Sample records for cardiac vagal tone

  1. Longitudinal relations between child vagal tone and parenting behavior: 2 to 4 years. (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy E; Rubin, Kenneth H; Hastings, Paul D; Maisel, Beth


    The longitudinal relations between physiological markers of child emotion regulation and maternal parenting practices were examined from 2 to 4 years of age. At Time 1, cardiac vagal tone was assessed for one hundred four 2-year-olds (54 females); their mothers completed an assessment of parenting styles. Two years later, at Time 2, 84 of the original participants were reassessed on measures of cardiac vagal tone and parenting style. Results indicated both baseline cardiac vagal tone and maternal parenting practices to be stable from 2 to 4 years of age. Children's cardiac vagal tone predicted specific parenting practices from the toddler to preschool years. Further, child cardiac vagal tone moderated maternal restrictive-parenting practices from 2 to 4 years of age; mothers of children who were highly or moderately physiologically dysregulated were more likely to report restrictive parenting practices at both 2 and 4 years of age. PMID:15229872

  2. Vagal tone during infant contingency learning and its disruption. (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan


    This study used contingency learning to examine changes in infants' vagal tone during learning and its disruption. The heart rate of 160 five-month-old infants was recorded continuously during the first of two training sessions as they experienced an audiovisual event contingent on their pulling. Maternal reports of infant temperament were also collected. Baseline vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic regulation of the heart, was related to vagal levels during the infants' contingency learning session, but not to their learner status. Vagal tone levels did not vary significantly over session minutes. Instead, vagal tone levels were a function of both individual differences in learner status and infant soothability. Vagal levels of infants who learned in the initial session were similar regardless of their soothability; however, vagal levels of infants who learned in a subsequent session differed as a function of soothability. Additionally, vagal levels during contingency disruption were significantly higher among infants in this group who were more soothable as opposed to those who were less soothable. The results suggest that contingency learning and disruption is associated with stable vagal tone in the majority of infants, but that individual differences in attention processes and state associated with vagal tone may be most readily observed during the disruption phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 366-381, 2016. PMID:26517573

  3. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge (United States)

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.


    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  4. Cardiac Vagal Regulation and Early Peer Status (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.


    A sample of 341 5 1/2-year-old children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study was the focus of a study on the relation between cardiac vagal regulation and peer status. To assess cardiac vagal regulation, resting measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA change (suppression) to 3 cognitively and emotionally challenging tasks…

  5. Resting Vagal Tone and Vagal Response to Stress: Associations with Anxiety, Aggression and Perceived Anxiety Control among Youth


    Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.


    This study tested the associations of both resting vagal tone and vagal response to stress with anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression among 80 youth (aged 11-17 years). Measures included physiological assessments of emotion regulation along with youth self-report of anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression and caregiver reports of their child's anxiety and aggression. Resting vagal tone was positively related to anxiety control beliefs, but negatively associated with anxiet...

  6. Vagal tone: effects on sensitivity, motility, and inflammation. (United States)

    Bonaz, B; Sinniger, V; Pellissier, S


    The vagus nerve (VN) is a key element of the autonomic nervous system. As a mixed nerve, the VN contributes to the bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gut, i.e., the brain-gut axis. In particular, after integration in the central autonomic network of peripheral sensations such as inflammation and pain via vagal and spinal afferents, an efferent response through modulation of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and/or preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord is able to modulate gastrointestinal nociception, motility, and inflammation. A low vagal tone, as assessed by heart rate variability, a marker of the sympatho-vagal balance, is observed in functional digestive disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases. To restore a normal vagal tone appears as a goal in such diseases. Among the therapeutic tools, such as drugs targeting the cholinergic system and/or complementary medicine (hypnosis, meditation…), deep breathing, physical exercise, VN stimulation (VNS), either invasive or non-invasive, appears as innovative. There is new evidence in the current issue of this Journal supporting the role of VNS in the modulation of gastrointestinal functions. PMID:27010234

  7. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life (United States)

    Relationships between early postnatal diet and the development of cardiac regulation were studied using resting vagal tone and heart period measures obtained quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 158 breast-fed, 159 milk formula-fed, and 148 soy formula-fed infants. Both measures increased acro...

  8. Newborn Pain Cries and Vagal Tone: Parallel Changes in Response to Circumcision. (United States)

    Porter, Fran Lang; And Others


    The relation between cry acoustics and vagal tone in normal, healthy newborns undergoing an acutely stressful event was examined. Vagal tone was significantly reduced during the stressful event and was paralleled by significant increases in the pitch of the infants' cries. (PCB)

  9. Chronic cough following cardiac transplantation: vagal Mitempfindung?


    Hammond, R R; Ebers, G C


    Since operation a cardiac transplant recipient has suffered from chronic, non-productive but intense coughing spells triggered by stimulation of the right external ear. This demonstrates the unusual phenomenon of acquired aberrant sensory referral.

  10. Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-alpha, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

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    Sonia Pellissier

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS involve brain-gut dysfunctions where vagus nerve is an important component. The aim of this work was to study the association between vagal tone and markers of stress and inflammation in patients with CD or IBS compared to healthy subjects (controls. The study was performed in 73 subjects (26 controls, 21 CD in remission and 26 IBS patients. The day prior to the experiment, salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00 AM and 10:00 PM. The day of the experiment, subjects completed questionnaires for anxiety (STAI and depressive symptoms (CES-D. After 30 min of rest, ECG was recorded for heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured in blood samples taken at the end of ECG recording. Compared with controls, CD and IBS patients had higher scores of state-anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A subgroup classification based on HRV-normalized high frequency band (HFnu as a marker of vagal tone, showed that control subjects with high vagal tone had significantly lower evening salivary cortisol levels than subjects with low vagal tone. Such an effect was not observed in CD and IBS patients. Moreover, an inverse association (r =  -0.48; p<0.05 was observed between the vagal tone and TNF-alpha level in CD patients exclusively. In contrast, in IBS patients, vagal tone was inversely correlated with plasma epinephrine (r =  -0.39; p<0.05. No relationship was observed between vagal tone and IL-6, norepinephrine or negative affects (anxiety and depressive symptomatology in any group. In conclusion, these data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in CD and IBS patients. Furthermore, they highlight the specific homeostatic link between vagal tone and TNF-alpha in CD and epinephrine in IBS and argue for the relevance of vagus nerve reinforcement interventions in those diseases.

  11. Vagal Tone and Children's Delay of Gratification: Differential Sensitivity in Resource-Poor and Resource-Rich Environments. (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Suor, Jennifer H; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante; Skibo, Michael A; Rogosch, Fred A


    Children from different socioeconomic backgrounds have differing abilities to delay gratification, and impoverished children have the greatest difficulties in doing so. In the present study, we examined the role of vagal tone in predicting the ability to delay gratification in both resource-rich and resource-poor environments. We derived hypotheses from evolutionary models of children's conditional adaptation to proximal rearing contexts. In Study 1, we tested whether elevated vagal tone was associated with shorter delay of gratification in impoverished children. In Study 2, we compared the relative role of vagal tone across two groups of children, one that had experienced greater impoverishment and one that was relatively middle-class. Results indicated that in resource-rich environments, higher vagal tone was associated with longer delay of gratification. In contrast, high vagal tone in children living in resource-poor environments was associated with reduced delay of gratification. We interpret the results with an eye to evolutionary-developmental models of the function of children's stress-response system and adaptive behavior across varying contexts of economic risk. PMID:27117276

  12. Cyclic nucleotide regulation of cardiac sympatho-vagal responsiveness. (United States)

    Li, Dan; Paterson, David J


    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are now recognized as important intracellular signalling molecules that modulate cardiac sympatho-vagal balance in the progression of heart disease. Recent studies have identified that a significant component of autonomic dysfunction associated with several cardiovascular pathologies resides at the end organ, and is coupled to impairment of cyclic nucleotide targeted pathways linked to abnormal intracellular calcium handling and cardiac neurotransmission. Emerging evidence also suggests that cyclic nucleotide coupled phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a key role limiting the hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP in disease, and as a consequence this influences the action of the nucleotide on its downstream biological target. In this review, we illustrate the action of nitric oxide-CAPON signalling and brain natriuretic peptide on cGMP and cAMP regulation of cardiac sympatho-vagal transmission in hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. Moreover, we address how PDE2A is now emerging as a major target that affects the efficacy of soluble/particulate guanylate cyclase coupling to cGMP in cardiac dysautonomia. PMID:26915722

  13. Human sinus arrhythmia as an index of vagal cardiac outflow (United States)

    Eckberg, D. L.


    The human central vagal mechanisms were investigated by measuring the intervals between heartbeats during controlled breathing (at breathing intervals of 2.5-10 s and nominal tidal volumes of 1000 and 1500 ml) in six young men and women. It was found that as the breathing interval increased, the longest heart periods became longer, the shortest heart periods became shorter, and the peak-valley P-P intervals increased asymptotically. Peak-valley intervals also increased in proportion to tidal volume, although this influence was small. The phase angles between heart period changes and respiration were found to vary as linear functions of breathing interval. Heart period shortening began in inspiration at short breathing intervals and in expiration at long breathing intervals, while heart period lengthening began in early expiration at all breathing intervals studied. It is concluded that a close relationship exists between variations of respiratory depth and interval and the quantity, periodicity, and timing of vagal cardiac outflow in conscious humans. The results indicate that at usual breathing rates, phasic respiration-related changes of vagal motoneuron activity begin in expiration, progress slowly, and are incompletely expressed at fast breathing ratges.

  14. Effects of halothane, thiamylal, and ketamine on central sympathetic and vagal tone. (United States)

    Yamamura, T; Kimura, T; Furukawa, K


    The effects of increasing doses of halothane, thiamylal, and ketamine on central sympathetic tone (ST) and vagal tone (VT) in cats were studied. Compound action potentials were recorded simultaneously from the cervical sympathetic trunk and the vagus nerve. After full-wave rectification, they were integrated for continuous monitoring of the tonic levels of activity. ST and VT changed characteristically with different anesthetics. Halothane depressed ST and VT equally to approximately 70%, 60%, and 30% of the control level (70% N2O in O2) at end-tidal halothane concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0%, respectively. When thiamylal was given intravenously at incremental doses (3, 6, 9, and 12 mg/kg), ST was markedly reduced to 10% of the control level. The reduction in VT was relatively small and the autonomic balance shifted in the vagodominant direction. Intravenous ketamine (2, 4, 6, and 8 mg/kg) changed neither ST nor VT significantly. Halothane and thiamylal markedly reduced central sympathetic and vagal outflows that play a role in peripheral homeostatic regulation. We suggest that these two anesthetics effect attenuated or altered autonomic regulation. Ketamine produced little change in central autonomic outflow. PMID:6829912

  15. Restoration of vagal tone: a possible mechanism for functional abdominal pain. (United States)

    Sowder, Erik; Gevirtz, Richard; Shapiro, Warren; Ebert, Crystal


    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) causes disruption of daily activities/missed school days, over utilization of healthcare, unnecessary surgeries, and anxiety in 10-15% of children. Its etiology is not clearly understood, however the success of several clinical protocols suggests that autonomic dysregulation is a factor. In this study autonomic activity, including heart rate variability (HRV), was compared between children with FAP and a comparison group. Twenty children with FAP and 10 children without FAP between the ages of 5 and 17 years old were compared on autonomic regulation using an ambulatory system at baseline and 8 weeks later. Children with FAP participated in 6 sessions of HRV biofeedback aimed at normalizing autonomic balance. At baseline, children with FAP appear to have more autonomic dysregulation than children without FAP. After completing HRV biofeedback, the FAP group was able to significantly reduce their symptoms in relation to significantly increasing their autonomic balance. In a sample of children with FAP, it appears that HRV biofeedback treatment improved their symptoms and that a change in vagal tone was a potential mediator for this improvement. The present study appears to point to excessive vagal withdrawal as an underlying mechanism of FAP. PMID:20229150

  16. Association of neuropeptide Y promoter polymorphism (rs16147) with perceived stress and cardiac vagal outflow in humans. (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-An; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Tieh-Ching; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia


    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in resilience to stress, and higher vagal (parasympathetic) activity has been associated with greater stress resilience. Thus, we examined whether rs16147, a functional promoter polymorphism (C>T) of the NPY gene, could influence vagal tone during chronic high stress levels. NPY genotyping, chronic psychological stress level measurement (using the Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), cardiac autonomic function assessment (using short-term heart rate variability [HRV]) were performed in 1123 healthy, drug-free Han Chinese participants who were divided into low- and high-PSS groups. In the high-PSS group (n = 522), the root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences and high frequency power (both HRV indices of parasympathetic activity) were significantly increased in T/T homozygotes compared to C/C homozygotes. However, no significant between-genotype difference was found in any HRV variable in the low-PSS group (n = 601). Our results are the first to demonstrate that functional NPY variation alters chronic stress-related vagal control, suggesting a potential parasympathetic role for NPY gene in stress regulation. PMID:27527739

  17. Decreased Cardiac Vagal Control in Drug-Naïve Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


    Chang, Hsin-An; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Kuo, Terry BJ; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan


    Objective Decreased cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been proposed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the results are mixed. Analyses with larger sample sizes and better methodology are needed. Methods Thirty-two drug-naïve survivors with current PTSD, 32 survivors without PTSD and 192 matched controls were recruited for a case-control analysis. We used the PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C) to assess posttraumatic symptoms severity. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by m...

  18. ST depression, arrhythmia, vagal dominance, and reduced cardiac micro-RNA in particulate-exposed rats. (United States)

    Farraj, Aimen K; Hazari, Mehdi S; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Lamb, Christina; Winsett, Darrell W; Ge, Yue; Ledbetter, Allen D; Carll, Alex P; Bruno, Maribel; Ghio, Andy; Costa, Daniel L


    Recently, investigators demonstrated associations between fine particulate matter (PM)-associated metals and adverse health effects. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a waste product of fossil fuel combustion from boilers, is rich in the transition metals Fe, Ni, and V, and when released as a fugitive particle, is an important contributor to ambient fine particulate air pollution. We hypothesized that a single-inhalation exposure to transition metal-rich PM will cause concentration-dependent cardiovascular toxicity in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats. Rats implanted with telemeters to monitor heart rate and electrocardiogram were exposed once by nose-only inhalation for 4 hours to 3.5 mg/m(3), 1.0 mg/m(3), or 0.45 mg/m(3) of a synthetic PM (dried salt solution), similar in composition to a well-studied ROFA sample consisting of Fe, Ni, and V. Exposure to the highest concentration of PM decreased T-wave amplitude and area, caused ST depression, reduced heart rate (HR), and increased nonconducted P-wave arrhythmias. These changes were accompanied by increased pulmonary inflammation, lung resistance, and vagal tone, as indicated by changes in markers of HR variability (increased root of the mean of squared differences of adjacent RR intervals [RMSSD], low frequency [LF], high frequency [HF], and decreased LF/HF), and attenuated myocardial micro-RNA (RNA segments that suppress translation by targeting messenger RNA) expression. The low and intermediate concentrations of PM had less effect on the inflammatory, HR variability, and micro-RNA endpoints, but still caused significant reductions in HR. In addition, the intermediate concentration caused ST depression and increased QRS area, whereas the low concentration increased the T-wave parameters. Thus, PM-induced cardiac dysfunction is mediated by multiple mechanisms that may be dependent on PM concentration and myocardial vulnerability (this abstract does not reflect the policy of the United States Environmental

  19. Improvements in well-being and vagal tone following a yogic breathing-based life skills workshop in young adults: Two open-trial pilot studies

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    Michael R Goldstein


    Conclusions: These findings suggest that a life skills workshop integrating yogic breathing techniques may provide self-empowering tools for enhancing well-being in young adults. Future research is indicated to further explore these effects, particularly in regards to vagal tone and other aspects of stress physiology.

  20. Increased vagal tone accounts for the observed immune paralysis in patients with traumatic brain injury.


    Kox, M; Pompe, J.C.; Pickkers, P; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; van Vugt, A. B.; van der Hoeven, J. G.


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in the younger population. In the acute phase after TBI, patients are more vulnerable to infection, associated with a decreased immune response in vitro. The cause of this immune paralysis is poorly understood. Apart from other neurologic dysfunction, TBI also results in an increase in vagal activity. Recently, the vagus nerve has been demonstrated to exert an anti-inflammatory effect, termed the cholinergic a...

  1. Chronic central leptin infusion restores cardiac sympathetic-vagal balance and baroreflex sensitivity in diabetic rats


    do Carmo, Jussara M.; Hall, John E.; da Silva, Alexandre A.


    This study tested whether leptin restores sympathetic-vagal balance, heart rate (HR) variability, and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and a cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle for intracerebroventricular (ICV) leptin infusion. Blood pressure (BP) and HR were monitored by telemetry. BRS and HR variability were estimated by linear regression between HR and BP response...

  2. Cardiac vagal control and children’s adaptive functioning: A meta-analysis


    Graziano, Paulo; Derefinko, Karen


    Polyvagal theory has influenced research on the role of cardiac vagal control, indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal (RSA-W) during challenging states, in children’s self-regulation. However, it remains unclear how well RSA-W predicts adaptive functioning (AF) outcomes and whether certain caveats of measuring RSA (e.g., respiration) significantly impact these associations. A meta-analysis of 44 studies (n = 4,996 children) revealed small effect sizes such that greater levels of R...

  3. High cardiac vagal control protects against future depressive symptoms under conditions of high social support


    Hopp, Henrik; Shallcross, Amanda J.; Ford, Brett Q.; Troy, Allison S.; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Mauss, Iris B.


    High cardiac vagal control (as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) is associated with lower depression. Recent theories argue that people’s responsiveness to social resources is a key mechanism in this association. This argument implies two hypotheses: first, high RSA should be related to decreased depressive symptoms only when social resources (social support) are available; second, utilization of available social resources (social engagement) should serve as a mechanism for the p...

  4. Avaliando a atividade vagal cardíaca na eletrocardiografia convencional Evaluating cardiac vagal activity on a conventional electrocardiogram

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    Flávia P. Teixeira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a viabilidade da utilização de traçado convencional de eletrocardiografia (ECG para avaliação da atividade vagal cardíaca (AVC. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 1.395 indivíduos (995 homens, na faixa de idade de 46 + 17,2 anos (média ± desvio padrão, com traçados de ECG convencional para medida do Delta RR, que representa a diferença, em ms, entre o maior e o menor intervalo RR, e com resultados da avaliação autonômica parassimpática, o teste de exercício de quatro segundos (T4s, que quantifica a AVC por meio do índice vagal cardíaco (IVC. Foram obtidas curvas ROC para determinar os valores de Delta RR com melhor relação entre sensibilidade e especificidade para os pontos de corte de baixa e alta AVC, respectivamente, de 1,20 e 1,95. RESULTADOS: Os valores de delta RR correlacionaram-se significativamente com os de IVC (r = 0,40; p 120 ms como os melhores pontos de corte para baixa e alta AVC, com sensibilidade de 75% e 57%, especificidade de 62% e 79% e áreas das curvas ROC de 0,76 e 0,74, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A medida visual do delta RR em um traçado de ECG parece ser válida para a avaliação clínica preliminar e rápida da AVC, podendo ser útil em consultórios, emergências ou situações nas quais o uso de métodos mais sofisticados de avaliação autonômica não seja viável, oportuno ou conveniente.OBJECTIVE: To determine the viability of using a conventional electrocardiogram (ECG tracing for assessment of CVA. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1395 individuals (995 males, aged 46 ± 17.2 years (mean ± standard deviation with conventional ECG tracings to measure the delta RR (which represents the difference in milliseconds (ms between the greatest and smallest RR interval and results of a second autonomic parasympathetic evaluation, the 4-second exercise test (T4s, that quantifies CVA by the cardiac vagal index (CVI. ROC curves were obtained to determine the

  5. The role of maternal cardiac vagal control in the association between depressive symptoms and gestational hypertension. (United States)

    Rouleau, Codie R; Tomfohr-Madsen, Lianne M; Campbell, Tavis S; Letourneau, Nicole; O'Beirne, Maeve; Giesbrecht, Gerald F


    Reduced cardiac vagal control, indexed by relatively lower high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), is implicated in depressed mood and hypertensive disorders among non-pregnant adults whereas research in pregnancy is limited. This study examined whether maternal HF-HRV during pregnancy mediates the association between depressed mood and gestational hypertension. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale) and HF-HRV were measured during early (M=14.9 weeks) and late (M=32.4 weeks) pregnancy in 287 women. Gestational hypertension was determined by chart review. Depressive symptoms were associated with less HF-HRV (b=-0.02, p=.001). There was an indirect effect of depressed mood on gestational hypertension through late pregnancy HF-HRV (b=0.04, 95% CI 0.0038, 0.1028) after accounting for heart rate. These findings suggest cardiac vagal control is a possible pathway through which prenatal depressed mood is associated with gestational hypertension, though causal ordering remains uncertain. PMID:26868182

  6. Executive functions improvement following a 5-month aquaerobics program in older adults: Role of cardiac vagal control in inhibition performance. (United States)

    Albinet, Cédric T; Abou-Dest, Amira; André, Nathalie; Audiffren, Michel


    The aims of this study were to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on measures of executive performance and their relationships with changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiac vagal control (heart rate variability) and psychological variables. Thirty-six sedentary seniors aged 60-75 years were randomly assigned to a swimming and aquaerobics program or a stretching program two times a week for 21 weeks. Executive functions (inhibition, updating of working memory and cognitive flexibility) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max) were assessed at the start, after 10 weeks of program and at the end of the program. Resting HRV and measures of psychological outcomes (depression, self-efficacy, decisional balance) were obtained at the start and at the end of the program. Participants of both groups significantly improved their VO2max level, their psychological state and their performance for the 2-back task. Only the participants in the aquaerobics group significantly improved their vagally-mediated HRV and their performance for the Stroop test and the verbal running-span test at the end of the program. Only improvements in cardiac vagal control and in inhibition were shown to be functionally related. These results are discussed in line with the model of neurovisceral integration. PMID:26812613

  7. Differential sensitivity of GABAergic and glycinergic inputs to orexin-A in preganglionic cardiac vagal neurons of newborn rats

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    Ji-jiang WANG; Yong-hua CHEN; Ke-yong LI; Feng-yan SUN


    Aim: To test the effect of orexin-A (hypocretin-1), a neuropeptide synthesized in the lateral hypothalamus and the perifornical area, on the glycinergic inputs and the GABAergic inputs of cardiac vagal neurons (CVN). Methods: The effects of orexin-A at three concentrations (20 nmol/L, 100 nmol/L, 500 nmol/L) on the glycinergic inputs and the GABAergic inputs were investigated by using retrograde fluorescent labeling of cardiac neurons (CVN) in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and the voltage patch-clamp technique. Results: Orexin-A dose-dependently increased the frequency of both the glycinergic and the GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC). However, at a lower concentration (20 nmol/L) of orexin-A, although the frequency of the glycinergic sIPSC was significantly increased, the frequency of the GABAergic sIPSC was not significantly changed. Conclusion: The glycinergic inputs and the GABAergic inputs have different sensitivities to orexin-A, which suggests that the two kinds of inhibitory inputs might play different roles in the synaptic control of cardiac vagal functions.

  8. Vagal modulation of resting heart rate in rats: the role of stress, psychosocial factors and physical exercise


    Luca eCarnevali; Andrea eSgoifo


    In humans, there are large individual differences in the levels of vagal modulation of resting heart rate. High levels are a recognized index of cardiac health, whereas low levels are considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several factors are thought to contribute significantly to this inter-individual variability. While regular physical exercise seems to induce an increase in resting vagal tone, chronic life stress and psychosocial factors such as neg...

  9. 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist excites cardiac vagal neurons via inhibition of both GABAergic and glycinergic inputs

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    Yong-hua CHEN; Li-li HOU; Ji-jiang WANG


    Aim: To study the synaptic mechanisms involved in the 5-hydroxytryptaminel AF/7 (5-HT1A/7) receptor-mediated reflex control of cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons (CVPN). Methods: CVPN were retrogradely labeled and identified in brain stem slices of newborn rats, and their synaptic activity was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp. Results: 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), an agonist of 5-HT1A/7 receptors, had no effect on the glutamatergic inputs of CVPN. In contrast, it significantly decreased the frequency and the amplitude of both the GABAergic and the glycinergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (slPSC). 8-OH-DPAT also caused significant amplitude decrease of the GABAergic currents evoked by stimulation of the nucleus tractus solitarius. Both the fre-quency inhibition and the amplitude inhibition of the GABAergic and the glycinergic sIPSC by 8-OH-DPAT had dose-dependent tendencies and could be reversed by WAY-100635, an antagonist of 5-HT1A/7 receptors. In the pre-exist-ence of tetrodotoxin, 8-OH-DPAT had no effect on the GABAergic or the glycinergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents, and had no effect on the GABAergic or the glycinergic currents evoked by exogenous GABA or glycine. Conclusion:The 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist excites CVPN indirectly via the inhibition of both the GABAergic and glycinergic inputs. These findings have at least in part re-vealed the synaptic mechanisms involved in the 5-HT1A/7 receptor-mediated reflex control of cardiac vagal nerves in intact animals.

  10. On the vagal cardiac nerves, with special reference to the early evolution of the head-trunk interface. (United States)

    Higashiyama, Hiroki; Hirasawa, Tatsuya; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Sugahara, Fumiaki; Hyodo, Susumu; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kuratani, Shigeru


    The vagus nerve, or the tenth cranial nerve, innervates the heart in addition to other visceral organs, including the posterior visceral arches. In amniotes, the anterior and posterior cardiac branches arise from the branchial and intestinal portions of the vagus nerve to innervate the arterial and venous poles of the heart, respectively. The evolution of this innervation pattern has yet to be elucidated, due mainly to the lack of morphological data on the vagus in basal vertebrates. To investigate this topic, we observed the vagus nerves of the lamprey (Lethenteron japonicum), elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), and mouse (Mus musculus), focusing on the embryonic patterns of the vagal branches in the venous pole. In the lamprey, no vagus branch was found in the venous pole throughout development, whereas the arterial pole was innervated by a branch from the branchial portion. In contrast, the vagus innervated the arterial and venous poles in the mouse and elephant shark. Based on the morphological patterns of these branches, the venous vagal branches of the mouse and elephant shark appear to belong to the intestinal part of the vagus, implying that the cardiac nerve pattern is conserved among crown gnathostomes. Furthermore, we found a topographical shift of the structures adjacent to the venous pole (i.e., the hypoglossal nerve and pronephros) between the extant gnathostomes and lamprey. Phylogenetically, the lamprey morphology is likely to be the ancestral condition for vertebrates, suggesting that the evolution of the venous branch occurred early in the gnathostome lineage, in parallel with the remodeling of the head-trunk interfacial domain during the acquisition of the neck. J. Morphol. 277:1146-1158, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27216138

  11. Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and vagal dysfunction in Chagas disease patients with no apparent cardiac involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira Costa


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA and autonomic imbalance are considered as early markers of heart disease in Chagas disease (ChD patients. The objective of the present study was to verify the differences in the occurrence of EIVA and autonomic maneuver indexes between healthy individuals and ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement. METHODS : A total of 75 ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement, aged 44.7 (8.5 years, and 38 healthy individuals, aged 44.0 (9.2 years, were evaluated using echocardiography, symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and autonomic function tests. RESULTS : The occurrence of EIVA was higher in the chagasic group (48% than in the control group (23.7% during both the effort and the recovery phases. Frequent ventricular contractions occurred only in the patient group. Additionally, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia index was significantly lower in the chagasic individuals compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease.

  12. Comparação entre métodos de avaliação da modulação vagal cardíaca Comparison of assessment methods of cardiac vagal modulation

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    Vagner Clayton de Paiva


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Diversos métodos têm sido utilizados para avaliar a modulação vagal cardíaca; entretanto, há lacunas quanto a associação e acurácia desses métodos. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre três métodos válidos, reprodutíveis e comumente utilizados para avaliação da modulação vagal cardíaca, e comparar as suas acurácias. MÉTODOS: Trinta homens saudáveis (23 ± 4 anos e 15 homens com coronariopatia (61 ± 10 anos foram avaliados em ordem contrabalanceada pela Variabilidade da Frequência Cardíaca (VFC; variáveis: domínio do tempo = pNN50, DPNN e RMSSD, domínio da frequência = AF ms² e AF u.n., Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória (ASR e Teste de Exercício de 4 segundos (T4s. RESULTADOS: Indivíduos saudáveis apresentaram maior modulação vagal nos três métodos (p BACKGROUND: Several methods have been used to assess cardiac vagal modulation, but there are gaps regarding the association and accuracy of these methods. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between three valid, reproducible and commonly methods used to assess cardiac vagal modulation and compare their accuracies. METHODS: Thirty healthy men (23 ± 4 years and 15 men with coronary artery disease (61 ± 10 years were evaluated in counterbalanced design by Heart Rate Variability (HRV; variables: the time domain = pNN50, SDNN and RMSSD, the frequency domain HF = ms² and HF n.u., Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA and 4-second Exercise Test (T4s. Thirty healthy men (23 ± 4 years and 15 men with coronary artery disease (61 ± 10 years were evaluated in counterbalanced order by Heart Rate Variability (HRV; variables: the time domain = pNN50, SDNN and RMSSD, the frequency domain HF = ms² and HF n.u., Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA and 4-second Exercise Test (T4s. RESULTS: Healthy subjects had higher vagal modulation by the three methods (p <0.05. There was a correlation in the healthy group (p <0.05 between the results of HRV (SDNN and pNN50 and

  13. Chronic vagal stimulation for the treatment of low ejection fraction heart failure : results of the NEural Cardiac TherApy foR Heart Failure (NECTAR-HF) randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannad, Faiez; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Tuinenburg, Anton E; Wright, David; Brugada, Josep; Butter, Christian; Klein, Helmut; Stolen, Craig; Meyer, Scott; Stein, Kenneth M; Ramuzat, Agnes; Schubert, Bernd; Daum, Doug; Neuzil, Petr; Botman, Cornelis; Castel, Maria Angeles; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Solomon, Scott D; Wold, Nicholas; Ruble, Stephen B


    AIM: The neural cardiac therapy for heart failure (NECTAR-HF) was a randomized sham-controlled trial designed to evaluate whether a single dose of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) would attenuate cardiac remodelling, improve cardiac function and increase exercise capacity in symptomatic heart failure p

  14. Inhibition of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activity by baroreceptor and vagal afferent inputs in chronic heart failure.

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    Xian-Bing Gan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR contributes to sympathetic activation and angiotensin II (Ang II in paraventricular nucleus (PVN augments the CSAR in vagotomized (VT and baroreceptor denervated (BD rats with chronic heart failure (CHF. This study was designed to determine whether it is true in intact (INT rats with CHF and to determine the effects of cardiac and baroreceptor afferents on the CSAR and sympathetic activity in CHF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sham-operated (Sham or coronary ligation-induced CHF rats were respectively subjected to BD+VT, VT, cardiac sympathetic denervation (CSD or INT. Under anesthesia, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP were recorded, and the CSAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to epicardial application of capsaicin. Either CSAR or the responses of RSNA, MAP and CSAR to Ang II in PVN were enhanced in CHF rats treated with BD+VT, VT or INT. Treatment with VT or BD+VT potentiated the CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in both Sham and CHF rats. Treatment with CSD reversed the capsaicin-induced RSNA and MAP changes and the CSAR responses to Ang II in both Sham and CHF rats, and reduced the RSNA and MAP responses to Ang II only in CHF rats. CONCLUSIONS: The CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in PVN are enhanced in intact CHF rats. Baroreceptor and vagal afferent activities inhibit CSAR and the CSAR responses to Ang II in intact Sham and CHF rats.

  15. Serotonergic Modulation of the Trigeminocardiac Reflex Neurotransmission to Cardiac Vagal Neurons in the Nucleus Ambiguus


    Gorini, C.; Jameson, H. S.; Mendelowitz, D.


    Stimulation of the trigeminal nerve evokes a dramatic decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, and this reflex has generally been termed the trigeminocardiac reflex. A subset of the trigeminocardiac reflex is the diving reflex in which the nasal mucosa is stimulated with water or air-borne chemical irritants. Activation of the diving reflex evokes a pronounced bradycardia, mediated by increased parasympathetic cardiac activity, and is the most powerful autonomic reflex. However, exaggeratio...

  16. Reversal of cardiac vagal effects of physostigmine by adjunctive muscarinic blockade


    Winter, James; Cook, Alexandra; Patient, Dawn; Emmett, Stevan; Tattersall, John; Shattock, Michael Jonathan


    Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE)inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality followingorganophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwantedcardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anticholinergictherapy; however, direct study of this interaction isdifficult in vivo. The aims of the present study were to examine theconcentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses tovagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to ...

  17. Degree Of Diminution In Vagal-Cardiac Activity Predicts Sudden Death In Familial Dysautonomia When Resting Tachycardia Is Absent (United States)

    Schlegel, T. T.; Marthol, H.; Bucchner, S.; Tutaj, M.; Berlin, D.; Axelrod, F. B.; Hilz, M. J.


    Patients with familial dysautonomia (FD) have an increased risk of sudden death, but sensitive and specific predictors of sudden death in FD are lacking. Methods. We recorded 10-min resting high-fidelity 12-lead ECGs in 14 FD patients and in 14 age/gender-matched healthy subjects and studied 25+ different heart rate variability (HRV) indices for their ability to predict sudden death in the FD patients. Indices studied included those from 4 "nonlinear" HRV techniques (detrended fluctuation analysis, approximate entropy, correlation dimension, and PoincarC analyses). The predictive value of PR, QRS, QTc and JTc intervals, QT dispersion (QTd), beat-to-beat QT and PR interval variability indices (QTVI and PRVI) and 12- lead high frequency QRS ECG (150-250 Hz) were also studied. FD patients and controls (C) differed (Pless than 0.0l) with respect to 20+ of the HRV indices (FD less than C) and with respect to QTVI and PRVI (FDBC) and HF QRS- related root mean squared voltages (FDBC) and reduced amplitude zone counts (FD less than C). They differed less with respect to PR intervals (FD less than C) and JTc intervals (FD greater than C) (P less than 0.05 for both) and did not differ at all with respect to QRS and QTc intervals and to QTd. Within 12 months after study, 2 of the 14 patients succumbed to sudden cardiac arrest. The best predictor of sudden death was the degree of diminution in HRV vagal-cardiac (parasympathetic) parameters such as RMSSD, the SDl of Poincare plots, and HF spectral power. Excluding the two FD patients who had resting tachycardia (HR greater than 100, which confounds traditional HRV analyses), the following criteria were independently 100% sensitive and 100% specific for predicting sudden death in the remaining 12 FD patients during spontaneous breathing: RMSSD less than 13 ms and/or PoincarC SD1 less than 9 ms. In FD patients without supine tachycardia, the degree of diminution in parasympathetic HRV parameters (by high-fidelity ECG) predicts

  18. Chronic vagal stimulation for the treatment of low ejection fraction heart failure: results of the NEural Cardiac TherApy foR Heart Failure (NECTAR-HF) randomized controlled trial


    Zannad, Faiez; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Tuinenburg, Anton E.; Wright, David; Brugada, Josep; Butter, Christian; Klein, Helmut; Stolen, Craig; Meyer, Scott; Stein, Kenneth M.; Ramuzat, Agnes; Schubert, Bernd; Daum, Doug; Neuzil, Petr; Botman, Cornelis


    Aim The neural cardiac therapy for heart failure (NECTAR-HF) was a randomized sham-controlled trial designed to evaluate whether a single dose of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) would attenuate cardiac remodelling, improve cardiac function and increase exercise capacity in symptomatic heart failure patients with severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction despite guideline recommended medical therapy. Methods: Patients were randomized in a 2 : 1 ratio to receive therapy (VNS ON) or contro...

  19. Changes in Cardiac Tone Regulation with Fatigue after Supra-Maximal Running Exercise (United States)

    Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie; Lopes, Philippe; Thomas, Claire; Hanon, Christine


    To investigate the effects of fatigue and metabolite accumulation on the postexercicse parasympathetic reactivation, 11 long-sprint runners performed on an outdoor track an exhaustive 400 m long sprint event and a 300 m with the same 400 m pacing strategy. Time constant of heart rate recovery (HRRτ), time (RMSSD), and frequency (HF, and LF) varying vagal-related heart rate variability indexes were assessed during the 7 min period immediately following exercise. Biochemical parameters (blood lactate, pH, PO2, PCO2, SaO2, and HCO3−) were measured at 1, 4 and 7 min after exercise. Time to perform 300 m was not significantly different between both running trials. HHRτ measured after the 400 m running exercise was longer compared to 300 m running bouts (183.7 ± 11.6 versus 132.1 ± 9.8 s, P < 0.01). Absolute power density in the LF and HF bands was also lower after 400 m compared to the 300 m trial (P < 0.05). No correlation was found between biochemical and cardiac recovery responses except for the PO2 values which were significantly correlated with HF levels measured 4 min after both bouts. Thus, it appears that fatigue rather than metabolic stresses occurring during a supramaximal exercise could explain the delayed postexercise parasympathetic reactivation in longer sprint runs. PMID:22666098

  20. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

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    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  1. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  2. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Shimojo


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC, sedentary hypertensive (SH, sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO, and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO. Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv. Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg, as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm. Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05. The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  3. Pulmonary function, cholinergic bronchomotor tone, and cardiac autonomic abnormalities in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo E.


    Full Text Available This prospective study analyzed the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in pulmonary and cardiac function by evaluating cardiovascular reflex and its correlation with pulmonary function abnormalities of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients (N = 17 and healthy subjects (N = 17 were evaluated by 1 pulmonary function tests including spirometry, He-dilution method, N2 washout test, and specific airway conductance (SGaw determined by plethysmography before and after aerosol administration of atropine sulfate, and 2 autonomic cardiovascular activity by the passive tilting test and the magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA. Basal heart rate was higher in the diabetic group (87.8 ± 11.2 bpm; mean ± SD than in the control group (72.9 ± 7.8 bpm, P<0.05. The increase of heart rate at 5 s of tilting was 11.8 ± 6.5 bpm in diabetic patients and 17.6 ± 6.2 bpm in the control group (P<0.05. Systemic arterial pressure and RSA analysis did not reveal significant differences between groups. Diabetes intragroup analysis revealed two behaviors: 10 patients with close to normal findings and 7 with significant abnormalities in terms of RSA, with the latter subgroup presenting one or more abnormalities in other tests and clear evidence of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. End-expiratory flows were significantly lower in diabetic patients than in the control group (P<0.05. Pulmonary function tests before and after atropine administration demonstrated comparable responses by both groups. Type 2 diabetic patients have cardiac autonomic dysfunction that is not associated with bronchomotor tone alterations, probably reflecting a less severe impairment than that of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Yet, a reduction of end-expiratory flow was detected.

  4. Cardiac vagal control and theoretical models of co-occurring depression and anxiety: A cross-sectional psychophysiological study of community elderly

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    Chen Hsi-Chung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to elucidate the complex relationship between co-occurring depression and anxiety with cardiac autonomic function in the elderly, this study examined the correlation between cardiac vagal control (CVC and pre-defined, theoretical factors from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Methods Three hundred fifty-four randomly selected Chinese male subjects aged ≥65 years and living in the community were enrolled. CVC was measured using a frequency-domain index of heart rate variability. Results Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the flat tripartite model of HADS provided a modest advantage in model fit when compared with other theoretical factor solutions. In the flat tripartite model, there was a significant negative association between anhedonic depression and CVC. In contrast, autonomic anxiety showed a significant positive correlation with CVC. In the hierarchical tripartite model, negative affectivity was not directly associated with CVC; instead, it had positive and negative indirect effects on CVC via autonomic anxiety and anhedonic depression, respectively. As scores for negative affectivity increased, these specific indirect effects diminished. Conclusions Among competing models of co-occurring depression and anxiety, constructs from tripartite models demonstrate fair conformity with the data but unique and distinct correlations with CVC. Negative affectivity may determine the relationship of anhedonic depression and autonomic anxiety with CVC. Separating affective symptoms under the constructs of the tripartite models helps disentangle complex associations between co-occurring depression and anxiety with CVC.

  5. Effects of emotion regulation difficulties on the tonic and phasic cardiac autonomic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Berna

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation theory aims to explain the interactions between individuals and the environment. In this context, Emotion Regulation Difficulties (ERD disrupt the physiological component of emotions through the autonomic nervous system and are involved in several psychopathological states.We were interested in comparing the influence of a film-elicited emotion procedure on the autonomic nervous system activity of two groups with different levels of emotion regulation difficulties.A total of 63 women (undergraduate students ranging from 18 to 27 (20.7 ± 1.99 years old were included. Using the upper and lower quartile of a questionnaire assessing the daily difficulties in regulating emotions, two groups, one with low (LERD and one with high (HERD levels of emotion regulation difficulties, were constituted and studied during a film-elicited emotion procedure. Cardiac vagal activity (HF-HRV was analyzed during three periods: baseline, film-elicited emotion, and recovery.The cardiovascular results showed a decrease in HF-HRV from baseline to elicitation for both groups. Then, from elicitation to recovery, HF-HRV increased for the LERD group, whereas a low HF-HRV level persisted for the HERD group.The HERD group exhibited inappropriate cardiac vagal recovery after a negative emotion elicitation had ended. Cardiac vagal tone took longer to return to its initial state in the HERD group than in the LERD group. Prolonged cardiac vagal suppression might constitute an early marker of emotion regulation difficulties leading to lower cardiac vagal tone.

  6. Role of ionotropic GABA, glutamate and glycine receptors in the tonic and reflex control of cardiac vagal outflow in the rat

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    Goodchild Ann K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac vagal preganglionic neurons (CVPN are responsible for the tonic, reflex and respiratory modulation of heart rate (HR. Although CVPN receive GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs, likely involved in respiratory and reflex modulation of HR respectively, little else is known regarding the functions controlled by ionotropic inputs. Activation of g-protein coupled receptors (GPCR alters these inputs, but the functional consequence is largely unknown. The present study aimed to delineate how ionotropic GABAergic, glycinergic and glutamatergic inputs contribute to the tonic and reflex control of HR and in particular determine which receptor subtypes were involved. Furthermore, we wished to establish how activation of the 5-HT1A GPCR affects tonic and reflex control of HR and what ionotropic interactions this might involve. Results Microinjection of the GABAA antagonist picrotoxin into CVPN decreased HR but did not affect baroreflex bradycardia. The glycine antagonist strychnine did not alter HR or baroreflex bradycardia. Combined microinjection of the NMDA antagonist, MK801, and AMPA antagonist, CNQX, into CVPN evoked a small bradycardia and abolished baroreflex bradycardia. MK801 attenuated whereas CNQX abolished baroreceptor bradycardia. Control intravenous injections of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT evoked a small bradycardia and potentiated baroreflex bradycardia. These effects were still observed following microinjection of picrotoxin but not strychnine into CVPN. Conclusions We conclude that activation of GABAA receptors set the level of HR whereas AMPA to a greater extent than NMDA receptors elicit baroreflex changes in HR. Furthermore, activation of 5-HT1A receptors evokes bradycardia and enhances baroreflex changes in HR due to interactions with glycinergic neurons involving strychnine receptors. This study provides reference for future studies investigating how diseases alter neurochemical inputs to CVPN.

  7. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John


    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  8. Cardiac Vagal Tone and Quality of Parenting Show Concurrent and Time-Ordered Associations That Diverge in Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Mothers


    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Benjamin, Lorna Smith; Pincus, Aaron L.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.


    Concurrent and lagged maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was monitored in the context of parenting. One hundred and forty-one preschooler-mother dyads—involved with child welfare as documented perpetrators of child abuse or neglect, or non-maltreating (non-CM)—were observed completing a resting baseline and joint challenge task. Parenting behaviors were coded using SASB (Benjamin, 1996) and maternal RSA was simultaneously monitored, longitudinally-nested within-person (WP), and subje...

