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Sample records for cardiovascular disease cancer

  1. Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International...... Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes I10-I79) were compared with the expected numbers derived from the comparison cohort. We calculated the absolute excess risks attributable to status as a survivor of cancer and standardized hospitalization rate ratios (RRs). All statistical tests were two...

  2. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identi...

  3. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arranz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols.

  4. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  5. Hydroxytyrosol and potential uses in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana-Pérez, Cristina; Auñón, David; García-Flores, Libia A; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol is one of the main phenolic components of olive oil. It is present in the fruit and leaf of the olive (Olea europaea L.). During the past decades, it has been well documented that this phenolic compound has health benefits and a protective action has been found in preclinical studies against several diseases. Here, we review its bioavailability in human beings and several assays showing significant results related with cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mechanisms of action include potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, among others. The importance of hydroxytyrosol in protection of low-density lipoproteins and consequently its implication in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk has been highlighted by the European Food Safety Authority, concluding that 5 mg of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives should be consumed daily to reach this effect at physiological level. We discuss the potential uses of this compound in supplements, nutraceutic foods, or topical formulations in the disease risk reduction. Finally, we conclude that more studies are needed to sustain or reject many other health claims not yet fully documented and to validate these newly available hydroxytyrosol-based products, because it seems to be a good candidate to reduce the risk of diseases mentioned. PMID:25988120

  6. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ...

  7. Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Jansen, M.C.F.; Klerk, M.; Kok, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We quantified the public health benefit of fruits and vegetables on the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), using currently available human data. Design: We reviewed over 250 observational studies on cancer and CVD. Relative risks (RRs) for high versus low intake of fru

  8. Risk of solid cancer, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis and fractures in patients with systemic mastocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broesby-Olsen, Sigurd; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Vestergaard, Hanne;

    2016-01-01

    In patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), several aspects of morbidity remain poorly understood. We assessed the risk of solid cancers, cardiovascular disease, anaphylaxis, osteoporosis, and fractures in SM patients. Using Danish medical registries, we conducted a nationwide population.......2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6) and the 10-year AR was 5.9% (95% CI 3.9-8.4). SM patients are at increased risk of solid cancers - especially melanoma and NMSC-and cardiovascular disease. The risk of anaphylaxis and osteoporosis is clearly increased in SM, though absolute risk was low in this population-based study...

  9. Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Veer, van 't, P.; Jansen, M.C.F.; Klerk, M.; Kok, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We quantified the public health benefit of fruits and vegetables on the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), using currently available human data. Design: We reviewed over 250 observational studies on cancer and CVD. Relative risks (RRs) for high versus low intake of fruits and vegetables were obtained. The preventable proportion of chronic diseases, i.e. the per cent of cases attributable to low consumption of fruits and vegetables, was estimated using three scen...

  10. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  11. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Ellervik, Christina; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne;

    2007-01-01

    Background- We hypothesized that the estrogen receptor (ESR1) IVS1-397T/C polymorphism affects high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to hormone replacement therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer of reproductive organs, and hip fracture. Methods and Results- We studied cr...

  12. Religiousness/Spirituality, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: Cultural Integration for Health Research and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Kevin S.; Hooker, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recently, behavioral scientists have developed greater interest in understanding the relations between religiousness and spirituality (R/S) and health. Our objectives were to (a) provide an overview of the R/S and health literature specific to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, (b) discuss the importance of religious culture…

  13. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor predicts cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Andersen, O; Linneberg, A; Ladelund, S; Hansen T, W; Langkilde, A; Petersen, Janne; Pielak, T; Møller, N. L.; Jeppesen, J; Lyngbæk, S; Fenger, M; Olsen M, H; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jørgensen, Torben; Haugaard S, B; Hildebrandt, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is thought to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), cancer and mortality. Biomarkers of inflammation may aid in risk prediction and enable early intervention and prevention of disease.......Low-grade inflammation is thought to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), cancer and mortality. Biomarkers of inflammation may aid in risk prediction and enable early intervention and prevention of disease....

  14. Estrogen receptor alpha polymorphism and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, AD; Ellervik, C; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Axelsson, CK; Grønholdt, ML; Grande, P; Jensen, Gorm B; Nordestgaard, BG; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Ellervik, Christina; Axelsson, Christen Kirk; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Grande, Peer; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2007-01-01

    thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism), cancer of reproductive organs (breasts, ovaries, uterus, and prostate), and hip fracture. We also studied patients with ischemic heart disease (n=2495), ischemic cerebrovascular disease (n=856), and breast cancer (n=1256) versus general population......Background- We hypothesized that the estrogen receptor (ESR1) IVS1-397T/C polymorphism affects high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to hormone replacement therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer of reproductive organs, and hip fracture. Methods and Results- We studied...... controls. The CC, CT, and TT genotypes had general population frequencies of 21%, 50%, and 29%, respectively. Cross-sectionally, genotype did not influence high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to hormone replacement therapy. In the cohort study, there were no differences in risks of CVD, cancer of...

  15. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Mar 23,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  16. Influence of Age on Incident Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Prostate Cancer Survivors Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Alicia K.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Koyama, Tatsuki; Albertsen, Peter C.; Goodman, Michael; Hamilton, Ann S.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stroup, Antoinette M.; Resnick, Matthew J.; Barocas, Daniel A.; Penson, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Observational data suggest that androgen deprivation therapy increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Using data from the population based PCOS we evaluated whether age at diagnosis and comorbidity impact the association of androgen deprivation therapy with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Materials and Methods We identified men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer diagnosed from 1994 to 1995 who were followed through 2009 to 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the relationship of androgen deprivation therapy exposure (2 or fewer years, greater than 2 years or none) with incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease, adjusting for age at diagnosis, race, stage and comorbidity. Results Of 3,526 eligible study participants 2,985 without diabetes and 3,112 without cardiovascular disease comprised the cohorts at risk. Androgen deprivation therapy was not associated with an increased risk of diabetes or cardiovascular disease in men diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 70 years. Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy and increasing age at diagnosis in older men was associated with an increased risk of diabetes (at age 76 years OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0–4.4) and cardiovascular disease (at age 74 years OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.5). Men with comorbidities were at greater risk for diabetes (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3–7.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 8.1, 95% CI 4.3–15.5) than men without comorbidities. Conclusions Prolonged androgen deprivation therapy exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in men diagnosed with prostate cancer who are older than approximately 75 years, especially those with other comorbidities. Older men who receive prolonged androgen deprivation therapy should be closely monitored for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25451829

  17. The utility of cardiac stress testing for detection of cardiovascular disease in breast cancer survivors: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkham AA; Virani SA; Campbell KL

    2015-01-01

    Amy A Kirkham,1 Sean A Virani,2 Kristin L Campbell1,31Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground: Heart function tests performed with myocardial stress, or “cardiac stress tests”, may be beneficial for detection of cardiovascular disease. Women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases than the general population, in part due t...

  18. The utility of cardiac stress testing for detection of cardiovascular disease in breast cancer survivors: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkham, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Amy A Kirkham,1 Sean A Virani,2 Kristin L Campbell1,31Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaBackground: Heart function tests performed with myocardial stress, or “cardiac stress tests”, may be beneficial for detection of cardiovascular disease. Women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases than the general population, in pa...

  19. Cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality among women with a history of endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, S.H.; Bryden, J R; Lee, Robert; Bishop, J L; Finlayson, A R; C. D. Byrne; Brewster, D H

    2007-01-01

    Among 7182 women with endometrial cancer in Scotland, standardised mortality ratios (and 95% confidence intervals (CI)) were 6.38 (5.74–7.15) for all cancers and 1.10 (1.00–1.22) for circulatory diseases as underlying cause of death and 2.81 (2.19–3.70) for diabetes as underlying/contributory cause of death.

  20. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population.......We examined the associations between the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor polymorphism (rs1051730) on chromosome 15q25 marking the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNB4-CHRNA5, smoking behavior, and tobacco-related cancer and lung and cardiovascular diseases in the general population....

  1. NUTRITION AND FITNESS (PART 1: OBESITY, THE METABOLIC SYNDROME, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, AND CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Nutrition and Fitness held in Athens, Greece, on June 91-2, 2004 are presented in the book as the first volume of the series. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on nutrition and fitness by taking into consideration i genetic endowment, ii adaptation to the nutritional factors and the effect of various resources of energy on exercise and performance, iii the epidemiology of obesity, iv the relationship of nutrition and fitness to chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, syndrome X, obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes, cancer. The book also discusses the classification system of obesity in several countries and compares the diets used in several regions/countries. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of three parts with sub-sections in three of them. The topics of the parts are: i Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, ii Coronary Heart Disease and iii Cancer. In each specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in cardiovascular system, nutrition, metabolism, social and preventive medicine, clinical nutrition, diabetics, genetics, obesity, public health, sports medicine and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this and relevant areas. The fact that the contributors are leading international researchers in this field makes this book more welcome. ASSESSMENT This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in pediatric injuries and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this and relevant areas. The fact that the contributors are leading

  2. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  3. Helicobacter pylori and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukazman, M; Yeniova, O; Dal, K; Yavuz, B

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common infections in human. The association between H. pylori and gastrointestinal diseases including peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, mucosa associated tissue lymphoma (MALT) and gastric cancer is well known. However it was also suggested that H. pylori was linked to various extra-gastrointestinal disorders such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. In this review we summarized the association between H. pylori and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26502864

  4. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most importa

  5. Estimated risk of cardiovascular disease and secondary cancers with modern highly conformal radiotherapy for early-stage mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, M.V.; Brodin, Nils Patrik; Aznar, Marianne Camille;

    2013-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors have an increased morbidity and mortality from secondary cancers and cardiovascular disease (CD). We evaluate doses with involved node radiotherapy (INRT) delivered as 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), or proton therapy (P...

  6. The Cardio-oncology Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Care of Cancer Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Sarah; Pituskin, Edith; Paterson, D Ian

    2016-07-01

    Improved cancer survivorship has resulted in a growing number of Canadians affected by cancer and cardiovascular disease. As a consequence, cardio-oncology programs are rapidly emerging to treat cancer patients with de novo and preexisting cardiovascular disease. The primary goal of a cardio-oncology program is to preserve cardiovascular health to allow the timely delivery of cancer therapy and achieve disease-free remission. Multidisciplinary programs in oncology and cardiology have been associated with enhanced patient well-being and improved clinical outcomes. Because of the complex needs of these multisystem patients, a similar model of care is gaining acceptance. The optimal composition of the cardio-oncology team will typically involve support from cardiology, oncology, and nursing. Depending on the clinical scenario, additional consultation from dietetics, pharmacy, and social services might be required. Timely access to consultation and testing is another prerequisite for cardio-oncology programs because delays in treating cardiac complications and nonadherence to prescribed cancer therapy are each associated with poor outcomes. Recommended reasons for referral to cardio-oncology programs include primary prevention for those at high risk for cardiotoxicity and the secondary treatment of new or worsening cardiovascular disease in cancer patients and survivors. Management is multifaceted and can involve lifestyle education, pharmacotherapy, enhanced cardiovascular surveillance, and support services, such as exercise training. The lack of evidence to guide clinical decisions and recommendations in cardio-oncology is a major challenge and opportunity for health care professionals. Large multicentre prospective registries are needed to adequately power risk model calculations and generate hypotheses for novel interventions. PMID:27343743

  7. [Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Bauersachs, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent complications in pregnancies. Among them preexisting heart diseases including congenital heart disease, genetic cardiomyopathies, myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathies display a special challenge for the mother and her physicians. Moreover, the incidence of cardiovascular disease induced by or associated with pregnancy, i.e. hypertensive disorders and peripartum cardiomyopathies, has increased over the past decades. In the present overview we explain why pregnancy is a stress model for the maternal heart and summarize the current knowledge on the influence of pregnancy on preexisting cardiomyopathies. We highlight recent advances in research with regard to hypertensive complications in pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). Moreover, we summarize etiologies, risk factors, pathomechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, management and prognosis. Finally, interdisciplinarity between different clinical fields and basic science is a key requirement to avoid longterm damage to the cardiovascular system induced by pregnancy associated impacts and with this improve women's health in general. PMID:26800071

  8. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  9. Ionizing radiation and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, David G

    2006-09-01

    For more than 15 years the A-bomb survivor studies have shown increased noncancer mortality due to radiation exposures. The most prominent cause of this increase is circulatory disease mortality. Although the estimated relative risk is less than for solid cancers (1.2 versus 1.6 per Sv), there are measurable increases in cardiovascular disease mortality at doses greater than 0.5 Sv. The evidence for circulatory diseases in mortality studies of occupational cohorts exposed to external radiation is less compelling. It is generally accepted that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the arteries and a risk factor for myocardial infarction. Immunological markers for inflammatory disease have been shown to be dose related in A-bomb survivors. Evidence from animal studies reveals increased cardiovascular mortality and arterial endothelial damage from both neutron and, to a lesser extent, gamma exposures. PMID:17119211

  10. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Steven M; Rumsfeld, John S

    2015-10-01

    There is a wealth of evidence linking depression to increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and worse outcomes among patients with known CVD. In addition, there are safe and effective treatments for depression. Despite this, depression remains under-recognized and undertreated in patients at risk for or living with CVD. In this review, we first summarize the evidence linking depression to increased risk of CVD and worse patient outcomes. We then review the mechanisms by which depression may contribute to cardiovascular risk and poor cardiovascular outcomes. We then summarize prior studies of depression treatment on cardiovascular outcomes. Finally, we offer guidance in the identification and management of depression among CVD populations. Given that 1 in 4 CVD patients has concurrent depression, application of these best-practices will assist providers in achieving optimal outcomes for their CVD patients. PMID:25850976

  11. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Susanna C.; Alessio Crippa; Nicola Orsini; Alicja Wolk; Karl Michaëlsson

    2015-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I ...

  12. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  13. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Nijhuis (Rogier)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWhereas secondary prevention of cardiovascular events through risk factor modification in patients with known coronary and carotid artery disease is recognised as cost-effective, CVD prevention by drug therapy in asymptomatic individuals has shown only modest benefits and to be relativel

  14. Modelling cardiovascular disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Alimadad, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular disease (CVD), which sits under the chronic disease umbrella, is the number one cause of death globally. Over time, we have witnessed different trends that have influenced the prevalence of CVD. One of the ways of decreasing CVD and its social costs and global fatalities is through influencing preventable CVD risk factors. Though many risk factors such as age and gender are not preventable, there are several effective behaviours...

  15. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-01-01

    The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES), a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxi...

  16. Genetic variants in TGFβ-1 and PAI-1 as possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: It has been established that radiotherapy can increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Genetic variants, which play a role in the tissue, damage response and angiogenesis regulating TGFβ pathway might give us insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation-induced CVD. We examined the effects of two polymorphisms, TGFβ1 29C > T and PAI-1 5G > 4G, on CVD incidence. Materials and methods: This retrospective cohort study included 422 10-year breast cancer survivors, aged 4G and CVD risk. Conclusion: Our study suggests there might be an association between the TGFβ1 29C > T polymorphism and CVD risk in long-term breast cancer survivors.

  17. Overweight and obesity: a review of their relationship to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay, Laura R; Eynard, Aldo R; Díaz, María del Pilar; Navarro, Alicia; Muñoz, Sonia E

    2013-03-01

    Socioeconomic and demographic transformations are occurring very rapidly in some areas of the world, especially in South America, and are accompanied by changes in lifestyle, dietary patterns, and the epidemiological profile of prevalent diseases. This review examines whether obesity and overweight are related to metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in South America. Research carried out in more than 6,000 cases and controls was evaluated, along with most of the available publications related to South America. In South America, obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease are related mainly to aging, ethnicity effects, and preventable risky lifestyle conditions. Most of the studies that found an association between cancer and obesity are from the Southern Cone, the geographic area most affected by this pathology. Overall, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest in Chile, followed in decreasing order by Colombia, Peru, Argentina, and Ecuador, with differences noted between urban and rural areas or between urban and periurban areas. Obesity and cancer may be preventable, at least in part, by healthy behavior; hence, exercise, weight control, and healthy dietary habits are important to reduce the risk of these major chronic diseases. PMID:23452284

  18. Randomised β-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease in women: is the association modified by baseline plasma level?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, I-M; Cook, N R; Manson, J E; Buring, J. E.

    2002-01-01

    In a nested case-control study of 513 women with cancer; 130 with cardiovascular disease and equal numbers of controls, we found no effect of randomised beta-carotene on risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease within any quartile of baseline plasma beta-carotene, nor was there a trend across quartiles (P for trend 0.15 and 0.62, respectively). British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 698–701. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600147 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

  19. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  20. Periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeftha, A; Holmes, H

    2013-03-01

    Periodontal medicine has been studied and reviewed extensively since its introduction to the dental fraternity. The association of periodontal disease with and its effects on the cardiovascular system are amongst the many topics explored. A summary of the research into these associations and the possible mechanisms of any relationship is presented. Although a link between these two chronic inflammatory diseases is evident, the very heterogeneity of the relevant studies has not provided evidence sufficient to support an actual causal relationship. More stringent epidemiologic and intervention studies are required. PMID:23951765

  1. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  2. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  3. Migraine and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo E. Bigal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Migraine, especially migraine with aura is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. Recent evidence has also linked migraine with and without aura to a broader range of ischemic vascular disorders including angina, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, claudication and cardiovascular mortality. The topic is therefore of considerable interest. Accordingly, herein we review the association between migraine and cardiovascular disease. We start by briefly presenting diagnostic criteria for migraine and revising its pathophysiology. We follow by summarizing the evidence on the topic. We then briefly present the results of a recent meta-analysis. We close by highlighting results of a large epidemiological study conducted after the publication of the meta-analysis.

  4. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaddha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  5. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Thomsen, Jan Lykke Scheel;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  6. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J.; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  7. Angiogenesis : Potentials for pharmacologic intervention in the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen, AW; Molema, G

    2000-01-01

    Angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels out of pre-existing capillaries, is a sequence of events that is fundamental to many physiologic and pathologic processes such as cancer, ischemic diseases, and chronic inflammation. With the identification of several proangiogenic molecules such a

  8. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I² statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I² = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I² = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I² = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I² = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. PMID:26378576

  9. CD4 decline is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death in virally suppressed patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Gitte; Pedersen, Court; Obel, Niels; Gerstoft, Jan

    2013-01-01

    immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were followed in the Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study in the period 1995-2010 with quarterly CD4 measurements. Associations between a CD4 decline of ≥30% and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were analyzed using Poisson regression with date of CD4 decline as a...... time-updated variable. Results. We followed 2584 virally suppressed HIV patients for 13 369 person-years (PY; median observation time, 4.7 years). Fifty-six patients developed CD4 decline (incidence rate, 4.2/1000 PY [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.2-5.4]). CD4 counts dropped from a median of 492...... cells/µL to 240 cells/µL. CD8, CD3, and total lymphocyte counts dropped concomitantly. No HIV-related factors, apart from treatment with didanosine, were associated with CD4 decline. The risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death increased markedly ≤6 months after CD4 decline (incidence rate...

  10. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna C. Larsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%, cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%, and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75% as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%. Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

  11. Cardiovascular comorbidity in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmohamed, Michael T; Heslinga, Maaike; Kitas, George D

    2015-12-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) have an increased risk of premature death compared with the general population, mainly because of the risk of cardiovascular disease, which is similar in patients with RA and in those with diabetes mellitus. Pathogenic mechanisms and clinical expression of cardiovascular comorbidities vary greatly between different rheumatic diseases, but atherosclerosis seems to be associated with all IJDs. Traditional risk factors such as age, gender, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, smoking, obesity and diabetes mellitus, together with inflammation, are the main contributors to the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with IJDs. Although cardiovascular risk assessment should be part of routine care in such patients, no disease-specific models are currently available for this purpose. The main pillars of cardiovascular risk reduction are pharmacological and nonpharmacological management of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as tight control of disease activity. PMID:26282082

  12. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.

  13. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  14. Health-related quality of life and health condition of community-dwelling populations with cancer, stroke, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunkyoung

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate health conditions and HRQoL (health-related quality of life) of community-dwelling populations with cancer, stroke, and CVD (cardiovascular disease) based on standardized data. [Subjects] The study subjects numbered 422 in total: 179 patients had cancer, 128 were stroke patients, and 115 were CVD patients. [Methods] This study used data collected during health interviews carried out as part of the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Face-to-face health interviews were conducted by trained surveyors who visited households during 2013. The contents of the interviews included data on demographic factors, physical condition, psychological condition, and HRQoL. [Results] Stress perceptions related to health condition differed significantly across the populations of cancer, stroke, and CVD patients. The HRQoL items of mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression also differed significantly across these populations. [Conclusion] Healthcare teams will now be in a position to plan programs for improvement in these areas according to the features of each disease. PMID:26355816

  15. Radiopharmaceuticals in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high incidence of cardiovascular disorders and the attendant morbidity and mortality have encouraged the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and localisation of coronary diseases. Myocardial perfusion imaging is an invaluable tool for the demonstration of transient ischemia and infarction in heart and identification of viable and non-viable myocardial tissue. Thallium chloride (Tl-201) is the agent currently in wide use but its drawbacks have been well recognised. Hence tremendous amount of research work has been carried out to develop a suitable Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical for this purpose which has resulted in the introduction of two Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals HEXAMIBI and BATO. These are being tried as myocardial imaging agents these days and the choice amongst these depends on concrete clinical situation. The experimental work involving the synthesis of ligand MIBI, formulation into freeze dried KIT form, quality control procedure, biodistribution studies and finally clinical evaluation of locally produced KIT in human volunteers has now been reported here. Our KIT has been produced for the first time in Pakistan and has been tried on forty five patients in Nuclear Medical Centre, AFIP (Rawalpindi). The results obtained are comparable to those of Ti-201 with a slightly higher liver background in case of MIBI but because of the easy availability MIBI has become agent of choice for myocardial perfusion studies. (author)

  16. Integrative approaches for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Mimi; Mercado, Nestor; Suhar, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    In the United States, $2.5 trillion is spent on healthcare annually. Seven chronic diseases account for half of all this expense. Of these 7, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and diabetes mellitus are largely preventable. Integrative cardiology programs that focus on risk-factor modification through lifestyle change combined with early detection and advanced lipid management offer a new paradigm to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19955547

  17. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2016-05-27

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past few decades. In 2013, the prevalence of obesity exceeded the 50% of the adult population in some countries from Oceania, North Africa, and Middle East. Lower but still alarmingly high prevalence was observed in North America (≈30%) and in Western Europe (≈20%). These figures are of serious concern because of the strong link between obesity and disease. In the present review, we summarize the current evidence on the relationship of obesity with cardiovascular disease (CVD), discussing how both the degree and the duration of obesity affect CVD. Although in the general population, obesity and, especially, severe obesity are consistently and strongly related with higher risk of CVD incidence and mortality, the one-size-fits-all approach should not be used with obesity. There are relevant factors largely affecting the CVD prognosis of obese individuals. In this context, we thoroughly discuss important concepts such as the fat-but-fit paradigm, the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype and the obesity paradox in patients with CVD. About the MHO phenotype and its CVD prognosis, available data have provided mixed findings, what could be partially because of the adjustment or not for key confounders such as cardiorespiratory fitness, and to the lack of consensus on the MHO definition. In the present review, we propose a scientifically based harmonized definition of MHO, which will hopefully contribute to more comparable data in the future and a better understanding on the MHO subgroup and its CVD prognosis. PMID:27230640

  18. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  19. The Association of Reproductive Hormone Levels and All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard Holmboe, Stine; Vradi, Eleni; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2015-01-01

    , 50, 60 or 70 years at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and cancer mortality. RESULTS: 1,533 men died during the follow-up period; 428 from CVD and 480 from cancer. Cox proportional hazard models revealed that men in highest LH quartile had...... an increased all-cause mortality compared to lowest quartile (HR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.53). Likewise, increased quartiles of LH/T and estradiol increased the risk of all-cause mortality (HR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.06 to 1.43, HR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.06 to 1.43). No association to testosterone levels was found....... Higher LH levels were associated with increased cancer mortality (HR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.10 to 1.84) independently of smoking status. Lower CVD mortality was seen for men with testosterone in the highest quartile compared to lowest (HR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.53 to 0.98). Furthermore, negative trends were seen for...

  20. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 ... Your Heart Health • Watch, Learn & Live Animations Library Cold Weather Fitness Guide Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood ...

  1. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  2. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  3. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  4. Cardiovascular calcification. An inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in 'early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. (author)

  5. Other cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005198 Study on the relationship of plasma fib-rinogen, platelet aggregation rate ad peripheral arterial occlusive disease. WANG Jie(王洁), et al. Dept Emerg, Gene Hosp Chin People’s Armed Police Forces, Beijing 100039. Chin J Epidemiol, 2005; 26 (1):1-4. Objective: To detect the relationship of plasma fibrinogen, platelet aggregation rate and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) in the elderly.

  6. Nuclear imaging of cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear imaging methods provide noninvasive indexes of myocardial function, perfusion, and metabolism and are well accepted in clinical cardiology. Advances in prevention and treatment of cardiac disease have resulted in decreasing cardiovascular mortality in industrialized nations. The improvement in therapeutic options has increased the demand for diagnostic tests that might guide clinical decision making. Information beyond the pure anatomic characterization of coronary stenoses is required. Nuclear imaging can be used for early detection and monitoring of the severity and extent of disease. The prognostic potential of such functional testing is being increasingly appreciated and used to guide therapy, thereby resulting in improvement of the quality and cost-effectiveness of the workup of patients with cardiovascular disease. Extensive clinical validation has resulted in growing acceptance of these techniques. Furthermore, ongoing improvement of imaging techniques and development of new radiopharmaceuticals will pave the way for disease-specific, molecular-targeted cardiac imaging in the future. (orig.)

  7. [Secondary nephrotic syndrome due to cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Tomoya; Takahashi, Fumihiko; Kikuchi, Kenjiro

    2004-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases ralely evoke nephrotic syndrome. Especially hypertensive renal disease (nephroscrelosis) and renovascular hypertension occasionally may lead to nephrotic syndrome. We reported a case of nephrotic syndrome with renovascular hypertension successfully treated with candesartan. In eldery patients cardiovascular diseases are appeared. It is very important for clinicians to detect the mechanism of nephrotic syndrome caused by cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15500142

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Channa

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia are now the most encountered diseases and causes of death in older people with intellectual disabilities. Although cardiovascular disease is a major risk for older people with intellectual disabilities...

  9. Whole grain consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality – a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    OpenAIRE

    Aune, D.; Keum, N; Giovannucci, E; Fadnes, LT; Boffetta, P.; Greenwood, DC; Tonstad, S; Vatten, LJ; Riboli, E.; Norat, T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify the dose-response relationship between whole grain consumption and specific types of grains and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. DATA SOURCES PubMed and Embase were searched up to 3rd of April, 2016. STUDY SELECTION Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association between intake of whole grains or specific types of grains and cardiovascular disease, total cancer, allcause or ca...

  10. Contraception and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos-Hesselink, JolienW.; Cornette, Jerome; Sliwa, Karen; Pieper, Petronella G.; Veldtman, Gruschen R.; Johnson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptive counselling should begin early in females with heart disease, preferably directly after the start of menstruation. In coming to a decision about the method of contraception, the following issues should be considered: (i) the risk of pregnancy for the mother and the consequences of an u

  11. NUTRITION IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Ambika Prasad; Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition in cardiova scular disease stands as query in million CVD patients. Nutritional advice plays a critical role in management horizon of sick cardiacs. No fasting, no feasting; no worry, no curry - should be the basic platform. Fruit, fiber and fish are friendly to them while red meat is a red signal . No stress, no race for them in daily life will add to their food pat tern. Be a vegan - may be the best practice one can...

  12. Genomics in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Robert; Marian, A.J.; Dandona, Sonny; Alexandre F R Stewart

    2013-01-01

    A paradigm shift towards biology occurred in the 1990’s subsequently catalyzed by the sequencing of the human genome in 2000. The cost of DNA sequencing has gone from millions to thousands of dollars with sequencing of one’s entire genome costing only $1,000. Rapid DNA sequencing is being embraced for single gene disorders, particularly for sporadic cases and those from small families. Transmission of lethal genes such as associated with Huntington’s disease can, through in-vitro fertilizatio...

  13. Nutrigenomics: a case for the common soil between cardiovascular disease and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Iacoviello, Licia; Santimone, Iolanda; Latella, Maria Carmela; Gaetano, Giovanni de; Donati, Maria Benedetta

    2008-01-01

    The border between health and disease is often set by a complex equilibrium between two elements, genetics on one hand, lifestyle on the other, To know it better, means to give new weapons, often crucial, in the hands of the doctors and their patients. It also means to adjust therapies, to find out which drug is good for a patient and which prevention strategy will work better for him/her. Nutrigenomics is an approach to individualize or personalize food and nutrition, and ultimately health, ...

  14. Dairy products and its association with incidence of cardiovascular disease: the Malmö diet and cancer cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Wallström, Peter; Gullberg, Bo; Orho-Melander, Marju; Hedblad, Bo

    2011-08-01

    It is unclear whether specific dairy products are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this project was therefore to examine the association between intake of milk, cheese, cream and butter, and incidence of CVD in the Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Milk was separated into fermented (yoghurt and cultured sour milk) versus non-fermented milk, and low-fat versus high-fat milk. Among 26,445 individuals without a history of myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes (44-74 years; 62% females), 2,520 CVD cases (coronary and stroke events) were identified during a mean follow-up time of 12 years. Dietary data was collected using a modified diet history method. Overall consumption of dairy products was inversely associated with risk of CVD (P (trend) = 0.05). Among the specific dairy products, a statistically significant inverse relationship was observed only for fermented milk. The highest versus lowest intake category of fermented milk was associated with 15% (95% CI: 5-24%; P (trend) = 0.003) decreased incidence of CVD. We observed a statistically significant interaction between sex and cheese intake (P = 0.046). Cheese intake was significantly associated with decreased CVD risk in women (P (trend) = 0.03), but not in men (P (trend) = 0.98). The main finding was that a high intake of fermented milk may reduce the risk of CVD. This study suggests that it is important to examine dairy products separately when investigating their health effects. PMID:21660519

  15. NUTRITION IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition in cardiova scular disease stands as query in million CVD patients. Nutritional advice plays a critical role in management horizon of sick cardiacs. No fasting, no feasting; no worry, no curry - should be the basic platform. Fruit, fiber and fish are friendly to them while red meat is a red signal . No stress, no race for them in daily life will add to their food pat tern. Be a vegan - may be the best practice one can do when he is prone to get CVD. Avoid concentrated sugar in form of sweets which will cause hyperglycemic wave front mediated endothelial dysfunction. Moderation in nutritional practi ce help them not the e xcessive one if alcohol is taken into account. A void fry otherwise you will cry : S e advise them. No fry, no fast food, no fake beverages - they should follow. Low salt, low calorie and low fat diet should be their dietary principle. A healthy diet will make a man, society, race healthy together.

  16. Cardiovascular risk during hormonal treatment in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this review is to provide information on cardiovascular risk following androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients and to suggest potential prevention and management strategies. Androgen deprivation therapy can cause peripheral insulin resistance, increase fat mass and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and induce type 2 diabetes. While recent studies have reported an association in patients with prostate cancer between ADT and increased risk of cardiovascular events, other studies have not detected the association. However, at this time, it is plausible that ADT could increase cardiovascular risk because of the adverse effect of ADT on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is advisable that prostate cancer patients in whom ADT is initiated be referred to their physician, who will carefully monitor them for potential metabolic effects. Therefore, physicians should be informed about these potential side effects. This especially applies to men aged >65 years and those with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities. Adopting a healthy lifestyle including a balanced diet and regular physical activity is recommended. Patients with cardiovascular disease should receive appropriate preventive therapies, including lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, glucose-lowering, and antiplatelet therapy. ADT should preferably not be unnecessarily administered to prostate cancer patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, certainly not to those in whom the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality is low. The physician should carefully weigh the potential benefits of ADT against the possible risks in individual patients with prostate cancer

  17. Renal Dysfunction and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Soveri, Inga

    2006-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The mechanisms for the risk increase seem to involve a combination of traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors. We studied renal dysfunction as CVD and mortality risk factor in middle-aged men free from diabetes and CVD. The risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and CVD mortality was increased by ~40% in the 16.5% of men with worse renal function, independent of other CVD risk factors. Renal transplant dysfunction as CVD an...

  18. Psychological stress and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    There is an enormous amount of literature on psychological stress and cardiovascular disease. This report reviews conceptual issues in defining stress and then explores the ramifications of stress in terms of the effects of acute versus long-term stressors on cardiac functioning. Examples of acute stressor studies are discussed in terms of disasters (earthquakes) and in the context of experimental stress physiology studies, which offer a more detailed perspective on underlying physiology. Stu...

  19. Platelet proteomics in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Vélez; Ángel García

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, platelet proteomics has been applied successfully to the study of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It is very well known that platelets play a pivotal role in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying many CVDs, especially acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), since they are implied in thrombus formation after atheroma plaque rupture. This is the reason why molecules involved in platelet activation and aggregation are primary targets for treatment of ACSs. Many efforts are aimed...

  20. Genetic risks for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zafarmand, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the heart, brain, and peripheral circulation, is a major health problem world-wide. The development of atherosclerosis is a complex process, and several established risk factors are involved. Nevertheless, these established risk factors do not fully explain the occurrence of CVD and further insight is required in factors such as genetic determinants that may identify individuals at risk. In this thesis we worked on the genetic basis...

  1. Dietary components and risk of total, cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials cohort in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Bing Wang; Jin-Hu Fan; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Rashmi Sinha; Freedman, Neal D.; Taylor, Philip R.; You-Lin Qiao; Abnet, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that dietary consumption of certain food groups is associated with a lower risk of cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality in western populations, limited prospective data are available from China. We prospectively examined the association between dietary intake of different food groups at baseline and risk of total, cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality outcomes in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials(NIT) cohort. In 1984–1991, 2445 subjects ...

  2. [Cognitive dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    A multitude of modifiable risk factors during the median phase of life are often causative for cognitive dysfunction (CD) in old age. High evidence exists for cigarette smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity and sleeping disorders. Single large scale population based studies proof it for hypertension, hypercholesterinemia and depression, conflicting evidence exists for obesity and work stress. Little attention is paid to the close association between cardiovascular disease conditions and CD, particularly for atrial fibrillation, heart failure and for older patients with coronary heart disease. Undetected CD may be responsible for non-adherence and failure of self-care programs in chronic heart patients. PMID:27557067

  3. Association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have supported the notion that subjects with periodontitis and patients with multiple tooth extractions as a result of chronic advanced periodontal disease (PDD) have a greater risk of developing Cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who had little or no periodontal infection. Periodontitis may predispose affected patients to CVD by elevating systemic C-reactive protein level and pro-inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and accelerate development of cardiovascular diseases, Oral health variables including loss of teeth, positive plaque Benzoyl-D-L-Arginine- Naphthyl Amide test (BANA) scores, and compliant of xerostomia may by considered as risk indicators for CVD. Exact mechanism which links PDD and CVD has not been firmly established. The link between PDD and CVD may be attributed to bacteria entering blood stream and attaching to the fatty plaque in coronary artery and contributing to clot formation which can lead to heart attack. Inflammation caused by PDD increases the plaque build up. The association between the two disease entities is cause for concern. However, dental and medical practitioners should be aware of these findings to move intelligently to interact with inquiring patients with periodontitis. They should be urged to maintain medical surveillance of their cardiovascular status, and work on controlling or reducing all known risk factors associated with CVD, including periodontal infection. (author)

  4. Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for Evaluation and Management of Cardiovascular Complications of Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Sean A; Dent, Susan; Brezden-Masley, Christine; Clarke, Brian; Davis, Margot K; Jassal, Davinder S; Johnson, Christopher; Lemieux, Julie; Paterson, Ian; Sebag, Igal A; Simmons, Christine; Sulpher, Jeffrey; Thain, Kishore; Thavendiranathan, Paaldinesh; Wentzell, Jason R; Wurtele, Nola; Côté, Marc André; Fine, Nowell M; Haddad, Haissam; Hayley, Bradley D; Hopkins, Sean; Joy, Anil A; Rayson, Daniel; Stadnick, Ellamae; Straatman, Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Modern treatment strategies have led to improvements in cancer survival, however, these gains might be offset by the potential negative effect of cancer therapy on cardiovascular health. Cardiotoxicity is now recognized as a leading cause of long-term morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. This guideline, authored by a pan-Canadian expert group of health care providers and commissioned by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society, is intended to guide the care of cancer patients with established cardiovascular disease or those at risk of experiencing toxicities related to cancer treatment. It includes recommendations and important management considerations with a focus on 4 main areas: identification of the high-risk population for cardiotoxicity, detection and prevention of cardiotoxicity, treatment of cardiotoxicity, and a multidisciplinary approach to cardio-oncology. All recommendations align with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Key recommendations for which the panel provides a strong level of evidence include: (1) that routine evaluation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and optimal treatment of preexisting cardiovascular disease be performed in all patients before, during, and after receiving cancer therapy; (2) that initiation, maintenance, and/or augmentation of antihypertensive therapy be instituted per the Canadian Hypertension Educational Program guidelines for patients with preexisting hypertension or for those who experience hypertension related to cancer therapy; and (3) that investigation and management follow current Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure guidelines for cancer patients who develop clinical heart failure or an asymptomatic decline in left ventricular ejection fraction during or after cancer treatment. This guideline provides guidance to clinicians on contemporary best practices for the cardiovascular care of cancer patients. PMID:27343741

  5. Dietary Fiber and Saturated Fat Intake Associations with Cardiovascular Disease Differ by Sex in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wallström; Emily Sonestedt; Joanna Hlebowicz; Ulrika Ericson; Isabel Drake; Margaretha Persson; Bo Gullberg; Bo Hedblad; Elisabet Wirfält

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine associations between intake of macronutrients and dietary fiber and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease (iCVD) in men and women. METHODS: We used data from 8,139 male and 12,535 female participants (aged 44-73 y) of the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The participants were without history of CVD and diabetes mellitus, and had reported stable dietary habits in the study questionnaire. Diet was assessed by ...

