pressure before and after the pressor response elicited by an isometric exercise were determined as hemodynamic variables. Results: thirteen percent of the participants developed vascular reactivity after the hand-held weight test. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity is three times higher in individuals with a family history of hypertension. Sixty percent of those with a body mass index greater than or equal to 27 kg/m2 are hyperreactive. There is a higher cardiovascular response to the hand-held weight test as the consumption of alcohol increases. Thirty three point three percent of the participants who smoke are hyperreactive. Conclusions: there is a significant association between a family history of hypertension, obesity, salt intake, alcohol consumption and vascular hyperreactivity.

  1. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European...... descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals...... and by categories of alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1...

  2. Cardiovascular Involvement in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Amirhakimi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary disease resulting from mutation in type I procollagen genes. One of the extra skeletal manifestations of this disease is cardiac involvement. The prevalence of cardiac involvement is still unknown in the children with osteogenesis imperfecta. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities in these patients.Methods: 24 children with osteogenesis imperfecta and 24 normal children who were matched with the patients regarding sex and age were studied. In both groups, standard echocardiography was performed, and heart valves were investigated. Dimensions of left ventricle, aorta annulus, sinotubular junction, ascending and descending aorta were measured and compared between the two groups.Findings: The results revealed no significant difference between the two groups regarding age, sex, ejection fraction, shortening fraction, mean of aorta annulus, sinotubular junction, ascending and descending aorta, but after correction based on the body surface area, dimensions of aorta annulus, sinotubular junction, ascending and descending aorta in the patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (P25 mmHg and one patient had pulmonary insufficiency with indirect evidence of pulmonary hypertension. According to Z scores of aorta annulus, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta, 5, 3, and 1 out of 24 patients had Z scores >2 respectively.Conclusion: The prevalence of valvular heart diseases and aortic root dilation was higher in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. In conclusion, cardiovascular investigation is recommended in these children

  3. Nutrigenomic programming of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Over twenty five years ago epidemiological studies revealed that there was a relationship between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, discordant siblings and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment plays an important role in mediating these relationships. Early nutrition is one such important environmental factor. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted and the underlying mechanisms starting to emerge. These include: (1) Permanent structural changes in an organ due to exposure to suboptimal levels of essential hormones or nutrients during a critical period of development leading to permanent changes in tissue function (2) Persistent epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications and miRNAs leading to changes in gene expression. (3) Permanent effects on regulation of cellular ageing through increases in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to DNA damage and telomere shortening. Further understanding of these processes will enable the development of preventative and intervention strategies to combat the burden of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26461282

  4. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  5. Precision Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Hunting Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine postulates improved prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease based on patient specific factors especially DNA sequence (i.e., gene) variants. Ideas related to precision medicine stem from the much anticipated "genetic revolution in medicine" arising seamlessly from the human genome project (HGP). In this essay I deconstruct the concept of precision medicine and raise questions about the validity of the paradigm in general and its application to cardiovascular disease. Thus far precision medicine has underperformed based on the vision promulgated by enthusiasts. While niche successes for precision medicine are likely, the promises of broad based transformation should be viewed with skepticism. Open discussion and debate related to precision medicine are urgently needed to avoid misapplication of resources, hype, iatrogenic interventions, and distraction from established approaches with ongoing utility. Failure to engage in such debate will lead to negative unintended consequences from a revolution that might never come. PMID:26902518

  6. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  7. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallone, Vincenza; Ziegler, Dan; Freeman, Roy;

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (CAN) Subcommittee of Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy worked to update CAN guidelines, with regard to epidemiology, clinical impact, diagnosis, usefulness of CAN testing, and management. CAN is the impairment of cardiovascular autonomic control...... in the setting of diabetes after exclusion of other causes. The prevalence of confirmed CAN is around 20%, and increases up to 65% with age and diabetes duration. Established risk factors for CAN are glycaemic control in type 1 and a combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and glycaemic control...... in type 2 diabetes. CAN is a risk marker of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, and possibly a progression promoter of diabetic nephropathy. Criteria for CAN diagnosis and staging are: 1. one abnormal cardio-vagal test identifies possible or early CAN; 2. at least two abnormal cardio-vagal tests...

  8. Cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, K S; Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive neuropsychol......This review describes the incidence, risk factors, and long-term consequences of cognitive dysfunction after cardiovascular surgery. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is increasingly being recognized as an important complication, especially in the elderly. A highly sensitive...... neuropsychological test battery must be used to detect POCD and a well-matched control group is very useful for the analysis and interpretation of the test RESULTS: Cardiovascular surgery is associated with a high incidence of POCD. Cardiopulmonary bypass was thought to explain this difference, but randomized...

  9. Lymphatic System in Cardiovascular Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Robciuc, Marius R; Karaman, Sinem; Makinen, Taija; Alitalo, Kari

    2016-02-01

    The mammalian circulatory system comprises both the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system. In contrast to the blood vascular circulation, the lymphatic system forms a unidirectional transit pathway from the extracellular space to the venous system. It actively regulates tissue fluid homeostasis, absorption of gastrointestinal lipids, and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes to lymphoid organs and on to the systemic circulation. The cardinal manifestation of lymphatic malfunction is lymphedema. Recent research has implicated the lymphatic system in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including obesity and metabolic disease, dyslipidemia, inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Here, we review the most recent advances in the field of lymphatic vascular biology, with a focus on cardiovascular disease. PMID:26846644

  10. Cardiovascular Session Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter; Schneider, Sue

    1999-01-01

    It was apparent that the bed-rest and spaceflight data indicated that decreases in plasma volume and cardiac atrophy along with cardiac remodeling were fundamental changes which predisposed many astronauts to post flight orthostatic intolerance. Despite the recently acquired in-flight and post-flight muscle sympathetic nerve activity findings suggesting that the sympathetic nerve responses were appropriate there remains significant contrary data from bed-rest studies, post- flight stand tests and hind-limb unweighted rat studies that suggest that the vasoconstrictive responses were compromised at least insufficient in susceptible individuals. The key issues raised is whether a diminished increase in sympathetic activity from baseline without changes in 254 First Biennial Space Biomedical Investigators'Workshop Cardiovascular peak response or receptor adaptations is an abnormal response or is an individual variance of response to the accentuated decrease in stroke volume. Data relating autonomic neural control of heart rate were presented to suggest that the vagal and sympathetic control of heart rate was attenuated. Also, bed-rest and space flight induced attenuated baroreflex control of heart rate was shown to be restored to pre-bedrest function by one bout of maximal dynamic exercise. However, these data were confounded by relying on the use of R-R interval as a measure of efferent responses of the baroreflex during a condition in which the baseline heart rate was changed. Clearly the idea that the autonomic control of heart rate may be changed by microgravity needs further investigation. This direction is suggested despite the fact that in the triple product (HR x SV x TPR = MAP) assessment of the regulation of arterial blood pressure during orthostasis the role of the HR reflex may be less influential than that associated. with cardiac atrophy (SV changes) and aberrant sympathetic vasoconstriction (resistance) changes. Although sympathetic nerve activity

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Salman

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/β and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol meta...

  12. Recent Genetic Discoveries Implicating Ion Channels in Human Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    George, Alfred L.

    2013-01-01

    The term channelopathy refers to human genetic disorders caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels or their interacting proteins. Recent advances in this field have been enabled by next-generation DNA sequencing strategies such as whole exome sequencing with several intriguing and unexpected discoveries. This review highlights important discoveries implicating ion channels or ion channel modulators in cardiovascular disorders including cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility, cardiac condu...

  13. The diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Noureldin Radwa A; Liu Songtao; Nacif Marcelo S; Judge Daniel P; Halushka Marc K; Abraham Theodore P; Ho Carolyn; Bluemke David A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic disease of the heart. HCM is characterized by a wide range of clinical expression, ranging from asymptomatic mutation carriers to sudden cardiac death as the first manifestation of the disease. Over 1000 mutations have been identified, classically in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins. Noninvasive imaging is central to the diagnosis of HCM and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is increasingly used to characterize morp...

  14. The Role of Redox Signaling in Epigenetics and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gene H.; Ryan, John J.; Archer, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Significance: The term epigenetics refers to the changes in the phenotype and gene expression that occur without alterations in the DNA sequence. There is a rapidly growing body of evidence that epigenetic modifications are involved in the pathological mechanisms of many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which intersect with many of the pathways involved in oxidative stress. Recent Advances: Most studies relating epigenetics and human pathologies have focused on cancer. There has been a limited...

  15. Braveheart, a Long Noncoding RNA Required for Cardiovascular Lineage Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Klattenhoff, Carla A.; Scheuermann, Johanna C.; Surface, Lauren E.; Bradley, Robert K.; Fields, Paul A.; Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Ding, Huiming; Torrey, Lillian; Haas, Simon; Abo, Ryan; Tabebordbar, Mohammadsharif; Lee, Richard T.; Burge, Christopher B.; Butty, Vincent; Boyer, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often expressed in a development-specific manner, yet little is known about their roles in lineage commitment. Here, we identified Braveheart (Bvht), a heart-associated lncRNA in mouse. Using multiple embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation strategies, we show that Bvht is required for progression of nascent mesoderm toward a cardiac fate. We find that Bvht is necessary for activation of a core cardiovascular gene network and functions upstream of mesoderm ...

  16. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  17. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lizzie M. Castillo S; Ana Teresa Alvarado G; María Isabel Sánchez V

    2006-01-01

    En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de det...

  18. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance of such gene...... genetic determinants with cardiovascular disease risk will either favor or disfavor that these lipoproteins are causally related to cardiovascular disease.......To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance of such...

  19. Super-enhancer lncs to cardiovascular development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounzain, Samir; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac development, function and pathological remodelling in response to stress depend on the dynamic control of tissue specific gene expression by distant acting transcriptional enhancers. Recently, super-enhancers (SEs), also known as stretch or large enhancer clusters, are emerging as sentinel regulators within the gene regulatory networks that underpin cellular functions. It is becoming increasingly evident that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with these sequences play fundamental roles for enhancer activity and the regulation of the gene programs hardwired by them. Here, we review this emerging landscape, focusing on the roles of SEs and their derived lncRNAs in cardiovascular development and disease. We propose that exploration of this genomic landscape could provide novel therapeutic targets and approaches for the amelioration of cardiovascular disease. Ultimately we envisage a future of ncRNA therapeutics targeting the SE landscape to alleviate cardiovascular disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26620798

  20. Expression patterns of microRNAs associated with CML phases and their disease related targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trněný Marek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are important regulators of transcription in hematopoiesis. Their expression deregulations were described in association with pathogenesis of some hematological malignancies. This study provides integrated microRNA expression profiling at different phases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML with the aim to identify microRNAs associated with CML pathogenesis. The functions of in silico filtered targets are in this report annotated and discussed in relation to CML pathogenesis. Results Using microarrays we identified differential expression profiles of 49 miRNAs in CML patients at diagnosis, in hematological relapse, therapy failure, blast crisis and major molecular response. The expression deregulation of miR-150, miR-20a, miR-17, miR-19a, miR-103, miR-144, miR-155, miR-181a, miR-221 and miR-222 in CML was confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. In silico analyses identified targeted genes of these miRNAs encoding proteins that are involved in cell cycle and growth regulation as well as several key signaling pathways such as of mitogen activated kinase-like protein (MAPK, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ERBB, transforming growth factor beta (TGFB1 and tumor protein p53 that are all related to CML. Decreased levels of miR-150 were detected in patients at diagnosis, in blast crisis and 67% of hematological relapses and showed significant negative correlation with miR-150 proved target MYB and with BCR-ABL transcript level. Conclusions This study uncovers microRNAs that are potentially involved in CML and the annotated functions of in silico filtered targets of selected miRNAs outline mechanisms whereby microRNAs may be involved in CML pathogenesis.

  1. Disease-related growth factor and embryonic signaling pathways modulate an enhancer of TCF21 expression at the 6q23.2 coronary heart disease locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint L Miller

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of mortality in both developed and developing countries worldwide. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have now identified 46 independent susceptibility loci for CHD, however, the biological and disease-relevant mechanisms for these associations remain elusive. The large-scale meta-analysis of GWAS recently identified in Caucasians a CHD-associated locus at chromosome 6q23.2, a region containing the transcription factor TCF21 gene. TCF21 (Capsulin/Pod1/Epicardin is a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor family, and regulates cell fate decisions and differentiation in the developing coronary vasculature. Herein, we characterize a cis-regulatory mechanism by which the lead polymorphism rs12190287 disrupts an atypical activator protein 1 (AP-1 element, as demonstrated by allele-specific transcriptional regulation, transcription factor binding, and chromatin organization, leading to altered TCF21 expression. Further, this element is shown to mediate signaling through platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-β and Wilms tumor 1 (WT1 pathways. A second disease allele identified in East Asians also appears to disrupt an AP-1-like element. Thus, both disease-related growth factor and embryonic signaling pathways may regulate CHD risk through two independent alleles at TCF21.

  2. Can a functional assay on cytokine kinetics be used for the identification of a disease-related role for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in Ankolysing spondylitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Kjærsgaard, Pernille; Jørgensen, Trine;

    2014-01-01

    -like protease to a nuclear -associated 16 kDa propiece and a secreted 17 kDa mature IL-1α peptide. However, the full understanding of its dual function is missing. Recently, SNPs in the gene for IL-1α was also associated with the risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a subgroup of the...... spondyloarthropathies. These findings lead us to produce antibodies towards the N- and C-terminal region of IL-1α to investigate IL-1α kinetics in human macrophages. This would eventually be used to asses any correlation between a defect in the production of the cytokine and a disease related SNP found in the IL-1α......α. We obtained a MAb specific for the N-terminal propiece and for the C-terminal mature form of IL-1α, respectively. Assays, including DNA sequencing, immunofluorescence microscopy, qPCR and FACS are now available for the analysis of IL-1α kinetics in blood samples from AS patients....

  3. Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jointly produced, collaborated with, or endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Press & News » Review ... SCAI Member? Create an Account Advertisement Advertisement The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Foundation, 1100 17th ...

  4. Comparative cardiovascular safety of dementia medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Peterson, Eric D; Holm, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark.......To compare the cardiovascular safety of currently marketed dementia medications in new users in the United States and Denmark....

  5. Disease-related distress in parents of children with cancer at various stages after the time of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Krister; Lindahl, Annika; Björk, Olle

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluates and describes disease-related distress in parents, with particular focus on the association between the time elapsed since the child's cancer diagnosis and a number of indicators of distress. In a cross-sectional design, 264 mothers and fathers of children with various malignancies completed a multidimensional questionnaire focusing on 11 illness-specific and general indicators of distress. Parents were assessed from 4 weeks to 14 years after the child's diagnosis, and age of children at onset of illness ranged from newly born to 21 years (mean approximately 6 years). The levels of distress related to loss of control, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, and psychological and physical distress were lower among parents for whom a longer period of time had elapsed from the time of diagnosis. However, the time elapsed could not explain all of the variation in these stress reactions, or any of the variation in uncertainty, disease-related fear and loneliness. The child's age at diagnosis and treatment situation at assessment were surpassed by time elapsed since diagnosis as predictors of variance in parental distress. The pattern observed indicates the presence of disease-related distress even years after the completion of medical treatment. The findings point to the need for research to identify parents at particular risk of suffering long-term harmful consequences from the prolonged stress of parenting a child with cancer. The necessity of longitudinal studies to evaluate the proportion of acute stress in relation to chronic or cumulative parental stress is emphasized. PMID:12801132

  6. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  7. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  8. Cardiovascular calcification. An inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in 'early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. (author)

  9. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  10. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Villalón (Carlos); P.A.M. de Vries (Peter); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT

  11. Down Syndrome: A Cardiovascular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, J. C.; Duffels, M. G. J.; Winter, M. M.; Weijerman, M. E.; Cobben, J. M.; Huisman, S. A.; Mulder, B. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the heart and vascular system in patients with Down syndrome. A clear knowledge on the wide spectrum of various abnormalities associated with this syndrome is essential for skillful management of cardiac problems in patients with Down syndrome. Epidemiology of congenital heart defects, cardiovascular aspects and…

  12. Epac and the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Sand, Carsten; Jakobs, Karl H.; Michel, Martin C.; Weernink, Paschal A. Oude

    2007-01-01

    Exchange protein activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) - a cyclic AMP-activated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras-like GTPases - has emerged as a novel mediator of pivotal processes in the cardiovascular system, including cellular calcium handling, hypertrophy, integrin-mediated cell adhesion, est

  13. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664

  14. A Case Report of Improvement in Crohn's Disease-related Symptoms Following Participation in a Comprehensive Mind-Body Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, Michelle L; Korzenik, Joshua R; Baim, Margaret; Denninger, John W; Mehta, Darshan H

    2016-01-01

    Stress is widely believed to play a role in the development and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and several studies of mind-body programs have suggested benefits in this patient population. Here we describe a case report of a young man with a flare in Crohn's disease-related symptoms that improved in response to a comprehensive, multi-modal, mind-body program and the development of a novel IBD treatment center that incorporates mind-body approaches, nutrition, and other modalities to provide more holistic and patient-centered care for individuals with IBD. PMID:26937324

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Alpendurada, Francisco Diogo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Whilst most of the attention has been devoted to the left ventricle in cardiovascular disease, the right ventricle has been somewhat neglected. In the last decades, there has been a renewal of interest in the right ventricle, in part driven by advances in cardiovascular imaging. Methods: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance is arguably the best imaging modality for the study of the right ventricle. In this research thesis, cardiovascular magnetic resonance w...

  16. Comprehensive coverage of cardiovascular disease data in the disease portals at the Rat Genome Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shur-Jen; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Hayman, G Thomas; Petri, Victoria; Smith, Jennifer R; Tutaj, Marek; Nigam, Rajni; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are complex diseases caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. To facilitate progress in complex disease research, the Rat Genome Database (RGD) provides the community with a disease portal where genome objects and biological data related to cardiovascular diseases are systematically organized. The purpose of this study is to present biocuration at RGD, including disease, genetic, and pathway data. The RGD curation team uses controlled vocabularies/ontologies to organize data curated from the published literature or imported from disease and pathway databases. These organized annotations are associated with genes, strains, and quantitative trait loci (QTLs), thus linking functional annotations to genome objects. Screen shots from the web pages are used to demonstrate the organization of annotations at RGD. The human cardiovascular disease genes identified by annotations were grouped according to data sources and their annotation profiles were compared by in-house tools and other enrichment tools available to the public. The analysis results show that the imported cardiovascular disease genes from ClinVar and OMIM are functionally different from the RGD manually curated genes in terms of pathway and Gene Ontology annotations. The inclusion of disease genes from other databases enriches the collection of disease genes not only in quantity but also in quality. PMID:27287925

  17. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  18. Cardiovascular adverse effects of phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-05-01

    Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393

  19. Cardiovascular Reactivity and its Association with the Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are no studies that confirm the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Objective: to determine the association between cardiovascular hyperreactivity and the risk of cardiovascular morbidity in normotensive individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. The universe consisted of the population aged 15 to 74 years in Cienfuegos municipality; the sample included 644 people. The variables were: sex, skin color, age, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, smoking, baseline systolic blood pressure, cardiovascular reactivity, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity was calculated by applying the Framingham Risk Functions. The Pearson’s Chi-square test and the prevalence ratio were used with a 95 % confidence interval. The direction of the relationship between cardiovascular reactivity, age, and systolic blood pressure was analyzed considering the Eta value. Results: the prevalence of cardiovascular hyperreactivity was higher among people aged 65 to 74 years and males. A higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity was observed in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals. There is an association between non-optimal systolic blood pressure, increasing age, and high risk of cardiovascular morbidity in cardiovascular hyperreactive people. Conclusions: the risk of cardiovascular morbidity is higher in cardiovascular hyperreactive individuals than in normoreactive people. Age and systolic blood pressure showed greater association with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity.