  9. Thrombolytic therapy preserves vagal activity early after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, P; Hintze, U; Møller, M;


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thrombolytic therapy on vagal tone after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN: Holter monitoring for 24 h was performed at hospital discharge and 6 weeks after AMI in 74 consecutive male survivors of a first AMI, who fulfilled...

  10. Intraoperative vagal nerve monitoring. (United States)

    Leonetti, J P; Jellish, W S; Warf, P; Hudson, E


    A variety of benign and malignant neoplasms occur in the superior cervical neck, parapharyngeal space or the infratemporal fossa. The surgical resection of these lesions may result in postoperative iatrogenic injury to the vagus nerve with associated dysfunctional swallowing and airway protection. Anatomic and functional preservation of this critical cranial nerve will contribute to a favorable surgical outcome. Fourteen patients with tumors of the cervical neck or adjacent skull base underwent intraoperative vagal nerve monitoring in an attempt to preserve neural integrity following tumor removal. Of the 11 patients with anatomically preserved vagal nerves in this group, seven patients had normal vocal cord mobility following surgery and all 11 patients demonstrated normal vocal cord movement by six months. In an earlier series of 23 patients with tumors in the same region who underwent tumor resection without vagal nerve monitoring, 18 patients had anatomically preserved vagal nerves. Within this group, five patients had normal vocal cord movement at one month and 13 patients demonstrated normal vocal cord movement at six months. This paper will outline a technique for intraoperative vagal nerve monitoring utilizing transcricothyroid membrane placement of bipolar hook-wire electrodes in the vocalis muscle. Our results with the surgical treatment of cervical neck and lateral skull base tumors for patients with unmonitored and monitored vagal nerves will be outlined. PMID:8828272

  11. Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Increases Cardiac Output, Bradyarrhythmias, and Parasympathetic Tone in Aged Heart Failure-Prone Rats (United States)

    Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance...

  12. Gene-Environment Contributions to the Development of Infant Vagal Reactivity: The Interaction of Dopamine and Maternal Sensitivity (United States)

    Propper, Cathi; Moore, Ginger A.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.; Calkins, Susan D.; Carbone, Mary Anna; Cox, Martha


    This study investigated dopamine receptor genes ("DRD2" and "DRD4") and maternal sensitivity as predictors of infant respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity, purported indices of vagal tone and vagal regulation, in a challenge task at 3, 6, and 12 months in 173 infant-mother dyads. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed that at…

  13. Two Tones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palludan, Charlotte


    This article examines how kindergarten-children are differentiated and segregated through vocal practices and processes. The analysis is based on empirical data, which originate from a long ethnographic fieldwork in Denmark. The author presents two different language tones: "a teaching tone and an...... exchange tone" and shows a pattern in the ways the two tones are performed. While the teaching tone is heard in the interaction between the staff and the ethnic minority children, the ethnic majority children (the Danes) are addressed in the exchange tone. Pierre Bourdieu's concepts: "linguistic market...

  14. Efferent vagal discharge and heart rate in response to methohexitone, althesin, ketamine and etomidate in cats. (United States)

    Inoue, K; Arndt, J O


    The effects of methohexitone, Althesin, ketamine and etomidate on single fibre discharge of cardiac vagal efferents and on heart rate were studied in cats. Cardiac vagal efferents were inhibited markedly and regularly for equihypnotic doses of methohexitone (2.0 mg kg-1), Althesin (0.1 ml kg-1) and ketamine (5.0 mg kg-1), but not of etomidate (0.8 mg kg-1). These inhibitory effects were independent of arterial pressure and mirrored the increases of heart rate elicited by the first three agents. Etomidate did not consistently affect cardiac vagal discharge or heart rate. Thus methohexitone. Althesin and ketamine inhibit efferent cardiac vagal drive by their central action independently of baroreflex function. This central vagolysis is probably the cause of their positive chronotropic effects. PMID:7126403

  15. Parent Conflict Predicts Infants’ Vagal Regulation in Social Interaction


    Moore, Ginger A.


    Parent conflict during infancy may affect rapidly developing physiological regulation. To examine the association between parent conflict and infants’ vagal tone functioning, mothers (N = 48) reported levels of parent conflict and their 6-month-old male and female infants’ respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured in the Still-Face Paradigm (SFP). Higher parent conflict was related to lower RSA at baseline and each episode of the SFP. Infants in higher conflict families showed diminishe...

  16. Iyengar Yoga Increases Cardiac Parasympathetic Nervous Modulation among Healthy Yoga Practitioners

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    Kerstin Khattab


    Full Text Available Relaxation techniques are established in managing of cardiac patients during rehabilitation aiming to reduce future adverse cardiac events. It has been hypothesized that relaxation-training programs may significantly improve cardiac autonomic nervous tone. However, this has not been proven for all available relaxation techniques. We tested this assumption by investigating cardiac vagal modulation during yoga.We examined 11 healthy yoga practitioners (7 women and 4 men, mean age: 43 ± 11; range: 26–58 years. Each individual was subjected to training units of 90 min once a week over five successive weeks. During two sessions, they practiced a yoga program developed for cardiac patients by B.K.S. Iyengar. On three sessions, they practiced a placebo program of relaxation. On each training day they underwent ambulatory 24 h Holter monitoring. The group of yoga practitioners was compared to a matched group of healthy individuals not practicing any relaxation techniques. Parameters of heart rate variability (HRV were determined hourly by a blinded observer. Mean RR interval (interval between two R-waves of the ECG was significantly higher during the time of yoga intervention compared to placebo and to control (P < 0.001 for both. The increase in HRV parameters was significantly higher during yoga exercise than during placebo and control especially for the parameters associated with vagal tone, i.e. mean standard deviation of NN (Normal Beat to Normal Beat of the ECG intervals for all 5-min intervals (SDNNi, P < 0.001 for both and root mean square successive difference (rMSSD, P < 0.01 for both. In conclusion, relaxation by yoga training is associated with a significant increase of cardiac vagal modulation. Since this method is easy to apply with no side effects, it could be a suitable intervention in cardiac rehabilitation programs.

  17. Resting vagal control and resilience as predictors of cardiovascular allostasis in peacekeepers. (United States)

    Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Magalhães, Ludmila Naves; Cruz, Thiago Amorim Ribeiro Da; Mendonça-De-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Antônio Fernando A; Fischer, Nastassja L; Souza, Wanderson F; Coutinho, Evandro Da Silva F; Vila, Jaime; Gleiser, Sonia; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan, Eliane


    The body's adaptive reaction to a stressful event, an allostatic response, involves vigorous physiological engagement with and efficient recovery from stress. Our aim was to investigate the influence of individual predispositions on cardiac responses to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in peacekeepers. We hypothesized that those individuals with higher trait resilience and those with higher resting vagal control would be more likely to present an allostatic response: a vigorous cardiac response to stress (i.e., reduction in interbeat intervals and heart rate variability (HRV)) coupled with a significant cardiac recovery in the aftermath. Fifty male military personnel with a mean age of 25.4 years (SD ± 5.99) were evaluated after returning from a peacekeeping mission. Electrocardiogram recordings were made throughout the experimental session, which consisted five conditions: basal, speech preparation, speech delivery, arithmetic task, and recovery. Mean interbeat intervals and HRV were calculated for each condition. An Ego-Resilience Scale and resting vagal control assessed individual predispositions. Stress tasks reduced interbeat intervals (tachycardia) and HRV in comparison with basal, with return to basal in the aftermath (p peacekeepers showing higher trait resilience and those with higher resting vagal control presented a more adaptive allostatic reaction characterized by vigorous cardiac response to stress (i.e., tachycardia and vagal withdrawal) and efficient cardiac recovery after stress cessation. PMID:23327672

  18. Mothers’ Responses to Children’s Negative Emotions and Child Emotion Regulation: The Moderating Role of Vagal Suppression


    Perry, Nicole B.; Calkins, Susan D.; Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart


    The current study examined the moderating effect of children’s cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and non-supportive responses) and children’s emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children’s negative emotions and children’s regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal su...

  19. Nucleus accumbens receives gastric vagal inputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangeeta MEHENDALE; Jing-tian XIE; Han H AUNG; Xiong-Fei GUAN; Chun-Su YUAN


    AIM: To localize and characterize the response of single accumbal neurons to electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal fibers. METHODS: Unitary responses to electrical stimulation of the ventral and dorsal gastric vagal fibers which serve the proximal stomach were recorded extracellularly in the nucleus accumbens in anesthetized cats.RESULTS: The evoked units recorded in the nucleus accumbens consisted of phasic and tonic responses, with a mean latency of (396±43) ms. Convergence of ventral and dorsal gastric vagal inputs onto single phasic and tonic accumbal units was observed. For tonic inhibitory responses, convergence was exhibited when stimulation applied to both the ventral and dorsal gastric vagal branches resulted in a significantly longer inhibitory period than did stimulation of a single gastric vagal branch. Comparing the gastric vagally evoked accumbal unitary responses to the neuronal responses recorded in the nucleus tractus solitarius, parabrachial nucleus and hypothalamus in our previous studies, our data showed a higher percentage of single spike responses and shorter response duration's in the nucleus accumbens than in the other nuclei. This suggests that the synaptic drive from the gastric vagal inputs to the nucleus accumbens is less powerful than in the other structures. CONCLUSION: The present study localized and characterized gastric vagally evoked responses in the nucleus accumbens, which suggest that the nucleus accumbens may process gastric signals concerned with the ingestive process.

  20. Is pancreatic polypeptide response to food ingestion a reliable index of vagal function in type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholt, M B; Arlien-Soeborg, P; Hilsted, L;


    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients is based on cardiovascular reflex tests. Since cardiac function may be affected by arteriosclerosis and cardiomyopathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus, alternative tests reflecting vagal nerve function, in other organ systems, are needed. In...

  1. Adrenergic receptors and gastric secretion in dogs. Is a "tonic balance" relationship between vagal and beta 2-adrenergic activity a possibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F; Hovendal, C; Bech, K; Andersen, D


    vagotomy and beta 2-adrenoceptor activity were studied in conscious gastric fistula dogs. Pentagastrin stimulated acid output was increased slightly in non-vagotomized dogs and to its prevagotomy level in vagotomized dogs after propranolol infusion. Practolol showed no such effect. Histamine stimulated......The relative influence of adrenergic receptors on gastric acid secretion in the dog stomach with different vagal activity or "tone" is almost unknown. beta-adrenoceptors seem to be most important for the direct effect of adrenergic stimulation on acid secretion. In this study the effects of...... acid secretion was not influenced significantly by beta-blockade. Similar dose-response curves were found for non-vagotomized dogs with high beta 2-adrenergic tone and dogs with low vagal tone (vagotomy) after pentagastrin and histamine stimulated acid secretion. This study indicates that a...

  2. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia as an Index of Vagal Activity during Stress in Infants: Respiratory Influences and Their Control


    Ritz, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan M.; Staudenmayer, John; Bosquet Enlow, Michelle A; Kitts, Robert Li; Wright, Rosalind Jo


    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is related to cardiac vagal outflow and the respiratory pattern. Prior infant studies have not systematically examined respiration rate and tidal volume influences on infant RSA or the extent to which infants' breathing is too fast to extract a valid RSA. We therefore monitored cardiac activity, respiration, and physical activity in 23 six-month old infants during a standardized laboratory stressor protocol. On average, 12.6% (range 0–58.2%) of analyzed brea...

  3. Are Tones Phones? (United States)

    Burnham, Denis; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris; Ciocca, Valter; Schoknecht, Colin; Kasisopa, Benjawan; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn


    The psycholinguistic status of lexical tones and phones is indexed via phonological and tonological awareness (PA and TA, respectively) using Thai speech. In Experiment 1 (Thai participants, alphabetic script and orthographically explicit phones/tones), PA was better than TA in children and primary school-educated adults, and TA improved to PA…

  4. Automated tone transcription

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, S


    In this paper I report on an investigation into the problem of assigning tones to pitch contours. The proposed model is intended to serve as a tool for phonologists working on instrumentally obtained pitch data from tone languages. Motivation and exemplification for the model is provided by data taken from my fieldwork on Bamileke Dschang (Cameroon). Following recent work by Liberman and others, I provide a parametrised F_0 prediction function P which generates F_0 values from a tone sequence, and I explore the asymptotic behaviour of downstep. Next, I observe that transcribing a sequence X of pitch (i.e. F_0) values amounts to finding a tone sequence T such that P(T) {}~= X. This is a combinatorial optimisation problem, for which two non-deterministic search techniques are provided: a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm. Finally, two implementations---one for each technique---are described and then compared using both artificial and real data for sequences of up to 20 tones. These programs ...

  5. Vagal heart rate control in patients with a history of atrial fibrillation: Impact of tonic activation of peripheral chemosensory function in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlsteff, J.; Christian Meyer; Drexel, T.


    ABSTRACT Background: Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF), emerging as two epidemics of the 21st century, are commonly associated with each other. Both have been mechanistically linked to changes in cardiac vagal control. The importance of peripheral chemosensors, residing in the carotid

  6. Modulation of gastrointestinal vagal neurocircuits by hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Glucose sensing within autonomic neurocircuits is critical for the effective integration and regulation of a variety of physiological homeostatic functions including the co-ordination of vagally-mediated reflexes regulating gastrointestinal functions. Glucose regulates gastrointestinal functions via actions at multiple sites of action, from modulating the activity of enteric neurons, endocrine cells and glucose transporters within the intestine, to regulating the activity and responsiveness of the peripheral terminals, cell bodies and central terminals of vagal sensory neurons, to modifying both the activity and synaptic responsiveness of central brainstem neurons. Unsurprisingly, significant impairment in gastrointestinal functions results occurs in pathophysiological states where glucose levels are dysregulated, such as diabetes. A substantial obstacle to the development of new therapies to modify the disease, rather than treat the symptoms, are the gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms by which glucose modulates gastrointestinal functions, particularly vagally-mediated responses and a more complete understanding of disease-related plasticity within these neurocircuits may open new avenues and targets for research.

  7. Thoracic cross-over pathways of the rat vagal trunks


    Horn, Charles C.; Friedman, Mark I.


    It is very difficult to study the independent contributions of the afferent and efferent pathways of the subdiaphragmatic vagus to physiology and behavior. Total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy can confound the interpretation of experimental results because it destroys both afferent and efferent vagal fibers. One approach to address this problem involves producing a total ablation of afferent (or efferent) vagal fibers while retaining half of the efferent (or afferent) vagal fibers by making a unil...

  8. Domestic Violence and Vagal Reactivity to Peer Provocation


    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber


    This paper examined whether individual differences in children’s vagal reactivity to peer provocation was related to domestic violence within the family. It also examined the question of whether conduct-problem children who show vagal augmentation to peer provocation come from families with high levels of domestic violence. During the peer provocation, children were expecting to interact with a difficult peer while vagal reactivity was assessed. Groups were divided into children who showed va...

  9. Dissection of carotid sinus hypersensitivity: the timing of vagal and vasodepressor effects and the effect of body position


    Krediet, C. T. Paul; Jardine, David L.; Wieling, Wouter


    Abstract Background We assessed the timing of vagal and sympathetic factors that mediate hypotension during carotid sinus massage (CSM) in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. We hypothesised that a fall in cardiac output would precede vasodepression, and that vasodepression would be exaggerated by head-up tilt. Methods and results We performed pulse contour analyses on blood pressure recordings during CSM in syncope patients during supine rest and head-up tilt. ...

  10. Phonetics and Phonology of Chicahuaxtla Triqui Tones (United States)

    Matsukawa, Kosuke


    Chicahuaxtla Triqui (Otomanguean, Mexico) is one of the rare tone languages with five contrastive level tones and its underlying tone system is even more complicated than its surface five-level tone system. The complexity of its underlying tone system has developed through the historical tone shifts from Proto-Triqui. The surface tone system of…

  11. Differential responses accompanying sequential stimulation and ablation of vagal branches to dog heart. (United States)

    Randall, W C; Ardell, J L; Becker, D M


    Electrical excitation of small thoracic vagal branches elicited highly localized responses in the canine heart. Specific pathways to the sinoatrial nodal (SAN) regions were identified from negative chronotropic responses to stimulation (20 Hz, 5.0 ms, 3.0-5.0 V) of these branches. Pathways to the atrioventricular nodal (AVN) region were determined from changes in A-H interval (His bundle electrogram) and incidence of heart block as vagal branches were stimulated during concurrent atrial pacing. A few small branches influenced a single cardiac function (atrial rate, contractile force, or AV conduction). More commonly, activation of such branches elicited simultaneous chronotropic and dromotropic effects. However, many branches failed to elicit any detectable cardiac change. The major outflow from the left vagus to SAN and AVN regions is by way of cardiac branches from the recurrent laryngeal nerve at its reflection around the aorta. Activation of the left recurrent nerve reduced atrial rate by 43% and doubled A-H interval 84 to 167 ms. The right thoracic vagus or its branches induced A-H prolongation from 78 to 131 ms. H-V intervals remained constant at a mean of 35 ms. Outflows from the right thoracic vagus to SAN and/or AVN regions originated just below the middle cervical ganglion and at all levels down to the azygos vein. PMID:4014479

  12. Tones for Profoundly Deaf Tone-Language Speakers. (United States)

    Ching, Teresa

    A study assessed the practical use of the simplified speech pattern approach to teaching lipreading in a tone language by comparing performance using an acoustic hearing-aid and a Sivo-aid in a tone labelling task. After initial assessment, subjects were given training to enhance perception of lexically contrastive tones, then post-tested. The…

  13. Increased vagal tone accounts for the observed immune paralysis in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.; Pompe, J.C.; Pickkers, P.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Vugt, A.B. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability, especially in the younger population. In the acute phase after TBI, patients are more vulnerable to infection, associated with a decreased immune response in vitro. The cause of this immune paralysis is poorly understood. Apart

  14. Change of tone

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel


    The President of the Staff Association set the tone by leaving the members of the SCC speechless when he read out a solemn declaration For a start, Management invites us to discuss the Five-Yearly Review without having provided any formal text. Concertation Method of analysis and use of data previously adopted by Council. Salaries. Increase. Employment conditions. Family allowances. Crèche. Career perspectives. Referendum.

  15. Short-duration spaceflight impairs human carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses (United States)

    Fritsch, Janice M.; Charles, John B.; Bennett, Barbara S.; Jones, Michele M.; Eckberg, Dwain L.


    The effect of a spaceflight on the vagally mediated baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses of humans were investigated by measuring the responses (provoked by neck pressure changes) in supine position and the heart rate and blood pressure in the supine and standing positions in 16 astronauts before and after 4- to 5-day long Space Shuttle missions. The results showed that exposures to spaceflight resulted in reduced baseline levels of the vagal-cardiac outflow and the vagally mediated responses to changes of the arterial baroreceptor input and that these changes contribute to postflight reductions of astronauts' ability to maintain standing arterial pressures.

  16. Inhibitory neurotransmission regulates vagal efferent activity and gastric motility. (United States)

    McMenamin, Caitlin A; Travagli, R Alberto; Browning, Kirsteen N


    The gastrointestinal tract receives extrinsic innervation from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which regulate and modulate the function of the intrinsic (enteric) nervous system. The stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract in particular are heavily influenced by the parasympathetic nervous system, supplied by the vagus nerve, and disruption of vagal sensory or motor functions results in disorganized motility patterns, disrupted receptive relaxation and accommodation, and delayed gastric emptying, amongst others. Studies from several laboratories have shown that the activity of vagal efferent motoneurons innervating the upper GI tract is inhibited tonically by GABAergic synaptic inputs from the adjacent nucleus tractus solitarius. Disruption of this influential central GABA input impacts vagal efferent output, hence gastric functions, significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe the development, physiology, and pathophysiology of this functionally dominant inhibitory synapse and its role in regulating vagally determined gastric functions. PMID:27302177

  17. Rhythm Deficits in "Tone Deafness" (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M.; Nandy, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Timothy D.


    It is commonly observed that "tone deaf" individuals are unable to hear the beat of a tune, yet deficits on simple timing tests have not been found. In this study, we investigated rhythm processing in nine individuals with congenital amusia ("tone deafness") and nine controls. Participants were presented with pairs of 5-note sequences, and were…

  18. Vagal nerve schwannoma--a new diagnostic sign.


    Morrissey, M. S.; Sellars, S. L.


    A case of vagal nerve schwannoma with a new physical sign is presented. The tumour was largely cystic and aspiration, performed twice, immediately elicited a cough reflex from the patient. Treatment was by total excision and the patient made a good recovery. Complete cystic degeneration of a vagal nerve schwannoma is uncommon. A search of the literature has failed to find any previous reports of fine needle aspiration causing a cough reflex in these tumours.

  19. An evoked indirect response in the cervical vagal nerve


    Ordelman, S.C.M.A.; Kornet, L.; Cornelussen, R.; Buschman, H.P.J.; Veltink, P.H.


    The response of fibers in the vagal nerve, evoked by electrical stimulation, has been studied in both animals and humans. These compound action potentials (CAPs) consist of components coming from thick, myelinated fibers to thin, unmyelinated fibers. In our study, the possibility is addressed of an indirect component in the CAP which is involved in reflexive control. By using multiple, consecutive electrode sites along the cervical vagal nerve, both the direction and the velocity along the ne...

  20. Efficacy of paced breathing for insomnia: enhances vagal activity and improves sleep quality. (United States)

    Tsai, H J; Kuo, Terry B J; Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Cheryl C H


    Fourteen self-reported insomniacs (SRI) and 14 good sleepers (GS) had their cardiac neuronal activity assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) under controlled respiration at a slow frequency rate of 0.1 Hz, and a forced rate of 0.2 Hz during daytime rest. Nighttime sleep was measured by polysomnography. The SRI showed depressed high frequency power of HRV compared to the GS. An increased total power of HRV was observed among the SRI during slow, paced breathing compared with spontaneous breathing and 0.2 Hz. Sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and awakening time during sleep were decreased and sleep efficiency was increased if SRI practiced slow, paced breathing exercises for 20 min before going to sleep. Our results indicate that there is autonomic dysfunction among insomniacs, especially in relation to vagal activity; however, this decreased vagal activity can be facilitated by practicing slow, paced breathing, thereby improving sleep quality. PMID:25234581

  1. Cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in an athlete's heart detected by 1''2''3I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The athlete's heart is commonly characterized by an increase in left ventricular mass because of an increase in the left ventricular diastolic cavity dimensions or wall thickness or both. Endurance exercise also induces numerous cardiovascular adaptations, including increased vagal tone. However, the sympathetic function has not yet been precisely elucidated, so the present study evaluated cardiac sympathetic nerve function from metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images obtained 15 and 180 min after the injection of 123I-MIBG at a dose of 111MBq. The ratio of heart/mediastinum count (H/M) and the washout rates of 123I-MIBG (WR) were calculated in 25 consecutive patients who were athletes (aged 52±13 years) and 23 normal subjects. There was a significant difference in the H/M between the athletic and normal hearts (2.3±0.3 vs 2.6±0.3, p<0.01, Scheffe's test). An increased WR was observed in the athletes group when compared with the normal group (34±4 vs 28±3, p<0.01), and there was a significant correlation between WR and the left ventricular mass index (r=0.578, p<0.01). Prolonged exercise training may alter cardiac sympathetic nerve function, which can be detected by MIBG imaging. (author)

  2. Cervical Vagal Nerve Stimulation Activates the Stellate Ganglion in Ambulatory Dogs


    Rhee, Kyoung-Suk; Hsueh, Chia-Hsiang; Hellyer, Jessica A.; Park, Hyung Wook; Lee, Young Soo; Garlie, Jason; Onkka, Patrick; Doytchinova, Anisiia T.; Garner, John B.; Patel, Jheel; Chen, Lan S.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Everett, Thomas; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng


    Background and Objectives Recent studies showed that, in addition to parasympathetic nerves, cervical vagal nerves contained significant sympathetic nerves. We hypothesized that cervical vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) may capture the sympathetic nerves within the vagal nerve and activate the stellate ganglion. Materials and Methods We recorded left stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), left thoracic vagal nerve activity (VNA), and subcutaneous electrocardiogram in seven dogs during left cer...

  3. Toward a Developmental Model of Child Compliance: The Role of Emotion Regulation in Infancy. (United States)

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Braungart-Rieker, Julia M.


    Examined relationship between emotion regulation at ages 5, 10, and 18 months, and compliance at 30 months. Found that infants with low levels of regulatory behavior were more likely to be noncompliant as toddlers. High cardiac vagal tone was related to noncompliance to toy clean-up, whereas low cardiac vagal tone was related to noncompliance to…

  4. Action of cocaine and chronic sympathetic denervation on vagal escape (United States)

    Campos, H. A.; Urquilla, P. R.


    1. The effect of cocaine has been studied on vagal escape and on the tachycardia due to vagal stimulation in the atropinized dog. All the dogs were submitted to acute cervical section of the spinal cord and acute or chronic sympathetic denervation. 2. Cocaine, 5 mg/kg or 40 μg/kg/min, I.V., induces a significant enhancement of the ventricular escape. The effects of a continuous infusion of cocaine are more reproducible than those of a single injection of the drug. 3. Cocaine, 40 μg/kg/min, I.V., potentiates the tachycardia due to vagal stimulation in the atropinized dog. 4. Chronic thoracic sympathectomy markedly retards the recovery of the ventricular rate from the inhibitory action of the vagus. Under this condition, the infusion of cocaine does not significantly enhance the ventricular escape. 5. These findings suggest that an adrenergic mechanism located at the sympathetic nerves supplying the heart is substantially involved in the phenomenon of vagal escape. PMID:5249864

  5. Vagal neurocircuitry and its influence on gastric motility. (United States)

    Travagli, R Alberto; Anselmi, Laura


    A large body of research has been dedicated to the effects of gastrointestinal peptides on vagal afferent fibres, yet multiple lines of evidence indicate that gastrointestinal peptides also modulate brainstem vagal neurocircuitry, and that this modulation has a fundamental role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the upper gastrointestinal tract. In fact, brainstem vagovagal neurocircuits comprise highly plastic neurons and synapses connecting afferent vagal fibres, second order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and efferent fibres originating in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Neuronal communication between the NTS and DMV is regulated by the presence of a variety of inputs, both from within the brainstem itself as well as from higher centres, which utilize an array of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Because of the circumventricular nature of these brainstem areas, circulating hormones can also modulate the vagal output to the upper gastrointestinal tract. This Review summarizes the organization and function of vagovagal reflex control of the upper gastrointestinal tract, presents data on the plasticity within these neurocircuits after stress, and discusses the gastrointestinal dysfunctions observed in Parkinson disease as examples of physiological adjustment and maladaptation of these reflexes. PMID:27251213

  6. Two Innovations for Teaching Tones. (United States)

    Bar-Lev, Zev


    Presents a pair of innovations, originally developed and used for teaching Mandarin, that are now being applied to the teaching of Cantonese, Vietnamese, and Thai, involving a double system of representation to encourage easier pronunciation and long-term learning; and a special sequencing for presenting the tones. (36 references) (CB)

  7. The Myth of Tone Deafness. (United States)

    Kazez, Daniel


    The vague and virtually meaningless term "tone deaf" should be avoided because it encourages students to be incorrectly labeled as hopeless. If a student is oblivious to blatantly faulty intonation, and if his or her playing fails to improve after diligent practicing, a teacher should consider the possibility of diplacusis. (RM)

  8. TRPV1 Channels and Gastric Vagal Afferent Signalling in Lean and High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice


    Kentish, Stephen J.; Frisby, Claudine L.; Kritas, Stamatiki; Hui LI; Hatzinikolas, George; O’Donnell, Tracey A.; Wittert, Gary A; Page, Amanda J


    Aim Within the gastrointestinal tract vagal afferents play a role in control of food intake and satiety signalling. Activation of mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents induces satiety. However, gastric vagal afferent responses to mechanical stretch are reduced in high fat diet mice. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1) are expressed in vagal afferents and knockout of TRPV1 reduces gastro-oesophageal vagal afferent responses to stretch. We aimed to determine the role of...

  9. Tone language fluency impairs pitch discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Here we present evidence that native speakers of a tone language, in which pitch contributes to word meaning, are impaired in the discrimination of falling pitches in tone sequences, as compared to speakers of a non-tone language. Both groups were presented with monotonic and isochronous sequences of five tones (i.e., constant pitch and intertone interval. They were required to detect when the fourth tone was displaced in pitch or time. While speakers of a tone language performed more poorly in the detection of downward pitch changes, they did not differ from non-tone language speakers in their perception of upward pitch changes or in their perception of subtle time changes. Moreover, this impairment cannot be attributed to low musical aptitude since the impairment remains unchanged when individual differences in musical pitch-based processing is taken into account. Thus, the impairment appears highly specific and may reflect the influence of statistical regularities of tone languages.

  10. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin


    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  11. Multi-toning Image Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-guang; WANG Xiao-juan; PENG Qun-sheng


    Due to the different lighting environments or other reasons, the pixel colors may be quite different in one image which causes distinct visual discontinuities. It makes the analysis and processing of such an image more difficult and sometime impossible. In this paper, a unified multi-toning image adjustment method is proposed to solve this problem. First, a novel unsupervised clustering method was proposed to partition the source and the target image into a certain number of subsets with similar color statistics. By matching the texture characteristics and luminance distribution between the blocks, it can create optimized correspondence. Then, the color information was transferred from the matched pixels in the source blocks to the target ones. Graph cut method was used to optimize the seams between different subsets in the final step. This method can automatically perform color adjustment of a multi-toning image. It is simple and efficient. Various results show the validity of this method.

  12. Electrophysiological-anatomic correlates of ATP-triggered vagal reflex in the dog. V. Role of purinergic receptors. (United States)

    Xu, Jiang; Kussmaul, William; Kurnik, Peter B; Al-Ahdav, Mohamad; Pelleg, Amir


    The mechanism of extracellular ATP-triggered vagal depressor reflex was further studied in a closed-chest canine model. Adenosine and ATP were administered individually in equimolar doses (0.01-1.0 mumol/kg) into the right coronary artery (RCA) and left circumflex coronary artery (LCA). When administered into the RCA, adenosine and ATP exerted an identical and relatively small negative chronotropic effect on sinus node automaticity; the time to peak negative chronotropic effect was >/=7 s. When administered into the LCA, adenosine had no effect on sinus node automaticity, whereas ATP markedly suppressed sinus node automaticity. This effect of ATP 1) reached its peak in LCA administration of 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP (TNP-ATP), a potent P2X(2/3) purinergic receptor (P2X(2/3)R) antagonist, but not by diinosine pentaphosphate (Ip(5)I), a potent inhibitor of P2X(1)R and P2X(3)R. Repetitive administrations of ATP were not associated with reduced effects, indicative of receptor desensitization, thereby excluding the involvement of the rapidly desensitized P2X(1)R in the action of ATP. It was concluded that ATP triggers a cardio-cardiac vagal depressor reflex by activating P2X(2/3)R located on vagal sensory nerve terminals localized in the left ventricle. Because these terminals mediate vasovagal syncope, these data could suggest a mechanistic role of extracellular ATP in this syndrome and, in addition, give further support to the hypothesis that endogenous ATP released from ischemic myocytes is a mediator of atropine-sensitive bradyarrhythmias associated with left ventricular myocardial infarction. PMID:15539614

  13. Direct Activation of Guinea Pig Vagal Afferent Neurons by FMRFamide


    Lee, Min-Goo; Park, Ji-Yong; Park, Young Keun; Undem, Bradley J.


    Vagus nerve is composed of distinct two kinds of nerves, nodose and jugular ganglionic nerves. We tested pharmacological difference between two vagal nerves in the responsiveness to FMRFamide. The response probability to FMRFamide was significantly higher in nodose than jugular nerves in intracellular calcium measurement. Nodose nerves also depolarized membrane potential to FMRFamide more than jugular nerves did in patch clamp recording. But the probability of action potential discharge was s...

  14. Setting the Tone for 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The government will focus on curbing inflation and preventing the economy from overheating The Central Economic Work Conference was held in Beijing on December 3-5,setting the tone for China’s economic development in 2008. Just say no:inflation and overheating Senior economist Zhang Yongjun with State Information Center stated the primary tasks next year would be two"preventions": preventing the already fast economic growth from becoming overheated,and pre- venting the price increases from creating real inflation.

  15. Pharmacological Evidence that Histamine H3 Receptors Mediate Histamine-Induced Inhibition of the Vagal Bradycardic Out-flow in Pithed Rats. (United States)

    García, Mónica; García-Pedraza, José Ángel; Villalón, Carlos M; Morán, Asunción


    In vivo stimulation of cardiac vagal neurons induces bradycardia by acetylcholine (ACh) release. As vagal release of ACh may be modulated by autoreceptors (muscarinic M2 ) and heteroreceptors (including serotonin 5-HT1 ), this study has analysed the pharmacological profile of the receptors involved in histamine-induced inhibition of the vagal bradycardic out-flow in pithed rats. For this purpose, 180 male Wistar rats were pithed, artificially ventilated and pre-treated (i.v.) with 1 mg/kg atenolol, followed by i.v. administration of physiological saline (1 ml/kg), histamine (10, 50, 100 and 200 μg/kg) or the selective histamine H1 (2-pyridylethylamine), H2 (dimaprit), H3 (methimepip) and H4 (VUF 8430) receptor agonists (1, 10, 50 and 100 μg/kg each). Under these conditions, electrical stimulation (3, 6 and 9 Hz; 15 ± 3 V and 1 ms) of the vagus nerve resulted in frequency-dependent bradycardic responses, which were (i) unchanged during the infusions of saline, 2-pyridylethylamine, dimaprit or VUF 8430; and (ii) dose-dependently inhibited by histamine or methimepip. Moreover, the inhibition of the bradycardia caused by 50 μg/kg of either histamine or methimepip (which failed to inhibit the bradycardic responses to i.v. bolus injections of acetylcholine; 1-10 μg/kg) was abolished by the H3 receptor antagonist JNJ 10181457 (1 mg/kg, i.v.). In conclusion, our results suggest that histamine-induced inhibition of the vagal bradycardic out-flow in pithed rats is mainly mediated by pre-junctional activation of histamine H3 receptors, as previously demonstrated for the vasopressor sympathetic out-flow and the vasodepressor sensory CGRPergic (calcitonin gene-related peptide) out-flow. PMID:26301462

  16. Alterations in electrodermal activity and cardiac parasympathetic tone during hypnosis. (United States)

    Kekecs, Zoltán; Szekely, Anna; Varga, Katalin


    Exploring autonomic nervous system (ANS) changes during hypnosis is critical for understanding the nature and extent of the hypnotic phenomenon and for identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of hypnosis in different medical conditions. To assess ANS changes during hypnosis, electrodermal activity and pulse rate variability (PRV) were measured in 121 young adults. Participants either received hypnotic induction (hypnosis condition) or listened to music (control condition), and both groups were exposed to test suggestions. Blocks of silence and experimental sound stimuli were presented at baseline, after induction, and after de-induction. Skin conductance level (SCL) and high frequency (HF) power of PRV measured at each phase were compared between groups. Hypnosis decreased SCL compared to the control condition; however, there were no group differences in HF power. Furthermore, hypnotic suggestibility did not moderate ANS changes in the hypnosis group. These findings indicate that hypnosis reduces tonic sympathetic nervous system activity, which might explain why hypnosis is effective in the treatment of disorders with strong sympathetic nervous system involvement, such as rheumatoid arthritis, hot flashes, hypertension, and chronic pain. Further studies with different control conditions are required to examine the specificity of the sympathetic effects of hypnosis. PMID:26488759

  17. Impact of pulmonary vein isolation on atrial vagal activity and atrial electrical remodeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingxue Dong; Shulong Zhang; Lianjun Gao; Hongwei Zhao; Donghui Yang; Yunlong Xia; Yanzong Yang


    Objective Mechanisms of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation remain controversy.This study aimed to investigate the impact of PVI on vagal modulation to atria.Methods Eighteen adult mongrel dogs under general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups.Bilateral cervical sympathovagal trunks were decentralized and sympathetic effects was blocked by metoprolol administration.Atrial electrical remodeling (AER) was established by rapid right atrial pacing at the rate of 600 bpm for 30 minutes.PVI was performed in group A.Atrial effective refractory period (ERP),vulnerability window (VW) of atrial fibrillation,and sinus rhythm cycle length (SCL) were measured at baseline and during vagal stimulation before and after atrial rapid pacing with and without PVI at fight atrial appendage (RAA),left atrial appendage (LAA),distal coronary sinus (CSd) and proximal coronary sinus (CSp).Results (1) Effects of PVI on vagal modulation:Shortening of SCL during vagal stimulation decreased significantly after PVI compared with that before PVI in group A (P<0.001).Shortening of ERP during vagal stimulation decreaseed significantly after PVI compared with that before PVI (P<0.05).VW of atrial fibrillation during vagal stimulation decreased significantly after PVI compared with that before PVI (P<0.05).(2) Effects of PVI on AER:shortening of ERP before and after atrial rapid pacing increased significantly at baseline and vagal stimulation in group B compared with that in group A (P<0.05).VW during vagal stimulation increased significantly after atrial rapid pacing in group B (P<0.05).Conclusion PVI attenuates the vagal modulation to the atria,thereby decreases the susceptibility to atrial fibrillation mediated by vagal activity.PVI releases AER,which maybe contributes to the vagal denervation.Our study indicates that PVI not only can eradicate triggered foci but also modify substrates for AF.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2008;5:28-32)

  18. Vagal postganglionic innervation of the canine sinoatrial node. (United States)

    Randall, W C; Ardell, J L; Wurster, R D; Milosavljevic, M


    Differential, selective distribution of parasympathetic, postganglionic innervation to the atrioventricular nodal (AVN) region of the canine heart was recently described. Ablation of parasympathetic pathways to the AVN by disruption of the epicardial fat pad at the junction of the inferior vena cava and inferior left atrium did not interfere with normal vagal control of the sinoatrial node (SAN) function. In sharp contrast, surgical dissection of the fat pad overlying the right pulmonary vein-left atrial junction interrupted the major right and left vagal inputs to the SAN region. The pulmonary vein fat pad (PVFP) in the dog heart is triangular in shape with roughly equilateral dimensions of approximately 1 cm, its base extending from superior to inferior veins, and its apex extending nearly to the sinus nodal artery as it courses rostrally in the sulcus terminalis. Careful dissection of smaller fat pads around the circumference of the pulmonary veins and particularly over the rostral-dorsal surfaces of the right superior pulmonary vein and adjacent right atrium, completed SAN parasympathetic denervation. Care in making these dissections left the vagal supply to the AVN region essentially intact, and preserved the sympathetic supplies to both SAN and AVN regions. Autonomic ganglia, varying in size from 1 or 2 cells to 80-100 cells, were found scattered throughout the ventral PVFP (overlying and surrounding the right pulmonary vein-left atrial junction). The ganglia were generally imbedded in fatty connective tissue, although they commonly rested very close to, or were loosely surrounded by epicardial muscle. Ganglia were also found in smaller fat pads on the dorsal surfaces of the atrium between the azygos and the right superior pulmonary vein. PMID:3655182

  19. CCK enhances response to gastric distension by acting on capsaicin-insensitive vagal afferents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wall, EHEM; Duffy, P; Ritter, RC


    Capsaicin treatment destroys vagal afferent C fibers and markedly attenuates reduction of food intake and induction of hindbrain Fos expression by CCK. However, both anatomical and electrophysiological data indicate that some gastric vagal afferents are not destroyed by capsaicin. Because CCK enhanc


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓东; MTimmthyNelson; HaileTDebas


    The vagus is a mixed nerve containing cholinerrgic and non-cholinergie neurons. Vagal fibers interact with peptidergic neurons of the enteric nervous system which stain immunohistcchemically for cholecystokinin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and gastrin releasing peptide. The contribution of these pepticdergic neurons in the pancreatic response to vagal stimulation is unknown. We tested the effect of specific inhibitor of these stimulants against vagally mediated exocrine secretion in rats. The response to vagal stimulation was blocked significantly hy each of the following:the ganglionic blocker hexmethoninm (100% inhibition); the muscarinic, cholinergic blocker atropine (85%inhibition) ; the specific cholaeystokinln-A receptor blocker (91% inhibition); and a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide polyclonal antibody (89% inhibition). This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that potentiating interactions among several agonisrs mediate the vagal response. Our study, however, dose not exclude acetylehollne as the final commom mediator.

  1. Influence of String Stiffness on Piano Tone

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Lai-Mei


    Piano tones vary according to how pianist touches the keys. Many possible factors contribute to the relations between piano touch and tone. Focusing on the stiffness of string, we establish a model for vibration of a real piano string and derive a semi-analytical solution to the vibration equation.

  2. The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception (United States)

    Ramadoss, Deepti


    This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

  3. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22 and a control group (CG; n = 25. The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05. The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05. However, the FG performed better (P < 0.05 in Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (1394 ± 558 vs. 778 ± 408 m and 15-m sprint test (3.06 ± 0.17 vs. 3.20 ± 0.23 s. Also, the FG presented enhanced autonomic function. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05 between groups for low frequency normalized units (38.0 ± 15.2 vs. 47.3 ± 14.2 n.u (normalized units, high frequency normalized units (62.1 ± 15.2 vs. 52.8 ± 14.2 n.u., and LF:HF ratio (0.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 ms2. Conclusions Children engaged with regular football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-shan Lin


    Full Text Available This paper investigates tone sandhi phenomena in Pingyao, a Jin dialect spoken in Shanxi province in China. Pingyao tone sandhi is special in that tone sandhi in bi-syllabic strings is construction sensitive, but tone sandhi in tri-syllabic strings is not fully conditioned by construction types. Based on Optimality Theory (OT, this paper proposes analyses for bi-tonal and tri-tonal sandhi in Pingyao. We show that while bi-tonal sandhi can be accounted for by assuming that there are different grammars associated with different construction types, the lack of construction sensitivity in certain tri-syllabic strings suggests that the association between construction types and phonological grammars can be sacrificed to comply with a higher demand. In Pingyao, the higher demand is to avoid having a tri-tonal string with marked tone sandhi domain from being associated with conflicting grammars.