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sugamura, Koichi; Keaney, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ‘free-radical theory’ of disease, researchers have been trying to elucidate the role of oxidative stress from free radicals in cardiovascular disease. Considerable data indicate that ROS and oxidative stress are important features of cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. However, blanket strategies with antioxidants to ameliorate cardiovascular disease have not generally yielded favorable results. However, our understanding...

  7. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465

  8. Ecological Study on Hospitalizations for Cancer, Cardiovascular, and Respiratory Diseases in the Industrial Area of Etang-de-Berre in the South of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Etang-de-Berre area is a large industrialized area in the South of France, exposing 300,000 inhabitants to the plumes of its industries. The possible associated health risks are of the highest concern to the population, who asked for studies investigating their health status. A geographical ecological study based on standardized hospitalizations ratios for cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases was carried out over the 2004–2007 period. Exposure to air pollution was assessed using dispersion models coupled with a geographic information system to estimate an annual mean concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2 for each district. Results showed an excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction in women living in districts with medium or high SO2 exposure, respectively, 38% [CI 95% 4 : 83] and 54% [14 : 110] greater than women living in districts at the reference level exposure. A 26% [2 : 57] excess risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction was also observed in men living in districts with high SO2 levels. No excess risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases or for cancer was observed, except for acute leukemia in men only. Results illustrate the impact of industrial air pollution on the cardiovascular system and call for an improvement of the air quality in the area.

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. de Winter (Channa)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia are

  10. Astaxanthin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and β-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seaf...

  11. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wang; Fei Lin; Li-li Guo; Xing-jiang Xiong; Xun Fan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we sho...

  12. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Amaya-Amaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (AD represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD.

  13. Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: A preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to explore the correlation between the frequency of micronuclei in Trad-MN, measured across 28 biomonitoring stations during the period comprised between 11 of May and 2 of October, 2006, and adjusted mortality rates due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancer in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, an area with different sources of air pollution. For controlling purposes, mortality rate due to gastrointestinal diseases (an event less prone to be affected by air pollution) was also considered in the analysis. Spatial distribution of micronuclei frequency was determined using average interpolation. The association between health estimators and micronuclei frequency was determined by measures of Pearson's correlation. Higher frequencies of micronuclei were detected in areas with high traffic and close to a petrochemical pole. Significant associations were detected between micronuclei frequency and adjusted mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (r = 0.841, p = 0.036) and cancer (r = 0.890, p = 0.018). The association between mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases was positive but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.640, p = 0.172), probably because of the small number of events. Gastrointestinal mortality did not exhibit significant association with micronuclei frequency. Because the small number of observations and the nature of an ecological study, the present findings must be considered with caution and considered as preliminary. Further studies, performed in different conditions of contamination and climate should be done before considering Trad-MN in the evaluation of human health risk imposed by air pollutants. - Bioassay used to explore the correlation between air pollution exposition and mortality rates.

  14. Association between micronuclei frequency in pollen mother cells of Tradescantia and mortality due to cancer and cardiovascular diseases: A preliminary study in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, Rauda Lucia [Department of Geochemistry, Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Martins Jorge, Maria Paulete; Pereira, Sergio Silva; Melione, Luiz Paulo [National Institute for Space Research, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani [Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Sao Paulo University Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ma, Te Hsiu [Department of Biological Sciences, Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario, E-mail: pepino@usp.b [Experimental Air Pollution Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Sao Paulo University Medical School, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    The present study was designed to explore the correlation between the frequency of micronuclei in Trad-MN, measured across 28 biomonitoring stations during the period comprised between 11 of May and 2 of October, 2006, and adjusted mortality rates due to cardiovascular, respiratory diseases and cancer in Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, an area with different sources of air pollution. For controlling purposes, mortality rate due to gastrointestinal diseases (an event less prone to be affected by air pollution) was also considered in the analysis. Spatial distribution of micronuclei frequency was determined using average interpolation. The association between health estimators and micronuclei frequency was determined by measures of Pearson's correlation. Higher frequencies of micronuclei were detected in areas with high traffic and close to a petrochemical pole. Significant associations were detected between micronuclei frequency and adjusted mortality rate due to cardiovascular diseases (r = 0.841, p = 0.036) and cancer (r = 0.890, p = 0.018). The association between mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases was positive but did not reach statistical significance (r = 0.640, p = 0.172), probably because of the small number of events. Gastrointestinal mortality did not exhibit significant association with micronuclei frequency. Because the small number of observations and the nature of an ecological study, the present findings must be considered with caution and considered as preliminary. Further studies, performed in different conditions of contamination and climate should be done before considering Trad-MN in the evaluation of human health risk imposed by air pollutants. - Bioassay used to explore the correlation between air pollution exposition and mortality rates.

  15. Cardiovascular diseases mortality following cancer during childhood: long term risk, role of chemotherapy and of radiation dose to heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: A multi-centric French-UK cohort study was performed to evaluate the role of treatment in the long-term overall and cause-specific mortality among childhood cancer survivors. Methods: This study cohort included 4,120 patients treated for a solid tumours before the age of 17 between 1942-1986, in 8 centres in France and UK and who survived at least 5 years from diagnosis. Detailed clinical and therapeutic data were extracted for each patients from medical records. For 2868 of the 2868 patients who received radiotherapy, radiation doses were estimated using DOSEG software at 188 anatomical sites, including heart (7 sites) and lungs (10 sites). We obtained the death causes of 95 % of dead patients. Overall and cause-specific mortality standardized ratios (SMR), absolute excess risk (AER) of death were studied using Poisson regression. Results: 603 patients died during the follow-up, i.e. 8.5-fold (95 % CI: 7.7-9.1) more than that expected in the general population. A total of 32 patients died of cardiovascular diseases, i.e. 4.8-fold (95 % CI, 3.3 to 6.7) more than expected, 21 of which were cardiac diseases, i.e. 6.0-fold more (95% CI, 3.8 to 9.0). Overall, patients who had received radiotherapy had a 5.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5 to 32.1) higher risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease than those who had not. Mortality due to cardiac disease was related to the administration of alkylating agents and / or vinca alkaloids, and to that of anthracyclines. Each additional 100 mg of anthracyclines per m2 of body surface area increased the mortality rate due to heart diseases by 92% (95% CI, 16% to 318%). Patients who had received between 5 to 14.9 Gy to the heart during radiotherapy had a 14.5-fold (95% CI, 2.0 to 291) higher risk of mortality from cardiac diseases than patients who had not received radiotherapy, this ratio being 32.6 (95% CI, 5.6 to 622) in those who had received more than 15 Gy. Conclusion: Childhood cancer survivors are at high

  16. Significance of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Krutika Gajjar; Dr.Parloop Bhatt; Dr.Yagnik S.Bhalodia; Dr.Sizan B.Patel; Chintan Patel

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high mortality and morbidity rate associated with cardiovascular diseases, Cardiacrehabilitation (CR) is regarded for prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. CR servicesare generally provided in an outpatient as comprehensive, long-term programs involving medicalevaluation, prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification, education and counseling. This includesnutritional therapies, weight loss program management of lipid abnormalities with diet and medicat...

  17. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (path

  18. Traffic noise and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Selander, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise is an increasing problem in urban areas worldwide, but health effects in relation to traffic noise exposure are not well understood. Several studies show that noise may give rise to acute stress reactions, possibly leading to cardiovascular effects, but the evidence is limited on cardiovascular risks associated with traffic noise exposure. Cardiovascular effects have been indicated for other environmental stressors such as occupational noise exposure and job ...

  19. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  20. [Hyperuricemia, gout and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Karsten; Burkard, Thilo

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia, gout as well as arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrom are highly prevalent and clinicians are frequently confronted with both conditions in the same patient. Hyperuricemia and gout are associated with cardiovascular comorbidities and a high cardiovascular risk. Despite coherent pathophysiological concepts, it remains to be determined, if this association is independent and causal. In daily clinical practice, cardiovascular risk factors should be thoroughly identified and consequently treated in all patients with hyperuricemia and gout. If preventive treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia with urate-lowering agents may improve cardiovascular risk and outcomes remains to be determined and is recommended only in special situations like young patients with severe hyperuricemia. PMID:27008446

  1. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csányi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the special issue “Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Disease” authors were invited to submit papers that investigate key questions in the field of cardiovascular free radical biology. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated signaling, which have important implications in physiological and pathophysiological cardiovascular processes. The issue also included a number of review articles that highlight areas of intense research in the fields of free radical biology and cardiovascular medicine.

  2. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  3. Platelet proteomics in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Vélez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, platelet proteomics has been applied successfully to the study of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. It is very well known that platelets play a pivotal role in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying many CVDs, especially acute coronary syndromes (ACSs, since they are implied in thrombus formation after atheroma plaque rupture. This is the reason why molecules involved in platelet activation and aggregation are primary targets for treatment of ACSs. Many efforts are aimed at finding drugs that inhibit platelet activation; however it is difficult to separate the therapeutic benefits from harmful effects because pathological and physiological functions of platelets are due to the same mechanisms. Given that platelets lack a nucleus, proteomics is regarded as an ideal method to approach their biochemistry. Current platelet proteomic studies are focusing on the identification of platelet molecular and functional changes in normal and pathological states, enriching the comprehension of platelet biological function, and screening for new biomarkers and antiplatelet agents. In the present article, we introduce the reader to platelet biology and function, and revise recent advances in platelet proteomics applied to the study of CVDs, including a special emphasis on sample preparation requirements for proteome analysis of platelet clinical samples.

  4. Age, gender, and cancer but not neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases strongly modulate systemic effect of the Apolipoprotein E4 allele on lifespan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulminski, Alexander M; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Culminskaya, Irina;

    2014-01-01

    Enduring interest in the Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism is ensured by its evolutionary-driven uniqueness in humans and its prominent role in geriatrics and gerontology. We use large samples of longitudinally followed populations from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) original and offspring...... cohorts and the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) to investigate gender-specific effects of the ApoE4 allele on human survival in a wide range of ages from midlife to extreme old ages, and the sensitivity of these effects to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders (ND). The...... analyses show that women's lifespan is more sensitive to the e4 allele than men's in all these populations. A highly significant adverse effect of the e4 allele is limited to women with moderate lifespan of about 70 to 95 years in two FHS cohorts and the LLFS with relative risk of death RR = 1.48 (p = 3...

  5. Erectile dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ophuis, A.J.M. Oude; Nijeholt, A.A.B. Lycklama à

    2006-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a highly prevalent disease, especially in cardiovascular-compromised men. Many of the well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease are also risk factors for erectile dysfunction. A correlation between erectile dysfunction and endothelial dysfunction is well established. It is postulated that erectile dysfunction with an arteriovascular aetiology can predate and be an indicator of potential coronary artery disease. In this paper we will attempt to increase a...

  6. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Huijun; Wang Jinnan; Li Rui; Ferguson Marina S; Kerwin William S; Dong Li; Canton Gador; Hatsukami Thomas S; Yuan Chun

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of the carotid vessel wall is one promi...

  7. Cardiovascular disease in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollan, Ivana; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Ahearn, Joseph M; Cohen Tervaert, J W; Curran, Sam; Goodyear, Carl S; Hestad, Knut A; Kahaleh, Bashar; Riggio, Marcello; Shields, Kelly; Wasko, Mary C

    2013-08-01

    Various autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, vasculitis and systemic lupus erythematosus, are associated with premature atherosclerosis. However, premature atherosclerosis has not been uniformly observed in systemic sclerosis. Furthermore, although experimental models of atherosclerosis support the role of antiphospholipid antibodies in atherosclerosis, there is no clear evidence of premature atherosclerosis in antiphospholipid syndrome (APA). Ischemic events in APA are more likely to be caused by pro-thrombotic state than by enhanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in ARDs is caused by traditional and non-traditional risk factors. Besides other factors, inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, the quantity and quality of lipoproteins, hypertension, insulin resistance/hyperglycemia, obesity and underweight, presence of platelets bearing complement protein C4d, reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, apoptosis of endothelial cells, epigenetic mechanisms, renal disease, periodontal disease, depression, hyperuricemia, hypothyroidism, sleep apnea and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the premature CVD. Although most research has focused on systemic inflammation, vascular inflammation may play a crucial role in the premature CVD in ARDs. It may be involved in the development and destabilization of both atherosclerotic lesions and of aortic aneurysms (a known complication of ARDs). Inflammation in subintimal vascular and perivascular layers appears to frequently occur in CVD, with a higher frequency in ARD than in non-ARD patients. It is possible that this inflammation is caused by infections and/or autoimmunity, which might have consequences for treatment. Importantly, drugs targeting immunologic factors participating in the subintimal inflammation (e.g., T- and B-cells) might have a protective effect on CVD. Interestingly, vasa vasorum and cardiovascular adipose tissue may

  8. Estrogen Signaling and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen has pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system. The mechanisms by which estrogen confers these pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular function is under active investigation. Until a decade ago, all estrogen signaling was thought to occur by estrogen binding to nuclear estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), which bind to DNA and function as ligand activated transcription factors. Estrogen binding to the receptor alters gene expression thereby altering cell function. In 2000 estrogen w...

  9. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease Updated:May 20,2016 How ... Let’s set the record straight on some common myths. “I’m too young to worry about heart ...

  10. Nutrition and cardiovascular diseases of women.

    OpenAIRE

    Dustan, H P

    1987-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and hypertension are, by far, the most common cardiovascular diseases affecting women, and both are influenced by diet. Atherosclerosis occurs more commonly in men than women; generally women are 10 to 15 years older than men when symptoms develop. The prevalence of hypertension is about equal in the two sexes, particularly in middle aged and older persons. These cardiovascular diseases are major causes of death and disability in this country. Atherosclerosis results in myocar...

  11. Oxidants and antioxidants in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ekblom, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke, are the main reason of death in Sweden and Western Europe. High iron stores are believed to produce oxygen radicals, which is the presumed putative mechanism behind lipid peroxidation, atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Iron levels are associated with the hemochromatosis associated HFE single nucleotide polymorphisms C282Y and H63D. Bilirubin is an antioxidant present in relatively high levels ...

  12. Epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.

    2001-01-01

    Within Europe large differences exist in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke. These diseases show a clear West-East gradient with high rates in Eastern Europe. In spite the decreasing trend in age-adjusted cardiovascular disease mortality in Western European countries an increase in the

  13. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  14. Significance of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika Gajjar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high mortality and morbidity rate associated with cardiovascular diseases, Cardiacrehabilitation (CR is regarded for prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. CR servicesare generally provided in an outpatient as comprehensive, long-term programs involving medicalevaluation, prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification, education and counseling. This includesnutritional therapies, weight loss program management of lipid abnormalities with diet and medication,blood pressure control, diabetes management and stress management. The exercise component of a totalapproach to rehabilitation helps to overcome the fears and anxieties that so many people experience aftera heart attack. Aerobic exercise training program improves cardiovascular fitness in both healthyindividual and cardiac patients. Cardiac rehabilitation prevents and treat cardiovascular disease, reducescardiac risk factors, improving patient’s exercise capacity and enhancing quality of life. Aerobicexercise with intensity of approximately 60 to 70% of the maximal heart rate for 30 to 60 minutes, 3 to 4times a week, for 4 to 6 weeks enhances exercise capacity.

  15. Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Wright; Alastair Hutchison

    2009-01-01

    Julian Wright, Alastair HutchisonManchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, UKAbstract: Patients with chronic kidney disease have a high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The vast majority of patients with chronic kidney disease do not progress to end stage renal failure, but do have a significantly higher incidence of all cardiovascular co-morbidities. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors only partially account for this ...

  16. Hedgehog morphogen in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2006-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the basic biology of the important developmental Hedgehog ( Hh) protein family, its general function in development, pathway mechanisms, and gene discovery and nomenclature. Hh function in cardiovascular development and recent findings concerning Hh signaling in ischemia

  17. Uric acid lowering therapy in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Sposato, Barbara; Romeo, Franco

    2016-06-15

    Recent evidence would indicate that high serum uric acid (SUA) levels can be a significant and independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and heart failure. In the last few years an independent risk relationship between hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease and mortality has also been reported. Hyperuricemia has been shown as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction and an independent and conjoint association of either gout and SUA with total and cardiovascular mortality has been reported, with mortality impact in gout patients increasing with rising SUA concentrations, even for SUA levels in the normal to high range. These findings prompted a growing research interest on the possible benefits of uric acid lowering drugs in cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, clinical studies have reported on the beneficial effects of uric acid lowering drugs, in particular of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, in hypertension, ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Two main mechanisms have been claimed to explain the dangerous effects of hyperuricemia and, as a consequence, the benefits of uric acid lowering therapy: endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation. This brief review aims to summarize current evidence from human studies on the role of acid uric lowering therapy in cardiovascular diseases for practical and clinical purposes. The possible mechanisms underlying the benefits of acid uric lowering therapy are also addressed. PMID:26386814

  18. Modelos experimentales de enfermedad cardiovascular Experimental models of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gil Hernández

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe los modelos experimentales de utilidad clínica en el estudio de las enfermedades cardiovasculares y hace énfasis en los modelos usados para determinar los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de la aterosclerosis, así como para evaluar los efectos de productos nutricionales y farmacológicos sobre el desarrollo de este proceso inflamatorio complejo común a muchas enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se revisan los modelos animales en los que se puede inducir aterosclerosis por cambios en la composición de la dieta y los modelos animales en los que la alteración de uno o más genes (animales knock-out y knock-in, o la incorporación de genes foráneos de otras especies, da lugar a la aparición de hiperlipidemia con riesgo asociado de aparición de enfermedad cardiovascular temprana. Por otra parte, se consideran algunas de las líneas celulares más utilizadas en el estudio de los mecanismos moleculares de la aterogénesis y de evaluación de sustancias con interés nutricional o farmacológico.The present work describes clinically useful experimental models for the study of cardiovascular disease and emphasites the models used to determine the pathophysiologic mechanisms of atherosclerosis, as well as to evaluate the effects of nutritional and pharmacological products on the development of this complex inflammatory process present in many cardiovascular diseases. Animal models in which ahterosclerosis may be induced by dietary changes are reviewed, as well as those in which modification in one or more genes (knock-out and knock-in animals, or the incorporation of foreign genes from other species lead to early cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, some of the cell lines most frequently used in studying molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and assessment of substances with nutritional or pharmacological interest are considered.

  19. Adipose Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Arti; Mehta, Nehal; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2008-01-01

    Adiposity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance are strongly implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the mechanisms of adipose inflammation, because these may represent therapeutic targets for insulin resistance and for prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity. The initial insult in adipose inflammation and insulin resistance, mediated by macrophage recruitment and endogenous ligand ac...

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Edmondson, Donald; Cohen, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder initiated by exposure to a traumatic event and characterized by intrusive thoughts about the event, attempts to avoid reminders of the event, and physiological hyperarousal. In a number of large prospective observational studies, PTSD has been associated with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Also, in recent years, a number of studies have shown that cardiovascular events can themselves cause PTSD in more than 1 in...

  1. Redox signaling in cardiovascular health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Madamanchi, Nageswara R.; Runge, Marschall S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of the activity of a vast array of intracellular proteins and signaling pathways by reactive oxygen species (ROS) governs normal cardiovascular function. However, data from experimental and animal studies strongly support that dysregulated redox signaling, resulting from hyper-activation of various cellular oxidases or mitochondrial dysfunction, is integral to the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this review, we address how redox signa...

  2. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European...... descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals...... disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for cardiovascular health....

  3. Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Beginning in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Young Mi

    2010-01-01

    Although the clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease, appear from middle age, the process of atherosclerosis can begin early in childhood. The early stage and progression of atherosclerosis in youth are influenced by risk factors that include obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking, and by the presence of specific diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and Kawasaki disease (KD). The existing evidence...

  4. Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Angina Pectoris; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Peripheral Vascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Diabetes Mellitus

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  6. The effects of exercise on cardiovascular outcomes before, during, and after treatment for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Ky, Bonnie; Libonati, Joseph R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic cardiotoxicity following breast cancer treatment is a significant issue for many patients, as these patients typically face an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise has well established benefits to improve and maintain cardiovascular function across patients with and without CVD. However, there is a dearth of information on the effects of exercise on cardiovascular outcomes in breast cancer patients. While pre-clinical studies support the use of exercise in mit...

  7. Vitamin B6 and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friso, Simonetta; Lotto, V; Corrocher, R; Choi, Sang Woon

    2012-01-01

    While overt vitamin B6 deficiency is not a frequent finding nowadays in medical practice, evidence suggests that insufficiency of this vitamin is rather widespread in a quite large portion of the population such as the elderly or in not unusual conditions such as that of alcohol addiction. Moreover, a mild deficiency in B6 vitamin is a state that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence from case control and prospective studies have suggested that low dietary intake or reduced blood concentrations of vitamin B6 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, although most recent trials demonstrated the ineffectiveness of vitamin B6 supplementation on the prevention of cardiovascular events recurrence. Due to limited and somewhat inconsistent data together with the ample variety of critical functions in which vitamin B6 is involved in the human body, it is very challenging to attempt at establishing a cause and effect relationship between vitamin B6 and risk of cardiovascular disease as it is to delineate the exact mechanism(s) by which vitamin B6 may modulate such risk. In the present chapter we review the currently available knowledge deriving from both epidemiological and mechanistic studies designed to define potential candidate mechanisms for the association of vitamin B6 impairment and risk of cardiovascular disease development. PMID:22116704

  8. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Carolina Nunes, E-mail: carolufscar24@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Santo Amaro - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  9. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. PMID:26383179

  10. Space radiation and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Marjan; Nelson, Gregory A; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Koturbash, Igor; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2015-12-26

    Future long-distance space missions will be associated with significant exposures to ionizing radiation, and the health risks of these radiation exposures during manned missions need to be assessed. Recent Earth-based epidemiological studies in survivors of atomic bombs and after occupational and medical low dose radiation exposures have indicated that the cardiovascular system may be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than was previously thought. This has raised the concern of a cardiovascular disease risk from exposure to space radiation during long-distance space travel. Ground-based studies with animal and cell culture models play an important role in estimating health risks from space radiation exposure. Charged particle space radiation has dense ionization characteristics and may induce unique biological responses, appropriate simulation of the space radiation environment and careful consideration of the choice of the experimental model are critical. Recent studies have addressed cardiovascular effects of space radiation using such models and provided first results that aid in estimating cardiovascular disease risk, and several other studies are ongoing. Moreover, astronauts could potentially be administered pharmacological countermeasures against adverse effects of space radiation, and research is focused on the development of such compounds. Because the cardiovascular response to space radiation has not yet been clearly defined, the identification of potential pharmacological countermeasures against cardiovascular effects is still in its infancy. PMID:26730293

  11. Mapping cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Rodrigues

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents performance indicators for the Brazilian cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research areas from 1981 to 1995. The data show an increasing number of papers since 1981 and author numbers indicate a continuous growth of the scientific community and suggest an expected impact of scientific activity on biomedical education. The data also characterize cardiovascular research as a well-established area and cancer research as a faster growing consolidating field. The 1989-1994 share of Brazilian articles among world publications shows a growing trend for the cancer (1.61 and cardiovascular (1.59 areas, and a decrease for the malaria area (0.89. The burden of the three diseases on society is contrasted by the small number of consolidated Brazilian research groups, and a questionable balance of thematic activity, especially with regard to malaria. Brazilian periodicals play an important role in increasing the international visibility of science produced in the country. Cancer and cardiovascular research is strongly concentrated in the Southeastern and in Southern regions of Brazil, especially in São Paulo (at least one address from São Paulo in 64.5% of the 962 cancer articles and in 66.9% of the 2250 cardiovascular articles, the second state being Rio de Janeiro with at least one address in 14.1 and 11% of those articles, respectively. Malaria research (468 articles is more evenly distributed across the country, following the pattern of the endemic distribution of the disease. Surveying these national indicator trends can be useful to establish policies in the decision process about health sciences, medical education and public health.

  12. Improved Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Forman, Daniel E.; Karen Alexander; Brindis, Ralph G.; Curtis, Anne B; Mathew Maurer; Rich, Michael W.; Laurence Sperling; Nanette K. Wenger

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD), such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age.  Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase manag...

  13. Impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zalesin, Kerstyn C

    2012-02-01

    Obesity promotes a cascade of secondary pathologies including diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, thrombosis, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, and OSA, which collectively heighten the risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity may also be an independent moderator of cardiac risk apart from these comorbid conditions. Rates of obesity and cardiac disease continue to rise in a parallel and exponential manner. Because obesity is potentially one of the most modifiable mediators of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, effective treatment and prevention interventions should have a profound and favorable impact on public health.

  14. The relationship between reduced renal function and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between measures of renal function and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with hypertension (the NORDIL study) and in the healthy population (Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, MDC) and whether antihypertensive treatment response and the risk of CVD is affected by genetic variation of a regulator of the renal amiloroide sensitive sodium channel (NORDIL). In study 1 we tested creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with Cockroft-Gault (CG) ...

  15. The Role of Redox Signaling in Epigenetics and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gene H.; Ryan, John J.; Archer, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Significance: The term epigenetics refers to the changes in the phenotype and gene expression that occur without alterations in the DNA sequence. There is a rapidly growing body of evidence that epigenetic modifications are involved in the pathological mechanisms of many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which intersect with many of the pathways involved in oxidative stress. Recent Advances: Most studies relating epigenetics and human pathologies have focused on cancer. There has been a limited...

  16. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arden R; O'Neill, Deirdre E; Graham, Michelle M

    2016-09-01

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular events in older adults is challenging because of a general paucity of evidence for safe and efficacious therapy. Furthermore, there is no validated cardiovascular risk assessment tool for older adults (≥75 years of age), yet most are intermediate-to high-risk. Assessment of cardiovascular risk should include a discussion of the potential benefits and risks of therapy, and allow for incorporation of the patients' values and preferences, functionality and/or frailty, comorbidities, and concomitant medications (eg, polypharmacy, drug-drug interactions, adherence). The best available evidence for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in older adults is for statin therapy and blood pressure control. Statin therapy reduces the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, although close monitoring for adverse events is warranted. Evidence does not support an association between statin therapy and either cognitive impairment or cancer. Rates of adverse effects, such as myopathy and diabetes, do not appear to be increased in elderly patients. Blood pressure control is also paramount to prevent cardiovascular events and mortality in elderly patients, although the target is debatable and should be individualized to the patient. Conversely, the benefit of antiplatelet therapy in primary prevention does not appear to outweigh the risk, and should not be recommended. Other interventions shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in elderly patients include smoking cessation, physical activity, and maintaining a normal body weight. PMID:27113770

  17. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: FOCUS ON ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    OpenAIRE

    V N Shishkova

    2015-01-01

    The question of mutual influence of risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases with a focus on atrial fibrillation is considered. Modern approaches to the prevention of major macrovascular events in patients with comorbidity are evaluated.

  18. CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: FOCUS ON ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Shishkova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of mutual influence of risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases with a focus on atrial fibrillation is considered. Modern approaches to the prevention of major macrovascular events in patients with comorbidity are evaluated.

  19. Positron Emission Tomography in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Renata Christian Martins; Gouvea, Clecio Maria, E-mail: renatafelix@cardiol.br, E-mail: renata.felix@inc.saude.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Michel Pontes [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Many articles have demonstrated the role of PET-CT in the evaluation of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on this topic to identify clinical situations in which there is evidence of the usefulness of PET-CT in diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation.

  20. C-reactive protein and cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohua JI

    2004-01-01

    @@ Recently many new disease markers and risk factors have been proposed, but it is not yet clear how far the new markers are validated as predictive risk factors enable us to increase accuracy as well as enhancing our ability to predict cardiovascular (CV) events and to plan prevention and therapy.

  1. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    , including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population...

  2. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  3. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  4. Positron Emission Tomography in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many articles have demonstrated the role of PET-CT in the evaluation of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on this topic to identify clinical situations in which there is evidence of the usefulness of PET-CT in diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation

  5. PPAR Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Calkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play important roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. To the extent that PPAR agonists improve diabetic dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, these agents have been considered to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, data from murine models suggests that PPAR agonists also have independent anti-atherosclerotic actions, including the suppression of vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Many of these potentially anti-atherosclerotic effects are thought to be mediated by transrepression of nuclear factor-kB, STAT, and activator protein-1 dependent pathways. In recent clinical trials, PPARα agonists have been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, while their cardiovascular benefit in patients with established cardiovascular disease remains equivocal. However, the use of PPARγ agonists, and more recently dual PPARα/γ coagonists, has been associated with an excess in cardiovascular events, possibly reflecting unrecognised fluid retention with potent agonists of the PPARγ receptor. Newer pan agonists, which retain their anti-atherosclerotic activity without weight gain, may provide one solution to this problem. However, the complex biologic effects of the PPARs may mean that only vascular targeted agents or pure transrepressors will realise the goal of preventing atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  6. Astaxanthin in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Fassett

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation are established processes contributing to cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis. However, antioxidant therapies tested in cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E, C and β-carotene have proved unsuccessful at reducing cardiovascular events and mortality. Although these outcomes may reflect limitations in trial design, new, more potent antioxidant therapies are being pursued. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid found in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail is one such agent. It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Limited, short duration and small sample size studies have assessed the effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers and have investigated bioavailability and safety. So far no significant adverse events have been observed and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation are attenuated with astaxanthin supplementation. Experimental investigations in a range of species using a cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion model demonstrated cardiac muscle preservation when astaxanthin is administered either orally or intravenously prior to the induction of ischaemia. Human clinical cardiovascular studies using astaxanthin therapy have not yet been reported. On the basis of the promising results of experimental cardiovascular studies and the physicochemical and antioxidant properties and safety profile of astaxanthin, clinical trials should be undertaken.

  7. PGC-1 family coactivators and cell fate: roles in cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and retrograde mitochondria-nucleus signalling.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A W; Z. Yao; Vicencio, J. M.; Karkucinska-Wieckowska, A.; Szabadkai, G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a complex nuclear transcriptional machinery controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and function has been described. Central to this network are the PGC-1 family coactivators, characterised as master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. Recent literature has identified a broader role for PGC-1 coactivators in both cell death and cellular adaptation under conditions of stress, here reviewed in the context of the pathology associated with cancer, neurodegeneration and...

  8. Translational In Vivo Models for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegner, Daniela; Gerdes, Christoph; Meding, Jörg; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. Experimental cardiology research and preclinical drug development in cardiology call for appropriate and especially clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo studies. The use of animal models has contributed to expand our knowledge and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and accordingly provided new approaches focused on the improvement of diagnostic and treatment strategies of various cardiac pathologies.Numerous animal models in different species as well as in small and large animals have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and thrombotic diseases. However, a perfect model of heart failure or other indications that reproduces every aspect of the natural disease does not exist. The complexity and heterogeneity of cardiac diseases plus the influence of genetic and environmental factors limit to mirror a particular disease with a single experimental model.Thus, drug development in the field of cardiology is not only very challenging but also inspiring; therefore animal models should be selected that reflect as best as possible the disease being investigated. Given the wide range of animal models, reflecting critical features of the human pathophysiology available nowadays increases the likelihood of the translation to the patients. Furthermore, this knowledge and the increase of the predictive value of preclinical models help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions as well as better and innovative treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26552402

  9. Cardiovascular Disease in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsnefes, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    More than a decade ago, cardiovascular disease (CVD) was recognized as a major cause of death in children with advanced CKD. This observation has sparked the publication of multiple studies assessing cardiovascular risk, mechanisms of disease, and early markers of CVD in this population. Similar to adults, children with CKD have an extremely high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related CVD risk factors. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction...

  10. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

    2005-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in

  11. Functional Foods as Modifiers of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is growing consensus that systemic inflammation is at the heart of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation is a key feature of the immune system, functioning to defend tissue integrity and function. However, chronic stimulation of inflammatory mediators leads to lasting vascular reactivity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and, subsequently, chronic disease. Dietary practices to minimize inflammatory stimuli and CVD risk include regular intakes of fatty fish rich in the eicosapent...

  12. Cardiovascular implications of endodontic bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dessì, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have a complex etiology determined by risk factors, which are in turn associated to a strong genetic component and to environmental factors. In the biological background for the development of CVD, low-grade chronic inflammation plays a role as a pathogenetic determinant of atherosclerosis. Dental infections have been associated with CVD. Periodontal disease is a chronic infection of the supporting tissues of the tooth that can lead to teeth loss. In recent years...

  13. Quality of life evaluation in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravković Marija; Krotin Mirjana; Deljanin-Ilić Marina; Zdravković Darko

    2010-01-01

    Definition of quality of life. In recent years, quality of life has become a very important measure of treatment of disease and successful therapy, regarding not only general health of an individual patient but also of the whole population In 1993 the WHO proclaimed 'Vision of health for all', as 'Add years to life' but also 'Add life to years', emphasizing quality of life to be as important as life duration. Although the remaining life expectancy in patients with cardiovascular disease is pr...

  14. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Cardiovascular Disease: A Transitory Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohilla Ankur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy is a medical condition characterized by abnormally large levels of homocysteine in blood. The involvement of homocysteine (Hcy in various biochemical reactions causes deficiencies of the vitamins like pyridoxine (B6, folic acid (B9, or B12 leading to higher Hcy levels. Hhcy has been considered as an independent risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases like endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The review article critically explains about the mechanisms involved in the Hhcy-induced development and progression of various cardiovascular disorders

  15. Continuous increase of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and non-HIV related cancers as causes of death in HIV-infected individuals in Brazil: an analysis of nationwide data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelzon A Paula

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: After antiretroviral therapy (ART became available, there was a decline in the number of deaths in persons infected with HIV. Thereafter, there was a decrease in the proportion of deaths attributed to opportunistic infections and an increase in the proportion of deaths attributed to chronic comorbidities. Herein we extend previous observations from a nationwide survey on temporal trends in causes of death in HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: We describe temporal trends in causes of death among adults who had HIV/AIDS listed in the death certificate to those who did not. All death certificates issued in Brazil from 1999 to 2011 and listed in the national mortality database were included. Generalized linear mixed-effects logistic models were used to study temporal trends in proportions. RESULTS: In the HIV-infected population, there was an annual adjusted average increase of 6.0%, 12.0%, 4.0% and 4.1% for cancer, external causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes mellitus (DM, respectively, compared to 3.0%, 4.0%, 1.0% and 3.9%, in the non-HIV group. For tuberculosis (TB, there was an adjusted average increase of 0.3%/year and a decrease of 3.0%/year in the HIV and the non-HIV groups, respectively. Compared to 1999, the odds ratio (OR for cancer, external causes, CVD, DM, or TB in the HIV group were, respectively, 2.31, 4.17, 1.76, 2.27 and 1.02, while for the non-HIV group, the corresponding OR were 1.31, 1.63, 1.14, 1.62 and 0.67. Interactions between year as a continuous or categorical variable and HIV were significant (p<0.001 for all conditions, except for DM when year was considered as a continuous variable (p = 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: Non HIV-related co-morbidities continue to increase more rapidly as causes of death among HIV-infected individuals than in those without HIV infection, highlighting the need for targeting prevention measures and surveillance for chronic diseases among those patients.