  20. [Secondary nephrotic syndrome due to cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tomoya; Takahashi, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2004-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases ralely evoke nephrotic syndrome. Especially hypertensive renal disease (nephroscrelosis) and renovascular hypertension occasionally may lead to nephrotic syndrome. We reported a case of nephrotic syndrome with renovascular hypertension successfully treated with candesartan. In eldery patients cardiovascular diseases are appeared. It is very important for clinicians to detect the mechanism of nephrotic syndrome caused by cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15500142

  1. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dormand, Helen; Mohiaddin, Raad H

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview of Marfan syndrome with an emphasis on cardiovascular complications and cardiovascular imaging. Both pre- and post-operative imaging is addressed with an explanation of surgical management. All relevant imaging modalities are discussed with a particular focus on cardiovascular MR.

  2. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Maceira Alicia M; Mohiaddin Raad H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue char...

  3. Impact of Diabetes on Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos Matheus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Long Pentraxin 3: Experimental and Clinical Relevance in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Bonacina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and belongs, together with the C-reactive protein (CRP and other acute phase proteins, to the pentraxins' superfamily: soluble, multifunctional, pattern recognition proteins. Pentraxins share a common C-terminal pentraxin domain, which in the case of PTX3 is coupled to an unrelated long N-terminal domain. PTX3 in humans, like CRP, correlates with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and is independently associated with the risk of developing vascular events. Studies addressing the potential physiopathological role of CRP in the cardiovascular system were so far inconclusive and have been limited by the fact that the sequence and regulation have not been conserved during evolution between mouse and man. On the contrary, the conservation of sequence, gene organization, and regulation of PTX3 supports the translation of animal model findings in humans. While PTX3 deficiency is associated with increased inflammation, cardiac damage, and atherosclerosis, the overexpression limits carotid restenosis after angioplasty. These observations point to a cardiovascular protective effect of PTX3 potentially associated with the ability of tuning inflammation and favor the hypothesis that the increased levels of PTX3 in subjects with cardiovascular diseases may reflect a protective physiological mechanism, which correlates with the immunoinflammatory response observed in several cardiovascular disorders.

  5. An integrated electrochemical device based on immunochromatographic test strip and enzyme labels for sensitive detection of disease-related biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhexiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Li, Yao Q.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-05-30

    A novel electrochemical biosensing device that integrates an immunochromatographic test strip and a screen-printed electrode (SPE) connected to a portable electrochemical analyzer was presented for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of disease-related biomarker in human blood samples. The principle of the sensor is based on sandwich immunoreactions between a biomarker and a pair of its antibodies on the test strip, followed by highly sensitive square-wave voltammetry (SWV) detection. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a signal reporter for electrochemical readout. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was employed as a model protein biomarker to demonstrate the analytical performance of the sensor in this study. Some critical parameters governing the performance of the sensor were investigated in detail. The sensor was further utilized to detect HBsAg in human plasma with an average recovery of 91.3%. In comparison, a colorimetric immunochromatographic test strip assay (ITSA) was also conducted. The result shows that the SWV detection in the electrochemical sensor is much more sensitive for the quantitative determination of HBsAg than the colorimetric detection, indicating that such a sensor is a promising platform for rapid and sensitive point-of-care testing/screening of disease-related biomarkers in a large population

  6. Exploring in vitro roles of siRNA in cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu TANG; Yu-zhi GE; James Q YIN

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an adaptive defense mechanism through which double-stranded RNAs silence cognate genes in a sequence-specific manner. It has been employed widely as a powerful tool in functional genomics studies, target valida-tion and therapeutic product development. Similarly, the application of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) to the silencing of the disease-causing genes involved in cardiovascular diseases has made great progress. In this overview, we attempt to provide a brief outline of the current understanding of the mechanism of RNAi and its potential application to the cardiovascular system, with particular empha-sis on its ability to identify the pathophysiological function of genes related to several important cardiovascular disorders. The prospects of RNAi-based therapeutics, as well as the advantages and potential problems, are also discussed.

  7. Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m

  8. Epigenetic programming and risk: the birthplace of cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Maria Cristina; Polvani, Gianluca; Pesce, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    Epigenetics, through control of gene expression circuitries, plays important roles in various physiological processes such as stem cell differentiation and self renewal. This occurs during embryonic development, in different tissues, and in response to environmental stimuli. The language of epigenetic program is based on specific covalent modifications of DNA and chromatin. Thus, in addition to the individual identity, encoded by sequence of the four bases of the DNA, there is a cell type identity characterized by its positioning in the epigenetic "landscape". Aberrant changes in epigenetic marks induced by environmental cues may contribute to the development of abnormal phenotypes associated with different human diseases such as cancer, neurological disorders and inflammation. Most of the epigenetic studies have focused on embryonic development and cancer biology, while little has been done to explore the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. This review highlights our current knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation and the evidence that chromatin remodeling and histone modifications play key roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease through (re)programming of cardiovascular (stem) cells commitment, identity and function. PMID:22773406

  9. Nuclear imaging of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging methods provide noninvasive indexes of myocardial function, perfusion, and metabolism and are well accepted in clinical cardiology. Advances in prevention and treatment of cardiac disease have resulted in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations. The improvement in therapeutic options has increased the demand for diagnostic tests that might guide clinical decision making. Information beyond the pure anatomic characterization of coronary stenoses is required. Nuclear imaging can be used for early detection and monitoring of the severity and extent of disease. The prognostic potential of such functional testing is being increasingly appreciated and used to guide therapy, thereby resulting in improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Extensive clinical validation has resulted in growing acceptance of these techniques. Furthermore, ongoing improvement of imaging techniques and development of new radiopharmaceuticals will pave the way for disease-specific, molecular-targeted cardiac imaging in the future. (orig.)

  10. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  11. Psychological hardiness predicts cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Paul T; Valdes, James J; Sandvik, Asle

    2016-09-01

    Many, but not all people experience diminished health, performance and well-being as a function of exposure to stress. However, the underlying neurophysiological processes which characterize hardy or resilient people are not well understood. This study examines psychological hardiness and several indicators of cardiovascular health, including body mass index (BMI) and blood cholesterol markers in a sample of 338 middle-aged adults enrolled in a national security education program. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that after controlling for the influence of age and sex, high hardiness is related to higher HDL - high density lipoprotein and less body fat (BMI). Lower hardiness is associated with greater total cholesterol to HDL ratio, a cardiovascular disease risk factor. These results suggest that psychological hardiness confers resilience in part through an influence on cholesterol production and metabolism. PMID:26652199

  12. Cardiovascular stress of photochemotherapy (PUVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recently devised therapy for psoriasis and related skin diseases, consisting of long-wave ultraviolet light and oral 8-methoxypsoralen (PUVA), was investigated for its cardiovascular effects. In seventeen patients, long-wave ultraviolet light therapy in a treatment enclosure (mean duration, 19.3 minutes) resulted in ambient temperatures of 39.2 degrees C +/- 2.1 degrees C (SD) and skin temperatures of 38.2 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C. In upright subjects, heart rate rose 30.8% to 114.4 +/- 25.2 beats per minute (bpm). Intensive room air conditioning, outside of the treatment enclosure, although significantly lowering skin and ambient temperatures, did not affect the heart rates significantly. PUVA therapy is associated with a definite cardiovascular stress when the box type of therapeutic unit is used. Possible modifications are discussed

  13. Ionizing radiation and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G

    2006-09-01

    For more than 15 years the A-bomb survivor studies have shown increased noncancer mortality due to radiation exposures. The most prominent cause of this increase is circulatory disease mortality. Although the estimated relative risk is less than for solid cancers (1.2 versus 1.6 per Sv), there are measurable increases in cardiovascular disease mortality at doses greater than 0.5 Sv. The evidence for circulatory diseases in mortality studies of occupational cohorts exposed to external radiation is less compelling. It is generally accepted that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arteries and a risk factor for myocardial infarction. Immunological markers for inflammatory disease have been shown to be dose related in A-bomb survivors. Evidence from animal studies reveals increased cardiovascular mortality and arterial endothelial damage from both neutron and, to a lesser extent, gamma exposures. PMID:17119211

  14. Helicobacter pylori and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukazman, M; Yeniova, O; Dal, K; Yavuz, B

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common infections in human. The association between H. pylori and gastrointestinal diseases including peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, mucosa associated tissue lymphoma (MALT) and gastric cancer is well known. However it was also suggested that H. pylori was linked to various extra-gastrointestinal disorders such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. In this review we summarized the association between H. pylori and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26502864

  15. Renal Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Soveri, Inga

    2006-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The mechanisms for the risk increase seem to involve a combination of traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors. We studied renal dysfunction as CVD and mortality risk factor in middle-aged men free from diabetes and CVD. The risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and CVD mortality was increased by ~40% in the 16.5% of men with worse renal function, independent of other CVD risk factors. Renal transplant dysfunction as CVD an...

  16. Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Stu...

  17. Cell Therapy for Cardiovascular Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Takehara, Naofumi

    2013-01-01

    A great numbers of cardiovascular disease patients all over the world are suffering in the poor outcomes. Under this situation, cardiac regeneration therapy to reorganize the postnatal heart that is defined as a terminal differentiated-organ is a very important theme and mission for human beings. However, the temporary success of several clinical trials using usual cell types with uncertain cell numbers has provided the transient effect of cell therapy to these patients. We therefore should r...

  18. Cardiovascular Function in Pulmonary Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Visca; Marina Aiello; Alfredo Chetta

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well...

  19. Platelet proteomics in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Vélez; Ángel García

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, platelet proteomics has been applied successfully to the study of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It is very well known that platelets play a pivotal role in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying many CVDs, especially acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), since they are implied in thrombus formation after atheroma plaque rupture. This is the reason why molecules involved in platelet activation and aggregation are primary targets for treatment of ACSs. Many efforts are aimed...

  20. Fish Oil in Cardiovascular Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alaswad, Khaldoon; Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V.; O'Keefe, James H

    2002-01-01

    The potential benefits of fish oil have been touted for several decades. The authors review evidence from epidemiologic, retrospective, and controlled prospective clinical trials demonstrating the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) for the prevention of major cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction and stroke in primary and especially secondary prevention settings. Fish oil's efficacy in reducing total mortality and sudden cardiac death appears particularly promising, pro...

  1. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio, James; O'Keefe, James

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Ev...

  2. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    OpenAIRE

    DiNicolantonio JJ; O’Keefe JH

    2014-01-01

    James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV)-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perind...

  3. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  4. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  5. Perindopril for improving cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiNicolantonio JJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe Department of Preventive Cardiology, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, Kansas City, MO, USAIn a recent review in Vascular Health and Risk Management Wang et al state that “In mainly placebo-controlled cardiovascular (CV-outcome studies in patients with hypertension, CV benefits with perindopril were associated with large reductions in BP.”1 However, perindopril in the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events With Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease (EUROPA study significantly reduced major cardiovascular events despite a small reduction (approximately 4 mmHg in systolic blood pressure from baseline.2,3 Additionally, the average baseline blood pressure in the EUROPA was just 137/82 mmHg, and in those without hypertension, perindopril still provided a 20% reduction in the combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrest.4,5 In fact, patients receiving perindopril with a baseline systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg had the greatest reduction in the primary event.6 View original paper by Wang and colleagues. 

  6. Robotic technology in cardiovascular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatti, Johannes; Vetrovec, George; Riga, Celia; Wazni, Oussama; Stadler, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Robotic technology has been used in cardiovascular medicine since the late 1990s. Interventional cardiology, electrophysiology, endovascular surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and laparoscopic vascular surgery are all fields of application. Robotic devices enable endoscopic reconstructive surgery in narrow spaces and fast, very precise placement of catheters and devices in catheter-based interventions. In all robotic systems, the operator manipulates the robotic arms from a control station or console. In the field of cardiac surgery, mitral valve repair, CABG surgery, atrial septal defect repair, and myxoma resection can be achieved using robotic technology. Furthermore, vascular surgeons can perform a variety of robotically assisted operations to treat aortic, visceral, and peripheral artery disease. In electrophysiology, ablation procedures for atrial fibrillation can be carried out with robotic support. In the past few years, robotically assisted percutaneous coronary intervention and abdominal aortic endovascular surgery techniques have been developed. The basic feasibility and safety of robotic approaches in cardiovascular medicine has been demonstrated, but learning curves and the high costs associated with this technology have limited its widespread use. Nonetheless, increased procedural speed, accuracy, and reduced exposure to radiation and contrast agent in robotically assisted catheter-based interventions, as well as reduced surgical trauma and shortened patient recovery times after robotic cardiovascular surgery are promising achievements in the field. PMID:24663088

  7. Risco cardiovascular, efetividade e mortalidade Cardiovascular risk, effectiveness and mortality Riesgo cardiovascular, efectividad y mortalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gérvas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.

    No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.

    Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.

    Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.

    Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.

    Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA

  8. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjian; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2014-10-16

    Cardiovascular cells derived from patient specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) harbor gene mutations associated with the pathogenesis of inherited cardiac diseases and congenital heart diseases (CHD). Numerous reports have demonstrated the utilization of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC) to model cardiac diseases as a means of investigating their underlying mechanisms. So far, they have been shown to investigate the molecular mechanisms of many cardiac disorders, such as long-QT syndrome (LQT), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), LEOPARD syndrome (LS), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), Barth syndrome (BTHS), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), Marfan syndrome (MFS) and other CHD. This article summarizes the growing body of research related to modeling various cardiac diseases using hiPSCs. Moreover, by reviewing the methods used in previous studies, we propose multiple novel applications of hiPSCs to investigate comprehensive cardiovascular disorders and facilitate drug discovery. PMID:25322695

  9. Pathological microRNAs in acute cardiovascular diseases and microRNA therapeutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Salman Ali; Chandra Kala; Mohd Abid; Nabeel Ahmad; Uma Shankar Sharma; Najam Ali Khan

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. In recent researches, it is demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed exten-sively in cardiovascular system and regulate gene expression in various cardiovascular diseases. Here, we are giving overview on number of miRNAs involved in patho-physiology of various cardiovascular diseases, and diagnostic and therapeutic potentials of miRNAs in these diseases. MiRNAs are a group of small non-coding mRNAs with approximately 18–22 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression post tran-scriptionally. MiRNAs are regulated in various cardiovascular diseases like hyperten-sion, congestive heart failure, congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease and stroke. Some of these miRNAs also act as potential biomarker of these cardiovascular diseases. Inhibition of these miRNAs via different approaches like chemically modified antisense oligonucleotide, antagomirs, and locked nucleic acids serves as effective approaches for inactivating pathological miRNAs. Clinical trials are being conducted on therapeutic and diagnostic potentials of miRNAs. However, extensive researches are required to explore the therapeutic and diagnostic values of miRNAs as successful as classical approaches.

  10. Localization of disease-related PrP in Danish patients with different subtypes of prion disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrom, A.L.; Heegaard, P.M.; Dyrbye, H.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterized by vacuolization, neuronal loss, gliosis and deposition of a misfolded and Proteinase K resistant isoform of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the central nervous system. METHODS MATERIALS AND PATIENTS: Paraffin-embedded tissue...... blot (PET-blot), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB) were combined to study the morphology and localization of disease related PrP in Danish patients with different subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, familiar Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann......-Straussler-Scheinker disease. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was a good morphological and anatomical concordance between what was found with PET-blot and IHC in all patients. In some specific cases, the PET-blot was superior to IHC in sensitivity. To our knowledge, this is the first report where PET-blot analysis is applied...

  11. Localization of disease-related PrP in Danish patients with different subtypes of prion disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, A. L.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Dyrbye, H.;

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The transmissible spongiform encephalopaties are characterized by vacuolization, neuronal loss, gliosis and deposition of a misfilded and Proteinase K resistant isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) in the central nervous system. Methods, materials and patients: Paraffin-embedded tissue...... blot (PET-blot), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB) were combined to stydy the morphology and localization of disease related PrP in Danish patients with different subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, familiar Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Gertsmann......-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. Results and conclusion: There was a good morphological and anatomical concordance between what was found with PET-blot and IHC in all patients. In some specific cases, the PET-blot was superior to IHC in sensitivity. to our knowledge, this is the first report where PET-blot analysis is applied...

  12. Genetically Low Antioxidant Protection and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Heart Failure in Diabetic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    risk of cardiovascular disease and heart failure. METHODS: We used the prospective Copenhagen General Population Study and Copenhagen City Heart Study and genotyped 95,871 individuals for the rs1799895 R213G variation in the SOD3 gene, of which 4498 had diabetes. We used national hospitalization and...... death registers to assess cardiovascular disease and heart failure. FINDINGS: Out of 95,871 individuals, we identified 93,521 R213G non-carriers (213RR, 97.5%), 2336 heterozygotes (213RG, 2.4%) and 14 homozygotes (213GG, 0.01%). In diabetic subjects, the hazard ratio for cardiovascular disease in R213G.......49-0.92) in non-diabetic subjects (p for interaction < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Risk of cardiovascular disease and heart failure was higher in R213G heterozygotes versus non-carriers in diabetic subjects, but not in non-diabetic subjects....

  13. Combination of microRNA expression profiling with genome-wide SNP genotyping to construct a coronary artery disease-related miRNA-miRNA synergistic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lin; Xia, Hong; Zhou, Ping; Li, Dongguo; Li, Lin

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) were found to play critical roles in many important biological processes. On the other hand, the rapid development of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) help identify potential genetic variants associated with the disease phenotypic variance. Therefore, we suggested a combined analysis of microRNA expression profiling with genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping to identify potential disease-related biomarkers. Considering functional SNPs in miRNA genes or target sites might be important signals associated with human complex diseases, we constructed a miRNA-miRNA synergistic network related to coronary artery disease (CAD) by performing a genome-wide scan for SNPs in human miRNA 3' -untranslated regions (UTRs) target sites and computed potential SNP cooperation effects contributing to disease based on potential miRNA-SNP interactions reported recently. Furthermore, we identified some potential CAD-related miRNAs by analyzing the constructed miRNAmiRNA synergistic network. As a result, the predicted miRNA-miRNA network and miRNA clusters were validated by significantly high interaction effects of CAD-related miRNAs. Accurate classification performances were obtained for all of the identified miRNA clusters, and the sensitivity and specificity were all more than 90%. The network topological analysis confirmed some novel CAD-related miRNAs identified recently by experiments. Our method might help to understand miRNA function and CAD disease, as well as to explore the novel mechanisms involved. PMID:25641175

  14. Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-08-23

    Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field. PMID:27539179

  15. Liver function tests: Association with cardiovascular outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    An association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease has been repeatedly reported. Several studies have focused on levels of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in relation to cardiovascular outcomes. Evidence indicates that GGT may have a potential role for cardiovascular risk stratification while the role of ALT for cardiac prognosis remains controversial. A conceptual framework that includes not only GGT and ALT but also markers ...