  5. A planar elliptical model of cardio-vagal hysteresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state-dependent portion of cardio-vagal baroreflex control is called baroreflex hyteresis: we observe hysteresis when RR interval and carotid diameter depend on both the direction and value of arterial pressure. The elasticity of arterial walls, as well as the responsiveness of central command reset controls the real-time pattern of neural outflow, which is indirectly measured by RR interval in humans. We model the state-dependent relationship among pressure, vessel diameter and heart rate as a three-dimensional planar ellipse. Two-dimensional projections of this ellipse provide motion direction and quantify hysteresis between mechanical (pressure–diameter), neural (diameter–heart rate), and integrated baroreflex (pressure–heart rate) components. A convenient measure for the magnitude of hysteresis is the ratio of the semi-minor and semi-major axes of the best fitting ellipse. This ratio is given a sign according to the direction of its motion. The signed sum of the hysteresis ratio for vessel mechanics and central neural control reliably predicts cardio-vagal hysteresis. Using this relationship, we can quantify the relative importance of neural versus mechanical contributions to integrated baroreflex responses

  6. Genetic and pharmacological evidence for low-abundance TRPV3 expression in primary vagal afferent neurons. (United States)

    Wu, Shaw-Wen; Lindberg, Jonathan E M; Peters, James H


    Primary vagal afferent neurons express a multitude of thermosensitive ion channels. Within this family of ion channels, the heat-sensitive capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) greatly influences vagal afferent signaling by determining the threshold for action-potential initiation at the peripheral endings, while controlling temperature-sensitive forms of glutamate release at central vagal terminals. Genetic deletion of TRPV1 does not completely eliminate these temperature-dependent effects, suggesting involvement of additional thermosensitive ion channels. The warm-sensitive, calcium-permeable, ion channel TRPV3 is commonly expressed with TRPV1; however, the extent to which TRPV3 is found in vagal afferent neurons is unknown. Here, we begin to characterize the genetic and functional expression of TRPV3 in vagal afferent neurons using molecular biology (RT-PCR and RT-quantitative PCR) in whole nodose and isolated neurons and fluorescent calcium imaging on primary cultures of nodose ganglia neurons. We confirmed low-level TRPV3 expression in vagal afferent neurons and observed direct activation with putative TRPV3 agonists eugenol, ethyl vanillin (EVA), and farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP). Agonist activation stimulated neurons also containing TRPV1 and was blocked by ruthenium red. FPP sensitivity overlapped with EVA and eugenol but represented the smallest percentage of vagal afferent neurons, and it was the only agonist that did not stimulate neurons from TRPV3(-/-1) mice, suggesting FPP has the highest selectivity. Further, FPP was predictive of enhanced responses to capsaicin, EVA, and eugenol in rats. From our results, we conclude TRPV3 is expressed in a discrete subpopulation of vagal afferent neurons and may contribute to vagal afferent signaling either directly or in combination with TRPV1. PMID:26843581

  7. Acute Vagal Nerve Stimulation Lowers α2 Adrenoceptor Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landau, Anne M.; Dyve, Suzan; Jakobsen, Steen; Alstrup, Aage K. O.; Gjedde, Albert; Doudet, Doris J.


    Background Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) emerged as an anti-epileptic therapy, and more recently as a potential antidepressant intervention. Objective/hypothesis We hypothesized that salutary effects of VNS are mediated, at least in part, by augmentation of the inhibitory effects of cortical...... monoaminergic neurotransmission at appropriate receptors, specifically adrenoceptors. Our objective was to measure the effect of acute VNS on α2 adrenoceptor binding. Methods Using positron emission tomography (PET), we measured changes in noradrenaline receptor binding associated with acute VNS stimulation in...... electrode in minipigs before and within 30 min of the initiation of 1 mA stimulation. Kinetic analysis with the Logan graphical linearization generated tracer volumes of distribution for each condition. We used an averaged value of the distribution volume of non-displaceable ligand (VND), to calculate...

  8. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as an index of vagal activity during stress in infants: respiratory influences and their control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ritz

    Full Text Available Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA is related to cardiac vagal outflow and the respiratory pattern. Prior infant studies have not systematically examined respiration rate and tidal volume influences on infant RSA or the extent to which infants' breathing is too fast to extract a valid RSA. We therefore monitored cardiac activity, respiration, and physical activity in 23 six-month old infants during a standardized laboratory stressor protocol. On average, 12.6% (range 0-58.2% of analyzed breaths were too short for RSA extraction. Higher respiration rate was associated with lower RSA amplitude in most infants, and lower tidal volume was associated with lower RSA amplitude in some infants. RSA amplitude corrected for respiration rate and tidal volume influences showed theoretically expected strong reductions during stress, whereas performance of uncorrected RSA was less consistent. We conclude that stress-induced changes of peak-valley RSA and effects of variations in breathing patterns on RSA can be determined for a representative percentage of infant breaths. As expected, breathing substantially affects infant RSA and needs to be considered in studies of infant psychophysiology.

  9. Tone and prosodic organization in Cherokee nouns (United States)

    Johnson, Keith; Haag, Marcia


    Preliminary observations in the speech of one speaker of Cherokee led us to postulate three factors affecting tone in Cherokee. (1) Tone may be lexically specified with distinctive low, low fall, low rise, and high tones. (2) There is a metrically determined high fall pattern which may be distributed over not more than 2 syllables from the right edge of a prosodic domain. (3) Intonational domains may be associated with discourse functions, marked by high fall, or by pitch range upstep. This paper tests these observations in recordings of word lists and sentences produced by five additional speakers. The analysis we give, positing both lexical tone and metrical prosodic accent, is not unique in descriptions of language, but is different from the usual description of Cherokee. [Work supported by NSF.

  10. Sleep physiology: setting the right tone. (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S


    Humans prone to cataplexy experience sudden losses of postural muscle tone without a corresponding loss of conscious awareness. The brain mechanisms underlying this debilitating decoupling are now better understood, thanks to a new study using cataplectic mice. PMID:24070441

  11. Congenital amusia (or tone-deafness) interferes with pitch processing in tone languages


    BarbaraTillmann; SebastienNguyen


    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs an...

  12. Congenital Amusia (or Tone-Deafness) Interferes with Pitch Processing in Tone Languages


    Tillmann, Barbara; Burnham, Denis; Nguyen, Sebastien; Grimault, Nicolas; Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle


    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1) and in Thai (Experiment 2). Tones were presented in pairs an...

  13. Influence of hydrotherapy on clinical and cardiac autonomic function in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M U Sujan


    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is associated with autonomic symptoms. The growing body of literature suggests that the dysfunctional autonomic nervous system might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. Thermal therapies have been hypothesized to modulate these changes and alleviate pain. However, data regarding the efficacy of hydrotherapy in migraine remain scant. We evaluated the effect of add on hydrotherapy procedure (a hot arm and foot bath with ice massage to head in migraine patients. Methods: Forty chronic migraine patients fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria were recruited from the neurology outpatient clinic. Patients were randomized to receive either hydrotherapy plus conventional pharmacological care (n = 20 or conventional medication only (n = 20. Hydrotherapy group received treatment with hot arm and foot bath (103°F to 110°F and ice massage to head daily for 20 min for 45 days. Patients were assessed using headache impact test (HIT, visual analog scale for pain and cardiac autonomic function by heart rate variability (HRV before and after intervention period. Results: There was a significant decrease in HIT score, frequency, and intensity of headaches following treatment in both the groups. However, it was more evident in add on hydrotherapy group compared to pharmacological treatment alone group. There was also significant improvement in the HRV parameters. In particular, there was a significant decrease in heart rate (P = 0.017, increase in high frequency (HF (P = 0.014 and decrease in low frequency/HF ratio (P = 0.004 in add on hydrotherapy group. Conclusion: Our study shows that add on hydrotherapy enhanced the vagal tone in addition to reducing the frequency and intensity of headaches in migraine patients.

  14. General perceptual contributions to lexical tone normalization. (United States)

    Huang, Jingyuan; Holt, Lori L


    Within tone languages that use pitch variations to contrast meaning, large variability exists in the pitches produced by different speakers. Context-dependent perception may help to resolve this perceptual challenge. However, whether speakers rely on context in contour tone perception is unclear; previous studies have produced inconsistent results. The present study aimed to provide an unambiguous test of the effect of context on contour lexical tone perception and to explore its underlying mechanisms. In three experiments, Mandarin listeners' perception of Mandarin first and second (high-level and mid-rising) tones was investigated with preceding speech and non-speech contexts. Results indicate that the mean fundamental frequency (f0) of a preceding sentence affects perception of contour lexical tones and the effect is contrastive. Following a sentence with a higher-frequency mean f0, the following syllable is more likely to be perceived as a lower frequency lexical tone and vice versa. Moreover, non-speech precursors modeling the mean spectrum of f0 also elicit this effect, suggesting general perceptual processing rather than articulatory-based or speaker-identity-driven mechanisms. PMID:19507980

  15. A giant vagal schwannoma with unusual extension from skull base to the mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy S Vijendra


    Full Text Available Cervical vagal schwannoma is an extremely rare neoplasm. Middle aged people are usually affected. These tumors usually present as asymptomatic masses. These tumors are almost always benign. Preoperative diagnosis of these lesions is important due to the morbidity associated with its excision. Preoperative tissue diagnosis is not accurate. The imaging modality can be done to assess the extent and for planning the treatment. Surgical excision with preservation of neural origin is the treatment option. Giant vagal schwannomas are extremely rare. Only one case has been reported in the literature till date. There has no reported case of extensive vagal schwannoma from skull base to the mediastinum. Here, we describe the asymptomatic presentation of an unusual appearing giant cervical vagal schwannoma with an extension from skull base to the mediastinum.

  16. Changes in vagal afferent drive alter tracheobronchial coughing in anesthetized cats. (United States)

    Simera, Michal; Poliacek, Ivan; Veternik, Marcel; Babalova, Lucia; Kotmanova, Zuzana; Jakus, Jan


    Unilateral cooling of the vagus nerve (blood pressure (p>0.05), however, cold block of vagal conduction reduced respiratory rate (ppump muscles during coughing and alters cough temporal features. Differences in the effects of unilateral vagal cooling and vagotomy on coughing support an inhibitory role of sensory afferents that are relatively unaffected by cooling of the vagus nerve to 5°C on mechanically induced cough. PMID:27184303

  17. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone (United States)

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong


    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  18. Contrastive Analysis of Intonation and Tone in Chinese and English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In English, intonation is the main research object of supra-segmental phonology, it refers to the changes of tone and pitch. English intonation is non-tone language which means the word meaning will not changed with the changing of the inde-pendent word’s tone, while Chinese is Tone language, in which tone often determinates the meaning of word, different tones are representative of different meanings. Chinese language function exerts differently in tone and intonation , and it is a bit com-plicated compared with English.

  19. Effect of ozone on breathing in dogs: vagal and nonvagal mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Nadel, J.A.; Hahn, H.L.


    We exposed two awake dogs with a chronic tracheostomy and the cervical vagus nerves exteriorized in skin loops to 1.0 ppm of ozone (O/sub 3/) for 2 h at intervals of 4 wk. We measured ventilatory variables before and after O/sub 3/ exposure during rest and exercise before and after vagal block. We compared the effects of vagal blockade, exercise, and O/sub 3/ on the primary determinants of breathing pattern (VT/TI, VT/TE, TI, and TE) in each of three conditions: base line (steady state), during hypercapnia, and after inhalation of 1% histamine. Under base-line conditions, O/sub 3/ increased respiratory rate and decreased tidal volume (VT) by shortening time of expiration (TE) and time of inspiration (TI) without affecting VT/TI, an indicator of the neural drive to breathing. During progressive hypercapnia, O/sub 3/ shortened TE and TI by effects both on tonic (nonvolume-related) and on phasic (volume-related) vagal inputs, and only the latter were prevented completely by cooling of the vagus nerves. Histamine-induced tachypnea was increased by O/sub 3/ and was totally blocked by cooling the vagus nerves. It was concluded that O/sub 3/ shortens the timing of respiration without increasing ventilatory drive, shortens TI and TE through vagal and nonvagal pathways, increases tonic nonvagal and phasic vagal inputs, and stimulates more than one vagal fiber type.

  20. ST Depression, Arrhythmia, Vagal Dominance, and Reduced Cardiac MicroRNA in Particulate-exposed Rats (United States)

    Recently, investigators demonstrated associations between fine particulate matter (PM)-associated metals and adverse health effects. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a waste product of fossil fuel combustion from boilers, is rich in the transition metals Fe, Ni, and V, and when relea...

  1. Beating frequency and amplitude modulation of the piano tone due to coupling of tones (United States)

    Cartling, Bo


    The influence on a piano tone from weak coexcitation of damped adjacent tones due to coupling via the bridge is studied. The frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound resulting from coexcitation of one strong and one or two weak tones is analyzed. One weak tone causes frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound, and two weak tones produce beating frequency and amplitude modulation, where the beatings of the two modulations are of opposite phase. By digital recording of the sound of piano tones, the appearance of these phenomena is verified. The audibility of the observed frequency and amplitude modulation is discussed in terms of previously determined detection thresholds. The beating character of both frequency and amplitude modulations, however, distinguishes the phenomena from those previously studied and prompts further psychoacoustic investigations. It is shown that detuning of unison strings may significantly increase the frequency deviation of the frequency modulation in conjunction with affected amplitude modulation. The modulatory effects of coupling to adjacent tones therefore may possibly be utilized in the tuning process. A coupling of tones analogous to the situation in a piano may arise in other stringed musical instruments transferring string vibrations to a soundboard via a bridge. .

  2. Individual differences in physiological flexibility predict spontaneous avoidance. (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; De Los Reyes, Andres


    People often regulate their emotions by resorting to avoidance, a putatively maladaptive strategy. Prior work suggests that increased psychopathology symptoms predict greater spontaneous utilisation of this strategy. Extending this work, we examined whether heightened resting cardiac vagal tone (which reflects a general ability to regulate emotions in line with contextual demands) predicts decreased spontaneous avoidance. In Study 1, greater resting vagal tone was associated with reduced spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting pictures, beyond anxiety and depression symptoms and emotional reactivity. In Study 2, resting vagal tone interacted with anxiety and depression symptoms to predict spontaneous avoidance in response to disgust-eliciting film clips. The positive association between symptoms and spontaneous avoidance was more pronounced among participants with reduced resting vagal tone. Thus, increased resting vagal tone might protect against the use of avoidance. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing both subjective and biological processes when studying individual differences in emotion regulation. PMID:26147365

  3. Pathology influences blood pressure change following vagal stimulation in an animal intubation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The haemodynamic response to critical care intubation is influenced by the use of sedation and relaxant drugs and the activation of the vagal reflex. It has been hypothesized that different disease states may have a contrasting effect on the cardiovascular response to vagal stimulation. Our objective was to determine whether the blood pressure response to vagal stimulation was modified by endotoxaemia or hypovolaemia. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were anaesthetised with urethane before tracheotomy. The exposed left Vagus nerve of randomised groups of control (n = 11, endotoxin (n = 11, 1 mg/kg, hypovolaemia 40% (n = 8 and hypovolaemia 20% (n = 8 rabbits were subjected to 10 Hz pulsed electrical stimulations of 25 s duration every 15 min. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded from a catheter in the right carotid artery connected to an iWorx monitor. Serum catecholamines were measured every 30 min using reverse-phase ion-pairing liquid chromatography. The change in blood pressure after vagal stimulation was compared to controls for one hour after the first death in the experimental groups. RESULTS: 29% of the rabbits died in the hypovolaemia 40% group and 27% in the endotoxin group. One rabbit died in the hypovolaemia 40% group before vagal stimulation and was excluded. Following electrical stimulation of the Vagus nerve there was a fall in blood pressure in control rabbits. Blood pressure was conserved in the hypovolaemic rabbits compared to controls (p<0.01. For the endotoxaemic rabbits, there was a non-significant trend for the mean blood pressure to decrease more than the controls. Serum catecholamines were significantly raised in both the hypovolaemic and endotoxaemic rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: Pathology may contribute to modifications in blood pressure when vagal activation occurs. Patients who are either already vasoconstricted, or not vasoplegic, may be less at risk from intubation-related vagally mediated

  4. Perception of tones by infants learning a non-tone language. (United States)

    Liu, Liquan; Kager, René


    This article examines the perception of tones by non-tone-language-learning (non-tone-learning) infants between 5 and 18 months in a study that reveals infants' initial sensitivity to tonal contrasts, deterioration yet plasticity of tonal sensitivity at the end of the first year, and a perceptual rebound in the second year. Dutch infants in five age groups were tested on their ability to discriminate a tonal contrast of Mandarin Chinese as well as a contracted tonal contrast. Infants are able to discriminate tonal contrasts at 5-6 months, and their tonal sensitivity deteriorates at around 9 months. However, the sensitivity rebound sat 17-18 months. Non-tone-learning infants' tonal perception is elastic, as is shown by the influence of acoustic salience and distributional learning: (1) a salient contrast may remain discriminable throughout infancy whereas a less salient one does not; (2) a bimodal distribution in tonal exposure increases non-tone-learning infants' discrimination ability during the trough in sensitivity to tonal contrasts at 11-12 months. These novel findings reveal non-tone-learning infants' U-shaped pattern in tone perception, and display their perceptual flexibility. PMID:25128796

  5. Localization of TRPV1 and P2X3 in unmyelinated and myelinated vagal afferents in the rat. (United States)

    Hermes, Sam M; Andresen, Michael C; Aicher, Sue A


    The vagus nerve is dominated by afferent fibers that convey sensory information from the viscera to the brain. Most vagal afferents are unmyelinated, slow-conducting C-fibers, while a smaller portion are myelinated, fast-conducting A-fibers. Vagal afferents terminate in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the dorsal brainstem and regulate autonomic and respiratory reflexes, as well as ascending pathways throughout the brain. Vagal afferents form glutamatergic excitatory synapses with postsynaptic NTS neurons that are modulated by a variety of channels. The organization of vagal afferents with regard to fiber type and channels is not well understood. In the present study, we used tract tracing methods to identify distinct populations of vagal afferents to determine if key channels are selectively localized to specific groups of afferent fibers. Vagal afferents were labeled with isolectin B4 (IB4) or cholera toxin B (CTb) to detect unmyelinated and myelinated afferents, respectively. We find that TRPV1 channels are preferentially found in unmyelinated vagal afferents identified with IB4, with almost half of all IB4 fibers showing co-localization with TRPV1. These results agree with prior electrophysiological findings. In contrast, we found that the ATP-sensitive channel P2X3 is found in a subset of both myelinated and unmyelinated vagal afferent fibers. Specifically, 18% of IB4 and 23% of CTb afferents contained P2X3. The majority of CTb-ir vagal afferents contained neither channel. Since neither channel was found in all vagal afferents, there are likely further degrees of heterogeneity in the modulation of vagal afferent sensory input to the NTS beyond fiber type. PMID:26706222

  6. Vagal activity is quadratically related to prosocial traits, prosocial emotions, and observer perceptions of prosociality. (United States)

    Kogan, Aleksandr; Oveis, Christopher; Carr, Evan W; Gruber, June; Mauss, Iris B; Shallcross, Amanda; Impett, Emily A; van der Lowe, Ilmo; Hui, Bryant; Cheng, Cecilia; Keltner, Dacher


    In the present article, we introduce the quadratic vagal activity-prosociality hypothesis, a theoretical framework for understanding the vagus nerve's involvement in prosociality. We argue that vagus nerve activity supports prosocial behavior by regulating physiological systems that enable emotional expression, empathy for others' mental and emotional states, the regulation of one's own distress, and the experience of positive emotions. However, we contend that extremely high levels of vagal activity can be detrimental to prosociality. We present 3 studies providing support for our model, finding consistent evidence of a quadratic relationship between respiratory sinus arrhythmia--the degree to which the vagus nerve modulates the heart rate--and prosociality. Individual differences in vagal activity were quadratically related to prosocial traits (Study 1), prosocial emotions (Study 2), and outside ratings of prosociality by complete strangers (Study 3). Thus, too much or too little vagal activity appears to be detrimental to prosociality. The present article provides the 1st theoretical and empirical account of the nonlinear relationship between vagal activity and prosociality. PMID:25243414

  7. Collaborative Documentation and Revitalization of Cherokee Tone (United States)

    Herrick, Dylan; Berardo, Marcellino; Feeling, Durbin; Hirata-Edds, Tracy; Peter, Lizette


    Cherokee, the sole member of the southern branch of Iroquoian languages, is a severely endangered language. Unlike other members of the Iroquoian family, Cherokee has lexical tone. Community members are concerned about the potential loss of their language, and both speakers and teachers comment on the difficulty that language learners have with…

  8. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.


    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  9. A computerized method for objective measurement of muscle tone


    Ekaterina A. Vasilieva; Gennadij V. Ganin; Julia S. Archangelskaja; Grant Hudson; Boris J. Gutnik; Paul Yielder


    This article is concentrated on the objective computerizing method of measuring of muscle tone using compressive and decompressive deformation of superficial skeletal muscle of wrist in vivo. Four indices were highly recommended for complex analysis of muscle tone.

  10. Peakonsul Jaanus Kirikmäe andis teenetemärgi praost Thomas Vagale / Airi Vaga ; foto: Harold Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-


    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves annetas iseseisvuspäeva puhul USA I praostkonna praostile Thomas Vagale Valgetähe IV klassi teenetemärgi. Teenetemärgi andis Thomas Vagale üle Eesti Vabariigi peakonsul Jaanus Kirikmäe

  11. Changes in the loading conditions induced by vagal stimulation modify the myocardial infarct size through sympathetic-parasympathetic interactions. (United States)

    Buchholz, Bruno; Donato, Martín; Perez, Virginia; Deutsch, Ana Clara Rey; Höcht, Christian; Del Mauro, Julieta S; Rodríguez, Manuel; Gelpi, Ricardo J


    In a previous research, we described that vagal stimulation increases the infarct size by sympathetic co-activation. The aim of this study was to determine if hemodynamic changes secondary to the vagal stimulation are able to activate sympathetic compensatory neural reflexes, responsible for increasing the infarct size. A second goal was to determine if intermittent vagal stimulation avoids sympathetic activation and reduces infarct size by muscarinic activation of the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) pathway. Rabbits were subjected to 30 min of regional myocardial ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion without vagal stimulation, or the following protocols of right vagus nerve stimulation for 10 min before ischemia: (a) continuous vagal stimulation and (b) intermittent vagal stimulation (cycles of 10 s ON/50 s OFF). Continuous vagal stimulation increased the infarct size (70.7 ± 4.3 %), even after right vagal section (68.6 ± 4.1 %) compared with control group (52.0 ± 3.7 %, p esmolol abolished the deleterious effect, reaching an infarct size of 43.3 ± 5.1, 43.5 ± 2.1, and 46.0 ± 4.6 % (p esmolol was administered. PMID:25127674

  12. Constrained tone transformation technique for separation and combination of Mandarin tone and intonation. (United States)

    Ni, Jinfu; Kawai, Hisashi; Hirose, Keikichi


    This paper addresses a classical but important problem: The coupling of lexical tones and sentence intonation in tonal languages, such as Chinese, focusing particularly on voice fundamental frequency (F1) contours of speech. It is important because it forms the basis of speech synthesis technology and prosody analysis. We provide a solution to the problem with a constrained tone transformation technique based on structural modeling of the F1 contours. This consists of transforming target values in pairs from norms to variants. These targets are intended to sparsely specify the prosodic contributions to the F1 contours, while the alignment of target pairs between norms and variants is based on underlying lexical tone structures. When the norms take the citation forms of lexical tones, the technique makes it possible to separate sentence intonation from observed F0 contours. When the norms take normative F0 contours, it is possible to measure intonation variations from the norms to the variants, both having identical lexical tone structures. This paper explains the underlying scientific and linguistic principles and presents an algorithm that was implemented on computers. The method's capability of separating and combining tone and intonation is evaluated through analysis and re-synthesis of several hundred observed F0 contours. PMID:16583918

  13. Plasticity in the brainstem vagal circuits controlling gastric motor function triggered by corticotropin releasing factor. (United States)

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Babic, Tanja; Toti, Luca; Holmes, Gregory M; Coleman, F Holly; Travagli, R Alberto


    Stress impairs gastric emptying, reduces stomach compliance and induces early satiety via vagal actions. We have shown recently that the ability of the anti-stress neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) to modulate vagal brainstem circuits undergoes short-term plasticity via alterations in cAMP levels subsequent to vagal afferent fibre-dependent activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the OXT-induced gastric response undergoes plastic changes in the presence of the prototypical stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). Whole cell patch clamp recordings showed that CRF increased inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission to identified corpus-projecting dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones. In naive brainstem slices, OXT perfusion had no effect on inhibitory synaptic transmission; following exposure to CRF (and recovery from its actions), however, re-application of OXT inhibited GABAergic transmission in the majority of neurones tested. This uncovering of the OXT response was antagonized by pretreatment with protein kinase A or adenylate cyclase inhibitors, H89 and di-deoxyadenosine, respectively, indicating a cAMP-mediated mechanism. In naive animals, OXT microinjection in the dorsal vagal complex induced a NO-mediated corpus relaxation. Following CRF pretreatment, however, microinjection of OXT attenuated or, at times reversed, the gastric relaxation which was insensitive to l-NAME but was antagonized by pretreatment with a VIP antagonist. Immunohistochemical analyses of vagal motoneurones showed an increased number of oxytocin receptors present on GABAergic terminals of CRF-treated or stressed vs. naive rats. These results indicate that CRF alters vagal inhibitory circuits that uncover the ability of OXT to modulate GABAergic currents and modifies the gastric corpus motility response to OXT. PMID:25128570

  14. English and Thai Speakers' Perception of Mandarin Tones (United States)

    Li, Ying


    Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…

  15. Loudness of tone pulses in a free field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben


    Investigations of temporal loudness summation of tone pulses have been performed. The investigations comprised equal loudness determinations between pairs of tone pulses with a duration ratio of 1:2, and threshold determinations of the same tone pulses. Pulse durations ranged from 5 to 640 ms. Th...

  16. Stress and Tone in Indo-Aryan Languages (United States)

    Dhillon, Rajdip Kaur


    The current work offers a comprehensive examination of stress and tone in ten Indo-Aryan languages, providing novel analyses within Optimality Theory. The languages are divided into three categories: those in which tone is attracted to stress; those in which stress is attracted to tone; and those in which no interaction between stress and tone…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓东; MTimothyNelson; HaileTDebas


    Although cholecystokinin is localized within neuronal fibres of the pancreas, a physiological role for intrapancreatic cholecystokinin has not been identified. The strategy of this study was to elicit pure vagal stlmulatbx electrically, and to use specific receptor antagonists to idetxtify the mediators of exocrine pancreatic secretion. We conclude that vagal stimulation of the rat pancreas involves ganglionicand neurotransmission and release of acetylcholine and cholecystokinin from intrapanereatic, postganglionic fibres. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a physiological role for intrapancreatic cholecystokinin.

  18. Sequential Grouping of Pure-Tone Percepts Evoked by the Segregation of Components from a Complex Tone (United States)

    Haywood, Nicholas R.; Roberts, Brian


    A sudden change applied to a single component can cause its segregation from an ongoing complex tone as a pure-tone-like percept. Three experiments examined whether such pure-tone-like percepts are organized into streams by extending the research of Bregman and Rudnicky (1975). Those authors found that listeners struggled to identify the…

  19. Disorders of Pitch Production in Tone Deafness


    SimoneDalla Bella


    Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15%) are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as “tone deafness,“ has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch pl...

  20. Congenital amusia in speakers of a tone language: association with lexical tone agnosia. (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Sun, Yanan; Peretz, Isabelle


    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects the processing of musical pitch in speakers of non-tonal languages like English and French. We assessed whether this musical disorder exists among speakers of Mandarin Chinese who use pitch to alter the meaning of words. Using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, we tested 117 healthy young Mandarin speakers with no self-declared musical problems and 22 individuals who reported musical difficulties and scored two standard deviations below the mean obtained by the Mandarin speakers without amusia. These 22 amusic individuals showed a similar pattern of musical impairment as did amusic speakers of non-tonal languages, by exhibiting a more pronounced deficit in melody than in rhythm processing. Furthermore, nearly half the tested amusics had impairments in the discrimination and identification of Mandarin lexical tones. Six showed marked impairments, displaying what could be called lexical tone agnosia, but had normal tone production. Our results show that speakers of tone languages such as Mandarin may experience musical pitch disorder despite early exposure to speech-relevant pitch contrasts. The observed association between the musical disorder and lexical tone difficulty indicates that the pitch disorder as defining congenital amusia is not specific to music or culture but is rather general in nature. PMID:20685803

  1. Congenital amusia (or tone-deafness interferes with pitch processing in tone languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects music processing and that is ascribed to a deficit in pitch processing. We investigated whether this deficit extended to pitch processing in speech, notably the pitch changes used to contrast lexical tones in tonal languages. Congenital amusics and matched controls, all non-tonal language speakers, were tested for lexical tone discrimination in Mandarin Chinese (Experiment 1 and in Thai (Experiment 2. Tones were presented in pairs and participants were required to make same/different judgments. Experiment 2 additionally included musical analogs of Thai tones for comparison. Performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials, suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit. The pitch deficit of amusia is thus not limited to music, but may compromise the ability to process and learn tonal languages. Combined with acoustic analyses of the tone material, the present findings provide new insights into the nature of the pitch-processing deficit exhibited by amusics.

  2. A Dynamic Treatment of Tone with Special Attention to the Tonal System of Igbo. (United States)

    Clark, Mary Morris

    An analysis of tone in language begins with the observation that the structural approach taken in segmental phonology, analyzing complex tones in terms of sequences of level tones, is not necessarily appropriate with tone languages. A different approach is proposed, a "dynamic-tone" theory that represents tone contours entirely in terms of two…

  3. Endogenous vagal activation dampens intestinal inflammation independently of splenic innervation in postoperative ileus. (United States)

    Costes, L M M; van der Vliet, J; van Bree, S H W; Boeckxstaens, G E; Cailotto, C


    Postoperative ileus is encountered by patients undergoing open abdominal surgery and is characterized by intestinal inflammation associated with impaired gastrointestinal motility. We recently showed that inflammation of the gut muscularis triggered activation of the vagal efferent pathway mainly targeting the inflamed zone. In the present study we investigate further the modulatory role of endogenous activation of the vagal motor pathway on the innate immune response. Intestinal or splenic denervation was performed two weeks prior to intestinal manipulation (IM) or laparotomy (L). Twenty-four hour post-surgery, the gastrointestinal transit, immune cell influx, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured in the gut muscularis. Manipulation of the small intestine led to a delay in intestinal transit, an influx of leukocytes and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Surgical lesion of the vagal branch that selectively innervates the small intestine did not further delay the intestinal transit but significantly enhanced the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in the gut muscularis. Splenic denervation did not affect intestinal inflammation or gastrointestinal transit after intestinal manipulation. Our study demonstrates that selective vagotomy, leaving the splenic innervation intact, increases surgery-induced intestinal inflammation. These data suggest that endogenous activation of the vagal efferent pathway by intestinal inflammation directly dampens the local immune response triggered by intestinal manipulation independently of the spleen. PMID:25103359

  4. Metabotropic glutamate receptors depress vagal and aortic baroreceptor signal transmission in the NTS. (United States)

    Liu, Z; Chen, C Y; Bonham, A C


    We sought to determine whether metabotropic glutamate receptors contribute to frequency-dependent depression of vagal and aortic baroreceptor signal transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in vivo. In alpha-chloralose-anesthetized rabbits, we determined the number of extracellular action potentials synaptically evoked by low (1 Hz)- or high-frequency vagal (3-20 Hz) or aortic depressor nerve (ADN) (6-80 Hz) stimulation and postsynaptically evoked by the ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA). The metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (2S,1'S, 2'S)-2-(carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (L-CCG-I) attenuated NTS responses monosynaptically evoked by 1-Hz vagus stimulation by 34% (n = 25; P = 0.011), while augmenting AMPA-evoked responses by 64% (n = 17; P = 0.026). The metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) did not affect NTS responses to low-frequency vagal stimulation (n = 11) or AMPA (n = 10) but augmented responses to high-frequency stimulation by 50% (n = 25; P = 0.0001). MPPG also augmented NTS responses to high-frequency ADN stimulation by 35% (n = 9; P = 0.048) but did not affect responses to low-frequency stimulation (n = 9) or AMPA (n = 7). The results suggest that metabotropic glutamate receptors, presumably at presynaptic sites, contribute to frequency-dependent depression of vagal and aortic baroreceptor signal transmission in NTS. PMID:9815076

  5. Vagal activation by sham feeding improves gastric motility in functional dyspepsia. (United States)

    Lunding, J A; Nordström, L M; Haukelid, A-O; Gilja, O H; Berstad, A; Hausken, T


    Antral hypomotility and impaired gastric accommodation in patients with functional dyspepsia have been ascribed to vagal dysfunction. We investigated whether vagal stimulation by sham feeding would improve meal-induced gastric motor function in these patients. Fourteen healthy volunteers and 14 functional dyspepsia patients underwent a drink test twice, once with and once without simultaneous sham feeding. After ingesting 500 mL clear meat soup (20 kcal, 37 degrees C) in 4 min, sham feeding was performed for 10 min by chewing a sugar-containing chewing gum while spitting out saliva. Using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound, antral motility index (contraction amplitude x frequency) and intragastric volumes were estimated. Without sham feeding, functional dyspepsia patients had lower motility index than healthy volunteers (area under curve 8.0 +/- 1.2 vs 4.4 +/- 1.0 min(-1), P = 0.04). In functional dyspepsia patients, but not in healthy volunteers, motility index increased and intragastric volume tended to increase by sham feeding (P = 0.04 and P = 0.06 respectively). The change in motility index was negatively correlated to the change in pain score (r = -0.59, P = 0.007). In functional dyspepsia patients, vagal stimulation by sham feeding improves antral motility in response to a soup meal. The result supports the view that impaired vagal stimulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric motility disturbances in functional dyspepsia. PMID:18248581

  6. Hippocampal - brainstem connectivity associated with vagal modulation after an intense exercise intervention in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Juergen Bär


    Full Text Available AbstractRegular physical exercise leads increased vagal modulation of the cardiovascular system. A combination of peripheral and central processes has been proposed to underlie this adaptation. However, specific changes in the central autonomic network have not been described in human in more detail. We hypothesized that the anterior hippocampus known to be influenced by regular physical activity might be involved in the development of increased vagal modulation after a 6 weeks high intensity intervention in young healthy men (exercise group: n=17, control group: n=17. In addition to the determination of physical capacity before and after the intervention, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and synchronic heart rate variability assessment.We detected a significant increase of the power output at the anaerobic threshold of 11.4% (p<0.001, the maximum power output Pmax of 11.2% (p<0.001, and VO2max adjusted for body weight of 4.7% (p<0.001 in the exercise group (EG. Comparing baseline (T0 and post-exercise (T1 values of parasympathetic modulation of the exercise group, we observed a trend for a decrease in heart rate (p<0.06 and a significant increase of vagal modulation as indicated by RMSSD (p<0.026 during resting state. In the whole brain analysis, we found that the connectivity pattern of the right anterior hippocampus (aHC was specifically altered to the ventromedial anterior cortex, the dorsal striatum and to the dorsal vagal complex (DVC in the brainstem. Moreover, we only observed a highly significant negative correlation between increased RMSSD after exercise and decreased functional connectivity from the right aHC to DVC (r=-0.69, p=0.003. This indicates that increased vagal modulation was associated with functional connectivity between aHC and the dorsal vagal complex.In conclusion, our findings suggest that exercise associated changes in anterior hippocampal function might be involved in increased vagal

  7. Impact of right upper pulmonary vein isolation on atrial vagal innervation and vulnerability to atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuan; ZHANG Shu-long; DONG Ying-xue; ZHAO Hong-wei; GAO Lian-jun; YIN Xiao-meng; LI Shi-jun; LIN Zhi-hu; YANG Yan-zong


    Background Based on the hypothesis that pulmonary vein isolation could result in the damage of the epicardial fat pads, this study aimed to investigated the impact of right upper pulmonary vein (RUPV) isolation on vagal innervation to atria.Methods Bilateral cervical sympathovagal trunks were decentralized in 6 dogs. Metoprolol was given to block sympathetic effects. Multipolar catheters were placed into the right atrium (RA) and coronary sinus (CS). RUPV isolation was performed via transseptal procedure. Atrial effective refractory period (ERP), vulnerability window (VW) of atrial fibrillation (AF), and sinus rhythm cycle length (SCL) were measured at RA and distal coronary sinus (CSd) at baseline and vagal stimulation before and after RUPV isolation. Serial sections of underlying tissues before and after ablation were stained with haematoxylin and eosin.Results SCL decreased significantly during vagal stimulation before RUPV isolation (197 ± 21 vs 13 ±32 beats per minute, P<0.001), but remained unchanged after RUPV isolation (162±29 vs 140±39 beats per minute,P>0.05). ERP increased significantly before RUPV isolation compared with that during vagal stimulation [(85.00±24.29) ms vs (21.67±9.83) ms at RA, P<0.001; (90.00± 15.49) ms vs (33.33±25.03) ms at CSd P<0.005],but ERP at baseline hardly changed after RUPV isolation compared with that during vagal stimulation [(103.33 ±22.50) vs (95.00± 16.43) ms at RA, P = 0.09; (98.33±24.83) vs (75.00±29.50) ms at CSd, P=0.009]. The ERP shortening during vagal stimulation after RUPV isolation decreased significantly [(63.33 ± 22.51) ms vs (8.33 ±9.83) ms at RA, P<0.005; (56.67±20.66) ms vs (23.33± 13.66) ms at CSd, P<0.05]. AF was rarely induced at baseline before and after RUPV isolation (VW close to 0), while VW of AF to vagal stimulation significantly decreased after RUPV isolation [(40.00± 10.95) vs 0 ms at RA, P<0.001; (45.00±32.09) vs (15.00±23.45) ms at CS, P <0.05]. The

  8. Upper gastrointestinal dysmotility after spinal cord injury: Is diminished vagal sensory processing one culprit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M Holmes


    Full Text Available Despite the widely recognized prevalence of gastric, colonic and anorectal dysfunction after SCI, significant knowledge gaps persist regarding the mechanisms leading to post-SCI gastrointestinal (GI impairments. Briefly, the regulation of GI function is governed by a mix of parasympathetic, sympathetic and enteric neurocircuitry. Unlike the intestines, the stomach is dominated by parasympathetic (vagal control whereby gastric sensory information is transmitted via the afferent vagus nerve to neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. The NTS integrates this sensory information with signals from throughout the CNS. Glutamatergic and GABAergic NTS neurons project to other nuclei, including the preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Finally, axons from the DMV project to gastric myenteric neurons, again, through the efferent vagus nerve. SCI interrupts descending input to the lumbosacral spinal cord neurons that modulate colonic motility and evacuation reflexes. In contrast, vagal neurocircuitry remains anatomically intact after injury. This review presents evidence that unlike the post-SCI loss of supraspinal control which leads to colonic and anorectal dysfunction, gastric dysmotility occurs as an indirect or secondary pathology following SCI. Specifically, emerging data points toward diminished sensitivity of vagal afferents to GI neuroactive peptides, neurotransmitters and, possibly, macronutrients. The neurophysiological properties of rat vagal afferent neurons are highly plastic and can be altered by injury or energy balance. A reduction of vagal afferent signaling to NTS neurons may ultimately bias NTS output toward unregulated GABAergic transmission onto gastric-projecting DMV neurons. The resulting gastroinhibitory signal may be one mechanism leading to upper GI dysmotility following SCI.

  9. SpicyTones- A food blog production


    Pennanen, Eva


    This thesis is written to demonstrate the learning outcome of the author in creating a food blog project, named SpicyTones. The goals of the thesis are to create a successful food blog, to educate the society about Asian food and encourage them to cook at home. The objectives of the thesis are to obtain at least 50 followers, to keep the blog running for at least 3 months and to share out 12 themed recipes onto the blog. In this thesis, figures and tables are used in order to support the find...

  10. Auditory stimulation and cardiac autonomic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti


    Full Text Available Previous studies have already demonstrated that auditory stimulation with music influences the cardiovascular system. In this study, we described the relationship between musical auditory stimulation and heart rate variability. Searches were performed with the Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: "auditory stimulation", "autonomic nervous system", "music" and "heart rate variability". The selected studies indicated that there is a strong correlation between noise intensity and vagal-sympathetic balance. Additionally, it was reported that music therapy improved heart rate variability in anthracycline-treated breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that dopamine release in the striatal system induced by pleasurable songs is involved in cardiac autonomic regulation. Musical auditory stimulation influences heart rate variability through a neural mechanism that is not well understood. Further studies are necessary to develop new therapies to treat cardiovascular disorders.

  11. Effect of musical experience on learning lexical tone categories. (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K


    Previous studies suggest that musicians show an advantage in processing and encoding foreign-language lexical tones. The current experiments examined whether musical experience influences the perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. Experiment I examined whether musicians with no prior experience of tonal languages differed from nonmusicians in the perception of a lexical tone continuum. Experiment II examined whether short-term perceptual training on lexical tones altered the perception of the lexical tone continuum differentially in English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians. Results suggested that (a) musicians exhibited higher sensitivity overall to tonal changes, but perceived the lexical tone continuum in a manner similar to nonmusicians (continuously), in contrast to native Mandarin speakers (categorically); and (b) short-term perceptual training altered perception; however, there were no significant differences between the effects of training on musicians and nonmusicians. PMID:25786956

  12. Memory for pure tone sequences without contour. (United States)

    Lefebvre, Christine; Jolicœur, Pierre


    We presented pure tones interspersed with white noise sounds to disrupt contour perception in an acoustic short-term memory (ASTM) experiment during which we recorded the electroencephalogram. The memory set consisted of seven stimuli, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of which were to-be-remembered tones. We estimated each participant׳s capacity, K, for each set size and measured the amplitude of the SAN (sustained anterior negativity, an ERP related to acoustic short-term memory). We correlated their K slopes with their SAN amplitude slopes as a function of set size, and found a significant link between performance and the SAN: a larger increase in SAN amplitude was linked with a larger number of stimuli maintained in ASTM. The SAN decreased in amplitude in the later portion of the silent retention interval, but the correlation between the SAN and capacity remained strong. These results show the SAN is not an index of contour but rather an index of the maintenance of individual objects in STM. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26903419

  13. Umbilical artery tone in maternal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavey Siobhan V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity constitutes a major health problem in obstetrics with implications for feto-maternal growth and wellbeing. This study investigated and compared the contractile properties of umbilical arteries excised from obese women, with those excised from women with a normal body mass index (BMI. Methods Sections of umbilical artery were obtained from umbilical cord samples immediately after delivery and mounted for isometric recording in organ tissue baths under physiological conditions. Cumulative additions of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and Prostaglandin F-2alpha (PgF2alpha were added in the concentration range of 1 nmol/L to 10 micromol/L. Control vessels were exposed to Krebs physiological salt solution (PSS only. The resultant effects of each drug addition were measured using the Powerlab hardware unit. Results 5-HT exerted a significant effect on human umbilical artery tone at concentrations of 100 nmol/L, 1 micromol/L, and 10 micromol/L in normal (n = 5; P 0.05. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that endogenous regulation of umbilical artery tone is altered in association with maternal obesity. This may be linked to the cardiovascular effects of secretory products of adipose tissue, with implications for the feto-maternal circulation.

  14. Correlation dimension of woodwind multiphonic tones. (United States)

    Keefe, D H; Laden, B


    A multiphonic is a regime of oscillation of woodwind musical instruments that is perceived as two or more simultaneously sounding pitches. The frequencies fl,m of the line spectral components of a measured woodwind multiphonic tone fit a biperiodic spectrum at low- to mid-playing levels. For the saxophone and clarinet multiphonics investigated, the two basis frequencies of the biperiodic spectrum are phase locked, that is, their ratio is equal to a ratio of small integers. A broadband spectrum is present in multiphonic spectra that exceeds instrumentation noise and window leakage associated with signal processing. The correlation dimension D of P. Grassberger and I. Procaccia [Physica D 9, 189-208 (1983)] is measured by embedding a single measured time series in higher-dimensional space, so as to reconstruct the phase space of the dynamical system. The time delay used in the dimensional reconstruction is chosen using information theory. For the particular multiphonics analyzed, the correlation dimension ranges from 2.5 to 2.9 for the saxophone and from 1.3 to 2.2 for the clarinet. One clarinet multiphonic shows possible additional dynamical complexity at small length scales in the embedding space, with a correlation dimension of 3.3. These results give quantitative evidence that some, but not all, multiphonic tones possess a strange attractor. PMID:1960272

  15. Dopamine transporters govern diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone


    Ferris, Mark J.; España, Rodrigo A.; Locke, Jason L.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Rose, Jamie H.; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R.


    The mechanism for diurnal (i.e., light/dark) oscillations in extracellular dopamine tone in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems is unknown. This is because, unlike other neurotransmitter systems, variation in dopamine tone does not correlate with variation in dopamine cell firing. The current research pinpoints the dopamine transporter as a critical governor of diurnal variation in both extracellular dopamine tone and the intracellular availability of releasable dopamine. These data describe...