  16. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Poay; Sian; Sabrina; Lee; Kian; Keong; Poh

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vas-culogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk fac-tors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardio-vascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evalu-ate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome.

  17. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Duan; Yongfen Qi; Chaoshu Tang

    2009-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves several important functions, mainly post-translational modification, folding and assembly of newly synthesized secretary proteins, synthesizing lipids and cellular calcium storage. Various factors can disrupt ER homeostasis and disturb its functions, which leads to the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins and to potential cellular dysfunction and pathological consequences, collectively termed ER stress. Recent progress suggests that ER stress plays a key role in the immune response, diabetes, tumor growth, and some neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, ER stress is involved in several processes of cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Further research on the relation of ER stress to cardiovascular diseases will greatly enhance the understanding of these pathological processes and provide novel avenues to potential therapies.

  19. Is it worth offering cardiovascular disease prevention to the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Helmut

    2013-02-01

    The question whether prevention in the elderly or in the old is still worthwhile arises frequently in clinical practice. The life expectancy (LE) of elderly persons is often underestimated and ranges for a 65-year-old European person from 17 to 23 years and for an 80-year-old from 8 and 11 years. In the elderly patients with cardiovascular disease, preventive measures are of great benefit. Smoking cessation results in substantial gains in LE and is more effective than most other interventions. Lipid lowering with statins is cost effective and the intensity of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering correlates with the risk reduction of cardiac events and stroke without increasing the risk of cancer. A quality-adjusted life year costs US $ 18,800, less than the costs of a nursing home for 1 year. Exercise training decreases cardiovascular events and improves quality of life. The benefits of the Mediterranean diet are based on a small randomized trial, which is supplemented by a large observational database. A reduction in all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality is highly likely. Blood pressure lowering reduces stroke and all-cause mortality above the age of 80; however, the target blood pressure should be around 150/80 mmHg or slightly lower. Annual vaccination against influenza is one of the most cost-effective methods to prolong life and should not be forgotten in patients with cardiovascular disease above the age of 65. Thus a number of options are available to add quality-adjusted life years in the elderly by adhering to the general guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. PMID:22089892

  20. Role of gamma-glutamyltransferase in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Donglin; Tao, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are threatening human health with rising morbidity and mortality rates. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease, and the prognosis of cardiovascular disease may be predicted by increasing GGT levels. GGT levels are related to cardiovascular emergencies of chronic heart failure, and an elevated GGT level has been shown to be an independent predictive maker for cardia...

  1. Epigenetic programming and risk: the birthplace of cardiovascular disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Maria Cristina; Polvani, Gianluca; Pesce, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    Epigenetics, through control of gene expression circuitries, plays important roles in various physiological processes such as stem cell differentiation and self renewal. This occurs during embryonic development, in different tissues, and in response to environmental stimuli. The language of epigenetic program is based on specific covalent modifications of DNA and chromatin. Thus, in addition to the individual identity, encoded by sequence of the four bases of the DNA, there is a cell type identity characterized by its positioning in the epigenetic "landscape". Aberrant changes in epigenetic marks induced by environmental cues may contribute to the development of abnormal phenotypes associated with different human diseases such as cancer, neurological disorders and inflammation. Most of the epigenetic studies have focused on embryonic development and cancer biology, while little has been done to explore the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. This review highlights our current knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation and the evidence that chromatin remodeling and histone modifications play key roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease through (re)programming of cardiovascular (stem) cells commitment, identity and function. PMID:22773406

  2. T cell senescence and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hee Tae; Park, Sungha; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, Won-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Age-related changes in the immune system, commonly termed "immunosenescence," contribute to deterioration of the immune response and fundamentally impact the health and survival of elderly individuals. Immunosenescence affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems; however, the most notable changes are in T cell immunity and include thymic involution, the collapse of T cell receptor (TCR) diversity, an imbalance in T cell populations, and the clonal expansion of senescent T cells. Senescent T cells have the ability to produce large quantities of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic mediators; thus, they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has suggested that senescent T cells also have pathogenic potential in cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction, underscoring the detrimental roles of these cells in various chronic inflammatory responses. Given that cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide, there is great interest in understanding the contribution of age-related immunological changes to its pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss general features of age-related alterations in T cell immunity and the possible roles of senescent T cells in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26188489

  3. Strain Echocardiography in Acute Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Mark; Courage, Cheryl; Ehrman, Robert; Khait, Lyudmila; Levy, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Echocardiography has become a critical tool in the evaluation of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute cardiovascular diseases and undifferentiated cardiopulmonary symptoms. New technological advances allow clinicians to accurately measure left ventricular (LV) strain, a superior marker of LV systolic function compared to traditional measures such as ejection fraction, but most emergency physicians (EPs) are unfamiliar with this method of echocardiographic assessment. This article discusses the application of LV longitudinal strain in the ED and reviews how it has been used in various disease states including acute heart failure, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and pulmonary embolism. It is important for EPs to understand the utility of technological and software advances in ultrasound and how new methods can build on traditional two-dimensional and Doppler techniques of standard echocardiography. The next step in competency development for EP-performed focused echocardiography is to adopt novel approaches such as strain using speckle-tracking software in the management of patients with acute cardiovascular disease. With the advent of speckle tracking, strain image acquisition and interpretation has become semi-automated making it something that could be routinely added to the sonographic evaluation of patients presenting to the ED with cardiovascular disease. Once strain imaging is adopted by skilled EPs, focused echocardiography can be expanded and more direct, phenotype-driven care may be achievable for ED patients with a variety of conditions including heart failure, ACS and shock. PMID:26823931

  4. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  5. Obesity and the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew J. Sorrentino

    2006-01-01

    @@ The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide has many experts concerned about the worsening health of a large proportion of the population. It is well recognized that obesity is associated with a higher mortality, an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, gall bladder disease and possibly some cancers. Currently it is estimated that over two thirds of adults in the United States are overweight and nearly one third are clinically obese.1 Of special concern is the rapid increase in obesity among children. Other countries both developed and developing are experiencing similar trends.

  6. The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): Rationale and Design of a Large Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D and Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Manson, JoAnn E.; Bassuk, Shari S.; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R.; Albert, Michelle A.; Gordon, David; Zaharris, Elaine; MacFadyen, Jean G.; Danielson, Eleanor; Lin, Jennifer; Zhang, Shumin M.; Buring, Julie E

    2011-01-01

    Data from laboratory studies, observational research, and/or secondary prevention trials suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD), but primary prevention trials with adequate dosing in general populations (i.e., unselected for disease risk) are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of vitamin D (in the form of vitamin D3 [chole...

  7. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  8. MACD: an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strongly...... with coronary artery calcifications. Hence an early detection of aortic calcified plaques helps to predict the risk of related coronary diseases. Also since two thirds of the adverse events have no prior symptoms, possibilities to screen for risk in low cost imaging are important. To this end the Morphological...... imaging markers described. Finally we present that the MACD index predicts cardiovascular death with a hazard ratio of approximately four....

  9. Therapy of obese patient with Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Ankur; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Brietzke, Stephen; Sowers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is a significant public health concern. Obesity is associated with increased diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disease, and associated morbidity and mortality. Despite the increasing public health problem of obesity, there is a dearth of effective treatment options. Following the FDA mandated withdrawal of sibutramine, the treatment options for obesity were limited to orlistat as the only pharmacological treatment option for long term management ...

  10. Next generation sequencing in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Faita, Francesca; Vecoli, Cecilia; Foffa, Ilenia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the approach to genetic studies, making whole-genome sequencing a possible way of obtaining global genomic information. NGS has very recently been shown to be successful in identifying novel causative mutations of rare or common Mendelian disorders. At the present time, it is expected that NGS will be increasingly important in the study of inherited and complex cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the...

  11. Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease: Pathophysiological Links

    OpenAIRE

    Bairey Merz, C. Noel; Dwyer, James; Nordstrom, Cheryl K; Walton, Kenneth G.; Salerno, John W.; Schneider, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    The remarkable decline in cardiovascular disease (CVD) experienced in developed countries over the last 40 years appears to have abated. Currently, many CVD patients continue to show cardiac events despite optimal treatment of traditional risk factors. This evidence suggests that additional interventions, particularly those aimed at nontraditional factors, might be useful for continuing the decline. Psychosocial stress is a newly recognized (nontraditional) risk factor that appears to contrib...

  12. Future of Pharmacogenetics in Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    van Schie, Rianne; Verhoef, Talitha; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; de Boer, Anthonius; van der Meer, F. J. M.; Redekop, Ken; Thariani, Rahber

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Pharmacogenetics is the study of variations in DNA sequence as related to drug response (European Medicines Agency [EMA], 2007). Several gene-drug interactions have been discovered in the field of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). These gene-drug interactions can help to identify nonresponse to drugs, estimate dose requirements or identify an increased risk of developing adverse drug reactions. An individualized approach based on pharmacogenetic testing will provide ph...

  13. Does Drinking Tea Protect Against Cardiovascular Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Natasha

    2003-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the hypothesis that tea does, in fact protect against cardiovascular disease. Some of the latest data by Hodgson et al, suggests that dietary flavonoids in tea significantly improves endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent flow-mediated vasodilation (2.3%; P=.008 & 4.2%; P=.03 respectively). Similar results were obtained in a study by Duffy et al, where it was found that short- and long-term tea consumption significantly improved endothelium dependent flow-m...

  14. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  15. Androgen therapy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    K-CY McGrath; LS McRobb; AK Heather

    2008-01-01

    K-CY McGrath1, LS McRobb1,2, AK Heather1,21Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in Western society today. There is a striking gender difference in CVD with men predisposed to earlier onset and more severe disease. Following the recent reevaluation and ongoing debate regarding the estrogen protection hypothesis, and given that androgen ...

  16. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  17. Molecular Modeling Approach to Cardiovascular Disease Targetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Akula,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease, including stroke, is the leading cause of illness and death in the India. A number of studies have shown that inflammation of blood vessels is one of the major factors that increase the incidence of heart diseases, including arteriosclerosis (clogging of the arteries, stroke and myocardial infraction or heart attack. Studies have associated obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors, with lowgradeinflammation. Furthermore, some findings suggest that drugs commonly prescribed to the lower cholesterol also reduce this inflammation, suggesting an additional beneficial effect of the stains. The recent development of angiotensin 11 (Ang11 receptor antagonists has enabled to improve significantly the tolerability profile of thisgroup of drugs while maintaining a high clinical efficacy. ACE2 is expressed predominantly in the endothelium and in renal tubular epithelium, and it thus may be an import new cardiovascular target. In the present study we modeled the structure of ACE and designed an inhibitor through using ARGUS lab and the validation of the Drug molecule is done basing on QSAR properties and Cache for this protein through CADD.

  18. Carbon dioxide balneotherapy and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagourelias, Efstathios D.; Zorou, Paraskevi G.; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis; Athyros, Vasilis G.; Karagiannis, Asterios; Efthimiadis, Georgios K.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) balneotherapy is a kind of remedy with a wide spectrum of applications which have been used since the Middle Ages. However, its potential use as an adjuvant therapeutic option in patients with cardiovascular disease is not yet fully clarified. We performed a thorough review of MEDLINE Database, EMBASE, ISI WEB of Knowledge, COCHRANE database and sites funded by balneotherapy centers across Europe in order to recognize relevant studies and aggregate evidence supporting the use of CO2 baths in various cardiovascular diseases. The three main effects of CO2 hydrotherapy during whole body or partial immersion, including decline in core temperature, an increase in cutaneous blood flow, and an elevation of the score on thermal sensation, are analyzed on a pathophysiology basis. Additionally, the indications and contra-indications of the method are presented in an evidence-based way, while the need for new methodologically sufficient studies examining the use of CO2 baths in other cardiovascular substrates is discussed.

  19. Cardiovascular medication after cancer at a young age in Finland: A nationwide registry linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, A E; Madanat-Harjuoja, L M; Järvelä, L S; Malila, N; Matomäki, J; Lähteenmäki, P M

    2016-08-01

    Despite improved survival rates, childhood and young adult (YA) cancer survivors face elevated risks for life-threatening morbidities, especially cardiovascular complications. Our nationwide Finnish registry study investigated the purchases of cardiovascular medication from 1993 to 2011 in patients diagnosed with cancer aged below 35 years (N = 8,197) between 1993 and 2004 compared to siblings (N = 29,974) via linkage to the drug purchase registry. The cumulative incidence for purchasing cardiovascular medications was higher in childhood and YA cancer patients compared to siblings with a rising trend over time. After childhood cancer, the highest hazard ratio (HR) was found for purchasing anticoagulants (HR 19.8, 95% CI 8.5-45.9). The HRs for any cardiovascular medication (HR 7.2, 95% CI 5.1-10.1) and cardiac medication (HR 4.8, 95% CI 3.3-6.9) were markedly elevated after childhood cancer as well. Regarding YA cancer patients, the respective HRs were 2.5 (95% CI 2.0-3.2) for anticoagulants, HR 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) for any cardiovascular medication and HR 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.7) for cardiac medication. Among cancer patients, highest HRs for cardiovascular medication were observed after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and bone tumors (HR 10.2, 95% CI 6.8-15.5 and HR 7.4, 95% CI 4.0-13.7) and YA ALL and acute myeloid leukemia (HR 5.1, 95% CI 3.5-7.1 and HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.8-4.0). Our study demonstrated increased HRs for purchasing cardiovascular medication after early-onset cancer compared to siblings reflecting elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Thus, the implementation of long-term cardiovascular disease screening is imperative to prevent, detect and adequately treat cardiovascular late effects after cancer at a young age. PMID:26610262

  20. Cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naranjo, Antonio; Sokka, Tuulikki; Descalzo, Miguel;

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its association with traditional CV risk factors, clinical features of RA, and the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in a multinational cross...... by patients. The clinical assessment included a review of clinical features of RA and exposure to DMARDs over the course of RA. Comorbidities were recorded; CV morbidity included myocardial infarction, angina, coronary disease, coronary bypass surgery, and stroke. Traditional risk factors recorded were...... any CV event and age and male gender and between extra-articular disease and myocardial infarction. Prolonged exposure to methotrexate (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.89), leflunomide (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.43 to 0.79), sulfasalazine (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98), glucocorticoids (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92 to 0...

  1. The relationships between cardiovascular disease and diabetes: focus on pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Jason C; Castellano, Jose M; Farkouh, Michael E; Fuster, Valentin

    2014-03-01

    There is a looming global epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Of all the end-organ effects caused by diabetes, the cardiovascular system is particularly susceptible to the biologic perturbations caused by this disease, and many patients may die from diabetes-related cardiovascular complications. Substantial progress has been made in understanding the pathobiology of the diabetic vasculature and heart. Clinical studies have illuminated the optimal way to treat patients with cardiovascular manifestations of this disease. This article reviews these aspects of diabetes and the cardiovascular system, broadly classified into diabetic vascular disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and the clinical management of the diabetic cardiovascular disease patient. PMID:24582091

  2. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy......-induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. CONCLUSION: As exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate....... However, the excellent cancer-specific survival comes at considerable costs, as individuals with a history of germ cell cancer experience serious long-term complications, including markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidities and premature cardiovascular death. The factors responsible, as well as...

  3. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults The ... Recommendation | 1 Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults Potential ...

  4. Nutrigenomic programming of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Over twenty five years ago epidemiological studies revealed that there was a relationship between patterns of early growth and subsequent risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Studies of identical twins, individuals who were in utero during periods of famine, discordant siblings and animal models have provided strong evidence that the early environment plays an important role in mediating these relationships. Early nutrition is one such important environmental factor. The concept of early life programming is therefore widely accepted and the underlying mechanisms starting to emerge. These include: (1) Permanent structural changes in an organ due to exposure to suboptimal levels of essential hormones or nutrients during a critical period of development leading to permanent changes in tissue function (2) Persistent epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation and histone modifications and miRNAs leading to changes in gene expression. (3) Permanent effects on regulation of cellular ageing through increases in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction leading to DNA damage and telomere shortening. Further understanding of these processes will enable the development of preventative and intervention strategies to combat the burden of common diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26461282

  5. Cardiovascular disease could be contained based on currently available data!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofodile, Okom Nkili F C

    2006-01-01

    Largely due to better control of infectious diseases and significant advances in biomedical research, life expectancy worldwide has increased dramatically in the last three decades. However, as the average age of the population has risen, the incidence of chronic age-related diseases such as arthritis, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and late-onset diabetes have increased and have become serious public health problem, as well. The etiology of these disorders is still incompletely understood, therefore, neither preventive strategies nor long-term effective treatment modalities are available for these disorders. In keeping with the aforementioned, the ultimate goal in cardiovascular research is to prevent the onset of cardiovascular episodes and thereby allow successful ageing without morbidity and cognitive decline. Herein, I argue that cardiovascular episodes could be contained with relatively simple approaches. Cardiovascular disorder is characterized by cellular and molecular changes that are commonplace in age-related diseases in other organ system, such alterations include increased level of oxidative stress, perturbed energy metabolism, and "horror autotoxicus" largely brought about by the perturbation of ubiquitin -proteasome system, and excessive oxidative stress damage to the cardiac muscle cells and tissues, and cross-reactions of specific antibodies against human heat shock protein 60 with that of mycobacterial heat shock protein 65. "Horror autotoxicus", a Latin expression, is a term coined by Paul Ehrlich at the turn of the last century to describe autoimmunity to self, or the attack of "self" by immune system, which ultimately results to autoimmune condition. Based on the currently available data, the risk of cardiovascular episodes and several other age-related disorders, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes, is known to be influenced by the nature and level of food

  6. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Schwab

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW, risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, and cancer in healthy subjects or subjects at risk for these diseases. This work was performed in the process of updating the fourth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations from 2004. The literature search was performed in October 2010 covering articles published since January 2000. A complementary search was done in February 2012 covering literature until December 2011. Two authors independently selected articles for inclusion from a total of about 16,000 abstracts according to predefined criteria. Randomized controlled trials (RCT and prospective cohort studies (PCS were included as well as nested case–control studies. A few retrospective case–control studies were also included when limited or no data were available from other study types. Altogether 607 articles were quality graded and the observed effects in these papers were summarized. Convincing evidence was found that partial replacement of saturated fat (SFA with polyunsaturated fat (PUFA or monounsaturated fat (MUFA lowers fasting serum/plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations. The evidence was probable for a decreasing effect of fish oil on concentration of serum/plasma total triglycerides as compared with MUFA. Beneficial effect of MUFA both on insulin sensitivity and fasting plasma/serum insulin concentration was considered as probable in comparisons of MUFA and carbohydrates versus SFA, whereas no effect was found on fasting glucose

  7. Targeting the aldosterone pathway in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Azizi, Michel; Bauersachs, Johann;

    2012-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that aldosterone is a key player in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Multiple clinical trials have documented that intervention in the aldosterone pathway can reduce blood pressure and lower albuminuria and improve outcome in patients with heart...... failure or myocardial infarction. Recent studies have unraveled details about the role of aldosterone at the cellular level in CV disease. The relative importance of glucocorticoids and aldosterone in terms of mineralocorticoid receptor activation is currently being debated. Also, studies are addressing...... which aldosterone modulator to use, which timing of treatment to aim for, and in which population to intervene. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the understanding of the role of aldosterone in CV disease, with particular reference to mechanisms and potential targets...

  8. Improved Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Daniel E; Alexander, Karen; Brindis, Ralph G; Curtis, Anne B; Maurer, Mathew; Rich, Michael W; Sperling, Laurence; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is increasing and the population of older adults is growing. The biology of aging is conducive to cardiovascular disease (CVD), such that prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia and other disorders are increasing as more adults survive into old age.  Furthermore, CVD in older adults is distinctive, with management issues predictably complicated by multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty and other complexities of care that increase management risks (e.g., bleeding, falls, and rehospitalization) and uncertainty of outcomes.  In this review, state-of-the-art advances in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, atrial fibrillation, amyloidosis, and CVD prevention are discussed.  Conceptual benefits of treatments are considered in relation to the challenges and ambiguities inherent in their application to older patients. PMID:26918183

  9. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European...... descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals...... and by categories of alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1...

  10. Cardiovascular diseases: oxidative damage and antioxidant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P-Y; Xu, X; Li, X-C

    2014-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the hardening of arteries under oxidative stress is related to oxidative changes of low density lipoproteins (LDL). The antioxidants prevent the formation of oxidized LDL during atherogenesis. Perhaps more than one mechanism is involved in the atherosclerosis disease where LDL is oxidized in all the cells of arterial wall during the development of this disease. The oxidation of LDL produces lipid peroxidation products such as isoprostans from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, oxysterols from cholesterol, hydroxyl fatty acids, lipid peroxides and aldehydes. The lipid peroxidation bioassay can serve as a marker for the risk of cardiovascular. An in vivo test of levels of oxidative lipid damage is an early prediction of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Serum paraoxonase (PON) activity is correlated to severity of the coronary artery disease. The antioxidants level in the serum and serum paraoxonase activity provides information for the risk of CVD. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase is responsible for dismutation of superoxide, a free radical chain initiator. The subcellular changes in the equilibrium in favor of free radicals can cause increase in the oxidative stress which leads to cardiomyopathy, heart attack or cardiac dysfunction. The oxidative damage and defense of heart disease has been reported where dietary antioxidants protect the free radical damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. The ascorbic acid, vitamin C is an effective antioxidant and high vitamin E intake can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) by inhibition of atherogenic forms of oxidized LDL. The vitamin A and beta-carotene protect lipid peroxidation and provitamin-A activity. It has been recently suggested that the protection of oxidative damage and related CVD is best served by antioxidants found in the fruits and vegetables. The oxidative damage and antioxidant protection of CVD have been described here. PMID:25392110

  11. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet...

  12. Cardiovascular disease – coronary heart disease – qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide (World Health Organisation, 2008). This study focuses coronary heart disease and the management of lifestyle changes in prevention and ongoing treatment. In doing this, cardiac rehabilitation most useful. Through this process, individuals may experience a variety of issues, which may influence their overall health status. Despite the importance of rehabilitation being acknowledged, there is need for a...

  13. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Ristić, Gordana; Tepsić, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  14. Circulating endothelial cells in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Christopher J; Lip, Gregory Y H; Blann, Andrew D

    2006-10-17

    Quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in peripheral blood is developing as a novel and reproducible method of assessing endothelial damage/dysfunction. The CECs are thought to be mature cells that have detached from the intimal monolayer in response to endothelial injury and are a different cell population to endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The EPCs are nonleukocytes derived from the bone marrow that are believed to have proliferative potential and may be important in vascular regeneration. Currently accepted methods of CEC quantification include the use of immunomagnetic bead separation (with cell counting under fluorescence microscopy) and flow cytometry. Several recent studies have shown increased numbers of CECs in cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, such as unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and critical limb ischemia, but no change in stable intermittent claudication, essential hypertension, or atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, CEC quantification at 48 h after acute myocardial infarction has been shown to be an accurate predictor of major adverse coronary events and death at both 1 month and 1 year. This article presents an overview of the pathophysiology of CECs in the setting of cardiovascular disease and a brief comparison with EPCs. PMID:17045885

  15. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (placto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  16. Androgen therapy and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K-CY McGrath

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available K-CY McGrath1, LS McRobb1,2, AK Heather1,21Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains the leading cause of death in Western society today. There is a striking gender difference in CVD with men predisposed to earlier onset and more severe disease. Following the recent reevaluation and ongoing debate regarding the estrogen protection hypothesis, and given that androgen use and abuse is increasing in our society, the alternate view that androgens may promote CVD in men is assuming increasing importance. Whether androgens adversely affect CVD in either men or women remains a contentious issue within both the cardiovascular and endocrinological fraternities. This review draws from basic science, animal and clinical studies to outline our current understanding regarding androgen effects on atherosclerosis, the major CVD, and asks where future directions of atherosclerosis-related androgen research may lie.

  17. Cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Fellström, Bengt C; Holdaas, Hallvard; Jardine, Alan G

    2010-05-01

    Renal transplant recipients have a markedly increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population, although considerably lower than that of patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis. CVD in transplant recipients is poorly characterised and differs from the nonrenal population, with a much higher proportion of fatal to nonfatal cardiac events. In addition to traditional ischaemic heart disease risk factors such as age, gender, diabetes and smoking, there are additional factors to consider in this population such as the importance of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and uraemic cardiomyopathy. There are factors specific to transplantation such immunosuppressive therapies and graft dysfunction which contribute to this altered risk profile. However, understanding and treatment is limited by the absence of large randomised intervention trials addressing risk factor modification, with the exception of the ALERT study. The approach to managing these patients should begin early and be multifactorial in nature. PMID:20586909

  18. Precision Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Hunting Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine postulates improved prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease based on patient specific factors especially DNA sequence (i.e., gene) variants. Ideas related to precision medicine stem from the much anticipated "genetic revolution in medicine" arising seamlessly from the human genome project (HGP). In this essay I deconstruct the concept of precision medicine and raise questions about the validity of the paradigm in general and its application to cardiovascular disease. Thus far precision medicine has underperformed based on the vision promulgated by enthusiasts. While niche successes for precision medicine are likely, the promises of broad based transformation should be viewed with skepticism. Open discussion and debate related to precision medicine are urgently needed to avoid misapplication of resources, hype, iatrogenic interventions, and distraction from established approaches with ongoing utility. Failure to engage in such debate will lead to negative unintended consequences from a revolution that might never come. PMID:26902518

  19. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Skov, Lone; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines on...... cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  20. Cardiovascular disease in Navajo Indians with type 2 diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoy, W; Light, A; Megill, D

    1995-01-01

    Rates of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have risen sharply in recent years among Navajo Indians, the largest reservation-based American Indian tribe, but the association between the two conditions is not entirely clear. Rates of cardiovascular disease and some possible associations in several hundred diabetic and non-diabetic Navajos were estimated. Nearly one-third (30.9 percent) of those with diabetes had formal diagnoses of cardiovascular disease--25.3 percent had heart di...

  1. Sex Differences in the Developmental Origins of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Intapad, Suttira; Ojeda, Norma B.; Dasinger, John Henry; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) proposes that adverse events during early life program an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Experimental models provide proof of concept but also indicate that insults during early life program sex differences in adult blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. This review will highlight the potential mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of sex differences in the developmental programming of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, K.S.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francone Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases; in developed countries a shift for instance in the epidemiology of constrictive pericarditis has been noted. Accurate decision making is crucial taking into account the significant morbidity and mortality caused by complicated pericardial diseases, and the potential benefit of therapeutic interventions. Imaging herein has an important role, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is definitely one of the most versatile modalities to study the pericardium. It fuses excellent anatomic detail and tissue characterization with accurate evaluation of cardiac function and assessment of the haemodynamic consequences of pericardial constraint on cardiac filling. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge how CMR can be used to study the most common pericardial diseases.

  4. Plasma proteomics to identify biomarkers – application to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Beck

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an unmet need for new cardiovascular biomarkers. Despite this only few biomarkers for the diagnosis or screening of cardiovascular diseases have been implemented in the clinic. Thousands of proteins can be analysed in plasma by mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies. Therefore, this technology may therefore identify new biomarkers that previously have not been associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the key challenges and considerations, including strategies, recent discoveries and clinical applications in cardiovascular proteomics that may lead to the discovery of novel cardiovascular biomarkers.

  5. Quality of life evaluation in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of quality of life. In recent years, quality of life has become a very important measure of treatment of disease and successful therapy, regarding not only general health of an individual patient but also of the whole population In 1993 the WHO proclaimed 'Vision of health for all', as 'Add years to life' but also 'Add life to years', emphasizing quality of life to be as important as life duration. Although the remaining life expectancy in patients with cardiovascular disease is prolonged, there is still medical challenge: 'How to improve quality of life in these patients?'. Measurement of quality of life. Quality of life can be defined as the patient's perception of impact of disease and concomitant therapy and procedures on his physical and working capacity, emotional role, social communication and general health. Different types of standardized questionnaires for quality of life evaluation It can be measured by general health questionnaires and specified questionnaires for disease. Questionnaire SF-36 is regarded as one of the most reliable, considering the great number of publications. Conclusion. The most important step in complicated evaluation of quality of life is the adequate selection of questionnaire with a high confidence.

  6. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Henkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD. This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.

  7. [Acute cardiovascular disease and job retention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Tellart, Anne-Sophie; Cambier-Langrand, Evodie; Fassier, Jean Baptiste; Mounier-Vehier, Claire

    2016-05-01

    Since it allows a better quality of life, return to work must be considered ever since the early stages of the health care pathway following a cardiovascular disease. Seeing the occupational physician beforehand, so as to anticipate the return to work, is crucial. Dialogue between cardiologists, general practitioners and occupational physician, still observing medical confidentiality, must allow a better quality of return to work. Being recognized as a handicapped worker is a key element in the prevention of socio-professional exclusion. Even when dealing with long sick leave, permanent functional injuries or job loss, guiding the patients towards the appropriate person can improve return to work and job retention in the long term. PMID:27021479

  8. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  9. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  10. Risk of cardiovascular disease in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nynne; Nyboe; Andersen; Tine; Jess

    2014-01-01

    Abundant scientific evidence supporting an association between inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) and venous thromboembolic events, caused by an IBD related hypercoagulability, is acknowledged and thromboprophylactic treatment strategies are now implemented in the management of IBD patients. In contrary, the risk of arterial thromboembolic disease, as ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular events, and mesenteric ischemia in patients with IBD remains uncertain and the magnitude of a potentially increased risk is continuously debated, with ambiguous risk estimates among studies. The evident role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis forms the basis of a biological plausible link; the chronic systemic inflammation in IBD patients increases the risk of atherosclerosis and thereby the risk of thrombotic events. Further, studies have shown that the burden of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia is lower in IBD populations, thus further strengthen the role of non-traditional risk factors, as chronic inflammation in the linking of the two disease entities. Likewise, mortality from cardiovascular disease in IBD remains questioned. The aim of the current review is to give an up-date on the existing evidence of the possible association between IBD and cardiovascular disease and to discuss traditional and non-traditional risk factors.

  11. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J;

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.......This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease....

  12. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...

  13. Blood donation and cardiovascular disease. Addressing the healthy donor effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peffer, K.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the possible protective effect of frequent blood donation on cardiovascular disease was studied. Previous research has shown that high iron stores could have damaging effects on developing cardiovascular disease, and that blood donation lowers iron stores. Lowering iron stores throug

  14. A Speedy Cardiovascular Diseases Classifier Using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah Ching Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year, some 30 percent of global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases. This figure is worsening due to both the increasing elderly population and severe shortages of medical personnel. The development of a cardiovascular diseases classifier (CDC for auto-diagnosis will help address solve the problem. Former CDCs did not achieve quick evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. In this letter, a new CDC to achieve speedy detection is investigated. This investigation incorporates the analytic hierarchy process (AHP-based multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA to develop feature vectors using a Support Vector Machine. The MCDA facilitates the efficient assignment of appropriate weightings to potential patients, thus scaling down the number of features. Since the new CDC will only adopt the most meaningful features for discrimination between healthy persons versus cardiovascular disease patients, a speedy detection of cardiovascular diseases has been successfully implemented.

  15. Endemic Cardiovascular Diseases of the Poorest Billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Gene F; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mocumbi, Ana O; Miranda, J Jaime; Ezzati, Majid; Jain, Yogesh; Robles, Gisela; Benjamin, Emelia J; Subramanian, S V; Bukhman, Gene

    2016-06-14

    The poorest billion people are distributed throughout the world, though most are concentrated in rural sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) data can be sparse in low- and middle-income countries beyond urban centers. Despite this urban bias, CVD registries from the poorest countries have long revealed a predominance of nonatherosclerotic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, nonischemic and Chagas cardiomyopathies, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart anomalies, among others. Ischemic heart disease has been relatively uncommon. Here, we summarize what is known about the epidemiology of CVDs among the world's poorest people and evaluate the relevance of global targets for CVD control in this population. We assessed both primary data sources, and the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study modeled estimates in the world's 16 poorest countries where 62% of the population are among the poorest billion. We found that ischemic heart disease accounted for only 12% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the poorest countries, compared with 51% of DALYs in high-income countries. We found that as little as 53% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (1629/3049 DALYs per 100 000) was attributed to behavioral or metabolic risk factors in the poorest countries (eg, in Niger, 82% of the population among the poorest billion) compared with 85% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (4439/5199 DALYs) in high-income countries. Further, of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden, 34% was accrued in people under age 30 years in the poorest countries, while only 3% is accrued under age 30 years in high-income countries. We conclude although the current global targets for noncommunicable disease and CVD control will help diminish premature CVD death in the poorest populations, they are not sufficient. Specifically, the current framework (1) excludes deaths of

  16. Alcohol intake and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    of coronary heart disease (CHD), atrial fibrillation, liver cirrhosis and pancreatitis, and more specifically, to review the data for differential effects of alcohol according to modifying factors on these diseases. The thesis is based on the results from 10 epidemiological studies, conducted...... in young adults than in older individuals, hence, for young adults, the absolute beneficial effect of alcohol is small. Alcohol has differential effects on the risk of mortality and CHD according to drinking pattern. In the Diet, Cancer and Health Study, we found that for the same weekly amount of alcohol...... with risk of coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. The beneficial effect of alcohol on CHD is observed among both young adults, middle-aged and elderly, but the magnitude of the absolute beneficial effect is least among the young adults. Both alcohol and smoking are associated with increased risk...

  17. Anaphylaxis and cardiovascular disease: therapeutic dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, P; Simons, F E R

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases the risk of severe or fatal anaphylaxis, and some medications for CVD treatment can exacerbate anaphylaxis. The aim of this article is to review the effect of anaphylaxis on the heart, the potential impact of medications for CVD on anaphylaxis and anaphylaxis treatment, and the cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. The therapeutic dilemmas arising from these issues are also discussed and management strategies proposed. PubMed searches were performed for the years 1990-2014 inclusive, using terms such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, adrenaline, allergic myocardial infarction, anaphylaxis, angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-adrenergic blockers, epinephrine, and Kounis syndrome. Literature analysis indicated that: cardiac mast cells are key constituents of atherosclerotic plaques; mast cell mediators play an important role in acute coronary syndrome (ACS); patients with CVD are at increased risk of developing severe or fatal anaphylaxis; and medications for CVD treatment, including beta-adrenergic blockers and ACE inhibitors, potentially exacerbate anaphylaxis or make it more difficult to treat. Epinephrine increases myocardial contractility, decreases the duration of systole relative to diastole, and enhances coronary blood flow. Its transient adverse effects include pallor, tremor, anxiety, and palpitations. Serious adverse effects (including ventricular arrhythmias and hypertension) are rare, and are significantly more likely after intravenous injection than after intramuscular injection. Epinephrine is life-saving in anaphylaxis; second-line medications (including antihistamines and glucocorticoids) are not. In CVD patients (especially those with ACS), the decision to administer epinephrine for anaphylaxis can be difficult, and its benefits and potential harms need to be carefully considered. Concerns about potential adverse effects need to be weighed against concerns about possible death from

  18. Cardiovascular Disease in South Asian Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Eshan; Razak, Fahad; Lear, Scott A; Anand, Sonia S

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a significant cause of global mortality and morbidity. South Asians (SAs) have a particularly high burden of coronary artery disease (CAD). This review describes current literature regarding the prevalence, incidence, etiology, and prognosis of CVD in SA migrants to high-income nations. We conducted a narrative review of CVD in the SA diaspora through a search of MEDLINE and PubMed. We included observational studies, randomized clinical trials, nonsystematic reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses written in English. Of 15,231 articles identified, 827 articles were screened and 124 formed the basis for review. SA migrants have a 1.5-2 times greater prevalence of CAD than age- and sex-adjusted Europids. Increased abdominal obesity and body fat and increased burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia appear to be primary drivers of the excess CAD burden in SAs. Sedentary lifestyle and changes in diet after immigration are important contributors to weight gain and adiposity. Early life factors, physical activity patterns and, in some cases, reduced adherence to medical therapy may contribute to increased CVD risks in SAs. Novel biomarkers like leptin and adipokines may show distinct patterns in SAs and provide insights into cardiometabolic risk determinants. In conclusion, SAs have distinct CVD risk predispositions, with a complex relationship to cultural, innate, and acquired factors. Although CVD risk factor management and treatment among SAs is improving, opportunities exist for further advances. PMID:26321436

  19. Lipoprotein(a in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Malaguarnera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a (Lp(a is an LDL-like molecule consisting of an apolipoprotein B-100 (apo(B-100 particle attached by a disulphide bridge to apo(a. Many observations have pointed out that Lp(a levels may be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Lp(a inhibits the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF and contributes to the growth of arterial atherosclerotic lesions by promoting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the migration of smooth muscle cells to endothelial cells. Moreover Lp(a inhibits plasminogen binding to the surfaces of endothelial cells and decreases the activity of fibrin-dependent tissue-type plasminogen activator. Lp(a may act as a proinflammatory mediator that augments the lesion formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Elevated serum Lp(a is an independent predictor of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Furthermore, Lp(a levels should be a marker of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, saphenous vein bypass graft atherosclerosis, and accelerated coronary atherosclerosis of cardiac transplantation. Finally, the possibility that Lp(a may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke has been assessed in several studies. Recent findings suggest that Lp(a-lowering therapy might be beneficial in patients with high Lp(a levels. A future therapeutic approach could include apheresis in high-risk patients in order to reduce major coronary events.