  16. Astaxanthin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and β-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seaf...

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sugamura, Koichi; Keaney, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ‘free-radical theory’ of disease, researchers have been trying to elucidate the role of oxidative stress from free radicals in cardiovascular disease. Considerable data indicate that ROS and oxidative stress are important features of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. However, blanket strategies with antioxidants to ameliorate cardiovascular disease have not generally yielded favorable results. However, our understanding...

  18. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Fei Lin; Li-li Guo; Xing-jiang Xiong; Xun Fan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we sho...

  19. Cardiovascular responses to hypogravic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular deconditioning observed during and after space flight is characterized in a review of human space and simulation studies and animal simulations. The various simulation techniques (horizontal bed rest, head-down tilt, and water immersion in man, and immobilization of animals) are examined, and sample results are presented in graphs. Countermeasures such as exercise regimens, fluid replacement, drugs, venous pooling, G-suits, oscillating beds, electrostimulation of muscles, lower-body negative pressure, body-surface cooling, and hypoxia are reviewed and found to be generally ineffective or unreliable. The need for future space experimentation in both humans and animals is indicated.

  20. Riesgo cardiovascular en la mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Claver García, Laura

    2014-01-01

    La enfermedad cardiovascular siempre ha sido considerada una enfermedad de hombres. Sin embargo, existen datos que reflejan el aumento de esta patología en las mujeres, alcanzando e incluso superando al número de varones, y llegando a ser en España la primera causa de muerte. En ellas, estos episodios suelen comenzar 10 años más tarde debido a la protección que durante la etapa fértil brindan los estrógenos. Sin embargo, tras la menopausia los niveles de estas hormonas disminuyen y es ent...

  1. Image processing in cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past ten years digital image processing has contributed decisively to the advance of cardiovascular radiology. Not only images of better diagnostic value could be produced, but also in many cases the risk for the patient was diminished. In this paper three topics are discussed: One of the principal methods is digital angiography especially with functional imaging. In addition, because of the rapid progress of digital imaging data compression became a major issue. Finally there is a good chance that 3D-processing of MRI data will at least partly replace the present invasive techniques

  2. [Cognitive dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    A multitude of modifiable risk factors during the median phase of life are often causative for cognitive dysfunction (CD) in old age. High evidence exists for cigarette smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity and sleeping disorders. Single large scale population based studies proof it for hypertension, hypercholesterinemia and depression, conflicting evidence exists for obesity and work stress. Little attention is paid to the close association between cardiovascular disease conditions and CD, particularly for atrial fibrillation, heart failure and for older patients with coronary heart disease. Undetected CD may be responsible for non-adherence and failure of self-care programs in chronic heart patients. PMID:27557067

  3. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    OpenAIRE

    van Rossum Albert C; Raman Subha V; McConnell Michael V; Lawson Mark A; Higgins Charles B; Friedrich Matthias G; Bogaert Jan G; Bluemke David; Hundley W Gregory; Flamm Scott; Kramer Christopher M; Nagel Eike; Neubauer Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations.

  4. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  5. [Future directions of cardiovascular surgery in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S S

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular surgery in China has achieved great progress both on scale and technology though development over the past thirty years. However, the technical predominance of cardiovascular surgery in therapies for some diseases has been weakened, along with developments of new drugs and interventional technology. Besides, the change of doctor-patient relationship result from internet medical information service and less attraction of cardiovascular surgery discipline to talents bring certain challenge to the development of cardiovascular surgery. Currently, cardiovascular surgeons should practice the "patient first" principle, carry out individual customized treatment and precision therapy, absorb the advantages of other subjects like intervention and imaging in order to achieve technological breakthroughs, create new treatment technologies and models with smaller trauma and better outcome, establish heart team to provide patient oriented treatment. Besides, cardiovascular surgeons should improve knowledge system by learning related technology and science, become hybrid doctors of research. Cardiovascular surgeons should pay high attention to critical effect of research on the disciplinary development, carry out question and demand oriented clinical studies, change the medical practice by virtue of research achievements, direct the treatment for cardiovascular diseases, and finally provide better health service and rebuild the predominance of cardiovascular surgery. PMID:27502127

  6. Biomechanical performance of new cardiovascular needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, J G; Ferguson, R E; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular needles are now being manufactured from new stainless steel alloys containing high concentrations of nickel, Surgalloy and Ethalloy. The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of a cardiovascular needle made of Surgalloy with a comparably sized needle made of Ethalloy. The parameters of biomechanical performance included sharpness, maintenance of sharpness, resistance to bending, and ductility. Because the biomechanical performance of these needles was remarkably similar, cardiovascular needles made of either the Surgalloy or Ethalloy alloys are recommended for cardiovascular surgery. PMID:11495105

  7. Develop Anti-Inflammatory Nanotherapies to Treat Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disease-related death in the world, accounting for 30 % global mortality. The majority of CVD is caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of major arteries featured by the deposition of lipids and cholesterol. Inflammation of atherosclerosis is mainly promoted by the pathological macrophages and monocytes, and modulating their functions has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target. This dissertation first presents the development of a novel simvastatin-loaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) based nanoparticle ([S]-rHDL), which was able to deliver anti-inflammatory simvastatin preferentially to inflammatory monocytes in the blood and to macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the reduced inflammation in the tissue. Second, extensive in vivo characterization of [S]-rHDL in a mouse atherosclerosis model revealed that the anti-inflammatory capability of [S]-rHDL derived from its effects on blood monocytes, endothelial layer, monocyte recruitment, and plaque macrophage function. Third, a translational study that integrated the use of [S]-rHDL into oral statin treatment demonstrated a great potential for this nanomedicine as an attractive addition to the current high-dose oral statin standard-of-care for acute coronary syndrome. Finally, preliminary results suggested potential applications of the rHDL platform to other macrophage-implicated diseases.

  8. Epigenetics and cardiovascular risk in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Francesco; Magenta, Alessandra; Pannarale, Giuseppe; Martino, Eliana; Zanoni, Cristina; Perla, Francesco M; Puddu, Paolo E; Barillà, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can arise at the early stages of development and growth. Genetic and environmental factors may interact resulting in epigenetic modifications with abnormal phenotypic expression of genetic information without any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Maternal dietary imbalance, inadequate to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus can lead to intrauterine growth retardation, decreased gestational age, low birth weight, excessive post-natal growth and metabolic alterations, with subsequent appearance of CVD risk factors. Fetal exposure to high cholesterol, diabetes and maternal obesity is associated with increased risk and progression of atherosclerosis. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure to various environmental pollutants induce epigenetic alterations of gene expression relevant to the onset or progression of CVD. In children with hypercholesterolemia and/or obesity, oxidative stress activates platelets and monocytes, which release proinflammatory and proatherogenic substances, inducing endothelial dysfunction, decreased Doppler flow-mediated dilation and increased carotid intima-media thickness. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis should be implemented early. It is necessary to identify, through screening, high-risk apparently healthy children and take care of them enforcing healthy lifestyle (mainly consisting of Mediterranean diet and physical activity), prescribing nutraceuticals and eventual medications, if required by a high-risk profile. The key issue is the restoration of endothelial function in the reversible stage of atherosclerosis. Epigenetics may provide new markers for an early identification of children at risk and thereby develop innovative therapies and specific nutritional interventions in critical times. PMID:27367935

  9. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  10. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465

  11. Enfermedad cardiovascular en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizzie M. Castillo S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available En Costa Rica la enfermedad cardiovascular cobra en promedio 6 vidas por día, lo cual representa un aumento escalonado en los últimos años, debido en su mayoría a cambios en el estilo de vida del costarricense. Además, llama la atención, que factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular como son el fumado, obesidad infantil, alcoholismo, diabetes, dislipidemia e hipertensión han mostrado un incremento en su incidencia. Por lo tanto,se pretende realizar una revisión de los programas de detección y de atención temprana a nivel institucional, en lo que respecta a la Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social como ente responsable de llevar a cabo los mismos. El adecuado conocimiento y uso de los programas pretende una disminución en la morbimortalidad de la misma,y su aplicación se hace obligatoria para el manejo de pacientes en atención primaria.

  12. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne de Kluizenaar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9 410-414 or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438. We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213 of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties, increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs for a 5 th to 95 th percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20 for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21 for particulate matter (PM 10 ; 1.05 (0.91-1.20 for elemental carbon (EC; and 1.12 (096-1.32 for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 th to 95 th percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]. In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den; in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 .

  13. Increased susceptibility to cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapcaicin in resuscitated rats. Cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapsaicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Keld; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Jayatissa, Magdalena Niepsuj; Axelsen, Mads; Gotfredsen, Jacob W; Weber, Uno J; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Videbaek, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have persistent cardiovascular derangements following cardiopulmonary resuscitation including decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias and morphological myocardial damage. These cardiovascular derangements may lead to an increased susceptibility towards the external...... and internal environment of the cardiovascular system as compared to the healthy situation....

  14. High field magnetic resonance imaging of rodents in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Laetitia; Gerber, Bernhard L; Gallez, Bernard; Po, Chrystelle; Magat, Julie; Jean-Luc, Balligand; Feron, Olivier; Moniotte, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Transgenic and gene knockout rodent models are primordial to study pathophysiological processes in cardiovascular research. Over time, cardiac MRI has become a gold standard for in vivo evaluation of such models. Technical advances have led to the development of magnets with increasingly high field strength, allowing specific investigation of cardiac anatomy, global and regional function, viability, perfusion or vascular parameters. The aim of this report is to provide a review of the various sequences and techniques available to image mice on 7-11.7 T magnets and relevant to the clinical setting in humans. Specific technical aspects due to the rise of the magnetic field are also discussed. PMID:27287250

  15. Complaints of Sleep Disturbances Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Kirschner, Yvonne; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S.; Münzel, Thomas; Blettner, Maria; Schulz, Andreas; Lackner, Karl; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Blankenberg, Stefan; Tschan, Regine; Tuin, Inka; Beutel, Manfred E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite their high prevalence, sleep disorders often remain unrecognized and untreated because of barriers to assessment and management. The aims of the present study were to examine associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular disease, related risk factors, and inflammation in the community and to determine the contribution of sleep disturbances to self-perceived physical health. Method The sample consists of n = 10.000 participants, aged 35 to 74 years of a population based community sample in Germany. Cross-sectional associations of complaints of sleep disturbances with cardiovascular risk factors and disease, biomarkers of inflammation, depression, anxiety, and physical health status were analyzed. Results 19% of our sample endorsed clinically significant sleep disturbances. In the unadjusted analyses severity of sleep disturbances increased with female sex, low socioeconomic status, living without a partnership, cardiovascular disease, depression, anxiety, poor physical health, increased levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. After multivariate adjustment robust associations with coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and dyslipidemia remained. Complaints of sleep disturbances were strong and independent contributors to self-perceived poor physical health beyond depression, anxiety and medical disease burden. Conclusions Given the high prevalence of complaints of sleep disturbances and their strong impact on health status, increased efforts should be undertaken for their identification and treatment. PMID:25093413

  16. Selenistasis: Epistatic Effects of Selenium on Cardiovascular Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Loscalzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.

  17. The budget impact of oral nutritional supplements for disease related malnutrition in elderly in the community setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eFreyer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A health economic analysis was performed to assess the economic impact on the national health care budget of using Oral Nutritional Supplements (ONS, being a food for special medical purposes (FSMP also known as medical nutrition, for the treatment of disease-related malnutrition (DRM in the community in the Netherlands. An economic model was developed to calculate the budget impact of using ONS in community dwelling elderly (> 65 years with DRM in the Netherlands. The model reflects the costs of DRM and the cost reductions resulting from improvement in DRM due to treatment with ONS. Using ONS for the treatment of DRM in community dwelling elderly, leads to a total annual cost savings of € 13 million (18.9% savings, when all eligible patients are treated. The additional costs of ONS (€ 57 million are more than balanced by a reduction of other health care costs, e.g. re-/hospitalization (€ 70 million. Sensitivity analyses were performed on all parameters, including duration of treatment with ONS and the prevalence of DRM. This budget impact analysis shows that the use of ONS for treatment of DRM in elderly patients in the community may lead to cost savings in the Netherlands.

  18. Imaging Alzheimer's disease-related protein aggregates in human cells using a selenium label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, E K; McComb, D W; Porter, A E [Department of Materials, Imperial College, Exhibition Rd, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Motskin, M [Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3DY (United Kingdom); Knowles, T P J [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Ave, Cambridge, CB3 0FF (United Kingdom); Dobson, C M, E-mail: e.mcguire07@imperial.ac.u [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Rd, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation of proteins and peptides is associated with a range of pathological conditions from the systemic amyloidoses to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. While this link is well established there is a lack of understanding of the exact role protein aggregates play in disease pathogenesis. Part of the reason for this is that it has proved extremely challenging to characterise the localisation and structure of amyloid fibrils within the cellular environment due to a lack of contrast between the carbon rich protein aggregates and the carbon rich cell. We report a novel method for visualising Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid fibrils inside human cells without the use of invasive or unreliable stains or tags. The naturally occurring sulfur atom in the amyloid-{beta} peptide is replaced with a selenium atom, a heavier element in the same group of the periodic table of elements. Using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) the selenium-labelled aggregates can be identified within the cellular environment.

  19. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    OpenAIRE

    Clare C. W. Yu; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; Alison M. McManus

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters i...

  20. 14 CFR 67.111 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.111 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular...; (b) A person applying for first-class medical certification must demonstrate an absence of myocardial...) An electrocardiogram will satisfy a requirement of paragraph (b) of this section if it is dated...

  1. Significance of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Krutika Gajjar; Dr.Parloop Bhatt; Dr.Yagnik S.Bhalodia; Dr.Sizan B.Patel; Chintan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high mortality and morbidity rate associated with cardiovascular diseases, Cardiacrehabilitation (CR) is regarded for prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. CR servicesare generally provided in an outpatient as comprehensive, long-term programs involving medicalevaluation, prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification, education and counseling. This includesnutritional therapies, weight loss program management of lipid abnormalities with diet and medicat...

  2. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  3. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (path

  4. Cardiovascular death and manic-depressive psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, A; Juel, K; Vaeth, M

    2013-01-01

    In order to study if tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCA) in therapeutic doses increase the risk of death due to cardiovascular causes, the relative mortality from cardiovascular diseases was studied in two large groups of first hospitalized manic-depressive patients, one from the TCA era, the ot...... disease, suicide, and other non-cancer causes....

  5. Subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Olsen, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    measuring subclinical organ damage. We have (i) reviewed recent studies linking markers of subclinical organ damage in the heart, blood vessels and kidney to cardiovascular risk; (ii) discussed the evidence for improvement in cardiovascular risk prediction using markers of subclinical organ damage; (iii...

  6. Genetic influences on cardiovascular stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Ting; Snieder, Harold; de Geus, Eco

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in the cardiovascular response to stress play a central role in the reactivity hypothesis linking frequent exposure to psychosocial stress to adverse outcomes in cardiovascular health. To assess the importance of genetic factors, a meta-analysis was performed on all published

  7. 14 CFR 67.211 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.211 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a second-class medical certificate are no established medical history or clinical diagnosis...

  8. 14 CFR 67.311 - Cardiovascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.311 Cardiovascular. Cardiovascular standards for a third-class airman medical certificate are no established medical history or...

  9. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was

  10. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  11. Cardiovascular syphilis with coronary stenosis and aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Satyendra; Moorthy, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular manifestations of tertiary syphilis include aortitis, aortic root dilation, aneurysm formation, aortic regurgitation, and coronary ostial stenosis. Coronary ostial lesions have been detected in as many as 26% of patients with syphilitic aortitis. However nonostial coronary stenosis and coronary aneurysms in same patient is rarely described in cardiovascular syphilis. PMID:25634420

  12. Chronic intermittent hypoxia activates nuclear factor-κB in cardiovascular tissues in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms through which OSA promotes the development of cardiovascular disease are poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia and reoxygenation (CIH) is a major pathologic factor causing cardiovascular inflammation, and that CIH-induces cardiovascular inflammation and pathology by activating the NF-κB pathway. We demonstrated that exposure of mice to CIH activated NF-κB in cardiovascular tissues, and that OSA patients had markedly elevated monocyte NF-κB activity, which was significantly decreased when obstructive apneas and their resultant CIH were eliminated by nocturnal CPAP therapy. The elevated NF-κB activity induced by CIH is accompanied by and temporally correlated to the increased expression of iNOS protein, a putative and important NF-κB-dependent gene product. Thus, CIH-mediated NF-κB activation may be a molecular mechanism linking OSA and cardiovascular pathologies seen in OSA patients

  13. Micro RNAs as mediators of cardiovascular disease: Targets to be manipulated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seahyoung; Lee; Eunhyun; Choi; Sung-Man; Kim; Ki-Chul; Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death worldwide for the last few decades. Even with therapid progression of the biomedical field, conquering/managing cardiovascular disease is not an easy task because it is multifactorial disease. One of the key players of the development and progression of numerous diseases is micro RNA(mi RNA). These small, non-coding RNAs bind to target m RNAs to inhibit translations of and/or degrade the target m RNAs, thus acting as negative regulators of gene expressions. Accumulating evidence indicates that non-physiological expressions of mi RNAs contribute to both development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Since even a single mi RNA can have multiple targets, dysregulation of mi RNAs can lead to catastrophic changes of proteins that may be important for maintaining physiologic conditions of cells, tissues, and organs. Current knowledge on the role of mi RNAs in cardiovascular disease is mostly based on the observational data such as microarray of mi RNAs in animal disease models, thus relatively lacking insight of how such dysregulation of mi RNAs is initiated and regulated. Consequently, future research should aim to elucidate the more comprehensive mechanisms of mi RNA dysregulation during pathogenesis of the cardiovascular system so that appropriate countermeasures to prevent/manage cardiovascular disease can be developed.

  14. Cardiovascular risk assessment in women - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P; Webb, C M; de Villiers, T J; Stevenson, J C; Panay, N; Baber, R J

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in postmenopausal women. Although it is a disease of aging, vascular disease initiates much earlier in life. Thus, there is a need to be aware of the potential to prevent the development of the disease from an early age and continue this surveillance throughout life. The menopausal period and early menopause present an ideal opportunity to assess cardiovascular risk and plan accordingly. Generally in this period, women will be seen by primary health-care professionals and non-cardiovascular specialists. This review addresses female-specific risk factors that may contribute to the potential development of cardiovascular disease. It is important for all health-care professionals dealing with women in midlife and beyond to be cognisant of these risk factors and to initiate female-specific preventative measures or to refer to a cardiovascular specialist. PMID:27327421

  15. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W;

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight...... randomization to first occurrence of a primary outcome event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). Results: For the total population, mean weight change during Lead-in Period (sibutramine) was -2.54 kg. Post-randomization, mean total weight...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...

  16. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  17. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874

  18. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N. Blesso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized.

  19. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... arteries is reduced, a factor contributing to increased arterial compliance. Endurance training may also induce alterations in the vasodilator capacity, although such adaptations are more pronounced in individuals with reduced vascular function. The microvascular net increases in size within the muscle...... allowing for an improved capacity for oxygen extraction by the muscle through a greater area for diffusion, a shorter diffusion distance, and a longer mean transit time for the erythrocyte to pass through the smallest blood vessels. The present article addresses the effect of endurance training on systemic...