  16. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Progress has been made and suggested that activation of vagal afferents plays a role in the behavioral control nociception and memory storage processes. In human patients, electrical vagus nerve stimulation enhanced retention of verbal learning performance. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK, which is a gastrointestinal hormone released during feeding, has been shown to enhance memory retention. Mice access to food immediately after training session enhanced memory retention. It has been well demonstrated that CCK acting on vagal afferent fibers mediates various physiological functions. We hypothesize that CCK activation of vagal afferent enhances visceral pain-related affective memory. Results In the presented study, infusion of CCK-8 at physiological concentration combining with conditional training significantly increased the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, CCK had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593. The physiological implications were further strengthened by the similar effects observed in the rats with duodenal infusion of 5% peptone, which has been shown to induce increases in plasma CCK levels. CCK-8 receptor antagonist CR-1409 or perivagal application of capsaicin abolished the effect of CCK on aversive visceral pain memory, which was consistent with the notion that vagal afferent modulates affective aspects of visceral pain. CCK does not change

  17. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse (United States)

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro


    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus. PMID:27006520

  18. Compatibility between tones, head movements, and facial expressions. (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Ansorge, Ulrich


    The study tests the hypothesis of an embodied associative triangle among relative tone pitch (i.e., high or low tones), vertical movement, and facial emotion. In particular, it is tested whether relative pitch automatically activates facial expressions of happiness and anger as well as vertical head movements. Results show robust congruency effects: happiness expressions and upward head tilts are imitated faster when paired with high rather than low tones, while anger expressions and downward head tilts are imitated faster when paired with low rather than high tones. The results add to the growing evidence favoring an embodiment account that emphasizes multimodal representations as the basis of cognition, emotion, and action. PMID:21604874

  19. Auditory pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-jun; CAO Ke-li; WEI Chao-gang; LIU Yong-zhi


    Background Chinese tones are considered important in Chinese discrimination.However,the relevant reports on auditory central mechanisms concerning Chinese tones are limited.In this study,mismatch negativity (MMN),one of the event related potentials (ERP),was used to investigate pre-attentive processing of Chinese tones,and the differences between the function of oddball MMN and that of control MMN are discussed.Methods Ten subjects (six men and four women) with normal hearing participated in the study.A sequence was presented to these subjects through a loudspeaker,the sequence included four blocks,a control block and three oddball blocks.The control block was made up of five components (one pure tone and four Chinese tones) with equiprobability.The oddball blocks were made up of two components,one was a standard stimulus (tone 1) and the other was a deviant stimulus (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4).Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded when the sequence was presented and MMNs were obtained from the analysis of the EEG data.Results Two kinds of MMNs were obtained,oddball MMN and control MMN.Oddball MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by standard stimulation (tone 1) from that elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4) in the oddball block; control MMN was obtained by subtracting the ERP elicited by the tone in control block,which was the same tone as the deviant stimulation in the oddball block,from the ERP elicited by deviant stimulation (tone 2 or tone 3 or tone 4)in the oddball block.There were two negative waves in oddball MMN,one appeared around 150 ms (oddball MMN 1),the other around 300 ms (oddball MMN 2).Only one negative wave appeared around 300 ms in control MMN,which was corresponding to the oddball MMN 2.We performed the statistical analyses in each paradigm for latencies and amplitudes for oddball MMN 2 in discriminating the three Chinese tones and reported no significant differences.But the latencies and amplitudes

  20. Effects of intragastric infusion of inosine monophosphate and l-glutamate on vagal gastric afferent activity and subsequent autonomic reflexes


    Kitamura, Akihiko; Sato, Wataru; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio; NIIJIMA, Akira


    In this study we investigated the effects of intragastric infusion of palatable basic taste substances (umami, sweet, and salty) on the activity of the vagal gastric afferent nerve (VGA), the vagal celiac efferent nerve (VCE), and the splanchnic adrenal efferent nerve (SAE) in anesthetized rats. To test the three selected taste groups, rats were infused with inosine monophosphate (IMP) and l-glutamate (GLU) for umami, with glucose and sucrose for sweet, and with sodium chloride (NaCl) for sal...

  1. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Children Born Premature: A Case Study and Illustration of Vagal Tone as a Physiological Measure of Treatment Outcome (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Vohr, Betty R.; Hinckley, Matthew; Eyberg, Sheila M.; Lester, Barry M.


    Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for externalizing behavior problems in children born premature have not been reported in the literature. This single-case study describes Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with a 23-month-old child born at 29 weeks gestation weighing 1,020 grams, who presented with significant externalizing behavior…

  2. Cardiac rehabilitation (United States)

    ... attack or other heart problem. You might consider cardiac rehab if you have had: Heart attack Coronary heart disease (CHD) Heart failure Angina (chest pain) Heart or heart valve surgery Heart transplant Procedures such as angioplasty and stenting In some ...

  3. Cardiac Rehabilitation (United States)

    Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have A heart attack Angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting for coronary heart disease A heart valve repair or replacement A ...

  4. Cardiac sarcoidosis


    Costello BT; Nadel J.; Taylor AJ


    Benedict T Costello,1,2 James Nadel,3 Andrew J Taylor,1,21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, 3School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare but life-threatening condition, requiring a high degree of clinical suspicion and low threshold for investigation to make the diagnosis. The cardiac manifestations include heart failure, conducting syst...

  5. Localization of the cricothyroid muscle under ultrasound guidance for vagal nerve mapping. (United States)

    Yang, Tsui-Fen; Wang, Jia-Chi; Hsu, Sanford P C; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Lin, Chun-Fu; Chiu, Jan-Wei; Lai, Chih-Jou; Chan, Rai-Chi; Lee, Shinn-Shing


    During surgical removal of tumors of the skull base or cerebellopontine angle with brainstem compression, the vagus nerve is at a high risk for injury that can result in permanent or transient swallowing and speech dysfunction. Intramuscular recording of cricothyroid muscle can be used for vagal nerve mapping during intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring so as to prevent the above complications. However, it is a small muscle that lies beneath the strap muscles over the anterior neck and is not easily accessible by a blind approach. Here, we present a case in which cricothyroid muscle was identified for precise electrode placement under ultrasound guidance during preparation for intraoperative monitoring. We concluded that localization of the cricothyroid muscle by ultrasonography proved to be a feasible and easy technique, and the compound muscle action potential recorded by this approach is clearly recognizable during intraoperative vagal nerve mapping. PMID:25681020

  6. Disorders of pitch production in tone deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella


    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for the majority of people. Yet some individuals (i.e., 10-15% are inaccurate singers, typically performing or imitating pitches and melodies inaccurately. This condition, commonly referred to as tone deafness, has been observed both in the presence and absence of deficient pitch perception. In this article we review the existing literature concerning normal singing, poor-pitch singing, and, briefly, the sources of this condition. Considering that pitch plays a prominent role in the structure of both music and speech we also focus on the possibility that pitch production (or imitation is similarly impaired in poor-pitch singers. Preliminary evidence from our laboratory on poor-pitch singing suggests that pitch imitation may be selectively inaccurate in the music domain without being affected in speech. This finding points to separability of mechanisms subserving pitch production in music and language.

  7. When does a sung tone start? (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Bauer-Huppmann, Julia


    Although the consonant is mostly considered as the start of a syllable in phonetics and orthography, musicians generally agree that the vowel onset in singing should be synchronized with the beat. As a test of this assumption, the current investigation analyzes the time interval between vowel onsets and piano accompaniment onsets in a set of songs performed by international vocal artists and published on commercial CD recordings. The results show that, most commonly, the accompanists synchronized their tones with the singers' vowel onsets. Nevertheless, examples of lead and lag were found, probably made for expressive purposes. The lead and lag varied greatly between songs, being smallest in a song performed in a fast tempo and longest in a song performed in a slow tempo. PMID:16564674

  8. Vagal-dependent nonlinear variability in the respiratory pattern of anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats


    Dhingra, R. R.; Jacono, F. J.; Fishman, M; Loparo, K. A.; Rybak, I. A.; Dick, T E


    Physiological rhythms, including respiration, exhibit endogenous variability associated with health, and deviations from this are associated with disease. Specific changes in the linear and nonlinear sources of breathing variability have not been investigated. In this study, we used information theory-based techniques, combined with surrogate data testing, to quantify and characterize the vagal-dependent nonlinear pattern variability in urethane-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing adult rat...

  9. Effects of acid on vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes in guinea pig esophagus. (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Youtian; Yu, Shaoyong


    Acid reflux-induced heartburn and noncardiac chest pain are processed peripherally by sensory nerve endings in the wall of the esophagus, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effects of acid on esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent subtypes. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in guinea pig vagal nodose or jugular C fiber neurons by using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. We recorded action potentials (AP) of esophageal nodose or jugular C fibers evoked by acid perfusion and compared esophageal distension-evoked AP before and after acid perfusion. Acid perfusion for 30 min (pH range 7.4 to 5.8) did not evoke AP in nodose C fibers but significantly decreased their responses to esophageal distension, which could be recovered after washing out acid for 90 min. In jugular C fibers, acid perfusion not only evoked AP but also inhibited their responses to esophageal distension, which were not recovered after washing out acid for 120 min. Lower concentration of capsaicin perfusion mimicked acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fibers. Pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810, but not acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) inhibitor amiloride, significantly inhibited acid-induced effects in nodose and jugular C fiber. These results demonstrate that esophageal vagal nociceptive afferent nerve subtypes display distinctive responses to acid. Acid activates jugular, but not nodose, C fibers and inhibits both of their responses to esophageal distension. These effects are mediated mainly through TRPV1. This inhibitory effect is a novel finding and may contribute to esophageal sensory/motor dysfunction in acid reflux diseases. PMID:24994852

  10. Gastric relaxation induced by hyperglycemia is mediated by vagal afferent pathways in the rat


    Zhou, Shi-Yi; Lu, Yuan-Xu; Owyang, Chung


    Hyperglycemia has a profound effect on gastric motility. However, little is known about site and mechanism that sense alteration in blood glucose level. The identification of glucose-sensing neurons in the nodose ganglia led us to hypothesize that hyperglycemia acts through vagal afferent pathways to inhibit gastric motility. With the use of a glucose clamp rat model, we showed that glucose decreased intragastric pressure in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to intravenous infusion of gluc...

  11. Mechanotransduction by intraganglionic laminar endings of vagal tension receptors in the guinea-pig oesophagus. (United States)

    Zagorodnyuk, Vladimir P; Chen, Bao Nan; Costa, Marcello; Brookes, Simon J H


    Vagal mechanoreceptors to the guinea-pig oesophagus, recorded extracellularly, in vitro, fired spontaneously at 3.3 +/- 0.2 Hz, (n = 75, from 57 animals), and had low thresholds to circumferential stretch. In this study, we have investigated whether mechanotransduction by intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) directly relies on mechano-gated ion channels, or whether it is due to chemical activation by neurotransmitters (glutamate or ATP) released from other cells during mechanical distortion. Rapid distortion of focal transduction sites (IGLEs) evoked action potentials with a latency of MPPG)) did not affect mechano-transduction. Glutamate, NMDA and the selective mGluR group II and III agonists, (2R, 4R)-APDC and L-AP4, had no effect on spontaneous or stretch-induced firing. The P2X purinoreceptor agonist, alpha,beta-methylene ATP, caused concentration-dependent excitation of vagal mechanoreceptors (EC50 = 22.2 microM) which was blocked by the non-selective P2 antagonist PPADS (30 microM). On its own, PPADS affected neither stretch-induced firing nor spontaneous firing. Neither Ca(2+)-free solution (1 mM EDTA, 3.6 mM Mg(2+)) solution nor Cd(2+) (100 microM) blocked stretch-induced firing. Thus chemical transmission is not involved in activation of vagal mechanoreceptors. The blocker of stretch-activated channels, Gd(3+) (300 microM), did not inhibit stretch-induced firing. However, benzamil (100 microM) significantly inhibited spontaneous and distension-evoked firing in a stretch-dependent manner; proportionally greater inhibition was seen with larger stretches. The results suggest that IGLEs of vagal tension receptors directly transduce mechanical stimuli probably via benzamil-sensitive, Gd3+-insensitive, stretch-activated ion channels, and that chemical transmission is not involved in transduction. PMID:14500769

  12. Influence of bilevel positive airway pressure on autonomic tone in hospitalized patients with decompensated heart failure. (United States)

    Lacerda, Diego; Costa, Dirceu; Reis, Michel; Gomes, Evelim Leal de F Dantas; Costa, Ivan Peres; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Marsico, Aline; Stirbulov, Roberto; Arena, Ross; Sampaio, Luciana Maria Malosá


    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effect of Bilevel Positive Airway (BiPAP) on the autonomic control of heart rate, assessed by heart rate variability (HRV), in patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure. [Subjects and Methods] This prospective cross-sectional study included 20 subjects (age: 69±8 years, 12 male, left ventricular ejection fraction: 36 ±8%) diagnosed with heart failure who were admitted to a semi-intensive care unit with acute decompensation. Date was collected for HRV analysis during: 10 minutes spontaneous breathing in the resting supine position; 30 minutes breathing with BiPAP application (inspiratory pressure = 20 cmH2O and expiratory pressure = 10 cmH2O); and 10 minutes immediately after removal of BiPAP, during the return to spontaneous breathing. [Results] Significantly higher values for indices representative of increased parasympathetic activity were found in the time and frequency domains as well as in nonlinear Poincaré analysis during and after BiPAP in comparison to baseline. Linear HRV analysis: standard deviation of the average of all R-R intervals in milliseconds = 30.99±4.4 pre, 40.3±6.2 during, and 53.3±12.5 post BiPAP. Non-linear HRV analysis: standard deviations parallel in milliseconds = 8.31±4.3 pre, 12.9±5.8 during, and 22.8 ±6.3 post BiPAP. [Conclusion] The present findings demonstrate that BiPAP enhances vagal tone in patients with heart failure, which is beneficial for patients suffering from acute decompensation. PMID:26957719

  13. The effect of spinal cord injury on the neurochemical properties of vagal sensory neurons. (United States)

    Herrity, April N; Petruska, Jeffrey C; Stirling, David P; Rau, Kristofer K; Hubscher, Charles H


    The vagus nerve is composed primarily of nonmyelinated sensory neurons whose cell bodies are located in the nodose ganglion (NG). The vagus has widespread projections that supply most visceral organs, including the bladder. Because of its nonspinal route, the vagus nerve itself is not directly damaged from spinal cord injury (SCI). Because most viscera, including bladder, are dually innervated by spinal and vagal sensory neurons, an impact of SCI on the sensory component of vagal circuitry may contribute to post-SCI visceral pathologies. To determine whether SCI, in male Wistar rats, might impact neurochemical characteristics of NG neurons, immunohistochemical assessments were performed for P2X3 receptor expression, isolectin B4 (IB4) binding, and substance P expression, three known injury-responsive markers in sensory neuronal subpopulations. In addition to examining the overall population of NG neurons, those innervating the urinary bladder also were assessed separately. All three of the molecular markers were represented in the NG from noninjured animals, with the majority of the neurons binding IB4. In the chronically injured rats, there was a significant increase in the number of NG neurons expressing P2X3 and a significant decrease in the number binding IB4 compared with noninjured animals, a finding that held true also for the bladder-innervating population. Overall, these results indicate that vagal afferents, including those innervating the bladder, display neurochemical plasticity post-SCI that may have implications for visceral homeostatic mechanisms and nociceptive signaling. PMID:25855310

  14. Clinically diagnosed glomus vagale tumour treated with external beam radiotherapy: a review of the published reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the study was to present a case of clinically diagnosed glomus vagale in a 42-year-old Aboriginal woman treated with external beam radiotherapy and to carry out a review of the published work. The details of presentation, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of the patient are discussed. A review of the published work was carry out using MEDLINE database with respect to aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and expected outcomes. Glomus vagale tumours are a subtype of paragangliomas of the head and neck derived from extra-adrenal paraganglia of the autonomic nervous system. They are typically slow-growing, benign masses that are often asymptomatic and rarely show signs of hypersecretion. Treatment options include embolization, surgical excision, radiotherapy or surveillance. Radiotherapy is often used for extensive lesions where surgery is considered prohibitively morbid. Following treatment relapse rates are low with the most patients achieving long-term control. Our patient presented with an extensive lesion compressing the wall of the carotid artery and invading the jugular fossa to involve the clivus. Surgery was offered; however, the patient opted for external beam radiotherapy. A dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions was delivered with 6-MV photons employing a CT-planned, wedge pair technique. Glomus vagale tumours are rare and should be managed in a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic with both surgical and radiation oncology opinions offered. The toxicities and outcomes of both methods should be discussed

  15. Successful removal and reimplant of vagal nerve stimulator device after 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giulioni


    Full Text Available The number of implanted vagal nerve stimulators is growing and the need for removal or revision of the devices will become even more frequent. A significant concern about Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS therapy is the presence of the spiral stimulating electrodes, wrapped around the nerve, once treatment is considered ineffective or is no longer desired. Our purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of complete removal and replacement of the vagal nerve stimulator electrodes using microsurgical technique even after a long period, without damaging the nerve. We attempted removal and replacement of spiral stimulating electrodes from a patient who received a 10-year long VNS therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Our results indicate that the spiral electrodes may be safely removed from the vagus nerve, even after several years. The reversibility of lead implantation may enhance the attractiveness of VNS therapy. Furthermore, with a correct microsurgical technique, it is possible to respect the normal anatomy and functionality of vagal nerve and to reimplant a new VNS system with all its components, maintaining the same therapeutic efficacy after many years.

  16. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.


    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  17. Atrial remodeling, autonomic tone, and lifetime training hours in nonelite athletes. (United States)

    Wilhelm, Matthias; Roten, Laurent; Tanner, Hildegard; Wilhelm, Ilca; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Saner, Hugo


    Endurance athletes have an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) at 40 to 50 years of age. Signal-averaged P-wave analysis has been used for identifying patients at risk for AF. We evaluated the impact of lifetime training hours on signal-averaged P-wave duration and modifying factors. Nonelite men athletes scheduled to participate in the 2010 Grand Prix of Bern, a 10-mile race, were invited. Four hundred ninety-two marathon and nonmarathon runners applied for participation, 70 were randomly selected, and 60 entered the final analysis. Subjects were stratified according to their lifetime training hours (average endurance and strength training hours per week × 52 × training years) in low (4,500 hours) training groups. Mean age was 42 ± 7 years. From low to high training groups signal-averaged P-wave duration increased from 131 ± 6 to 142 ± 13 ms (p = 0.026), and left atrial volume increased from 24.8 ± 4.6 to 33.1 ± 6.2 ml/m(2) (p = 0.001). Parasympathetic tone expressed as root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals increased from 34 ± 13 to 47 ± 16 ms (p = 0.002), and premature atrial contractions increased from 6.1 ± 7.4 to 10.8 ± 7.7 per 24 hours (p = 0.026). Left ventricular mass increased from 100.7 ± 9.0 to 117.1 ± 18.2 g/m(2) (p = 0.002). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and blood pressure at rest were normal in all athletes and showed no differences among training groups. Four athletes (6.7%) had a history of paroxysmal AF, as did 1 athlete in the medium training group and 3 athletes in the high training group (p = 0.252). In conclusion, in nonelite men athletes lifetime training hours are associated with prolongation of signal-averaged P-wave duration and an increase in left atrial volume. The altered left atrial substrate may facilitate occurrence of AF. Increased vagal tone and atrial ectopy may serve as modifying and triggering factors. PMID:21658663

  18. Analysis on the relations between piano touch and tone

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Lai-Mei


    In piano playing, different ways of touch lead to different tones. The effects of changing forces on keys are presented by changing interaction between hammer and string. The thesis focuses on several important variables in hammer-string system and draws conclusions to the question about piano touch and tone.

  19. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B


    frequencies ranged from 700 to 1200 Hz. Spontaneous activities for the fibers showing one-tone suppression ranged from 3 to 75 spikes/s. Spontaneous activities above 40 spikes/s and the phenomenon of one-tone suppression itself has not been reported previously for frogs. The population of fibers showing one...

  20. Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Tone Noise Prediction (United States)

    Envia, Edmane


    Reliable prediction of contra-rotating open rotor (CROR) noise is an essential element of any strategy for the development of low-noise open rotor propulsion systems that can meet both the community noise regulations and the cabin noise limits. Since CROR noise spectra typically exhibits a preponderance of tones, significant efforts have been directed towards predicting their tone spectra. To that end, there has been an ongoing effort at NASA to assess various in-house open rotor tone noise prediction tools using a benchmark CROR blade set for which significant aerodynamic and acoustic data had been acquired in wind tunnel tests. In the work presented here, the focus is on the near-field noise of the benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Using an analytical CROR tone noise model with input from high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations, detailed tone noise spectral predictions have been generated and compared with the experimental data. Comparisons indicate that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the data, especially for the dominant CROR tones and their overall sound pressure level. The results also indicate that, whereas individual rotor tones are well predicted by the linear sources (i.e., thickness and loading), for the interaction tones it is essential that the quadrupole sources be included in the analysis.

  1. Player Collaboration in the Explorative Sound Environment ToneInk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne-Marie; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa


    In the present paper, ToneInk, a prototype of a music based play scenario that investigates player collaboration, is introduced. ToneInk is an explorative sound environment that differs from the majority of music based games in that players can collaborate and be creative in the way they express...

  2. Musical experience and Mandarin tone discrimination and imitation (United States)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Staby, Ann M.; Ziemer, Christine J.


    Previous work [T. L. Gottfried and D. Riester, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2604 (2000)] showed that native speakers of American English with musical training performed better than nonmusicians when identifying the four distinctive tones of Mandarin Chinese (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling). Accuracy for both groups was relatively low since listeners were not trained on the phonemic contrasts. Current research compares musicians and nonmusicians on discrimination and imitation of unfamiliar tones. Listeners were presented with two different Mandarin words that had either the same or different tones; listeners indicated whether the tones were same or different. Thus, they were required to determine a categorical match (same or different tone), rather than an auditory match. All listeners had significantly more difficulty discriminating between mid-rising and low-dipping tones than with other contrasts. Listeners with more musical training showed significantly greater accuracy in their discrimination. Likewise, musicians' spoken imitations of Mandarin tones (model tokens presented by a native speaker) were rated as significantly more native-like than those of nonmusicians. These findings suggest that musicians may have abilities or training that facilitate their perception and production of Mandarin tones. However, further research is needed to determine whether this advantage transfers to language learning situations.

  3. Improving Tone Recognition with Nucleus Modeling and Sequential Learning (United States)

    Wang, Siwei


    Mandarin Chinese and many other tonal languages use tones that are defined as specific pitch patterns to distinguish syllables otherwise ambiguous. It had been shown that tones carry at least as much information as vowels in Mandarin Chinese [Surendran et al., 2005]. Surprisingly, though, many speech recognition systems for Mandarin Chinese have…

  4. Slide rule-type color chart predicts reproduced photo tones (United States)

    Griffin, J. D.


    Slide rule-type color chart determines the final reproduced gray tones in the production of briefing charts that are photographed in black and white. The chart shows both the color by drafting paint manufacturers name and mixture number, and the gray tone resulting from black and white photographic reproduction.

  5. Tone Gestures and Constraint Interaction in Sierra Juarez Zapotec (United States)

    Tejada, Laura


    This dissertation examines floating tones and tone gesture deactivation in Sierra Juarez Zapotec (SJZ), and provides an Optimality Theoretic account of tonal spreading and placement using insights from Articulatory Phonology. While the data portion of the dissertation is drawn from SJZ, the approach has broader implications for theories of tonal…

  6. Pilot tones in WDM networks with wavelength converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Mikkelsen, Benny; Stubkjær, Kristian

    Here we investigate the transmission of a pilot tone through an interferometric wavelength converter (IWC) in conjunction with a 2.5 Gbit/s experiment. The pilot tone is added by sinusoidal modulation of the bias current to the signal laser. After the IWC (Michelson interferometer) the converted...

  7. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones (United States)

    Zhang, Hang


    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  8. A computerized method for objective measurement of muscle tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Vasilieva


    Full Text Available This article is concentrated on the objective computerizing method of measuring of muscle tone using compressive and decompressive deformation of superficial skeletal muscle of wrist in vivo. Four indices were highly recommended for complex analysis of muscle tone.

  9. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaridou, S.S.; Hagoort, P.; McQueen, J.M.


    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs,

  10. Gastric vagal afferent inputs reach the glycemia-sensitive neurons of lateral hypothalamic area in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The glycemia-sensitive neuron in lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) is one of the important central neural events involved in the feeding control. Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that gastrointestinal vagal afferent inputs could convey the meal-related information of gastrointestinal tract to the hypothalamus. In this study, we examined whether the gastric vagal afferent inputs could reach the glycemia-sensitive neurons of the LHA by using in vivo extracellular recording technique in the rat. The results showed that stimulation of gastric vagal nerves elicited two types of the LHA neurons responses: the phasic response (93/116, 80.2%) and the change in cell's firing pattern (23/116, 19.8%). Within the 93 cells that responded to the gastric vagal stimulation with a phasic response, 67 (72.0%) showed an inhibition in the cell's firing rate, 26 (27.4%) were excited. Of the 23 cells that showed a change in the firing pattern, 13 responded to the gastric vagal stimulation with a long-lasting increase or decrease in firing rate, the remaining 10 cells turned their discrete spiking to the burst discharging. In addition, of 101 LHA neurons including the two types of responsive neurons, 73 (72.3%) were identified to be glycemia-sensitive neurons. These results demonstrated that the gastric vagal afferent inputs could reach the LHA and predominantly reach those glycemia-sensitive neurons in the LHA. Presumably, the modulation of glycemia-sensitive neurons of LHA by the gastric vagal afferent inputs may play an important role in the short-term regulation of feeding behavior.

  11. Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie


    Computed tomography of the heart has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that is attracting increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues to be discussed are coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, plaques, and anomalies, cardiac valves, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as plaque imaging and functional assessment, are also explored. (orig.)

  12. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.


    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  13. Attention deficits revealed by passive auditory change detection for pure tones and lexical tones in ADHD children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tao eYang


    Full Text Available Inattention has been a major problem in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, accounting for their behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. However, there are at least three processing steps underlying attentional control for auditory change detection, namely pre-attentive change detection, involuntary attention orienting, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. This study aimed to examine whether children with ADHD would show deficits in any of these subcomponents by using mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as event-related potential (ERP markers, under the passive auditory oddball paradigm. Two types of stimuli - pure tones and Mandarin lexical tones - were used to examine if the deficits were general across linguistic and non-linguistic domains. Participants included 15 native Mandarin-speaking children with ADHD and 16 age-matched controls (across groups, age ranged between 6 and 15 years. Two passive auditory oddball paradigms (lexical tones and pure tones were applied. Pure tone paradigm included standard stimuli (1000 Hz, 80% and two deviant stimuli (1015 Hz and 1090 Hz, 10% each. The Mandarin lexical tone paradigm’s standard stimuli was /yi3/ (80% and two deviant stimuli were /yi1/ and /yi2/ (10% each. The results showed no MMN difference, but did show attenuated P3a and enhanced LDN to the large deviants for both pure and lexical tone changes in the ADHD group. Correlation analysis showed that children with higher ADHD tendency, as indexed by parents’ and teachers’ rating on ADHD symptoms, showed less positive P3a amplitudes when responding to large lexical tone deviants. Thus, children with ADHD showed impaired auditory change detection for both pure tones and lexical tones in both involuntary attention switching, and attention reorienting for further evaluation. These ERP markers may therefore be used for evaluation of anti-ADHD drugs that aim to alleviate these

  14. Cardiac sarcoidosis (United States)

    Smedema, J.P.; Zondervan, P.E.; van Hagen, P.; ten Cate, F.J.; Bresser, P.; Doubell, A.F.; Pattynama, P.; Hoogsteden, H.C.; Balk, A.H.M.M.


    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Symptomatic cardiac involvement occurs in approximately 5% of patients. The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the Netherlands is unknown, but estimated to be approximately 20 per 100,000 population (3200 patients). We report on five patients who presented with different manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis, and give a brief review on the current management of this condition. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be of great help in diagnosing this condition as well as in the follow-up of the response to therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:25696121

  15. The effect of SRS on pilot-tone detection technique in DWDM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguo Gao(高志国); Minghua Chen(陈明华); Hongwei Chen(陈宏伟); Shizhong Xie(谢世钟)


    A math model that can describe the effect of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) on pilot-tone detection technique is proposed. Thrugh numerical simulation, it is shown that the effect of SRS could produce ghost-tones. The power of ghost-tones was larger for the channels separated further from the real-tone.The power ratio between real-tone and ghost-tones increases linearly with the increase of transmission length when propagation distance longer than 300 km.

  16. Cardiac Pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete survey of physiological biophysical,clinical and engineering aspects of cardiac facing,including the history and an assessment of possible future developments.Among the topics studied are: pacemakers, energy search, heart stimulating with pacemakers ,mathematical aspects of the electric cardio stimulation chronic, pacemaker implants,proceeding,treatment and control

  17. Perceptual Weights for Loudness Judgments of 6-Tone Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    In a series of studies, 6 subjects with normal hearing (NH) and 3 with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of 6-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. In two tasks, tones were equated in level in dB SPL or in sensation level (SL) and a range of...... 6-tone complexes, were highly correlated with those from the other tasks. Simulation of these experiments using a model of loudness perception [Moore and Glasberg, J. Hear Res. 188 (70-88)] yielded weights for these stimuli that were highly correlated with specific loudness, but the observed weights...

  18. Perceptual Weights for Loudness Judgments of 6-Tone Complexes


    Jesteadt, Walt; Valente, Daniel L.; Joshi, Suyash Narendra


    In a series of studies, 6 subjects with normal hearing (NH) and 3 with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) judged the overall loudness of 6-tone complexes comprised of octave frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. In two tasks, tones were equated in level in dB SPL or in sensation level (SL) and a range of SPL or SL values was tested. Both tasks used two-interval forced-choice trials, with level “jitter” introduced by selecting the level of each tone from a normal distribution with specified mean leve...

  19. Auditory two-tone suppression from a subcritical Hopf cochlea (United States)

    Stoop, R.; Steeb, W.-H.; Gallas, J. C.; Kern, A.


    Cochlear two-tone suppression is the dominant contrast-sharpening phenomenon of hearing and provides a decisive test for the correct implementation of hearing nonlinearities in models of the cochlea. Although critically tuned Hopf amplifiers were shown recently to be fruitful models of intricate phenomena in the physiology of the human ear, we find that only a model based on subcritical Hopf amplifiers is capable of reproducing physiologically measured two-tone suppression data adequately. In addition, we provide a detailed explanation of the two-tone suppression phenomenon, including its quantitative characterization.

  20. Ultrastructural changes in the vagal nerve of mice after exposure to hypergravity (United States)

    Shibata, S.; Kita, S.; Ito, M.; Onishi, R.; Kim, H.; Shiozawa, T.; Iwasaki, K.

    We investigated the ultrastructural changes in the vagal nerve induced after lifelong exposure to a 2G environment. Method: 8-week-old ICR mice bred in a 2G environment (2G) were operated to observe the cervical vagal nerves, and compared with control mice bred in a 1G environment (1G). The vagal nerve was observed on transverse section with electron microscopy to count the number of myelinated nerve fibers. Small-sized, large-sized and all (large and small) myelinated nerve fibers were counted. Result: The number of all myelinated fibers in the 2G (795+/-103.2) was more than those in the 1G (644+/-59.6) significantly. The number of small-sized myelinated fibers in the 2G (657+/-95.2) was more than those in the 1G (522+/-66.1) significantly. The number of large-sized myelinated fibers in the 2G (138+/-14.5) was more than those in the 1G (122+/-16.3), but not significantly. The ratios of small-sized to all and large sized to all myelinated fibers in the 2G were 82.5+/-1.8% and 17.5+/-1.8% respectively. The ratios of small-sized to all and large-sized to all myelinated fibers in the 1G were 80.9+/-3.5% and 19.0+/-3.8% respectively. There was no difference on the ratios between 2G and 1G. Conclusion: The results suggest that an increase in the number of myelinated nerve fibers is induced in a 2G environment.

  1. TRPA1 in bradykinin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity of vagal C fibers in guinea pig esophagus. (United States)

    Yu, Shaoyong; Ouyang, Ann


    Bradykinin (BK) activates sensory nerves and causes hyperalgesia. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is expressed in sensory nerves and mediates cold, mechanical, and chemical nociception. TRPA1 can be activated by BK. TRPA1 knockout mice show impaired responses to BK and mechanical nociception. However, direct evidence from sensory nerve terminals is lacking. This study aims to determine the role of TRPA1 in BK-induced visceral mechanical hypersensitivity. Extracellular recordings of action potentials from vagal nodose and jugular neurons are performed in an ex vivo guinea pig esophageal-vagal preparation. Peak frequencies of action potentials of afferent nerves evoked by esophageal distension and chemical perfusion are recorded and compared. BK activates most nodose and all jugular C fibers. This activation is repeatable and associated with a significant increase in response to esophageal distension, which can be prevented by the B2 receptor antagonist WIN64338. TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) activates most BK-positive nodose and jugular C fibers. This is associated with a transient loss of response to mechanical distensions and desensitization to a second AITC perfusion. Desensitization with AITC and pretreatment with TRPA1 inhibitor HC-030031 both inhibit BK-induced mechanical hypersensitivity but do not affect BK-evoked activation in nodose and jugular C fibers. In contrast, esophageal vagal afferent Adelta fibers do not respond to BK or AITC and fail to show mechanical hypersensitivity after BK perfusion. This provides the first evidence directly from visceral sensory afferent nerve terminals that TRPA1 mediates BK-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. This reveals a novel mechanism of visceral peripheral sensitization. PMID:19033534

  2. Effect of synthetic cationic protein on mechanoexcitability of vagal afferent nerve subtypes in guinea pig esophagus. (United States)

    Yu, Shaoyong; Ouyang, Ann


    Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by increased infiltration and degranulation of eosinophils in the esophagus. Whether eosinophil-derived cationic proteins regulate esophageal sensory nerve function is still unknown. Using synthetic cationic protein to investigate such effect, we performed extracellular recordings from vagal nodose or jugular neurons in ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. Nerve excitabilities were determined by comparing action potentials evoked by esophageal distensions before and after perfusion of synthetic cationic protein poly-L-lysine (PLL) with or without pretreatment with poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA), which neutralized cationic charges of PLL. Perfusion with PLL did not evoke action potentials in esophageal nodose C fibers but increased their responses to esophageal distension. This potentiation effect lasted for 30 min after washing out of PLL. Pretreatment with PLGA significantly inhibited PLL-induced mechanohyperexcitability of esophageal nodose C fibers. In esophageal nodose Aδ fibers, perfusion with PLL did not evoke action potentials. In contrast to nodose C fibers, both the spontaneous discharges and the responses to esophageal distension in nodose Aδ fibers were decreased by perfusion with PLL, which can be restored after washing out PLL for 30-60 min. Pretreatment with PLGA attenuated PLL-induced decrease in spontaneous discharge and mechanoexcitability of esophageal nodose Aδ fibers. In esophageal jugular C fibers, PLL neither evoked action potentials nor changed their responses to esophageal distension. Collectively, these data demonstrated that synthetic cationic protein did not evoke action potential discharges of esophageal vagal afferents but had distinctive sensitization effects on their responses to esophageal distension. PMID:21960520

  3. TRPM8 function and expression in vagal sensory neurons and afferent nerves innervating guinea pig esophagus. (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Youtian; Ru, Fei; Kollarik, Marian; Undem, Bradley J; Yu, Shaoyong


    Sensory transduction in esophageal afferents requires specific ion channels and receptors. TRPM8 is a new member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family and participates in cold- and menthol-induced sensory transduction, but its role in visceral sensory transduction is still less clear. This study aims to determine TRPM8 function and expression in esophageal vagal afferent subtypes. TRPM8 agonist WS-12-induced responses were first determined in nodose and jugular neurons by calcium imaging and then investigated by whole cell patch-clamp recordings in Dil-labeled esophageal nodose and jugular neurons. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in nodose and jugular C fiber neurons using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. TRPM8 mRNA expression was determined by single neuron RT-PCR in Dil-labeled esophageal nodose and jugular neurons. The TRPM8 agonist WS-12 elicited calcium influx in a subpopulation of jugular but not nodose neurons. WS-12 activated outwardly rectifying currents in esophageal Dil-labeled jugular but not nodose neurons in a dose-dependent manner, which could be inhibited by the TRPM8 inhibitor AMTB. WS-12 selectively evoked action potential discharges in esophageal jugular but not nodose C fibers. Consistently, TRPM8 transcripts were highly expressed in esophageal Dil-labeled TRPV1-positive jugular neurons. In summary, the present study demonstrated a preferential expression and function of TRPM8 in esophageal vagal jugular but not nodose neurons and C fiber subtypes. This provides a distinctive role of TRPM8 in esophageal sensory transduction and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of esophageal sensation and nociception. PMID:25591866

  4. Basal and stimulated release of substance P from dissociated cultures of vagal sensory neurons. (United States)

    MacLean, D B; Wheeler, F; Hayes, L


    Substance P, the widely distributed 11 amino acid neuropeptide, is present in up to 20% of vagal sensory cell bodies and the fibers emanating from them. To study the factors regulating the release of SP, vagal sensory (nodose or nodose/jugular) ganglia were obtained from neonatal rats and dissociated using neutral protease. Survival of plated neurons on collagen substrate was 10-20% at 2 weeks and 20-30% when neurons were plated over previously dissociated rat atriacytes. Substance P content was low in cultures for the first several days, then rose linearly to 0.1-0.2 pg/surviving neuron. Substance P was released into a 4.5 mM potassium medium at a steady rate of 0.036%/min. In 50 mM K+ supplemented medium, total release during 20 min increased 5-8-fold and steady-state release increased 4-5-fold to 0.15%/min. The sensory neuron specific excitatory neurotoxin, capsaicin, evoked SP release in similar amounts to 50 mM K+. Both net K(+)- and capsaicin-evoked, but not basal release were completely inhibited by 3.5 mM cobalt chloride. Bradykinin, 1-100 nM, stimulated SP release 2-4 times above basal levels. Forskolin and phorbol ester also increased SP release 1.5-3 times basal amounts. In summary, substance P is present in cultured vagal sensory neurons in amounts similar to in vivo and is released in response to sensory specific stimuli. These cultures should allow exploration of some of the tissue specific factors regulating neurotransmitter release in the sensory vagus nerve. PMID:1697777

  5. Vagal modulation of pre-inspiratory activity in hypoglossal discharge in the decerebrate rat. (United States)

    Ghali, Michael George Zaki


    Respiration consists of three phases--inspiration (I), post-inspiration (post-I), and late expiration (E2). Pre-I is a subphase occurring at the end of E2. Hypoglossal (XII) discharge contains I and occasionally pre-I activity. Functionally, XII pre-I underlies tongue muscle contraction and expansion of the upper airway, causing a decrease in airway resistance in anticipation of the succeeding inspiratory effort. It has been shown that vagotomy causes an increase in pre-I activity in XII in anesthetized animals. Also, in anesthetized artificially-ventilated animals, XII onset is synchronized with that of inspiratory phrenic nerve (PhN) activity. Therefore, we sought to systematically test the hypothesis that XII pre-I is present in vagus-intact unanesthetized decerebrate animals and vagal afferents negatively modulate XII pre-I discharge in decerebrate rats, in the absence of confounding anesthesia. Experiments were performed on seven Sprague-Dawley unanesthetized decerebrate adult male rats and bilateral PhN and XII recordings performed. In three animals, vagotomy was performed during PhN recordings and one animal was vagotomized during initial surgical preparation prior to recordings. In vagus-intact animals, XII pre-I duration averaged 12.4 ms. Vagotomy was associated with greater XII pre-I duration, expressed in absolute time (89.5 vs. 12.4 ms; p<0.01) as well as relative to the XII bursting period (18.9 vs. 3.4%; p<0.01). Vagal deafferentation was also associated with a larger relative amplitude of the pre-I XII activity relative to total XII discharge (12.4 vs. 2.1%; p<0.01). We conclude that pre-I discharge is present in vagus-intact artificially-ventilated unanesthetized decerebrate animals and is negatively modulated by vagal afferents. PMID:25979456

  6. Vagal afferents are not necessary for the satiety effect of the gut lipid messenger oleoylethanolamide. (United States)

    Azari, Elnaz Karimian; Ramachandran, Deepti; Weibel, Sandra; Arnold, Myrtha; Romano, Adele; Gaetani, Silvana; Langhans, Wolfgang; Mansouri, Abdelhak


    The endogenous lipid messenger oleoylethanolamide (OEA) inhibits eating and modulates fat metabolism supposedly through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and vagal sensory fibers. We tested in adult male rats whether OEA stimulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and ketogenesis and whether it increases plasma levels of the satiating gut peptides glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). We also explored whether OEA still inhibits eating after subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA). We found that intraperitoneally injected OEA (10 mg/kg body wt) reduced (P < 0.05) food intake mainly by increasing meal latency and that this effect was stronger in rats fed a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) than in chow-fed rats. OEA increased (P < 0.05) postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the hepatic portal vein (HPV) and vena cava (VC) 30 min after injection, which was more pronounced in HFD- than in chow-fed rats. OEA also increased the protein expression of the key ketogenetic enzyme, mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, in the jejunum of HFD-fed rats, but not in the liver or duodenum of either diet group. Furthermore, OEA decreased GLP-1 and PYY concentrations (P < 0.05) in the HPV and VC 30 min after administration. Finally, OEA reduced food intake in SDA and sham-operated rats similarly. Our findings indicate that neither intact abdominal vagal afferents nor prandial increases in GLP-1 or PMID:24829501

  7. Gastrin releasing peptide-29 requires vagal and splanchnic neurons to evoke satiation and satiety. (United States)

    Wright, Susan A; Washington, Martha C; Garcia, Carlos; Sayegh, Ayman I


    We have shown that gastrin-releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29), the large molecular form of GRP in rats, reduces meal size (MS, intake of 10% sucrose solution) and prolongs the intermeal interval (IMI). In these studies, we first investigated possible pathways for these responses in rats undergoing total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX, removal of vagal afferent and efferent innervation of the gut), celiaco-mesenteric ganglionectomy (CMGX, removal of splanchnic afferent and efferent innervation of the gut) and combined VGX and CMGX. Second, we examined if the duodenum communicates the feeding signals (MS and IMI) of GRP-29 (0, 0.3, 1.0, 2.1, 4.1, 10.3 and 17.2 nmol/kg) with the feeding control areas of the hindbrain by performing duodenal myotomy (MYO), a procedure that severs some layers of the duodenal wall including the vagal, splanchnic and enteric neurons. We found that GRP-29 (2.1, 4.1, 10.3, 17.2 nmol/kg) reduced the size of the first meal (10% sucrose) and (1, 4.1, 10.3 nmol/kg) prolongs the first IMI but did not affect the subsequent meals or IMIs. In addition, CMGX and combined VGX/CMGX attenuated reduction of MS by GRP-29 and all surgeries attenuated the prolongation of the IMI. Therefore, reduction of MS and prolongation of IMI by GRP-29 require vagal and splanchnic nerves, and the duodenum is the major conduit that communicates prolongation of IMI by GRP-29 with the brain. PMID:22210008

  8. Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project) (United States)

    World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Global Database of Events, Language, and Tone (GDELT Project) monitors the world's broadcast, print, and web news from nearly every corner of every country in...

  9. Arnold’s nerve cough reflex: evidence for chronic cough as a sensory vagal neuropathy


    Ryan, Nicole M; Gibson, Peter G; Birring, Surinder S.