  20. Atrial Fibrillation and Non-cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis, increasing the risk of stroke and death. Although traditionally associated with cardiovascular diseases, there is increasing evidence of high incidence of AF in patients with highly prevalent noncardiovascular diseases, such as cancer, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, considerable number of patients has been affected by these comorbidities, leading to an increased risk of adverse outcomes.The authors performed a systematic review of the literature aiming to better elucidate the interaction between these conditions.Several mechanisms seem to contribute to the concomitant presence of AF and noncardiovascular diseases. Comorbidities, advanced age, autonomic dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and inflammation are common to these conditions and may predispose to AF.The treatment of AF in these patients represents a clinical challenge, especially in terms of antithrombotic therapy, since the scores for stratification of thromboembolic risk, such as the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores, and the scores for hemorrhagic risk, like the HAS-BLED score have limitations when applied in these conditions.The evidence in this area is still scarce and further investigations to elucidate aspects like epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of AF in noncardiovascular diseases are still needed.

  1. Plasma proteomics to identify biomarkers - Application to cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Overgaard, Martin; Melholt Rasmussen, Lars

    , this technology may therefore identify new biomarkers that previously have not been associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the key challenges and considerations, including strategies, recent discoveries and clinical applications in cardiovascular proteomics that may lead......There is an unmet need for new cardiovascular biomarkers. Despite this only few biomarkers for the diagnosis or screening of cardiovascular diseases have been implemented in the clinic. Thousands of proteins can be analysed in plasma by mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies. Therefore...

  2. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion. PMID:26238744

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Chronic Inflammation in End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is one of the most severe diseases worldwide. In patients affected by CKD, a progressive destruction of the nephrons is observed not only in structuralbut also in functional level. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of large and medium-sized arteries. It is characterized by the deposition of lipids and fibrous elements and is a common complication of the uremic syndrome because of the coexistence of a wide range of risk factors. High blood pressure, anaemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, high oxidative stress are some of the most common factors that cause cardiovascular disease and atherogenesis in patients suffering from End Stage Kidney Disease (ESRD. At the same time, the inflammatory process constitutes a common element in the apparition and development of CKD. A wide range of possible causes can justify the development of inflammation under uremic conditions. Such causes are oxidative stress, oxidation, coexistentpathological conditions as well as factors that are due to renal clearance techniques. Patients in ESRD and coronary disease usually show increased acute phase products. Pre-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-a, and acute phase reactants, such as CRP and fibrinogen, are closely related. The treatment of chronic inflammation in CKD is of high importance for the development ofthe disease as well as for the treatment of cardiovascular morbidity.Conclusions: The treatment factors focus on the use of renin-angiotensic system inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, statins and anti-oxidant treatment in order to prevent the action of inflammatorycytokines that have the ability to activate the mechanisms of inflammation.

  4. How Should We Treat Depression in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kronish, Ian M.; Krupka, David J.; Davidson, Karina W.

    2012-01-01

    Among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), depression is highly prevalent and is associated with worse cardiovascular prognosis and lower quality of life. Treatments for depression in CVD patients produce modest, but clinically significant reductions in depressive symptoms and show promise for improving cardiovascular prognosis. While tricyclics should generally be avoided, antidepressants from multiple other classes appear to be safe in cardiac patients. A strategy of engaging patient...

  5. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    AH Herdy; F López-Jiménez; CP Terzic; Milani, M.; R Stein; T Carvalho; S. Serra; CG Araujo; PC Zeballos; CV Anchique; G Burdiat; González, K.; González, G.; R. Fernández; C Santibáñez

    2014-01-01

    In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR). In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopul...

  6. Sexual counseling and cardiovascular disease: practical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Elaine E; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease and their partners expect health care providers to provide sexual counseling to assist them in maintaining sexual quality of life. Evidence suggests however, that there is a gap in integrating evidence into practice and that relatively few cardiac patients receive sexual counseling. This can result in negative psychological, physical, and quality of life outcomes for couples who may needlessly decide sexual activity is too risky and cease all sexual activity. Two scientific statements now exist that provide ample guidance to health care providers in discussing this important topic. Using a team approach that includes physicians, nurses, physical therapists, rehabilitation staff, and others is important to ensure that sexual counseling occurs throughout recovery. In addition, several trials using interventional approaches for sexual counseling provide insight into successful approaches for sexual counseling in practice. This article provides practical strategies and evidence-based approaches for assessment and sexual counseling for all cardiac patients and their partners, and specific counseling for those with ischemic conditions, heart failure, and implanted devices. PMID:25219908

  7. Sexual counseling and cardiovascular disease: practical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine E Steinke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cardiovascular disease and their partners expect health care providers to provide sexual counseling to assist them in maintaining sexual quality of life. Evidence suggests however, that there is a gap in integrating evidence into practice and that relatively few cardiac patients receive sexual counseling. This can result in negative psychological, physical, and quality of life outcomes for couples who may needlessly decide sexual activity is too risky and cease all sexual activity. Two scientific statements now exist that provide ample guidance to health care providers in discussing this important topic. Using a team approach that includes physicians, nurses, physical therapists, rehabilitation staff, and others is important to ensure that sexual counseling occurs throughout recovery. In addition, several trials using interventional approaches for sexual counseling provide insight into successful approaches for sexual counseling in practice. This article provides practical strategies and evidence-based approaches for assessment and sexual counseling for all cardiac patients and their partners, and specific counseling for those with ischemic conditions, heart failure, and implanted devices.

  8. Positive emotion and cardiovascular disease in elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lina; Li, Yun; Feng, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in elderly people is a psychosomatic disease, but the research on the relationship between positive emotion and cardiovascular diseases is few. Most previous studies have focused on a range of health status changes caused by negative emotion but have ignored the role of positive emotion in elderly people. Positive emotion has been considered a protective factor against health problems in elderly people. Research shows that a significant relationship between positive emo...

  9. Cardiovascular event-free survival after adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer patients stratified by cardiovascular risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of a cardiovascular event or death associated with modern radiation in a population of elderly female breast cancer patients with varying baseline cardiovascular risk. The data used for this analysis are from the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database. The retrospective cohort study included women aged 66 years and older with stage 0–III breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2005. Women were grouped as low, intermediate, or high cardiovascular risk based on the presence of certain clinical diagnoses. The risk for the combined outcome of a hospitalization for a cardiovascular event or death within 6 months and 24 months of diagnosis was estimated using a multivariable Cox model. The median follow-up time was 24 months. Among the 91,612 women with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 0–III breast cancer: 39,555 (43.2%) were treated with radiation therapy and 52,057 (56.8%) were not. The receipt of radiation therapy in the first 6 months was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for the combined outcome in women categorized as high risk (HR = 1.510; 95% CI, 1.396–1.634) or intermediate risk (HR = 1.415; 95% CI, 1.188–1.686) but not low risk (HR = 1.027; 95% CI, 0.798–1.321). Women with a prior medical history of cardiovascular disease treated with radiation therapy are at increased risk for an event and should be monitored for at least 6 months following treatment with radiation therapy

  10. Cardiovascular Disease in Central and East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kozela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD contributes greatly to inequalities in health in Europe. The CVD death rate in Ukraine (the highest is seven fold higher than in France (the lowest. There is also a striking difference in CVD mortality between European Union (EU members before the enlargement in 2004 and Central and East European (CEE countries that joined the EU in 2004 and non-EU countries. The difference in CVD mortality between West and East Europe grew during the 1970s and 1980s when rates declined in the West and either remained the same or rose in the CEE countries. Political reforms at the beginning of the 1990s, which were followed by great socio-economic changes coincided with further diversification in CVD mortality in CEE countries. Diverse trends in CVD mortality were followed by larger gaps in life expectancy between West and East Europe and within the CEE.Rapid development of high technology treatment procedures, which followed the economic recovery of the CEE countries, would have only limited influence on the overall control of CVD. Exposure to classic risk factors might largely explain the longitudinal trend in falling CVD mortality in some countries, but it is unlikely that it could explain rapid changes in the others. Still, large potential to control the disease lies in developing effective preventive policies with targets to lower exposure to the classic CVD risk factors. The recent history of CVD in CEE countries makes the “alcohol hypothesis” less convincing as an explanation for CVD mortality trends and differences between East and West Europe. The hypothesis that dynamic changes in CVD mortality in CEE countries are triggered and explained largely by psychosocial factors is attractive. However, if confirmed, transforming such knowledge into a practical health policy would be a great challenge.

  11. Educational inequality in cardiovascular disease depends on diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne V; Koch, Mette B; Davidsen, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality is present in the morbidity as well as the mortality of cardiovascular diseases. This paper aims to quantify and compare the level of educational inequality across different cardiovascular diagnoses. DESIGN: Register based study. METHODS: Comparison of the extent...... index of inequality: -29 (-35.1; -21.9) to -1 (-4.8; -3.8)). CONCLUSION: The degree of educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases depends on the diagnosis, with the highest inequality in ischaemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke. Small differences were found...... of inequality across different cardiovascular diagnoses requires a measure of inequality which is comparable across subgroups with different educational distributions. The slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality were applied for measuring inequalities in incidence of six cardiovascular...

  12. Cardiovascular disease after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma: an analysis of nine collaborative EORTC-LYSA trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Giusti, Francesco; Vogelius, Ivan R.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease after treatment is an important concern in cancer survivors. However, knowledge of cardiotoxicity is limited by the retrospective nature of data, which often does not contain details of treatment exposure. To facilitate individual risk counselling of patients, w...

  13. Cardiovascular disease after treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma : an analysis of nine collaborative EORTC-LYSA trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Giusti, Francesco; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Lundemann, Michael; van der Kaaij, Marleen A. E.; Ramadan, Safaa; Meulemans, Bart; Henry-Amar, Michel; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; Raemaekers, John; Meijnders, Paul; Moser, Elisabeth C.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Feugier, Pierre; Casasnovas, Olivier; Fortpied, Catherine; Specht, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease after treatment is an important concern in cancer survivors. However, knowledge of cardiotoxicity is limited by the retrospective nature of data, which often does not contain details of treatment exposure. To facilitate individual risk counselling of patients, we ai

  14. Depression and cardiovascular disease: the end of simple models

    OpenAIRE

    de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M.

    2012-01-01

    In this editorial, we propose that the association between depression and cardiovascular disease may be conceptualised as a continuous, bidirectional process that originates in youth. The paper by Aberg and colleagues in this issue adds to this literature showing that low cardiovascular fitness at adolescence increases the risk of future depression.

  15. Pharmacogenetics in Cardiovascular Disease is there clinical relevance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maitland-Van Der Zee, A.

    2014-01-01

    • Objectives: To give an up-to-date overview of the research in pharmacogenetics of cardiovascular disease, and the clinical implications of this research. • Methods: In this lecture I will focus on these groups cardiovascular drugs where many pharmacogenetics studies have been performed (including

  16. Gender differences in developmental programming of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasinger, John Henry; Alexander, Barbara T

    2016-03-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Although multiple factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, studies by Dr David Barker reporting an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure led to the hypothesis that slow growth during fetal life increased blood pressure and the risk for cardiovascular disease in later life. It is now recognized that growth during infancy and childhood, in addition to exposure to adverse influences during fetal life, contributes to the developmental programming of increased cardiovascular risk. Numerous epidemiological studies support the link between influences during early life and later cardiovascular health; experimental models provide proof of principle and indicate that numerous mechanisms contribute to the developmental origins of chronic disease. Sex has an impact on the severity of cardiovascular risk in experimental models of developmental insult. Yet, few studies examine the influence of sex on blood pressure and cardiovascular health in low-birth weight men and women. Fewer still assess the impact of ageing on sex differences in programmed cardiovascular risk. Thus, the aim of the present review is to highlight current data about sex differences in the developmental programming of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26814204

  17. Inflammation, immune activation, and cardiovascular disease in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nou, Eric; Lo, Janet; Grinspoon, Steven K

    2016-06-19

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV. Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke compared to uninfected controls. Although traditional risk factors contribute to this increased risk of cardiovascular disease, HIV-specific mechanisms likely also play a role. Systemic inflammation has been linked to cardiovascular disease in several populations suffering from chronic inflammation, including people living with HIV. Although antiretroviral therapy reduces immune activation, levels of inflammatory markers remain elevated compared to uninfected controls. The causes of this sustained immune response are likely multifactorial and incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the evidence describing the relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular disease and discuss potential anti-inflammatory treatment options for cardiometabolic disease in people living with HIV. PMID:27058351

  18. [Cardiovascular diseases, medical apocalypse of the 21st century?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Małgorzata; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to bring forward and realise the size of cardiovascular diseases and the burden of its numbers that concern practising doctors in Lower Silesia, in Poland, Europe and the world. Every fourth patient knocking at the GP's door comes with a problem with the circulatory system. These diseases are the reason for every second in hospitalization or referral to a specialist. The most common diagnosis is not the common cold but arterial hypertension. Three of the most common diseases in patients over 65 years old are: hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and atherosclerosis of the brain arteries. Poland belongs to the group of developed countries with an emerging economy, where degenerative diseases dominate, and cardiovascular diseases account for the biggest problems within the Health System. Nearly half of male deaths (46%) and over half of female deaths (56%) are the consequence of cardiovascular diseases. 80% of people around the world live in developing economies, where cardiovascular diseases cause 23% of all deaths. Every fifth person lives in a developed country and has a 50% chance of dying because of cardiovascular diseases. Will these diseases become "the number one killer" of the 21st century? 27% lost healthy life years are due to arterial hypertension, ischeamic heart disease, and congestive heart failure so their epidemiology is being regarded in this article. PMID:15518325

  19. Safety of varenicline in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Stacy L; Boomershine, Virginia; Raney, Erin

    2014-02-01

    Smoking cessation lowers the risk of death substantially in patients with cardiovascular disease. Although varenicline is an effective medication for smoking cessation, its safety in this population has been questioned and evaluated in several studies. In 2 randomized controlled trials of patients with cardiovascular disease, the rates of serious cardiovascular events were up to 2% higher in patients receiving varenicline than placebo, though the differences were not statistically significant. In the first meta-analysis of mostly trials involving patients with a history of cardiovascular disease, varenicline was found to significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular events by 72%; however, a second meta-analysis did not find a significant increased risk. In an observational study, varenicline was not associated with an increased risk of events when compared to bupropion in a subgroup analysis of patients with a history of cardiovascular disease. Because the evidence on the safety of varenicline in this population is limited and conflicting, additional data are needed to formulate stronger conclusions. In the meantime, health care professionals should consider individual smoking patterns, concomitant medical conditions, and cost when recommending smoking cessation pharmacotherapy for patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:24080536

  20. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, L

    2015-01-01

    Many peri- and postmenopausal women suffer from a reduced quality of life due to menopausal symptoms and preventable diseases. The importance of cardiovascular disease in women must be emphasized, as it is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in women. It is well known that female hormones...... contribute to the later onset of cardiovascular disease in women. The effect of estrogens has for decades been understood from observational studies of postmenopausal women treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Later, treatment with HRT was disregarded due to the fear of side......-effects and an ambiguity of the cardiovascular advantages. Accumulating knowledge from the large number of trials and studies has elucidated the cause for the disparity in results. In this paper, the beneficial effects of HRT, with emphasis on cardiovascular disease are explained, and the relative and absolute risks...

  1. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a novel predictor of cardiovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahide Hamaguchi; Takahiro Kato; Junichi Okuda; Kazunori Ida; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Takao Kojima; Noriyuki Takeda; Chisato Nagata; Jun Takeda; Hiroshi Sarui; Yutaka Kawahito; Naohisa Yoshida; Atsushi Suetsugu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To clarify whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.METHODS: We carried out a prospective observational study with a total of 1637 apparently healthy Japanese men and women who were recruited from a health check-up program. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The metabolic syndrome (MS) was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) ATP in criteria. Five years after the baseline evaluations, the incidence of cardiovascular disease was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire.RESULTS: Among 1221 participants available for outcome analyses, the incidence of cardiovascular disease was higher in 231 subjects with NAFLD at baseline (5 coronary heart disease, 6 ischemic stroke, and 1 cerebral hemorrhage) than 990 subjects without NAFLD (3 coronary heart disease, 6 ischemic stroke, and 1 cerebral hemorrhage). Multivariate analyses indicated that NAFLD was a predictor of cardiovascular disease independent of conventional risk factors (odds ratio 4.12, 95% CI, 1.58 to 10.75, P = 0.004). MS was alsoindependently associated with cardiovascular events. But simultaneous inclusion of NAFLD and MS in a multivariate model revealed that NAFLD but not MS retained a statistically significant correlation with cardiovascular disease.CONCLUSION: Although both of them were predictors of cardiovascular disease, NAFLD but not MS retained a statistically significant correlation with cardiovascular disease in a multivariate model. NAFLD is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and may play a central role in the cardiovascular risk of MS.

  2. Homocysteine, B-vitamins and cardiovascular disease: epidemiologic evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, P.

    1996-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease constitutes a major public health problem in the Netherlands and other Western countries. Elevated plasma homocysteine has attracted growing interest as a "new" risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine is formed from the essential amino acid methionine. Defective Homocysteine, metabolism may lead to elevation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Genetic enzyme deficiencies or inadequate intake of vitamins B 6 , B 12 , and folate, all important cof...

  3. New approaches to the implementation of cardiovascular disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Jørstad, H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the biggest contemporary health problems worldwide. To aid preventive measures, risk calculators have been developed to estimate the risk of dying of cardiovascular disease within 10 years, for use in healthy individuals. Decisions to initiate preventive measures are based on this risk (primary prevention). The Netherlands and most European countries use SCORE for this purpose. In this thesis, we show that using SCORE leads to a serious underestimation of the ...

  4. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi Tesauro; Maria Paola Canale; Giuseppe Rodia; Nicola Di Daniele; Davide Lauro; Angelo Scuteri; Carmine Cardillo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease ...

  5. Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fassett, Robert G; Coombes, Jeff S

    2011-01-01

    Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, h...

  6. Postprandial dysmetabolism and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tushuizen, M.E.; Diamant, M.; Heine, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions. The so-called traditional risk factors cannot fully explain the excessive cardiovascular disease risk of type 2 diabetic patients. Numerous studies indicate that postprandial metabolic derangements, most notably hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia, which are exaggerated and prolonged in type 2 diabetes, are important cardiovascular disease risk factors since they induce oxidative stress and endothelial...

  7. Cardiovascular disease among Alaska Natives: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Catherine; Davidson, Michael; Ehrsam, Gretchen

    2003-01-01

    Background. We reviewed the literature of population-based studies regarding heart disease and stroke occurrence among Alaska Natives. The existing literature suggests that differences in cardiovascular mortality rates and risk factors exist in Alaska Natives by ethnicity and residence. However, data sources are largely limited to mortality data and small community-based studies. Objectives. Because cardiovascular disease occurrence has not been well studied among Alaska Natives, it is import...

  8. Peripheral blood derived cells and angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Post, S

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from myocardial infarction (MI), atherosclerosis and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia type 1 (HHT-1) all have diseased and dysfunctional blood vessels. Cardiovascular repair in these diseases occurs not only locally, but also peripheral blood (progenitor) cells and cytokines/growth factors positively contribute to repair of malfunctioning tissue. In this thesis several aspects of cardiovascular repair have been explored. First, we show that in MI patients relatively la...

  9. Tissue-specific insulin signaling, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rask-Madsen, Christian; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Impaired insulin signaling is central to the development of the metabolic syndrome and can promote cardiovascular disease indirectly through development of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension and a proinflammatory state. However, insulin action directly on vascular endothelium, atherosclerotic plaque macrophages, and in the heart, kidney, and retina has now been described, and impaired insulin signaling in these locations can alter progression of cardiovascular disease in the ...

  10. Exposure to cold environments at working places and cardiovasculare disease

    OpenAIRE

    Florin MITU; Maria Magdalena LEON

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are among the most frequent causes of illness and death among the active population, especially in industrialized countries, but also in developing countries. In industrialized countries are registered between 15% and 20% of workers suffering from cardiovascular disease while risk increases with age: between 45 and 64 years more than one third of deaths are recorded in men and one fourth in women. Working in cold microclimate can lead to health problems, decrease perfo...

  11. Sleep Deficiency and Deprivation Leading to Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kohansieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays a vital role in an individual’s mental, emotional, and physiological well-being. Not only does sleep deficiency lead to neurological and psychological disorders, but also the literature has explored the adverse effects of sleep deficiency on the cardiovascular system. Decreased quantity and quality of sleep have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We explore the literature correlating primary sleep deficiency and deprivation as a cause for cardiovascular disease and cite endothelial dysfunction as a common underlying mechanism.

  12. Cardiovascular disease among people with drug use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Clausen, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To present the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a national cohort of patients seeking treatment for drug use disorders (DUD). Methods This is a longitudinal record linkage study of consecutive DUD treatment admissions between 2000 and 2006 from Denmark. Results...... treatment (SHR = 1.15, p = 0.022). The use of amphetamines was negatively associated with the risk of CVD within this cohort (SHR = 0.75, p = 0.001). Conclusions Patients injecting drugs using prescribed methadone were at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and should be monitored for CVD. Opioid...... medications should be evaluated in terms of their cardiovascular sequelae....

  13. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in a case of Danon disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kosieradzka Agnieszka; Walczak Ewa; Kuch Marek; Kownacki Lukasz; Piotrowska-Kownacka Dorota; Fidzianska Anna; Krolicki Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant lysosomal glycogen storage disease that can lead to severe ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. We report a case of Danon disease with cardiac involvement evaluated with cardiovascular magnetic resonance, including late gadolinium enhancement and perfusion studies.

  14. Periodontal associations in cardiovascular diseases: The latest evidence and understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, C.M.; Kim, J.W.M.; Quan, V.H.; Nguyen, B.H.; Tran, S D

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are inflammatory diseases. Recent epidemiological studies have associated the effect of periodontitis on CVD progression. Findings of oral pathogens in carotid atheromas provided a plausible relationship between these two diseases. One possible mechanism is the infiltration of oral/periodontal pathogens through inflamed and ulcerated gingival epithelium. This results in translocation of oral pathogens throughout the systemic circulation affecting ...

  15. ATHEROSCLEROTIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN OLDER ADULTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    Barzilay, Joshua I.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Kizer, Jorge R.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus exerts a strong effect on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk into older age (beyond ages 70 to 74 years). This effect is particularly noticeable with regard to coronary artery disease and cerebral microvascular disease. Thus Diabetes Mellitus in older age deserves the same careful medical attention as it does in middle age.

  16. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Duggirala Sivaram Prasad; Zubair Kabir; Ashok Kumar Dash; Bhagabati Charan Das

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnorma...

  17. Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Jeffrey B; Bury, David C; Richardson, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. One-third of these deaths may be preventable through healthy lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity. The Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, whereas the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, although exogenous supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids does not improve cardiovascular outcomes. There is an association between increased sodium intake and cardiovascular risk, but reducing dietary sodium has not consistently shown a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Physical activity recommendations for adults are at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination. Increases in physical activity by any level are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Introducing muscle-strengthening activities at least twice per week in previously inactive adults is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes. Inactive adults without known CVD can gradually increase activity to a moderate-intensity level without consulting a physician. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends behavioral counseling to promote healthy diet and physical activity in adults at high risk of CVD. Evidence of benefit for counseling patients at average risk is less established. PMID:27281836

  18. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Tesauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  19. Night work, total occupational burden and cancer/cardiovascular risk factors in physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Olesja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifestyle-related risk factors: smoking, obesity, sedentariness and excess alcohol intake are among the most important known causes of cancer and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between these lifestyle-related risk factors for cancer/cardiovascular disease and working conditions among surgeons/anesthesiologists and other physicians. Material and Methods. The study was carried out among physicians aged 35 to 60, without diagnosed coronary heart disease or other structural heart disease, who were employed at the Novi Sad University Hospital. The participation rate was high (> 90%. The physicians completed the Occupational Stress Index. Low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk was defined as: not a current smoker, body mass index < 28, regular recreational physical activity and not consuming alcohol every day. Analysis of covariance was performed. Results. Of 191 physicians included in this study only 23 (12.0% had a low lifestyle- related cancer/cardiovascular risk. Surgeons/anesthesiologists faced a heavier total work stressor burden than physicians in other profiles (87.7±8.8 versus 74.1±10.5, p=0.000. Among the 56 surgeons/anesthesiologists, lower nightshift work scores were associated with low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk (F=4.19, p=0.046. A lower overall work stressor burden was associated with low risk among the other 135 physicians (F=4.06, p=0.046. Conclusion. Specific workplace intervention strategies are urgently needed. Among the surgeons/anesthesiologists these should include reduction in the frequency of night call and improvement of the overall conditions of nightshift work. Among other physicians, the total occupational burden needs to be diminished.

  20. Cardiovascular risk and hippocampal thickness in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donix, Markus; Scharf, Maria; Marschner, Kira; Werner, Annett; Sauer, Cathrin; Gerner, Antje; Nees, Josef A; Meyer, Shirin; Donix, Katharina L; Von Kummer, Rüdiger; Holthoff, Vjera A

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this regional cortical thinning would be modulated by cardiovascular risk factors. We utilized high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique to determine the cortical thickness of medial temporal subregions in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using a sex-specific multivariable risk score. Greater cardiovascular risk was associated with cortical thinning in the hippocampus CA2/3/dentate gyrus area but not other hippocampal and medial temporal subregions. APOE genotype, a family history of Alzheimer's disease, and age did not influence cortical thickness. Alzheimer's disease-related atrophy could mask the influence of genetic risk factors or age on regional cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe regions, whereas the impact of vascular risk factors remains detectable. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24228185

  1. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. V Luximon-Ramma

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Current hypotheses favour the concept that lowering oxidative stress can have a health benefit. Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury and disease. Cardiovascular disease is one example of this process. This disorder continues to be the major cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins is considered an early step in the progression and eventual development of atherosclerosis, one of the leading causes to cardiovascular dysfunction. Compelling support for the involvement of free radicals in disease development originates from epidemiological studies showing that an enhanced antioxidant status is associated with reduced risk of several diseases. Dietary nutraceuticals such as vitamins C, E and polyphenolics and reduction of cardiovascular disease incidence are a notable example. This paper reviews the biology of ROS/RNS, their pathways through which they relate to the pathology of cardiovascular disease and discusses the putative roles that antioxidants, including phenolics, may play in controlling oxidative stress and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk and Hippocampal Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Donix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer’s disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this regional cortical thinning would be modulated by cardiovascular risk factors. We utilized high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and a cortical unfolding technique to determine the cortical thickness of medial temporal subregions in 30 patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using a sex-specific multivariable risk score. Greater cardiovascular risk was associated with cortical thinning in the hippocampus CA2/3/dentate gyrus area but not other hippocampal and medial temporal subregions. APOE genotype, a family history of Alzheimer’s disease, and age did not influence cortical thickness. Alzheimer’s disease-related atrophy could mask the influence of genetic risk factors or age on regional cortical thickness in medial temporal lobe regions, whereas the impact of vascular risk factors remains detectable. This highlights the importance of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. Preparing nurses for leadership roles in cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza, Dorothy M; Davidson, Patricia M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Hughes, Suzanne; De Geest, Sabina

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical global health issue, and cardiovascular nurses play a vital role in decreasing the global burden and contributing to improving outcomes in individuals and communities. Cardiovascular nurses require the knowledge, skills, and resources that will enable them to function as leaders in CVD. This article addresses the education, training, and strategies that are needed to prepare nurses for leadership roles in preventing and managing CVD. Building on the World Health Organization core competencies for 21st-century health care workers, the specific competencies of cardiovascular nurses working in prevention are outlined. These can be further strengthened by investing in the development of cultural, system change and leadership competencies. Mentorship is proposed as a powerful strategy for promoting the cardiovascular nursing role and equipping individual nurses to contribute meaningfully to health system reform and community engagement in CVD risk reduction. PMID:21762853

  4. Framingham risk score with cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Chia Chen

    Full Text Available The Framingham Risk Score (FRS was developed to predict coronary heart disease in various populations, and it tended to under-estimate the risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Our objectives were to determine whether FRS was associated with cardiovascular events, and to evaluate the role of new risk markers and echocardiographic parameters when they were added to a FRS model. This study enrolled 439 CKD patients. The FRS is used to identify individuals categorically as "low" (4.7 cm, left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular ejection fraction<50% to the FRS model significantly improves the predictive values for cardiovascular events. In CKD patients, "high" risk categorized by FRS predicts cardiovascular events. Novel biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters provide additional predictive values for cardiovascular events. Future study is needed to assess whether risk assessment enhanced by using these biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters might contribute to more effective prediction and better care for patients.

  5. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiruddin Khan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review.

  6. Cocoa polyphenols and inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE (PD AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Trevisan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent focus on the potential link between periodontal and cardiovascular disease (PD and CVD  is part of the larger renewed interest on the role of infection and inflammation in the etiology of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations.  Periodontal Disease is an inflammatory process affecting the periodontium, the tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth . The process usually starts with an inflammatory process of the gum (gingivitis but it may progress with an extensive involvement of the gum, as well as the periodontal ligament and the bone surrounding the teeth resulting in substantial bone loss. Periodontal disease is a common oral pathological condition in the adult age and represents the leading cause of tooth loss. PD prevalence increases with age and there are estimates that up to 49,000,000 Americans may suffer from some form of gum disease. The gingival plaque associated with PD is colonized by a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that have been shown to affect the initiation and development of PD and have been associated with the potential etiological role of PD in CVD and other chronic conditions. A potential etiological link between PD and CVD may have important public health implications as both the exposure (PD and the outcomes (CVD are highly prevalent in industrialized societies. In situations in which both the exposure and the outcome are highly prevalent even modest associations, like those observed in the studies reporting on the link between PD and CVD outcomes, may have relevance. There are  not  definite data on the effect of periodontal treatment on CVD clinical outcomes (either in primary or secondary prevention however it should be pointed out that the limited (both in terms of numbers and study design experimental evidence in humans suggests a possible beneficial effect of periodontal treatment of indices of functional and structural vascular health.

  8. Are There Genetic Paths Common to Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and n...

  9. Biomarkers: A Challenging Conundrum in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Peter; King, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The use of biomarkers has proven utility in cardiovascular medicine and holds great promise for future advances, but their application requires considerable rigor in thinking and methodology. Numerous confounding factors can cloud the clinical and investigative uses of biomarkers. Yet, the thoughtful and critical use of biomarkers can doubtless aid discovery of new pathogenic pathways, identify novel therapeutic targets, and provide a bridge between the laboratory and the clinic. Biomarkers can provide diagnostic and prognostic tools to the practitioner. The careful application of biomarkers can also help design and guide clinical trials required to establish the efficacy of novel interventions to improve patient outcomes. Point of care testing, technological advances, such as microfluidic and wearable devices, and the power of omics approaches all promise to elevate the potential contributions of biomarkers to discovery science, translation, clinical trials, and the practice of cardiovascular medicine. PMID:26543097

  10. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  11. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  12. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Çakır

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 33-7

  13. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factor...

  14. HDL Revisited: New Opportunities for Managing Dyslipoproteinaemia and Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Gerald F.; Burnett, John R

    2004-01-01

    Low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol constitute a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). There is increasing evidence that increasing HDL-cholesterol levels reduces cardiovascular risk. The phenotype of low HDL cholesterol with or without elevated triglycerides is common and it is characteristic of patients with central obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus; conditions associated with increased cardiovascular risk and are par...

  15. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ching Lan; Ssu-Yuan Chen; May-Kuen Wong; Jin Shin Lai

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi) is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. T...

  16. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Relationship of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Evrim Çakır; Erman Çakal; Mustafa Özbek; Mustafa Şahin; Tuncay Delibaşı

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting at least 5-10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, menstrual disturbance, anovulation, infertility and obesity and, also associated with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors and early atherosclerosis. Hyperinsulinemia is a frequent finding in PCOS patients and has cause-and-effect relationship with low-grade chronic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular disease...

  17. Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tassell, Mary C.; Rosari Kingston; Deirdre Gilroy; Mary Lehane; Ambrose Furey

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal properties of hawthorn (Crataegus spp., a genus comprising approximately 300 species) have been utilized by many cultures for a variety of therapeutic purposes for many centuries. In the Western world cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the single most significant causes of premature death. Echoing this situation, more recent research into the therapeutic benefits of hawthorn preparations has focused primarily upon its cardiovascular effects. This review covers resear...

  18. Cocoa Polyphenols and Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiruddin Khan; Olha Khymenets; Mireia Urpí-Sardà; Sara Tulipani; Mar Garcia-Aloy; María Monagas; Ximena Mora-Cubillos; Rafael Llorach; Cristina Andres-Lacueva

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of ca...

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, Wilma; Roebroeck, Marij; Nieuwenhuijsen, Channah; Bergen, Michael; Stam, Henk; Burdorf, Alex; Berg-Emons, Rita

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To explore: (i) cardiovascular disease risk factors and the 10-year clustered risk of a fatal cardiovascular event in adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy; and (ii) relationships between the 10-year risk and body fat, aerobic fitness and physical activity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: Forty-three adults with spastic bilateral cerebral palsy without severe cognitive impairment (mean age 36.6 years (standard deviation 6); 27 men). Methods: Biological a...

  20. Mitochondrial Dynamics in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Sang-Bing; Andrew R. Hall; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2013-01-01

    Significance: Mitochondria are dynamic organelles capable of changing their shape and distribution by undergoing either fission or fusion. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, which is under the control of specific mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins, have been implicated in cell division, embryonic development, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. Although the machinery for modulating mitochondrial dynamics is present in the cardiovascular system, its function there has only recently be...

  1. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  2. Risk of bleeding related to antithrombotic treatment in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...... syndrome (ACS), atrial fibrillation (AF), cerebrovascular (CVD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Different risk assessment schemes and bleeding definitions are compared. The HAS-BLED risk score is recommended in patients with AF and in ACS patients with AF. In patients with ACS with or without...

  3. Management of Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2016-01-01

    An increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases (CID), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The increased risk of CVDs and reduced life expectancy in...... gained considerable interest in recent years. We briefly summarize the current level of evidence of the association between CIDs and CVD and cardiovascular risk management recommendations. Perspectives of ongoing and planned trials are discussed in consideration of potential ways to improve primary and...

  4. Epidemiology of Multimorbidity in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Susan P; Saraf, Avantika A

    2016-05-01

    Multimorbidity is the most significant condition affecting older adults, and it impacts every component of health care management and delivery. Multimorbidity significantly increases with age. For individuals with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, multimorbidity has a significant effect on the presentation of the disease and the diagnosis, management, and patient-centered preferences in care. Evidence-based therapeutics have focused on cardiovascular focused morbidity. Over the next 25 years, the proportion of adults aged 65 and older is estimated to increase three-fold. The needs of these patients require a fundamental shift in care from single disease practices to a more patient-centered framework. PMID:27113142

  5. Cancer therapy and cardiovascular risk: focus on bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognition and management of treatment-related cardiovascular toxicity, defined as either an acute cardiac event or a chronic condition, has been tightly integrated into routine cancer care and has become an important component in treatment selection. Several chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines, are traditionally characterized as cardiotoxic, but cardiovascular adverse events are also associated with commonly used molecular targeted therapies. In the past decade, bevacizumab, a monoclonal humanized antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been introduced in the treatment of a variety of metastatic malignancies. Despite its efficacy, bevacizumab has been associated with significant risk of cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, cardiac ischemia, and congestive heart failure. This review will focus on the cardiovascular toxicity of bevacizumab, providing the latest evidence on the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors, and responsible mechanisms

  6. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults1234

    OpenAIRE

    McCullough, Marjorie L.; Peterson, Julia J.; Patel, Roshni; Jacques, Paul F.; Shah, Roma; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality.