  20. Polymers for Cardiovascular Stent Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Strohbach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have found widespread applications in cardiology, in particular in coronary vascular intervention as stent platforms (scaffolds and coating matrices for drug-eluting stents. Apart from permanent polymers, current research is focussing on biodegradable polymers. Since they degrade once their function is fulfilled, their use might contribute to the reduction of adverse events like in-stent restenosis, late stent-thrombosis, and hypersensitivity reactions. After reviewing current literature concerning polymers used for cardiovascular applications, this review deals with parameters of tissue and blood cell functions which should be considered to evaluate biocompatibility of stent polymers in order to enhance physiological appropriate properties. The properties of the substrate on which vascular cells are placed can have a large impact on cell morphology, differentiation, motility, and fate. Finally, methods to assess these parameters under physiological conditions will be summarized.

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 in Cardiovascular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F. Murphy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase (COX, also known as prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase, is the key enzyme required for the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Two COX isoforms have been identified, COX-1 and COX-2. Generally, the COX-1 enzyme is produced constitutively (e.g. in gastric mucosa, whereas COX-2 is highly inducible (e.g. at sites of inflammation and cancer. Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit both enzymes, and a new class of COX-2 selective inhibitors (COXIBs preferentially inhibit the COX-2 enzyme. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of COX-1 and COX-2, with emphasis on their role on cardiovascular biology.

  2. [Cardiovascular alterations associated with doping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, D; Büttner, A

    2015-05-01

    Doping -the abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids in particular- is widespread in amateur and recreational sports and does not solely represent a problem of professional sports. Excessive overdose of anabolic steroids is well documented in bodybuilding or powerlifting leading to significant side effects. Cardiovascular damages are most relevant next to adverse endocrine effects.Clinical cases as well as forensic investigations of fatalities or steroid consumption in connection with trafficking of doping agents provide only anecdotal evidence of correlations between side effects and substance abuse. Analytical verification and self-declarations of steroid users have repeatedly confirmed the presumption of weekly dosages between 300 and 2000 mg, extra to the fact that co-administration of therapeutics to treat side-effects represent a routine procedure. Beside the most frequent use of medications used to treat erectile dysfunction or estrogenic side-effects, a substantial number of antihypertensive drugs of various classes, i.e. beta-blockers, diuretics, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers, as well as ACE inhibitors were recently confiscated in relevant doping cases. The presumptive correlation between misuse of anabolic steroids and self-treatment of cardiovascular side effects was explicitly confirmed by detailed user statements.Two representative fatalities of bodybuilders were introduced to outline characteristic, often lethal side effects of excessive steroid abuse. Moreover, illustrative autopsy findings of steroid acne, thrombotic occlusion of Ramus interventricularis anterior and signs of cardiac infarctions are presented.A potential steroid abuse should be carefully considered in cases of medical consultations of patients exhibiting apparent constitutional modifications and corresponding adverse effects. Moreover, common self-medications -as frequently applied by steroid consumers- should be taken into therapeutic considerations

  3. Non-cardiovascular findings in clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadimi Mahani, Maryam [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Morani, Ajaykumar C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Lu, Jimmy C.; Dorfman, Adam L. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fazeli Dehkordy, Soudabeh [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Providence Hospital and Medical Centers, Department of Graduate Medical Education, Southfield, MI (United States); Jeph, Sunil [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Geisinger Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Danville, PA (United States); Agarwal, Prachi P. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-04-15

    With increasing use of pediatric cardiovascular MRI, it is important for all imagers to become familiar with the spectrum of non-cardiovascular imaging findings that can be encountered. This study aims to ascertain the prevalence and nature of these findings in pediatric cardiovascular MRIs performed at our institution. We retrospectively evaluated reports of all cardiovascular MRI studies performed at our institute from January 2008 to October 2012 in patients younger than18 years. Most studies (98%) were jointly interpreted by a pediatric cardiologist and a radiologist. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all cases with non-cardiovascular findings, defined as any imaging finding outside the cardiovascular system. Non-cardiovascular findings were classified into significant and non-significant, based on whether they were known at the time of imaging or they required additional workup or a change in management. In 849 consecutive studies (mean age 9.7 ± 6.3 years), 145 non-cardiovascular findings were found in 140 studies (16.5% of total studies). Overall, 51.0% (74/145) of non-cardiovascular findings were in the abdomen, 30.3% (44/145) were in the chest, and 18.6% (27/145) were in the spine. A total of 19 significant non-cardiovascular findings were observed in 19 studies in individual patients (2.2% of total studies, 47% male, mean age 5.9 ± 6.7 years). Significant non-cardiovascular findings included hepatic adenoma, arterially enhancing focal liver lesions, asplenia, solitary kidney, pelvicaliectasis, renal cystic diseases, gastric distention, adrenal hemorrhage, lung hypoplasia, air space disease, bronchial narrowing, pneumomediastinum and retained surgical sponge. Non-cardiovascular findings were seen in 16.5% of cardiovascular MRI studies in children, of which 2.2% were clinically significant findings. Prevalence and nature of these non-cardiovascular findings are different from those reported in adults. Attention to these findings is important

  4. Medical radiation exposure and justification at a large teaching hospital. Comparison of radiation-related and disease-related risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical X-ray exposure was determined in a 2400-bed hospital. The radiation-related risk was compared with the severity of disease (ICD) to verify the justification for X-ray procedures. A model to estimate radiation and disease-related ''loss of lifetime'' was applied. X-ray exposure from radiography, fluoroscopy and CT was determined for diagnostic and interventional procedures during one hospital stay of 403 patients (0.5 % of all 80 000 patients/year). CTDI and DLP in CT, DAP in fluoroscopy or SED in radiography were used to calculate the effective dose (ED). The disease and radiation-related risk were compared with a simple ''loss of lifetime'' model. The mean age of all patients was 60. Only a subgroup of 170 patients (42 %) with a mean age of 67.6 had one or more X-ray procedures. The average ED of these exposed patients was 5.12 mSv. 14.4 % CT examinations had a dose contribution of 52.5 % followed by 5.3 % radiology and cardiology procedures at 37.2 %. 90 % of ED was applied to only 44 patients (11 %) and 50 % of ED was applied to only 10 patients (2.5 %) with a mean age of 71.2. 4 of these 10 patients had malignant tumors, the other 6 suffered from pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, stentgraft infection, CAD, Crohn's disease and severe hypertension. The ratio of disease vs. radiation-related risk was between 2.1:1 and 1800:1. In this study referral for justified X-ray procedures in a large hospital with high level medical care offers a significant patient benefit. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of the injury severity and medical history of disease-related versus trauma-related bicyclist fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Koseki, Takeshi; Miyama, Genta; Furukawa, Satoshi; Morita, Satomu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between injury severity and mechanism of death in bicycle fatalities resulting from trauma compared with those resulting from disease, to propose effective measures to prevent fatal bicyclist accidents. Autopsy and accident records were reviewed for bicyclist fatalities who had undergone forensic autopsy at the Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine between September 1999 and March 2014. Victims' health histories, blood alcohol levels, causes of death, mechanisms of injury, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores and Injury Severity Scores (ISSs) were determined. Fifty-five bicyclists (43 male and 12 female) with a mean age of 62.5±17.3 years were included in this study. Sixteen victims had driven under the influence of alcohol (mean blood concentration of 1.8±0.7 mg/ml). Mean ISS was 32.4 and the chest had the highest mean AIS score (2.6), followed by the head (2.1) and the neck (1.8). Thirty-nine victims (70.9%) had died of trauma and 16 had died of disease. The disease-death victims had significantly higher prevalence of having diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart disease or cerebrovascular diseases (50.0% vs. 22.2%, p=0.03) and a lower rate of drunk driving (6.3% vs. 41.0%, p=0.01) than the trauma-death group. All victims who were affected by disease, and 33.3% of trauma-death victims, had fallen on the road without a vehicle collision (pdrunk driving prohibitions. For victims of fatal bicycle accidents with a medical history of diseases, a forensic autopsy should be performed to establish a disease-related death while bicycle riding. We must also put into effect preventative safety measures, which take into consideration the physical condition of bicyclists, to reduce the incidence of these types of accidents. PMID:26832378

  6. Therapeutics with SPION-labeled stem cells for the main diseases related to brain aging: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarim LT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Larissa T Alvarim,1,3,* Leopoldo P Nucci,2,* Javier B Mamani,1 Luciana C Marti,1 Marina F Aguiar,1,2 Helio R Silva,1,3 Gisele S Silva,1 Mariana P Nucci-da-Silva,4 Elaine A DelBel,5,6 Lionel F Gamarra1–31Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Departamento de Radiologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil; 5Universidade de São Paulo-Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 6NAPNA- Núcleo de Apoio a Pesquisa em Neurociências Aplicadas, São Paulo, Brazil*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The increase in clinical trials assessing the efficacy of cell therapy for structural and functional regeneration of the nervous system in diseases related to the aging brain is well known. However, the results are inconclusive as to the best cell type to be used or the best methodology for the homing of these stem cells. This systematic review analyzed published data on SPION (superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-labeled stem cells as a therapy for brain diseases, such as ischemic stroke, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dementia. This review highlights the therapeutic role of stem cells in reversing the aging process and the pathophysiology of brain aging, as well as emphasizing nanotechnology as an important tool to monitor stem cell migration in affected regions of the brain.Keywords: iron oxide, dementia, stem cell, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, sclerosis disease, brain aging

  7. Sieve-based coreference resolution enhances semi-supervised learning model for chemical-induced disease relation extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoang-Quynh; Tran, Mai-Vu; Dang, Thanh Hai; Ha, Quang-Thuy; Collier, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The BioCreative V chemical-disease relation (CDR) track was proposed to accelerate the progress of text mining in facilitating integrative understanding of chemicals, diseases and their relations. In this article, we describe an extension of our system (namely UET-CAM) that participated in the BioCreative V CDR. The original UET-CAM system’s performance was ranked fourth among 18 participating systems by the BioCreative CDR track committee. In the Disease Named Entity Recognition and Normalization (DNER) phase, our system employed joint inference (decoding) with a perceptron-based named entity recognizer (NER) and a back-off model with Semantic Supervised Indexing and Skip-gram for named entity normalization. In the chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction phase, we proposed a pipeline that includes a coreference resolution module and a Support Vector Machine relation extraction model. The former module utilized a multi-pass sieve to extend entity recall. In this article, the UET-CAM system was improved by adding a ‘silver’ CID corpus to train the prediction model. This silver standard corpus of more than 50 thousand sentences was automatically built based on the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) database. We evaluated our method on the CDR test set. Results showed that our system could reach the state of the art performance with F1 of 82.44 for the DNER task and 58.90 for the CID task. Analysis demonstrated substantial benefits of both the multi-pass sieve coreference resolution method (F1 + 4.13%) and the silver CID corpus (F1 +7.3%). Database URL: SilverCID–The silver-standard corpus for CID relation extraction is freely online available at: https://zenodo.org/record/34530 (doi:10.5281/zenodo.34530).

  8. C-reactive protein, cytokines and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucova, M; Bernadic, M; Buckingham, T

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation of vascular cell wall is the key problem and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines play a great role in it. These molecules, togheter with C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict risk of coronary events. It is questionable to what extend are CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines purely acute phase markers and to what extend are they active inflammatory participants. Besides inflammation, other prominent mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis--underlying causes of coronary events, is genetics. Gene polymorphisms including polymorphisms of inflammatory markers are studied and one of them, polymorphism of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 (key components of atherosclerosis) belong to most studied one. MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 polymorphisms have been implicated as susceptibility factors for chronic stable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction by several independent investigators. It seems that CCL2/CCR2 axis plays an important role both in post-ischemic and post-reperfusion inflammation and could become a new therapeutic goal in selected cardiovascular diseases as well as in stroke in future. Inhibition of this axis disrupts ischemic-reperfusion injury by decreasing edema, leucocyte infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators. One can suppose that identifying genes influencing inflammatory biomarkers might improve understanding of genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease our management and prevention (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 105). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18837239

  9. Links between cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: serum lipids or atherosclerosis per se?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Y Z; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Alexandersen, P; Werge, T; Christiansen, C; Tankó, L B

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological observations suggest links between osteoporosis and risk of acute cardiovascular events and vice versa. Whether the two clinical conditions are linked by common pathogenic factors or atherosclerosis per se remains incompletely understood. We investigated whether serum lipids and p...... polymorphism in the ApoE gene modifying serum lipids could be a biological linkage.......Epidemiological observations suggest links between osteoporosis and risk of acute cardiovascular events and vice versa. Whether the two clinical conditions are linked by common pathogenic factors or atherosclerosis per se remains incompletely understood. We investigated whether serum lipids and...

  10. Role of S-adenosylhomocysteine in cardiovascular disease and its potential epigenetic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunjun; Su, Xuefen; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Jinzhou; Peng, Chaoqiong; Huang, Haixiong; Wu, Xiaomin; Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Min; Ling, Wenhua

    2015-10-01

    Transmethylation reactions utilize S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor and are central to the regulation of many biological processes: more than fifty SAM-dependent methyltransferases methylate a broad spectrum of cellular compounds including DNA, histones, phospholipids and other small molecules. Common to all SAM-dependent transmethylation reactions is the release of the potent inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) as a by-product. SAH is reversibly hydrolyzed to adenosine and homocysteine by SAH hydrolase. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, a major unanswered question is if homocysteine is causally involved in disease pathogenesis or simply a passive and indirect indicator of a more complex mechanism. A chronic elevation in homocysteine levels results in a parallel increase in intracellular or plasma SAH, which is a more sensitive biomarker of cardiovascular disease than homocysteine and suggests that SAH is a critical pathological factor in homocysteine-associated disorders. Previous reports indicate that supplementation with folate and B vitamins efficiently lowers homocysteine levels but not plasma SAH levels, which possibly explains the failure of homocysteine-lowering vitamins to reduce vascular events in several recent clinical intervention studies. Furthermore, more studies are focusing on the role and mechanisms of SAH in different chronic diseases related to hyperhomocysteinemia, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, diabetes, and obesity. This review summarizes the current role of SAH in cardiovascular disease and its effect on several related risk factors. It also explores possible the mechanisms, such as epigenetics and oxidative stress, of SAH. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Epigenetic dynamics in development and disease. PMID:26117455

  11. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  12. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  13. [Hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitenberg, A

    2006-10-01

    Increased blood pressure induces functional and structural changes of the vascular endothelium. Depression of endothelium-dependant vasodilatation is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction due to hypertension. It can be demonstrated by pharmacological or physiological tests. Decreased availability of nitric oxide (NO) is a major determinant of the depression of vasodilatation. It may be caused by a reduction in the activity of NO-endothelial synthase (NOSe) related to: 1) a deficit in substrate (L-arginine), 2) an inhibition by asymmetrical dimethylarginine, 3) a deficit in the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). However, the increase in oxidative stress, a producer of superoxide radicals which combine with NO to form peroxynitrates (ONOO-), is the determining factor. It is related to activation of membranous NAD(P)H oxidases initiated by the stimulation of activating mecanosensors of protein C kinase. The message is amplified by oxidation of BH4 which transforms the NOSe into a producer of superoxide radicals. A cascade of auto-amplification loops leading to atherosclerosis and its complications is then triggered. The superoxide radicals and the peroxynitrates oxidise the LDL-cholesterol. They activate the nuclear factor-kappaB which controls the genes stimulating the expression of many proteins: angiotensinogen and AT1 receptors which stimulate the sympathetic system, receptors of oxidised LDL, adhesion and migration factors (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and MCP-1), pro-inflammatory cytokins (interleukines and TNF-alpha), growth factors (MAP kinases), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1. The monocytes and smooth muscle cells produce metalloproteinases and pro-inflammatory cytokins which destabilise the atheromatous plaque and favourise vascular remodelling. Inshort, the endothelial dysfunction due to hypertension plays a role in a complex physiopathological process and is a marker of future cardiovascular events. PMID:17100143

  14. Progestins and cardiovascular risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    2000-01-01

    Several risks are attributed to progestins as a class-effect; however, the progestins used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have varying pharmacologic properties and do not induce the same side effects. Natural progesterone (P) and some of its derivatives, such as the 19-norprogesterones, do not exert any androgenic effect and, hence, have no negative effect on the lipids. On the other hand, the 19-nortestosterone derivatives and even some 17-hydroxyprogesterones have a partial androgenic effect, which may explain some of the negative effects observed on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk. The relevance of the lipid changes induced by sex steroids has been questioned, and studies in the female cynomolgous monkey have not shown a direct relationship to atherosclerosis. Results suggest that estrogens (E) have antiatherogenic effects and that P does not reverse the beneficial effect of estradiol. Also, sex hormones modulate the vasomotor response of the main arteries. E preserves the normal endothelium-mediated dilation of coronary arteries, and P does not reverse this potential cardioprotective mechanism. In the same animal model, the addition of cyclic or continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to E inhibited vasodilatation by 50%, while nomegestrol acetate did not diminish the E-induced vasodilatation. Not all progestins act similarly on vasomotion or affect cardiovascular risk factors in the same way. Progestins, such as MPA or norethisterone acetate (NETA), exert a partial detrimental effect on the beneficial actions of estrogens with regard to lipid changes, atheroma development, or vasomotion. In contrast, progesterone itself does not have this inhibitory effect on lipid changes and vascular reactivity in animal models or on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in humans. Nonandrogenic molecules of P itself and of derivatives, such as 19-norprogesterones, would appear neutral on the vessels. Several ongoing randomized controlled trials of HRT are

  15. Cardiovascular surveys: manual of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primatesta, Paola; Allender, Steven; Ciccarelli, Paola; Doring, Angela; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Holub, Jiri; Panico, Salvatore; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2007-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and hospitalization in both men and women in nearly all countries of Europe. The most frequent forms of CVD are those of an atherosclerotic origin, mainly ischaemic heart disease, stroke and heart failure. The magnitude of the problem contrasts with the usual paucity and poor quality of data available on incidence and prevalence of CVD, except for few rigorous but limited studies. The objectives of the health interview and health examination surveys (HIS/HES) are to evaluate the frequency and the distribution of the disease, to evaluate trends and treatment effectiveness, to estimate risk factors distribution and prevalence of high risk conditions and to monitor prevention programmes. According to the EUROCISS project (EUROpean Cardiovascular Surveillance Set) recommendations, surveys are aimed at describing the prevalence of the following CVD conditions: myocardial infarction, heart failure, angina pectoris, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, and ischaemic heart disease.HIS and HES were developed to supplement information collected from routine databases and population-based registers to implement consistent public health policies. HIS can be repeated periodically in a new sample of the population, or can follow up over time the population recruited at baseline. Procedures and methods to collect information from participants include self-administered questionnaires, direct interviewer-administered questions and telephone interviews. A minimum set of questions to be administered every year, along with a longer, more detailed module to be administered periodically are recommended to evaluate CVD prevalence. The addition of HES provides more detailed and objective information that can be used to improve estimates regarding prevalence of both risk factors and disease status. The selection of more specialized CVD-specific tests will depend on the objective the survey is designed to achieve, the assumed

  16. Unique catalytic activities and scaffolding of p21 activated kinase-1 in cardiovascular signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YunboKe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available P21 activated kinase-1 has diverse functions in mammalian cells. Although a large number of phosphoproteins have been designated as Pak1 substrates from in vitro studies,emerging evidence has indicated that Pak1 may function as a signaling molecule through a unique molecular mechanism—scaffolding. By scaffolding, Pak1 delivers signals through an auto-phosphorylation-induced conformational change without transfer of a phosphate group to its immediate downstream effector(s. Here we review evidence for this regulatory mechanism based on structural and functional studies of Pak1 in different cell types and research models as well as in vitro biochemical assays. We also discuss the implications of Pak1 scaffolding in disease-related signaling processes and the potential in cardiovascular drug development.