    Arnold’s nerve ear-cough reflex is recognised to occur uncommonly in patients with chronic cough. In these patients, mechanical stimulation of the external auditory meatus can activate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (Arnold’s nerve) and evoke reflex cough. This is an example of hypersensitivity of vagal afferent nerves, and there is now an increasing recognition that many cases of refractory or idiopathic cough may be due to a sensory neuropathy of the vagus nerve. We present two cas...

  10. Exogenous cholecystokinin-8 reduces vagal efferent nerve activity in rats through CCKA receptors


    Bucinskaite, Violeta; Kurosawa, Mieko; Lundeberg, Thomas


    It has been proposed that the vagus nerve plays a role in mediating cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) effect on such gastric functions as motility, emptying and gastric acid secretion. To examine the contribution of the efferent pathways in realizing these effects, efferent mass activity in the ventral gastric vagal nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats was recorded.Intravenous infusion of CCK-8 (0.1–1 nmol) suppressed the efferent activity. The effect of CCK-8 was significantly reduced in animals with total ...

  11. Changes in Oscillatory Brain Networks after Lexical Tone Training


    Andreas Keil; Edith Kaan; Ratree Wayland


    Learning foreign speech contrasts involves creating new representations of sound categories in memory. This formation of new memory representations is likely to involve changes in neural networks as reflected by oscillatory brain activity. To explore this, we conducted time-frequency analyses of electro-encephalography (EEG) data recorded in a passive auditory oddball paradigm using Thai language tones. We compared native speakers of English (a non-tone language) and native speakers of Mandar...

  12. Grey Component Replacement Research, Modelling Tone And Color Reproduction (United States)

    Fisch, Richard S.


    Four different scanning Color Electronic Pagination System (CEPS) devices were tested to study their conventional and Grey Component Replacement/Undercolor Addition (GCR/UCA) tone and color response in the 4 color Positive Acting Offset Lithographic printing process. A common transparency input and ganged printing output was used. Inter and intra machine differences are disclosed. A new depiction of the full tone reproduction characteristics is presented for several different levels of GCR/UCA and conventional printing.

  13. Tone-3 Accent Realization in Short Chinese Sentences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wen; ZHANG Jinsong


    To investigate how a low tone (tone-3,T3) syllable in Chinese can be perceived to be focal ac-canted or not,a total of 156 sentences containing tone-3 words were synthesized and used as stimuli in a perceptual study.The sentences differed in the falling value between the two high pitches,and in the dura-tion and phonation types of the T3 syllables.Thirty-nine subjects were asked to judge where the focus or accent was for each sentence.The results show that at least three degrees of pitch drop are involved in the focus recognition: a big sized drop of about 10 semitones; a middle sized drop of about 6 semitones; a small sized drop of about 2 semitones.The results suggest that the three sizes of pitch drop have different indica-tions in Chinese intonation,depending on both the tone and the tone combination.In perception,there are various ways to realize tone-3 focus in the Tx-T3-Ty sentences series,but in production or for text-to-speech synthesis,the rule simply is making a middle sized pitch drop with a long and creaky T3 syllable.Similarly,to focus on the low tone syllable in the T3-Tx-Ty sentences,a creaky T3 syllable is essential.However,a long T3 syllable is a strong determinant for a low tone focus in the Tx-Ty-T3 sentences.

  14. Impaired learning of event frequencies in tone deafness


    Loui, Psyche; Schlaug, Gottfried


    Musical knowledge is ubiquitous, effortless, and implicitly acquired all over the world via exposure to musical materials in one’s culture. In contrast, one group of individuals who show insensitivity to music, specifically the inability to discriminate pitches and melodies, is the tone-deaf. In this study, we asked whether difficulties in pitch and melody discrimination among the tone-deaf could be related to learning difficulties, and, if so, what processes of learning might be affected in ...

  15. Examination of voicing onset time during Mandarin tone productions (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Ng, Manwa


    The voice onset time (VOT) of stop consonant is defined as the time interval between the release of a stop and the onset of the following vowel (Lisker and Abramson, 1964, 1970). Previous studies indicated that VOT could be used as a perceptual cue for identification of both voicing and place of articulation of stops (Kewley-Port, 1983; Ladefoged, 2001). Abramson (1977) suggested VOT could be interpreted as interrelated acoustic consequences of variation in the relative timing of glottal and oral gestures. This study will attempt to extend the probe on this suggestion by comparing the VOT values among different tones. Mandarin, which is a tone language, where a change in the tone of a syllable leads to a change in meaning, will be used in the study. There are four contrastive tones in Mandarin, each of which is realized by changing the vocal pitch during the course of the syllable production. The proposed study will determine if VOT values for each of the six stop sounds (/p,b,t,d,k,g/) will vary with the variation of different tones at which each of the following vowel sounds is produced. The interrelationship between VOT and tone production will be discussed.

  16. Method to measure tone of axial and proximal muscle. (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Victor S; Cacciatore, Timothy W; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B


    The control of tonic muscular activity remains poorly understood. While abnormal tone is commonly assessed clinically by measuring the passive resistance of relaxed limbs, no systems are available to study tonic muscle control in a natural, active state of antigravity support. We have developed a device (Twister) to study tonic regulation of axial and proximal muscles during active postural maintenance (i.e. postural tone). Twister rotates axial body regions relative to each other about the vertical axis during stance, so as to twist the neck, trunk or hip regions. This twisting imposes length changes on axial muscles without changing the body's relationship to gravity. Because Twister does not provide postural support, tone must be regulated to counteract gravitational torques. We quantify this tonic regulation by the restive torque to twisting, which reflects the state of all muscles undergoing length changes, as well as by electromyography of relevant muscles. Because tone is characterized by long-lasting low-level muscle activity, tonic control is studied with slow movements that produce "tonic" changes in muscle length, without evoking fast "phasic" responses. Twister can be reconfigured to study various aspects of muscle tone, such as co-contraction, tonic modulation to postural changes, tonic interactions across body segments, as well as perceptual thresholds to slow axial rotation. Twister can also be used to provide a quantitative measurement of the effects of disease on axial and proximal postural tone and assess the efficacy of intervention. PMID:22214974

  17. Pulsating proton aurora caused by rising tone Pc1 waves (United States)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Omura, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Connors, M.


    We found rising tone emissions with a dispersion of ˜1 Hz per several tens of seconds in the dynamic spectrum of a Pc1 geomagnetic pulsation (Pc1) observed on the ground. These Pc1 rising tones were successively observed over ˜30 min from 0250 UT on 14 October 2006 by an induction magnetometer at Athabasca, Canada (54.7°N, 246.7°E, magnetic latitude 61.7°N). Simultaneously, a Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms panchromatic (THEMIS) all-sky camera detected pulsations of an isolated proton aurora with a period of several tens of seconds, ˜10% variations in intensity, and fine structures of 3° in magnetic longitudes. The pulsations of the proton aurora close to the zenith of ATH have one-to-one correspondences with the Pc1 rising tones. This suggests that these rising tones scatter magnetospheric protons intermittently at the equatorial region. The radial motion of the magnetospheric source, of which the isolated proton aurora is a projection, can explain the central frequency increase of Pc1, but not the shorter period (tens of seconds) frequency increase of ˜1 Hz in Pc1 rising tones. We suggest that EMIC-triggered emissions generate the frequency increase of Pc1 rising tones on the ground and that they also cause the Pc1 pearl structure, which has a similar characteristic time.

  18. Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma


    Chlumský, Jaromír; Holá, Dana; Hlaváček, Karel; Michal, Michal; Švec, Alexander; Špatenka, Jaroslav; Dušek, Jan


    Cardiac sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm and is difficult to diagnose. The case of a 51-year-old man with a left atrial tumour, locally recurrent three months after its surgical removal, is presented. Computed tomography showed metastatic spread to the lung parenchyma. On revised histology, the mass extirpated was a sarcoma. Because of the metastatic spread, further therapy was symptomatic only; the patient died 15 months after the first manifestation of his problems. Immunohistochemical stain...

  19. Cardiac Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Joorabian


    Full Text Available There is a spectrum of different types of cardiac"ncalcifications with the importance and significance"nof each type of cardiac calcification, especially"ncoronary artery calcification. Radiologic detection of"ncalcifications within the heart is quite common. The"namount of coronary artery calcification correlates"nwith the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD."nCalcification of the aortic or mitral valve may indicate"nhemodynamically significant valvular stenosis."nMyocardial calcification is a sign of prior infarction,"nwhile pericardial calcification is strongly associated"nwith constrictive pericarditis. A spectrum of different"ntypes of cardiac calcifications (linear, annular,"ncurvilinear,... could be seen in chest radiography and"nother imaging modalities. So a carful inspection for"ndetection and reorganization of these calcifications"nshould be necessary. Numerous modalities exist for"nidentifying coronary calcification, including plain"nradiography, fluoroscopy, intravascular ultrasound,"nMRI, echocardiography, and conventional, helical and"nelectron-beam CT (EBCT. Coronary calcifications"ndetected on EBCT or helical CT can be quantifie,"nand a total calcification score (Cardiac Calcification"nScoring may be calculated. In an asymptomatic"npopulation and/or patients with concomitant risk"nfactors like diabetes mellitus, determination of the"npresence of coronary calcifications identifies the"npatients at risk for future myocardial infarction and"ncoronary artery disease. In patients without coronary"ncalcifications, future cardiovascular events could"nbe excluded. Therefore, detecting and recognizing"ncalcification related to the heart on chest radiography"nand other imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy, CT"nand echocardiography may have important clinical"nimplications.

  20. Cardiac Autonomic Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Heart Failure


    Kobayashi, Mariko; Massiello, Alex; Karimov, Jamshid H.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka


    Research on the therapeutic modulation of cardiac autonomic tone by electrical stimulation has yielded encouraging early clinical results. Vagus nerve stimulation has reduced the rates of morbidity and sudden death from heart failure, but therapeutic vagus nerve stimulation is limited by side effects of hypotension and bradycardia. Sympathetic nerve stimulation that has been implemented in the experiment may exacerbate the sympathetic-dominated autonomic imbalance. In contrast, concurrent sti...

  1. The Case-Tone Factor in Igbo Nouns, with Special Reference to the Igbo Associative Construction. (United States)

    Echeruo, Michael J. C.

    Tone-based classification rules for Igbo nouns need modification because: (1) class 1 nouns (monosyllables with high tones) do not, as claimed, operate differently from other terminal high-tone nouns; and (2) class 6 nouns (di-syllabic with downstep tones) can be accounted for within class 2 and class 3 nouns known as HH and LH nouns). The proper…

  2. Synchronous malignant vagal paraganglioma with contralateral carotid body paraganglioma treated by radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejinder Kataria


    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are rare tumors and very few cases of malignant vagal paraganglioma with synchronous carotid body paraganglioma have been reported. We report a case of a 20-year old male who presented with slow growing bilateral neck masses of eight years duration. He had symptoms of dysphagia to solids, occasional mouth breathing and hoarseness of voice. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC performed where he lived showed a sinus histiocytosis and he was administered anti-tubercular treatment for six months without any improvement in his symptoms. His physical examination revealed pulsatile, soft to firm, non-tender swellings over the anterolateral neck confined to the upper-mid jugulo-diagastric region on both sides. Direct laryngoscopy examination revealed a bulge on the posterior pharyngeal wall and another over the right lateral pharyngeal wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 99mTc-labeled octreotide scan and angiography diagnosed the swellings as carotid body paraganglioma, stage III on the right side with left-sided vagal malignant paraganglioma. Surgery was ruled out as a high morbidity with additional risk to life was expected due to the highly vascular nature of the tumor. The patient was treated with radiation therapy by image guided radiation to a dose of 5040cGy in 28 fractions. At a follow-up at 16 months, the tumors have regressed bilaterally and the patient can take solids with ease.

  3. Cardiac conduction system (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals ... to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle ...

  4. Subgroup differences in the lexical tone mismatch negativity (MMN) among Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia. (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Huang, Wan-ting; Wang, Wen-jing; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi


    The association/dissociation of pitch processing between music and language is a long lasting debate. We examined this music-language relationship by investigating to what extent pitch deficits in these two domains were dissociable. We focused on a special neurodevelopmental pitch disorder - congenital amusia, which primarily affects musical pitch processing. Recent research has also revealed lexical tone deficits in speech among amusics. Approximately one-third of Mandarin amusics exhibits behavioural difficulties in lexical tone perception, which is known as tone agnosia. Using mismatch negativities (MMNs), our current work probed lexical tone encoding at the pre-attentive level among the Mandarin amusics with (tone agnosics) and without (pure amusics) behavioural lexical tone deficits compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. Relative to the controls and the pure amusics, the tone agnosics exhibited reduced MMNs specifically in response to lexical tone changes. Their tone-consonant MMNs were intact and similar to those of the other two groups. Moreover, the tone MMN reduction over the left hemisphere was tightly linked to behavioural insensitivity to lexical tone changes. The current study thus provides the first psychophysiological evidence of subgroup differences in lexical tone processing among Mandarin amusics and links amusics' behavioural tone deficits to impaired pre-attentive tone processing. Despite the overall music pitch deficits, the subgroup differences in lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking amusics suggest dissociation of pitch deficits between music and speech. PMID:26638759

  5. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma. (United States)

    Brown, Robert H; Togias, Alkis


    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolution computed tomography at baseline and after maximum bronchodilation with albuterol. Airway tone was defined as the percent difference in airway diameter after albuterol at total lung capacity compared with baseline. The amount of airway tone in each airway varied both within and between subjects. The average airway tone did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.09), but the intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity did (P = 0.016). Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity was strongly correlated with airway tone (r = 0.78, P < 0.0001). Also, it was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the distension of the airways from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity at both baseline (r = -0.49, P = 0.03) and after maximum bronchodilation (r = -0.51, P = 0.02) in the asthma, but not the healthy group. However, we did not find any relationship between intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and conventional lung function outcomes. Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity appears to be an important characteristic of airway pathophysiology in asthma. PMID:27103654

  6. Turbo-per-Tone Equalization for ADSL Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen


    Full Text Available We study the equalization procedure in discrete multitone (DMT-based systems, in particular, in DMT-based ADSL systems. Traditionally, equalization is performed in the time domain by means of a channel shortening filter. Shifting the equalization operations to the frequency domain, as is done in per-tone equalization, increases the achieved bitrate by 5–10%. We show that the application of the turbo principle to per-tone equalization can provide significant additional gains. In the proposed receiver structure, referred to as a “turbo-per-tone equalization” structure, equalization and decoding are performed in an iterative fashion. Equalization is done by means of a linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE equalizer, using a priori information. We give a description of an efficient implementation of such an equalizer in the per-tone structure. Simulations show that we obtain a bitrate increase of 12–16% compared to the original per-tone equalization-based receiver structure.

  7. Evaluation of HEXORR Tone Assistance Mode Against Spring Assistance. (United States)

    Godfrey, Sasha Blue; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S


    Robots are a promising tool for rehabilitation, and research suggests combining assistance with subject participation to maintain motivation and engagement. In this study, we compare two different types of robotic assistance for hand rehabilitation: Tone, a novel method designed to directly compensate for the user's hypertonia, and Spring, a commonly used method simulating a spring-like force attracting the subject to the target position. Eight chronic stroke subjects played a Gate Game, where they guide a ball through a sweeping, on-screen gate. Each subject was exposed to 5 modes: unassisted, assisted by the Spring and Tone modes, and "delay" modes where the assistance was provided after a period without assistance. Compared to unassisted trials, subjects produced less positive work and more negative work with all types of assistance but also reached a larger ROM and scored higher on the game. Notably, subjects produced more positive work overall with Tone compared to Spring. Further, subjects produced positive work over a significantly shorter range with Spring compared to Unassisted, while there was no difference between Tone and Unassisted. While both modes were effective at enabling the training of a larger workspace, these results suggest Tone assistance maintains a greater level of subject engagement and participation, likely making it a useful tool for hand rehabilitation. PMID:25667355

  8. SBS mitigation with 'two-tone' amplification: a theoretical model (United States)

    Bronder, T. J.; Shay, T. M.; Dajani, I.; Gavrielides, A.; Robin, C. A.; Lu, C. A.


    A new technique for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects in narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber amplifiers is demonstrated with a model that reduces to solving an 8×8 system of coupled nonlinear equations with the gain, SBS, and four-wave mixing (FMW) incorporated into the model. This technique uses two seed signals, or 'two-tones', with each tone reaching its SBS threshold almost independently and thus increasing the overall threshold for SBS in the fiber amplifier. The wavelength separation of these signals is also selected to avoid FWM, which in this case possesses the next lowest nonlinear effects threshold. This model predicts an output power increase of 86% (at SBS threshold with no signs of FWM) for a 'two-tone' amplifier with seed signals at 1064nm and 1068nm, compared to a conventional fiber amplifier with a single 1064nm seed. The model is also used to simulate an SBS-suppressing fiber amplifier to test the regime where FWM is the limiting factor. In this case, an optimum wavelength separation of 3nm to 10nm prevents FWM from reaching threshold. The optimum ratio of the input power for the two seed signals in 'two-tone' amplification is also tested. Future experimental verification of this 'two-tone' technique is discussed.

  9. Stanovení vagového prahu a možnosti jeho využití Determination of the vagal threshold and changes of it's using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Gába


    Full Text Available Cílem této studie bylo navrhnout jednoduchý matematický postup, podle kterého by bylo možno stanovit takovou hraniční intenzitu zatížení, nad kterou se redukovaná vagová aktivita dále výrazně nemění a kardiovaskulární systém je dominantně řízen zvyšující se aktivitou sympatoadrenálního systému (vagový práh – TVA. Testovaný soubor tvořilo 10 mužů ve věku 27,24 ± 3,23 let s hodnotou maximální spotřeby kyslíku 50,24 ± 4,63–1.min–1. Aktivita ANS byla hodnocena pomocí neinvazivní metody spektrální analýzy (SA variability srdeční frekvence (HRV. Změny v autonomní kardiální regulaci byly posuzovány během chůze na běhátku v setrvalém stavu při intenzitách zatížení od 20 % do 70 % maximální tepové rezervy (MTR. Zvýšení intenzity zatížení o 10 % MTR v rozmezí od 20 % do 70 % MTR vedlo vždy k signifikantnímu snížení aktivity vagu. Navržený postup pro stanovení deflekčního bodu křivky závislosti PHF na intenzitě zatížení, za kterým již PHF výrazně neklesá, umožnil identifikovat TVA na úrovni 43,63 ± 4,66 % MTR. Navržený algoritmus stanovení TVA dovoluje odhadnout při tělesné práci "bezpečnou" intenzitu zatížení, při které je ještě zachována aktivita vagu a aktivita sympatiku se ještě výrazně nezvyšuje. Stanovení TVA se může uplatnit zejména při preskripci intenzity zatížení v rámci programu pohybové aktivity u pacientů s redukovanou aktivitou ANS a se zvýšeným rizikem náhlé srdeční příhody. Exercise intensity causes changes in the activity of both branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS as involved in cardiovascular system regulation. Reduction in vagal activity and an increase in sympatho-adrenal activity is associated with an increase in death risk from both cardiac and arrhythmic causes during exercise. The main aim of this work was to develop a simple mathematic algorithm for determination of

  10. Neurohumoral indicators of efficacy radiofrequency cardiac denervation (United States)

    Evtushenko, A. V.; Evtushenko, V. V.; Saushkina, Yu. V.; Lishmanov, Yu. B.; Pokushalov, E. A.; Sergeevichev, D. S.; Gusakova, A. M.; Suslova, T. E.; Dymbrylova, O. N.; Bykov, A. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Lotkov, A. I.; Kurlov, I. O.


    In this study, we compared pre- and postoperative parameters of the cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to examine the approaches to evaluating the quality of radiofrequency (RF)-induced cardiac denervation by using non-invasive and laboratory methods. The study included 32 people with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the objectives of the study: group 1 (main) - 21 patients with mitral valve diseases, which simultaneously with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) AF carried out on the effects of the paraganglionic nervous plexuses by C. Pappone (2004) and N. Doll (2008) schemes. The second group (control) contained 11 patients with heart diseases in sinus rhythm (the RF denervation not been performed). All patients, who underwent surgical treatment, were received examination of cardiac sympathetic tone by using 123I-MIBG. All of them made blood analysis from ascending aorta and coronary sinus to determine the level of norepinephrine and its metabolites before and after cardiac denervation. Data of radionuclide examination are correlating with laboratory data.

  11. Neurohumoral indicators of efficacy radiofrequency cardiac denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, A. V., E-mail:; Evtushenko, V. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Research Institute for Cardiology”, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Saushkina, Yu. V.; Gusakova, A. M.; Suslova, T. E.; Dymbrylova, O. N.; Smyshlyaev, K. A.; Kurlov, I. O. [Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Research Institute for Cardiology”, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lishmanov, Yu. B.; Anfinogenova, Ya. D. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “Research Institute for Cardiology”, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sergeevichev, D. S. [Academician E.N. Meshalkin State Research Institute of Circulation Pathology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bykov, A. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Kistenev, Yu. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lotkov, A. I. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Pokushalov, E. A.


    In this study, we compared pre- and postoperative parameters of the cardiac sympathetic innervation. The aim of the study was to examine the approaches to evaluating the quality of radiofrequency (RF)-induced cardiac denervation by using non-invasive and laboratory methods. The study included 32 people with long-lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the objectives of the study: group 1 (main) - 21 patients with mitral valve diseases, which simultaneously with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) AF carried out on the effects of the paraganglionic nervous plexuses by C. Pappone (2004) and N. Doll (2008) schemes. The second group (control) contained 11 patients with heart diseases in sinus rhythm (the RF denervation not been performed). All patients, who underwent surgical treatment, were received examination of cardiac sympathetic tone by using {sup 123}I-MIBG. All of them made blood analysis from ascending aorta and coronary sinus to determine the level of norepinephrine and its metabolites before and after cardiac denervation. Data of radionuclide examination are correlating with laboratory data.

  12. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems (United States)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  13. Activation of kinin B1 receptor evokes hyperthermia through a vagal sensory mechanism in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Sébastien


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinins are mediators of pain and inflammation. Their role in thermoregulation is, however, unknown despite the fact the B1 receptor (B1R was found implicated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which peripheral B1R affects body core temperature in a rat model known to show up-regulated levels of B1R. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats received streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg; i.p. to enhance B1R expression. Control rats received the vehicle only. One week later, rectal temperature was measured in awake rats after i.p. injection of increasing doses (0.01 to 5 mg/kg of des-Arg9-Bradykinin (BK and Sar-[D-Phe8]des-Arg9-BK (B1R agonists or BK (B2R agonist. The mechanism of B1R-induced hyperthermia was addressed using specific inhibitors and in rats subjected to subdiaphragmatic vagal nerve ligation. B1R mRNA level was measured by quantitative Real Time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and B1R was localized by confocal microscopy. Results B1R agonists (0.1 to 5 mg/kg showed transient (5- to 30-minute and dose-dependent increases of rectal temperature (+1.5°C in STZ-treated rats, but not in control rats. BK caused no effect in STZ and control rats. In STZ-treated rats, B1R agonist-induced hyperthermia was blocked by antagonists/inhibitors of B1R (SSR240612, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 (niflumic acid and nitric oxide synthase (NOS (L-NAME, and after vagal nerve ligation. In contrast, COX-1 inhibition (indomethacin had no effect on B1R agonist-induced hyperthermia. In STZ-treated rats, B1R mRNA was significantly increased in the hypothalamus and the vagus nerve where it was co-localized with calcitonin-gene-related peptide in sensory C-fibers. Conclusion B1R, which is induced in inflammatory diseases, could contribute to hyperthermia through a vagal sensory mechanism involving prostaglandins (via COX-2 and nitric oxide.

  14. Phonology in the Lexical Processing of Chinese: Priming Tone Neighbors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiaolin


    Using both visual-visual and auditory-visual priming lexical decision tasks, this study investigated phonological processing in reading logographic Chinese. Compound words sharing segmental templates but differing in lexical tones were used as primes and targets while their relative frequency was manipulated. It was found that tone neighbours did not prime each other significantly and the SOA of 100 msec in visual-visual priming. When the SOA was increased to 357 msec, or when primes were presented auditorily, the processing of target words was significantly delayed by their tone neighbours. Larger inhibitory effects were observed for low frequency targets with high frequency primes. It was argued that although phonological information is automatically activated and this activation affects access to semantics in reading Chinese,phonological mediation is not the only or the main ~urce of constraints on semantic activation.

  15. Changes in Oscillatory Brain Networks after Lexical Tone Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Keil


    Full Text Available Learning foreign speech contrasts involves creating new representations of sound categories in memory. This formation of new memory representations is likely to involve changes in neural networks as reflected by oscillatory brain activity. To explore this, we conducted time-frequency analyses of electro-encephalography (EEG data recorded in a passive auditory oddball paradigm using Thai language tones. We compared native speakers of English (a non-tone language and native speakers of Mandarin Chinese (a tone language, before and after a two-day laboratory training. Native English speakers showed a larger gamma-band power and stronger alpha-band synchrony across EEG channels than the native Chinese speakers, especially after training. This is compatible with the view that forming new speech categories on the basis of unfamiliar perceptual dimensions involves stronger gamma activity and more coherent activity in alpha-band networks than forming new categories on the basis of familiar dimensions.

  16. Changes in oscillatory brain networks after lexical tone training. (United States)

    Kaan, Edith; Wayland, Ratree; Keil, Andreas


    Learning foreign speech contrasts involves creating new representations of sound categories in memory. This formation of new memory representations is likely to involve changes in neural networks as reflected by oscillatory brain activity. To explore this, we conducted time-frequency analyses of electro-encephalography (EEG) data recorded in a passive auditory oddball paradigm using Thai language tones. We compared native speakers of English (a non-tone language) and native speakers of Mandarin Chinese (a tone language), before and after a two-day laboratory training. Native English speakers showed a larger gamma-band power and stronger alpha-band synchrony across EEG channels than the native Chinese speakers, especially after training. This is compatible with the view that forming new speech categories on the basis of unfamiliar perceptual dimensions involves stronger gamma activity and more coherent activity in alpha-band networks than forming new categories on the basis of familiar dimensions. PMID:24961423

  17. On the origin of impinging tones at low supersonic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Wilke, Robert


    Impinging compressible jets may cause deafness and material fatigue due to immensely loud tonal noise. It is generally accepted that a feedback mechanism similar to the screech feedback loop is responsible for impinging tones. The close of the loop remained unclear. One hypothesis hold up in the literature explains the emanated sound with the direct interaction of vortices and the wall. Other explanations name the standoff shock oscillations as the origin of the tones. Using direct numerical simulations (DNS) we were able to identify the source mechanism for under-expanded impinging jets with a nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) of 2.15 and a plate distance of 5 diameters. We found two different types of interactions between vortices and shocks to be responsible for the generation of the impinging tones. They are not related to screech.

  18. Allergen challenge sensitizes TRPA1 in vagal sensory neurons and afferent C-fiber subtypes in guinea pig esophagus. (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Hu, Youtian; Yu, Xiaoyun; Xi, Jiefeng; Fan, Xiaoming; Tse, Chung-Ming; Myers, Allen C; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Li, Xingde; Yu, Shaoyong


    Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is a newly defined cationic ion channel, which selectively expresses in primary sensory afferent nerve, and is essential in mediating inflammatory nociception. Our previous study demonstrated that TRPA1 plays an important role in tissue mast cell activation-induced increase in the excitability of esophageal vagal nodose C fibers. The present study aims to determine whether prolonged antigen exposure in vivo sensitizes TRPA1 in a guinea pig model of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Antigen challenge-induced responses in esophageal mucosa were first assessed by histological stains and Ussing chamber studies. TRPA1 function in vagal sensory neurons was then studied by calcium imaging and by whole cell patch-clamp recordings in 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI)-labeled esophageal vagal nodose and jugular neurons. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in vagal nodose and jugular C-fiber neuron subtypes using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. Antigen challenge significantly increased infiltrations of eosinophils and mast cells in the esophagus. TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC)-induced calcium influx in nodose and jugular neurons was significantly increased, and current densities in esophageal DiI-labeled nodose and jugular neurons were also significantly increased in antigen-challenged animals. Prolonged antigen challenge decreased esophageal epithelial barrier resistance, which allowed intraesophageal-infused AITC-activating nodose and jugular C fibers at their nerve endings. Collectively, these results demonstrated that prolonged antigen challenge sensitized TRPA1 in esophageal sensory neurons and afferent C fibers. This novel finding will help us to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying esophageal sensory and motor dysfunctions in EoE. PMID:25591867

  19. The influence of pipe organ reed curvature on tone quality. (United States)

    Plitnik, George R; Angster, Judit


    Although organ flue pipes have been widely studied, the same claim cannot be made for pipe organ reed stops. Given certain design constraints, such as the type of reed stop being voiced and the desired tone quality, the reed voicer must use consummate skill to curve the reed tongue so as to produce the best and most stable tone as well as to guarantee that each pipe blends with its neighbors. The amount and type of curve given to a reed tongue influences not only the harmonic structure of the steady-state sound but also the attack. There are two fundamentally different types of curvature that can be given to a reed tongue, the trompette (chorus reed) curve (which gives a bright sound) and the smooth-toned curve employed for clarinet pipes. This study investigated the effect of reed curvature on the vibration and tone (as assessed by professionals) on reed tongues of both types. Two F2 (8'F, 87.3 Hz) pipes (a trompette and a clarinet) were constructed and voiced with differently curved tongues to produce a variety of tones. The vibration of the reed tongue was measured under typical conditions by laser vibrometer; the pressure waves in the boot and in the shallot were measured by means of one-quarter inch microphones, and the pipe's sound was recorded at the egress. By performing various measurements simultaneously, phase differences were also determined, the extreme sensitivity of tone to reed curvature was demonstrated, and a recently proposed theory of reed vibration was shown to be more accurate than the standard model. PMID:23145630

  20. Lexical tone awareness in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia


    Li, WS; Ho, CSH


    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8;11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8;11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control group, mean age 7;4) on different measures of lexical tone awareness, rhyme awareness and visual-verbal paired-associate learning. Results showed that ...

  1. Amplitude modulation reduces loudness adaptation to high-frequency tones


    Wynne, DP; George, SE; Zeng, FG


    © 2015 Acoustical Society of America. Long-term loudness perception of a sound has been presumed to depend on the spatial distribution of activated auditory nerve fibers as well as their temporal firing pattern. The relative contributions of those two factors were investigated by measuring loudness adaptation to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated 12-kHz tones. The tones had a total duration of 180s and were either unmodulated or 100%-modulated at one of three frequencies (4, 20, or 100Hz), and ...

  2. [Steroid-responsive sensorineural hearing loss with low tone loss]. (United States)

    Toriya, R; Yamashita, H; Hisashi, K; Komune, S; Komiyama, S


    Five cases of sensorineural hearing loss of sudden onset were reviewed. They were not responsive to administration of ATP and Vit. B12, but very responsive to steroid administration. All the patients were male and showed hearing loss in low frequencies in pure tone audiogram. Administration of steroid recovered hearing impairment immediately. However, cessation of steroid aggravated the recovered hearing. Serological and immunological examinations did not show any abnormal findings on all the patients. It was considered that these five patients had characteristics of both steroid-sensitive and low tone-loss type sensorineural hearing losses. PMID:8566929

  3. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens Juul; Raybould, Helen E; Ney, Denise M


    in mucosal mass, protein, DNA, and histology. Both systemic and perivagal capsaicin significantly attenuated by 48-100% resection-induced increases in ileal mucosal mass, protein, and DNA in rats fed orally. Villus height was significantly reduced in resected rats given capsaicin compared with...... of bioactive GLP-2 resulting from resection in orally fed rats. Ablation of spinal/splanchnic innervation by ganglionectomy failed to attenuate resection-induced adaptive growth. In TPN rats, capsaicin did not attenuate resection-induced mucosal growth. We conclude that vagal afferents are not...... essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal growth. Rats received systemic or perivagal capsaicin or ganglionectomy before 70% midjejunoileal resection or transection and were fed orally or by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 7 days after surgery. Growth of residual bowel was assessed by changes...

  4. Acute Vagal Nerve Stimulation Lowers α2 Adrenoceptor Availability: Possible Mechanism of Therapeutic Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landau, Anne M.; Dyve, Suzan; Jakobsen, Steen; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Gjedde, Albert; Doudet, Doris J


    BACKGROUND: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) emerged as an anti-epileptic therapy, and more recently as a potential antidepressant intervention. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that salutary effects of VNS are mediated, at least in part, by augmentation of the inhibitory effects of cortical...... monoaminergic neurotransmission at appropriate receptors, specifically adrenoceptors. Our objective was to measure the effect of acute VNS on α2 adrenoceptor binding. METHODS: Using positron emission tomography (PET), we measured changes in noradrenaline receptor binding associated with acute VNS stimulation in...... electrode in minipigs before and within 30 min of the initiation of 1 mA stimulation. Kinetic analysis with the Logan graphical linearization generated tracer volumes of distribution for each condition. We used an averaged value of the distribution volume of non-displaceable ligand (VND), to calculate...

  5. Loperamide effects on anxiety level and feeding behavior in rats. Role of vagal afferentation. (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Bashkatova, V G; Kolpakov, A A; Chernyaeva, N N


    We investigated the role of vagal afferentation in the interaction of the peripheral and central parts of the endogenous opioid system, in the mechanisms of sensorial satiation and anxiety in rats. It has been established that vagotomized rats spent less time in open arm of the plus-maze in comparison with sham-operated animals. Peripheral administration of μ-opioid receptor agonist loperamide was shown to reduce anxiety level in sham-operated rats and had no effect on this parameter in vagotomized animals. Testing in a PhenoMaster module system showed that loperamide administration suppressed feeding behavior in sham-operated animals and partially suppressed it in vagotomized animals. Vagotomy virtually completely blocked the anxiolytic effect of loperamide and partially blocked the anorexigenic effect of the μ-opioid receptor agonist. PMID:23113267

  6. Arnold’s nerve cough reflex: evidence for chronic cough as a sensory vagal neuropathy (United States)

    Gibson, Peter G.; Birring, Surinder S.


    Arnold’s nerve ear-cough reflex is recognised to occur uncommonly in patients with chronic cough. In these patients, mechanical stimulation of the external auditory meatus can activate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (Arnold’s nerve) and evoke reflex cough. This is an example of hypersensitivity of vagal afferent nerves, and there is now an increasing recognition that many cases of refractory or idiopathic cough may be due to a sensory neuropathy of the vagus nerve. We present two cases where the cause of refractory chronic cough was due to sensory neuropathy associated with ear-cough reflex hypersensitivity. In both cases, the cough as well as the Arnold’s nerve reflex hypersensitivity were successfully treated with gabapentin, a treatment that has previously been shown to be effective in the treatment of cough due to sensory laryngeal neuropathy (SLN). PMID:25383210

  7. Rimonabant induced anorexia in rodents is not mediated by vagal or sympathetic gut afferents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Jelsing, Jacob; van de Wall, Esther H E M;


    The selective CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is a novel weight control agent. Although CB1 receptors and binding sites are present in both the rodent central and peripheral nervous systems, including the afferent vagus nerve, the role of gut afferents in mediating anorexia following CB1R...... blockade is still debated. In the present study we examined rimonabant-induced anorexia in male C57BL/6J mice with subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) as well as in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to either subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) alone or in combination with a complete celiac...... system, are required for rimonabant to inhibit food intake leading to the hypothesis that centrally located CB1 receptors are the prime mediators of rimonabant-induced anorexia....

  8. Comparative pharmacology of cholecystokinin induced activation of cultured vagal afferent neurons from rats and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallas C Kinch

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK facilitates the process of satiation via activation of vagal afferent neurons innervating the upper gastrointestinal tract. Recent findings indicate CCK acts on these neurons via a ruthenium red (RuR sensitive pathway that involves members of the vanilloid (V subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP channels. To further test this mechanism, the mouse provides an ideal model in which genetic tools could be applied. However, whether CCK acts by similar mechanism(s in mice has not been determined. In the present study we explored the actions of CCK on nodose neurons isolated from Sprague Dawley (SD rat and two strains of mice; C57BL/6 and BalbC using fluorescence-based calcium imaging. With minor exceptions nodose neurons isolated from all species/strains behaved similarly. They all respond to brief depolarization with a large calcium transient. A significant subset of neurons responded to capsaicin (CAP, a TRPV1 agonist, although neurons from C57BL/6 were 10-fold more sensitive to CAP than SD rats or BalbC mice, and a significantly smaller fraction of neurons from BalbC mice responded to CAP. CCK-8 dose-dependently activated a subpopulation of neurons with similar dose dependency, percent responders, and overlap between CCK and CAP responsiveness. In all species/strains CCK-8 induced activation was significantly attenuated (but not completely blocked by pretreatment with the TRPV channel blocker RuR. Surprisingly, the CCK analogue JMV-180, which is reported to have pure antagonistic properties in rat but mixed agonist/antagonist properties in mice, behaved as a pure antagonist to CCK in both rat and mouse neurons. The pure antagonistic action of JMV-180 in this in vitro preparation suggests that prior reported differential effects of JMV-180 on satiation in rats versus mouse must be mediated by a site other than vagal afferent activation.

  9. Effect of estrogen on vagal afferent projections to the brainstem in the female. (United States)

    Ciriello, John; Caverson, Monica M


    The effects of 17β-estradiol (E) on the distribution and density of brainstem projections of small or large diameter primary vagal afferents were investigated in Wistar rats using transganglionic transport of wheat germ agglutinin- (WGA; preferentially transported by non-myelinated afferent C-fibers; 2%), or cholera toxin B-subunit- (CTB, 5%; preferentially transported by large myelinated afferent A-fibers) conjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in combination with the tetramethylbenzidine method in age matched ovariectomized (OVX) only or OVX and treated with E (OVX+E; 30pg/ml plasma) females for 12 weeks. Additionally, these projections were compared to aged matched males. Unilateral microinjection of WGA-HRP into the nodose ganglion resulted in dense anterograde labeling bilaterally, with an ipsilateral predominance in several subnuclei of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and in area postrema that was greatest in OVX+E animals compared to OVX only and males. Moderately dense anterograde labeling was also observed in paratrigeminal nucleus (PAT) of the OVX+E animals. CTB-HRP produced less dense anterograde labeling in the NTS complex, but had a wider distribution within the brainstem including the area postrema, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, PAT, the nucleus ambiguus complex and ventrolateral medulla in all groups. The distribution of CTB-HRP anterograde labeling was densest in OVX+E, less dense in OVX only females and least dense in male rats. Little, if any, labeling was found within PAT in males using either WGA-or CTB-HRP. Taken together, these data suggest that small, non-myelinated (WGA-labeled) and large myelinated (CTB-labeled) diameter vagal afferents projecting to brainstem autonomic areas are differentially affected by circulating levels of estrogen. These effects of estrogen on connectivity may contribute to the sex differences observed in central autonomic mechanisms between gender, and in females with and without estrogen. PMID

  10. Vagal and hormonal gut-brain communication: from satiation to satisfaction. (United States)

    Berthoud, H-R


    Studying communication between the gut and the brain is as relevant and exciting as it has been since Pavlov's discoveries a century ago. Although the efferent limb of this communication has witnessed significant advances, it is the afferent, or sensory, limb that has recently made for exciting news. It is now clear that signals from the gut are crucial for the control of appetite and the regulation of energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and more. Ghrelin, discovered just a few years ago, is the first gut hormone that increases appetite, and it may be involved in eating disorders. The stable analogue of glucagon-like peptide-1 has rapidly advanced to one of the most promising treatment options for type-2 diabetes. Changes in the signalling patterns of these and other gut hormones best explain the remarkable capacity of gastric bypass surgery to lower food intake and excess body weight. Given the enormous societal implications of the obesity epidemic, these are no small feats. Together with the older gut hormone cholecystokinin and abundant vagal mechanosensors, the gut continuously sends information to the brain regarding the quality and quantity of ingested nutrients, not only important for satiation and meal termination, but also for the appetitive phase of ingestive behaviour and the patterning of meals within given environmental constraints. By acting not only on brainstem and hypothalamus, this stream of sensory information from the gut to the brain is in a position to generate a feeling of satisfaction and happiness as observed after a satiating meal and exploited in vagal afferent stimulation for depression. PMID:18402643

  11. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.


    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with C

  12. Modulation of motor excitability by metricality of tone sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, David; Stewart, Lauren; Pearce, Marcus;


    amplitude. These results demonstrate that the pure metrical structure of an auditory rhythm presented as generic parametrically varied tone sequences can influence motor excitability but that the picture may be more complex for real recordings of musical pieces. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all...

  13. Lexical Tone Awareness among Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia (United States)

    Li, Wing-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han


    This study examined the extent and nature of lexical tone deficit in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Twenty Cantonese-speaking Chinese dyslexic children (mean age 8 ; 11) were compared to twenty average readers of the same age (CA control group, mean age 8 ; 11), and another twenty younger average readers of the same word reading level (RL control…

  14. Computer Pure-Tone and Operator Stress: Report III. (United States)

    Dow, Caroline; Covert, Douglas C.

    Pure-tone sound at 15,750 Herz generated by flyback transformers in many computer and video display terminal (VDT) monitors has stress-related productivity effects in some operators, especially women. College-age women in a controlled experiment simulating half a normal work day showed responses within the first half hour of exposure to a tone…

  15. Context, Contrast, and Tone of Voice in Auditory Sarcasm Perception (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J.


    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative…

  16. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa (United States)

    Morey, Stephen


    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  17. Consonance perception of complex-tone dyads and chords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marc; Santurette, Sébastien; MacDonald, Ewen


    Sensory consonance and dissonance are perceptual attributes of musical intervals conveying pleasant- ness, tension, and harmony in musical phrases. For complex-tone dyads, corresponding to two musical notes played simultaneously, consonance is known to vary with the ratio in fundamental frequency...... for a potential role of frequency selectivity for consonance perception of dyads, might not hold for chords...

  18. The correlated track receiver of tone track circuits


    Goncharov, K. V.


    The work is devoted to further improvement of processing algorithm of checking signals of rail line. The simulation modeling of correlation track receiver of tone rail circuits has been executed; the benchmark analysis of correlation receiver and direct amplifier receiver has been executed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Goncharov


    Full Text Available The work is devoted to further improvement of processing algorithm of checking signals of rail line. The simulation modeling of correlation track receiver of tone rail circuits has been executed; the benchmark analysis of correlation receiver and direct amplifier receiver has been executed.

  20. Increased resting bronchial tone in normal subjects acclimatised to altitude


    Wilson, C.; Bakewell, S; M. Miller; Hart, N; McMorrow, R; BARRY, P.; Collier, D; Watt, S; Pollard, A.


    Background: Normal subjects frequently experience troublesome respiratory symptoms when acclimatised to altitude. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and full and partial flow-volume loops were measured before and after ascent to 5000 m altitude to determine if there are changes in resting bronchial tone and BHR that might explain the symptoms.