  7. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-01

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

  8. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion in the French speaking community of Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Y; Béduwé, C; Collignon, J L; Hubens, V; Levêque, A

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the first cause of mortality in Belgium and are a priority for the Five-year program of health promotion in the French speaking Community. It is declined in operational programs by priority thematics, including the heart health. With this framework, it appeared necessary to operationalize cardiovascular priorities. A process of systemic and participative planning was set up in order to seek operational strategies and actions, and to cover the whole population and actors concerned with these health problems. The various cardiovascular risk factors, which potentiate one another, are approached together and in a global way. Upstream to the risk factors, social health determinants play an important role in cardiovascular diseases and others diseases like cancers. Tracking cardiovascular risk factors among people 30 to 75 years is also proposed. It makes it possible to identify people at risk and to put forward individual and adapted measures. The plan integrates actions of health promotion (acting on the health determinants and factors which influence them) as well as actions aiming at improving tracking and the accompaniment of the patients in secondary and tertiary prevention. Actions on health determinants and the factors influencing them present moreover the advantage of being often common to many chronic diseases. PMID:20687443

  9. Geochemistry of water in relation to cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Relations between trace and major element chemistry of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed and documented. Several aspects of the problem, related both to the pathway that drinking water takes to man and to its transit through man, are reviewed. Several steps in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that could be affected by water factors were explored. There is little evidence bearing on the contribution from drinking water to human tissue levels of cadmium, chromium, or zinc. Copper and magnesium levels of tissues may be related to drinking water, but confirmatory evidence is needed. Lead levels in blood and other tissues are most certainly affected by lead levels in drinking water in areas where these levels are unusually elevated. There is little evidence that relatively low levels of lead are toxic to the cardiovascular system, except for the causation of cardiomyopathy. The protective action of selenium and zinc applies mainly to cadmium toxicity. The mode of the protective action of silicon, if any, is unclear at present. Some epidemiological associations between the cadmium level or cadmium:zinc ratio and cardiovascular disease have been reported, but are contradictory. Some epidemiological support exists for a protective effect by selenium; results for zinc are equivocal. Interactions within the human system involving calcium and selected trace elements might be very important for the cardiovascular system. Review of the epidemiological literature indicates that there may be a water factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Its effects, if any, must be very weak in comparison with the effects of known risk factors. The reported inverse relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of local drinking water supplies appears to be considerably less distinctive in small regional studies. (ERB)

  10. Family history of vascular disease and the risk of cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, M.

    2015-01-01

    A positive family history of cardiovascular disease is an established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In clinical practice, this evident relation between the presence of cardiovascular disease in families and first cardiovascular events has resulted in family history being

  11. Recent progress in gene therapy for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Ryuichi

    2002-12-01

    Gene therapy is emerging as a potential strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as peripheral arterial disease, ischemic heart disease, restenosis after angioplasty, vascular bypass graft occlusion and transplant coronary vasculopathy, for which no known effective therapy exists. The first human trial in cardiovascular disease started in 1994 treating peripheral vascular disease with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and since then, many different potent angiogenic growth factors have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. In addition, therapeutic angiogenesis using the VEGF gene has been used to treat ischemic heart disease since 1997. The results from these clinical trials have exceeded expectations; improvement in the clinical symptoms of peripheral arterial disease and ischemic heart disease has been reported. Another strategy for combating the disease processes, targeting the transcriptional process, has been tested in a human trial. IN particular, transfection of cis-element double-stranded (ds) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) (= decoy) is a powerful tool in a new class of anti-gene strategies. Transfection of ds-ODN corresponding to the cis sequence will attenuate the authentic cis-trans interaction, leading to removal of trans-factors from the endogenous cis-elements and subsequent modulation of gene expression. Genetically modified vein grafts transfected with a decoy against E2F, an essential transcription factor in cell cycle progression, appear to have long-term potency in human patients. There is great potential in gene therapy for cardiovascular disease. PMID:12499610

  12. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Bronze-da-Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD, myocardial infarction (MI, and heart failure (HF.

  13. The impact of mast cells on cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritikou, Eva; Kuiper, Johan; Kovanen, Petri T; Bot, Ilze

    2016-05-01

    Mast cells comprise an innate immune cell population, which accumulates in tissues proximal to the outside environment and, upon activation, augments the progression of immunological reactions through the release and diffusion of either pre-formed or newly generated mediators. The released products of mast cells include histamine, proteases, as well as a variety of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which act on the surrounding microenvironment thereby shaping the immune responses triggered in various diseased states. Mast cells have also been detected in the arterial wall and are implicated in the onset and progression of numerous cardiovascular diseases. Notably, modulation of distinct mast cell actions using genetic and pharmacological approaches highlights the crucial role of this cell type in cardiovascular syndromes. The acquired evidence renders mast cells and their mediators as potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in a broad spectrum of pathophysiological conditions related to cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25959384

  14. Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Roayaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation is the basis of treatment for advanced stages of prostate cancer. Cardiovascular disease may be a risk factor for mortality in prostate cancer. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT on the cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study on 2011, 35 patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer as candidates for ADT were enrolled. Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC were measured at the beginning and after the 5 th month of ADT. Results: The mean level of TG increased significantly from 130.82 ± 41.57 mg/dl to 150.05 ± 48.29 mg/dl (P < 0.012. Furthermore, serum level of TC increased from 197.62 ± 40.71 mg/dl to 212.54 ± 38.25 mg/dl, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. A non-significant increase in the serum level of FBS from 96.74 ± 14.04 mg/dl to 99.17 ± 15.23 mg/dl was also seen (P = 0.27. Conclusion: ADT in prostate cancer may lead to an increase in TG and TC levels. In patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease patient′s lipid profile should be considered during ADT.

  15. Patients with premature cardiovascular disease and a positive family history for cardiovascular disease are prone to recurrent events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Mulders; Z. Meyer; C. van der Donk; A.A. Kroon; I. Ferreira; C.D.A. Stehouwer; S.J. Pinto-Sietsma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) is treated in the same way as CVD of advanced age. However, in patients with premature CVD and a family history of CVD, different -possibly genetic-mechanisms may underlie this disease, which current medical treatment is not targeted to. This sugges

  16. Divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Beth J; Kaandorp, Joepe J; Kane, Andrew D; Camm, Emily J; Lusby, Ciara; Cross, Christine M; Nevin-Dolan, Rhianon; Thakor, Avnesh S; Derks, Jan B; Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Ozanne, Susan E; Giussani, Dino A

    2016-05-01

    Aging and developmental programming are both associated with oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, suggesting common mechanistic origins. However, their interrelationship has been little explored. In a rodent model of programmed cardiovascular dysfunction we determined endothelial function and vascular telomere length in young (4 mo) and aged (15 mo) adult offspring of normoxic or hypoxic pregnancy with or without maternal antioxidant treatment. We show loss of endothelial function [maximal arterial relaxation to acetylcholine (71 ± 3 vs. 55 ± 3%) and increased vascular short telomere abundance (4.2-1.3 kb) 43.0 ± 1.5 vs. 55.1 ± 3.8%) in aged vs. young offspring of normoxic pregnancy (P compared with aged offspring of untreated hypoxic pregnancy had lower levels of short telomeres (vascular short telomere length abundance 35.1 ± 2.5 vs. 48.2 ± 2.6%) and of plasma proinflammatory chemokine (24.6 ± 2.8 vs. 36.8 ± 5.5 pg/ml, P cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease, and aging being decelerated by antioxidants even prior to birth.-Allison, B. J., Kaandorp, J. J., Kane, A. D., Camm, E. J., Lusby, C., Cross, C. M., Nevin-Dolan, R., Thakor, A. S., Derks, J. B., Tarry-Adkins, J. L., Ozanne, S. E., Giussani, D. A. Divergence of mechanistic pathways mediating cardiovascular aging and developmental programming of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26932929

  17. Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Fassett

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin.

  18. Heart valve disease: investigation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Myerson Saul G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become a valuable investigative tool in many areas of cardiac medicine. Its value in heart valve disease is less well appreciated however, particularly as echocardiography is a powerful and widely available technique in valve disease. This review highlights the added value that CMR can bring in valve disease, complementing echocardiography in many areas, but it has also become the first-line investigation in some, such as pulmonary valve di...

  19. Systemic Inflammation in Cardiovascular and Periodontal Disease: Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Glurich, Ingrid; Grossi, Sara; Albini, Boris; Ho, Alex; Shah, Rashesh; Zeid, Mohamed; Baumann, Heinz; Genco, Robert J.; De Nardin, Ernesto

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated periodontal disease (PD) as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These studies addressed the premise that local infection may perturb the levels of systemic inflammatory mediators, thereby promoting mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Levels of inflammatory mediators in the sera of subjects with only PD, only CVD, both diseases, or neither condition were compared. Subjects were assessed for levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), se...

  20. Insulin Resistance and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Stefanick, Marcia L;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is associated with diabetes mellitus, but it is uncertain whether it improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 15,288 women from the Women's Health Initiative Biomarkers....../HDL-C, or impaired fasting glucose (serum glucose ≥110 mg/dL) to traditional risk factors in separate Cox multivariable analyses and assessed risk discrimination and reclassification. The study end point was major CVD events (nonfatal and fatal coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke) within 10 years, which...

  1. The inflammatory protein Pentraxin 3 in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornai, Francesco; Carrizzo, Albino; Forte, Maurizio; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Damato, Antonio; Ferrucci, Michela; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla; Puca, Annibale A; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase protein Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) plays a non-redundant role as a soluble pattern recognition receptor for selected pathogens and it represents a rapid biomarker for primary local activation of innate immunity and inflammation. Recent evidence indicates that PTX3 exerts an important role in modulating the cardiovascular system in humans and experimental models. In particular, there are conflicting points concerning the effects of PTX3 in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) since several observations indicate a cardiovascular protective effect of PTX3 while others speculate that the increased plasma levels of PTX3 in subjects with CVD correlate with disease severity and with poor prognosis in elderly patients. In the present review, we discuss the multifaceted effects of PTX3 on the cardiovascular system focusing on its involvement in atherosclerosis, endothelial function, hypertension, myocardial infarction and angiogenesis. This may help to explain how the specific modulation of PTX3 such as the use of different dosing, time, and target organs could help to contain different vascular diseases. These opposite actions of PTX3 will be emphasized concerning the modulation of cardiovascular system where potential therapeutic implications of PTX3 in humans are discussed. PMID:27559355

  2. p-Cresol and Cardiovascular Risk in Mild-to-Moderate Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Björn K.I.; Claes, Kathleen; Bammens, Bert; De Loor, Henriette; Viaene, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Kristin; Kuypers, Dirk; Vanrenterghem, Yves; Evenepoel, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease. Traditional risk factors are insufficient to explain the high cardiovascular disease prevalence. Free p-cresol serum concentrations, mainly circulating as its derivative p-cresyl sulfate, are associated with cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. It is not known if p-cresol is associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet on dialysis.

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Francone Marco; Bogaert Jan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases; in developed countries a shift for instance in the ep...

  4. Pharmaceutical care on one elderly patient with lung cancer and cardiovascular disease%1例高龄晚期肺癌合并心血管基础疾病患者的药学监护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋和勇; 卢海儒

    2011-01-01

    1例高龄晚期肺癌合并心血管基础疾病患者,肺癌γ-刀放疗后,3周期TP(顺铂+紫杉醇脂质体)方案化疗3个月的过程中,临床药师积极开展药学监护,协助临床医师优化用药方案.结合高龄晚期肺癌合并心血管基础疾病患者的疾病特点、用药选择、药物不良反应等情况,对患者使用抗高血压药、抗心律失常药提出用药建议.为避免肺癌患者的咳嗽症状加重,停用了对患者呼吸系统影响较大的肾素血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂;对患者化疗后出现低血压、心律失常的情况,及时停用钙离子拮抗剂并换用血管紧张素Ⅱ受体拮抗剂,减量使用抗心绞痛药并加用β-受体阻滞剂;在抗菌药物使用方面选用了对肠道感染效果较好且适用于老年人的左氧氟沙星,合用蒙脱石散治疗腹泻并减轻抗肿瘤药的消化道毒性;对患者使用顺铂、紫杉醇所致消化道不良反应、骨髓抑制进行积极的预防和治疗;并对患者进行出院用药指导.%The pharmaceutical care was provided by clinical pharmacists in collaboration with physicians during the three cycles of TP chemotherapytreatment (cisplatin and paclitaxel liposome) to one elderly patient with lung cancer and cardiovascular disease who had beentreated with Gamma knife radiosurgery. Clinical pharmacists made recommendations on the rational use of anti-hypertensive and anti-arrhythmia drugs, based on the disease characteristics of elderly lung cancer complication with cardiovascular disease, selection of medication and adverse drug reaction. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) was discontinued to avoid cough in lung cancer patient. To deal wit the hypotension and arrhythmia caused by chemotherapy, calcium channel blocker (CCB) was switched to angiotensin Ⅱ receptor antagonist (ARB), anti-angina drug was dose-reduced and beta receptor blocker was added. To reduce the toxicity of the digestive tracts and control the

  5. YKL-40 - an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathcke Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several inflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction which is the earliest event in the atherosclerotic process leading to manifest cardiovascular disease. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in endothelial dysfunction by promoting chemotaxis, cell attachment and migration, reorganization and tissue remodelling as a response to endothelial damage. YKL-40 protein expression is seen in macrophages and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaques with the highest expression seen in macrophages in the early lesion of atherosclerosis. Several studies demonstrate, that elevated serum YKL-levels are independently associated with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease and even higher YKL-40 levels are documented in patients with myocardial infarction. Moreover, elevated serum YKL-40 levels have also been found to be associated with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating YKL-40 levels and increasing levels of albuminuria have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes indicating a role of YKL-40 in the progressing vascular damage resulting in microvascular disease. This review describes the present knowledge about YKL-40 and discusses its relation to endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes and look ahead on future perspectives of YKL-40 research.

  6. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney diseases in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    van Nielen, M; Assendelft, P.; Drenthen, T; Hombergh, P. van den; Dis, I. van; Schellevis, F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To study the attitudes and working methods of general practitioners (GPs) in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney diseases. Methods: A questionnaire with questions about primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney diseases in general practice was sent to a representative sample of 1100 Dutch GPs. The data were analyzed using frequency tables, chi-square and ANOVA. Results: 330 GPs completed and ret...

  7. Cardiovascular disease relates to intestinal uptake of p-cresol in patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Poesen, Ruben; Viaene, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Kristin; Augustijns, Patrick; Bammens, Bert; Claes, Kathleen; Kuypers, Dirk; Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) associates with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. PCS concentrations are determined by intestinal uptake of p-cresol, human metabolism to PCS and renal clearance. Whether intestinal uptake of p-cresol itself is directly associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with renal dysfunction has not been studied to date. Methods We performed a prospective study in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 1 – 5 (NCT004416...

  8. Cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila S. V. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The present study was undertaken to identify the main cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in 160 patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD in Brazil. Their mean age was 47 ± 39 years. The main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were arterial hypertension (89.4%, dyslipidemia (78.3%, low high-density lipoprotein levels (84.2% and low physical activity (64.1%. Family history of coronary insufficiency and high low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly associated with coronary artery disease (P = 0.005 and P = 0.029, respectively. Sedentary life style, diabetes mellitus, secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperglycemia also showed a significant association with the underlying vascular disease (P = 0.017, P = 0.039, P = 0.037 and P = 0.030, respectively. Hypercalcemia, hypertension and black race were factors significantly associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (P = 0.01, P = 0.0013 and P = 0.024, respectively. Our study shows that the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases in patients with ESRD were left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerotic disease, valvular disease and coronary artery disease. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were the common risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. The present study was undertaken to identify the main cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in 160 patients with ESRD on HD in a single center in Brazil.

  9. Family history of premature death and risk of early onset cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Oyen, Nina; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Christiansen, Michael; McKenna, William J; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Boyd, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease.......The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a family history of premature death, cardiovascular death in particular, on the risk of early cardiovascular disease....

  10. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Herdy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR. In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Rehabilitation from the Department of Exercise, Ergometry, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology has created a committee of experts to review the Portuguese version of the guideline and adapt it to the national reality. The mission of this document is to help health professionals to adopt effective measures of CVDPR in the routine clinical practice. The publication of this document and its broad implementation will contribute to the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO, which is the reduction of worldwide cardiovascular mortality by 25% until 2025. The study group's priorities are the following: • Emphasize the important role of CVDPR as an instrument of secondary prevention with significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; • Join efforts for the knowledge on CVDPR, its dissemination, and adoption in most cardiovascular centers and institutes in South America, prioritizing the adoption of cardiovascular prevention methods that are comprehensive, practical, simple and which have a good cost/benefit ratio; • Improve the education of health professionals and patients with education programs on the importance of CVDPR services, which are directly targeted at the health system, clinical staff, patients, and community leaders, with the aim of decreasing the barriers to CVDPR implementation.

  11. Exposure to Agrochemicals and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matome M. Sekhotha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the agricultural world there is a continuous loss of food, fiber and other commodities due to pests, disease and weeds before harvesting time. These losses had create lots of financial burden to the farm owners that might lead to shutting down of their daily business. Worldwide, there is an overall very high loss of agricultural products due to weeds growth alone. To counteract this problem most farmers resort to the use of agrochemicals to increase their production but compromising the health of their farmworkers. The purpose of the study will be to assess the relationship between the agrochemical particles and cardiovascular diseases among farmworkers. Method: Non-systematic review was used to collect data. The following database were use: Medline, EBSCO, and Science Direct to search for the existing journal articles. Results: This study addresses the relationship between agrochemicals particles and cardiovascular diseases in the farming industries using literature review. Discussion: Other researchers had already done an extensive research on the pathway of potential mechanisms linking the ultrafine particulate matter to cardiovascular diseases. The outcomes of those investigations were the clinical results of events that might lead to the development of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure (CHF, stroke, arrhythmia and sudden death. Xenobiotic compounds that maybe implicated in the pathophysiology of human cardiovascular diseases, will be examined and included in this study. There is compelling evidence suggesting that toxic free radicals of pesticides play an important role in human health. Conclusion: There is a close relationship between agrochemicals particle and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  13. Iron: Protector or Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? Still Controversial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epidemiological studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis. The aim of this review is to present the main findings of the chief epidemiological studies published during the last 32 years, since Sullivan formulated his iron hypothesis, suggesting that this element might act as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We have analyzed 55 studies, of which 27 supported the iron hypothesis, 20 found no evidence to support it and eight were contrary to the iron hypothesis. Our results suggest that there is not a high level of evidence which supports the hypothesis that the iron may be associated with CVD. Despite the large number of studies published to date, the role of iron in cardiovascular disease still generates a fair amount of debate, due to a marked disparity in results.

  14. Emerging Role of Interleukin-1 in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vicenová, B.; Vopálenský, D.; Burýšek, L.; Pospíšek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2009), s. 481-498. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Keywords : interleukin-1 * interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein * signal pathways * cardiovascular diseases Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/58/58_481.pdf

  15. Education and cardiovascular disease incidence in Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Social inequality in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well-established. However, the causal paths driving this association are unclear. To disentangle the effect of education from underlying background factors we investigated the association between education and the risk of CVD using...

  16. Inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Kuller, Lewis H;

    2012-01-01

    The SMART study was a trial of intermittent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous use of ART (viral suppression [VS]) as a strategy to reduce toxicities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We studied the predictive value of high sensitivity C-rea...

  17. Cardiovascular Disease Prfevention: from meta-analyses to life expectancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCardiovascular Disease (CVD) includes dysfunctional conditions of the heart and of the blood vessel system (arteries, veins, and capillaries) that among other functions supply oxygen to all body tissues and organs, including vital life-sustaining areas like the brain and the heart its

  18. Rare cardiovascular diseases in the context of occupational health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Salska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Poland like in other European countries a favorable trend towards reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease has been observed. Nevertheless they are still one of the most important health problems in the population, responsible for nearly half of all deaths, including premature deaths. They also affect the quality of life in terms of health and socio-economic development, limiting the possibility of taking and/or continuing employment. Nowadays, cardiovascular diseases have become more common among young, professionally active people. Their professional activity, work organization and exposure to a broad range of occupational factors and environmental conditions may significantly influence the development and course of the cardiovascular disease. The aim of the study was to present the relationship between occupation and some rarer diseases and cardiovascular pathologies, as well as those in which this relationship has not as yet been fully evidenced, however, they may play an important role in workers’ health care. In this paper tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy, aortic aneurysm, aortic dissection, pericardial tamponade, Brugada syndrome and sudden cardiac death are discussed. In addition, the authors indicate new issues emerging along with the development of modern diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in cardiology, such as the care of patients with implanted pace-maker and the use of automated external defibrillators. These issues are presented in the context of their relationship with the occupation, taking into account the activities possibly to be undertaken under preventive care programs. Med Pr 2014;65(6:847–856

  19. A six question screen to facilitate primary cardiovascular disease prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.V. van der Hoeven (Niels V.); M.A.J. Niessen (Maurice); E.S.G. Stroes (Erik S.G.); A. Burdorf (Alex); R.A. Kraaijenhagen (Roderik); B.-J.H. Born (Bert-Jan H.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: European guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) recommend the SCORE risk charts for determining CVD risk, which include blood pressure and serum cholesterol as risk parameters. To facilitate cost-effective large-scale screening, we aimed to construct

  20. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN PRISON POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soares de OliveiraI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to make a reflection about the risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the prison population, as well as the performance of the health care team in these spaces. It is a reflective approach, literature that included e-journal articles, published in the year 2003 to 2011, indexed at LILACS, Scielo, MEDLINE, and available in full. Textbooks were also consulted and ordinances of Ministry of health and Justice of Brazil. Used the descriptors "risk factors," "cardiovascular disease" and "Prisoners". It was noted that the current situation of overcrowding in prisons is, with unhealthy environment, which imposes risks the health of prisoners. The living habits, such as use of alcohol and drugs (cocaine, marijuana, tranquillizers and tobacco, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, the authors emphasize, a priori, the low level of schooling of the detainees. The performance of the health care team must be based on educational practices for promoting and monitoring the health, with multidisciplinary support. Further studies need to be done in order to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of health care for this population.

  1. Dietary Risk Factors and Their Modification in Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of dietary risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diet sodium intake for hypertension and dietary fat and cholesterol for hypercholesterolemia, exacerbation of these conditions by obesity, and intervention strategies for their modification. Describes clinical strategies for modifying diet: education, skills…

  2. Magnesium deficiency and cardiovascular diseases: time to act

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Trisvetova

    2014-01-01

    Progression of cardiovascular disease is often caused by a deficiency of magnesium in the human body. Magnesium belongs to the necessary vital macronutrients providing many physiological and pathological reactions and is involved in the constructive, energy, electrolyte metabolism. Correction of magnesium deficiency is realized using magnesium-containing drugs, for example magnesium orotate, having pleiotropic effects due to independent metabolic activity of orotic acid.

  3. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjian; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2014-10-16

    Cardiovascular cells derived from patient specific induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) harbor gene mutations associated with the pathogenesis of inherited cardiac diseases and congenital heart diseases (CHD). Numerous reports have demonstrated the utilization of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC) to model cardiac diseases as a means of investigating their underlying mechanisms. So far, they have been shown to investigate the molecular mechanisms of many cardiac disorders, such as long-QT syndrome (LQT), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), LEOPARD syndrome (LS), arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), Barth syndrome (BTHS), hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), Marfan syndrome (MFS) and other CHD. This article summarizes the growing body of research related to modeling various cardiac diseases using hiPSCs. Moreover, by reviewing the methods used in previous studies, we propose multiple novel applications of hiPSCs to investigate comprehensive cardiovascular disorders and facilitate drug discovery. PMID:25322695

  4. Long-term trends in cardiovascular disease mortality and association with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, A J

    2016-03-01

    The recent decline in cardiovascular disease mortality in Western countries has been linked with changes in life style and treatment. This study considers periods of decline before effective medical interventions or knowledge about risk factors. Trends in annual age-standardized death rates from cerebrovascular disease, heart disease and circulatory disease, and all cardiovascular disease are reviewed for three phases, 1881-1916, 1920-1939, and 1940-2000. There was a consistent decline in the cerebrovascular disease death rate between 1891 and 2000, apart from brief increases after the two world wars. The heart disease and circulatory disease death rate was declining between 1891 and 1910 before cigarette smoking became prevalent. The early peak in cardiovascular mortality in 1891 coincided with an influenza pandemic and a peak in the death rate from bronchitis, pneumonia and influenza. There is also correspondence between short-term fluctuations in the death rates from these respiratory diseases and cardiovascular disease. This evidence of ecological association is consistent with the findings of many studies that seasonal influenza can trigger acute myocardial infarction and episodes of respiratory infection are followed by increased risk of cardiovascular events. Vaccination studies could provide more definitive evidence of the role in cardiovascular disease and mortality of influenza, other viruses, and common bacterial agents of respiratory infection. PMID:26243537

  5. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  6. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke. A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92 comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long

  7. Cardiovascular Risk and Hippocampal Thickness in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Donix; Maria Scharf; Kira Marschner; Annett Werner; Cathrin Sauer; Antje Gerner; Nees, Josef A.; Shirin Meyer; Donix, Katharina L.; Rüdiger Von Kummer; Holthoff, Vjera A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors influence onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Among cognitively healthy people, changes in brain structure and function associated with high blood pressure, diabetes, or other vascular risks suggest differential regional susceptibility to neuronal damage. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, hippocampal and medial temporal lobe atrophy indicate early neuronal loss preferentially in key areas for learning and memory. We wanted to investigate whether this ...

  8. Genetic Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Raquel López-Mejías; Mercedes García-Bermúdez; Carlos González-Juanatey; Miguel A. González-Gay; Javier Martín

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is the result of an accelerated atherosclerotic process. Both RA and atherosclerosis are complex polygenic diseases. Besides traditional CV risk factors and chronic inflammation, a number of studies have confirmed the role of genetic factors in the development of the atherogenesis observed in RA. In this regard, besides a strong association between the HLA-DRB1∗04 shared ...

  9. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Kylie J. Smith

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention...

  10. Neuropathological changes in mouse models of cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bink, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment and dementia are common disorders in the elderly. As the life span of the population in the Western world is increasing, the prevalence of cognitive disorders and the social and economic burden that coincide with that will increase. Recent data indicate that cardiovascular diseases are largely associated with an increased risk of dementia. The presence of atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension and small vessel disease are all associated with neuropathological c...

  11. Social inequalities and cardiovascular disease in South Asians

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, M. J.; Brunner, E

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiological transition provides a temporal framework for thinking about the decline of infectious disease and the rise in cardiovascular and other chronic diseases.1 In Europe, the transition began in the late 19th century with improved sanitation and housing, and controls on food adulteration. Continuing public health measures such as vaccination2 contributed to the steep rise in life expectancy during the 20th century, paralleled by a sharp increase in the prevalence of cardiovascul...

  12. Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2007-01-01

    Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as trad...

  13. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. V Luximon-Ramma; Mr. MA Soobrattee; Dr. T Bahorun; Prof. OI Aruoma

    2006-01-01

    Current hypotheses favour the concept that lowering oxidative stress can have a health benefit. Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury and disease. Cardiovascular disease is one example of this process. This disorder continues to be the major cause of premature death worldwide. Oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins is considered an early step in the progression and e...

  14. Study of pulp microflora in patients with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Safarov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 335 patients aged 20 to 60 years with various parodontitis inflammatory diseases have been selected for research. All patients have been divided into four groups of different age: with rheumatism - 96 persons, with heart ischemic illness - 82 persons, with arterial hypertension - 89 persons, with neurocirculatory dystonia - 68 persons. The presented results of supervision show diagnostic significant changes of pulp microflora with odontogenic infection in patients, suffering cardiovascular diseases

  15. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yonggang Wang; Xiao Miao; Yucheng Liu; Fengsheng Li; Quan Liu; Jian Sun; Lu Cai

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylases (HDACs) are reg...

  16. The Interface between Inflammation and Coagulation in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Demetz; Ilka Ott

    2012-01-01

    The intimate connection between coagulation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular disease has moved more and more into focus of clinical research. This paper focuses on the essential components of this interplay in the settings of cardiovascular disease and acute coronary syndrome. Tissue factor, the main initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, plays a central role via causing a proinflammatory response through activation of coagulation factors and thereby initiating coagul...

  17. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Thang S; Lean, Mike Ej

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30-40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5-10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35-40 kg/m(2) with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259

  18. Insulin resistance: The linchpin between prediabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Leiva Sisnieguez, Betty C; Stavile, Rodolfo N; March, Carlos E; Reaven, Gerald M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cardiovascular disease occurs to the greatest extent in persons with prediabetes mellitus who are also insulin resistant. In 2003, 664 non-diabetic women (n = 457) and men (n = 207), aged 52 ± 16 and 53 ± 15 years, were surveyed during a programme for cardiovascular disease prevention. Fasting plasma glucose concentrations defined participants as having normal fasting plasma glucose (fasting plasma glucose <5.6 mmol/L) or prediabetes mellitus (fasting plasma glucose ⩾5.6 and <7.0 mmol/L). The tertile of prediabetes mellitus subjects with the highest fasting plasma insulin concentration was classified as insulin resistant. Baseline cardiovascular disease risk factors were accentuated in prediabetes mellitus versus normal fasting glucose, particularly in prediabetes mellitus/insulin resistant. In 2012, 86% of the sample were surveyed again, and the crude incidence for cardiovascular disease was higher in subjects with prediabetes mellitus versus normal fasting glucose (13.7 vs 6.0/100 persons/10 years; age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.88, p = 0.052). In prediabetes mellitus, the crude incidences were 22.9 versus 9.6/100 persons/10 years in insulin resistant versus non-insulin resistant persons (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio = 2.36, p = 0.040). In conclusion, cardiovascular disease risk was accentuated in prediabetes mellitus/insulin resistant individuals, with a relative risk approximately twice as high compared to prediabetes mellitus/non-insulin resistant subjects. PMID:26802220

  19. Chromogranin A as a biomarker in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Alehagen, Urban; Flyvbjerg, Allan;

    2014-01-01

    with acute coronary syndromes or chronic heart failure. In this article, we summarize the current clinical data on chromogranin A as a biomarker in cardiovascular disease from high-risk conditions; for example, obesity, hypertension and diabetes, to overt heart failure. Biological activity of the various......Chromogranin A is known as an important marker of neuroendocrine tumors. In cardiovascular medicine, however, chromogranin A measurement has only recently gained interest, since increased concentrations in the circulation are associated with risk of clinical worsening and death in patients...

  20. Microalbuminuria and obesity: impact on cardiovascular disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Klaus Peder; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Scharling, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    P>Objective Microalbuminuria and obesity are both associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to determine the association between obesity (measured by body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference) and different levels of microalbuminuria. We also aimed...... to determine the risk of death and CVD at different levels of microalbuminuria and obesity. Design Population-based observational study based on 2696 men and women, 30-70 years of age. Urinary albumin excretion (UAE), body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference and other cardiovascular risk...

  1. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryyani Deb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents , to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as surgery. The present review provides a comprehensive description of the molecular imaging techniques for cardiovascular diseases with the help of nanotechnology and the potential clinical implications of nanotechnology for future applications.

  2. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  3. MicroRNAs in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Elton, Terry S.; Khan, Mahmood; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of heart attacks—and the assessment of damage—are critical for improving coronary care. Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant, easily measured, and relatively stable in blood plasma. If they prove indicative of disease states, miRNAs measured from peripheral blood may be a particularly attractive source for routine clinical assessments.

  4. Impact of Diabetes on Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos Matheus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Correction of some cardiovascular disorders at radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved 43 patients aged 31-62. The study was performed during combined treatment of cancer of left breast and included ECG and tetrapolar rheography. Therapy with calcium antagonists which is started in the middle of the distant radiotherapy course prevents the changes in the cardiovascular system in 95% of cases and allows to improve the quality of life which is especially important for the patients who have already had various (especially ischemic) cardiac disturbances

  6. Network-based association of hypoxia-responsive genes with cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular oxygen is indispensable for cellular viability and function. Hypoxia is a stress condition in which oxygen demand exceeds supply. Low cellular oxygen content induces a number of molecular changes to activate regulatory pathways responsible for increasing the oxygen supply and optimizing cellular metabolism under limited oxygen conditions. Hypoxia plays critical roles in the pathobiology of many diseases, such as cancer, heart failure, myocardial ischemia, stroke, and chronic lung diseases. Although the complicated associations between hypoxia and cardiovascular (and cerebrovascular) diseases (CVD) have been recognized for some time, there are few studies that investigate their biological link from a systems biology perspective. In this study, we integrate hypoxia genes, CVD genes, and the human protein interactome in order to explore the relationship between hypoxia and cardiovascular diseases at a systems level. We show that hypoxia genes are much closer to CVD genes in the human protein interactome than that expected by chance. We also find that hypoxia genes play significant bridging roles in connecting different cardiovascular diseases. We construct a hypoxia-CVD bipartite network and find several interesting hypoxia-CVD modules with significant gene ontology similarity. Finally, we show that hypoxia genes tend to have more CVD interactors in the human interactome than in random networks of matching topology. Based on these observations, we can predict novel genes that may be associated with CVD. This network-based association study gives us a broad view of the relationships between hypoxia and cardiovascular diseases and provides new insights into the role of hypoxia in cardiovascular biology. (paper)

  7. Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery devices

  8. Surgical Robotics Research in Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohost, Gerald M; Guthrie, Barton L; Steiner, Charles

    2008-02-29

    This grant is to support a research in robotics at three major medical centers: the University of Southern California-USC- (Project 1); the University of Alabama at Birmingham-UAB-(Project 2); and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation-CCF-(Project 3). Project 1 is oriented toward cardiovascular applications, while projects 2 and 3 are oriented toward neurosurgical applications. The main objective of Project 1 is to develop an approach to assist patients in maintaining a constant level of stress while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging or spectroscopy. The specific project is to use handgrip to detect the changes in high energy phosphate metabolism between rest and stress. The high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) are responsible for the energy of the heart muscle (myocardium) responsible for its contractile function. If the blood supply to the myocardium in insufficient to support metabolism and contractility during stress, the high energy phosphates, particularly PCr, will decrease in concentration. The high energy phosphates can be tracked using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P MRS). In Project 2 the UAB Surgical Robotics project focuses on the use of virtual presence to assist with remote surgery and surgical training. The goal of this proposal was to assemble a pilot system for proof of concept. The pilot project was completed successfully and was judged to demonstrate that the concept of remote surgical assistance as applied to surgery and surgical training was feasible and warranted further development. The main objective of Project 3 is to develop a system to allow for the tele-robotic delivery of instrumentation during a functional neurosurgical procedure (Figure 3). Instrumentation such as micro-electrical recording probes or deep brain stimulation leads. Current methods for the delivery of these instruments involve the integration of linear actuators to stereotactic navigation systems. The control of these delivery

  9. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: Finding the Perfect Recipe for Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Ravera; Valentina Carubelli; Edoardo Sciatti; Ivano Bonadei; Elio Gorga; Dario Cani; Enrico Vizzardi; Marco Metra; Carlo Lombardi

    2016-01-01

    The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite the progress in management entails the need of more effective preventive and curative strategies. As dietary-associated risk is the most important behavioral factor influencing global health, it appears the best target in the challenge against CVD. Although for many years, since the formulation of the cholesterol hypothesis, a nutrient-based approach was attempted for CVD prevention and treatment, in recent years a dietary-based ap...