  17. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  18. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  19. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Alshehri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The constellation of dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, and central obesity is now classified as metabolic syndrome, also called syndrome X. In the past few years, several expert groups have attempted to set forth simple diagnostic criteria for use in clinical practice to identify patients who manifest the multiple components of the metabolic syndrome. These criteria have varied somewhat in specific elements, but in general, they include a combination of multiple and metabolic risk factors. The most widely recognized of the metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics, commonly manifest a prothrombotic state as well as and a proinflammatory state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia consists of an aggregation of lipoprotein abnormalities including elevated serum triglyceride and apolipoprotein B (apoB, increased small LDL particles, and a reduced level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C. The metabolic syndrome is often referred to as if it were a discrete entity with a single cause. Available data suggest that it truly is a syndrome, ie, a grouping of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk factors, that probably has more than one cause. Regardless of cause, the syndrome identifies individuals at an elevated risk for ASCVD. The magnitude of the increased risk can vary according to the components of the syndrome present as well as the other, non-metabolic syndrome risk factors in a particular person.

  20. Platelet proteomics in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Vélez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, platelet proteomics has been applied successfully to the study of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. It is very well known that platelets play a pivotal role in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying many CVDs, especially acute coronary syndromes (ACSs, since they are implied in thrombus formation after atheroma plaque rupture. This is the reason why molecules involved in platelet activation and aggregation are primary targets for treatment of ACSs. Many efforts are aimed at finding drugs that inhibit platelet activation; however it is difficult to separate the therapeutic benefits from harmful effects because pathological and physiological functions of platelets are due to the same mechanisms. Given that platelets lack a nucleus, proteomics is regarded as an ideal method to approach their biochemistry. Current platelet proteomic studies are focusing on the identification of platelet molecular and functional changes in normal and pathological states, enriching the comprehension of platelet biological function, and screening for new biomarkers and antiplatelet agents. In the present article, we introduce the reader to platelet biology and function, and revise recent advances in platelet proteomics applied to the study of CVDs, including a special emphasis on sample preparation requirements for proteome analysis of platelet clinical samples.

  1. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Amaya-Amaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (AD represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Phillis L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.

  3. Matriarchal model for cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, R A; Taylor, E L; Knehans, A; Cleaver, V

    1994-02-01

    Family patterns of cardiovascular risk behavior are well documented. Significant correlation exists between spouse-spouse, parent-child, and sibling-sibling for cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein, diet, physical activity, and smoking. Family/environmental influences are important in how/if risk and/or preventive behavior is learned. The family matriarch commonly functions as gatekeeper, controlling eating behavior, access to health care, and other patterns. She often acts as menu planner, shopper, and preparer of meals for all family members. She provides information and verbal reinforcement about food and is a powerful model concerning dietary practices. In fact, the mother, as head of household in most single-parent families, may be the only adult model for many children. Because relevance and credibility are the most important characteristics of a behavioral model, parents (especially mothers) are strong models for observational learning by children. Risk factor information and risk reduction activities adopted by the matriarch can be generalized to the entire family if she learns the skills to act as a change agent. Initiation of this process of education and training the matriarch lies with primary care providers for women (Ob-Gyns see most women). By teaching risk reduction to the matriarch as a component of primary care, physician interaction can have a rippling effect. PMID:8164913

  4. Pomegranate for Your Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Aviram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate is a source of some very potent antioxidants (tannins, anthocyanins which are considered to be also potent anti-atherogenic agents. The combination of the above unique various types of pomegranate polyphenols provides a much wider spectrum of action against several types of free radicals. Indeed, pomegranate is superior in comparison to other antioxidants in protecting low-density lipoprotein (LDL, “the bad cholesterol” and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, “the good cholesterol” from oxidation, and as a result it attenuates atherosclerosis development and its consequent cardiovascular events. Pomegranate antioxidants are not free, but are attached to the pomegranate sugars, and hence were shown to be beneficial even in diabetic patients. Furthermore, pomegranate antioxidants are unique in their ability to increase the activity of the HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1, which breaks down harmful oxidized lipids in lipoproteins, in macrophages, and in atherosclerotic plaques. Finally, unique pomegranate antioxidants beneficially decrease blood pressure. All the above beneficial characteristics make the pomegranate a uniquely healthy fruit.

  5. Review on Researches of Diseases Related to Flying Condition.%飞行员疾病谱研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军莲; 高建义; 李勇枝; 盖宇清; 王力元; 任红茹; 郭辉; 藩燕燕

    2011-01-01

    Pilots, from a kind of special group, work in particular environment.Some changes in their health would happen inevitably along with the age and flying time increasing.Among these changes, retrogression of bones is the most popular in reports on causes of the pilot' s disease spectrum, which includes cervical spondylosis, the herniated lumber disc and strain of lumbar muscles et al.The diseases in their cardiovascular system and the digestive system have been characterized by special working conditions.This paper briefly reviewed the common occurrence of diseases and their traits in pilots.%飞行员作为特殊群体,在特殊工作环境下,其身体状况随着年龄和飞行时间的增加不可避免会出现这样那样的变化,其中骨骼系统的退行性病变在所有有关飞行员疾病谱的相关报道中占有头号地位,包括颈椎病、腰椎间盘突出、腰肌劳损等骨骼关节系统的病变.心血管系统和消化系统也因工作环境的特殊性存在着与同龄人不同的发病特点,本文就飞行员常见的疾病及发病的特点进行简要综述.

  6. World military expenditures and global cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, M Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Can we estimate the consequences of world military expenditures for the physical and mental health of nations that produce and purchase armaments? If anxiety and fear are promoting military expenditures, then those sentiments may well reflect poorer mental health and war-related stress as it influences cardiovascular illness rates. Further, extensive military expenditure by a society implies that other societal needs are allocated fewer resources, including nutrition, water and sanitation, health care, and economic development. We use a model focused on military expenditures to predict cardiovascular mortality in world samples of industrialized and developing countries over 2000-2011. The cardiovascular mortality model controls for economic development, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and carbon dioxide emissions. Military expenditures as proportion of gross domestic product show significant positive relations to cardiovascular disease mortality in linear multiple regression analyses, using both cross-sectional and pooled cross-sectional time-series approaches. PMID:26675148

  7. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease Updated:May 20,2016 How ... Let’s set the record straight on some common myths. “I’m too young to worry about heart ...

  8. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to inves...

  9. Significance of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika Gajjar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high mortality and morbidity rate associated with cardiovascular diseases, Cardiacrehabilitation (CR is regarded for prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. CR servicesare generally provided in an outpatient as comprehensive, long-term programs involving medicalevaluation, prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification, education and counseling. This includesnutritional therapies, weight loss program management of lipid abnormalities with diet and medication,blood pressure control, diabetes management and stress management. The exercise component of a totalapproach to rehabilitation helps to overcome the fears and anxieties that so many people experience aftera heart attack. Aerobic exercise training program improves cardiovascular fitness in both healthyindividual and cardiac patients. Cardiac rehabilitation prevents and treat cardiovascular disease, reducescardiac risk factors, improving patient’s exercise capacity and enhancing quality of life. Aerobicexercise with intensity of approximately 60 to 70% of the maximal heart rate for 30 to 60 minutes, 3 to 4times a week, for 4 to 6 weeks enhances exercise capacity.

  10. CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND ADIPOKINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ye. Myasoyedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the mechanisms of development of cardiovascular disorders and dyslipidemia with hypothyroidism. Reference data are presented that are devoted to the study of adipokines content with hypothyroidism and their effect on echocardiographic indicators.

  11. Evaluation of a Cardiovascular Education Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei Li

    1980-01-01

    A Virginia elementary-secondary school blood pressure education program is described and evaluated. Evidence presented indicates that participants' cardiovascular knowledge levels increased significantly as a result of program participation. (JMF)

  12. Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Y. Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriatic arthritis (PsA is an inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis. In addition to skin and joint involvement, there is increasing evidence suggesting that patients with PsA also have an increase in risk of clinical and subclinical cardiovascular diseases, mostly due to accelerating atherosclerosis. Both conventional and nonconventional cardiovascular risk factors contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk in PsA. Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in PsA, acting independently and/or synergistically with the conventional risk factors. In this paper, we discuss the current literature indicating that patients with PsA are at risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. AnsNGS: An Annotation System to Sequence Variations of Next Generation Sequencing Data for Disease-Related Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Young-Ji; Cho, Yonglae; Kim, Ju Han

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data in the identification of disease-causing genes provides a promising opportunity in the diagnosis of disease. Beyond the previous efforts for NGS data alignment, variant detection, and visualization, developing a comprehensive annotation system supported by multiple layers of disease phenotype-related databases is essential for deciphering the human genome. To satisfy the impending need to decipher the human genome, it is essential to develop a ...

  14. In silico analysis of Progeria: A genetic disease and natural cardiovascular disorders preventive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Mulange

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Progeria (also known as "Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome"(HGPS is an extremely rare, severe, genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. The basic objective of this study is how is it responsible for faster ageing than normal? The study of its bioinformatics aspect explaining where the mutation occurs in normal LMNA gene to form mutated Progerin. We explain its sequential and structural aspects in domain and motif. Structural visualization by Marker view software provides the linear structure of LMNA and mutated LMNA. We studied the properties and specificity of Lonafarnib (an edible drug available in market against Progerin with Docking. Cardiovascular disorders are the major symptoms occurred in Progerin patients. Therefore we found 32 natural compounds with their sources having anti cardiovascular disorders activity. We checked its docking properties and ADMET properties. From this we came to conclude 11 most effective, edible, naturally occurring compounds for cardiovascular disorders in Progerin patients.

  15. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-05-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions.

  16. Nutrition and cardiovascular diseases of women.

    OpenAIRE

    Dustan, H P

    1987-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and hypertension are, by far, the most common cardiovascular diseases affecting women, and both are influenced by diet. Atherosclerosis occurs more commonly in men than women; generally women are 10 to 15 years older than men when symptoms develop. The prevalence of hypertension is about equal in the two sexes, particularly in middle aged and older persons. These cardiovascular diseases are major causes of death and disability in this country. Atherosclerosis results in myocar...

  17. Adipose Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Arti; Mehta, Nehal; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2008-01-01

    Adiposity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance are strongly implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of adipose inflammation, because these may represent therapeutic targets for insulin resistance and for prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity. The initial insult in adipose inflammation and insulin resistance, mediated by macrophage recruitment and endogenous ligand ac...

  18. Erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ophuis, A.J.M. Oude; Nijeholt, A.A.B. Lycklama à

    2006-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a highly prevalent disease, especially in cardiovascular-compromised men. Many of the well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also risk factors for erectile dysfunction. A correlation between erectile dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction is well established. It is postulated that erectile dysfunction with an arteriovascular aetiology can predate and be an indicator of potential coronary artery disease. In this paper we will attempt to increase a...

  19. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Edmondson, Donald; Cohen, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder initiated by exposure to a traumatic event and characterized by intrusive thoughts about the event, attempts to avoid reminders of the event, and physiological hyperarousal. In a number of large prospective observational studies, PTSD has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Also, in recent years, a number of studies have shown that cardiovascular events can themselves cause PTSD in more than 1 in...

  20. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Huijun; Wang Jinnan; Li Rui; Ferguson Marina S; Kerwin William S; Dong Li; Canton Gador; Hatsukami Thomas S; Yuan Chun

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of the carotid vessel wall is one promi...

  1. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance: still tantalizing

    OpenAIRE

    Saikus Christina E; Kocaturk Ozgur; Guttman Michael A; Faranesh Anthony Z; Ratnayaka Kanishka; Lederman Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The often touted advantages of MR guidance remain largely unrealized for cardiovascular interventional procedures in patients. Many procedures have been simulated in animal models. We argue these opportunities for clinical interventional MR will be met in the near future. This paper reviews technical and clinical considerations and offers advice on how to implement a clinical-grade interventional cardiovascular MR (iCMR) laboratory. We caution that this reflects our personal view of ...

  2. Oxidants and antioxidants in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ekblom, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke, are the main reason of death in Sweden and Western Europe. High iron stores are believed to produce oxygen radicals, which is the presumed putative mechanism behind lipid peroxidation, atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Iron levels are associated with the hemochromatosis associated HFE single nucleotide polymorphisms C282Y and H63D. Bilirubin is an antioxidant present in relatively high levels ...

  3. Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signa...

  4. Cardiovascular reactivity, stress, and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Jung eHuang; Webb, Heather E.; Zourdos, Michael C.; Acevedo, Edmund O.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI) resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Combined stress (psychological and physical) can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate...

  5. Adiponectin Actions in the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Teresa A.; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Shibata, Rei; Walsh, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Levels of the hormone adiponectin are downregulated in obese individuals, and several experimental studies show that adiponectin protects against the development of various obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Adiponectin exhibits favorable effects on atherogenesis, endothelial function, and vascular remodeling by modulation of signaling cascades in cells of the...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3375 - Cardiovascular intravascular filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular intravascular filter. 870.3375... Cardiovascular intravascular filter. (a) Identification. A cardiovascular intravascular filter is an implant that... and Revision of 2/12/90 (K90-1)” and (ii) “Guidance for Cardiovascular Intravascular Filter...

  7. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population.......We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population....

  8. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  9. Role of MicroRNAs in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System-Mediated Cardiovascular Inflammation and Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricica Pacurari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are endogenous regulators of gene expression either by inhibiting translation or protein degradation. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs play a role in cardiovascular disease and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system- (RAAS- mediated cardiovascular inflammation, either as mediators or being targeted by RAAS pharmacological inhibitors. The exact role(s of microRNAs in RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling is/are still in early stage of investigation. However, few microRNAs have been shown to play a role in RAAS signaling, particularly miR-155, miR-146a/b, miR-132/122, and miR-483-3p. Identification of specific microRNAs and their targets and elucidating microRNA-regulated mechanisms associated RAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling might lead to the development of novel pharmacological strategies to target RAAS-mediated vascular pathologies. This paper reviews microRNAs role in inflammatory factors mediating cardiovascular inflammation and RAAS genes and the effect of RAAS pharmacological inhibition on microRNAs and the resolution of RAAS-mediated cardiovascular inflammation and remodeling. Also, this paper discusses the advances on microRNAs-based therapeutic approaches that may be important in targeting RAAS signaling.

  10. Performance of a plastic-wrapped composting system for biosecure emergency disposal of disease-related swine mortalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Thomas D; Ahn, Heekwon; Akdeniz, Neslihan; Crawford, Benjamin P; Koziel, Jacek A

    2016-02-01

    A passively-ventilated plastic-wrapped composting system initially developed for biosecure disposal of poultry mortalities caused by avian influenza was adapted and tested to assess its potential as an emergency disposal option for disease-related swine mortalities. Fresh air was supplied through perforated plastic tubing routed through the base of the compost pile. The combined air inlet and top vent area is ⩽∼1% of the gas exchange surface of a conventional uncovered windrow. Parameters evaluated included: (1) spatial and temporal variations in matrix moisture content (m.c.), leachate production, and matrix O2 concentrations; (2) extent of soft tissue decomposition; and (3) internal temperature and the success rate in achieving USEPA time/temperature (T) criteria for pathogen reduction. Six envelope materials (wood shavings, corn silage, ground cornstalks, ground oat straw, ground soybean straw, or ground alfalfa hay) and two initial m.c.'s (15-30% w.b. for materials stored indoors, and 45-65% w.b. to simulate materials exposed to precipitation) were tested to determine their effect on performance parameters (1-3). Results of triple-replicated field trials showed that the composting system did not accumulate moisture despite the 150kg carcass water load (65% of 225kg total carcass mass) released during decomposition. Mean compost m.c. in the carcass layer declined by ∼7 percentage points during 8-week trials, and a leachate accumulation was rare. Matrix O2 concentrations for all materials other than silage were ⩾10% using the equivalent of 2m inlet/vent spacing. In silage O2 dropped below 5% in some cases even when 0.5m inlet/vent spacing was used. Eight week soft tissue decomposition ranged from 87% in cornstalks to 72% in silage. Success rates for achievement of USEPA Class B time/temperature criteria ranged from 91% for silage to 33-57% for other materials. Companion laboratory biodegradation studies suggest that Class B success rates can be improved

  11. Functional topography of cardiovascular regulation along the rostrocaudal axis of the rat posterior insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marins, Fernanda Ribeiro; Limborço-Filho, Marcelo; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Biancardi, Vinicia C; Vaz, Gisele C; Stern, Javier E; Oppenheimer, Stephen M; Fontes, Marco Antonio Peliky

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) representation has been identified within the insular cortex (IC) and a lateralization of function previously suggested. In order to further understand the role of IC on cardiovascular control, the present study compared the CV responses evoked by stimulation of N-metil-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the right and left posterior IC at different rostrocaudal levels. Intracortical microinjections of NMDA were performed into the IC of male Wistar rats anaesthetized with urethane (1.4 g/kg) prepared for blood pressure, heart rate and renal sympathetic nerve activity. Gene expression of NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B in the IC was confirmed by RT-PCR. Immunofluorescence for the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit was demonstrated in the IC (coordinates anteroposterior (AP) +1.5, 0.0 and -1.5 mm). A cardiac sympathoinhibitory site was identified, more rostrally located than identified in previous studies. A site of sympathoexcitatory cardiac control was identified more caudal to this region in agreement with earlier work. Under the experimental conditions, no lateralization of cardiovascular function was identified with chemical stimulation eliciting the same responses from either left or right insular cortices. No tonic role of the insula on cardiovascular control was identified with the use of the NMDA antagonist, AP-5. Peri-insular microinjection of NMDA was without cardiovascular effect indicating the specificity of the insula as a cardiovascular regulatory site. The current study reveals a functional topography for autonomic cardiovascular control along the rostrocaudal axis of the posterior IC. PMID:26748663

  12. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic inflammatory joint disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agca, R; Heslinga, S C; van Halm, V P; Nurmohamed, M T

    2016-05-15

    Inflammatory joint disorders (IJD), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (ASp) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), are prevalent conditions worldwide with a considerable burden on healthcare systems. IJD are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) disease-related morbidity and mortality. In this review, we present an overview of the literature. Standardised mortality ratios are increased in IJD compared with the general population, that is, RA 1.3-2.3, ASp 1.6-1.9 and PsA 0.8-1.6. This premature mortality is mainly caused by atherosclerotic events. In RA, this CV risk is comparable to that in type 2 diabetes. Traditional CV risk factors are more often present and partially a consequence of changes in physical function related to the underlying IJD. Also, chronic systemic inflammation itself is an independent CV risk factor. Optimal control of disease activity with conventional synthetic, targeted synthetic and biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs decreases this excess risk. High-grade inflammation as well as anti-inflammatory treatment alter traditional CV risk factors, such as lipids. In view of the above-mentioned CV burden in patients with IJD, CV risk management is necessary. Presently, this CV risk management is still lacking in usual care. Patients, general practitioners, cardiologists, internists and rheumatologists need to be aware of the substantially increased CV risk in IJD and should make a combined effort to timely initiate CV risk management in accordance with prevailing guidelines together with optimal control of rheumatic disease activity. CV screening and treatment strategies need to be implemented in usual care. PMID:26888573