  1. Woodwind Tone Hole Acoustics and the Spectrum Transformation Function. (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas Howard

    This report describes an investigation of woodwind musical instrument tone holes and their effect on the radiated spectrum, the total dissipation, the stability of oscillation, the psychoacoustical cues important in perception, and the tuning and response of the instrument. Varying tone hole proportions significantly affect the radiative and frictional damping near a single hole, the mutual interactions between holes, the onset of streaming and turbulence near the holes, and the perceived woodwind timbre. The interconnections between related fields are explored through a brief review of sound production in woodwinds plus more extensive reviews of room and psychological acoustics. A theoretical and experimental discussion of the spectrum transformation function from the mouthpiece into the room relates all these fields. Also, considered are differences between cylindrical and conical bore woodwinds, the systematic shifts in saxophone spectra produced by the beating of the reed, the coupling of many closely spaced tone holes to the room excitation, the role of the player, and the results pertaining to computer music synthesis. The complicated acoustical flow inside the main air column near a single tone hole has been examined using a Green function, integral equation approach. A variational formulation allows explicit calculation of the open and closed hole impedance parameters needed in the transmission line description of a woodwind, and experiments have verified the theory in detail. Major acoustical topics considered are listed below. The effective length t(,e) of an open hole, relevant for instrument design and modification, is calculated and measured in terms of the main bore diameter 2a, hole diameter 2b, and the height t of the hole chimney; the effect of a hanging pad is a semi-empirical correction on t(,e). When the fundamental plane-wave mode of the main air column oscillation is at a pressure node, both the open and closed hole series impedances are


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Monica Moacă


    Full Text Available The present paper’s aim is to elaborate a program of postoperative recovery for patients suffering from abdominal parietal defects, and to indicate the beneficial implications, both of the preoperative preparations and of the postoperative physiotherapist actions. The programs of functional postoperative recovery have been elaborated individually for the 254 patients under study – of which 139 belong to lot A (operated under a scheduled regime, after the preoperative preparation and 115 belong to lot B (operated in an emergency regime, in the General Surgery Clinic III of the University Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, between 1998 and 2009. The postoperative recovery program has been individualized for each patient, depending on his / her pathology and co-morbidities, and the physiotherapist has trained and took care that the patients should execute exercises of respiratory re-education, active mobilization of their limbs, coordinated with the breath, isometric exercises for the toning of their arms and legs and of the abdomen muscles. They started the muscle toning exercises slowly and increased them progressively in duration and intensity. The recovery started with isometric-type exercises and continued with the isotonic-type ones. Though mainly the abdominal muscles are aimed at, respectively the flexor muscles of the torso, the physiotherapy program shall comprise the toning of the other muscle groups of the torso, as well. It has been noticed - for the patients in lot A, compared to those of lot B - an obvious net favorable postoperative evolution, characterized through: a reduction of the respiratory, cardiac and thromboembolic complications, a quick postoperative recovery and the immediate social reintegration. An overview of the two lots proves the importance of the cardio-respiratory and locomotive preparation of the patients suffering from big abdominal parietal defects. The simple gestures of respiratory re-education, of

  3. Impaired heart rate variability in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease — Prominent disruption of vagal control and daily fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Makimoto


    Conclusion: The circadian autonomic, particularly vagal, fluctuations were impaired in non-diabetic CKD patients independently from aging and comorbidities. Further research is required to assess the association between this impairment and prognosis of CKD patients.

  4. COMT-Val158Met-Polymorphism Is Not a Risk Factor for Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery


    Matthias Kornek; Marcus-André Deutsch; Stefan Eichhorn; Harald Lahm; Stefan Wagenpfeil; Markus Krane; Ruediger Lange; Johannes Boehm


    Background. Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) depicts a major complication after cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Objective. CSA-AKI has clearly been linked to increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. Dysregulations of vasomotor tone are assumed to be causal for CSA-AKI. While catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in metabolizing catecholamines, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the COMT gene leads to different enzyme activit...

  5. Cardiac contractility, central haemodynamics and blood pressure regulation during semistarvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Breum, L; Astrup, A


    pressure (BP) declined. The fall in BP was caused by the reduction in cardiac output as the total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Finally, the decline in total blood volume was not significant. These findings together with a reduction in heart rate indicated that a reduced sympathetic tone via......Eight obese patients were studied before and after 2 weeks of treatment by a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Cardiac output and central blood volume (pulmonary blood volume and left atrial volume) were determined by indicator dilution (125I-albumin) and radionuclide angiocardiography (first pass and...... equilibrium technique by [99Tcm]red blood cells). Cardiac output decreased concomitantly with the reduction in oxygen uptake as the calculated systemic arteriovenous difference of oxygen was unaltered. There were no significant decreases in left ventricular contractility indices, i.e. the ejection fraction...

  6. The prosody of Swedish underived nouns: No lexical tones required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Morén-Duolljá


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper provides a detailed representational analysis of the morpho-prosodic system of underived nouns in a dialect of Swedish.  It shows that the morphology, stress and tonal patterns are not as complex as they first appear once the data are looked at in sufficient detail.  Further, it shows that the renowned Swedish "lexical pitch accent" is not the result of lexical tones/tonemes.  Rather, Swedish is like all other languages and uses tones to mark the edges of prosodic constituents on the surface. "Accent 2" occurs when tones mark the edge of a structural uneven trochee (i.e. recursive foot and "accent 1" occurs elsewhere. This analysis is counter all other treatments of North Germanic tones and denies the almost unquestioned assumption that there is an underlying tone specification on roots and/or affixes in many North Germanic varieties. At the same time, it unifies the intuitions behind the three previous approaches found in the literature.

  7. Spectral analysis of cardiac rate variability Análisis espectral de la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luis Alvarez Montoya


    Full Text Available In the last years relationship between autonomic nervous system (ANS function and cardiovascular mortality has been recognized. This has motivated research to find quantitative markers of autonomic balance. Heart rate variability (HRV is one of the most promising methods. HRV is defined as the variations occurred in the time interval between consecutive heartbeats and it is thought to depend on the ANS modulation. Tacogram (recording of cardiac frequency in time is used to evaluate HRV. The study of HRV started 30 years ago and has gained importance in the last 10 years. There are several methods to evaluate HRV. The most accepted today are frequency domain methods (spectral analysis. Spectral analysis consists in the decomposition in order to obtain the spectral components. There are high frequency components (HF, related to vagal tone, low frequency (LF components, related to the modulation of both sympathetic and vagal modulation, and very low frequency components which have not been related to any physiological variable. Time domain methods, are basically statistic and evaluate variability using means and standard deviations. These methods seem to have less advantages than spectral methods. HRV is correlated with physiological adaptations to changes in internal and external environment and to the presence of diseases. This article presents the main techniques in the time and frequency domains and their relationship with physiological changes and specific diseases. En los últimos años, se ha reconocido la relación existente entre el funcionamiento del sistema nervioso autónomo (SNA y la mortalidad cardiovascular. Esto ha motivado la búsqueda de marcadores cuantitativos del balance autonómico. La Variabilidad de la Frecuencia Cardíaca (VFC representa uno de los más promisorios. La VFC se define como la variación que ocurre en el intervalo de tiempo entre latidos consecutivos y se ha propuesto que su comportamiento depende de la

  8. Can we Modulate the Autonomic Nervous System to Improve the Life of Patients with Heart Failure? The Case of Vagal Stimulation


    Schwartz, Peter J.


    An imbalance of the autonomic nervous system, with reduced vagal and increased sympathetic activity, contributes to pathogenesis and clinical deterioration in heart failure (HF). Experimental studies have demonstrated that vagal stimulation (VS) has an antifibrillatory effect that has proved beneficial in animal models of HF. The potential value of chronic VS in man was first investigated with an implantable neuro-stimulator capable of delivering low current pulses with adjustable parameters ...

  9. Effects of production training and perception training on lexical tone perception--A behavioral and ERP study. (United States)

    Lu, Shuang; Wayland, Ratree; Kaan, Edith


    The present study recorded both behavioral data and event-related brain potentials to examine the effectiveness of a perception-only training and a perception-plus-production training procedure on the intentional and unintentional perception of lexical tone by native English listeners. In the behavioral task, both the perception-only and the perception-plus-production groups improved on the tone discrimination abilities after the training session. Moreover, the participants in both groups generalized the improvements gained through the trained stimuli to the untrained stimuli. In the ERP task, the Mismatch Negativity was smaller in the post-training task than in the pre-training task. However, the two training groups did not differ in tone processing at the intentional or unintentional level after training. These results suggest that the employment of the motor system does not specifically benefit the tone perceptual skills. Furthermore, the present study investigated whether some tone pairs are more easily confused than others by native English listeners, and whether the order of tone presentation influences non-native tone discrimination. In the behavioral task, Tone2-Tone1 (rising-level) and Tone2-Tone4 (rising-falling) were the most difficult tone pairs, while Tone1-Tone2 and Tone4-Tone2 were the easiest tone pairs, even though they involved the same tone contrasts respectively. In the ERP task, the native English listeners had good discrimination when Tone2 and Tone4 were embedded in strings of Tone1, while poor discrimination when Tone1 was inserted in the context of Tone2 or Tone4. These asymmetries in tone perception might be attributed to the interference of native intonation system and can be altered by training. PMID:26206301

  10. Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Cardiac Autonomic Activity in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ellis


    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency (≤50nmol/L 25-hydroxy vitamin D is a cardiovascular (CV risk factor that affects approximately one billion people worldwide, particularly those affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD. Individuals with CKD demonstrate abnormal cardiac autonomic nervous system activity, which has been linked to the significant rates of CV-related mortality in this population. Whether vitamin D deficiency has a direct association with regulation of cardiac autonomic activity has never been explored in humans. Methods: Thirty-four (34 healthy, normotensive subjects were studied and categorized based on 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (deficient vs. non-deficient, n = 7 vs. 27, as well as 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels (above vs. below 25th percentile, n = 8 vs. 26. Power spectral analysis of electrocardiogram recordings provided measures of cardiac autonomic activity across low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF, representative of vagal contribution bands, representative of the sympathetic and vagal limbs of the autonomic nervous system when transformed to normalized units (nu, respectively, as well as overall cardiosympathovagal balance (LF:HF during graded angiotensin II (AngII challenge (3 ng/kg/min × 30 min, 6 ng/kg/min × 30 min. Results: At baseline, significant suppression of sympathovagal balance was observed in the 25-hydroxy vitamin D-deficient participants (LF:HF, p = 0.02 vs. non-deficient, although no other differences were observed throughout AngII challenge. Participants in the lowest 1,25-dihydroxy VD quartile experienced significant withdrawal of inhibitory vagal control, as well as altered overall sympathovagal balance throughout AngII challenge (HF, mean difference = −6.98 ± 3 nu, p = 0.05; LF:HF, mean difference = 0.34 ± 0.1, p = 0.043 vs. above 25th percentile. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with suppression of resting cardiac autonomic activity, while low 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels are

  11. Normalization of muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in special schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruglyak M.


    Full Text Available The features of using exercise to reduce muscle tone in children with cerebral palsy in training at a special school. The study involved children with cerebral palsy 7-10 years. Presents the results of evaluation of motor function and muscle tone. The efficacy of the use of physical rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy, a positive effect of using special exercise in stretching the muscles with increased tone, improve motor function and normalization of muscle tone.

  12. Cardiac perception and cardiac control. A review. (United States)

    Carroll, D


    The evidence regarding specific cardiac perception and discrimination, and its relationship to voluntary cardiac control, is critically reviewed. Studies are considered in three sections, depending on the method used to assess cardiac perception: questionnaire assessment, discrimination procedures, and heartbeat tracking. The heartbeat tracking procedure would appear to suffer least from interpretative difficulties. Recommendations are made regarding the style of analysis used to assess heartbeat perception in such tracking tasks. PMID:348240

  13. Reduced vagal control of the heart in high-fat diet mice: a potential role of increased butyrylcholinesterase


    Hartnett, Sigurd; Gao, Hongbo; Schnack, Sabrina; Li, Yifan


    Suppressed parasympathetic function is commonly present in cardiovascular diseases, aging, obesity, and various other health conditions. Impaired parasympathetic action is known as a detrimental factor and contributes to the adverse outcomes in these conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully addressed. In this study, using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice as a model, the potential peripheral mechanisms underlying the impaired parasympathetic vagal control of the ...

  14. Effects of auricular electrical stimulation on vagal activity in healthy men: Evidence from a three-armed randomized trial


    La Marca, Roberto; M. Nedeljkovic; Yuan, L.; Maercker, Andreas; Ehlert, Ulrike


    The activity of the vagus nerve is negatively associated with risk factors such as stress and smoking, morbidity, and mortality. In contrast it is also a target of therapeutic intervention. Vagus nerve stimulation is used in depression and epilepsy. Due to its high invasivity and exclusive application to therapy-resistant patients, there is interest in less invasive methods affecting the vagus nerve. Several studies examining acupuncture report beneficial effects on vagal activity. However, f...

  15. Vagal intramuscular array afferents form complexes with interstitial cells of Cajal in gastrointestinal smooth muscle: Analogues of muscle spindle organs?


    Powley, Terry L.; Phillips, Robert J.


    Intramuscular arrays (IMAs), vagal mechanoreceptors that innervate gastrointestinal smooth muscle, have not been completely described structurally or functionally. To delineate more fully the architecture of IMAs and to consider the structure-function implications of the observations, the present experiment examined the organization of the IMA terminal arbors and the accessory tissue elements of those arbors. IMA terminal fields, labeled by injection of biotinylated dextran into the nodose ga...

  16. Leptin Analog Antagonizes Leptin Effects on Food Intake and Body Weight but Mimics Leptin-Induced Vagal Afferent Activation


    Peters, J H; Simasko, S. M.; Ritter, R. C.


    A recombinantly produced murine leptin analog (MLA) antagonizes leptin-induced signaling in cell lines that express the long form of the leptin receptor. However, the effects of MLA on the activity of leptin-sensitive neurons and on central neural controls of food intake have not been reported. Here we report effects of MLA on food intake and body weight in adult rats and on the activity of cultured rat vagal afferent neurons. Daily intracerebroventricular coinjection of MLA with exogenous le...

  17. Morphological and electrophysiological features of motor neurons and putative interneurons in the dorsal vagal complex of rats and mice


    Gao, Hong; Glatzer, Nicholas R.; Williams, Kevin W; Andrei V Derbenev; Liu, Dan; Bret N Smith


    The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) contains preganglionic motor neurons that control viscera along the subdiaphragmatic digestive tract, but may also contain neurons that do not project to the viscera. Neurons that expressed EGFP 60-72 h subsequent to PRV-152 inoculation of vagal terminals in the stomach wall were targeted for whole-cell patch-clamp recording and biocytin filling in transverse brainstem slices from rats and their quantitative morphological and electrophysiological ch...

  18. Phenomenon of non-associative learning in Hering-Breuer reflex simulated by electrical vagal stimulation in rabbits. (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Min; Song, Gang; Zhang, Heng


    The purpose of this study was to explore learning and memory in the Hering-Breuer (HB) reflex simulated by a 60-second-long electrical stimulation of vagus nerve. The responses of phrenic nerve discharge to electrical stimulation (10-100 Hz, 20-60 muA, pulse duration 0.3 ms, for 60 s) of the vagus nerve were observed in rabbits. The results showed that 60-second-long stimulation of vagus nerve produced classic HB reflex, which is composed of two components - lung inflation reflex that is the inhibition of inspiration, and lung deflation reflex that is the facilitation of inspiration. (1) High frequency stimulation (>/=40 Hz, 60 s) of the central end of vagus nerve induced shortening of the inspiratory phase and lengthening of expiratory duration. The inhibitory effect on phrenic discharge was released gradually during sustained vagal stimulation, indicating the habituation of the inhibition. At the cessation of stimulation, the phrenic discharge showed transient post-stimulus rebound. Low frequency stimulation (end of vagus nerve caused an increase in respiratory frequency (f) and shortening of expiratory duration. The excitatory effect on phrenic discharge was also released gradually during the vagal stimulation. The phrenic discharge returned to control level gradually after the removal of the vagal stimulus, indicating short-term potentiation (STP). (2) The habituation of HB reflex was inversely dependent on stimulus intensity and frequency. With an increase in the stimulus frequency or intensity, the degree of the habituation decreased. On the other hand, with the decrease of stimulation intensity and frequency, the degree of the habituation increased. These data indicate a phenomenon of non-associative learning in HB reflex simulated by vagal stimulation. Neural synaptic plasticity and accommodation may exist in the reflex control of respiration in rabbits. PMID:16094501

  19. Learning a Tonal Language by Attending to the Tone: An in Vivo Experiment (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; Brubaker, Brian; Wu, Sumei; MacWhinney, Brian


    Learning the Chinese tone system is a major challenge to students of Chinese as a second or foreign language. Part of the problem is that the spoken Chinese syllable presents a complex perceptual input that overlaps tone with segments. This complexity can be addressed through directing attention to the critical features of a component (tone in…

  20. Perception of Mandarin Tones: The Effect of L1 Background and Training (United States)

    Wang, Xinchun


    This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…

  1. Colorism in the Classroom: How Skin Tone Stratifies African American and Latina/o Students (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret


    Although racial inequality is frequently studied in education, skin tone stratification has received less attention from educational researchers. Inequality by skin tone, also known as "colorism", contributes to larger patterns of racial inequality for African Americans and Latina/os. Discrimination by skin tone affects many dimensions…

  2. The Tonology of Itoman Okinawan: A Phonological Analysis of the Nominal Tone System (United States)

    Takara, Nobutaka


    Itoman, one of the varieties spoken in the southern part of Okinawa Island, exhibits several tone patterns. Although the tone patterns of Itoman were examined in previous studies (Nakasone ms., Hattori 1959, Oshiro 1963, and Hirayama et al. 1966), they ended at the descriptive level, and no phonological accounts for the surface tone patterns were…

  3. [Sudden cardiac death in diabetes mellitus]. (United States)

    Israel, C W; Lee-Barkey, Y H


    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) represents one of the most frequent causes of death in patients with diabetes. In contrast to patients without diabetes it has not been significantly reduced despite improvements in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and long-term treatment of cardiovascular diseases as well as diabetes mellitus. Several mechanisms can be responsible for the high incidence of SCD in diabetics: 1. arrhythmogenic effects mediated via cardiac autonomic neuropathy, repolarization disturbances or sympathetic tone activation (hypoglycemia), 2. myocardial ischemia due to atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, platelet aggregation or thrombophilic effects, 3. myocardial disease due to inflammation, fibrosis, associated hypertension or uremia and 4. potassium imbalance due to diabetic nephropathy or hypoglycemia. This review introduces concepts of mechanisms that are responsible for SCD in patients with diabetes. Treatment of patients with diabetes should primarily consider a systematic assessment of any deterioration of this chronic disease and of complications at an early stage. Cardiovascular drug treatment corresponds to that of non-diabetics. In antidiabetic treatment drugs with a low risk of hypoglycemia should be preferred. Treatment with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) also combined with cardiac resynchronization therapy () demonstrated a high life-saving potential particularly in patients with diabetes. PMID:27071967

  4. Categorical Perception of Lexical Tones in Mandarin-speaking Congenital Amusics

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    Wan Ting Huang


    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that within Mandarin-speaking congenital amusics, only a subgroup has behavioral lexical tone perception impairments (tone agnosia, whereas the rest of amusics do not. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the categorical nature of lexical tone perception in Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without behavioral lexical tone deficits. Three groups of listeners (controls, pure amusics and amusics with tone agnosia participated in tone identification and discrimination tasks. Indexes of the categorical perception of a physical continuum of fundamental frequencies ranging from a rising to level tone were measured. Specifically, the stimulus durations were manipulated at 100 and 200 ms. For both stimulus durations, all groups exhibited similar categorical boundaries. The pure amusics showed sharp identification slopes and significantly peaked discrimination functions similar to those of normal controls. However, such essential characteristics for the categorical perception of lexical tones were not observed in amusics with tone agnosia. An enlarged step-size from 20 Hz to 35 Hz was not able to produce any discrimination peaks in tone agnosics either. The current study revealed that only amusics with tone agnosia showed a lack of categorical tone perception, while the pure amusics demonstrated typical categorical perception of lexical tones, indicating that the deficit of pitch processing in music does not necessarily result in the deficit in the categorical perception of lexical tones. The different performance between congenital amusics with and without tone agnosia provides a new perspective on the proposition of the relationship between music and speech perception.

  5. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  6. The use of fractal tones in tinnitus patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Sweetow


    Full Text Available A variety of noises have been employed for decades in an effort to facilitate habituation, mask, or suppress tinnitus. Many of these sounds have reportedly provided benefit, but success has not been universal. More recently, musical stimuli have been added as a sound therapy component. The potential advantages of using such stimuli, in particular fractal tones, in combination with amplification are discussed in this paper.

  7. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating. (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C


    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. PMID:27090342

  8. Reduction of blade passage tone by angle modulation (United States)

    Fiagbedzi, Y. A.


    Blade staggering has been used in both centrifugal and axial flow fans to reduce discrete tones. Impeller hub resilience, causing fan torsional oscillations, appears to be equivalent to blade staggering in that both lead to angle modulation of the blade passage sound. By using Jacobi-Anger expansions, the sound reductions resulting from the angle modulation effects of these two equivalent techniques are predicted. Excellent agreement is found with published data.

  9. Is dialysis hypotension caused by an abnormality of venous tone?


    Bradley, John R.; Evans, David B; Gore, Sheila M; Cowley, Alan J


    The role of peripheral vascular tone in the development of hypotension induced by dialysis was investigated in eight patients undergoing haemodialysis with acetate or bicarbonate buffered fluid. Each patient had two sessions of dialysis with acetate fluid and two with bicarbonate fluid in the order acetate, bicarbonate, bicarbonate, acetate or bicarbonate, acetate, acetate, bicarbonate. Mean arterial blood pressure fell at a mean rate of 3·9 mm Hg/hour during dialysis with acetate fluid and 1...

  10. Translating register, style and tone in dubbing and subtitling


    Pettit, Zoë


    This article considers the manner in which the translators of a selection of subtitled and dubbed versions (English-French) approach the style and tone of the source text in relation to language register. Stylistic effects inform the viewer about the speaker. Emotions can be expressed and social relationships portrayed through the use of particular forms of language. The audiovisual translator has to sift through the multiple layers of meaning within the context of the verbal, non-verbal, aur...

  11. Jazz Guitar Improvisation: Beginning with Guide-Tones

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    Daniel Andersen


    Full Text Available This article discusses an approach to teaching linear improvisation to beginning jazz guitarists through the function of voice leading in harmonic progressions. The student may gain a clear understanding of improvising melodies by establishing clear visual and aural relationships between the chordal and melodic textures. Three dominant 7th chord voicings are introduced and applied to a twelve bar blues progression in F major. After learning the rhythm guitar accompaniment, single note guide tones consisting of the flat 7th and 3rd chord tones of each dominant seventh chord are extracted from the chord voicings and applied in a melodic texture following chromatic voice leading principles within the harmonic progression. Musicality within the exercises is increased by the addition of a series of rhythmic variations that are applied to the guide-tone lines. Continuing with the concept, full dominant seventh arpeggios are introduced in order to expand the available note choices as a way to build a solid foundation for improvising within harmonic progressions prior to using diatonic scales.

  12. Processing Cantonese lexical tones: Evidence from oddball paradigms. (United States)

    Jia, S; Tsang, Y-K; Huang, J; Chen, H-C


    Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments were conducted to investigate whether Cantonese lexical tones are processed with general auditory perception mechanisms and/or a special speech module. Two tonal features (f0 direction and f0 height deviation) were manipulated to reflect acoustic processing, and the contrast between syllables and hums was used to reveal the involvement of a speech module. Experiment 1 adopted a passive oddball paradigm to study a relatively early stage of tonal processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and novelty P3 (P3a) were modulated by the interaction between tonal feature and stimulus type. Similar interactions were found for N2 and P3 in Experiment 2, where more in-depth tonal processing was examined with an active oddball paradigm. Moreover, detecting tonal deviants of syllables elicited N1 and P2 that were not found in hum detection. Together, these findings suggest that the processing of lexical tone relies on both acoustic and linguistic processes from the early stage. Another noteworthy finding is the absence of brain lateralization in both experiments, which challenges the use of a lateralization pattern as evidence for processing lexical tones through a special speech module. PMID:26265553

  13. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  14. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity. (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher


    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity. PMID:25621856

  15. The Time Course for Processing Vowels and Lexical Tones: Reading Aloud Thai Words. (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Schoknecht, Colin; Kim, Jeesun; Burnham, Denis


    Three naming aloud experiments and a lexical decision (LD) experiment used masked priming to index the processing of written Thai vowels and tones. Thai allows for manipulation of the mapping between orthography and phonology not possible in other orthographies, for example, the use of consonants, vowels and tone markers in both horizontal and vertical orthographic positions (HOPs and VOPs). Experiment I showed that changing a vowel between prime and target slowed down target naming but changing a tone mark did not. Experiment I used an across item-design and a different number of HOPs in the way vowels and tones were specified. Experiment 2 used a within-item design and tested vowel and tone changes for both 2-HOP and 3-HOP targets separately. The 3-HOP words showed the same tone and vowel change effect as Experiment 1, whereas 2-HOP items did not. It was speculated that the 2-HOP result was due to the variable position of the vowel affecting priming. Experiment 3 employed a more stringent control over the 2-HOP vowel and tone items and found priming for the tone changes but not for vowel changes. The final experiment retested the items from Experiment 3 with the LD task and found no priming for the tone change items, indicating that the tone effect in Experiment 3 was due to processes involved in naming aloud. In all, the results supported the view that for naming a word, the development of tone information is slower than vowel information. PMID:27363253

  16. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration.

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    Salomi S Asaridou

    Full Text Available We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch. We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel. We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly.

  17. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration. (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M


    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  18. Effects of Early Bilingual Experience with a Tone and a Non-Tone Language on Speech-Music Integration (United States)

    Asaridou, Salomi S.; Hagoort, Peter; McQueen, James M.


    We investigated music and language processing in a group of early bilinguals who spoke a tone language and a non-tone language (Cantonese and Dutch). We assessed online speech-music processing interactions, that is, interactions that occur when speech and music are processed simultaneously in songs, with a speeded classification task. In this task, participants judged sung pseudowords either musically (based on the direction of the musical interval) or phonologically (based on the identity of the sung vowel). We also assessed longer-term effects of linguistic experience on musical ability, that is, the influence of extensive prior experience with language when processing music. These effects were assessed with a task in which participants had to learn to identify musical intervals and with four pitch-perception tasks. Our hypothesis was that due to their experience in two different languages using lexical versus intonational tone, the early Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals would outperform the Dutch control participants. In online processing, the Cantonese-Dutch bilinguals processed speech and music more holistically than controls. This effect seems to be driven by experience with a tone language, in which integration of segmental and pitch information is fundamental. Regarding longer-term effects of linguistic experience, we found no evidence for a bilingual advantage in either the music-interval learning task or the pitch-perception tasks. Together, these results suggest that being a Cantonese-Dutch bilingual does not have any measurable longer-term effects on pitch and music processing, but does have consequences for how speech and music are processed jointly. PMID:26659377

  19. The Enduring Significance of Skin Tone: Linking Skin Tone, Attitudes Toward Marriage and Cohabitation, and Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette M; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker


    Past evidence has documented that attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation are related to sexual behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. This study extends prior research by longitudinally testing these associations across racial/ethnic groups and investigating whether culturally relevant variations within racial/ethnic minority groups, such as skin tone (i.e., lightness/darkness of skin color), are linked to attitudes toward marriage and cohabitation and sex. Drawing on family and public health literatures and theories, as well as burgeoning skin tone literature, it was hypothesized that more positive attitudes toward marriage and negative attitudes toward cohabitation would be associated with less risky sex, and that links differed for lighter and darker skin individuals. The sample included 6872 respondents (49.6 % female; 70.0 % White; 15.8 % African American; 3.3 % Asian; 10.9 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The results revealed that marital attitudes had a significantly stronger dampening effect on risky sexual behavior of lighter skin African Americans and Asians compared with their darker skin counterparts. Skin tone also directly predicted number of partners and concurrent partners among African American males and Asian females. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings for adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:26979445

  20. Cardiac tumours in children

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    Parsons Jonathan M


    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  1. Quantification of cardiac autonomic nervous activities in ambulatory dogs by eliminating cardiac electric activities using cubic smoothing spline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of an implantable radio transmitter system, direct measurement of cardiac autonomic nervous activities (CANAs) became possible for ambulatory animals for a couple of months. However, measured CANAs include not only CANA but also cardiac electric activity (CEA) that can affect the quantification of CANAs. In this study, we propose a novel CEA removal method using moving standard deviation and cubic smoothing spline. This method consisted of two steps of detecting CEA segments and eliminating CEAs in detected segments. Using implanted devices, we recorded stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), vagal nerve activity (VNA) and superior left ganglionated plexi nerve activity (SLGPNA) directly from four ambulatory dogs. The CEA-removal performance of the proposed method was evaluated and compared with commonly used high-pass filtration (HPF) for various heart rates and CANA amplitudes. Results tested with simulated CEA and simulated true CANA revealed stable and excellent performance of the suggested method compared to the HPF method. The averaged relative error percentages of the proposed method were less than 0.67%, 0.65% and 1.76% for SGNA, VNA and SLGPNA, respectively. (paper)

  2. Detection and localization of sounds: Virtual tones and virtual reality (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya

    Modern physiologically based binaural models employ internal delay lines in the pathways from left and right peripheries to central processing nuclei. Various models apply the delay lines differently, and give different predictions for the detection of dichotic pitches, wherein listeners hear a virtual tone in the noise background. Two dichotic pitch stimuli (Huggins pitch and binaural coherence edge pitch) with low boundary frequencies were used to test the predictions by two different models. The results from five experiments show that the relative dichotic pitch strengths support the equalization-cancellation model and disfavor the central activity pattern (CAP) model. The CAP model makes predictions for the lateralization of Huggins pitch based on interaural time differences (ITD). By measuring human lateralization for Huggins pitches with two different types of phase boundaries (linear-phase and stepped phase), and by comparing with lateralization of sine-tones, it was shown that the lateralization of Huggins pitch stimuli is similar to that of the corresponding sine-tones, and the lateralizations of Huggins pitch stimuli with the two different boundaries were even more similar to one another. The results agreed roughly with the CAP model predictions. Agreement was significantly improved by incorporating individualized scale factors and offsets into the model, and was further unproved with a model including compression at large ITDs. Furthermore, ambiguous stimuli, with an interaural phase difference of 180 degrees, were consistently lateralized on the left or right based on individual asymmetries---which introduces the concept of "earedness". Interaural phase difference (IPD) and interaural time difference (ITD) are two different forms of temporal cues. With varying frequency, an auditory system based on IPD or ITD gives different quantitative predictions on lateralization. A lateralization experiment with sine tones tested whether human auditory system is an

  3. Insomnia symptoms and heart rate recovery among patients in cardiac rehabilitation. (United States)

    Horsley, Kristin J; Rouleau, Codie R; Garland, Sheila N; Samuels, Charles; Aggarwal, Sandeep G; Stone, James A; Arena, Ross; Campbell, Tavis S


    Insomnia symptoms (i.e., difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and early morning awakenings) are common among people with cardiovascular disease, and have been linked to adverse cardiovascular health outcomes. Reduced parasympathetic tone is one pathway through which risk may be conferred. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether insomnia symptoms are associated with lower parasympathetic tone in cardiac rehabilitation patients with suspected insomnia. Participants (N = 121) completed a self-report measure of insomnia severity. 1-min heart rate recovery (HRR), an index of parasympathetic tone, was obtained during a maximal exercise test. Difficulty falling asleep, but not difficulty staying asleep or early awakenings, was associated with attenuated 1-min HRR. When analyses were restricted to participants with moderate and severe insomnia severity (n = 51), the strength of this association increased. In a sample of cardiac rehabilitation patients with insomnia, only the symptom of difficulty falling asleep was associated with lower parasympathetic tone, suggesting that individual insomnia symptoms may show specificity in their associations with physiological mechanisms. PMID:26944765

  4. Leptin resistance in vagal afferent neurons inhibits cholecystokinin signaling and satiation in diet induced obese rats.

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    Guillaume de Lartigue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK plays an important role in regulating meal size and duration by activating CCK1 receptors on vagal afferent neurons (VAN. Leptin enhances CCK signaling in VAN via an early growth response 1 (EGR1 dependent pathway thereby increasing their sensitivity to CCK. In response to a chronic ingestion of a high fat diet, VAN develop leptin resistance and the satiating effects of CCK are reduced. We tested the hypothesis that leptin resistance in VAN is responsible for reducing CCK signaling and satiation. RESULTS: Lean Zucker rats sensitive to leptin signaling, significantly reduced their food intake following administration of CCK8S (0.22 nmol/kg, i.p., while obese Zucker rats, insensitive to leptin, did not. CCK signaling in VAN of obese Zucker rats was reduced, preventing CCK-induced up-regulation of Y2 receptor and down-regulation of melanin concentrating hormone 1 receptor (MCH1R and cannabinoid receptor (CB1. In VAN from diet-induced obese (DIO Sprague Dawley rats, previously shown to become leptin resistant, we demonstrated that the reduction in EGR1 expression resulted in decreased sensitivity of VAN to CCK and reduced CCK-induced inhibition of food intake. The lowered sensitivity of VAN to CCK in DIO rats resulted in a decrease in Y2 expression and increased CB1 and MCH1R expression. These effects coincided with the onset of hyperphagia in DIO rats. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin signaling in VAN is required for appropriate CCK signaling and satiation. In response to high fat feeding, the onset of leptin resistance reduces the sensitivity of VAN to CCK thus reducing the satiating effects of CCK.

  5. An isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone of free plates

    CERN Document Server

    Chasman, L M


    We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given $\\tau>0$, the free plate eigenvalues $\\omega$ and eigenfunctions $u$ are determined by the equation $\\Delta\\Delta u-\\tau\\Delta u = \\omega u$ together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term $|D^2u|^2$. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.

  6. An Isoperimetric Inequality for Fundamental Tones of Free Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Chasman, L M


    We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given $\\tau>0$, the free plate eigenvalues $\\omega$ and eigenfunctions $u$ are determined by the equation $\\Delta\\Delta u-\\tau\\Delta u = \\omega u$ together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term $|D^2u|^2$. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.

  7. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan


    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  8. Mast cell-mediated long-lasting increases in excitability of vagal C fibers in guinea pig esophagus. (United States)

    Yu, Shaoyong; Kollarik, Marian; Ouyang, Ann; Myers, Allen C; Undem, Bradley J


    Several esophageal pathologies are associated with an increased number of mast cells in the esophageal wall. We addressed the hypothesis that activation of esophageal mast cells leads to an increase in the excitability of local sensory C fibers. Guinea pigs were actively sensitized to ovalbumin. The mast cells in the esophagus were selectively activated ex vivo by superfusion with ovalbumin. Action potential discharge in guinea pig vagal nodose esophageal C-fiber nerve endings was monitored in the isolated (ex vivo) vagally innervated esophagus by extracellular recordings. Ovalbumin activated esophageal mast cells, leading to the rapid release of approximately 20% of the tissue histamine stores. This was associated with a consistent and significant increase in excitability of the nodose C fibers as reflected in a two- to threefold increase in action potential discharge frequency evoked by mechanical (increases in intraluminal pressure) stimulation. The increase in excitability persisted unchanged for at least 90 min (longest time period tested) after ovalbumin was washed from the tissue. This effect could be prevented by the histamine H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine, but once the increase in excitability occurred, it persisted in the nominal absence of histamine and could not be reversed even with large concentrations of the histamine receptor antagonist. In conclusion, activation of esophageal mast cells leads to a pronounced and long-lived increase in nociceptive C-fiber excitability such that any sensation or reflex evoked via the vagal nociceptors will likely be enhanced. The effect is initiated by histamine acting via H1 receptor activation and maintained in the absence of the initiating stimulus. PMID:17702952

  9. Interactions Between Epinephrine, Ascending Vagal Fibers and Central Noradrenergic Systems in Modulating Memory for Emotionally Arousing Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric L. Williams


    Full Text Available It is well established that exposure to emotionally laden events initiates secretion of the arousal related hormone epinephrine in the periphery. These neuroendocrine changes and the subsequent increase in peripheral physiological output play an integral role in modulating brain systems involved in memory formation. The impermeability of the blood brain barrier to epinephrine represents an important obstacle in understanding how peripheral hormones initiate neurochemical changes in the brain that lead to effective memory formation. This obstacle necessitated the identity of a putative pathway capable of conveying physiological changes produced by epinephrine to limbic structures that incorporate arousal and affect related information into memory. A major theme of the proposed studies is that ascending fibers of the vagus nerve may represent such a mechanism. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the contribution of ascending vagal fibers in modulating memory for responses learned under behavioral conditions that produce emotional arousal by manipulating appetitive stimuli. A combination of electrophysiological recording of vagal afferent fibers and in vivo microdialysis was employed in a second study to simultaneously assess how elevations in peripheral levels of epinephrine affect vagal nerve discharge and the subsequent potentiation of norepinephrine release in the basolateral amygdala. The final study used double immunohistochemistry labeling of c-fos and dopamine beta hydroxylase, the enzyme for norepinephrine synthesis to determine if epinephrine administration alone or stimulation of the vagus nerve at an intensity identical to that which improved memory in Experiment 1 produces similar patterns of neuronal activity in brain areas involved in processing memory for emotional events. Findings emerging from this collection of studies establish the importance of ascending fibers of the vagus nerve as an essential pathway for conveying the

  10. Gender Differences in Adiponectin Modulation of Cardiac Remodeling in Mice Deficient in Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase


    Durand, Jorge L.; Nawrocki, Andrea R.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Jelicks, Linda A.


    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death. Alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme involved in regulating vascular tone, and in adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived secretory factor, are associated with cardiac remodeling. Deficiency of eNOS is associated with hypertension and LVH. Adiponectin exhibits vaso-protective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic properties. We hypothesized that increased levels...

  11. covert contrast: The acquisition of Mandarin tone 2 and tone 3 in L2 production and perception (United States)

    Mar, Li-Ya

    This dissertation investigates the occurrence of an intermediate stage, termed a covert contrast, in the acquisition of Mandarin Tone 2 (T2) and Tone 3 (T3) by adult speakers of American English. A covert contrast is a statistically reliable distinction produced by language learners that is not perceived by native speakers of the target language (TL). In second language (L2) acquisition, whether a learner is judged as having acquired a TL phonemic contrast has largely depended on whether the contrast was perceived and transcribed by native speakers of the TL. However, categorical perception has shown that native listeners cannot perceive a distinction between two sounds that fall within the same perceptual boundaries on the continuum of the relevant acoustic cues. In other words, it is possible that native speakers of the TL do not perceive a phonemic distinction that is produced by L2 learners when that distinction occurs within a phonemic boundary of TL. The data for the study were gathered through two elicitations of tone production, a longitudinal analysis, and two perception tasks. There were three key findings. First, both elicitations showed that most of the L2 participants produced a covert contrast between T2 and T3 on at least one of the three acoustic measures used in the study. Second, the longitudinal analysis reveals that some L2 participants progressed from making a covert contrast to a later stage of implementing an overt one, thereby supporting the claim that making a covert contrast is an intermediate stage in the process of acquiring a L2 phonemic contrast. Third, results of the perceptual tasks showed no reliable difference in identifying and discriminating Mandarin T2 and T3 on the part of the L2 learners who produced a covert contrast and those who produced an overt contrast, indicating that there was no reliable difference in the two groups' ability to perceive the target tones. In all, the occurrence of a covert contrast in the process of

  12. TRPA1 in mast cell activation-induced long-lasting mechanical hypersensitivity of vagal afferent C-fibers in guinea pig esophagus. (United States)

    Yu, Shaoyong; Gao, Guofeng; Peterson, Blaise Z; Ouyang, Ann


    Sensitization of esophageal sensory afferents by inflammatory mediators plays an important role in esophageal nociception. We have shown esophageal mast cell activation induces long-lasting mechanical hypersensitivity in vagal nodose C-fibers. However, the roles of mast cell mediators and downstream ion channels in this process are unclear. Mast cell tryptase via protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)-mediated pathways sensitizes sensory nerves and induces hyperalgesia. Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) plays an important role in mechanosensory transduction and nociception. Here we tested the hypothesis that mast cell activation via a PAR2-dependent mechanism sensitizes TRPA1 to induce mechanical hypersensitivity in esophageal vagal C-fibers. The expression profiles of PAR2 and TRPA1 in vagal nodose ganglia were determined by immunostaining, Western blot, and RT-PCR. Extracellular recordings from esophageal nodose neurons were performed in ex vivo guinea pig esophageal-vagal preparations. Action potentials evoked by esophageal distention and chemical perfusion were compared. Both PAR2 and TRPA1 expressions were identified in vagal nodose neurons by immunostaining, Western blot, and RT-PCR. Ninety-one percent of TRPA1-positive neurons were of small and medium diameters, and 80% coexpressed PAR2. Esophageal mast cell activation significantly enhanced the response of nodose C-fibers to esophageal distension (mechanical hypersensitivity). This was mimicked by PAR2-activating peptide, which sustained for 90 min after wash, but not by PAR2 reverse peptide. TRPA1 inhibitor HC-030031 pretreatment significantly inhibited mechanical hypersensitivity induced by either mast cell activation or PAR2 agonist. Collectively, our data provide new evidence that sensitizing TRPA1 via a PAR2-dependent mechanism plays an important role in mast cell activation-induced mechanical hypersensitivity of vagal nodose C-fibers in guinea pig esophagus. PMID:19423751

  13. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dumas Cintra


    Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart® system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001. After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample.

  14. Contrastive analysis on tone between Putonghua and Taiwan Mandarin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Dan; SHI Feng; L(U) Shinan


    The differences of the pitch and duration of Chinese syllables between Putonghua(PTH) and Taiwan Mandarin (TM) were studied. The speech materials to be used are not only isolated syllables, but also sentences. The results reveal that: For the isolated syllables, T1 and T2 in TM are influenced by Minnan dialect, therefore their pitch are lower than those in PTH. T3 is fall-rise in PTH, while it is fall in TM. Moreover, the syllable duration sequence for different tone is T3>T2>T1>T4 in PTH, while it is T1>T2>T3>T4 in TM. For the syllables in sentences, T2 is mid-rise in PTH, while it is mid-level in TM. And the T3 is longer than T4 but shorter than T1 or T2 in PTH, while it is the shortest in TM. Furthermore the effects of prosodic phrase boundary on duration for different tones are almost the same in PTH, but the lengthening part of T1 or T2 is longer than that of T3 or T4 in TM.

  15. Predicting the decay time of solid body electric guitar tones. (United States)

    Paté, Arthur; Le Carrou, Jean-Loïc; Fabre, Benoît


    Although it can be transformed by various electronic devices, the sound of the solid body electric guitar originates from, and is strongly linked with, the string vibration. The coupling of the string with the guitar alters its vibration and can lead to decay time inhomogeneities. This paper implements and justifies a framework for the study of decay times of electric guitar tones. Two damping mechanisms are theoretically and experimentally identified: the string intrinsic damping and the damping due to mechanical coupling with the neck of the guitar. The electromagnetic pickup is shown to not provide any additional damping to the string. The pickup is also shown to be far more sensitive to the out-of-plane polarization of the string. Finally, an accurate prediction of the decay time of electric guitar tones is made possible, whose only requirements are the knowledge of the isolated string dampings and the out-of-plane conductance at the neck of the guitar. This prediction can be of great help for instrument makers and manufacturers. PMID:24815284

  16. Preoperative cardiac risk management


    Vidaković Radosav; Poldermans Don; Nešković Aleksandar N.


    Approximately 100 million people undergo noncardiac surgery annually worldwide. It is estimated that around 3% of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery experience a major adverse cardiac event. Although cardiac events, like myocardial infarction, are major cause of perioperative morbidity or mortality, its true incidence is difficult to assess. The risk of perioperative cardiac complications depends mainly on two conditions: 1) identified risk factors, and 2) the type of the surgical p...

  17. Seeing pitch: Visual information for lexical tones of Mandarin-Chinese


    Chen, Trevor H.; Massaro, Dominic W


    Mandarin perceivers were tested in visual lexical-tone identification before and after learning. Baseline performance was only slightly above chance, although there appeared to be some visual information in the speakers’ neck and head movements. When participants were taught to use this visible information in two experiments, visual tone identification improved significantly. There appears to be a relationship between the production of lexical tones and the visible movements of the neck, head...