  10. Are There Genetic Paths Common to Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Clustering of obesity, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular disease risk factors is observed in epidemiological studies and clinical settings. Twin and family studies have provided some supporting evidence for the clustering hypothesis. Loci nearest a lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showing genome-wide significant associations with coronary artery disease, body mass index, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, lipids, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected for pathway and network analyses. Eighty-seven autosomal regions (181 SNPs), mapping to 56 genes, were found to be pleiotropic. Most pleiotropic regions contained genes associated with coronary artery disease and plasma lipids, whereas some exhibited coaggregation between obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We observed enrichment for liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor/RXR nuclear receptor signaling among pleiotropic genes and for signatures of coronary artery disease and hepatic steatosis. In the search for functionally interacting networks, we found that 43 pleiotropic genes were interacting in a network with an additional 24 linker genes. ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data were queried for distribution of pleiotropic SNPs among regulatory elements and coding sequence variations. Of the 181 SNPs, 136 were annotated to ≥1 regulatory feature. An enrichment analysis found over-representation of enhancers and DNAse hypersensitive regions when compared against all SNPs of the 1000 Genomes pilot project. In summary, there are genomic regions exerting pleiotropic effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors, although only a few included obesity. Further studies are needed to resolve the clustering in terms of DNA variants, genes, pathways, and actionable targets. PMID:25722444

  11. Dental treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleonice da Silveira TEIXEIRA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The correct evaluation of patients with cardiovasculardisease is based on a careful anamnesis and on the previous knowledgeof the main coronary diseases and its sequels. Objective: This articlerevised the concepts and characteristics of diverse heart illnesses asthe ischemic cardiopathy, chest angina, congestive cardiac insufficiency,arrhythmia and bradycardia. Literature review and conclusion:Complications like myocardium infarct and bacterial endocarditis were described focusing the dental clinical procedures. The handling of this information is important during the determination of the cardiac risk of each patient, classifying as high, moderate, or minimum risk. Dental professionals must plan the clinical appointments according to pre-established patient’s risk. Short duration appointments and the limitation of the stress and anxiety levels with the use of anti-anxiolytic medicines and complementary sedation can be important for a transoperative and postoperative without complications. The urgent procedures that occurred during the clinical trial in patients with coronary disease were also discussed.

  12. Depression And The Link With Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Dhar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an outline of the association between major depressive disorder (MDD and coronary heart disease (CHD. Much is known about the two individual clinical conditions; however it is not until recently, that biological mechanisms have been uncovered that link both MDD and CHD. The activation of stress pathways have been implicated as a neurochemical mechanism that links MDD and CHD. Depression is known to be associated with poorer outcomes of CHD. Psychological factors such as major depression and stress are now known as risk factors for developing CHD which is as important and is independent of classic risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and cigarette smoking. Both conditions have great socioeconomic importance given that depression and CHD are likely to be two of the three leading causes of global burden of disease. Better understanding of the common causal pathways will help us delineate more appropriate treatments.

  13. Cardiovascular diseases in immigrants in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Gadd, Malin

    2006-01-01

    Aims The general aim with this project was to elucidate coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality among immigrants in Sweden, by investigating the morbidity from CHD, comparing all-cause and CHD mortality between immigrants in Sweden and natives in the country of birth, analyzing the trend of CHD, and estimating the prevalence of CHD risk factors. Methods The first study was designed as a follow-up study of the incidence of CHD among twelve immigrant groups. T...

  14. Breast conserving therapy with sole high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy. Results of Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of breast conserving surgery combined with sole high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy were analyzed. Between May 1998 and May 2003, 20 patients with breast cancer smaller than 2 cm, without clinically lymph node metastases were recruited in our study. The 5-year local control rate, distant-free survival and overall survival were 92.9%, 92.9% and 92.9%, respectively. These results were the equal to those of breast conserving surgery with conventional whole breast 45-50 Gy irradiation in our institute. Though fat necrosis was occurred in one of 20 patients and radiation induced pneumonitis was also seen in one patient, the safety and cosmetic results of brachytherapy was acceptable. This technique can shorten the period of the breast conserving therapy and can become one of the treatment options of it. (author)

  15. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  16. Autophagy as a Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemchenko, Andriy; Chiong, Mario; Turer, Aslan; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    The epidemic of heart failure continues apace, and development of novel therapies with clinical efficacy has lagged. Now, important insights into the molecular circuitry of cardiovascular autophagy have raised the prospect that this cellular pathway of protein quality control may be a target of clinical relevance. Whereas basal levels of autophagy are required for cell survival, excessive levels – or perhaps distinct forms of autophagic flux – contribute to disease pathogenesis. Our challenge will be to distinguish mechanisms that drive adaptive versus maladaptive autophagy and to manipulate those pathways for therapeutic gain. Recent evidence suggests this may be possible. Here, we review the fundamental biology of autophagy and its role in a variety of forms of cardiovascular disease. We discuss ways in which this evolutionarily conserved catabolic mechanism can be manipulated, discuss studies presently underway in heart disease, and provide our perspective on where this exciting field may lead in the future. PMID:21723289

  17. Future Research Directions for Multimorbidity Involving Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salive, Marcel E

    2016-05-01

    Multimorbidity, defined as the co-occurrence of two or more chronic conditions, increases with age and may be found in approximately two-thirds of older adults in population studies, commonly including a variety of cardiovascular risk factors and chronic diseases. This article offers a research agenda for cardiovascular disease from a patient-centered multimorbidity perspective. Definitional issues remain for multimorbidity, along with high interest in understanding the inter-relationships between aging, diseases, treatments, and organ dysfunction in the development and progression of multimorbidity. Clinical trials, practice-based and population-based observational studies, and linkages of big data can play a role in improving health outcomes among persons with multimorbidity. PMID:27113155

  18. Osteoprotegerin and mortality in hemodialysis patients with cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Simon; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Flyvbjerg, Allan;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have an increased mortality, mainly caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the vascular calcification process. Previous studies have demonstrated that OPG.......08; in the adjusted analyses, the p-value for trend was 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-risk population of hemodialysis patients with previously documented cardiovascular disease, a high level of OPG was an independent risk marker of all-cause mortality....... is a prognostic marker of mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate if OPG was a prognostic marker of all-cause mortality in high-risk patients with end-stage renal disease and CVD. METHODS: We prospectively followed 206 HD patients with CVD. OPG was measured at baseline and the patients were followed...

  19. Influence of maternal dysmetabolic conditions during pregnancy on cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinski, Wulf; Nicolaides, Eric; Liguori, Antonio; Napoli, Claudio

    2009-09-01

    Pathogenic factors associated with maternal hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and diabetic conditions during pregnancy influence fetal development and predispose offspring to cardiovascular disease. Animal models have established cause-effect relationships consistent with epidemiological findings in humans and have demonstrated, in principle, that interventions before or during pregnancy can reduce or prevent pathogenic in utero programming. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which maternal dysmetabolic conditions enhance disease susceptibility in offspring. Identification of these mechanisms is rendered more difficult by the fact that programming effects in offspring may be latent and may require conventional risk factors and inherited genetic co-factors to become clinically manifest. Given the increasing prevalence of maternal risk factors, which is expected to lead to a wave of cardiovascular disease in the coming decades, and the length of prospective studies on developmental programming in humans, greater-than-usual emphasis on experimental models and translational studies is necessary. PMID:19655024

  20. YKL-40--an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla N; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    . Several studies demonstrate, that elevated serum YKL-levels are independently associated with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease and even higher YKL-40 levels are documented in patients with myocardial infarction. Moreover, elevated serum YKL-40 levels have also been found to be associated...... with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating...... YKL-40 levels and increasing levels of albuminuria have been described in patients with type 1 diabetes indicating a role of YKL-40 in the progressing vascular damage resulting in microvascular disease. This review describes the present knowledge about YKL-40 and discusses its relation to endothelial...

  1. SIRT3 in cardiovascular diseases: Emerging roles and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Yi-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Han; Cai, Zhe-Jun; Xiang, Mei-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    SIRT3 belongs to a highly conserved protein family of histone deacetylases and it is rich in mitochondria. As acetyl-modification is one of the important post-translational modifications that prevail in the mitochondria, it is not surprising that SIRT3 plays a key regulatory role in this organelle. SIRT3 has a wide range of substrates that are involved in the physiological and pathological processes of oxidative stress, ischemia-reperfusion injury, mitochondrial metabolism homeostasis and cellular death. These pathophysiological processes are considered as the underlying mechanisms of diseases like cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial infarction and heart failure, indicating the potential roles of SIRT3 in cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we will summarize the emerging roles and therapeutic implications of SIRT3 in cardiovascular diseases by providing an update on the latest understanding of its functions. PMID:27393852

  2. Microarray, SAGE and their applications to cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The wealth of DNA data generated by the human genome project coupling with recently invented high-throughput gene expression profiling techniques has dramatically sped up the process for biomedical researchers on elucidating the role of genes in human diseases. One powerful method to reveal insight into gene functions is the systematic analysis of gene expression. Two popular high-throughput gene expression technologies, microarray and Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) are capable of producing large amounts of gene expression data with the potential of providing novel insights into fundamental disease processes, especially complex syndromes such as cardiovascular disease, whose etiologies are due to multiple genetic factors and their interplay with the environment. Microarray and SAGE have already been used to examine gene expression patterns of cell-culture, animal and human tissues models of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we will first give a brief introduction of microarray and SAGE technologies and point out their limitations. We will then discuss the major discoveries and the new biological insightsthat have emerged from their applications to cardiovascular diseases. Finally we will touch upon potential challenges and future developments in this area.

  3. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors in South Asians: A cause of concern for adult cardiovascular disease epidemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular risk factors in children are increasing at an alarming rate in the western world. However, there is limited information regarding these in the South Asian children. This review attempts at summarizing such evidence. South Asians are remarkable for the earlier onset of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) by almost a decade compared to the Caucasians. We identified published literature, mainly on PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library using specific search terms such as lipid abnormalities, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, tobacco use, obesity, physical inactivity, and unhealthy dietary practices. Atherosclerotic CVD processes begin early in childhood and are influenced over the life course by genetic and potentially modifiable risk factors and environmental exposure. 80% of adult CVD burden will fall on the developing nations by 2020. The concept of primordial prevention is fast emerging as a necessary prevention tool to curb adult CVD epidemic. Established guidelines and proven preventive strategies on cardiovascular health exist; however, are always implemented half-heartedly. Composite screening and prediction tools for adults can be adapted and validated in children tailored to South Asian population. South Asian children could be at a greater risk of developing cardiovascular risk factors at an earlier stage, thus, timely interventions are imperative

  4. Understanding the application of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma RK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rakesh K Sharma, Donald J Voelker, Roma Sharma, Hanumanth K ReddyUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Medical Center of South Arkansas, El Dorado, AR, USAAbstract: Throughout their lifetime, an individual may sustain many injuries and recover spontaneously over a period of time, without even realizing the injury in the first place. Wound healing occurs due to a proliferation of stem cells capable of restoring the injured tissue. The ability of adult stem cells to repair tissue is dependent upon the intrinsic ability of tissues to proliferate. The amazing capacity of embryonic stem cells to give rise to virtually any type of tissue has intensified the search for similar cell lineage in adults to treat various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. The ability to convert adult stem cells into pluripotent cells that resemble embryonic cells, and to transplant those in the desired organ for regenerative therapy is very attractive, and may offer the possibility of treating harmful disease-causing mutations. The race is on to find the best cells for treatment of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for the ideal stem cell, delivery strategies, myocardial retention, and time of administration in the ideal patient population. There are multiple modes of stem cell delivery to the heart with different cell retention rates that vary depending upon method and site of injection, such as intra coronary, intramyocardial or via coronary sinus. While there are crucial issues such as retention of stem cells, microvascular plugging, biodistribution, homing to myocardium, and various proapoptotic factors in the ischemic myocardium, the regenerative potential of stem cells offers an enormous impact on clinical applications in the management of cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: stem cell therapy, stem cell delivery, cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy

  5. [Cardiovascular risk in polycystic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Adelaide; Stallone, Giovanni; Infante, Barbara; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Schena, Francesco Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Hypertension is common and occurs in the majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients prior to loss of kidney function. Hypertension relates to progressive kidney enlargement, and is a significant independent risk factor for progression to end-stage renal disease. The pathogenesis of hypertension in ADPKD is complex and depends on many factors that influence each other. High expression of PKD1 and PKD2 genes is present in the cilia of tubular epithelial cells, in endothelial cells and in vascular smooth muscle cells. Decreased or absent polycystin-1 or -2 expression is associated with abnormal vascular structure and function. PKD1/PKD2 deficiency results in reduced nitric oxide levels, altered endothelial response to shear stress with attenuation in vascular relaxation. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs in ADPKD due to decreased nitric oxide production as well as bilateral cyst expansion and intra-renal ischemia. With increasing cyst size, further activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system occurs, blood pressure increases and a vicious cycle ensues with enhanced cyst growth and hypertension ultimately leading to end-stage renal disease. Inhibition of the angiotensin-aldosterone system is possible with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and seems to be the first-line treatment for hypertension in these subjects. As suggested by the HALT-PKD study, an aggressive blood pressure control is safe and recommended and is associated with preservation of kidney function and a reduction in total kidney volume over time. A collaborative multidisciplinary approach between nephrologists and cardiologists is necessary for the monitoring of kidney and heart complications. PMID:26418387

  6. The nutritional epidemiology of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehl, W A

    1977-11-30

    A basic review of the extensive literature focusing on the major risk factors of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease and stroke, i.e., elevation of blood lipids related to diet, blood pressure elevation, and genetic factors using the traditional epidemiological model of interaction between host, agent, and environment, has strongly supported the concept that diet and particularly saturated fat and/or cholesterol are significant contributors to the elevation of blood lipids, especially cholesterol, and contribute importantly to the premature development and mortality of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Certainly genetics exert an important impact on this process. To date it remains unclear whether or not major changes in the dietary pattern of huge population groups can be practically effected. The minor dietary modifications so far studied in the average atherosclerosis-prone population cannot be anticipated to make a major dent in the epidemic proportions of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. It is quite clear that prospective preventive medicine must be implemented at a very early age in the pediatric age group, in which atherosclerosis is now recognized by many as the number one pediatric problem. Tremendous biochemical advances have provided new insights in knowledge regarding the transport of blood lipids, particularly cholesterol, and the regulatory mechanisms at the cellular level for cholesterol under normal circumstances and in the genetic influenced hyperlipidemias (TABLE 4). A bright future lies ahead for the reduction of the epidemic of atherosclerosis which could be greatly enhanced by a greater personal responsibility for health care and a much more careful and prudent diet selection and exercise managment. PMID:211922

  7. Effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on cardiometabolic risk factors and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Ursula; Lauritzen, Lotte; Tholstrup, Tine; Haldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Riserus, Ulf; Uusitupa, Matti; Becker, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    The effects of both the amount and quality of dietary fat have been studied intensively during the past decades. Previously, low-fat diets were recommended without much attention to the quality of fat, whereas there is general emphasis on the quality of fat in current guidelines. The objective of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the evidence of an effect of the amount and type of dietary fat on body weight (BW), risk factors, and risk of non-communicable diseases, that is, type 2 dia...

  8. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guasch-Ferre, M. (Marta); Hu, F.B.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M. A.; Fito, M. (Montserrat); Bullo, M. (Mónica); Estruch, R.; Ros, E.; D. Corella; Recondo, J. (Javier); Gomez-Gracia, E. (Enrique); Fiol, M; Lapetra, J.; L. Serra-Majem; Muñoz, M. A.; Pinto, X. (Xavier)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvención ...

  9. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Hu, Frank B; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Fitó, Montserrat; Bulló, Mònica; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Corella, Dolores; Recondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Pintó, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods: We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvenció...

  10. [Reproduction problems in women with cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleszewicz-Baranowska, J; Fryze, I; Potaz, P; Chojnicki, M; Sabiniewicz, R; Fiszer, R; Ereciński, J; Płoszyński, A

    2000-10-01

    53 female patients who informed the obstetrician about their cardiological problems were examined. In 44 cases the heart defects were diagnosed, in 39 cases of the congenital origin. In 20 patients the shunt congenital heart disease were recognized, in 13 cases the valvular defects, in 6--Fallot Syndrome and in the single cases tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, Ebstein anomaly were observed. The next 9 patients were diagnosed as: in 4 cases hyperthrophy cardiomyopathy, in 2 cases the post myocarditis status, in 2 cases complete atrioventricular block and in 1 case WPW syndrome. The analysed women were pregnancy together 98 times, finished the delivery in 86 times. The physiological delivery were observed in 53 cases. 3 neonates died in the first day of live, 6 children were born prematured. Among 83 newborns who alived 7 required intensive care. The congenital heart diseases was diagnosed in 4 children--the atrial septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, coarctation of the aorta and mitral valve malformation were seen. Two children of the mothers with hyperthrophy cardiomyopathy have the same cardiological problems. The child of mother with congenital aortic stenosis suffered from the anal atresia and agenesis of the kidney. PMID:11143932

  11. [Socioeconomic class as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Ch; Ackermann-Liebrich, U

    2005-09-01

    It's been known for a long time, that certain diseases are more frequent in lower socioeconomic classes. But knowledge about the nature of this association, its main risk factors and how to improve health outcomes in lower social groups is still limited. Social class has been defined by different indicators by e.g. occupation and job position or the highest school qualification achieved. For international comparisons different classifications such as "The Registrar General's Social Class Classification " or the "International Standard Classification of Education" have been used. Several European Studies show a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in lower socioeconomic classes. But this studies also show that all socioeconomic groups have access to medical services. The Data from the Swiss Health Survey show the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases by three levels of education: Behaviouralfactors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity are more commonly present in the lower socioeconomic groups. People with a lower educational level visit their GP more often, whereas people with a higher level of educational consult specialists more frequently. Medical services are often used to check of blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol. An indication of state of health may be shown by medication and treatment for cardiovascular disease which is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. The present discussion of explanations of the poorer state of health in lower socioeconomic groups goes beyond the classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that after the correction for risk factors a correlation remains between social class and state of health. It is believed, that psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, control in the workplace or coping-strategies play an additional important role

  12. Angiotensin converting enzyme genotype in cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K.M.; Huggard, P.R.; West, M.J. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) catalyses formation of angiotensin II and degradation of bradykinin, vasoactive peptides with opposing properties. The result of ACE action is to promote vasoconstriction and cell growth. PCR is used to detect a common polymorphism due to the insertion of an Alu repeat element of 287 bp into intron 16. ACE genotype has been implicated in risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and hypertension in humans. We have studied a group of 640 patients (61% male aged 64 {plus_minus} 11 years) with myocardial ischaemic syndromes, followed for 12 months after initial hospital admission. In this group, the frequency of the insertion (I) allele was 0.47 (N=1170 chromosomes), not significantly higher than the frequency of 0.46 in 112 local blood donors (50% male aged 59 {plus_minus}5 years). In the 300 patients with diagnosed MI, I allele frequency was 0.48. This is significantly higher ({chi}{sup 2}=5.78, P=0.015) than the frequency of 0.42 reported in a multi-centre study of ACE genotype in 600 male European patients with MI . There was a non-significant increase in the frequency of a cardiac event within 6 months of hospital admission in those of II genotype (N=464, 47 events to date). These results suggest that in our population, the I allele and/or II genotype may be associated with risk of MI. This contrasts with the study cited above, where the D (deletion) allele and DD genotype frequency were raised in patients compared with controls. Hypertension is associated with the ACE D allele, and does not explain the heart disease risk, which may be associated with the I allele, in this group of survivors of myocardial ischaemic disease. The difference between our results and the previous study may be due to ascertainment or ethnic differences or to problems amplifying the I allele in some heterozygotes. Clearly, the role of ACE genotype in these diseases is complex.

  13. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training is the cornerstone of rehabilitation for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although high-intensity exercise has significant cardiovascular benefits, light-to-moderate intensity aerobic exercise also offers health benefits. With lower-intensity workouts, patients may be able to exercise for longer periods of time and increase the acceptance of exercise, particularly in unfit and elderly patients. Tai Chi Chuan (Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese mind-body exercise. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi is light to moderate, depending on its training style, posture, and duration. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi enhances aerobic capacity, muscular strength, balance, and psychological well-being. Additionally, Tai Chi training has significant benefits for common cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, poor exercise capacity, endothelial dysfunction, and depression. Tai Chi is safe and effective in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery, congestive heart failure (HF, and stroke. In conclusion, Tai Chi has significant benefits to patients with cardiovascular disease, and it may be prescribed as an alternative exercise program for selected patients with CVD.

  14. TYPES OF TREMOR IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES AND CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov Igor; Mulic Mersudin; Antonio Georgiev

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tremor can occur as a part of the clinical feature of cerebrovascular diseases. Many patients with cerebral stroke have cardiovascular diseases as a comorbidity or complication of stroke; sometimes cardiovascular events can lead to embolic stroke. Aim: To present types of tremor in patients with cerebrovascular diseases and cardiovascular events and diabetes mellitus type 2, clinical characteristics of tremor and investigations used. Materia...

  15. Adipocytokines, C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Sehested, Thomas S G;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Being overweight or obese is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease and stroke compared with normal weight. The role of the specific adipose tissue-derived substances, called adipocytokines, in overweight- and obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still...... defined a composite outcome comprising of the first event of fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease and fatal and nonfatal stroke. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 453 composite CV outcomes occurred among participants with complete datasets. In models, including gender, age, smoking status...

  16. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (1) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (2) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (3) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (4) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. (author)

  17. Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Rodrigues Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction”, “cardiovascular diseases”, “coronary artery disease", “myocardial infarct" and “prevalence” was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity.

  18. Phytochemical Compounds and Protection from Cardiovascular Diseases: A State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Pagliaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases represent a worldwide relevant socioeconomical problem. Cardiovascular disease prevention relies also on lifestyle changes, including dietary habits. The cardioprotective effects of several foods and dietary supplements in both animal models and in humans have been explored. It was found that beneficial effects are mainly dependent on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, also involving modulation of mitochondrial function. Resveratrol is one of the most studied phytochemical compounds and it is provided with several benefits in cardiovascular diseases as well as in other pathological conditions (such as cancer. Other relevant compounds are Brassica oleracea, curcumin, and berberine, and they all exert beneficial effects in several diseases. In the attempt to provide a comprehensive reference tool for both researchers and clinicians, we summarized in the present paper the existing literature on both preclinical and clinical cardioprotective effects of each mentioned phytochemical. We structured the discussion of each compound by analyzing, first, its cellular molecular targets of action, subsequently focusing on results from applications in both ex vivo and in vivo models, finally discussing the relevance of the compound in the context of human diseases.

  19. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Pushpa M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: PROVIDI study-group

    2015-06-01

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  20. Cardiovascular disease prediction: do pulmonary disease-related chest CT features have added value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain pulmonary diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therefore we investigated the incremental predictive value of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features over cardiovascular imaging findings. A total of 10,410 patients underwent diagnostic chest CT for non-cardiovascular indications. Using a case-cohort approach, we visually graded CTs from the cases and from an approximately 10 % random sample of the baseline cohort (n = 1,203) for cardiovascular, pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural findings. The incremental value of pulmonary disease-related CT findings above cardiovascular imaging findings in cardiovascular event risk prediction was quantified by comparing discrimination and reclassification. During a mean follow-up of 3.7 years (max. 7.0 years), 1,148 CVD events (cases) were identified. Addition of pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features to a cardiovascular imaging findings-based prediction model led to marginal improvement of discrimination (increase in c-index from 0.72 (95 % CI 0.71-0.74) to 0.74 (95 % CI 0.72-0.75)) and reclassification measures (net reclassification index 6.5 % (p < 0.01)). Pulmonary, mediastinal and pleural features have limited predictive value in the identification of subjects at high risk of CVD events beyond cardiovascular findings on diagnostic chest CT scans. (orig.)

  1. Dysfunctional HDL and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S; Brewer, H Bryan; Ansell, Benjamin J; Barter, Philip; Chapman, M John; Heinecke, Jay W; Kontush, Anatol; Tall, Alan R; Webb, Nancy R

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) protect against atherosclerosis by removing excess cholesterol from macrophages through the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) pathways involved in reverse cholesterol transport. Factors that impair the availability of functional apolipoproteins or the activities of ABCA1 and ABCG1 could, therefore, strongly influence atherogenesis. HDL also inhibits lipid oxidation, restores endothelial function, exerts anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic actions, and exerts anti-inflammatory actions in animal models. Such properties could contribute considerably to the capacity of HDL to inhibit atherosclerosis. Systemic and vascular inflammation has been proposed to convert HDL to a dysfunctional form that has impaired antiatherogenic effects. A loss of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative proteins, perhaps in combination with a gain of proinflammatory proteins, might be another important component in rendering HDL dysfunctional. The proinflammatory enzyme myeloperoxidase induces both oxidative modification and nitrosylation of specific residues on plasma and arterial apolipoprotein A-I to render HDL dysfunctional, which results in impaired ABCA1 macrophage transport, the activation of inflammatory pathways, and an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Understanding the features of dysfunctional HDL or apolipoprotein A-I in clinical practice might lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to atherosclerosis. PMID:26323267

  2. Fetal cardiovascular dysfunction in intrauterine growth restriction as a predictive marker of perinatal outcome and cardiovascular disease in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Lemini, Mónica Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Most risk factors leading to cardiovascular disease are already present in childhood and the importance of early identification of pediatric cardiovascular risk factors is now well recognized. Hypertension in the child has been associated with substantial long-term health risks and considered an indication for lifestyle modifications. Current clinical guidelines contemplate screening for hypertension in children over 3 years of age, in order to provide strategies for promoting cardiovascular ...

  3. Mobile Monitoring and Reasoning Methods to Prevent Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego López-de-Ipiña

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent technological advances, it is possible to monitor vital signs using Bluetooth-enabled biometric mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets or electric wristbands. In this manuscript, we present a system to estimate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in Ambient Assisted Living environments. Cardiovascular disease risk is obtained from the monitoring of the blood pressure by means of mobile devices in combination with other clinical factors, and applying reasoning techniques based on the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project charts. We have developed an end-to-end software application for patients and physicians and a rule-based reasoning engine. We have also proposed a conceptual module to integrate recommendations to patients in their daily activities based on information proactively inferred through reasoning techniques and context-awareness. To evaluate the platform, we carried out usability experiments and performance benchmarks.

  4. Cardiovascular surveillance in breast cancer treatment: A more individualized approach is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Angela H E M; Ottevanger, Nelleke; Atsma, Femke; Cramer, Maarten J; Leiner, Tim; Poortmans, Philip

    2016-07-01

    Newly developed treatment strategies for breast cancer have reduced mortality rates over the past decades. Patients with breast cancer represent a heterogeneous population. Differences in the severity of the disease require diverse treatment options. Women have distinct individual risk patterns for cardiovascular disease that may affect their susceptibility to cardiotoxicity during therapy. While breast cancer treatment is targeted more on tumor and patient characteristics, a tailored individual approach with early and late cardiosurveillance is not yet implemented in routine care. Newly available cardiac imaging techniques are better suited to the early detection of cardiotoxicity and should be used more often in those patients at highest risk, as the early intervention afforded will improve their quality of life and prognosis. PMID:27180161

  5. EDTA chelation therapy for cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Ping; Seely Dugald MR; Mills Edward J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous practitioners of both conventional and complementary and alternative medicine throughout North America and Europe claim that chelation therapy with EDTA is an effective means to both control and treat cardiovascular disease. These claims are controversial, and several randomized controlled trials have been completed dealing with this topic. To address this issue we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the best available evidence for the use of EDTA chelation ...

  6. Evidence For and Against Dietary Recommendations to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dildy, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based dietary guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have changed significantly over the past 9 years. Now less emphasis is placed on total dietary fat and cholesterol restriction and more emphasis on restricting saturated fat. The public outcry to stop demonizing saturated fats has been around for some time. We are now hearing more agreement from medical researchers and clinicians alike, as they become aware of evidence that some saturated fatty acids are not harmfu...

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Azhar, Salman

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/β and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol meta...

  8. CETP inhibitors and cardiovascular disease: Time to think again

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Norman E.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) lowers plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, suggesting it might prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). From the outset, however, the concept has been controversial owing to uncertainty about its effects on HDL function and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Although there has long been good evidence that CETP inhibition reduces atherosclerosis in rabbits, the fir...

  9. NANOBURRS: A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Jaithlia Rajiv; Jain Hardik; Shah Vaibhav; Arora vimal

    2011-01-01

    "Nanoburrs" are nanoparticles coated with a sticky protein that makes them cling onto artery walls while they slowly release drugs. Patients with narrowed arteries in which drug-eluting stents cannot be used, now can use nanoburrs. Nanoburrs provides an advance technology in the field of science that potentially provides an alternative to drug-releasing stents in some patients with cardiovascular disease. This review brings about the working and applications of nanoburrs.

  10. NANOBURRS: A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaithlia Rajiv

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "Nanoburrs" are nanoparticles coated with a sticky protein that makes them cling onto artery walls while they slowly release drugs. Patients with narrowed arteries in which drug-eluting stents cannot be used, now can use nanoburrs. Nanoburrs provides an advance technology in the field of science that potentially provides an alternative to drug-releasing stents in some patients with cardiovascular disease. This review brings about the working and applications of nanoburrs.

  11. Tea Polyphenols Regulate Key Mediators on Inflammatory Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-ichi Suzuki; Mitsuaki Isobe; Ryuichi Morishita; Ryozo Nagai

    2009-01-01

    Tea polyphenols known as catechins are key components with many biological functions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anticarcinogenic effects. These effects are induced by the suppression of several inflammatory factors including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF- B). While these characteristics of catechins have been well documented, actions of catechins as mediators on inflammation-related cardiovascular diseases have not yet been well investigated. In this article, we reviewed ...

  12. The antioxidant advantage of the Mediterranean diet in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sabban F

    2014-01-01

    Farouk El-Sabban Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Life Sciences, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait Abstract: To date, discrepancy exists among scientific data in regard to the benefit of administering antioxidant vitamin supplementation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients or toward protecting those who are at risk. Data of conducted randomized-controlled clinical trials so far did not produce solid evidence for the benefit of supplementing such antioxidant vitam...

  13. Aspirin overutilization for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    VanWormer JJ; Miller AW; Rezkalla SH

    2014-01-01

    Jeffrey J VanWormer,1 Aaron W Miller,2 Shereif H Rezkalla3 1Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI, USA; 3Department of Cardiology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA Background: Aspirin is commonly used for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the US. Previous research has observed significant levels of inappropriate aspirin use for primary CVD prevention i...

  14. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have ...

  15. Mass media approaches to reducing cardiovascular disease risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellicha, T; McGrath, J.

    1990-01-01

    A key function of a basic and clinical biomedical research organization is to communicate the findings of clinical investigations so that people may apply the results to improve their health and well-being. To help communicate results from cardiovascular disease research, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has established a series of national health education programs. The authors describe a model for two of the five programs and discuss the role of communication media in supportin...

  16. Experimental Models of Renal Disease and the Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among patients with end stage renal failure. Animal models have played a crucial role in teasing apart the complex pathological processes involved. This review discusses the principles of using animal models, the history of their use in the study of renal hypertension, the controversies arising from experimental models of non-hypertensive uraemic cardiomyopathy and the lessons learned from these models, and highlights important areas of futur...

  17. Patients’ experiences managing cardiovascular disease and risk factors in prison

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Emily H.; Wang, Emily A.; Curry, Leslie A.; Chen, Peggy G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with a history of incarceration, little is known about how prisons manage CVD risk factors (CVD-RF) to mitigate this risk. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with individuals with CVD-RF who had been recently released from prison (n = 26). These individuals were recruited through community flyers and a primary care clinic in Connecticut. Using a grounded theory approach and the constant comparative met...

  18. Phytotherapy in Cardiovascular Diseases: From Ethnomedicine to Evidence Based Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Burta; Felicia Tirlea; Olivia Ligia Burta; Syed Minnatullah Qadri

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are now considered to be one of the major causes of mortality in the developed and developing world. With the advent of better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies their management has become more efficient, yet the role of herbal and plant remedies is paramount in the developing and remote areas of the world. Phytotherapy or therapeutics using plants and herb based compounds or crude drugs are an indispensable part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine...

  19. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed...

  20. Affluence and the Worldwide Distribution of Cardiovascular Disease Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzati, Majid; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Lawes, Carlene M.M.; Leach, Rachel; James, W.Philip T.; Alan D Lopez; Rodgers, Anthony; Christopher J L Murray

    2005-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases and their nutritional risk factors—including overweight and obesity, elevated blood pressure, and cholesterol—are among the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity, and have been predicted to rise with economic development. Methods and Findings We examined age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbanizati...

  1. Poverty, malnutrition, underdevelopment and cardiovascular disease: a South African perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vorster, HH; Kruger, A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Summary This article explores possible mechanisms to explain the known relationships between poverty, undernutrition, underdevelopment and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in developing countries. Poverty is a multidimensional concept. It is both a cause and consequence of undernutrition. The article shows how malnutrition during pregnancy could lead to low birth-weight babies, who are not only at increased risk of mental and physical underdevelopment, but also ‘programmed’ to be at incre...

  2. Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucia Pacifico; Valerio Nobili; Caterina Anania; Paola Verdecchia; Claudio Chiesa

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a range of liver histology severity and outcomes in the absence of chronic alcohol use. The mildest form is simple steatosis in which triglycerides accumulate within hepatocytes. A more advanced form of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, includes inflammation and liver cell injury, progressive to cryptogenic cirrhosis. NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent rise in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity likely explains the NAFLD epidemic worldwide. NAFLD is strongly associated with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, and most patients have evidence of insulin resistance. Thus, NAFLD shares many features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a highly atherogenic condition, and this has stimulated interest in the possible role of NAFLD in the development of atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that NAFLD is associated with a significantly greater overall mortality than in the general population, as well as with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of classical atherosclerotic risk factors. Yet, several studies including the pediatric population have reported independent associations between NAFLD and impaired flow-mediated vasodilatation and increased carotid artery intimal medial thickness-two reliable markers of subclinical atherosclerosis-after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. Therefore, the rising prevalence of obesity-related MetS and NAFLD in childhood may lead to a parallel increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In children, the cardiovascular system remains plastic and damage-reversible if early and appropriate interventions are established effectively. Therapeutic goals for NAFLD should address nutrition, physical activity, and avoidance of smoking to prevent not only end-stage liver disease but also CVD.

  3. Socioeconomic disparities in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Wielgosz, A T; Spasoff, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Lev...

  4. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Baghli, Nadira A.; Al-Ghamdi, Aqeel J.; Khalid A Al-Turki; Ahmad G El-Zubaier; Al-Mostafa, Bader A.; Fadel A Al-Baghli; Al-Ameer, Mahmood M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect d...

  5. Clinical Trials and Statistics in Cardiology Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomečková, Marie

    Prague : EuroMISE, 2004 - (Zvárová, J.; Hanzlíček, P.; Peleška, J.; Přečková, P.; Svátek, V.; Valenta, Z.). s. 28 ISBN 80-903431-0-4. [International Joint Meeting EuroMISE 2004. 12.04.2004-16.04.2004, Prague] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : atherosclerosis * clinical trials Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  6. Adiponectin: Genetic determinants and relations with subclinical cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and premature death in Sweden and globally, which besides the substantial individual suffering, puts large restraints on the public health system. Adiponectin is a highly heritable trait, which is strongly associated with metabolic disturbances such as obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies indicate that adiponectin may play a fundamental role in the development of CVD. However, further knowledge about pathways linking circu...

  7. Thromboxane and the thromboxane receptor in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Emer M

    2010-01-01

    Thromboxane A2 (TXA2), the primary product of COX-1-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid, mediates its biological actions through the TXA2 receptor, termed the TP. Irreversible inhibition of platelet COX-1-derived TXA2 with low-dose aspirin affords protection against primary and secondary vascular thrombotic events, underscoring the central role of TXA2 as a platelet agonist in cardiovascular disease. The limitations associated with aspirin use include significant gastrointestinal toxicit...

  8. Plasma Clusterin and Lipid Profile: A Link with Aging and Cardiovascular Diseases in a Population with a Consistent Number of Centenarians

    OpenAIRE

    Baralla, Angela; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Deiana, Marta; Pasella, Sara; Pinna, Sara; Mannu, Andrea; Canu, Elisabetta; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Ganau, Antonello; Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Carru, Ciriaco; Deiana, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The role of Clusterin in attenuation of inflammation and reverse cholesterol transfer makes this molecule a potential candidate as a marker for cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. In elderly subjects cardiovascular diseases represent the primary cause of death and different clinical studies have shown a positive correlation of these diseases with changes in the lipid pattern. This work aimed at evaluating the relationship between circulating clusterin an...