  13. Immune-Mediated Inflammation May Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalid

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease, a progressive manifestation of α-L-iduronidase deficiency or mucopolysaccharidosis type I, continues in patients both untreated and treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or intravenous enzyme replacement. Few studies have examined the effects of α-L-iduronidase deficiency and subsequent glycosaminoglycan storage upon arterial gene expression to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.Gene expression in carotid artery, ascending, and descending aortas from four non-tolerized, non-enzyme treated 19 month-old mucopolysaccharidosis type I dogs was compared with expression in corresponding vascular segments from three normal, age-matched dogs. Data were analyzed using R and whole genome network correlation analysis, a bias-free method of categorizing expression level and significance into discrete modules. Genes were further categorized based on module-trait relationships. Expression of clusterin, a protein implicated in other etiologies of cardiovascular disease, was assessed in canine and murine mucopolysaccharidosis type I aortas via Western blot and in situ immunohistochemistry.Gene families with more than two-fold, significant increased expression involved lysosomal function, proteasome function, and immune regulation. Significantly downregulated genes were related to cellular adhesion, cytoskeletal elements, and calcium regulation. Clusterin gene overexpression (9-fold and protein overexpression (1.3 to 1.62-fold was confirmed and located specifically in arterial plaques of mucopolysaccharidosis-affected dogs and mice.Overexpression of lysosomal and proteasomal-related genes are expected responses to cellular stress induced by lysosomal storage in mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Upregulation of immunity-related genes implicates the potential involvement of glycosaminoglycan-induced inflammation in the pathogenesis of mucopolysaccharidosis-related arterial disease, for which clusterin

  14. Immune-Mediated Inflammation May Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Cardiovascular Disease in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, Philip L.; Ellinwood, N. Matthew; Schwartz, Philip H.; Dickson, Patricia I.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Wang, Raymond Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease, a progressive manifestation of α-L-iduronidase deficiency or mucopolysaccharidosis type I, continues in patients both untreated and treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or intravenous enzyme replacement. Few studies have examined the effects of α-L-iduronidase deficiency and subsequent glycosaminoglycan storage upon arterial gene expression to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Methods Gene expression in carotid artery, ascending, and descending aortas from four non-tolerized, non-enzyme treated 19 month-old mucopolysaccharidosis type I dogs was compared with expression in corresponding vascular segments from three normal, age-matched dogs. Data were analyzed using R and whole genome network correlation analysis, a bias-free method of categorizing expression level and significance into discrete modules. Genes were further categorized based on module-trait relationships. Expression of clusterin, a protein implicated in other etiologies of cardiovascular disease, was assessed in canine and murine mucopolysaccharidosis type I aortas via Western blot and in situ immunohistochemistry. Results Gene families with more than two-fold, significant increased expression involved lysosomal function, proteasome function, and immune regulation. Significantly downregulated genes were related to cellular adhesion, cytoskeletal elements, and calcium regulation. Clusterin gene overexpression (9-fold) and protein overexpression (1.3 to 1.62-fold) was confirmed and located specifically in arterial plaques of mucopolysaccharidosis-affected dogs and mice. Conclusions Overexpression of lysosomal and proteasomal-related genes are expected responses to cellular stress induced by lysosomal storage in mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Upregulation of immunity-related genes implicates the potential involvement of glycosaminoglycan-induced inflammation in the pathogenesis of mucopolysaccharidosis-related arterial disease, for

  15. Epigenetic associations in relation to cardiovascular prevention and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelter-Mahlknecht, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) increasingly burden societies with vast financial and health care problems. Therefore, the importance of improving preventive and therapeutic measures against cardiovascular diseases is continually growing. To accomplish such improvements, research must focus particularly on understanding the underlying mechanisms of such diseases, as in the field of epigenetics, and pay more attention to strengthening primary prevention. To date, preliminary research has found a connection between DNA methylation, histone modifications, RNA-based mechanisms and the development of CVD like atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Several therapeutic agents based on the findings of such research projects are currently being tested for use in clinical practice. Although these tests have produced promising data so far, no epigenetically active agents or drugs targeting histone acetylation and/or methylation have actually entered clinical trials for CVDs, nor have they been approved by the FDA. To ensure the most effective prevention and treatment possible, further studies are required to understand the complex relationship between epigenetic regulation and the development of CVD. Similarly, several classes of RNA therapeutics are currently under development. The use of miRNAs and their targets as diagnostic or prognostic markers for CVDs is promising, but has not yet been realized. Further studies are necessary to improve our understanding of the involvement of lncRNA in regulating gene expression changes underlying heart failure. Through the data obtained from such studies, specific therapeutic strategies to avoid heart failure based on interference with incRNA pathways could be developed. Together, research and testing findings raise hope for enhancing the therapeutic armamentarium. This review presents the currently available data concerning epigenetic mechanisms and compounds involved in cardiovascular diseases

  16. Estradiol improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2 on vascular wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoyu; Gou, Yulan; Zhang, Hongyu; Zuo, Houjuan; Zhang, Haimou; Liu, Zhengxiang; Yao, Dachun

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that estrogens have protective effects in cardiovascular diseases, even though the results from human clinical trials remain controversial, while most of the animal experiments confirmed this effect, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that estradiol (E2) treatment significantly increases the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in mice and in vitro in human aorta endothelial cells. Further investigation shows that E2 up-regulates SOD2 through tethering of estrogen receptor (ER) to Sp1 and the increased binding of Sp1 to GC-box on the SOD2 promoter, where ERα responses E2-mediated gene activation, and ERβ maintains basal gene expression level. The E2/ER-mediated SOD2 up-regulation results in minimized ROS generation, which highly favors healthy cardiovascular function. Gene therapy through lentivirus-carried endothelium-specific delivery to the vascular wall in high-fat diet (HFT) mice shows that the SOD2 expression in endothelial cells normalizes E2 deficiency-induced ROS generation with ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular damage, while SOD2 knockdown worsens the problem despite the presence of E2, indicating that E2-induced SOD2 expression plays an important vasculoprotective role. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the mechanism by which E2 improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2 in endothelial cells. In turn, this suggests a novel gene therapy through lentivirus-carried gene delivery to vascular wall for E2 deficiency-induced cardiovascular damage in postmenopausal women. PMID:25462070

  17. Estradiol improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2 on vascular wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that estrogens have protective effects in cardiovascular diseases, even though the results from human clinical trials remain controversial, while most of the animal experiments confirmed this effect, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that estradiol (E2 treatment significantly increases the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2 in mice and in vitro in human aorta endothelial cells. Further investigation shows that E2 up-regulates SOD2 through tethering of estrogen receptor (ER to Sp1 and the increased binding of Sp1 to GC-box on the SOD2 promoter, where ERα responses E2-mediated gene activation, and ERβ maintains basal gene expression level. The E2/ER-mediated SOD2 up-regulation results in minimized ROS generation, which highly favors healthy cardiovascular function. Gene therapy through lentivirus-carried endothelium-specific delivery to the vascular wall in high-fat diet (HFT mice shows that the SOD2 expression in endothelial cells normalizes E2 deficiency-induced ROS generation with ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular damage, while SOD2 knockdown worsens the problem despite the presence of E2, indicating that E2-induced SOD2 expression plays an important vasculoprotective role. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the mechanism by which E2 improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2 in endothelial cells. In turn, this suggests a novel gene therapy through lentivirus-carried gene delivery to vascular wall for E2 deficiency-induced cardiovascular damage in postmenopausal women.

  18. Why are the neurodegenerative disease-related pathways overrepresented in primary HIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: a genome-wide perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Li; Conceicao Viviane; Gupta Priyanka; Saksena Nitin K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We demonstrate for the first time that the genome-wide profiling of HIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-patients free of neurologic disease show overrepresentation of neurodegenerative pathways (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS, Huntington’s and Prion Disease, etc.) in genome-wide microarray analysis, which suggests that this genome-wide representation of neurodegenerative diseases-related pathways in PBMCs could possibly be a subcellular manifestation of ne...

  19. Ethical considerations in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follath, F

    2009-12-01

    The fundamental values in medical ethics include the following aspects of professional conduct: (i) actions in the best interest of patients; (ii) first, do no harm; (iii) patients' right to refuse or choose treatments; (iv) fairness and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources; and (v) truthfulness and honesty (informed consent). These values have to be considered in all diagnostic steps and therapeutic decisions. They should also form the basis for discussions of potential conflicts of interest among patients, doctors, healthcare financers and politicians. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases represent the most frequent cause of death and a major healthcare problem in most regions of the world. CV prevention is therefore an important task both in individual subjects and as a means to improve health in the general population. While the merits of treatment in patients with established CV diseases, i.e. secondary prevention, are widely accepted and regarded as necessary, primary prevention with drugs in apparently healthy individuals at an increased risk of future CV events is not free of controversies. The different types of prevention envisaged also give rise to ethical questions: Should all the growing number of classical and newly recognised CV risk markers be a reason for intervention or should they be preferably used for calculating a total risk score? What are the compelling or only relative indications for anti-hypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic or platelet-inhibiting drugs? Are pre-hypertension, pre-diabetes and marginally elevated cholesterol levels early diseases justifying drug treatment, regardless of the possibility that some prophylactic interventions may be associated with adverse events? Discussions also often arise concerning the role of age, gender and of non-CV co-morbidities for decisions about long-term prevention with drugs. How reliable and applicable are 'evidence-based' guidelines derived from trials in highly selected

  20. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels

  1. Moderate inappropriately high aldosterone/NaCl constellation in mice: cardiovascular effects and the role of cardiovascular epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Barbara; Rabe, Sindy; Winter, Sabrina; Ruhs, Stefanie; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Schneider, Bettina; Sibilia, Maria; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempe, Sabine; Mäder, Karsten; Grossmann, Claudia; Gekle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Non-physiological activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), e.g. by aldosterone under conditions of high salt intake, contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, although beneficial effects of aldosterone also have been described. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) contributes to cardiovascular alterations and mediates part of the MR effects. Recently, we showed that EGFR is required for physiological homeostasis and function of heart and arteries in adult animals. We hypothesize that moderate high aldosterone/NaCl, at normal blood pressure, affects the cardiovascular system depending on cardiovascular EGFR. Therefore we performed an experimental series in male and female animals each, using a recently established mouse model with EGFR knockout in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes and determined the effects of a mild-high aldosterone-to-NaCl constellation on a.o. marker gene expression, heart size, systolic blood pressure, impulse conduction and heart rate. Our data show that (i) cardiac tissue of male but not of female mice is sensitive to mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment, (ii) EGFR knockout induces stronger cardiac disturbances in male as compared to female animals and (iii) mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment requires the EGFR in order to disturb cardiac tissue homeostasis whereas beneficial effects of aldosterone seem to be independent of EGFR. PMID:25503263

  2. Differentially expressed genes in major depression reside on the periphery of resilient gene coexpression networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chris eGaiteri; Etienne eSibille

    2011-01-01

    The structure of gene coexpression networks reflects the activation and interaction of multiple cellular systems. Since the pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders is influenced by diverse cellular systems and pathways, we investigated gene coexpression networks in major depression, and searched for putative unifying themes in network connectivity across neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, based on the prevalence of the lethality-centrality relationship in disease-related networks, we h...

  3. Differentially Expressed Genes in Major Depression Reside on the Periphery of Resilient Gene Coexpression Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiteri, Chris; Sibille, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    The structure of gene coexpression networks reflects the activation and interaction of multiple cellular systems. Since the pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders is influenced by diverse cellular systems and pathways, we investigated gene coexpression networks in major depression, and searched for putative unifying themes in network connectivity across neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, based on the prevalence of the lethality–centrality relationship in disease-related networks, we h...

  4. MicroRNA: A new therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Saheli; Balasubramanian, Sathyamoorthy; Rajasingh, Sheeja; Patel, Urmi; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Rajasingh, Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and hypertension are the most common heart-related diseases that affect both the heart and the blood vessels. Multiple independent risk factors have been shown to be responsible for cardiovascular diseases. The combination of a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking cessation keeps these risk factors in check and helps maintain homeostasis. The dynamic monolayer endothelial cell integrity and cell-cell communication are the fundamental mechanisms in maintaining homeostasis. Recently, it has been revealed that small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a critical role in regulation of genes involved in either posttranscriptional or pretranslational modifications. They also control diverse biological functions like development, differentiation, growth, and metabolism. Among ncRNAs, the short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied, but their specific functions remain largely unknown. In recent years, miRNAs are efficiently studied as one of the important candidates for involvement in most biological processes and have been implicated in many human diseases. Thus, the identification and the respective targets of miRNAs may provide novel molecular insight and new therapeutic strategies to treat diseases. This review summarizes the recent developments and insight on the role of miRNAs in cardiovascular disease prognosis, diagnostic and clinical applications. PMID:27013138

  5. Cardiovascular science: opportunities for translating research into improved care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular research is progressing on many fronts, as highlighted in the collection of Reviews in this issue of the JCI. MicroRNAs that regulate cardiac function have been implicated in cardiac disorders, and efforts to develop therapeutic antagomirs are underway. The genetic bases of several cardiac disorders, including cardiomyopathies that cause heart failure and channelopathies that underlie cardiac arrhythmias, have been elucidated. Genetic testing can identify asymptomatic individuals at risk, potentially leading to effective preventative measures. Growing evidence supports the role of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. For heart failure, recent work suggests that cardiac regeneration using stem/progenitor cells, gene transfer, new drugs that restore normal Ca2+ cycling, and agents that reduce reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction are all viable new approaches to managing disease. Cumulatively, it seems likely that the clinical advances emerging from ongoing research will, in the foreseeable future, reduce the number of deaths in the industrialized world from cardiovascular disease. PMID:23281404

  6. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Calkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPARα agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPARγ agonists, and more recently dual PPARα/γ coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPARγ receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  7. Uric acid lowering therapy in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Sposato, Barbara; Romeo, Franco

    2016-06-15

    Recent evidence would indicate that high serum uric acid (SUA) levels can be a significant and independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and heart failure. In the last few years an independent risk relationship between hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease and mortality has also been reported. Hyperuricemia has been shown as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction and an independent and conjoint association of either gout and SUA with total and cardiovascular mortality has been reported, with mortality impact in gout patients increasing with rising SUA concentrations, even for SUA levels in the normal to high range. These findings prompted a growing research interest on the possible benefits of uric acid lowering drugs in cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, clinical studies have reported on the beneficial effects of uric acid lowering drugs, in particular of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, in hypertension, ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Two main mechanisms have been claimed to explain the dangerous effects of hyperuricemia and, as a consequence, the benefits of uric acid lowering therapy: endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation. This brief review aims to summarize current evidence from human studies on the role of acid uric lowering therapy in cardiovascular diseases for practical and clinical purposes. The possible mechanisms underlying the benefits of acid uric lowering therapy are also addressed. PMID:26386814

  8. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  9. Dietary Nitrate, Nitric Oxide, and Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence strongly suggests that dietary nitrate, derived in the diet primarily from vegetables, could contribute to cardiovascular health via effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. NO plays an essential role in cardiovascular health. It is produced via the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway and the recently discovered enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The discovery of this alternate pathway has highlighted dietary nitrate as a candidate for the cardioprotective effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables. Clinical trials with dietary nitrate have observed improvements in blood pressure, endothelial function, ischemia-reperfusion injury, arterial stiffness, platelet function, and exercise performance with a concomitant augmentation of markers of NO status. While these results are indicative of cardiovascular benefits with dietary nitrate intake, there is still a lingering concern about nitrate in relation to methemoglobinemia, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. It is the purpose of this review to present an overview of NO and its critical role in cardiovascular health; to detail the observed vascular benefits of dietary nitrate intake through effects on NO status as well as to discuss the controversy surrounding the possible toxic effects of nitrate. PMID:25976309

  10. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A; Lewis, O; Kumar, R; Yeruva, S L H; Curry, B H

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurobiological disorder exhibited by difficulty maintaining attention, as well as hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are the first line of treatment for ADHD. With the increase in number of adults on CNS stimulants, the question that arises is how well do we understand the long-term cardiovascular effects of these drugs. There has been increasing concern that adults with ADHD are at greater risk for developing adverse cardiovascular events such as sudden death, myocardial infarction, and stroke as compared to pediatric population. Cardiovascular response attributed to ADHD medication has mainly been observed in heart rate and blood pressure elevations, while less is known about the etiology of rare cardiovascular events like acute myocardial infarction (AMI), arrhythmia, and cardiomyopathy and its long-term sequelae. We present a unique case of AMI in an adult taking Adderall (mixed amphetamine salts) and briefly discuss the literature relevant to the cardiovascular safety of CNS stimulants for adult ADHD. PMID:27579185

  11. Astaxanthin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Fassett

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and β-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail is one such agent. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Limited, short duration and small sample size studies have assessed the effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers and have investigated bioavailability and safety. So far no significant adverse events have been observed and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation are attenuated with astaxanthin supplementation. Experimental investigations in a range of species using a cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion model demonstrated cardiac muscle preservation when astaxanthin is administered either orally or intravenously prior to the induction of ischaemia. Human clinical cardiovascular studies using astaxanthin therapy have not yet been reported. On the basis of the promising results of experimental cardiovascular studies and the physicochemical and antioxidant properties and safety profile of astaxanthin, clinical trials should be undertaken.