  18. On the design of tone-free ΣΔ modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars


    Traditional one-bit ΣΔ modulators used for A/D and D/A conversion produce very predominant tones near half the sample rate which might intermodulate in the analog converter section and cause in-band tones. This paper demonstrates how the use of chaos can substitute dither as a means for...... extinguishing these tones. Especially, modulator feedback filters derived from noise transfer functions having an all-pass term seem very promising...

  19. Exploring the Impact of Skin Tone on Family Dynamics and Race-Related Outcomes


    Landor, Antoinette M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Gene H. Brody; Bryant, Chalandra M.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Granberg, Ellen M.; Melby, Janet N.


    Racism has historically been a primary source of discrimination against African Americans but there has been little research on the role that skin tone plays in explaining experiences with racism. Similarly, colorism within African American families and the ways in which skin tone influences family processes is an understudied area of research. Utilizing data from a longitudinal sample of African American families (N= 767), we assessed whether skin tone impacted experiences with discriminatio...

  20. 17 Ways to Say Yes: Toward Nuanced Tone of Voice in AAC and Speech Technology


    Pullin, Graham; Hennig, Shannon


    Abstract People with complex communication needs who use speech-generating devices have very little expressive control over their tone of voice. Despite its importance in human interaction, the issue of tone of voice remains all but absent from AAC research and development however. In this paper, we describe three interdisciplinary projects, past, present and future: The critical design collection Six Speaking Chairs has provoked deeper discussion and inspired a social model of tone of voice;...

  1. Dopamine receptors in the substantia nigra are involved in the regulation of muscle tone.


    Double, K L; Crocker, A D


    The aim of the present study was to localize the dopamine receptors involved in the regulation of muscle tone. A strategy was used whereby the effects on muscle tone of injecting the irreversible dopamine receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) in discrete brain regions were assessed. Increases in muscle tone were measured as changes in electromyographic activity of the gastrocnemius and tibialis muscles of conscious, unrestrained rats. No increases in muscle...

  2. Phonological abstraction in processing lexical-tone variation: Evidence from a learning paradigm


    Mitterer, H.; Y. Chen; Zhou, X.(Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China)


    There is a growing consensus that the mental lexicon contains both abstract and word-specific acoustic information. To investigate their relative importance for word recognition, we tested to what extent perceptual learning is word specific or generalizable to other words. In an exposure phase, participants were divided into two groups; each group was semantically biased to interpret an ambiguous Mandarin tone contour as either tone1 or tone2. In a subsequent test phase, the perception of amb...

  3. Preattentive processing of emotional musical tones: a multidimensional scaling and ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Münte


    Full Text Available Musical emotion can be conveyed by subtle variations in timbre. Here, we investigated whether the brain is capable to discriminate tones differing in emotional expression by recording event-related potentials (ERPs in an oddball paradigm under preattentive listening conditions. First, using multidimensional Fechnerian scaling, pairs of violin tones played with a happy or sad intonation were rated same or different by a group of non-musicians. Three happy and three sad tones were selected for the ERP experiment. The Fechnerian distances between tones within an emotion were in the same range as the distances between tones of different emotions. In two conditions, either 3 happy and 1 sad or 3 sad and 1 happy tone were presented in pseudo-random order. A mismatch negativity for the emotional deviant was observed, indicating that in spite of considerable perceptual differences between the three equiprobable tones of the standard emotion, a template was formed based on timbral cues against which the emotional deviant was compared. Based on Juslin’s assumption of redundant code usage, we propose that tones were grouped together, because they were identified as belonging to one emotional category based on different emotion-specific cues. These results indicate that the brain forms an emotional memory trace at a preattentive level and thus extends previous investigations in which emotional deviance was confounded with physical dissimilarity. Differences between sad and happy tones were observed which might be due to the fact that the happy emotion is mostly communicated by suprasegmental features.

  4. Improvement of Tone Intelligibility for Average-Voice-Based Thai Speech Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphattharachai Chomphan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tone intelligibility in speech synthesis is an important attribute that should be taken into account. The tone correctness of the synthetic speech is degraded considerably in the average-voice-based HMM-based Thai speech synthesis. The tying mechanism in the decision tree based context clustering without appropriate criterion causes unexpected tone neutralization. Incorporation of the phrase intonation to the context clustering process in the training stage was proposed early. However, the tone correctness is not satisfied. Approach: This study proposes a number of tonal features including tone-geometrical features and phrase intonation features to be exploited in the context clustering process of HMM training stage. Results: In the experiments, subjective evaluations of both average voice and adapted voice in terms of the intelligibility of tone are conducted. Effects on decision trees of the extracted features are also evaluated. By considering gender in training speech, two core experiments were conducted. The first experiment shows that the proposed tonal features can improve the tone intelligibility for female speech model above that of male speech model, while the second experiment shows that the proposed tonal features improve the tone intelligibility for gender dependent model than for gender independent model. Conclusion: All of the experimental results confirm that the tone correctness of the synthesized speech from the average-voice-based HMM-based Thai speech synthesis is significantly improved when using most of the extracted features.

  5. Decreased sympathetic vasomotor tone in diabetic orthostatic hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J


    In normals, subcutaneous blood flow in the ankle region, measured by means of the 133Xe washout technique, decreases about 45% when the position of the ankle is changed from cardiac level to 50 cm below the heart. A sympathetic vascular axon reflex is responsible for this flow reduction. A normal...

  6. Development of synaptic networks in the mouse vagal pathway revealed by optical mapping with a voltage-sensitive dye. (United States)

    Momose-Sato, Yoko; Sato, Katsushige


    The central issue in developmental neuroscience is when and how neural synaptic networks are established and become functional within the central nervous system (CNS). Investigations of the neural network organization have been hampered because conventional electrophysiological means have some technical limitations. In this study, the multiple-site optical recording technique with a voltage-sensitive dye was employed to survey the developmental organization of the vagal system in the mouse embryo. Stimulation of the vagus nerve in E11-E14 mouse embryos elicited optical responses in areas corresponding to the vagal sensory and motor nuclei. Postsynaptic responses in the first-order sensory nucleus, the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), were identified from E11, suggesting that sensory information becomes transferred to the brain at this stage. In addition to the NTS, optical responses were identified in the rostral and contralateral brainstem regions, which corresponded to second/higher order nuclei of the vagus nerve including the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Postsynaptic responses in the second/higher-order nuclei were detected from E12, suggesting that polysynaptic networks were functional at this stage. We discuss the results of our optical mapping, comparing them with previous findings obtained in the chick and rat embryos, and suggest some fundamental principles in the functional organization of synaptic networks in the embryonic brain. PMID:27207499

  7. Effect of recovery mode on postexercise vagal reactivation in elite synchronized swimmers. (United States)

    Schaal, Karine; Le Meur, Yann; Bieuzen, François; Petit, Odile; Hellard, Philippe; Toussaint, Jean-François; Hausswirth, Christophe


    This study investigated the effect of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC), contrast-water therapy (CWT), active recovery (ACT), and passive condition (PAS) protocols on the parasympathetic reactivation and metabolic parameters of recovery in elite synchronized swimmers who performed 2 simulated competition ballets (B1 and B2) separated by 70 min. After determining maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O(2max400)) and blood lactate concentrations ([La(-)](b400)) during a 400-m swim trial, 11 swimmers performed 1 protocol per week in randomized order. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured at rest (PreB1), 5 min after B1 (PostB1), before B2 (PreB2), and 5 min after B2 (PostB2). V̇O(2peak) was measured at PostB1 and PostB2, and [La(-)](b) was measured at PostB1, PreB2, and PostB2. PostB1 V̇O(2peak) and V̇O(2max400) were similar, but PostB1 [La(-)](b) was higher than [La(-)](b400) (p = 0.004). Each ballet caused significant decreases in HRV indices. At PreB2, all HRV indices had returned to PreB1 levels in the CWT, PAS, and ACT protocols, whereas the WBC protocol yielded a 2- to 4-fold increase in vagal-related HRV indices, compared with PreB1. WBC and ACT both increased [La(-)](b) recovery, compared with PAS (p = 0.06 and p = 0.04, respectively), and yielded an increased V̇O(2peak) from B1 to B2; however, it decreased after PAS (+5.4%, +3.4%, and -3.6%; p synchronized swimming. In the context of short-term recovery, WBC yields a strong parasympathetic reactivation, and shows similar effectiveness to ACT on the metabolic parameters of recovery and subsequent exercise capacity. PMID:23438222

  8. Blunt cardiac rupture. (United States)

    Martin, T D; Flynn, T C; Rowlands, B J; Ward, R E; Fischer, R P


    Blunt injury to the heart ranges from contusion to disruption. This report comprises 14 patients seen during a 6-year period with cardiac rupture secondary to blunt trauma. Eight patients were injured in automobile accidents, two patients were injured in auto-pedestrian accidents, two were kicked in the chest by ungulates, and two sustained falls. Cardiac tamponade was suspected in ten patients. Five patients presented with prehospital cardiac arrest or arrested shortly after arrival. All underwent emergency department thoracotomy without survival. Two patients expired in the operating room during attempted cardiac repair; both had significant extracardiac injury. Seven patients survived, three had right atrial injuries, three had right ventricular injuries, and one had a left atrial injury. Cardiopulmonary bypass was not required for repair of the surviving patients. There were no significant complications from the cardiac repair. The history of significant force dispersed over a relatively small area of the precordium as in a kicking injury from an animal or steering wheel impact should alert the physician to possible cardiac rupture. Cardiac rupture should be considered in patients who present with signs of cardiac tamponade or persistent thoracic bleeding after blunt trauma. PMID:6708151

  9. Evaluation of acceleration and deceleration cardiac processes using phase-rectified signal averaging in healthy and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy subjects. (United States)

    Bas, Rosana; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Valencia, Jose F; Voss, Andreas; de Luna, Antonio Bayés; Caminal, Pere


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of the Phase-Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA) method for improved risk prediction in cardiac patients. Moreover, this technique, which separately evaluates acceleration and deceleration processes of cardiac rhythm, allows the effect of sympathetic and vagal modulations of beat-to-beat intervals to be characterized. Holter recordings of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) patients were analyzed: high-risk (HR), who suffered sudden cardiac death (SCD) during the follow-up; and low-risk (LR), without any kind of cardiac-related death. Moreover, a control group of healthy subjects was analyzed. PRSA indexes were analyzed, for different time scales T and wavelet scales s, from RR series of 24 h-ECG recordings, awake periods and sleep periods. Also, the behavior of these indexes from simulated data was analyzed and compared with real data results. Outcomes demonstrated the PRSA capacity to significantly discriminate healthy subjects from IDC patients and HR from LR patients on a higher level than traditional temporal and spectral measures. The behavior of PRSA indexes agrees with experimental evidences related to cardiac autonomic modulations. Also, these parameters reflect more regularity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in HR patients. PMID:25585858

  10. Melodic Pitch Perception and Lexical Tone Perception in Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users (United States)

    Tao, Duoduo; Deng, Rui; Jiang, Ye; Galvin, John J.; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing


    Objectives To examine the relationship between lexical tone perception and melodic pitch perception in Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users, and to investigate the influence of previous acoustic hearing on CI users’ speech and music perception. Design Lexical tone perception and melodic contour identification (MCI) were measured in 21 prelingual and 11 postlingual young (age: 6–26 years old) Mandarin-speaking CI users. Lexical tone recognition was measured for four tonal patterns: Tone 1 (flat F0), Tone 2 (rising F0), Tone 3 (falling-rising F0), and Tone 4 (falling F0). MCI was measured using 9 five-note melodic patterns that contained changes in pitch contour, as well as different semitone spacing between notes. Results Lexical tone recognition was generally good (overall mean = 81% correct), and there was no significant difference between subject groups. MCI performance was generally poor (mean = 23% correct). MCI performance was significantly better for postlingual (mean = 32% correct) than for prelingual CI participants (18% correct). After correcting for outliers, there was no significant correlation between lexical tone recognition and MCI performance for prelingual or post-lingual CI participants. Age at deafness was significantly correlated with MCI performance only for postlingual participants. CI experience was significantly correlated with MCI performance for both prelingual and postlingual participants. Duration of deafness was significantly correlated with tone recognition only for prelingual participants. Conclusions Despite the prevalence of pitch cues in Mandarin, the present CI participants had great difficulty perceiving melodic pitch. The availability of amplitude and duration cues in lexical tones most likely compensated for the poor pitch perception observed with these CI listeners. Previous acoustic hearing experience seemed to benefit postlingual CI users’ melodic pitch perception. Longer CI experience was associated with

  11. Cortical Auditory Event Related Potentials (P300) for Frequency Changing Dynamic Tones (United States)

    Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar


    Background and Objectives P300 has been studied with a variety of stimuli. However, the nature of P300 has not been investigated for deviant stimuli which change its characteristics from standard stimuli after a period of time from onset. Subjects and Methods Nine young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. The P300 was elicited using an oddball paradigm, the probability of standard and deviant stimuli was 80% and 20% respectively. Six stimuli were used to elicit P300, it included two pure-tones (1,000 Hz and 2,000 Hz) and four tone-complexes (tones with frequency changes). Among these stimuli, 1,000 Hz tone served as standard while others served as deviant stimuli. The P300 was recorded in five separate blocks, with one of the deviant stimuli as target in each block. Electroencephalographic was recorded from electrode sites Fz, Cz, C3, C4, and Pz. Latency and amplitude of components of the cortical auditory evoked potentials were measured at Cz. Results Waveforms obtained in the present study shows that, all the deviant stimuli elicited obligatory P1-N1-P2 for stimulus onset. 2,000 Hz deviant tone elicited P300 at a latency of 300 ms. While, tone-complexes elicited acoustic change complex (ACC) for frequency changes and finally elicited P300 at a latency of 600 ms. In addition, the results showed shorter latency and larger amplitude ACC and P300 for rising tone-complexes compared to falling tone-complexes. Conclusions Tone-complexes elicited distinct waveforms compared to 2,000 Hz deviant tone. Rising tone-complexes which had an increase in frequency elicited shorter latency and larger amplitude responses, which could be attributed to perceptual bias for frequency changes. PMID:27144230

  12. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc


    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  13. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone


    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  14. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U;


    Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic vasoconstrict......Sympathetic reflex regulation of subcutaneous blood flow (SBF) in the forearm was studied in eight patients with primary hypothyroidism. Diastolic arterial pressure was greater than or equal to 95 mmHg in five patients. SBF was determined by local clearance of Na99mTcO4. Sympathetic.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  15. Tone calibration technique: A digital signaling scheme for mobile applications (United States)

    Davarian, F.


    Residual carrier modulation is conventionally used in a communication link to assist the receiver with signal demodulation and detection. Although suppressed carrier modulation has a slight power advantage over the residual carrier approach in systems enjoying a high level of stability, it lacks sufficient robustness to be used in channels severely contaminated by noise, interference and propagation effects. In mobile links, in particular, the vehicle motion and multipath waveform propagation affect the received carrier in an adverse fashion. A residual carrier scheme that uses a pilot carrier to calibrate a mobile channel against multipath fading anomalies is described. The benefits of this scheme, known as tone calibration technique, are described. A brief study of the system performance in the presence of implementation anomalies is also given.

  16. Tone-Mapped Mean-Shift Based Environment Map Sampling. (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Yang, Ying; Wan, Liang; Yu, Changguo


    In this paper, we present a novel approach for environment map sampling, which is an effective and pragmatic technique to reduce the computational cost of realistic rendering and get plausible rendering images. The proposed approach exploits the advantage of adaptive mean-shift image clustering with aid of tone-mapping, yielding oversegmented strata that have uniform intensities and capture shapes of light regions. The resulted strata, however, have unbalanced importance metric values for rendering, and the strata number is not user-controlled. To handle these issues, we develop an adaptive split-and-merge scheme that refines the strata and obtains a better balanced strata distribution. Compared to the state-of-the-art methods, our approach achieves comparable and even better rendering quality in terms of SSIM, RMSE and HDRVDP2 image quality metrics. Experimental results further show that our approach is more robust to the variation of viewpoint, environment rotation, and sample number. PMID:26584494

  17. Multi-tone response of Nonlinear rf-SQUID metamaterials (United States)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven

    We study the multi-tone response over a broad microwave frequency range of a nonlinear superconducting meta-atom and a metamaterial composed of Radio Frequency Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (rf-SQUIDs). Nonlinearity in the SQUID metamaterial gives rise to large-range tunable resonance via dc/rf magnetic field and temperature, it also results in signal mixing through intermodulation distortion (IMD). Our metamaterial responds to multi-frequency signals and generates strong higher order intermodulation signals in a certain range of applied rf power. However, our meta-atom and metamaterial show a reduced third-order IMD generation around the resonance, which is unusual for typical nonlinear systems. The numerical simulation predicts the same IMD gap feature as in experiment. A comprehensive analytical model is applied to explain the phenomena, and methods to enhance, or reduce, intermodulation levels are explored. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through Grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  18. SBS mitigation with multi-tone amplification: a theoretical model (United States)

    Zeringue, Clint; Dajani, Iyad; Bronder, T. Justin; Shay, Thomas; Robin, Craig


    Two approaches to two- and three-tone seeding of high power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers are investigated using a symbolic and numerical code that solves a two point boundary problem consisting of a 12×12 system of nonlinear differential equations. Optimization of amplifier action is considered in relation to the two most dominant nonlinear effects: stimulated Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing. One approach uses a large wavelength separation among the input seed beams, while in the other approach the seeds are separated by precisely twice the Brillouin shift. It is found that for both techniques significant increase in amplifier output can be obtained, although for the latter case a substantial amount of power is generated in the four-wave mixing sidebands.

  19. The Study of Tone and Related Phenomena in an Amazonian Tone Language: Gavião of Rondônia (United States)

    Moore, Denny; Meyer, Julien


    This paper describes the methods used to study the tone and some related phenomena of the language of the Gavião of Rondônia, Brazil, which is part of the Mondé branch of the Tupi family. Whistling of words by indigenous informants was discovered to be a very effective method for obtaining phonetic accuracy in tone and length. Methods were devised…

  20. A Multinomial Model for Identifying Significant Pure-Tone Threshold Shifts (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert S.; Carney, Edward


    Purpose: Significant threshold differences on retest for pure-tone audiometry are often evaluated by application of ad hoc rules, such as a shift in a pure-tone average or in 2 adjacent frequencies that exceeds a predefined amount. Rules that are so derived do not consider the probability of observing a particular audiogram. Methods: A general…

  1. Neural Control of Rising and Falling Tones in Mandarin Speakers Who Stutter (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming


    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…

  2. The Utility of Chinese Tone Processing Skill in Detecting Children with English Reading Disabilities (United States)

    Anderson, Alida; Wang, Min


    The utility of Chinese tone processing skill in detecting children with English reading difficulties was examined through differences in a Chinese tone experimental task between a group of native English-speaking children with reading disabilities (RD) and a comparison group of children with normal reading development (NRD). General auditory…

  3. Musically Tone-Deaf Individuals Have Difficulty Discriminating Intonation Contours Extracted from Speech (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D.; Foxton, Jessica M.; Griffiths, Timothy D.


    Musically tone-deaf individuals have psychophysical deficits in detecting pitch changes, yet their discrimination of intonation contours in speech appears to be normal. One hypothesis for this dissociation is that intonation contours use coarse pitch contrasts which exceed the pitch-change detection thresholds of tone-deaf individuals (Peretz &…

  4. Skin-Tone Preferences and Self-Representation in Hispanic Children (United States)

    Kaufman, Erin A.; Wiese, Deborah L.


    Skin-tone preferences and colourism within Hispanic children have been largely unexamined in the psychological literature. The objectives of the current study were to investigate Hispanic children's skin-tone preferences and the effect of assessor race and ethnicity on those preferences. To carry out the study, Clark and Clark's colouring task was…

  5. Tone and Syntax in Rutooro, a Toneless Bantu Language of Western Uganda (United States)

    Kaji, Shigeki


    This paper explores the interaction of tone and syntax in Rutooro, a Bantu language of Western Uganda. Rutooro has lost its lexical tone but retains a phrasally defined high pitch that appears on the penultimate syllable--the default position in Bantu. This high pitch can work grammatically and in fact distinguishes between the noun phrase vs.…

  6. The pioneering work of George Mines on cardiac arrhythmias: groundbreaking ideas that remain influential in contemporary cardiac electrophysiology. (United States)

    Aguilar, Martin; Nattel, Stanley


    George Mines was a pioneering physiologist who, despite an extremely short period of professional activity and only primitive experimental methodology, succeeded in formulating concepts that continue to be of great influence today. Here, we review some of his most important discoveries and their impact on contemporary concepts and clinical practice. Mines' greatest contribution was his conceptualization and characterization of circus movement reentry. His observations and ideas about the basis for cardiac reentrant activity underlie how we understand and manage a wide range of important clinical rhythm disturbances today. The notions he introduced regarding the influence of premature extrastimuli on reentry (termination, resetting and entrainment) are central to contemporary assessment of arrhythmia mechanisms in clinical electrophysiology laboratories and modern device therapy of cardiac tachyarrhythmias. Refinements of his model of reentry have led to sophisticated biophysical theories of the mechanisms underlying cardiac fibrillation. His seminal observations on the influence of electrolyte derangements and autonomic tone on the heart are relevant to our understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of arrhythmias caused by cardiac pathology. In this era of advanced technology, it is important to appreciate that ideas of lasting impact come from great minds and do not necessarily require great tools. PMID:26607760

  7. [Cardiac evaluation before non-cardiac surgery]. (United States)

    Menzenbach, Jan; Boehm, Olaf


    Before non-cardiac surgery, evaluation of cardiac function is no frequent part of surgical treatment. European societies of anesthesiology and cardiology published consensus-guidelines in 2014 to present a reasonable approach for preoperative evaluation. This paper intends to differentiate the composite of perioperative risk and to display the guidelines methodical approach to handle it. Features to identify patients at risk from an ageing population with comorbidities, are the classification of surgical risk, functional capacity and risk indices. Application of diagnostic means, should be used adjusted to this risk estimation. Cardiac biomarkers are useful to discover risk of complications or mortality, that cannot be assessed by clinical signs. After preoperative optimization and perioperative cardiac protection, the observation of the postoperative period remains, to prohibit complications or even death. In consideration of limited resources of intensive care department, postoperative ward rounds beyond intensive care units are considered to be an appropriate instrument to avoid or recognize complications early to reduce postoperative mortality. PMID:27479258

  8. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills. (United States)

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C


    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26208085

  9. Effect of low-frequency tones and turbulent-boundary-layer noise on annoyance (United States)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.


    A laboratory study was conducted to examine annoyance to combinations of low-frequency tones and turbulent-boundary-layer noise. A total of 240 sounds, containing tones in the range from 80 to 315 Hz, were rated by 108 test subjects in an anechoic chamber. The results indicated that tone penalties (defines as the failure of a noise metric to account for the presence of pure tones) are highly dependent on the choice of noise metric. A-weighted sound pressure level underpredicted annoyance by as much as the equivalent of 5 db and unweighted sound pressure level overpredicted by as much as the equivalent of db. Tone penalties were observed to be dependent on the shape of the turbulent boundary-layer noise spectrum.

  10. Cardiac metabolism and arrhythmias


    Barth, Andreas S.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.


    Sudden cardiac death remains a leading cause of mortality in the Western world, accounting for up to 20% of all deaths in the U.S.1, 2 The major causes of sudden cardiac death in adults age 35 and older are coronary artery disease (70–80%) and dilated cardiomyopathy (10–15%).3 At the molecular level, a wide variety of mechanisms contribute to arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death, ranging from genetic predisposition (rare mutations and common polymorphisms in ion channels and structural...

  11. [Cardiac Rehabilitation 2015]. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Andreas


    The goals of cardiac rehabilitation are (re-)conditioning and secondary prevention in patients with heart disease or an elevated cardiovascular risk profile. Rehabilitation is based on motivation through education, on adapted physical activity, instruction of relaxation techniques, psychological support and optimized medication. It is performed preferably in groups either in outpatient or inpatient settings. The Swiss working group on cardiac rehabilitation provides a network of institutions with regular quality auditing. Positive effects of rehabilitation programs on mortality and morbidity have been established by numerous studies. Although a majority of patients after cardiac surgery are being referred to rehabilitation, these services are notoriously underused after catheter procedures. PMID:26602848

  12. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O;


    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed for...... uncertain and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  13. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhal


    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis.

  14. Spirit Examines Light-Toned 'Halley' (False Color) (United States)


    Stretching along 'Low Ridge' in front of the winter haven for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit are several continuous rock layers that make up the ridge. Some of these layers form fins that stick out from the other rocks in a way that suggests that they are resistant to erosion. Spirit is currently straddling one of these fin-like layers and can reach a small bit of light-toned material that might be a broken bit of it. Informally named 'Halley,' this rock was broken by Spirit's wheels when the rover drove over it. The first analyses of Halley showed it to be unusual in composition, containing a lot of the minor element zinc relative to the soil around it and having much of its iron tied up in the mineral hematite. When scientists again placed the scientific instruments on Spirit's robotic arm on a particularly bright-looking part of Halley, they found that the chemical composition of the bright spots was suggestive of a calcium sulfate mineral. Bright soils that Spirit has examined earlier in the mission contain iron sulfate. This discovery raises new questions for the science team: Why is the sulfate mineralogy here different? Did Halley and the fin material form by water percolating through the layered rocks of Low Ridge? When did the chemical alteration of this rock occur? Spirit will continue to work on Halley and other light-toned materials along Low Ridge in the coming months to try to answer these questions. Spirit took this red-green-blue composite image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 820th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 24, 2006). The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the rocks and soil. It combines frames taken through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer, and 430-nanometer filters. The middle of the imaged area has dark basaltic sand. Spirit's wheel track is at the left edge of the frame. Just to the right of the wheel track in the lower left are two types of brighter material

  15. Postiive tone resists based on network deploymerization of molecular resists (United States)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Cheng, Jing; Cheshmehkani, Ameneh; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.


    Conventional chemically amplified resists have several issues that can potentially limit their capability for sub-40 nm imaging. One of the major issues at this size scale is that the mechanical strength of positive tone CARs limits the amount of stress they can withstand during development, rinse, and drying, thus leading to problems with pattern collapse due to the high capillary forces generated during drying. This problem is exasperated by the fact that linear polymers show dramatically reduced modulus at sub-50 nm features sizes. To improve on this problem, we have made a positive tone resist based on network depolymerization of molecular resists. The resist thermally cross-links after being spin cast into thin film form through reactions between vinyl ether groups and carboxylic acid groups. By cross-linking the resist to form a dense three dimensional polymer network, the mechanical strength of the resist is greatly improved compared to linear polymers. The network is depolymerized using an acid catalyzed reaction to create development contrast that allows for patterning of the resist via development in either aqueous base or organic solvent. One drawback of the current resist design is that the free carboxylic acids on the resist molecule appear to react in solution at room temperature with both the vinyl ether groups on adjacent molecules and with any added base quencher. These reactions cause reduced effectiveness of the base quencher and produce a noticeable resist shelf life problem. Despite these limitations, the material was used to compare the effect of development in aqueous base versus organic solvent. The resist formulated in this work showed a DUV sensitivity of 7 mJ/cm2 and a contrast of 5.2 for development in either solvent or aqueous base. Under 100 keV e-beam imaging, the material showed 40 nm resolution for both development types. In standard 0.26 N TMAH, the dose-to-size was 84 μC/cm2 with 3σ LER of 14.2 nm. Using methyl isobutyl ketone

  16. A high-fat diet impairs cooling-evoked brown adipose tissue activation via a vagal afferent mechanism. (United States)

    Madden, Christopher J; Morrison, Shaun F


    In dramatic contrast to rats on a control diet, rats maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) failed to activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) during cooling despite robust increases in their BAT activity following direct activation of their BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the raphe pallidus. Cervical vagotomy or blockade of glutamate receptors in the nucleus of the tractus solitarii (NTS) reversed the HFD-induced inhibition of cold-evoked BAT activity. Thus, a HFD does not prevent rats from mounting a robust, centrally driven BAT thermogenesis; however, a HFD does alter a vagal afferent input to NTS neurons, thereby preventing the normal activation of BAT thermogenesis to cooling. These results, paralleling the absence of cooling-evoked glucose uptake in the BAT of obese humans, reveal a neural mechanism through which consumption of a HFD contributes to reduced energy expenditure and thus to weight gain. PMID:27354235

  17. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator February 19, 2009 Halifax Health Medical Center, Daytona Beach, FL Welcome to Halifax Health Daytona Beach, Florida. Over the next hour you' ...

  18. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (United States)

    ... scan, or MUGA, which shows how well your heart is pumping blood. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which gives doctors detailed pictures of your heart. How is SCA treated? Sudden cardiac arrest should ...

  19. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (United States)

    ... Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) SCA: Who's At Risk? Prevention of SCA What Causes SCA? SCA Awareness Atrial Flutter Heart Block Heart Failure Sick Sinus Syndrome Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  20. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranđelović Aleksandra Č.


    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in an athlete is rare and tragic event. An athlete's death draws high public attention given that athletes are considered the healthiest category of society. The vast majority of sudden cardiac death in young athletes is due to congenital cardiac malformations such as hypertrophie cardiomyopathy and various coronary artery anomalies. In athletes over age 35, the usual cause of sudden cardiac death is coronary artery disease. With each tragic death of a young athlete, there is a question why this tragedy has not been prevented. The American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association recommend that a pre-participation exam should include a complete cardiovascular history and physical examination.

  1. Cardiac Risk Assessment (United States)

    ... to assess cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring ... LDL-C but does not respond to typical strategies to lower LDL-C such as diet, exercise, ...

  2. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi


    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  3. Awareness in cardiac anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Serfontein, Leon


    Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.

  4. Safety in cardiac surgery


    Siregar, S.


    The monitoring of safety in cardiac surgery is a complex process, which involves many clinical, practical, methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this thesis was to measure and to compare safety in cardiac surgery in The Netherlands using the Netherlands Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (NVT) database. The safety of care is usually measured using patient outcomes. If outcomes are not available, the process and structure of care may be used. Outcomes should be adjusted ...

  5. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany. (United States)

    Karoff, Marthin; Held, Klaus; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna


    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the rehabilitation measures provided for cardiac patients in Germany and to outline its legal basis and outcomes. In Germany the cardiac rehabilitation system is different from rehabilitation measures in other European countries. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany since 1885 is based on specific laws and the regulations of insurance providers. Cardiac rehabilitation has predominantly been offered as an inpatient service, but has recently been complemented by outpatient services. A general agreement on the different indications for offering these two services has yet to be reached. Cardiac rehabilitation is mainly offered after an acute cardiac event and bypass surgery. It is also indicated in severe heart failure and special cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Most patients are men (>65%) and the age at which events occur is increasing. The benefits obtained during the 3-4 weeks after an acute event, and confirmed in numerous studies, are often later lost under 'usual care' conditions. Many attempts have been made by rehabilitation institutions to improve this deficit by providing intensive aftercare. One instrument set up to achieve this is the nationwide institution currently comprising more than 6000 heart groups with approximately 120000 outpatients. After coronary artery bypass grafting or acute coronary syndrome cardiac rehabilitation can usually be started within 10 days. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation team consists of cardiologists, psychologists, exercise therapists, social workers, nutritionists and nurses. The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are also important economically, for example, for the improvement of secondary prevention and vocational integration. PMID:17301623

  6. Ranolazine in Cardiac Arrhythmia. (United States)

    Saad, Marwan; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Elgendy, Islam Y; Richard Conti, C


    Ranolazine utilization in the management of refractory angina has been established by multiple randomized clinical studies. However, there is growing evidence showing an evolving role in the field of cardiac arrhythmias. Multiple experimental and clinical studies have evaluated the role of ranolazine in prevention and management of atrial fibrillation, with ongoing studies on its role in ventricular arrhythmias. In this review, we will discuss the pharmacological, experimental, and clinical evidence behind ranolazine use in the management of various cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:26459200

  7. Cardiac tumours in infancy


    Yadava, O.P.


    Cardiac tumours in infancy are rare and are mostly benign with rhabdomyomas, fibromas and teratomas accounting for the majority. The presentation depends on size and location of the mass as they tend to cause cavity obstruction or arrhythmias. Most rhabdomyomas tend to regress spontaneously but fibromas and teratomas generally require surgical intervention for severe haemodynamic or arrhythmic complications. Other relatively rare cardiac tumours too are discussed along with an Indian perspect...

  8. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shikora


    Full Text Available Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51±2 years, BMI 37±1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL were 9±1% and 25±4% (P<0.0001, and HbA1c declined by 0.3±0.1% and 1.0±0.2% (P=0.02, baseline 7.8±0.2%. In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n=15, mean arterial pressure reduced by 7±3 mmHg and 8±3 mmHg (P=0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with NCT00555958.

  9. Hemorrhagic hypotension-induced hypersensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers to chemical stimulation and lung inflation in anesthetized rats. (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Lung; Lin, Yu-Jung; Xu, Fadi; Lee, Lu-Yuan


    This study was carried out to investigate whether hemorrhagic hypotension (HH) altered the sensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers. The fiber activity (FA) of single vagal pulmonary C-fiber was continuously recorded in anesthetized rats before, during, and after HH was induced by bleeding from the femoral arterial catheter into a blood reservoir and lowering the mean systemic arterial pressure (MSAP) to ∼40 mmHg for 20 min. Our results showed the following. First, after MSAP reached a steady state of HH, the peak FA response to intravenous injection of capsaicin was elevated by approximately fivefold. The enhanced C-fiber sensitivity continued to increase during HH and sustained even after MSAP returned to baseline during the recovery, but slowly returned to control ∼20 min later. Second, responses of FA to intravenous injections of other chemical stimulants of pulmonary C-fibers (phenylbiguanide, lactic acid, and adenosine) and a constant-pressure lung hyperinflation were all significantly potentiated by HH. Third, infusion of sodium bicarbonate alleviated the systemic acidosis during HH, and it also attenuated, but did not completely prevent, the HH-induced C-fiber hypersensitivity. In conclusion, the pulmonary C-fiber sensitivity was elevated during HH, probably caused by the endogenous release of chemical substances (e.g., lactic acid) that were produced by tissue ischemia during HH. This enhanced C-fiber sensitivity may heighten the pulmonary protective reflexes mediated through these afferents (e.g., cough, J reflex) during hemorrhage when the body is more susceptible to other hazardous insults and pathophysiological stresses. PMID:25589016

  10. Effect of selective vagal nerve stimulation on blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate in rats under metoprolol medication. (United States)

    Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Plachta, Dennis T T


    Selective vagal nerve stimulation (sVNS) has been shown to reduce blood pressure without major side effects in rats. This technology might be the key to non-medical antihypertensive treatment in patients with therapy-resistant hypertension. β-blockers are the first-line therapy of hypertension and have in general a bradycardic effect. As VNS itself can also promote bradycardia, it was the aim of this study to investigate the influence of the β1-selective blocker Metoprolol on the effect of sVNS especially with respect to the heart rate. In 10 male Wistar rats, a polyimide multichannel-cuff electrode was placed around the vagal nerve bundle to selectively stimulate the aortic depressor nerve fibers. The stimulation parameters were adapted to the thresholds of individual animals and were in the following ranges: frequency 30-50 Hz, amplitude 0.3-1.8 mA and pulse width 0.3-1.3 ms. Blood pressure responses were detected with a microtip transducer in the carotid artery, and electrocardiography was recorded with s.c. chest electrodes. After IV administration of Metoprolol (2 mg kg(-1) body weight), the animals' mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) decreased significantly. Although the selective electrical stimulation of the baroreceptive fibers reduced MAP and HR, both effects were significantly alleviated by Metoprolol. As a side effect, the rate of stimulation-induced apnea significantly increased after Metoprolol administration. sVNS can lower the MAP under Metoprolol without causing severe bradycardia. PMID:26581776

  11. Concurrent sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal in hyperthyroidism: Evidence from detrended fluctuation analysis of heart rate variability (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Shiau, Yuo-Hsien; Tseng, Yin-Jiun; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien; Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Chu, Woei-Chyn


    Despite many previous studies on the association between hyperthyroidism and the hyperadrenergic state, controversies still exist. Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a well recognized method in the nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), and it has physiological significance related to the autonomic nervous system. In particular, an increased short-term scaling exponent α1 calculated from DFA is associated with both increased sympathetic activity and decreased vagal activity. No study has investigated the DFA of HRV in hyperthyroidism. This study was designed to assess the sympathovagal balance in hyperthyroidism. We performed the DFA along with the linear analysis of HRV in 36 hyperthyroid Graves’ disease patients (32 females and 4 males; age 30 ± 1 years, means ± SE) and 36 normal controls matched by sex, age and body mass index. Compared with the normal controls, the hyperthyroid patients revealed a significant increase ( P<0.001) in α1 (hyperthyroid 1.28±0.04 versus control 0.91±0.02), long-term scaling exponent α2 (1.05±0.02 versus 0.90±0.01), overall scaling exponent α (1.11±0.02 versus 0.89±0.01), low frequency power in normalized units (LF%) and the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency power (LF/HF); and a significant decrease ( P<0.001) in the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (SDNN) and high frequency power (HF). In conclusion, hyperthyroidism is characterized by concurrent sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. This sympathovagal imbalance state in hyperthyroidism helps to explain the higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation and exercise intolerance among hyperthyroid patients.

  12. Cardiac autonomic control in adolescents with primary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlíceková Z


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairment in cardiovascular autonomic regulation participates in the onset and maintenance of primary hypertension. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control using long-term heart rate variability (HRV analysis in adolescents with primary hypertension. Subjects and methods Twenty two adolescent patients with primary hypertension (5 girls/17 boys aged 14-19 years and 22 healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled. Two periods from 24-hour ECG recording were evaluated by HRV analysis: awake state and sleep. HRV analysis included spectral power in low frequency band (LF, in high frequency band (HF, and LF/HF ratio. Results In awake state, adolescents with primary hypertension had lower HF and higher LF and LF/HF ratio. During sleep, HF was lower and LF/HF ratio was higher in patients with primary hypertension. Conclusions A combination of sympathetic predominance and reduced vagal activity might represent a potential link between psychosocial factors and primary hypertension, associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity.

  13. Cardiac Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Long procedure time and somewhat suboptimal results hinder the widespread use of catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF. Due to lack of contrast differentiation between the area of interest and surrounding structures in a moving organ like heart, there is a lack of proper intraprocedural guidance using current imaging techniques for ablation. Cardiac image registration is currently under investigation and is in clinical use for AF ablation. Cardiac image registration, which involves integration of two images in the context of left atrium (LA, is intermodal, with the acquired image and the real-time reference image residing in different image spaces, and involves optimization, where one image space is transformed into the other. Unlike rigid body registration, cardiac image registration is unique and challenging due to cardiac motion during the cardiac cycle and due to respiration. This review addresses the basic principles of the emerging technique of registration and the inherent limitations as they relate to cardiac imaging and registration.

  14. Cardiac Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir Sra


    Full Text Available Long procedure time and somewhat suboptimal results hinder the widespread use of catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF. Due to lack of contrast differentiation between the area of interest and surrounding structures in a moving organ like heart, there is a lack of proper intraprocedural guidance using current imaging techniques for ablation. Cardiac image registration is currently under investigation and is in clinical use for AF ablation. Cardiac image registration, which involves integration of two images in the context of the left atrium (LA, is intermodal, with the acquired image and the real-time reference image residing in different image spaces, and involves optimization, where one image space is transformed into the other. Unlike rigid body registration, cardiac image registration is unique and challenging due to cardiac motion during the cardiac cycle and due to respiration. This review addresses the basic principles of the emerging technique of registration and the inherent limitations as they relate to cardiac imaging and registration.

  15. Effects of Temporal Sequencing and Auditory Discrimination on Children's Memory Patterns for Tones, Numbers, and Nonsense Words (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Hansen, Dee; Tortora, Anne Halloran; Higgins, Daniel; Boccia, Eric


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and words was supported by a common temporal sequencing mechanism; whether children's patterns of memory for tones, numbers, and nonsense words were the same despite differences in symbol systems; and whether children's recall of tones, numbers, and nonsense…

  16. Effects of native language experience on perceptual learning of Cantonese lexical tones (United States)

    Francis, Alexander L.; Ciocca, Valter; Ma, Lian


    In a tonal language syllabic pitch patterns contribute to lexical meaning. Perceptual assimilation models of cross-language perception predict speakers of another tonal language should assimilate Cantonese lexical tones to native tonal categories, affecting identification, discrimination and acquisition. For nontonal language speakers, two possibilities exist. If pitch information is ignored, vowels with different tones should assimilate to the same native category, lowering performance. If tonal information is attended but unused in native categorization, Cantonese tones could be nonassimilable and therefore easily discriminated, and possibly easily identified or learned. Here, native speakers of Mandarin Chinese and American English were trained to identify Cantonese words differing in lexical tone. Discrimination and identification were tested before and after training. Both groups initially performed well on upper register tones (high level, high rising, mid level) and poorly on lower (low falling, low level, low rising). Mandarin listeners improved most at identifying low falling tones; English listeners improved most on low level and low rising tones. Training primarily appeared to improve listeners' ability to make categorical decisions based on direction of pitch change, a feature reportedly under-attended by English speakers, but preferred by Mandarin speakers. [Work supported by research funding from The University of Hong Kong.

  17. Training for learning Mandarin tones: A comparison of production and perceptual training (United States)

    Wang, Xinchun


    Mandarin Chinese lexical tones pose difficulties for non-native speakers whose first languages contrast or do not contrast lexical tones. In this study, both tone language and non-tone language speaking learners of Mandarin Chinese were trained for three weeks to identify the four Mandarin lexical tones. One group took the production training with both visual and audio feedback using Kay Sona Speech II software. The target tones produced by native Mandarin speakers were played back through a pair of headphones and the pitch contours of the target tones were displayed on the computer screen on the top window to be compared with the trainees productions which appear in real time in the bottom window. Another group of participants took the perceptual training only with four-way forced choice identification tasks with immediate feedback. The same training tokens were used in both training modes. Pretest and post test data in perception and production were collected from both groups and were compared for effectiveness of training procedures.