  9. Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: Finding the Perfect Recipe for Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Ravera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD despite the progress in management entails the need of more effective preventive and curative strategies. As dietary-associated risk is the most important behavioral factor influencing global health, it appears the best target in the challenge against CVD. Although for many years, since the formulation of the cholesterol hypothesis, a nutrient-based approach was attempted for CVD prevention and treatment, in recent years a dietary-based approach resulted more effective in reducing cardiovascular risk worldwide. After the publication of randomized trials on the remarkable effects of the Mediterranean diet and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet on CVD, new efforts were put on research about the effects of complex dietary interventions on CVD. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence on dietary interventions in the prevention and disease modification of CVD, focusing on coronary artery disease and heart failure, the main disease responsible for the enormous toll taken by CVD worldwide.

  10. Super-enhancer lncs to cardiovascular development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounzain, Samir; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac development, function and pathological remodelling in response to stress depend on the dynamic control of tissue specific gene expression by distant acting transcriptional enhancers. Recently, super-enhancers (SEs), also known as stretch or large enhancer clusters, are emerging as sentinel regulators within the gene regulatory networks that underpin cellular functions. It is becoming increasingly evident that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with these sequences play fundamental roles for enhancer activity and the regulation of the gene programs hardwired by them. Here, we review this emerging landscape, focusing on the roles of SEs and their derived lncRNAs in cardiovascular development and disease. We propose that exploration of this genomic landscape could provide novel therapeutic targets and approaches for the amelioration of cardiovascular disease. Ultimately we envisage a future of ncRNA therapeutics targeting the SE landscape to alleviate cardiovascular disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26620798

  11. Kinase-SUMO networks in diabetes-mediated cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eugene; Abe, Jun-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common comorbidity in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epidemiological studies including the Framingham, UKPDS, and MRFIT studies have shown diabetes to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease associated with increased incidence of morbidity and mortality. However, major randomized controlled clinical trials including ADVANCE, VAD, and ACCORD have failed to demonstrate a significant reduction in CVD complications from longstanding DM with strict glycemic control. This suggests that despite the strong clinical correlation between DM and CVD, the precise mechanisms of DM-mediated CVD pathogenesis remain unclear. Signal transduction investigations have shed some light on this question with numerous studies demonstrating the role of kinase pathways in facilitating DM and CVD pathology. Abnormalities in endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, and myocardial function from the pathological insults of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetes are thought to accelerate the development of cardiovascular disease. Extensive interplay between kinase pathways that regulate the complex pathology of DM-mediated CVD is heavily regulated by a number of post-translational modifications (PTMs). In this review, we focus on the role of a dynamic PTM known as SUMOylation and its role in regulating these kinase networks to provide a mechanistic link between DM and CVD. PMID:27085771

  12. Cardiovascular and oral disease interactions: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Pauline J; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa; Seymour, Gregory J

    2007-04-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for the interaction of oral disease (more specifically, periodontal infections) with cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide, with atherosclerosis as the underlying aetiology in the vast majority of cases. The importance of the role of infection and inflammation in atherosclerosis is now widely accepted, and there has been increasing awareness that immune responses are central to atherogenesis. Chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases are among the most common chronic infections, and a number of studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and an increased risk of stroke and coronary heart disease. Although it is recognised that large-scale intervention studies are required, pathogenic mechanism studies are nevertheless required so as to establish the biological rationale. In this context, a number of hypotheses have been put forward; these include common susceptibility, inflammation via increased circulating cytokines and inflammatory mediators, direct infection of the blood vessels, and the possibility of cross-reactivity or molecular mimicry between bacterial and self-antigens. In this latter hypothesis, the progression of atherosclerosis can be explained in terms of the immune response to bacterial heat shock proteins (HSPs). Because the immune system may not be able to differentiate between self-HSP and bacterial HSP, an immune response generated by the host directed at pathogenic HSP may result in an autoimmune response to similar sequences in the host. Furthermore, endothelial cells express HSPs in atherosclerosis, and cross-reactive T cells exist in the arteries and peripheral blood of patients with atherosclerosis. Each of these hypotheses is reviewed in light of current research. It is concluded that although atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is almost certainly a multifactorial disease, there is now strong evidence that infection and inflammation are

  13. [Periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases--review of publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochniak, Mariusz; Sadlak-Nowicka, Jadwiga

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays periodontal diseases are treated as a one of a social diseases. The main consequences of them are: premature teeth loss and possibility of inducing, aggravating and modifying many systemic disorders, such as endo- and myocarditis, glomerulonephritis, iriditis, retinitis, rheumatic polyarthritis. The scientific data performed in the last 10 years indicate links between periodontitis and atheromatosis, coronary heart disease and acute coronary events, including myocardial infarction. In this study reported was the epidemiological dependences between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. There were described hypotheses of negative influence of periodontal foci on induction and progression of inflammation in coronary vessel walls and destabilisation of atheromatous plaques, also was included theory of direct bacterial invasion and cytokine theory. There were shown results of studies which proved the presence of genetic material of main periodontal bacterial pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, in atheromatous plaques in coronary arteries. There were noted other potential mechanisms of induction of acute coronary events connected with platelet aggregation induced by specific proteins secreted by Streptococcus sanguis and the role of Helicobacter pylori infection, the bacteria from periodontal pockets that is presently more often isolated. Analysing these data it was concluded, that the co-operation between cardiologists and dentists, especially the periodontologists, is necessary during the treatment of coronary heart disease. Periodontal therapy should be included as an additional element of cardiological therapy. Education of patients is also very important for prophylaxis of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:15515818

  14. Dysregulation of Histone Acetyltransferases and Deacetylases in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and management. A comprehensive understanding of factors which contribute to CVD is required in order to develop more effective treatment options. Dysregulation of epigenetic posttranscriptional modifications of histones in chromatin is thought to be associated with the pathology of many disease models, including CVD. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs and deacetylases (HDACs are regulators of histone lysine acetylation. Recent studies have implicated a fundamental role of reversible protein acetylation in the regulation of CVDs such as hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and heart failure. This reversible acetylation is governed by enzymes that HATs add or HDACs remove acetyl groups respectively. New evidence has revealed that histone acetylation regulators blunt cardiovascular and related disease states in certain cellular processes including myocyte hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The accumulating evidence of the detrimental role of histone acetylation in cardiac disease combined with the cardioprotective role of histone acetylation regulators suggests that the use of histone acetylation regulators may serve as a novel approach to treating the millions of patients afflicted by cardiac diseases worldwide.

  15. Long Pentraxin 3: Experimental and Clinical Relevance in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Bonacina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and belongs, together with the C-reactive protein (CRP and other acute phase proteins, to the pentraxins' superfamily: soluble, multifunctional, pattern recognition proteins. Pentraxins share a common C-terminal pentraxin domain, which in the case of PTX3 is coupled to an unrelated long N-terminal domain. PTX3 in humans, like CRP, correlates with surrogate markers of atherosclerosis and is independently associated with the risk of developing vascular events. Studies addressing the potential physiopathological role of CRP in the cardiovascular system were so far inconclusive and have been limited by the fact that the sequence and regulation have not been conserved during evolution between mouse and man. On the contrary, the conservation of sequence, gene organization, and regulation of PTX3 supports the translation of animal model findings in humans. While PTX3 deficiency is associated with increased inflammation, cardiac damage, and atherosclerosis, the overexpression limits carotid restenosis after angioplasty. These observations point to a cardiovascular protective effect of PTX3 potentially associated with the ability of tuning inflammation and favor the hypothesis that the increased levels of PTX3 in subjects with cardiovascular diseases may reflect a protective physiological mechanism, which correlates with the immunoinflammatory response observed in several cardiovascular disorders.

  16. One risk assessment tool for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Alssema (Marjan); R.S. Newson (Rachel); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); M.W. Heymans (Martijn); M.G.A.A.M. Nijpels (Giel); H.L. Hillege (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); R.T. Gansevoort; J.M. Dekker (Jacqueline)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - Individuals at high risk for chronic cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease [CVD], type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) share many risk factors and would benefit from early intervention. We developed a nonlaboratory-based risk-assessment tool for identi

  17. One Risk Assessment Tool for Cardiovascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Chronic Kidney Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alssema, Marjan; Newson, Rachel S.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Nijpels, Giel; Hillege, Hans L.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-Individuals at high risk for chronic cardiometabolic disease (cardiovascular disease [CVD], type 2 diabetes, and chronic kidney disease [CKDD]) share many risk factors and would benefit from early intervention. We developed a nonlaboratory-based risk-assessment tool for identification of p

  18. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26858430

  19. Prenatal exposure to maternal stress following bereavement and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Liu, Xiaoqin; Momen, Natalie C;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the leading determinants of mortality and morbidity, and causation may begin in the early intrauterine environment. Prenatal exposures to glucocorticoids or stress are potential risk factors of CVD later in life, but empirical evidence from large......% confidence interval) of having a CVD was 1.13 (1.06-1.20); the estimate was 1.24 (1.11-1.38) for heart disease and 1.27 (1.01-1.60) for hypertension. Additional sibling-matched analyses showed an overall attenuated association (1.08 (0.94-1.24)). CONCLUSION: Our results suggested a modest association between...

  20. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    Scientific interest in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins has fluctuated over the past many years, ranging from beliefs that these lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) to being innocent bystanders. Correspondingly, clinical recommendations have fluctuated from a need.......1-fold for myocardial infarction, 3.2-fold for ischemic heart disease, 3.2-fold for ischemic stroke, and 2.2-fold for all-cause mortality. Also, genetic studies using the Mendelian randomization design, an approach that minimizes problems with confounding and reverse causation, now demonstrate...

  1. Management of cardiovascular disease in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with psoriasis have an increased incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and CV undertreatment in these patients is a well-established problem. The link between psoriasis and CV disease is present on a pathogenic level, as well as due to modifiable...... lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol abuse. AREAS COVERED: In this manuscript we describe the evidence associating psoriasis with CV disease, as well as the pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of CV risk factors including the CV effects of anti-psoriatic therapy and vice versa. EXPERT...

  2. A review of the cost of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tarride, Jean-Eric; Lim, Morgan; DesMeules, Marie; Luo, Wei; Burke, Natasha; O’Reilly, Daria; Bowen, James; Goeree, Ron

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, 74,255 deaths (33% of all deaths) in 2003 were due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). As one of the most costly diseases, CVD represents a major economic burden on health care systems. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature on the economic costs of CVD in Canada and other developed countries (United States, Europe and Australia) published from 1998 to 2006, with a focus on Canada. Of 1656 screened titles and abstracts, 34 articles were reviewed including six Ca...

  3. Medical management of the patient with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mask, A G

    2000-06-01

    Cigarette smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and periodontal disease have been established as major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Dentists and physicians should work aggressively to educate periodontitis patients about this relationship in an effort to improve the quality of health and contribute to their long-term survival. Blood pressure should be checked at the initial dental visit and at each subsequent visit in patients whose blood pressure is found to be high and/or has a history of hypertension. Dental and medical assistants should receive in-service training to assure competency in measuring blood pressures. All staff should be certified in basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Emergency protocol procedures should be in writing and rehearsed regularly. Patients should take their blood pressure medication as usual on the day of the dental procedure. It is helpful for the patients to bring all medications to the office for review at the time of the dental procedure. Good communication should be established between the dentist and physician to maximize good dental and physical health. Because the patient with periodontal disease is at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, a standardized form should be developed for the convenient exchange of vital information, including but not limited to: blood pressure, medications, allergies, medical conditions and pertinent highlights of dental procedures. Minimize stress in patients with coronary artery disease. This includes providing solid local anesthesia, avoidance of intravascular medication injections, and encouraging relaxation techniques. Antibiotic prophylaxis is indicated in patients with valvular heart disease but does not guarantee the prevention of endocarditis. These patients should be alerted to monitor any symptoms such as fever, chills or shortness of breath. It has also been documented that toothbrushing, flossing and home plaque removers can cause transient bacteremia in

  4. Comprehensive coverage of cardiovascular disease data in the disease portals at the Rat Genome Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shur-Jen; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Hayman, G Thomas; Petri, Victoria; Smith, Jennifer R; Tutaj, Marek; Nigam, Rajni; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are complex diseases caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. To facilitate progress in complex disease research, the Rat Genome Database (RGD) provides the community with a disease portal where genome objects and biological data related to cardiovascular diseases are systematically organized. The purpose of this study is to present biocuration at RGD, including disease, genetic, and pathway data. The RGD curation team uses controlled vocabularies/ontologies to organize data curated from the published literature or imported from disease and pathway databases. These organized annotations are associated with genes, strains, and quantitative trait loci (QTLs), thus linking functional annotations to genome objects. Screen shots from the web pages are used to demonstrate the organization of annotations at RGD. The human cardiovascular disease genes identified by annotations were grouped according to data sources and their annotation profiles were compared by in-house tools and other enrichment tools available to the public. The analysis results show that the imported cardiovascular disease genes from ClinVar and OMIM are functionally different from the RGD manually curated genes in terms of pathway and Gene Ontology annotations. The inclusion of disease genes from other databases enriches the collection of disease genes not only in quantity but also in quality. PMID:27287925

  5. MicroRNA: A new therapeutic strategy for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Saheli; Balasubramanian, Sathyamoorthy; Rajasingh, Sheeja; Patel, Urmi; Dhanasekaran, Anuradha; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Rajasingh, Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and hypertension are the most common heart-related diseases that affect both the heart and the blood vessels. Multiple independent risk factors have been shown to be responsible for cardiovascular diseases. The combination of a healthy diet, exercise, and smoking cessation keeps these risk factors in check and helps maintain homeostasis. The dynamic monolayer endothelial cell integrity and cell-cell communication are the fundamental mechanisms in maintaining homeostasis. Recently, it has been revealed that small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a critical role in regulation of genes involved in either posttranscriptional or pretranslational modifications. They also control diverse biological functions like development, differentiation, growth, and metabolism. Among ncRNAs, the short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied, but their specific functions remain largely unknown. In recent years, miRNAs are efficiently studied as one of the important candidates for involvement in most biological processes and have been implicated in many human diseases. Thus, the identification and the respective targets of miRNAs may provide novel molecular insight and new therapeutic strategies to treat diseases. This review summarizes the recent developments and insight on the role of miRNAs in cardiovascular disease prognosis, diagnostic and clinical applications. PMID:27013138

  6. Cardiovascular Disease in CKD in Children: Update on Risk Factors, Risk Assessment, and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Amy C.; Mitsnefes, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    In young adults with onset of chronic kidney disease in childhood, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. The likely reason for increased cardiovascular disease in these patients is high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular disease risk factors during childhood chronic kidney disease. Early markers of cardiomyopathy, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction and early markers of atherosclerosis, such as increased carotid ar...

  7. Phytotherapy in Cardiovascular Diseases: From Ethnomedicine to Evidence Based Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Burta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are now considered to be one of the major causes of mortality in the developed and developing world. With the advent of better diagnostic procedures and therapeutic strategies their management has become more efficient, yet the role of herbal and plant remedies is paramount in the developing and remote areas of the world. Phytotherapy or therapeutics using plants and herb based compounds or crude drugs are an indispensable part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM. The benefits of most of these plants are controversial as their toxicology and pharmacological activities are not well studied and documented. However certain plants species like Ginko biloba and Crataegus have shown promise in experimental and clinical trials. In the present review, some anthropo-geographical and historical perspectives of phytotherapy are mentioned. Some important manifestations of cardiovascular pathology and their phytotherapy are reviewed. The holistic approach of phytotherapy and folkloric ethno medical practices indeed have opened new horizons for quality care in cardiovascular diseases. Phytotherapy and traditional medicine have proven their potential place in the modern and more skeptical evidence based medicine.

  8. Gene Therapy of Cancerous Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Valenčáková, A.; Dziaková, A.; Hatalová, E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy of cancerous diseases provides new means of curing patients with oncologic illnesses. There are several approaches in treating cancer by gene therapy. Most commonly used methods are: cancer immunogene therapy, suicide gene therapy, application of tumor-suppressor genes, antiangiogenic therapy, mesenchymal stem cells used as vectors, gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and bacteria used as anti-cancer agents. Cancer gene immunotherapy uses several immunologic agents for the purp...

  9. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in an Aging HIV Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Llibre, J M; Friis-Moller, N

    2015-01-01

    With more effective and widespread antiretroviral treatment, the overall incidence of AIDS- or HIV-related death has decreased dramatically. Consequently, as patients are aging, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV population. The...... incidence of CVD overall in HIV is relatively low, but it is approximately 1.5-2-fold higher than that seen in age-matched HIV-uninfected individuals. Multiple factors are believed to explain this excess in risk such as overrepresentation of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (particularly smoking......), toxicities associated with cumulative exposure to some antiretroviral agents, together with persistent chronic inflammation, and immune activation associated with HIV infection. Tools are available to calculate an individual's predicted risk of CVD and should be incorporated in the regular follow-up of HIV...

  10. Beta-Adrenergic gene therapy for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Walter J

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene therapy using in vivo recombinant adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is an effective technique that offers great potential to improve existing drug treatments for the complex cardiovascular diseases of heart failure and vascular smooth muscle intimal hyperplasia. Cardiac-specific adenovirus-mediated transfer of the carboxyl-terminus of the β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARKct, acting as a Gβγ-β-adrenergic receptor kinase (βARK1 inhibitor, improves basal and agonist-induced cardiac performance in both normal and failing rabbit hearts. In addition, βARKct adenovirus infection of vascular smooth muscle is capable of significantly diminishing neointimal proliferation after angioplasty. Therefore, further investigation is warranted to determine whether inhibition of βARK1 activity and sequestration of Gβγ via an adenovirus that encodes the βARKct transgene might be a useful clinical tool for the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies.

  11. Patología cardiovascular en la acromegalia Cardiovascular Disease in Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Fiszlejder

    2012-09-01

    acromegaly, this disease is associated with a two to three-fold increase in cardiovascular risk in relation to the normal adult population. This results from a long term exposure of cardiomyocytes to GH excess, which causes histological changes in the geometric configuration of myofibrils, interstitial fibrosis and biventricular hypertrophy. The natural history of acromegalic heart disease includes several stages. In the early phase, there is a slow development of myocardial hipertrophy, subsequently associated with heart rhythm abnormalities. These arrhythmias, which represent a major risk factor for cardiovascular events, are secondary to the above mentioned structural changes in the myocardium, and make up the so-called "hyperkinetic syndrome of acromegaly". According to various epidemiological studies, a variable rate of patients with acromegaly (25 % to 50 % has hypertension. This complication is secondary to sodium retention and the consequent plasma volume expansion, which implies cardiac overload and constitutes a worsening factor for cardiovascular disease. In the second stage, there are echocardiographic signs of reduced ventricular diastolic filling. The third stage is characterized by alteration of one or more heart valves and impaired systolic and diastolic function at rest, as well as signs of dilated cardiomyopathy, leading to congestive heart failure. This last stage is irreversible even with adequate therapy. Thus, early diagnosis of disease and a close monitoring of serum CH-IGF-I levels are mandatory. No financial conflicts of interest exist.

  12. 75 FR 62487 - Compassionate Allowances for Cardiovascular Disease and Multiple Organ Transplants, Office of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... Compassionate Allowance public hearings. These hearings concerned rare diseases, cancers, traumatic brain injury... were on rare diseases, cancers, traumatic brain injury and stroke, early- onset Alzheimer's disease...

  13. Whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to stratify symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic burden in patients with isolated cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Duce, Suzanne L.; Gandy, Stephen J.; Matthew, Shona Z.; Martin, Patricia; Cassidy, Deirdre B.; McCormick, Lynne; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Helen M Colhoun; Houston, J. Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to use whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (WB CVMR) to assess the heart and arterial network in a single examination, so as to describe the burden of atherosclerosis and subclinical disease in participants with symptomatic single site vascular disease. Methods: 64 patients with a history of symptomatic single site vascular disease (38 coronary artery disease (CAD), 9 cerebrovascular disease, 17 peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) underwen...

  14. Whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to stratify symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic burden in patients with isolated cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Duce, Suzanne L.; Gandy, Stephen J.; Matthew, Shona Z.; Martin, Patricia; Cassidy, Deirdre B.; McCormick, Lynne; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Helen M Colhoun; Houston, J. Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to use whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (WB CVMR) to assess the heart and arterial network in a single examination, so as to describe the burden of atherosclerosis and subclinical disease in participants with symptomatic single site vascular disease. Methods 64 patients with a history of symptomatic single site vascular disease (38 coronary artery disease (CAD), 9 cerebrovascular disease, 17 peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) underwent ...

  15. An investigation of changes in regional gray matter volume in cardiovascular disease patients, pre and post cardiovascular rehabilitation ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Anazodo, U.C.; Shoemaker, J. K.; Suskin, N; St. Lawrence, K.S.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive function decline secondary to cardiovascular disease has been reported. However, little is known about the impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) on the aging brain macrostructure or whether exercise training, in the context of cardiovascular rehabilitation, can affect brain structure following a coronary event. This study employed voxel-based morphometry of high resolution structural MRI images to investigate; 1) changes in regional gray matter volume (GMV) in CAD patients compare...

  16. The Tsim Tsoum Approaches for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Singh

    2010-01-01

    proinflammatory status of blood vessels, cardiomyocytes, liver cells and neurones; (a and (b are phenotype-related and depend on genetic, environmental and developmental factors. As such, they appear as universal markers for holistic health and these may be important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which is the main consideration of Tsim Tsoum concept.

  17. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients

  18. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c. Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Objective: This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. Methods: The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations, mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. Results: The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049. Conclusion: Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients.

  19. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Carolina [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miname, Marcio [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Makdisse, Marcia [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kalil, Roberto Filho [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Raul D., E-mail: rdsf@cardiol.br [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients.

  20. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism and arterial cardiovascular events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole; Lindhardsen, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    This focused review describes the current knowledge of the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and as well as venous thromboembolism this disease shares inflammatory mechanisms with IBD. Patients...

  1. Cardiovascular involvement in connective tissue disease: the role of interstitial lung disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiaoBing Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular involvement in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD, and determine whether interstitial lung disease (ILD in these patients is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. METHODS: This study evaluated a retrospective cohort of 436 CTD patients admitted to a large teaching hospital in Zhejiang province, China, along with an additional 436 participants of an annual community health screening conducted in the physical examination center who served as age- and gender-matched controls. Demographic, clinical, serologic and imaging characteristics, as well as medications used by each participant were recorded. Cardiovascular involvement was defined by uniform criteria. Correlations between clinical/serologic factors and cardiovascular involvement were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: CTD patients had a significantly higher cardiovascular involvement rate than controls (64.7% vs 23.4%, with higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, elevated systolic and diastolic pressures, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower albumin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all p 2 years, use of moderate- to high-dose glucocorticoids, and ILD with a high alveolar inflammation score. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular involvement is increased in CTD patients, and is associated with ILD with a higher alveolar inflammation score. Thus, early-stage echocardiography and CT scans should be used to detect potential cardiovascular complications in these patients.

  2. Factors affecting the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, with special reference to vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Deleskog, Anna

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that vitamin D may influence several non-skeletal conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. Vitamin D is among the few vitamins that can be produced by the skin in response to ultraviolet B radiation. Vitamin D is also a prohormone that is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in the liver and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (a hormone) in the kidneys. In addition, vitamin D receptors are prese...

  3. Strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and cigarette smoke, also COPD itself has significant impact on insurgence, or worsening of these conditions. As a consequence, COPD is regarded as a complex disease with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary involvement. According to current guidelines for the management of COPD patients, the comprehensive treatment of this condition should target respiratory symptoms as well as comorbidities. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent comorbidities in COPD patients and there are several strategies for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in COPD patients. These include smoking cessation, pharmacologic prevention of cardiovascular disease, and the treatment of COPD. Beta-blockers for the prevention of cardiovascular disease have been traditionally limited in COPD patients, albeit current evidence supporting their efficacy and safety in these patients. With regard to COPD medications, corticosteroids are generally not recommended, except for exacerbations, while long-acting beta2-agonists have demonstrated an acceptable profile of cardiovascular safety. Long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilators, in particular tiotropium in the mist inhaler formulation, have been associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events and mortality. Data on this issue remain, however, controversial. Glycopyrronium, a recently introduced anticholinergic, demonstrated. a rapid and sustained relief of respiratory symptoms with a favorable safety profile and no increase in cardiovascular risk, in monotherapy and in combination with a long-acting beta2-agonist in a comprehensive trial program indicating a valid option for COPD patients with CV comorbidities. PMID:25655487

  4. Associations of Bowel Movement Frequency with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality among US Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Li, Yanping; Heianza, Yoriko; Staller, Kyle D.; Chan, Andrew T.; Rimm, Eric B.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a potential impact of gastrointestinal function on cardiometabolic risk. Abnormal bowel movements have been related to various cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and altered metabolism of bile acids and gut microbiota. However, little is known about whether bowel movement frequency affects risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. In the Nurses’ Health Study, bowel movement frequency was self-reported in 1982 by 86,289 women free from CVD and cancer. During up to 30 years of follow-up, we documented 7,628 incident CVD cases and 21,084 deaths. After adjustment for dietary intake, lifestyle, medication use, and other risk factors, as compared with women with daily bowel movement, having bowel movements more than once daily was significantly associated with increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–1.21), total mortality (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.12–1.22), and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07–1.28). With further adjustment for body mass index and diabetes status, the association with total mortality remained significant (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.06–1.15), whereas the associations with incident CVD and cardiovascular mortality were no longer significant. Our results suggest increased bowel movement frequency is a potential risk factor for premature mortality. PMID:27596972

  5. Risk factors of cardiovascular disease among children with chronic kidney disease in Gaza strip

    OpenAIRE

    Muhaisen, Rafat M.; Sharif, Fadel A.; Yassin, Maged M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a global public health problem. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD and end-stage renal disease. There is accumulating evidence that the increase in CVD burden is present in CKD patients prior to dialysis, due both to conventional risk factors and kidney-specific disease. Detection and initiation of treatment for CVD risk factors at early stages of CKD should be ...

  6. An Overview of NASA's Risk of Cardiovascular Disease from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana S.; Huff, Janice L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between high doses of radiation exposure and cardiovascular damage is well established. Patients that have undergone radiotherapy for primary cancers of the head and neck and mediastinal regions have shown increased risk of heart and vascular damage and long-term development of radiation-induced heart disease [1]. In addition, recent meta-analyses of epidemiological data from atomic bomb survivors and nuclear industry workers has also shown that acute and chronic radiation exposures is strongly correlated with an increased risk of circulatory disease at doses above 0.5 Sv [2]. However, these analyses are confounded for lower doses by lifestyle factors, such as drinking, smoking, and obesity. The types of radiation found in the space environment are significantly more damaging than those found on Earth and include galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs), and trapped protons and electrons. In addition to the low-LET data, only a few studies have examined the effects of heavy ion radiation on atherosclerosis, and at lower, space-relevant doses, the association between exposure and cardiovascular pathology is more varied and unclear. Understanding the qualitative differences in biological responses produced by GCR compared to Earth-based radiation is a major focus of space radiation research and is imperative for accurate risk assessment for long duration space missions. Other knowledge gaps for the risk of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease include the existence of a dose threshold, low dose rate effects, and potential synergies with other spaceflight stressors. The Space Radiation Program Element within NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is managing the research and risk mitigation strategies for these knowledge gaps. In this presentation, we will review the evidence and present an overview of the HRP Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure.

  7. Potential Drug Combinations to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Burden in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarisetti, Sivaram

    2016-03-01

    The major cause of death and complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is cardiovascular disease (CVD). More than 60% of all patients with T2DM die of CVD, and an even greater percentage have serious complications. The impact of glucose lowering on cardiovascular complications is a hotly debated issue and recent large clinical trials reported no significant decrease in cardiovascular events with intensive glucose control. Risk remains high even after correcting diabetes-associated dyslipidemia with drugs such as fibrates and niacin. Data from several clinical studies show that postprandial glucose and lipids have a strong predictive value on myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality. However, strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia and/or lipemia through increased utilization of glucose and/or triglycerides (TG) have been shown to not be effective in reducing the CVD burden. In this review, I discus the preferred ways to reduce postprandial glucose and TG with combinations of currently marketed drugs with potential benefit in CVD. PMID:26719218

  8. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with cardiovascular disease risk markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edens, M. A.; Kuipers, F.; Stolk, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    Recognition of the link between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has boosted research in this area. The main objective of this paper is to review the literature on NAFLD in the context of CVD, focussing on underlying mechanisms and treatment. Besides excessi

  9. The North Karelia lessons for prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Laatikainen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: As a result of the high cardiovascular disease (CVD rates in Finland in late 1960’s, which became a source of national concern, a major community based programme for CVD prevention called the North Karelia project was established. Aim: The aim of the project was to carry out a programme of comprehensive community based interventions to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD mortality and morbidity.

    Methods: Using lifestyle modification methods and strategies for environmental change the programme aimed to reduce three main risk factors: smoking, elevated blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Several intervention settings and strategies in the community were used.

    Results: Since the 1970’s the CHD mortality in North Karelia has declined by more than 80%. Major reductions have been seen across the main three cardiovascular risk factors. Among both men and women, total serum cholesterol levels within the population declined by almost 20% and systolic blood pressure by about 10%. Smoking among men decreased from 52% to 33%, while among women a slight increase in smoking prevalence was recorded.

    Conclusions: The North Karelia project has shown that a comprehensive, determined, theory-based community program can have a meaningful and positive effect on risk factors and lifestyles. Furthermore, these changes are associated with favorable changes in chronic disease rates and the health of the population.

  10. ROLE OF VARIOUS RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Wal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality world wide. Increasing rate of CAD mortality and projected rise in CAD mortality for 2020 in the developing world necessitates immediate prevention and control measures. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is generally due to reduced blood flow to the heart, brain or body caused by atheroma or thrombosis. It is increasingly common after the age of 60, but rare below the age of 30. Plaques (plates of fatty atheroma build up in different arteries during adult life. These can eventually cause narrowing of the arteries, or trigger a local thrombosis (blood clot which completely blocks the blood flow. Despite scientific evidence that evidence based drug therapy reduce mortality in patients with established CAD, these therapies continue to be underutilized in patients receiving conventional care. It is essential to identify and manage risk factors for coronary artery diseases and to implement unique and creative approaches to stimulate better adherence to practice guidelines, to improve the quality of care given to patients with CAD. Reduction of SBP, DBP, heart rate, and body fat%, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL after regular yogic practices is beneficial for cardiac and hypertensive patients. Emphasis focusing on conventional risk factors, lifestyle modifications, smoking cessation, reduction of central obesity through dietary modification and exercise, can be proved to be the key interventions for preventing CAD.

  11. The global burden of cardiovascular diseases: a challenge to improve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Shanthi; Chestnov, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    There are many challenges that need to be overcome to address the global cardiovascular disease epidemic. They include (1) lack of multisectoral action to support reduction of behavioral risk factors and their determinants, (2) weak public health and health care system capacity for forging an accelerated national response, and (3) inefficient use of limited resources. To make progress, countries need to develop and implement multisectoral national action plans guided by the global action plan for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, strengthen surveillance and monitoring systems, and set national targets consistent with global voluntary targets, which are to be attained by 2025. In addition, a set of cost-effective preventive and curative interventions need to be prioritized. Further, resources need to be generated and capacity developed to ensure sustainable country-wide implementation of the prioritized interventions. According to WHO estimates, the implementation of a core set of very cost-effective interventions for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease requires about 4 % of current health spending in lower income countries, 2 % in lower middle income countries, and less than 1 % in upper middle income and high income countries. PMID:24718672

  12. Periodontal associations in cardiovascular diseases: The latest evidence and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, C M; Kim, J W M; Quan, V H; Nguyen, B H; Tran, S D

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are inflammatory diseases. Recent epidemiological studies have associated the effect of periodontitis on CVD progression. Findings of oral pathogens in carotid atheromas provided a plausible relationship between these two diseases. One possible mechanism is the infiltration of oral/periodontal pathogens through inflamed and ulcerated gingival epithelium. This results in translocation of oral pathogens throughout the systemic circulation affecting vascular tissues, and initiating a cascade of inflammatory reactions detrimental to the cardiovascular system. In addition, leakage of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines from the ulcerated periodontium into the bloodstream may cause the production of hepatic acute-phase proteins. Moreover, as chronic bacteremia occurs, the adaptive immune system is activated. Antibodies produced in response to periodontal pathogens trigger a cross-reaction between endothelial cells and modified low-density lipoprotein to enhance the movement of lipids into cells within the vessel wall. Some antibodies and inflammatory cytokines promote the Th1 response, thereby further activating macrophages within the atheroma. These plausible mechanisms are contributing factors in initiating and propagating atherogenesis. This review discusses the current understanding of CVD pathology/periodontitis, potential underlying mechanisms regarding this association, and general guidelines for treating patients with CVD risks. PMID:26587382

  13. Albuminuria: Prevalence, associated risk factors and relationship with cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang; Yang, Wenying; Weng, Jianping; Jia, Weiping; Ji, Linong; Xiao, Jianzhong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of microalbuminuria, and to explore the relationship between albuminuria and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods A nationally representative sample of 38,203 Chinese participants was categorized by different levels of urinary albumin‐to‐creatinine ratio (ACR; 0 –10 mg/g, 10 –20 mg/g, 20 –30 mg/g, 30 –300 mg/g). The prevalence of albuminuria was compared by using a single urinary ACR cut‐off po...

  14. MODERN PRINCIPLES OF QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Suvorov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common ways of assessment of cardiovascular diseases treatment abroad, approaches to creation of such assessment methods are considered, as well as data on the principles of the assessment of treatment in Russia. Some foreign registers of acute myocardial infarction, the aim of which was therapy quality assessment, are given as examples. The problem of high-quality treatment based on data from evidence-based medicine, some legal aspects related to clinical guidelines in Russia are considered, as well as various ways of treatment quality assessment.

  15. Drug and Gene Delivery using Sonoporation for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Jason; Feinstein, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Using the improvements made in diagnostic contrast enhanced ultrasound, researchers have made significant progress in the field of ultrasound-mediated sonoporation for drug delivery. Many programs take advantage of commercial products; both ultrasound imaging systems and contrast agents to better enable translation from preclinical to first-in-man studies (Kotopoulis et al., Med Phys 40:072902, 2013). Particularly well-suited targets for this novel therapy are diseases of the cardiovascular system. This chapter will highlight several recent studies addressing treatment of both acute and chronic conditions. PMID:26486346

  16. Lysophosphatidic acid metabolism and elimination in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salous, Abdelghaffar Kamal

    The bioactive lipids lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are present in human and mouse plasma at a concentration of ~0.1-1 microM and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system including atherothrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and immune function, edema formation, and permeability. PPAP2B, the gene encoding LPP3, a broad activity integral membrane enzyme that terminates LPA actions in the vasculature, has a single nucleotide polymorphism that been recently associated with coronary artery disease risk. The synthesis and signaling of LPA and S1P in the cardiovascular system have been extensively studied but the mechanisms responsible for their elimination are less well understood. The broad goal of this research was to examine the role of LPP3 in the termination of LPA signaling in models of cardiovascular disease involving vascular wall cells, investigate the role of LPP3 in the elimination of plasma LPA, and further characterize the elimination of plasma LPA. The central hypothesis is that LPP3 plays an important role in attenuating the pathological responses to LPA signaling and that it mediates the elimination of exogenously applied bioactive lipids from the plasma. These hypotheses were tested using molecular biological approaches, in vitro studies, synthetic lysophospholipid mimetics, modified surgical procedures, and mass spectrometry assays. My results indicated that LPP3 played a critical role in attenuating LPA signaling mediating the pathological processes of intimal hyperplasia and vascular leak in mouse models of disease. Additionally, enzymatic inactivation of lysophospholipids by LPP and PLA enzymes in the plasma was not a primary mechanism for the rapid elimination of plasma LPA and S1P. Instead, evidence strongly suggested a transcellular uptake mechanism by hepatic non-parenchymal cells as the predominant mechanism for elimination of these molecules. These results support a model in

  17. Endothelium and Its Alterations in Cardiovascular Diseases: Life Style Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Favero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelium, which forms the inner cellular lining of blood vessels and lymphatics, is a highly metabolically active organ that is involved in many physiopathological processes, including the control of vasomotor tone, barrier function, leukocyte adhesion, and trafficking and inflammation. In this review, we summarized and described the following: (i endothelial cell function in physiological conditions and (ii endothelial cell activation and dysfunction in the main cardiovascular diseases (such as atherosclerosis, and hypertension and to diabetes, cigarette smoking, and aging physiological process. Finally, we presented the currently available evidence that supports the beneficial effects of physical activity and various dietary compounds on endothelial functions.