  12. Cardiovascular Nursing: From Florence to Melbourne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R

    2016-08-01

    This paper, based on the 2015 CSANZ Cardiovascular Nursing Lecture, takes its title from the invitation to give this lecture in Melbourne being received when the author was visiting Florence, after whom Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, is named. Her work has indirectly shaped and influenced cardiovascular nursing, which has developed over the past 50 years. Despite its relatively short history, cardiovascular nursing has made a major contribution to improving the cardiovascular health and well-being of patients and families through health promotion, risk reduction and disease prevention. Examples include cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention and chronic heart failure disease management. Challenges, however, remain, including nurses practising to the full extent of their education and training, working as full partners with physicians and other health professionals in redesigning healthcare, ensuring better data collection and being more active in advocacy and policy initiatives. Cardiovascular nursing has a strong record of innovation but should always remember that it is there to serve the public and, bearing in mind the risk of potential harm versus benefit, be mindful of Florence Nightingale's wise counsel, "First, do no harm". PMID:26935162

  13. Vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, V; Corrocher, R; Choi, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is not a frequent finding nowadays in medical practice, evidence suggests that insufficiency of this vitamin is rather widespread in a quite large portion of the population such as the elderly or in not unusual conditions such as that of alcohol addiction. Moreover, a mild deficiency in B6 vitamin is a state that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence from case control and prospective studies have suggested that low dietary intake or reduced blood concentrations of vitamin B6 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although most recent trials demonstrated the ineffectiveness of vitamin B6 supplementation on the prevention of cardiovascular events recurrence. Due to limited and somewhat inconsistent data together with the ample variety of critical functions in which vitamin B6 is involved in the human body, it is very challenging to attempt at establishing a cause and effect relationship between vitamin B6 and risk of cardiovascular disease as it is to delineate the exact mechanism(s) by which vitamin B6 may modulate such risk. In the present chapter we review the currently available knowledge deriving from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies designed to define potential candidate mechanisms for the association of vitamin B6 impairment and risk of cardiovascular disease development. PMID:22116704

  14. Lysophosphatidic acid metabolism and elimination in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salous, Abdelghaffar Kamal

    The bioactive lipids lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are present in human and mouse plasma at a concentration of ~0.1-1 microM and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system including atherothrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and immune function, edema formation, and permeability. PPAP2B, the gene encoding LPP3, a broad activity integral membrane enzyme that terminates LPA actions in the vasculature, has a single nucleotide polymorphism that been recently associated with coronary artery disease risk. The synthesis and signaling of LPA and S1P in the cardiovascular system have been extensively studied but the mechanisms responsible for their elimination are less well understood. The broad goal of this research was to examine the role of LPP3 in the termination of LPA signaling in models of cardiovascular disease involving vascular wall cells, investigate the role of LPP3 in the elimination of plasma LPA, and further characterize the elimination of plasma LPA. The central hypothesis is that LPP3 plays an important role in attenuating the pathological responses to LPA signaling and that it mediates the elimination of exogenously applied bioactive lipids from the plasma. These hypotheses were tested using molecular biological approaches, in vitro studies, synthetic lysophospholipid mimetics, modified surgical procedures, and mass spectrometry assays. My results indicated that LPP3 played a critical role in attenuating LPA signaling mediating the pathological processes of intimal hyperplasia and vascular leak in mouse models of disease. Additionally, enzymatic inactivation of lysophospholipids by LPP and PLA enzymes in the plasma was not a primary mechanism for the rapid elimination of plasma LPA and S1P. Instead, evidence strongly suggested a transcellular uptake mechanism by hepatic non-parenchymal cells as the predominant mechanism for elimination of these molecules. These results support a model in

  15. Cardiovascular Update: Risk, Guidelines, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2015-09-01

    This article provides an update of the current status of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the United States, including a brief review of the underlying pathophysiology and epidemiology. This article presents a discussion of the latest American Heart Association guidelines that introduce the concept of promoting ideal cardiovascular health, defined by seven identified metrics. Specific CVD risk factors and utilization of the 10-year CVD event prediction calculator are discussed. In addition, current management recommendations of health-related conditions that increase risk for CVD, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are provided. Finally, a discussion of detailed evidence-based lifestyle recommendations to promote cardiovascular health and reduce CVD risks concludes the update. PMID:26156147

  16. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Poay; Sian; Sabrina; Lee; Kian; Keong; Poh

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vas-culogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk fac-tors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardio-vascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evalu-ate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome.

  17. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  18. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Niño Mantilla

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system is a serious problem in diabetic patients. The cardiovacular autonomic neuropathy is the most important autonomic dysfuntion for it´s implication in the increasesof the mortality rate in diabetis patients. tis ethiopatogenesis is the result of a multifactorial process caused by chronic hyperglycemia, ending up in damage of the autonomic fibers thet innervate the heart and blood vessels, leading to dysfuntional hearth rate control and abnormal vascular dynamics. the associated clinical manifestations include orthotatic hypotension, excecise intolerance, intraoperative cardiovascular liability and silent myocardial ischemia. Being important its recognition, quantitative test to evaluate the cardiovascular funtion, to value its evolution and the effects of the treatment ahould be done, being the most used, the hearth rate response to standing test, and teh valsalva maneuver. the handling of this entity is done improving control of glucose blood levels its the most effective way to prevent the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in the diabetic patients.

  19. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Carolina Nunes, E-mail: carolufscar24@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Santo Amaro - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of...... cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences...

  1. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 18 and above to measure the prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors. Those risk factors are systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level, obesity index, blood glucose level, smoking, physical activity and mental stress. Overall prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors were higher, dominated by physical inactivity (65.7%, hypercholesterolemia – TC:HC (62.3%, mental stress (55.5% and obesity (53.7%. Smoking was also high at 49.9% especially among men. However systolic hypertension, diastolic hypertension and diabetes mellitus; although increased by age, its prevalence is relatively low at 23.7%, 19.2%, and 6.3% respectively. Cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle are much evidenced as compared to risk factors related to the biological influence. Therefore, all initiatives in community health intervention should be mobilized specifically on prevention and control of lifestyle-related risk factors. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 50-6Keywords: cardiovascular problem, community intervention, lifestyle-linked risk factors

  2. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

    2005-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in

  3. Toxic urban waste's assault on cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. De Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiovascular health survey of 1203 persons in households located near the hazardous waste disposal sites and in a reference community, was conducted from 2009 until today to assess whether rates of adverse cardiovascular health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the sites. Data included medical records of reported cardiovascular disease certificates and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases from hospital database. The study areas appeared similar with respect to mortality, cancer incidence, and pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, rate ratios were greater than 1.5 for 2 of 19 reported diseases, i.e., angina pectoris, and strokes. The apparent broad-based elevation in reported diseases and symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by respondents living near the sites. Our study found that cardiovascular risk is associated only with PM2.5 concentrations, derived from uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste in particular sites of our country. Their analysis demonstrated a relationship between increased levels of eventual fine particulate pollution and higher rates of death and complications from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Management of solid waste releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Future community-based health studies should include medical and psychosocial assessment instruments sufficient to distinguish between changes in health status and effects of resident reporting tendency.

  4. Interferon regulatory factor 5 genetic variants are associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bermúdez, Mercedes; López-Mejías, Raquel; Genre, Fernanda; Castañeda, Santos; Llorca, Javier; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Corrales, Alfonso; Ubilla, Begoña; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Pina, Trinitario; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Balsa, Alejandro; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex polygenic inflammatory disease associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular (CV) disease risk. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is a regulator of type I interferon induction. Recently, researchers have described an association between multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the IRF5 gene and some rheumatic disorders. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether three different haplotype blocks within the I...

  5. Impact of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology on cardiovascular disease research

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fengping; Wang, Qin; Zhang, Fangfang; Zhu, Yinling; Gu, Qingquan; Wu, Liping; Yang, Lin; Yang,Xu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, hundreds of gene loci associated with multiple cardiovascular pathologies and traits have been identified through high-throughput Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology. Due to the increasing efficiency and decreasing cost of NGS, rapid progresses anticipated in the field of CVD research. This review summarizes the main strategies of CV research with NGS at the level of genomics, transcriptomics, epigenetics, and proteomics.

  6. Lead Discovery for Alzheimer’s Disease Related Target Protein RbAp48 from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Jin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency or loss of function of Retinoblastoma-associated proteins (RbAp48 is related with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and AD disease is associated with age-related memory loss. During normal function, RbAp48 forms a complex with the peptide FOG-1 (friend of GATA-1 and has a role in gene transcription, but an unstable complex may affect the function of RbAp48. This study utilizes the world’s largest traditional Chinese medicine (TCM database and virtual screening to provide potential compounds for RbAp48 binding. A molecular dynamics (MD simulation was employed to understand the variations after protein-ligand interaction. FOG1 was found to exhibit low stability after RbAp48 binding; the peptide displayed significant movement from the initial docking position, a phenomenon which matched the docking results. The protein structure of the other TCM candidates was not variable during MD simulation and had a greater stable affinity for RbAp48 binding than FOG1. Our results reveal that the protein structure does not affect ligand binding, and the top three TCM candidates Bittersweet alkaloid II, Eicosandioic acid, and Perivine might resolve the instability of the RbAp48-FOG1 complex and thus be used in AD therapy.

  7. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Cardiovascular Disease: A Transitory Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohilla Ankur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy is a medical condition characterized by abnormally large levels of homocysteine in blood. The involvement of homocysteine (Hcy in various biochemical reactions causes deficiencies of the vitamins like pyridoxine (B6, folic acid (B9, or B12 leading to higher Hcy levels. Hhcy has been considered as an independent risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases like endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The review article critically explains about the mechanisms involved in the Hhcy-induced development and progression of various cardiovascular disorders

  8. Factores de risco cardiovascular e obesidade infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Moniz, M; T. Marques; Cabral, M.; Nizarali, Z; Coelho, R.; Monteiro, A.; Bragança, G; Carreiro, H

    2011-01-01

    Introdução: a obesidade associa-se, mesmo em idade pediátrica, a factores de risco de doença cardiovascular, como a dislipidemia, a tensão arterial (TA) elevada e o síndrome metabólico (SM), que contribuem para o aumento da morbilidade e mortalidade na idade adulta. Objectivos: caracterizar a prevalência dos factores de risco cardiovascular nas crianças e adolescentes obesos seguidos na consulta de Endocrinologia Pediátrica. Material e Métodos: estudo descritivo dos casos seguidos entre...

  9. Cardiovascular Catastrophes in the Obstetric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbs, Sarah B; Tewelde, Semhar Z

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy is a complex and dynamic physiologic state, in which the needs of the mother and fetus must achieve a fine balance with one another. Some of the most dreaded and deadly complications that can arise during this period affect the cardiovascular system are hypertensive emergencies (including preeclampsia and eclampsia), acute coronary syndrome, peripartum cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmias, dissection, thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. This review provides emergency physicians, obstetricians, intensivists, and other health care providers with the most recent information on the diagnosis and management of these deadly cardiovascular complications of pregnancy. PMID:26226861

  10. Covert hypothyroidism presenting as a cardiovascular event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMar, H J; West, S G; Garrett, C R; Hofeldt, F D

    1991-11-01

    Hypothyroidism presenting with classic signs and symptoms is generally easily recognized. Less often, patients with hypothyroidism may present with symptoms and laboratory abnormalities suggestive of cardiovascular disease. In this article, we describe six such patients. Hypothyroidism was suspected when creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels were persistently elevated. The diagnosis was confirmed by thyroid function tests, and thyroid hormone therapy resulted in resolution of symptoms and CPK elevations. Persistently elevated CPK levels associated with cardiovascular symptoms but without demonstrable myocardial damage should prompt consideration of covert hypothyroidism. PMID:1951418

  11. Lifestyle dominates cardiovascular risks in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalib A. Latiff; Khairul H. Yusof

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular problem is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and now invaded to the sub-urban and rural areas. To prevent and control of this problem, several main risk factors needed to be known and shall be reexamined and ranked according to the priority. The objectives of this research paper was to identify several dominant risk factor related to cardiovascular problem. A cross sectional study was carried out from March 2000 – June 2001 on a total of 8159 rural population aged 1...

  12. Papel da vitamina D no risco cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    A prevenção da doença cardiovascular (DCV) é umaprioridade global de saúde pública. A vitamina D tem sido classicamente associada à saúde óssea, estando bem estabelecido que a carência de vitamina D provoca raquitismo na idade pediátrica e, osteomalacia e osteoporose na idade adulta. Contudo, hoje sabemos que níveis adequados de vitamina D são essenciais ao bom funcionamento de vários tecidos e órgãos do nossoorganismo, incluindo o sistema cardiovascular.

  13. Impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zalesin, Kerstyn C

    2012-02-01

    Obesity promotes a cascade of secondary pathologies including diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, thrombosis, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, and OSA, which collectively heighten the risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity may also be an independent moderator of cardiac risk apart from these comorbid conditions. Rates of obesity and cardiac disease continue to rise in a parallel and exponential manner. Because obesity is potentially one of the most modifiable mediators of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, effective treatment and prevention interventions should have a profound and favorable impact on public health.

  14. Cardiovascular complications of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosslien, Egil

    2005-01-01

    opposite effect and accelerates atherogenesis. In conclusion, to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications during long-term coxib therapy, low-dose aspirin supplementation should be considered. An alternative is to use a less COX-2-selective inhibitor such as meloxicam. Genotyping of -765 alleles of the COX-2 gene promoter and examining the polymorphism of other genes involved in eicosanoid metabolism or NSAID degradation may become helpful in predicting patients who are at higher risk of cardiovascular complications during selective COX-2 inhibitor therapy. PMID:16254252

  15. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26383179

  16. The fungus Ustilago maydis and humans share disease-related proteins that are not found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinberg Gero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis is a well-established model system for molecular phytopathology. In addition, it recently became evident that U. maydis and humans share proteins and cellular processes that are not found in the standard fungal model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This prompted us to do a comparative analysis of the predicted proteome of U. maydis, S. cerevisiae and humans. Results At a cut off at 20% identity over protein length, all three organisms share 1738 proteins, whereas both fungi share only 541 conserved proteins. Despite the evolutionary distance between U. maydis and humans, 777 proteins were shared. When applying a more stringent criterion (≥ 20% identity with a homologue in one organism over at least 50 amino acids and ≥ 10% less in the other organism, we found 681 proteins for the comparison of U. maydis and humans, whereas the both fungi share only 622 fungal specific proteins. Finally, we found that S. cerevisiae and humans shared 312 proteins. In the U. maydis to H. sapiens homology set 454 proteins are functionally classified and 42 proteins are related to serious human diseases. However, a large portion of 222 proteins are of unknown function. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis has a long history of being a model system for understanding DNA recombination and repair, as well as molecular plant pathology. The identification of functionally un-characterized genes that are conserved in humans and U. maydis opens the door for experimental work, which promises new insight in the cell biology of the mammalian cell.

  17. Reduction of NADPH-oxidase activity ameliorates the cardiovascular phenotype in a mouse model of Williams-Beuren Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Campuzano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark feature of Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS is a generalized arteriopathy due to elastin deficiency, presenting as stenoses of medium and large arteries and leading to hypertension and other cardiovascular complications. Deletion of a functional NCF1 gene copy has been shown to protect a proportion of WBS patients against hypertension, likely through reduced NADPH-oxidase (NOX-mediated oxidative stress. DD mice, carrying a 0.67 Mb heterozygous deletion including the Eln gene, presented with a generalized arteriopathy, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy, associated with elevated angiotensin II (angII, oxidative stress parameters, and Ncf1 expression. Genetic (by crossing with Ncf1 mutant and/or pharmacological (with ang II type 1 receptor blocker, losartan, or NOX inhibitor apocynin reduction of NOX activity controlled hormonal and biochemical parameters in DD mice, resulting in normalized blood pressure and improved cardiovascular histology. We provide strong evidence for implication of the redox system in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular disease in a mouse model of WBS. The phenotype of these mice can be ameliorated by either genetic or pharmacological intervention reducing NOX activity, likely through reduced angII-mediated oxidative stress. Therefore, anti-NOX therapy merits evaluation to prevent the potentially serious cardiovascular complications of WBS, as well as in other cardiovascular disorders mediated by similar pathogenic mechanism.

  18. Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Pennells, Lisa;

    2012-01-01

    The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated.......The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated....

  19. Atlas de riesgo cardiovascular en Asturias, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Margolles, Mario; Saiz, Roberto; Margolles, Pedro; García, Eva; Donate, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    profundizar en el conocimiento de los niveles de riesgo cardiovascular (RCV) para poder aplicar medidas que mejoren la promoción y prevención y la asistencia integral. Nuestro objetivo es aumentar la información sobre los niveles de RCV en Asturias y facilitar la planificación sanitaria.

  20. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  1. Positron Emission Tomography in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Renata Christian Martins; Gouvea, Clecio Maria, E-mail: renatafelix@cardiol.br, E-mail: renata.felix@inc.saude.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Michel Pontes [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Many articles have demonstrated the role of PET-CT in the evaluation of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on this topic to identify clinical situations in which there is evidence of the usefulness of PET-CT in diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation.

  2. C-reactive protein and cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohua JI

    2004-01-01

    @@ Recently many new disease markers and risk factors have been proposed, but it is not yet clear how far the new markers are validated as predictive risk factors enable us to increase accuracy as well as enhancing our ability to predict cardiovascular (CV) events and to plan prevention and therapy.

  3. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    , including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population...

  4. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  5. Teaching Cardiovascular Integrations with Computer Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Nils S.; Campbell, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a computer-based instructional unit in cardiovascular physiology. The program (which employs simulated laboratory experimental techniques with a problem-solving format is designed to supplement an animal laboratory and to offer students an integrative approach to physiology through use of microcomputers. Also presents an overview of the…

  6. Use of Obesity Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Pischon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, yet, the underlying mechanisms are only poorly understood. The adipose tissue produces a variety of hormones and cytokines and thereby actively participates in a network of biomarkers that may be relevant for the development of CVD. Such obesity biomarkers have a great potential to better characterize the obesity phenotype that may be relevant for the risk of CVD beyond anthropometric parameters. They may be used to support mechanistic studies, to help identify individuals at risk for CVD, and to evaluate the effect of preventive measures. The present article discusses the role of some of the most promising obesity biomarkers in cardiovascular epidemiology, including inflammatory markers, adiponectin, resistin, and fetuin-A. Importantly, some of these markers have been related to cardiovascular risk even after accounting for anthropometric parameters. Further, the potential ability to manipulate blood levels of some of these biomarkers through medication, diet and lifestyle make them attractive markers for cardiovascular risk. However, many open questions remain – especially with regard to the causal role of the factors as well as with regard to the extent of improvement in CVD prediction by these markers – before measurement of these biomarkers may be recommended on a public health level.

  7. Cardiovascular risk in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manali, Effrosyni D; Papadaki, Georgia; Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Schams, Andrea; Kagouridis, Konstantinos; Karakatsani, Anna; Orfanos, Stylianos; Griese, Matthias; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that cardiovascular events and/or indices of cardiac dysfunction may be increased in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, arrhythmias, pulmonary embolism, stroke and ischemic heart attack were reported. Patients underwent serum anti-GM-CSF antibodies, disease severity score (DSS), Doppler transthoracic echocardiograph, glucose, thyroid hormones, lipids, troponin and pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) examination. Thirteen patients (8 female) were studied, median age of 47. Pro-BNP inversely related to DLCO% and TLC%; troponin directly related to DSS, age, P(A-a)O2, left atrium-, left ventricle-end-diastole diameter and BMI. On multiple regression analysis DSS was the only parameter significantly and strongly related with troponin (R(2) = 0.776, p = 0.007). No cardiovascular event was reported during follow-up. In PAP cardiovascular risk indices relate to lung disease severity. Therefore, PAP patients could be at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Quantitation of its magnitude and potential links to lungs' physiologic derangement will be addressed in future studies. PMID:26558331

  8. Cardiovascular-Active Venom Toxins: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello Horta, Carolina Campolina; Chatzaki, Maria; Rezende, Bruno Almeida; Magalhães, Bárbara de Freitas; Duarte, Clara Guerra; Felicori, Liza Figueiredo; Ribeiro Oliveira-Mendes, Bárbara Bruna; do Carmo, Anderson Oliveira; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a mixture of bioactive compounds produced as weapons and used primarily to immobilize and kill preys. As a result of the high potency and specificity for various physiological targets, many toxins from animal venoms have emerged as possible drugs for the medication of diverse disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. Captopril, which inhibits the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), was the first successful venom-based drug and a notable example of rational drug design. Since captopril was developed, many studies have discovered novel bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs) with actions on the cardiovascular system. Natriuretic peptides (NPs) have also been found in animal venoms and used as template to design new drugs with applications in cardiovascular diseases. Among the anti-arrhythmic peptides, GsMTx-4 was discovered to be a toxin that selectively inhibits the stretch-activated cation channels (SACs), which are involved in atrial fibrillation. The present review describes the main components isolated from animal venoms that act on the cardiovascular system and presents a brief summary of venomous animals and their venom apparatuses. PMID:26812904

  9. Cardiovascular effects of phentermine and topiramate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan;

    2014-01-01

    approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention for the chronic treatment of overweight/obese adults. This review summarizes and evaluates the cardiovascular risk/benefit profile associated with phentermine and topiramate, individually and in combination...