  18. Practical ways to deal with the high burden of cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, José Jayme Galvão de

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death among hemodialysis patients. Although uremia by itself may be considered to be a cardiovascular risk factor, a significant proportion of dialysis patients die because of cardiovascular disease not directly attributable to uremia. Indeed, many of the cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors in these patients are common to those occurring in the general population and are amenable to intervention. Lack of proper medical care during the early stages of renal insufficiency and present-day dialysis routines, by failing to correct hypertension, hypervolemia and left ventricular hypertrophy in many patients, may also add to the cardiovascular burden. The author suggests that, in addition to early treatment and referral to a specialist, chronic renal failure patients should undergo intensive cardiovascular screening and treatment, and correction of cardiovascular risk factors based on guidelines established for the general population. PMID:16612461

  19. Psoriasis and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson KC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kelly C Pearson1, April W Armstrong21Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, 2Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disorder, which has been reported to be associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV risks. CV comorbidities, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity appear to be increased in psoriasis patients compared with the general population. Psoriasis may contribute independently to adverse cardiac outcomes after accounting for traditional CV risk factors. In this article, it was aimed to summarize large population studies that examine the relationship between psoriasis and CV risk factors and major adverse cardiac outcomes, and highlight proposed mechanisms for the observed epidemiologic link. Specifically, large population-based studies with over 1000 total subjects from 1975 to September 2008 in the English literature are highlighted. The relevant search terms in the Ovid Medline database were applied. The majority of the studies presented evidence for an increased incidence of CV risk factors and an increased risk for major adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with severe psoriasis. The increased risk in severe psoriasis necessitates regular screening for other comorbidities. Current guidelines for screening CV risk factors among psoriasis patients are discussed. Also reviewed is the scarce literature in therapeutic strategies to reduce CV risk factors and major adverse cardiac outcomes in psoriasis patients. Specifically, an emerging area of research on the effects of biologic agents on CV risk factors and CV adverse outcomes in psoriasis is discussed.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiovascular events, MACE, hypertension

  20. Maternal obesity, lipotoxicity and cardiovascular diseases in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Zheng, Qijun; Ford, Stephen P; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ren, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Maternal obesity has risen dramatically over the past 20 years, by nearly 42% in African-Americans and 29% in Caucasians. Maternal obesity is afflicted with many maternal obstetric complications in the offspring including high blood pressure, obesity, gestational diabetes and increased perinatal morbidity. Maternal nutritional environment plays a rather important role in the programming of the health set-points in the offspring such as glucose and insulin metabolism, energy balance and predisposition to metabolic disorders. In particular, maternal obesity is associated with elevated prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the offspring. Evidence from human and experimental studies including rodents and nonhuman primates has indicated that maternal obesity or overnutrition programs offspring for an increased risk of adult obesity. Maternal obesity or fat diet exposure predisposes the onset and development of obesity, insulin resistance, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial contractile anomalies in the offspring. A number of mechanisms including elevated hormones (leptin, insulin), nutrients (fatty acids, triglycerides and glucose) and inflammatory cytokines have been postulated to play a key role in maternal obesity-induced postnatal cardiovascular sequelae. In addition, lipotoxicity (accumulation of lipid metabolites) resulting from maternal obesity is capable of activating a number of stress signaling cascades including pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress to exacerbate maternal obesity-induced cardiovascular complications later on in adult life. This mini-review summarizes the recent knowledge with regard to the role of lipotoxicity in maternal obesity-induced change in cardiovascular function in the offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Focus on Cardiac Metabolism". PMID:22982026

  1. Spousal Suffering and Partner’s Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Hebert, Randy S.; Martire, Lynn M.; Monin, Joan K.; Tompkins, Connie A.; Albert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of suffering in a spouse on prevalent and incident psychiatric (depression) and physical morbidity (cardiovascular disease, CVD) in their partner, controlling for known risk factors for depression and CVD. Design Descriptive longitudinal study. Participants 1330 older married couples enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a large epidemiologic study of the elderly. Measurements Predictor variables were physical, psychological, and existential/spiritual indicators of suffering. Primary outcomes were prevalent and incident depression and CVD. Results Controlling for known risk factors for depression, we found a dose-response relationship between suffering in a spouse and concurrent depression in their partner as well as a relationship between suffering and the partner’s future risk for depression. With respect to CVD, and controlling for sub-clinical CVD at baseline, husbands whose wives reported high levels of suffering also had higher rates of prevalent CVD, but there were not significant associations between wives suffering and husbands incident CVD. There were no associations between husbands’ suffering and wives’ prevalent or incident CVD. Conclusion Exposure to spousal suffering is an independent and unique source of distress in married couples that contributes to psychiatric and physical morbidity. More attention should be paid to the interpersonal effects of suffering in married couples, and to its role in contributing to morbidity. PMID:19454851

  2. Human urotensin II promotes hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takuya; Arita, Shigeko; Shiraishi, Yuji; Suguro, Toshiaki; Sakai, Tetsuo; Hongo, Shigeki; Miyazaki, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Human urotensin II (U-II), the most potent vasoconstrictor undecapeptide identified to date, and its receptor (UT) are involved in the pathogenesis of systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of U-II with particular reference to its role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of U-II gene (S89N) are associated with onset of essential hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance in the Asian population. Plasma U-II levels are elevated in patients with vascular endothelial dysfunction-related diseases such as essential hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Chronic infusion of U-II enhances atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. In human atherosclerotic plaques from the aorta and coronary and carotid arteries, U-II is expressed at high levels in endothelial cells (ECs) and lymphocytes, whereas UT is expressed at high levels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), ECs, monocytes, and macrophages. U-II stimulates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in human ECs as chemoattractant for monocytes, and accelerates foam cell formation by up-regulation of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 in human monocyte-derived macrophages. U-II produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation in human VSMCs, and stimulates VSMC proliferation with synergistic effects when combined with ROS, oxidized LDL, and serotonin. Clinical studies demonstrated increased plasma U-II levels in accordance with the severity of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension and that of coronary artery lesions in patients with ischemic heart disease. Here, we summarize the key roles of U-II in progression of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases

  3. Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response and Future Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzemos, Nikolaos; Lim, Pitt O; Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise predicts future hypertension. However, there is considerable lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of how this abnormal response is generated, and how it relates to the future establishment of cardiovascular disease. The authors studied 82 healthy male volunteers without cardiovascular risk factors. The participants were categorized into two age-matched groups depending on their exercise systolic BP (ExSBP) rise after 3 minutes of exercise using a submaximal step test: exaggerated ExSBP group (hyper-responders [peak SBP ≥ 180 mm Hg]) and low ExSBP responder group (hypo-responders [peak SBP Forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (ACh), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and norepinephrine (NE) were used to assess vascular reactivity. Proximal aortic compliance was assessed with ultrasound, and neurohormonal blood sampling was performed at rest and during peak exercise. The hyper-responder group exhibited a significantly lower increase in forearm blood flow (FBF) with ACh compared with the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF 215% [14] vs 332.3% [28], mean [standard error of the mean]; P<.001), as well as decreased proximal aortic compliance. The vasoconstrictive response to L-NMMA was significantly impaired in the hyper-responder group in comparison to the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF -40.2% [1.6] vs -50.2% [2.6]; P<.05). In contrast, the vascular response to SNP and NE were comparable in both groups. Peak exercise plasma angiotensin II levels were significantly higher in the hyper-responder group (31 [1] vs 23 [2] pg/mL, P=.01). An exaggerated BP response to exercise is related to endothelial dysfunction, decreased proximal aortic compliance, and increased exercise-related neurohormonal activation, the constellation of which may explain future cardiovascular disease. PMID:26235814

  4. Evidence Report: Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray

  5. Cardiovascular disease: the new epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Ifechukwude; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2011-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is now facing a double burden of disease where patients are suffering from non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, along with the burden of the current human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Due to this double burden, cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been overlooked, allowing the rates to continue to rise unchecked. A series of searches were conducted using PubMed as the primary database. From these searches, journal articles were compiled that related to diabetes, obesity and smoking rates in SSA. Also, the prevalence of CVD in the USA was reviewed. Although the USA has higher rates of CVD now, the rates were on the decline compared with SSA. Due to 'Westernization' of SSA, the rates of CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, are expected to increase by 50%. Because of this, 80% of CVD deaths worldwide took place in developing countries like those in SSA. Although HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the current epidemic in SSA, CVD disease poses a threat as the new epidemic because of the increasing rates of these CVD risk factors. Without combating this disease now, SSA is facing an epidemiological shift from AIDS to CVD being the leading cause of death. PMID:21940758

  6. C-reactive protein, cytokines and inflammation in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucova, M; Bernadic, M; Buckingham, T

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation of vascular cell wall is the key problem and proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines play a great role in it. These molecules, togheter with C-reactive protein (CRP) can predict risk of coronary events. It is questionable to what extend are CRP and pro-inflammatory cytokines purely acute phase markers and to what extend are they active inflammatory participants. Besides inflammation, other prominent mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis--underlying causes of coronary events, is genetics. Gene polymorphisms including polymorphisms of inflammatory markers are studied and one of them, polymorphism of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor CCR2 (key components of atherosclerosis) belong to most studied one. MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 polymorphisms have been implicated as susceptibility factors for chronic stable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction by several independent investigators. It seems that CCL2/CCR2 axis plays an important role both in post-ischemic and post-reperfusion inflammation and could become a new therapeutic goal in selected cardiovascular diseases as well as in stroke in future. Inhibition of this axis disrupts ischemic-reperfusion injury by decreasing edema, leucocyte infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators. One can suppose that identifying genes influencing inflammatory biomarkers might improve understanding of genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease our management and prevention (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 105). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18837239

  7. Links between Vitamin D Deficiency and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to review the most important mechanisms explaining the possible association of vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular diseases, focusing on recent experimental and clinical data. Low vitamin D levels favor atherosclerosis enabling vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, formation of foam cells, and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. The antihypertensive properties of vitamin D include suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renoprotective effects, direct effects on endothelial cells and calcium metabolism, inhibition of growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism, and beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Vitamin D is also involved in glycemic control, lipid metabolism, insulin secretion, and sensitivity, explaining the association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D deficit was associated in some studies with the number of affected coronary arteries, postinfarction complications, inflammatory cytokines and cardiac remodeling in patients with myocardial infarction, direct electromechanical effects and inflammation in atrial fibrillation, and neuroprotective effects in stroke. In peripheral arterial disease, vitamin D status was related to the decline of the functional performance, severity, atherosclerosis and inflammatory markers, arterial stiffness, vascular calcifications, and arterial aging. Vitamin D supplementation should further consider additional factors, such as phosphates, parathormone, renin, and fibroblast growth factor 23 levels.

  8. Exercise and autonomic function in health and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwinkel, E T; Bloomfield, D M; Arwady, M A; Goldsmith, R L

    2001-08-01

    Autonomic nervous system activity contributes to the regulation of cardiac output during rest, exercise, and cardiovascular disease. Measurement of HRV has been particularly useful in assessing parasympathetic activity, while its utility for assessing sympathetic function and overall sympathovagal balance remains controversial. Studies have revealed that parasympathetic tone dominates the resting state, while exercise is associated with prompt withdrawal of vagal tone and subsequent sympathetic activation. Conversely, recovery is characterized by parasympathetic activation followed by sympathetic withdrawal, although clarification of the normal trajectory and autonomic basis of heart rate decay following exercise is needed. Abnormalities in autonomic physiology--especially increased sympathetic activity, attenuated vagal tone, and delayed heart rate recovery--have been associated with increased mortality. Exercise training is associated with a relative enhancement of vagal tone, improved heart rate recovery after exercise, and reduced morbidity in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, whether exercise training leads to reduced mortality in this population because of its ability to specifically modulate autonomic function is unknown at the present time. Although the results of a recent randomized study in patients with CHF and a meta-analysis in the setting of a recent myocardial infarction determined that exercise training leads to improved outcomes in these populations, neither study measured autonomic function. Improved autonomic function due to exercise training is a promising rationale for explaining improvements in outcome, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:11570111

  9. Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) in the treatment of cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassell, Mary C.; Kingston, Rosari; Gilroy, Deirdre; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose

    2010-01-01

    The medicinal properties of hawthorn (Crataegus spp., a genus comprising approximately 300 species) have been utilized by many cultures for a variety of therapeutic purposes for many centuries. In the Western world cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the single most significant causes of premature death. Echoing this situation, more recent research into the therapeutic benefits of hawthorn preparations has focused primarily upon its cardiovascular effects. This review covers research into the various mechanisms of action proposed for Crataegus preparations, clinical trials involving Crataegus preparations, and the herb's safety profile. Clinical trials reviewed have been inconsistent in terms of criteria used (sample size, preparation, dosage, etc) but have been largely consistent with regard to positive outcomes. An investigation into data available to date regarding hawthorn preparations and herb/drug interactions reveals that theoretical adverse interactions have not been experienced in practice. Further, adverse reactions relating to the use of hawthorn preparations are infrequent and mild, even at higher dosage ranges. A recent retrospective study by Zick et al. has suggested a negative outcome for the long-term use of hawthorn in the prognosis of heart failure. These findings are examined in this paper. Although further research is needed in certain areas, current research to date suggests that hawthorn may potentially represent a safe, effective, nontoxic agent in the treatment of CVD and ischemic heart disease (IHD). PMID:22228939

  10. Novel therapeutic approaches targeting matrix metalloproteinases in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasoulis, Alexandros; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Papageorgiou, Nikolaos; Kampoli, Anna-Maria; Androulakis, Emmanuel; Antoniades, Charalambos; Tsiamis, Eleftherios; Latsios, George; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), are proteinases that participate in extracellular matrix remodelling and degradation. Under normal physiological conditions, the activities of MMPs are regulated at the level of transcription, of activation of the pro-MMP precursor zymogens and of inhibition by endogenous inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases; TIMPs). Alteration in the regulation of MMP activity is implicated in atherosclerotic plaque development, coronary artery disease and heart failure. The pathological effects of MMPs and TIMPs in cardiovascular diseases involve vascular remodelling, atherosclerotic plaque instability and left ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction. Since excessive tissue remodelling and increased matrix metalloproteinase activity have been demonstrated during atherosclerotic lesion progression, MMPs represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention aimed at modification of vascular pathology by restoring the physiological balance between MMPs and TIMPs. This review discusses pharmacological approaches to MMP inhibition. PMID:22519451

  11. Biofield therapies in cardiovascular disease management: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel G; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2011-01-01

    Though there have been advances over the last 30 years in the therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart disease and stroke remain the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many medical therapies for CVD are associated with a number of side effects, often leading patients to seek non-pharmacological treatments to complement standard care. Referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these therapies consist of a heterogeneous group of modalities used in addition to conventional health care. Biofield therapies exist within this CAM domain and involve the direction of healing energy to facilitate general health and well-being by modifying the energy field. What follows is a brief overview of three biofield therapies developed or used within the field of nursing (Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, and Healing Touch), surveying the use of these interventions for individuals with CVD, and outcomes that may impact CVD risk factors and health-related quality of life. PMID:21697661

  12. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases in patients attending a dental or periodontal clinic. Methods: Data were collected from 1,276 randomly selected dental records from patients attending a dental (n = 588) or ...

  13. Computational Studies of Synthetic and Plant-Derived Compounds against Cardiovascular Disease Targets

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jauhari; Gupta, S.; Saxena, S.; N. Bharadvaja

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of cardiovascular diseases and improved diagnostic capacity is rapidly expanding with the advancement of medical sciences. However, heart diseases are a challenge to human life. Few important therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases were collected from mining of various bibliographic sources. Different proteins and bioactive small molecules are taken into consideration for target search. From ancient times, medicinal plants are shown to have remedial effect on cardiovascular ...

  14. Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism of Added Sugar-Induced Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Kailash; Dhar, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Added sugars comprising of table sugar, brown sugar, corn syrup, maple syrup, honey, molasses, and other sweeteners in the prepared processed foods and beverages have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. This article deals with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a mechanism of sugar-induced cardiovascular diseases. There is an association between the consumption of high levels of serum glucose with cardiovascular diseases. Various sources of sugar-induced gener...

  15. Risk Factors in the Initial Presentation of Specific Cardiovascular Disease Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-03

    Heart Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Acute Myocardial Infarction; Unstable Angina; Chronic Stable Angina; Ischemic Stroke; Cerebrovascular Accident; Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; Transient Ischemic Attack; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Sudden Coronary Death; Ventricular Arrhythmia; Sudden Death; Cardiac Arrest; Heart Failure

  16. Nutrition and cardiovascular disease: an Asia Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, G L

    1997-06-01

    Changes in the dietary intake patterns of countries in the Asia Pacific region are considered in relation to trends of cardiovascular disease mortality. Cardiovascular disease now constitutes the major cause of mortality in many of the countries of the region. The mortality rate for coronary heart disease (CHD) has been on the decline since the mid-1960s in countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Japan, while a decline in other countries, including Singapore and Hong Kong, appears to be occurring about two decades later after a delayed increase. In contrast, countries like Malaysia and China have had and continue an upward trend for CHD mortality. Nonetheless, the mortality rates due to CHD in New Zealand, Australia, Singapore followed by Hong Kong rank among the highest in the region. In China, Taiwan and Japan, death due to cerebrovascular disease remains a major cause of death, although the latter two countries have undergone a significant decline in stroke death rates since 1970. The intakes of fat from land animal products, fish and vegetable oils, depending on fatty acid patterns and, possibly other constituents, are candidate contributors to the different atherogenic and thrombotic effects. Countries which have a higher mortality from CHD tend to have a higher intake of energy from fat and proportion of fat from animal products. These fat intakes may operate to increase hypercholesterolemia and overweight in various countries. Again, intakes of other food items and constituents used in the region such as soybeans, dietary antioxidants in fruits, vegetables, seeds, cereals, nuts and tea and alcohol consumption are candidate cardio-protectants. The wide dietary scope of Asia Pacific populations, from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds, and at different levels of economic and technological development poses several analytic challenges and opportunities. Future research should improve the datasets and think laterally about pathogenesis and intervention

  17. Apolipoprotein E: from cardiovascular disease to neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahley, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E was initially described as a lipid transport protein and major ligand for low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors with a role in cholesterol metabolism and cardiovascular disease. It has since emerged as a major risk factor (causative gene) for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Detailed understanding of the structural features of the three isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4), which differ by only a single amino acid interchange, has elucidated their unique functions. ApoE2 and apoE4 increase the risk for heart disease: apoE2 increases atherogenic lipoprotein levels (it binds poorly to LDL receptors), and apoE4 increases LDL levels (it binds preferentially to triglyceride-rich, very low density lipoproteins, leading to downregulation of LDL receptors). ApoE4 also increases the risk for neurodegenerative diseases, decreases their age of onset, or alters their progression. ApoE4 likely causes neurodegeneration secondary to its abnormal structure, caused by an interaction between its carboxyl- and amino-terminal domains, called domain interaction. When neurons are stressed or injured, they synthesize apoE to redistribute cholesterol for neuronal repair or remodeling. However, because of its altered structure, neuronal apoE4 undergoes neuron-specific proteolysis, generating neurotoxic fragments (12-29 kDa) that escape the secretory pathway and cause mitochondrial dysfunction and cytoskeletal alterations, including tau phosphorylation. ApoE4-associated pathology can be prevented by small-molecule structure correctors that block domain interaction by converting apoE4 to a molecule that resembles apoE3 both structurally and functionally. Structure correctors are a potential therapeutic approach to reduce apoE4 pathology in both cardiovascular and neurological disorders. PMID:27277824

  18. Genetic Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV disease is the most common cause of premature mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. It is the result of an accelerated atherosclerotic process. Both RA and atherosclerosis are complex polygenic diseases. Besides traditional CV risk factors and chronic inflammation, a number of studies have confirmed the role of genetic factors in the development of the atherogenesis observed in RA. In this regard, besides a strong association between the HLA-DRB1*04 shared epitope alleles and both endothelial dysfunction, an early step in the atherosclerotic process, and clinically evident CV disease, other polymorphisms belonging to genes implicated in inflammatory and metabolic pathways, located inside and outside the HLA region, such as the 308 variant (G>A, rs1800629 of the TNFA locus, the rs1801131 polymorphism (A>C; position + 1298 of the MTHFR locus, or a deletion of 32 base pairs on the CCR5 gene, seem to be associated with the risk of CV disease in patients with RA. Despite considerable effort to decipher the genetic basis of CV disease in RA, further studies are required to better establish the genetic influence in the increased risk of CV events observed in patients with RA.

  19. Reduction of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Murray

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and morbidity in people with chronic kidney disease, but there are few evidence-based treatments for reducing cardiovascular events in these patients. The failure of novel drug candidates to delay progression to end-stage renal disease and limit or abrogate cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has led to increased interest in a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist-based treatment model to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Aldosterone concentrations and MR signalling are associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular injury and the incidence of sudden death, and MR blockade decreases the risk of cardiovascular events and sudden death in patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate. Since evidence from clinical trials shows that treatment with MR antagonists confers a morbidity and mortality advantage for patients with cardiovascular disorders, similar benefits might also accrue in patients with chronic kidney disease. Large prospective trials are urgently needed to answer this question. In this Review, I argue that despite differences in the pathophysiology and clinical features of cardiovascular disease in patients with and without chronic kidney disease, MR antagonists could provide cardiovascular benefit in patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:26429402

  20. DETERMINING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Reed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor. We aimed to 1 determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2 create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI. Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC, high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2. The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2 compared with girls (8 (2.1, p < 0.01. A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor

  1. A review of the epidemiologic literature on the role of environmental arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Arsenic is a ubiquitous metalloid in the crust of the earth. Chronic arsenic poisoning is becoming an emerging epidemic in Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic poisoning through ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water is associated with various cardiovascular diseases in dose-response relationships. These cardiovascular disorders include carotid atherosclerosis detected by ultrasonography, impaired microcirculation, prolonged QT interval and increased QT dispersion in electrocardiography, and clinical outcomes such as hypertension, blackfoot disease (a unique peripheral vascular disease endemic in southwestern Taiwan), coronary artery disease and cerebral infarction. Chronic arsenic poisoning is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The adverse cardiovascular effects of long-term arsenic exposure may be persistent and/or irreversible. Arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases in human population may result from the interaction among genetic, environment and nutritional factors. The major adverse cardiovascular effect of chronic arsenic poisoning has been established qualitatively and quantitatively in the high arsenic exposure areas, but the low-dose effect of arsenic on cardiovascular diseases remains to be explored. Cardiovascular death is the major cause of mortality worldwide, and a small increased risk may imply a large quantity of excess mortality

  2. Taste and Hypertension in Humans: Targeting Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja; Navarro, Marta; Thomas, Walter; Campbell, Katrina; Stowasser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs. In fact, this group of therapeutic agents can reduce food taste perception resulting in mild to severe hypogeusia and dysgeusia. In the elderly, antihypertensive drugs may lead to a loss of appetite, thus, selecting treatments with low or no impact on taste perception should be advised. Pharmacological approaches to mitigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) could well take a different spin in the future following the discovery of taste receptors (TAS1R and TAS2R) in the cardiovascular system. Finally, long-term dietary strategies to minimize the risk of development of hypertension and CVD are discussed identifying several nutrients and public health policies with relevant potential. PMID:26881437

  3. NSAIDs and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwary Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the most commonly used drugs worldwide. NSAIDs are used for a variety of conditions including pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and musculoskeletal disorders. The beneficial effects of NSAIDs in reducing or relieving pain are well established, and other benefits such as reducing inflammation and anticancer effects are also documented. The undesirable side effects of NSAIDs include ulcers, internal bleeding, kidney failure, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Some of these side effects may be due to the oxidative stress induced by NSAIDs in different tissues. NSAIDs have been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS in different cell types including cardiac and cardiovascular related cells. Increases in ROS result in increased levels of oxidized proteins which alters key intracellular signaling pathways. One of these key pathways is apoptosis which causes cell death when significantly activated. This review discusses the relationship between NSAIDs and cardiovascular diseases (CVD and the role of NSAID-induced ROS in CVD.

  4. Common swine models of cardiovascular disease for research and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisóstomo, Verónica; Sun, Fei; Maynar, Manuel; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Blanco, Virginia; Garcia-Lindo, Monica; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major health concern and therefore an important topic in biomedical research. Large animal models allow researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of new cardiovascular procedures in systems that resemble human anatomy; additionally, they can be used to emulate scenarios for training purposes. Among the many biomedical models that are described in published literature, it is important that researchers understand and select those that are best suited to achieve the aims of their research, that facilitate the humane care and management of their research animals and that best promote the high ethical standards required of animal research. In this resource the authors describe some common swine models that can be easily incorporated into regular practices of research and training at biomedical institutions. These models use both native and altered vascular anatomy of swine to carry out research protocols, such as testing biological reactions to implanted materials, surgically creating aneurysms using autologous tissue and inducing myocardial infarction through closed-chest procedures. Such models can also be used for training, where native and altered vascular anatomy allow medical professionals to learn and practice challenging techniques in anatomy that closely simulates human systems. PMID:26814353

  5. Develop Anti-Inflammatory Nanotherapies to Treat Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disease-related death in the world, accounting for 30 % global mortality. The majority of CVD is caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of major arteries featured by the deposition of lipids and cholesterol. Inflammation of atherosclerosis is mainly promoted by the pathological macrophages and monocytes, and modulating their functions has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target. This dissertation first presents the development of a novel simvastatin-loaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) based nanoparticle ([S]-rHDL), which was able to deliver anti-inflammatory simvastatin preferentially to inflammatory monocytes in the blood and to macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the reduced inflammation in the tissue. Second, extensive in vivo characterization of [S]-rHDL in a mouse atherosclerosis model revealed that the anti-inflammatory capability of [S]-rHDL derived from its effects on blood monocytes, endothelial layer, monocyte recruitment, and plaque macrophage function. Third, a translational study that integrated the use of [S]-rHDL into oral statin treatment demonstrated a great potential for this nanomedicine as an attractive addition to the current high-dose oral statin standard-of-care for acute coronary syndrome. Finally, preliminary results suggested potential applications of the rHDL platform to other macrophage-implicated diseases.

  6. Diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases by digital fluoroscopic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital fluoroscopic angiography (DFA) is a recently developed angiocardiographic technique, which consists of digitization and real-time subtraction of X-ray transmission data from an image intensifier and television fluoroscopic system. A prototype unit based on this principle was developed and installed at our hospital and initial clinical trial has been performed. Fifty-three examinations were performed on 49 patients with various cardiovascular conditions. DFA was useful in demonstration of intracardiac shunt, and valvular diseases secondary to congenital heart diseases. In ischemic heart diseases, DFA noninvasively demonstrated the heart wall motion, making it possible to evaluate dyskinesis, akinesis and ventricular aneurysm. DFA was also valuable in visualizing disproportionate enlargement of cardiac chambers, stasis, and frequently regurgitation of contrast media in valvular heart diseases. Abnormal mediastinal enlargement and aortic aneurysm were differentiated from other conditions to good advantage. DFA will be used more widely in the above conditions because of non-invasive and simple procedures. Future effort should be directed towards improvement of spatial resolution and development of new algorithm for hemodynamic evaluation. (author)

  7. Haptoglobin genotype and risk markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandhave, Charlotte; Svensson, My; Krarup, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death and atherosclerosis have a major impact on cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inflammation with elevated high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is involved in both sudden cardiac death and atherosclerosis, and decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is...

  8. EFFECTS OF CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION IN PATIENTS ADMITTED TO THE “Dr Benedek Geza” Hospital of Rehabilitation IN CARDIOVASCULAR Diseases, COVASNA

    OpenAIRE

    Suceveanu Mihaela; Pop Dana; Suceveanu Paul; Sitar Tǎut Adela Viviana; Zdrenghea Dumitru; Hâncu Nicolae

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular rehabilitation is an important objective of the treatment of cardiovascular patients in general, and ischemic heart disease patients in particular. The aim of the study is to monitor the effects of long-term cardiovascular rehabilitation in patients readmitted to the “Dr Benedek Geza” Hospital of Rehabilitation in Cardiovascular Diseases Covasna. Material and methods. The study included 92 patients with a mean age of 66.31±9 years, of which 63% women, who had...

  9. Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Pennells, Lisa;

    2012-01-01

    The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated.......The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated....

  10. Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in South Asian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Monira Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although South Asian populations have high cardiovascular disease (CVD burden in the world, their patterns of individual CVD risk factors have not been fully studied. None of the available algorithms/scores to assess CVD risk have originated from these populations. To explore the relevance of CVD risk scores for these populations, literature search and qualitative synthesis of available evidence were performed. South Asians usually have higher levels of both “classical” and nontraditional CVD risk factors and experience these at a younger age. There are marked variations in risk profiles between South Asian populations. More than 100 risk algorithms are currently available, with varying risk factors. However, no available algorithm has included all important risk factors that underlie CVD in these populations. The future challenge is either to appropriately calibrate current risk algorithms or ideally to develop new risk algorithms that include variables that provide an accurate estimate of CVD risk.

  11. Mobile Phone Interventions for the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Linda G; Beatty, Alexis; Stafford, Zoey; Whooley, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health in the form of text messaging and mobile applications provides an innovative and effective approach to promote prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. Through a comprehensive search of databases from 2002-2016, we conducted a quantitative systematic review. The selected studies were critically evaluated to extract and summarize pertinent characteristics and outcomes. A large majority of studies (22 of 28, 79%) demonstrated text messaging, mobile applications, and telemonitoring via mobile phones were effective in improving outcomes. Some key factors associated with successful interventions included personalized messages with tailored advice, greater engagement (2-way text messaging, higher frequency of messages), and use of multiple modalities. Overall, text messaging appears more effective than smartphone-based interventions. Incorporating principles of behavioral activation will help promote and sustain healthy lifestyle behaviors in patients with CVD that result in improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27001245

  12. Cardiovascular disease documentation and counseling in electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jaeyong; Huerta, Timothy R; Ford, Eric W

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between clinical reminders generated by electronic medical record (EMR) systems and providers giving prevention counseling to patients at-risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data were extracted from the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). Results indicate that the providers routinely using clinical reminders are significantly more likely to document height and weight data to determine risk and provide the recommended counseling to patients that merit the intervention. The findings are important for policymakers and managers that have been promoting the adoption of more sophisticated EMR decision support functionalities across the care delivery spectrum. In particular, the ability to intervene prior to negative health events is an important feature of the movement to improve care quality and reduce costs. PMID:27002255

  13. Microalgae for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo

    2015-03-15

    This review focuses on and discusses the primary phytochemicals present in microalgal biomass - carotenoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant vitamins, sterols, and polyunsaturated fatty acids - and also on the exopolysaccharides, which are produced by some types of microalgae and may play a significant role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and strokes. We have listed several preclinical trials and clinical studies supporting the health benefits that most of these compounds may provide. Microalgae are very easy to grow and are not vulnerable to contaminants when grown under controlled conditions. Proper handling and growth conditions may improve the production of phytochemicals. Therefore, they may represent an excellent source of nutraceuticals and food supplements once their safety as a food supplement has been confirmed. PMID:25277945

  14. Meditation as primary intervention strategy in prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadneshwar Khobragade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart diseases especially Hypertension, Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD and stroke are the leading causes of death all over the world. Hostility, anxiety, depression and increased reactivity to mental stress have been strongly associated with hypertension and CAD. Mental stress or anxiety causes increased sympathetic activation and poor vagus nerve control over heart. Imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system leads to vasospasm and has been associated with Hypertension, Coronary Artery Disease and Myocardial Infarction. Psychosocial stress has also been found to be responsible for imbalance in autonomic nervous system, causing sympathetic dominance over parasympathetic leading to acute coronary events. Meditation is a process of self-contemplation and purification of mind. Practitioner of meditation brings about desirable changes in their behaviour and lifestyle. During Meditation sympathetic activity is reduced and there is parasympathetic dominance over sympathetic. During meditation and after meditation person feels calm, quiet and relaxed. Meditation causes decrease in metabolic rate. The blood pressure may come to normal or falls, pulse rate comes to normal or low, vascular spasm if any, is reduced and myocardial perfusion increase. Thus meditation helps in preventing hypertension, coronary artery disease and other cardiac events. This may be beneficial before a person gets coronary event and post-myocardial infarction. In view of the beneficial effects of meditation, it may be introduced as primary intervention strategy in preventing Cardio-vascular Diseases. We did this review study to find out: (1 Can meditation bring about desirable changes in human mind and body in post-intervention group compared to control group? (2 Its effectiveness in prevention of heart diseases like hypertension, coronary events and post-MI complications. This review included all randomised controlled trials on patients above 18 years, both

  15. Relation of Serum α- and γ-Tocopherol Levels to Cardiovascular Disease-Related Mortality Among Japanese Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence regarding the relationship between serum tocopherol levels and cardiovascular disease. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study as part of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for evaluation of cancer risk (JACC Study). Baseline serum samples were collected from 39 242 participants (age range, 40–79 years) between 1988 and 1990. During the 13-year follow-up, there were 530 stroke deaths (302 ischemic strokes and 210 hemorrhagic strokes) and 211 dea...

  16. Low-Dose Aspirin for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ae Jin; Lim, Hye Jin; Ro, Han; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Han, Song Yi; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Chung, Wookyung; Jung, Ji Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous trials have investigated the effects of low-dose aspirin on CVD prevention in patients with diabetes; however, patients with CKD were not examined. The role of aspirin in diabetics is controversial, and the available literature is contradictory. Therefore, we studied whether low-dose aspirin would be beneficial for patients with CKD, a group that is at high risk for CVD...

  17. Aspirin overutilization for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanWormer JJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey J VanWormer,1 Aaron W Miller,2 Shereif H Rezkalla3 1Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Biomedical Informatics Research Center, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, Marshfield, WI, USA; 3Department of Cardiology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI, USA Background: Aspirin is commonly used for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the US. Previous research has observed significant levels of inappropriate aspirin use for primary CVD prevention in some European populations, but the degree to which aspirin is overutilized in the US remains unknown. This study examined the association between regular aspirin use and demographic/clinical factors in a population-based sample of adults without a clinical indication for aspirin for primary prevention.Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed using 2010–2012 data from individuals aged 30–79 years in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (WI, USA. Regular aspirin users included those who took aspirin at least every other day.Results: There were 16,922 individuals who were not clinically indicated for aspirin therapy for primary CVD prevention. Of these, 19% were regular aspirin users. In the final adjusted model, participants who were older, male, lived in northern Wisconsin, had more frequent medical visits, and had greater body mass index had significantly higher odds of regular aspirin use (P<0.001 for all. Race/ethnicity, health insurance, smoking, blood pressure, and lipid levels had negligible influence on aspirin use. A sensitivity analysis found a significant interaction between age and number of medical visits, indicating progressively more aspirin use in older age groups who visited their provider frequently.Conclusion: There was evidence of aspirin overutilization in this US population without CVD. Older age and more frequent provider visits were the strongest predictors of inappropriate aspirin use. Obesity was the only significant

  18. Cardiovascular disease prevalence and clinical characteristics in Great Patriotic War veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipatova Т.Е.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Present article summarizes the results of long-term studies of cardiovascular health parameters in war veterans of Saratov region admitted to Saratov regional hospital for war veterans. Cardiovascular disease spectrum and its prevalence dynamics were studied in war veterans. Clinical signs and disease course features of cardiovascular pathology were systematized including Great Patriotic War veterans, who successfully had reached the state of longevity.

  19. Relationship between blood pressure values, depressive symptoms and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with cardiometabolic disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jani, Bhautesh Dinesh; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Barry, Sarah J. E.; Der, Geoff; Sattar, Naveed; Mair, Frances S.

    2016-01-01

    We studied joint effect of blood pressure-BP and depression on risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients with existing cardiometabolic disease. A cohort of 35537 patients with coronary heart disease, diabetes or stroke underwent depression screening and BP was recorded concurrently. We used Cox’s proportional hazards to calculate risk of major adverse cardiovascular event-MACE (myocardial infarction/heart failure/stroke or cardiovascular death) over 4 years associated with ba...

  20. Relationship of Edentulism, Sleep Disordered Breathing and Cardiovascular Disease: NHANES, 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Wiener, R Constance

    2015-01-01

    Background Edentulism, though declining in younger adults, remains prevalent in the U.S. older adult population. Poorer health outcomes, including cardiovascular outcomes have been associated with edentulism. Sleep disorders are also common in older adults and have been associated with cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to determine if edentulism is associated with cardiovascular disease when sleep disorders are included in the analyses. Methods Data from the National Health...