  10. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  11. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  12. Cardiovascular disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Nobuakira; Shikata, Chihiro; Sekikawa, Tetsuaki; Kimura, Nobuaki; Nishiyama, Akihiro

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease with multiorgan involvement. Besides retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy induced by microangiopathy, both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications are significant. Both cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease are observed in patients with diabetes, and the latter is clinically more important because of its high incidence and seriousness.

  13. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  14. Epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.

    2001-01-01

    Within Europe large differences exist in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke. These diseases show a clear West-East gradient with high rates in Eastern Europe. In spite the decreasing trend in age-adjusted cardiovascular disease mortality in Western European countries an increase in the

  15. Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia and Cardiovascular Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hong Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH is a rare congenital anomaly of thebrain presenting as nodular heterotopia along the paraventricular region. Tencases of PNH complicated by aortic aneurysm have been reported in the literature, and 9 of them also had symptoms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(EDS. This study investigated the association of PNH and cardiovascularanomalies in Asians.Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of brain heterotopia on magnetic resonance imagingat Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 1994 and 2010 were screenedfor both typical PNH and cardiovascular anomalies. The family members ofthe index cases were also evaluated.Results: One family (5 patients and a sporadic case were found to have both typicalPNH and cardiovascular anomalies. Two of them had aortic root aneurysm,one had aortic regurgitation, and one had minor valvular disease. Twopatients had a history of seizures, but none of them had EDS.Conclusions:Clinical heterogeneity exists in the patients with PNH. Overlap in the symptoms of PNH, cardiovascular anomalies, aortic aneurysm, and EDS werereviewed. EDS is unusual in Asians with PNH. Aortic aneurysm and othervalvular heart diseases are common cardiovascular anomalies in PNHpatients.

  16. Cardiovascular risk prediction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dis, van S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In clinical practice, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) risk prediction functions and charts are used to identify persons at high risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), who are considered eligible for drug treatment of elevated blood pressure and serum cholesterol. These funct

  17. Positron Emission Tomography in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many articles have demonstrated the role of PET-CT in the evaluation of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on this topic to identify clinical situations in which there is evidence of the usefulness of PET-CT in diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation

  18. Role of gamma-glutamyltransferase in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Donglin; Tao, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are threatening human health with rising morbidity and mortality rates. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease, and the prognosis of cardiovascular disease may be predicted by increasing GGT levels. GGT levels are related to cardiovascular emergencies of chronic heart failure, and an elevated GGT level has been shown to be an independent predictive maker for cardia...

  19. Beta-3 adrenoceptors as new therapeutic targets for cardiovascular pathologies.

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Chantal; Rozec, Bertrand; Manoury, Boris; Balligand, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Catecholamines play a key role in the regulation of cardiovascular function, classically through ß(1/2)-adrenoreceptors (AR) activation. After ß(3)-AR cloning in the late 1980s, convincing evidence for ß(3)-AR expression and function in cardiovascular tissues recently initiated a reexamination of their involvement in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Their upregulation in diseased cardiovascular tissues and resistance to desensitization suggest they may be attractive therapeutic...

  20. Nuevas estrategias en prevención cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, J.; Alegria, E; Cordero, A.; Fernandez-Jarne, E. (E.); Saenz-de-Buruaga, J.D. (J. D.)

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease, are the leading cause of mortality in Spain and western countries. The prevention of complications is based on a cardiovascular risk stratification that is based on the presence of classical cardiovascular risk factors. There are many scales for cardiovascular risk stratification that classify subjects into low, intermediate or high risk. Despite the fact that the impact and treatment of risk factors are well known, their control rem...

  1. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Duggirala Sivaram Prasad; Zubair Kabir; Ashok Kumar Dash; Bhagabati Charan Das

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnorma...

  2. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  3. Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Maulik Subir; Banerjee Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number...

  4. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Guardamagna Ornella; Abello Francesca; Cagliero Paola; Lughetti Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towa...

  5. 30. Cardiovascular risk factors burden in Saudi Arabia: The africa middle east cardiovascular epidemiological (ace study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.

  6. ccm2-like is required for cardiovascular development as a novel component of the Heg-CCM pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Jonathan N.; Sogah, Vanessa M.; Ye, Lillian Y.; Mably, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The Heart of Glass-Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (Heg-CCM) pathway is essential for normal cardiovascular development in zebrafish and mouse. In zebrafish, the Heg-CCM pathway mutants santa(ccm1/san), valentine (ccm2/vtn), and heart of glass (heg) exhibit severely dilated hearts and inflow tracts and a complete absence of blood circulation. We identified a novel gene based on its sequence identity with ccm2, which we have named ccm2-like (ccm2l), and characterized its role in cardiovascular...

  7. Current status in the autoimmune disease-related lymphoma%自身免疫病相关性淋巴瘤的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明智; 闫相涛

    2010-01-01

    近年来自身免疫病相关性淋巴瘤的研究和报道越来越多,包括干燥综合征、类风湿性关节炎、系统性红斑狼疮等多种自身免疫性疾病已经证实和淋巴瘤的发生存在相关性,而其他一些自身免疫性疾病则可能会增加发生淋巴瘤的危险性.文章从自身免疫病相关性淋巴瘤的特点、发病机制、治疗等方面作一介绍.%In recent years,the reports and studies in autoimmune disease-related lymphoma are more and more.It has been demonstrated that there was a definite relationship between some autoimmune diseases and the incidence of lymphoma,including sj(o)gren syndrome,rheumatoid arthritis,systemic lupus erythematosus,ect.While some autoimmune diseases may increase the incidence of lymphoma.In this paper,the characteristics,pathogenesis and treatment of autoimmune disease-related lymphoma are reviewed.

  8. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging for the assessment of cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Graça, Bruno Miguel Silva Rosa da

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is responsible for diverse cardiovascular complications such as increased atherosclerosis in large arteries (carotids, aorta, and femoral arteries) and increased coronary atherosclerosis. A number of noninvasive tests are now available to detect coronary atherosclerotic disease, myocardial dysfunction and myocardial ischemia. The potential of cardiovascular imaging for the assessment of cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetic patients is an active field of res...

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enhance Phagocytosis of Alzheimer's Disease-Related Amyloid-beta(42) by Human Microglia and Decrease Inflammatory Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Erik; Zhu, Mingqin; Toro, Veronica Cortes; Vedin, Inger; Palmblad, Jan; Cederholm, Tommy; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Faxen-Irving, Gerd; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Basun, Hans; Eriksdotter, Maria; Schultzberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The use of supplements withomega-3 (omega 3) fatty acids (FAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is widespread due to proposed beneficial effects on the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Many effects of omega 3 FAs are believed to be caused by down-regulation and resolution of inflammation. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with inflammation mediated by microglia and astrocytes, and omega 3 FAs have been proposed as potential treatments for AD. The focus...

  10. Genetic Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV disease is the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. It is the result of an accelerated atherosclerotic process. Both RA and atherosclerosis are complex polygenic diseases. Besides traditional CV risk factors and chronic inflammation, a number of studies have confirmed the role of genetic factors in the development of the atherogenesis observed in RA. In this regard, besides a strong association between the HLA-DRB1*04 shared epitope alleles and both endothelial dysfunction, an early step in the atherosclerotic process, and clinically evident CV disease, other polymorphisms belonging to genes implicated in inflammatory and metabolic pathways, located inside and outside the HLA region, such as the 308 variant (G>A, rs1800629 of the TNFA locus, the rs1801131 polymorphism (A>C; position + 1298 of the MTHFR locus, or a deletion of 32 base pairs on the CCR5 gene, seem to be associated with the risk of CV disease in patients with RA. Despite considerable effort to decipher the genetic basis of CV disease in RA, further studies are required to better establish the genetic influence in the increased risk of CV events observed in patients with RA.

  11. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of plasma reveals abnormalities in lipid metabolism proteins in chronic kidney disease-related atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Magdalena; Formanowicz, Dorota; Marczak, Łukasz; Suszyńska-Zajczyk, Joanna; Pawliczak, Elżbieta; Wanic-Kossowska, Maria; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a considerably higher risk of death due to cardiovascular causes. Using an iTRAQ MS/MS approach, we investigated the alterations in plasma protein accumulation in patients with CKD and classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) without CKD. The proteomic analysis led to the identification of 130 differentially expressed proteins among CVD and CKD patients and healthy volunteers. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 29 differentially expressed proteins were involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, 20 of which were apolipoproteins and constituents of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although dyslipidemia is common in CKD patients, we found that significant changes in apolipoproteins were not strictly associated with changes in plasma lipid levels. A lack of correlation between apoB and LDL concentration and an inverse relationship of some proteins with the HDL level were revealed. An increased level of apolipoprotein AIV, adiponectin, or apolipoprotein C, despite their anti-atherogenic properties, was not associated with a decrease in cardiovascular event risk in CKD patients. The presence of the distinctive pattern of apolipoproteins demonstrated in this study may suggest that lipid abnormalities in CKD are characterized by more qualitative abnormalities and may be related to HDL function rather than HDL deficiency. PMID:27600335

  12. Plasma proteomics to identify biomarkers – application to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Beck

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an unmet need for new cardiovascular biomarkers. Despite this only few biomarkers for the diagnosis or screening of cardiovascular diseases have been implemented in the clinic. Thousands of proteins can be analysed in plasma by mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies. Therefore, this technology may therefore identify new biomarkers that previously have not been associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the key challenges and considerations, including strategies, recent discoveries and clinical applications in cardiovascular proteomics that may lead to the discovery of novel cardiovascular biomarkers.

  13. The relationships between cardiovascular disease and diabetes: focus on pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Jason C; Castellano, Jose M; Farkouh, Michael E; Fuster, Valentin

    2014-03-01

    There is a looming global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Of all the end-organ effects caused by diabetes, the cardiovascular system is particularly susceptible to the biologic perturbations caused by this disease, and many patients may die from diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the pathobiology of the diabetic vasculature and heart. Clinical studies have illuminated the optimal way to treat patients with cardiovascular manifestations of this disease. This article reviews these aspects of diabetes and the cardiovascular system, broadly classified into diabetic vascular disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and the clinical management of the diabetic cardiovascular disease patient. PMID:24582091

  14. Apolipoprotein E: from cardiovascular disease to neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahley, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E was initially described as a lipid transport protein and major ligand for low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors with a role in cholesterol metabolism and cardiovascular disease. It has since emerged as a major risk factor (causative gene) for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Detailed understanding of the structural features of the three isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4), which differ by only a single amino acid interchange, has elucidated their unique functions. ApoE2 and apoE4 increase the risk for heart disease: apoE2 increases atherogenic lipoprotein levels (it binds poorly to LDL receptors), and apoE4 increases LDL levels (it binds preferentially to triglyceride-rich, very low density lipoproteins, leading to downregulation of LDL receptors). ApoE4 also increases the risk for neurodegenerative diseases, decreases their age of onset, or alters their progression. ApoE4 likely causes neurodegeneration secondary to its abnormal structure, caused by an interaction between its carboxyl- and amino-terminal domains, called domain interaction. When neurons are stressed or injured, they synthesize apoE to redistribute cholesterol for neuronal repair or remodeling. However, because of its altered structure, neuronal apoE4 undergoes neuron-specific proteolysis, generating neurotoxic fragments (12-29 kDa) that escape the secretory pathway and cause mitochondrial dysfunction and cytoskeletal alterations, including tau phosphorylation. ApoE4-associated pathology can be prevented by small-molecule structure correctors that block domain interaction by converting apoE4 to a molecule that resembles apoE3 both structurally and functionally. Structure correctors are a potential therapeutic approach to reduce apoE4 pathology in both cardiovascular and neurological disorders. PMID:27277824

  15. Human urotensin II promotes hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takuya; Arita, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Yuji; Suguro, Toshiaki; Sakai, Tetsuo; Hongo, Shigeki; Miyazaki, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Human urotensin II (U-II), the most potent vasoconstrictor undecapeptide identified to date, and its receptor (UT) are involved in the pathogenesis of systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of U-II with particular reference to its role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of U-II gene (S89N) are associated with onset of essential hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance in the Asian population. Plasma U-II levels are elevated in patients with vascular endothelial dysfunction-related diseases such as essential hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Chronic infusion of U-II enhances atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. In human atherosclerotic plaques from the aorta and coronary and carotid arteries, U-II is expressed at high levels in endothelial cells (ECs) and lymphocytes, whereas UT is expressed at high levels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), ECs, monocytes, and macrophages. U-II stimulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in human ECs as chemoattractant for monocytes, and accelerates foam cell formation by up-regulation of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 in human monocyte-derived macrophages. U-II produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation in human VSMCs, and stimulates VSMC proliferation with synergistic effects when combined with ROS, oxidized LDL, and serotonin. Clinical studies demonstrated increased plasma U-II levels in accordance with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and that of coronary artery lesions in patients with ischemic heart disease. Here, we summarize the key roles of U-II in progression of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases

  16. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for Evaluation and Management of Cardiovascular Complications of Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Sean A; Dent, Susan; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Clarke, Brian; Davis, Margot K; Jassal, Davinder S; Johnson, Christopher; Lemieux, Julie; Paterson, Ian; Sebag, Igal A; Simmons, Christine; Sulpher, Jeffrey; Thain, Kishore; Thavendiranathan, Paaldinesh; Wentzell, Jason R; Wurtele, Nola; Côté, Marc André; Fine, Nowell M; Haddad, Haissam; Hayley, Bradley D; Hopkins, Sean; Joy, Anil A; Rayson, Daniel; Stadnick, Ellamae; Straatman, Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Modern treatment strategies have led to improvements in cancer survival, however, these gains might be offset by the potential negative effect of cancer therapy on cardiovascular health. Cardiotoxicity is now recognized as a leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. This guideline, authored by a pan-Canadian expert group of health care providers and commissioned by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, is intended to guide the care of cancer patients with established cardiovascular disease or those at risk of experiencing toxicities related to cancer treatment. It includes recommendations and important management considerations with a focus on 4 main areas: identification of the high-risk population for cardiotoxicity, detection and prevention of cardiotoxicity, treatment of cardiotoxicity, and a multidisciplinary approach to cardio-oncology. All recommendations align with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Key recommendations for which the panel provides a strong level of evidence include: (1) that routine evaluation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and optimal treatment of preexisting cardiovascular disease be performed in all patients before, during, and after receiving cancer therapy; (2) that initiation, maintenance, and/or augmentation of antihypertensive therapy be instituted per the Canadian Hypertension Educational Program guidelines for patients with preexisting hypertension or for those who experience hypertension related to cancer therapy; and (3) that investigation and management follow current Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure guidelines for cancer patients who develop clinical heart failure or an asymptomatic decline in left ventricular ejection fraction during or after cancer treatment. This guideline provides guidance to clinicians on contemporary best practices for the cardiovascular care of cancer patients. PMID:27343741

  17. Biomarkers of cardiovascular stress in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Micha T; Mueller, Christian; Schoch, Otto D; Ammann, Peter; Rickli, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-related breathing disorder associated with "cardiovascular stress", i.e. cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular diseases, and an increased risk of heart failure, stroke, and death. Experimental and clinical studies have characterized potential underlying mechanisms including biventricular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia. Assessment of these cardiovascular features of OSA requires a spectrum of clinical tools including ECG, echocardiography, exercise testing, and angiography. In contrast to many cardiovascular diseases, the role of blood biomarkers to characterize cardiovascular function and cardiovascular risk in OSA is poorly defined. In the present review we summarize the available data on biomarkers potentially providing information on cardiovascular features in OSA patients without overt cardiovascular disease. The vast majority of studies on biomarkers of cardiovascular stress in OSA evaluated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)/N-terminal-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and cardiac troponins (cTn). Although some studies found significant associations between these cardiac biomarkers and the presence and severity of OSA, data remain conflicting. Also, the detailed pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the link between OSA and hemodynamic cardiac stress (BNP/NT-proBNP) and cardiomyocyte damage (cTn) are poorly understood. Major research efforts are required to establish the clinical role of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with OSA. PMID:27380998

  18. Is mitochondrial tRNA(Ser(UCN)) T7501C mutation associated with cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Huang, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations are increasingly recognized as an important cause of cardiovascular diseases, point mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes being the largest group among them. Most recently, mutation at position 7501 in mt-tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene has been reported to be associated with human cardiovascular diseases including cardiomyopathy, sudden cardiac death (SCD) and Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). However, its direct pathogenic role remained poorly understood. In this study, we performed an extensive web-based search for the published resources concerning this association. Through the application of bioinformatics tool, we observed that this mutation altered the mt-tRNA(Ser(UCN)) secondary structure, in addition, evolutionary conservation analysis of this mutation indicated that this mutation is highly conserved between different species. Notably, the T7501C mutation belonging to human mitochondrial haplogroup U8a1a1, a rare subgroup of U8, was present only in European population and was absent in Han Chinese population. Taken together, our result indicated that the T7501C mutation may occur infrequently and was probably pathogenic in cardiovascular disease development. PMID:24491108

  19. Pathophysiology and Management of Cardiovascular Manifestations in Marfan and Loeys-Dietz Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Norifumi; Yagi, Hiroki; Hara, Hironori; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Fujita, Daishi; Nawata, Kan; Inuzuka, Ryo; Taniguchi, Yuki; Harada, Mutsuo; Toko, Haruhiro; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2016-05-25

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant heritable disorder of connective tissue that affects the cardiovascular, skeletal, ocular, pulmonary, and nervous systems and is usually caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene, which encodes fibrillin-1. MFS is traditionally considered to result from the structural weakness of connective tissue. However, recent investigations on molecular mechanisms indicate that increased transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MFS and related disorders, such as Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), which is caused by mutation in TGF-β signaling-related genes. In addition, recent studies show that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling enhances cardiovascular pathologies in MFS, and the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan has the potential to inhibit aortic aneurysm formation. However, the relationship between TGF-β and AT1R signaling pathways remains poorly characterized. In this review, we discuss the recent studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular manifestations of MFS and LDS and the ensuing strategies for management. PMID:27181042

  20. Cardiovascular system simulation in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, V. C.

    1972-01-01

    Use of complex cardiovascular system models, in conjunction with a large hybrid computer, in biomedical engineering courses. A cardiovascular blood pressure-flow model, driving a compartment model for the study of dye transport, was set up on the computer for use as a laboratory exercise by students who did not have the computer experience or skill to be able to easily set up such a simulation involving some 27 differential equations running at 'real time' rate. The students were given detailed instructions regarding the model, and were then able to study effects such as those due to septal and valve defects upon the pressure, flow, and dye dilution curves. The success of this experiment in the use of involved models in engineering courses was such that it seems that this type of laboratory exercise might be considered for use in physiology courses as an adjunct to animal experiments.