  18. The molecular basis of the genesis of basal tone in internal anal sphincter. (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-Hai; Wang, Pei; Liu, Dong-Hai; Chen, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xin; Chen, Chen; He, Wei-Qi; Qiao, Yan-Ning; Tao, Tao; Sun, Jie; Peng, Ya-Jing; Lu, Ping; Zheng, Kaizhi; Craige, Siobhan M; Lifshitz, Lawrence M; Keaney, John F; Fogarty, Kevin E; ZhuGe, Ronghua; Zhu, Min-Sheng


    Smooth muscle sphincters exhibit basal tone and control passage of contents through organs such as the gastrointestinal tract; loss of this tone leads to disorders such as faecal incontinence. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this tone remain unknown. Here, we show that deletion of myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK) in the smooth muscle cells from internal anal sphincter (IAS-SMCs) abolishes basal tone, impairing defecation. Pharmacological regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs), L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) or TMEM16A Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels significantly changes global cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and the tone. TMEM16A deletion in IAS-SMCs abolishes the effects of modulators for TMEM16A or VDCCs on a RyR-mediated rise in global [Ca(2+)]i and impairs the tone and defecation. Hence, MLCK activation in IAS-SMCs caused by a global rise in [Ca(2+)]i via a RyR-TMEM16A-VDCC signalling module sets the basal tone. Targeting this module may lead to new treatments for diseases like faecal incontinence. PMID:27101932

  19. Development of low postural tone compensatory patterns in children - theoretical basis. (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Saulicz, Edward; Kuszewski, Michał; Matyja, Małgorzata; Myśliwiec, Andrzej


    Neurological literature indicates the existence of children with low postural tone without association with central nervous system damage. This fact induces to think about mechanisms, which allow these children to maintain upright posture. There is a suspicion that compensatory mechanism included in this process, enables to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. Observations of children's developmental stages caused determination of some postural tone area, which comprise both children with normotonia and with low postural tone without characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) damage. Set of specific qualities allows determination of two types of low postural tone: spastoidal and atetoidal type. Spastoidal type is characterized by deep trunk muscles (local) low postural tone compensated by excessive tension of superficial muscles (global). Atetoidal type includes children with low postural tone in both deep and superficial muscles. At inefficient active subsystem, verticalization proceeds at excessive use of passive subsystem qualities, that is meniscus, ligament, bone shape, and muscles passive features. From neurodevelopmental point of view compensatory mechanisms can be used in children with low postural tone in order to achieve upright posture, but at expense of body posture quality. PMID:25182403

  20. Individual differences in vagal regulation are related to testosterone responses to observed violence. (United States)

    Porges, Eric C; Smith, Karen E; Decety, Jean


    Observing violent content has been hypothesized to facilitate antisocial behaviors including interpersonal violence. Testosterone is released in response to perceived challenges of social status, often followed by an increase in aggressive behaviors and physiological activation. Prior investigations evaluating the impact of observing violence on autonomic function have focused on sympathetic measures of arousal. Measurement of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity has been neglected, although reduced PNS activity has been associated with antisocial behavior. Consistent with a hierarchical model of the autonomic nervous system (i.e., polyvagal theory), individual differences in PNS activity reflected in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were hypothesized to have an inhibitory impact on sympathetic and hormonal reactivity in subjects who were observing a violent video. Autonomic data (i.e., electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate, and RSA) were collected from forty adult males prior to and while viewing violent sports or a control video. Pre- and post-video saliva samples were assayed for cortisol and testosterone. Participants who viewed the violent video showed increased sympathetic activity compared to controls. In contrast to the sympathetic reactivity to the violent video, there were no significant RSA changes in response to the stimuli, suggesting that viewing violent sports selectively increases sympathetic activity without eliciting PNS withdrawal. However, within the group viewing the violent video, participants with lower RSA during baseline and the observation of violent videos, responded with greater increases in salivary testosterone, suggesting that high parasympathetic tone dampens testosterone reactivity. These individual differences in response to observed violence, associated with higher RSA, may account for some of the improved health, growth, and restoration outcomes across the lifespan, that this segment of the population benefits from

  1. Individual differences in vagal regulation are related to testosterone responses to observed violence

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    Eric C Porges


    Full Text Available Observing violent content has been hypothesized to increase antisocial behaviors including interpersonal violence. Testosterone is released in response to perceived challenges of social status, often followed by an increase in aggressive behaviors and physiological activation. Prior investigations evaluating the impact of observing violence on autonomic function have focused on sympathetic measures of arousal. Measurement of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS activity has been neglected, although reduced PNS activity has been associated with antisocial behavior. Consistent with a hierarchical model of the autonomic nervous system (i.e., Polyvagal Theory, individual differences in PNS activity reflected in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA were hypothesized to have an inhibitory impact on sympathetic and hormonal reactivity in subjects who were observing a violent video. Autonomic data (i.e., electrodermal activity (EDA, heart rate, and RSA were collected from forty adult males prior to and while viewing violent sports or a control video. Pre- and post-video saliva samples were assayed for cortisol and testosterone. Participants who viewed the violent video exhibited increased sympathetic activity compared to controls. In contrast to the sympathetic reactivity to the violent video, there were no significant RSA changes in response to the stimuli, suggesting that viewing violent sports selectively increases sympathetic activity without eliciting PNS withdrawal. However, within the group viewing the violent video, participants with lower RSA during baseline and the observation of violent videos, responded with greater increases in salivary testosterone, suggesting that high parasympathetic tone dampens testosterone reactivity. These individual differences in response to observed violence, associated with higher RSA, may account for some of the improved health, growth, and restoration outcomes across the lifespan, that this segment of the

  2. Effects of real and simulated weightlessness on the cardiac and peripheral vascular functions of humans: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhu


    Full Text Available Weightlessness is an extreme environment that can cause a series of adaptive changes in the human body. Findings from real and simulated weightlessness indicate altered cardiovascular functions, such as reduction in left ventricular (LV mass, cardiac arrhythmia, reduced vascular tone and so on. These alterations induced by weightlessness are detrimental to the health, safety and working performance of the astronauts, therefore it is important to study the effects of weightlessness on the cardiovascular functions of humans. The cardiovascular functional alterations caused by weightlessness (including long-term spaceflight and simulated weightlessness are briefly reviewed in terms of the cardiac and peripheral vascular functions. The alterations include: changes of shape and mass of the heart; cardiac function alterations; the cardiac arrhythmia; lower body vascular regulation and upper body vascular regulation. A series of conclusions are reported, some of which are analyzed, and a few potential directions are presented.

  3. New postage stamp design with tone gradation in Infraredesign technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Rudolf


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of new steganographic methods in postage stamp printing technology with the goal of securing them against counterfeiting. Postage stamp designs are presented which contain double information in the visible and in the infrared spectrum area. New methods include printing with process printing inks that have a continuous response in the infrared area of the spectrum. The infrared Z image cannot be produced with conventional CMYK separation in such a way that the hidden picture does not show through when looking at the print. This is the reason for introducing CMYKIR separation, with mathematical relations that respect printing ink characteristics in the RGB to CMYKIR system conversion.A mathematical model with targeted separation characteristics is proposed, with seven independent variables. It has been created as the result of optimal regression model developed on the basis of colour tone measuring for the visual and infrared spectrum. A technological procedure has been elaborated for producing and printing based on such designs. It is possible to detect the infrared image with the help of a device – the infrared ZRGB camera. Counterfeiting is impossible due to the irreversible conversion of the CMYKIR separation into the RGB system applied in contemporary scanners or cameras.

  4. Hand proximity facilitates spatial discrimination of auditory tones

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    Philip eTseng


    Full Text Available The effect of hand proximity on vision and visual attention has been well documented. In this study we tested whether such effect(s would also be present in the auditory modality. With hands placed either near or away from the audio sources, participants performed an auditory-spatial discrimination (Exp 1: left or right side, pitch discrimination (Exp 2: high, med, or low tone, and spatial-plus-pitch (Exp 3: left or right; high, med, or low discrimination task. In Exp 1, when hands were away from the audio source, participants consistently responded faster with their right hand regardless of stimulus location. This right hand advantage, however, disappeared in the hands-near condition because of a significant improvement in left hand’s reaction time. No effect of hand proximity was found in Exp 2 or 3, where a choice reaction time task requiring pitch discrimination was used. Together, these results suggest that the effect of hand proximity is not exclusive to vision alone, but is also present in audition, though in a much weaker form. Most important, these findings provide evidence from auditory attention that supports the multimodal account originally raised by Reed et al. in 2006.

  5. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration. (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio


    Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM) and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM) or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz) to high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system. PMID:26284521

  6. Sympathetic Tone Induced by High Acoustic Tempo Requires Fast Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Watanabe

    Full Text Available Many studies have revealed the influences of music, and particularly its tempo, on the autonomic nervous system (ANS and respiration patterns. Since there is the interaction between the ANS and the respiratory system, namely sympatho-respiratory coupling, it is possible that the effect of musical tempo on the ANS is modulated by the respiratory system. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the relationship between musical tempo and respiratory rate on the ANS. Fifty-two healthy people aged 18-35 years participated in this study. Their respiratory rates were controlled by using a silent electronic metronome and they listened to simple drum sounds with a constant tempo. We varied the respiratory rate-acoustic tempo combination. The respiratory rate was controlled at 15 or 20 cycles per minute (CPM and the acoustic tempo was 60 or 80 beats per minute (BPM or the environment was silent. Electrocardiograms and an elastic chest band were used to measure the heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. The mean heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV were regarded as indices of ANS activity. We observed a significant increase in the mean heart rate and the low (0.04-0.15 Hz to high (0.15-0.40 Hz frequency ratio of HRV, only when the respiratory rate was controlled at 20 CPM and the acoustic tempo was 80 BPM. We suggest that the effect of acoustic tempo on the sympathetic tone is modulated by the respiratory system.

  7. Postoperative cardiac arrest due to cardiac surgery complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the role of anesthetists in the management of cardiac arrest occurring in association with cardiac anesthesia. In this retrospective study we studied the potential performances for each of the relevant incidents among 712 patients undergoing cardiac operations at Golestan and Naft Hospitals Ahwaz between November 2006 and July 2008. Out of total 712 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, cardiac arrest occurred in 28 cases (3.9%) due to different postoperative complications. This included massive bleeding (50% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.9% of patients); pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.1% of patients); Heart Failure (7% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.2% of patients); Aorta Arc Rapture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients); Tamponade due to pericardial effusion (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of total patients); Right Atrium Rupture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients) were detected after cardiac surgery. Out of 28 cases 7 deaths occurred (25% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients). The most prevalent reason for cardiac arrest during post operative phase was massive bleeding (50%) followed by pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5%). Six patients had some morbidity and the remaining 15 patients recovered. There are often multiple contributing factors to a cardiac arrest under cardiac anesthesia, as much a complete systematic assessment of the patient, equipment, and drugs should be completed. We also found that the diagnosis and management of cardiac arrest in association with cardiac anesthesia differs considerably from that encountered elsewhere. (author)

  8. Seeing pitch: visual information for lexical tones of Mandarin-Chinese. (United States)

    Chen, Trevor H; Massaro, Dominic W


    Mandarin perceivers were tested in visual lexical-tone identification before and after learning. Baseline performance was only slightly above chance, although there appeared to be some visual information in the speakers' neck and head movements. When participants were taught to use this visible information in two experiments, visual tone identification improved significantly. There appears to be a relationship between the production of lexical tones and the visible movements of the neck, head, and mouth, and this information can be effectively used after a short training session. PMID:18397038

  9. Daily torpor: When heart and brain go cold —Nonlinear cardiac dynamics in the seasonal heterothermic Djungarian hamster (United States)

    Mertens, A.; Stiedl, O.; Damm, A.; Meyer, M.


    Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) acclimated to short photoperiod display episodes of spontaneous daily torpor with metabolic rate depressed by ~70%, body temperature (Tb) reduced by ~20 °C, and heart rate (HR) changing from ~70 bpm during torpor to ~570 bpm during arousal from torpor associated with remarkable resistance to arrhythmogenesis. The cardiac dynamics of heartbeat interval fluctuations (RRi) obtained from high-resolution telemetric ECG recordings during daily torpor were studied using nonlinear techniques of signal processing. The nature of cardiac dynamical properties assessed from pointwise Hölder exponents (h) is shifted from strong irregularity of sinus bradyarrhythmia during low-Tb torpor towards smooth regularity on spontaneous rewarming during arousal. The pattern of h fluctuations indicates that both fractality and multifractal properties of RRi's were decreased during torpor. The cardiac rhythm exhibits both deterministic and stochastic components with intermittency of alterations of prevalence of one over the other on short time scales. During the low-Tb state, RRi dynamics exhibt nonlinear properties that temporarily shift to linear characteristics during entry into and arousal from torpor. Sympatho-vagal antagonism of autonomic cardiac control is markedly relaxed but remains active and highly alert when animals are torpid and temporarily out of the mainstream of competition.

  10. Parasympathetic preganglionic cardiac motoneurons labeled after voluntary diving

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    W Michael ePanneton


    Full Text Available A dramatic bradycardia is induced by underwater submersion in vertebrates. The location of parasympathetic preganglionic cardiac motor neurons driving this aspect of the diving response was investigated using cFos immunohistochemistry combined with retrograde transport of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB to double-label neurons. After pericardial injections of CTB, trained rats voluntarily dove underwater, and their heart rates dropped immediately to 95±2bpm, an 80% reduction. After immunohistochemical processing, the vast majority of CTB labeled neurons were located in the reticular formation from the rostral cervical spinal cord to the facial motor nucleus, confirming previous studies. Labeled neurons caudal to the rostral ventrolateral medulla were usually spindle-shaped aligned along an oblique line running from the dorsal vagal nucleus to the ventrolateral reticular formation, while those more rostrally were multipolar with extended dendrites. Nine percent of retrogradely-labeled neurons were positive for both cFos and CTB after diving and 74% of these were found rostral to the obex. CTB also was transported transganglionically in primary afferent fibers, resulting in large granular deposits in dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and commissural subnuclei of the nucleus tractus solitarii and finer deposits in lamina I and IV-V of the trigeminocervical complex. The overlap of parasympathetic preganglionic cardiac motor neurons activated by diving with those activated by baro- and chemoreceptors in the rostral ventrolateral medulla is discussed. Thus the profound bradycardia seen with underwater submersion reinforces the notion that the mammalian diving response is the most powerful autonomic reflex known.

  11. Vagal cardiac control throughout the day : the relative importance of effort-reward imbalance and within-day measurements of mood, demand and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, EKS; Godaert, GLR; Maas, CJM; Meijman, TF


    The effects of variables derived from a work stress theory (the effort-reward imbalance theory) on the power in the high frequency (HF_HRV) band of heart rate (0.14-0.40 Hz) throughout a work day, were determined using multilevel analysis. Explanatory variables were analysed at two levels: at the lo

  12. Visceral periadventitial adipose tissue regulates arterial tone of mesenteric arteries. (United States)

    Verlohren, Stefan; Dubrovska, Galyna; Tsang, Suk-Ying; Essin, Kirill; Luft, Friedrich C; Huang, Yu; Gollasch, Maik


    Periadventitial adipose tissue produces vasoactive substances that influence vascular contraction. Earlier studies addressed this issue in aorta, a vessel that does not contribute to peripheral vascular resistance. We tested the hypothesis that periadventitial adipose tissue modulates contraction of smaller arteries more relevant to blood pressure regulation. We studied mesenteric artery rings surrounded by periadventitial adipose tissue from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The contractile response to serotonin, phenylephrine, and endothelin I was markedly reduced in intact vessels compared with vessels without periadventitial fat. The contractile response to U46619 or depolarizing high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L) was similar in vessels with and without periadventitial fat. The K+ channel opener cromakalim induced relaxation of vessels precontracted by serotonin but not by U46619 or high K+-containing solutions (60 mmol/L), suggesting that K+ channels are involved. The intracellular membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was more hyperpolarized in intact vessels than in vessels without periadventitial fat. Both the anticontractile effect and membrane hyperpolarization of periadventitial fat were abolished by inhibition of delayed-rectifier K+ (K(v)) channels with 4-aminopyridine (2 mmol/L) or 3,4-diaminopyridine (1 mmol/L). Blocking other K+ channels with glibenclamide (3 micromol/L), apamin (1 micromol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium ions (1 mmol/L), tetrapentylammonium ions (10 micromol/L), or Ba2+ (3 micromol/L) had no effect. Longitudinal removal of half the perivascular tissue reduced the anticontractile effect of fat by almost 50%, whereas removal of the endothelium had no effect. We suggest that visceral periadventitial adipose tissue controls mesenteric arterial tone by inducing vasorelaxation via K(v) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:15302842

  13. Problems of Analyzing Consonant-tone Interaction in Thai: A Reply to Ruangjaroon

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    Tsung-Ying Chen


    Full Text Available The interaction between the distribution of tones and syllable types in Thai has been found to be interesting. The absence of the rising contour tone on CVO and CVVO supports the argument that syllables with shorter phonetic duration are bad licensers for the rising contour tone (Zhang 2002. The distributional gaps on CVO and CVVO are also found to be correlated with syllable-final glottalization (Moren & Zsiga 2006. Furthermore, Ruangjaroon (2006 argues that there is the consonant-tone interaction in Thai and analyzes it under the framework of OT. However, I will indicate both theoretical and analytical problems faced by analyses in Ruangjaroon (2006 in this paper.

  14. Growth rate of loudness, annoyance, and noisiness as a function of tone location within the noise spectrum (United States)

    Hellman, R. P.


    Absolute magnitude estimation methods were used to investigate the relation between the overall perceived magnitude of noise tone complexes and the location of the tone within the spectrum. In contrast to 'noisiness', loudness and annoyance growth behavior depends on the relationship of the single tones added to low- and high-pass noises in these tests, and to the spectral shape of the noise. Tones centered in noise produce nonmonotonic loudness and annoyance growth functions, while those added to the noise skirt produce power functions. Although a tone correction for annoyance is warranted for certain noise-tone configurations, none of the calculation procedures proposed can take all of the variables relevant to the perceived annoyance of tonal components into account. Complex auditory interactions generated by the simultaneous presentation of noise and tone can substantially account for the effects observed.

  15. A novel multi-parametric algorithm for faint prediction integrating indices of cardiac inotropy and vascular tone. (United States)

    Couceiro, R; Carvalho, P; Paiva, R P; Muehlsteff, J; Henriques, J; Eickholt, C; Brinkmeyer, C; Kelm, M; Meyer, C


    Neurally medicated syncope (NMS) patients suffer from sudden loss of consciousness, which is associated with a high rate of falls and hospitalization. NMS negatively impacts a subject's quality of life and is a growing cost issue for the healthcare systems in particular since mainly elderly are at risk of NMS in our aging societies. In the present paper we present an algorithm for prediction of NMS, which is based on the analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals. Several parameters extracted from ECG and PPG, which have been associated in previous works with reflectory mechanisms underlying NMS, were combined in a single algorithm to detect impending syncope. The proposed algorithm was validated in 43 subjects using a 3-way data split scheme and achieved the following performance: sensitivity (SE) - 100%; specificity (SP) - 92%; positive predictive value (PPV) - 85%; false positive rate per hour (FPRh) - 0.146h(-1) and; average prediction time (aPTime) - 217.58s. PMID:25570610

  16. White Matter Changes Associated with Resting Sympathetic Tone in Frontotemporal Dementia vs. Alzheimer’s Disease


    Mendez, Mario F.; Joshi, Aditi; Daianu, Madelaine; Jimenez, Elvira; Thompson, Paul


    Background Resting sympathetic tone, a measure of physiological arousal, is decreased in patients with apathy and inertia, such as those with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other frontally-predominant disorders. Objective To identify the neuroanatomical correlates of skin conductance levels (SCLs), an index of resting sympathetic tone and apathy, among patients with bvFTD, where SCLs is decreased, compared to those with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), where it is not. Method...

  17. Open Rotor Tone Shielding Methods for System Noise Assessments Using Multiple Databases (United States)

    Bahr, Christopher J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.; Van Zante, Dale E.


    Advanced aircraft designs such as the hybrid wing body, in conjunction with open rotor engines, may allow for significant improvements in the environmental impact of aviation. System noise assessments allow for the prediction of the aircraft noise of such designs while they are still in the conceptual phase. Due to significant requirements of computational methods, these predictions still rely on experimental data to account for the interaction of the open rotor tones with the hybrid wing body airframe. Recently, multiple aircraft system noise assessments have been conducted for hybrid wing body designs with open rotor engines. These assessments utilized measured benchmark data from a Propulsion Airframe Aeroacoustic interaction effects test. The measured data demonstrated airframe shielding of open rotor tonal and broadband noise with legacy F7/A7 open rotor blades. Two methods are proposed for improving the use of these data on general open rotor designs in a system noise assessment. The first, direct difference, is a simple octave band subtraction which does not account for tone distribution within the rotor acoustic signal. The second, tone matching, is a higher-fidelity process incorporating additional physical aspects of the problem, where isolated rotor tones are matched by their directivity to determine tone-by-tone shielding. A case study is conducted with the two methods to assess how well each reproduces the measured data and identify the merits of each. Both methods perform similarly for system level results and successfully approach the experimental data for the case study. The tone matching method provides additional tools for assessing the quality of the match to the data set. Additionally, a potential path to improve the tone matching method is provided.

  18. Stream segregation in the perception of sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones. (United States)

    Dolležal, Lena-Vanessa; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M


    Amplitude modulation can serve as a cue for segregating streams of sounds from different sources. Here we evaluate stream segregation in humans using ABA- sequences of sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones. A and B represent SAM tones with the same carrier frequency (1000, 4000 Hz) and modulation depth (30, 100%). The modulation frequency of the A signals (f(modA)) was 30, 100 or 300 Hz, respectively. The modulation frequency of the B signals was up to four octaves higher (Δf(mod)). Three different ABA- tone patterns varying in tone duration and stimulus onset asynchrony were presented to evaluate the effect of forward suppression. Subjects indicated their 1- or 2-stream percept on a touch screen at the end of each ABA- sequence (presentation time 5 or 15 s). Tone pattern, f(modA), Δf(mod), carrier frequency, modulation depth and presentation time significantly affected the percentage of a 2-stream percept. The human psychophysical results are compared to responses of avian forebrain neurons evoked by different ABA- SAM tone conditions [1] that were broadly overlapping those of the present study. The neurons also showed significant effects of tone pattern and Δf(mod) that were comparable to effects observed in the present psychophysical study. Depending on the carrier frequency, modulation frequency, modulation depth and the width of the auditory filters, SAM tones may provide mainly temporal cues (sidebands fall within the range of the filter), spectral cues (sidebands fall outside the range of the filter) or possibly both. A computational model based on excitation pattern differences was used to predict the 50% threshold of 2-stream responses. In conditions for which the model predicts a considerably larger 50% threshold of 2-stream responses (i.e., larger Δf(mod) at threshold) than was observed, it is unlikely that spectral cues can provide an explanation of stream segregation by SAM. PMID:22984436

  19. Long-Term Outcomes of Acute Low-Tone Hearing Loss


    Roh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Ah Young; Choi, Byeong Il; Son, Eun Jin


    Background and Objectives Although acute low-tone hearing loss has been associated with cochlear hydrops or early stage Meniere's disease, its prognosis in the short-term has been reported to be better than sudden hearing loss. However, recurrence of hearing loss and possible progression to Meniere's disease remain important concerns in the clinical setting. This study aims to investigate the long-term audiological outcomes of acute low-tone hearing loss. Subjects and Methods A retrospective ...

  20. Effects of linguistic and musical experience on Cantonese tone word learning


    Cooper, Angela Kanita


    Adult non-native perception is subject to influence from a variety of factors, including linguistic experience as well as other cognitive functions such as musical experience. The present research examines how these two factors influence non-native tone perception and word learning. Native Thai and English listeners, subdivided into musician and non-musician groups, engaged in a perceptual training program. They learned words distinguished by five Cantonese tones during training, also complet...

  1. Detection of Modulated Tones in Modulated Noise by Non-human Primates


    Bohlen, Peter; Dylla, Margit; Timms, Courtney; Ramachandran, Ramnarayan


    In natural environments, many sounds are amplitude-modulated. Amplitude modulation is thought to be a signal that aids auditory object formation. A previous study of the detection of signals in noise found that when tones or noise were amplitude-modulated, the noise was a less effective masker, and detection thresholds for tones in noise were lowered. These results suggest that the detection of modulated signals in modulated noise would be enhanced. This paper describes the results of experim...

  2. Pediatric cardiac postoperative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler Jr. José Otávio Costa


    Full Text Available The Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo, Medical School is a referral center for the treatment of congenital heart diseases of neonates and infants. In the recent years, the excellent surgical results obtained in our institution may be in part due to modern anesthetic care and to postoperative care based on well-structured protocols. The purpose of this article is to review unique aspects of neonate cardiovascular physiology, the impact of extracorporeal circulation on postoperative evolution, and the prescription for pharmacological support of acute cardiac dysfunction based on our cardiac unit protocols. The main causes of low cardiac output after surgical correction of heart congenital disease are reviewed, and methods of treatment and support are proposed as derived from the relevant literature and our protocols.

  3. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency. (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian


    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language. PMID:19354413

  4. Hardware Implementation of an Automatic Rendering Tone Mapping Algorithm for a Wide Dynamic Range Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Yadid-Pecht


    Full Text Available Tone mapping algorithms are used to adapt captured wide dynamic range (WDR scenes to the limited dynamic range of available display devices. Although there are several tone mapping algorithms available, most of them require manual tuning of their rendering parameters. In addition, the high complexities of some of these algorithms make it difficult to implement efficient real-time hardware systems. In this work, a real-time hardware implementation of an exponent-based tone mapping algorithm is presented. The algorithm performs a mixture of both global and local compression on colored WDR images. An automatic parameter selector has been proposed for the tone mapping algorithm in order to achieve good tone-mapped images without manual reconfiguration of the algorithm for each WDR image. Both algorithms are described in Verilog and synthesized for a field programmable gate array (FPGA. The hardware architecture employs a combination of parallelism and system pipelining, so as to achieve a high performance in power consumption, hardware resources usage and processing speed. Results show that the hardware architecture produces images of good visual quality that can be compared to software-based tone mapping algorithms. High peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR and structural similarity (SSIM scores were obtained when the results were compared with output images obtained from software simulations using MATLAB.

  5. The influence of reed curvature on the tone quality of lingual organ pipes (United States)

    Plitnik, G. R.; Angster, J.


    Given certain design constraints, such as the type of stop being voiced and the desired tone quality, reed voicers must use consummate skill to curve each tongue so as to produce the best and most stable tone, as well as maintaining a consistent tone quality across an entire rank of pipes. The curvature given to a reed tongue influences not only the harmonic structure of the steady-state sound, but also the attack. Two fundamentally different types of curvature are typically employed, the chorus reed (trompette) curve (which yields a bright sound) and the smooth-toned curve employed for solo reeds such as the clarinet. This study investigated the effect of reed curvature on the vibration and tone of reed tongues of both types. Two F2 pipes (a trompette and a clarinet) were constructed and voiced with 6 different tongues each to produce a variety of tones. The reed's vibration was measured under typical conditions by laser vibrometer; the pressure waves in the boot and in the shallot were measured by means of one-eighth inch microphones and the emitted sound was recorded at the egress. By performing various measurements simultaneously, phase differences were also determined.

  6. Optimizing swept-tone protocols for recording distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in adults and newborns. (United States)

    Abdala, Carolina; Luo, Ping; Shera, Christopher A


    Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), which are routinely used in the audiology clinic and research laboratory, are conventionally recorded with discrete tones presented sequentially across frequency. However, a more efficient technique sweeps tones smoothly across frequency and applies a least-squares-fitting (LSF) procedure to compute estimates of otoacoustic emission phase and amplitude. In this study, the optimal parameters (i.e., sweep rate and duration of the LSF analysis window) required to record and analyze swept-tone DPOAEs were tested and defined in 15 adults and 10 newborns. Results indicate that optimal recording of swept-tone DPOAEs requires use of an appropriate analysis bandwidth, defined as the range of frequencies included in each least squares fit model. To achieve this, the rate at which the tones are swept and the length of the LSF analysis window must be carefully considered and changed in concert. Additionally, the optimal analysis bandwidth must be adjusted to accommodate frequency-dependent latency shifts in the reflection-component of the DPOAE. Parametric guidelines established here are equally applicable to adults and newborns. However, elevated noise during newborn swept-tone DPOAE recordings warrants protocol adaptations to improve signal-to-noise ratio and response quality. PMID:26723333

  7. The effects of pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia


    The research aim is to investigate that how pitch and duration affect the perception of the neutral tone in standard Chinese and that which one of the two factors is more important.A psycho-acoustic experiment was conducted, in which the listening stimuli consisted of 15 groups of disyllabic words, and the pitches and durations of the two syllables in each of the words were artificially controlled. Thirty-three standard Chinese native speakers participated in a forced-choice task to judge if the second syllables of the words they heard carried the neutral tone or the normal tones. The results of the experiment indicated that, (1) the effects of both pitch and duration on the perception of the neutral tone are significant; (2) the effect of pitch is larger than that of duration; (3) both the Fo values of the high point in the pitch contour and the pitch contour pattern have influence on the perception. The results of the experiment were correspondent to some extent to those of the previous acoustic analyses on the neutral tone.The diversity between the results of the presented perceptual study and those of the acoustical studies implies that the acoustic features of the neutral tone that exist in natural speech while do not affect the perception may be phonologically redundant.

  8. Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia revealed through predominant digestive vagal manifestations. Case report and literature review. (United States)

    Antherieu, P; Vassal, F; Sindou, M


    Vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia is a rare pathology whose atypical forms, dominated by syncopal manifestations, are still rarer. Although the territory of the vagus nerve involves, beyond the cardiovascular system, the respiratory and the digestive systems, there is no report in literature of atypical forms other than syncopal. Therefore, the authors were prompted to report the case of a patient whose vagoglossopharyngeal neuralgia was predominantly revealed by digestive symptoms. A 58-year-old patient presented with stereotypical severe digestive disturbances including nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. High definition cranial MRI showed a neurovascular conflict between the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and the IXth and Xth nerves, on the right side. A microsurgical decompression was carried out which confirmed the vascular compression and successful transposition of the artery. One year after the surgery, the patient was free from all painful and digestive symptoms. A survey of the literature did not find any reference to digestive symptoms together with the neuralgia; only a syncopal type of cardiac symptoms related to the parasympathetic nervous system were described. The hypothesis was that the revealing digestive symptoms are linked to a similar parasympathetic mechanism, implying the visceral component of the Xth cranial nerve. PMID:27179388

  9. Symbolic dynamics of heart rate variability - a promising tool to investigate cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? (United States)

    Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Farsky, Ivan; Mestanik, Michal; Visnovcova, Zuzana; Mestanikova, Andrea; Hrtanek, Igor; Ondrejka, Igor


    We aimed to evaluate complex cardiac sympathovagal control in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using heart rate variability (HRV) nonlinear analysis - symbolic dynamics. We examined 29 boys with untreated ADHD and 25 healthy boys (age 8-13 years). ADHD symptoms were evaluated by ADHD-RS-IV scale. ECG was recorded in 3 positions: baseline supine position, orthostasis, and clinostasis. Symbolic dynamics indices were used for the assessment of complex cardiac sympathovagal regulation: normalised complexity index (NCI), normalised unpredictability index (NUPI), and pattern classification measures (0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%). The results showed that HRV complexity was significantly reduced at rest (NUPI) and during standing position (NCI, NUPI) in ADHD group compared to controls. Cardiac-linked sympathetic index 0V% was significantly higher during all posture positions and cardiovagal index 2LV% was significantly lower to standing in boys suffering from ADHD. Importantly, ADHD symptom inattention positively correlated with 0V%, and negatively correlated with NCI, NUPI. Concluding, symbolic dynamics revealed impaired complex neurocardiac control characterised by potential cardiac beta-adrenergic overactivity and vagal deficiency at rest and to posture changes in boys suffering from ADHD that is correlated with inattention. We suggest that symbolic dynamics indices could represent promising cardiac biomarkers in ADHD. PMID:26963175

  10. Giant Cardiac Cavernous Hemangioma. (United States)

    Unger, Eric; Costic, Joseph; Laub, Glenn


    We report the case of an asymptomatic giant cardiac cavernous hemangioma in a 71-year-old man. The intracardiac mass was discovered incidentally during surveillance for his prostate cancer; however, the patient initially declined intervention. On presentation to our institution 7 years later, the lesion had enlarged significantly, and the patient consented to excision. At surgery, an 8 × 6.5 × 4.8 cm intracardiac mass located on the inferior heart border was excised with an intact capsule through a median sternotomy approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. We discuss the diagnostic workup, treatment, and characteristics of this rare cardiac tumor. PMID:26140782

  11. Radiography in cardiology [cardiac disorders, cardiac insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic procedure in cardiology nearly always requires an X-ray examination of the thorax. This examination is very informative when it is correctly performed and interpreted. The radiographs need to be read precisely and comprehensively: this includes the evaluation of the silhouette of the heart (size, form and position) as well as the examination of extra-cardiac thoracic structures allowing among other things to search for signs of cardiac insufficiency. The conclusion of the X-ray examination can be drawn after having brought together information concerning the case history, the clinical examination and the study of the radiographs. The radiologist finds himself in one of three situations: (1) the information provided by the X-ray pictures is characteristic of a disease and permits a diagnosis, (2) the X-ray pictures indicate a group of hypotheses; further complementary tests could be useful and (3) the X-ray pictures provide ambiguous even contradictory information; it is necessary to complete the radiological examination by other techniques such as an ultrasonographic study of the heart

  12. Split SR-RLS for the Joint Initialization of the Per-Tone Equalizers and Per-Tone Echo Cancelers in DMT-Based Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ysebaert Geert


    Full Text Available In asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL, the available bandwidth is divided in subcarriers or tones which are assigned to the upstream and/or downstream transmission direction. To allow efficient bidirectional communication over one twisted pair, echo cancellation is required to separate upstream and downstream channels. In addition, intersymbol interference and intercarrier interference have to be reduced by means of equalization. In this paper, a computationally efficient algorithm for adaptively initializing the per-tone equalizers (PTEQ and per-tone echo cancelers (PTEC is presented. For a given number of equalizer and echo canceler taps per-tone, it was shown that the joint PTEQ/PTEC receiver structure is able to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on each subcarrier and hence also the achievable bit rate. The proposed initialization scheme is based on a modification of the square root recursive least squares (SR-RLS algorithm to reduce computational complexity and memory requirement compared to full SR-RLS, while keeping the convergence rate acceptably fast. Our performance analysis will show that the proposed method converges in the mean and an upper bound for the step size is given. Moreover, we will indicate how the presented initialization method can be reused in several other ADSL applications.

  13. Serum myoglobin after cardiac catheterisation.


    McComb, J. M.; McMaster, E A


    Study of 80 consecutive patients undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterisation showed that after the procedure 25 (31%) developed myoglobinaemia. This was attributed to complications of the catheterisation in two. The remaining 23 had received premedication by intramuscular injection. In patients without intramuscular injections myoglobinaemia did not occur after uncomplicated cardiac catheterisation. The study did not support the proposition that cardiac catheterisation results in m...

  14. Hepato-cardiac disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasser; Mahrous; Fouad; Reem; Yehia


    Understanding the mutual relationship between the liver and the heart is important for both hepatologists and cardiologists. Hepato-cardiac diseases can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting the heart and the liver at the same time. Differential diagnoses of liver injury are extremely important in a cardiologist’s clinical practice calling for collaboration between cardiologists and hepatologists due to the many other diseases that can affect the liver and mimic haemodynamic injury. Acute and chronic heart failure may lead to acute ischemic hepatitis or chronic congestive hepatopathy. Treatment in these cases should be directed to the primary heart disease. In patients with advanced liver disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may develop including hemodynamic changes, diastolic and systolic dysfunctions, reduced cardiac performance and electrophysiological abnormalities. Cardiac evaluation is important for patients with liver diseases especially before and after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation may lead to the improvement of all cardiac changes and the reversal of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. There are systemic diseases that may affect both the liver and the heart concomitantly including congenital, metabolic and inflammatory diseases as well as alcoholism. This review highlights these hepatocardiac diseases

  15. Primary cardiac tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac tumors happen to be among the less known pathologies without clear treatment standards. Even one decade ago most of the cardiac tumor diagnosis were made post mortem, and only reports of isolated cases could be found in the literature, showing the lack of interest in the investigation of these pathologies by cardiology and cardiovascular surgery specialists. With the development of echocardiography and of cardiovascular surgery, more cases of primary and metastatic cardiac tumors have been diagnosed. Many cases have been treated by palliative or curative surgical interventions, thus increasing the reports in the world literature and the experience in this field, and pointing out the real incidence of these pathologies, not being as bizarre as it had been considered. a revision of the literature will be made, in which the frequency and the suggested interventions will be reported, as well as the cases of cardiac pathology in two cardiovascular centers of the country known by the author. The echocardiographic, pathologic and histological characteristics of the representative cases will be presented, without a greater evidence level, due to the problem's incidence and the few cases reported by these centers

  16. Cardiac MRI tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac MRI tagging is an original technique based upon the perturbation of the magnetization of determined regions of the myocardium (tags). The motion of the tags accurately reflects the deformation of the underlying tissue. Data analysis requires special techniques to reconstruct the 3D motion of the heart, and to evaluate the myocardial strain, locally and throughout the whole heart. (authors)

  17. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Over the next hour you'll see the implantation of an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator. The surgery ... evening we're going to be discussing the implantation of a defibrillator. It’s a battery-powered implantable ...

  18. Cardiac effects of vasopressin. (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; Dicken, Bryan; Bigam, David; Cheung, Po-Yin


    Vasopressin is an essential hormone involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. It has been in use therapeutically for many decades, with an emphasis on its vasoconstrictive and antidiuretic properties. However, this hormone has a ubiquitous influence and has specific effects on the heart. Although difficult to separate from its powerful vascular effects in the clinical setting, a better understanding of vasopressin's direct cardiac effects could lead to its more effective clinical use for a variety of shock states by maximizing its therapeutic benefit. The cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin are complex and require further elucidation. Complicating our understanding include the various receptors and secondary messengers involved in vasopressin's effects, which may lead to various results based on differing doses and varying environmental conditions. Thus, there have been contradictory reports on vasopressin's action on the coronary vasculature and on its effect on inotropy. However, beneficial results have been found and warrant further study to expand the potential therapeutic role of vasopressin. This review outlines the effect of vasopressin on the coronary vasculature, cardiac contractility, and on hypertrophy and cardioprotection. These cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin represent an interesting area for further study for potentially important therapeutic benefits. PMID:24621650

  19. Cardiac pacemaker power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of chemical and radioisotope batteries used in cardiac pacemakers is presented. The battery systems are examined in terms of longevity, reliability, cost, size and shape, energy density, weight, internal resistance versus time, end-of-life voltage, chemical compatibility, and potential failure mechanisms

  20. Cardiac Dysregulation and Myocardial Injury in a 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Rat Model of Sympathetic Denervation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hua Jiang

    Full Text Available Cardiac sympathetic denervation is found in various cardiac pathologies; however, its relationship with myocardial injury has not been thoroughly investigated.Twenty-four rats were assigned to the normal control group (NC, sympathectomy control group (SC, and a sympathectomy plus mecobalamin group (SM. Sympathectomy was induced by injection of 6-OHDA, after which, the destruction and distribution of sympathetic and vagal nerve in the left ventricle (LV myocardial tissue were determined by immunofluorescence and ELISA. Heart rate variability (HRV, ECG and echocardiography, and assays for myocardial enzymes in serum before and after sympathectomy were examined. Morphologic changes in the LV by HE staining and transmission electron microscope were used to estimate levels of myocardial injury and concentrations of inflammatory cytokines were used to reflect the inflammatory reaction.Injection of 6-OHDA decreased NE (933.1 ± 179 ng/L for SC vs. 3418.1± 443.6 ng/L for NC, P < 0.01 and increased NGF (479.4± 56.5 ng/mL for SC vs. 315.85 ± 28.6 ng/mL for NC, P < 0.01 concentrations. TH expression was reduced, while ChAT expression showed no change. Sympathectomy caused decreased HRV and abnormal ECG and echocardiography results, and histopathologic examinations showed myocardial injury and increased collagen deposition as well as inflammatory cell infiltration in the cardiac tissue of rats in the SC and SM groups. However, all pathologic changes in the SM group were less severe compared to those in the SC group.Chemical sympathectomy with administration of 6-OHDA caused dysregulation of the cardiac autonomic nervous system and myocardial injuries. Mecobalamin alleviated inflammatory and myocardial damage by protecting myocardial sympathetic nerves.

  1. [Cardiac amyloidosis. General review]. (United States)

    Laraki, R


    Cardiac amyloidosis, most often of AL type, is a non-exceptional disease as it represents 5 to 10% of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. It realizes typically a restrictive cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless the wide diversity of possible presentation makes it a "big shammer" which must be evoked in front of every unexplained cardiopathy after the age of forty. If some associated manifestations can rapidly suggest the diagnosis, as a peripheric neuropathy especially a carpal tunnel syndrome or palpebral ecchymosis, cardiac involvement can also evolve in an apparently isolated way. The most suggestive paraclinic elements for the diagnosis are, in one hand, the increased myocardial echogenicity with a "granular sparkling" appearance seen throughout all walls of the left ventricle and, in the other hand, the association of a thickened left ventricle and a low voltage (electrocardiogram could also show pseudo-infarct Q waves). In front of such aspects, the proof of amyloidosis is brought by an extra-cardiac biopsy or by scintigraphy with labelled serum amyloid P component, so that the indications of endomyocardial biopsy are very limited today. The identification of the amyloid nature of a cardiopathy has an direct therapeutic implication: it contra-indicates the use of digitalis, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. The treatment of AL amyloidosis (chemotherapy with alkylant agents) remains very unsatisfactory especially in the cardiac involvement which is the most frequent cause of death (in AL amyloidosis). Last, cardiac amyloidosis is a bad indication for transplantation which results are burden by rapid progression of deposits especially in the gastro-intestinal tract and the nervous system. PMID:8059146

  2. Cardiac surgery outcomes. (United States)

    Halpin, Linda S; Barnett, Scott D; Beachy, Jim


    Accrediting organizations and payers are demanding valid and reliable data that demonstrate the value of services. Federal agencies, healthcare industry groups, and healthcare watchdog groups are increasing the demand for public access to outcomes data. A new and growing outcomes dynamic is the information requested by prospective patients in an increasingly consumer-oriented business. Patients demand outcomes, and resources are developing to meet these demands. Physicians are increasingly confronted with requests for information about their mortality and morbidity rates, malpractice suits, and disciplinary actions received. For example, in Virginia, prospective patients have access to data provided by the nonprofit group Virginia Health Information. After numerous resolutions by the Virginia Senate since 1999, the prospective Virginia medical consumer now has access to several annual publications: Virginia Hospitals: A Consumer's Guide, 1999 Annual Report and Strategic Plan Update, and the 1999 Industry Report: Virginia Hospitals and Nursing Facilities. Consumers have access to cardiac outcomes data stratified by hospital, gender, and cardiac service line (cardiac surgery, noninvasive cardiology, and invasive cardiology). This is particularly relevant to IHI because Virginia Health Information specifically targets cardiac care. IHI has a sizable investment in cardiovascular outcomes and has found outcomes measurement and research are key to providing quality care. IHI's goal is to move from an outcomes management model to a disease management model. The hope is to incorporate all aspects of the patient's continuum of care, from preoperative and diagnostic services through cardiac interventions to postoperative rehabilitation. Furthermore, every step along the way will be supported with functional status and quality of life assessments. Although these goals are ambitious and expensive, the return on investment is high. PMID:14618772

  3. Brain Plasticity in Speech Training in Native English Speakers Learning Mandarin Tones (United States)

    Heinzen, Christina Carolyn

    The current study employed behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to investigate brain plasticity associated with second-language (L2) phonetic learning based on an adaptive computer training program. The program utilized the acoustic characteristics of Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) to train monolingual American English-speaking listeners to perceive Mandarin lexical tones. Behavioral identification and discrimination tasks were conducted using naturally recorded speech, carefully controlled synthetic speech, and non-speech control stimuli. The ERP experiments were conducted with selected synthetic speech stimuli in a passive listening oddball paradigm. Identical pre- and post- tests were administered on nine adult listeners, who completed two-to-three hours of perceptual training. The perceptual training sessions used pair-wise lexical tone identification, and progressed through seven levels of difficulty for each tone pair. The levels of difficulty included progression in speaker variability from one to four speakers and progression through four levels of acoustic exaggeration of duration, pitch range, and pitch contour. Behavioral results for the natural speech stimuli revealed significant training-induced improvement in identification of Tones 1, 3, and 4. Improvements in identification of Tone 4 generalized to novel stimuli as well. Additionally, comparison between discrimination of across-category and within-category stimulus pairs taken from a synthetic continuum revealed a training-induced shift toward more native-like categorical perception of the Mandarin lexical tones. Analysis of the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) responses in the ERP data revealed increased amplitude and decreased latency for pre-attentive processing of across-category discrimination as a result of training. There were also laterality changes in the MMN responses to the non-speech control stimuli, which could reflect reallocation of brain resources in processing pitch patterns

  4. The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology (United States)

    Pearce, Mary Dorothy

    This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

  5. Analysis of audio-vestibular assessment in acute low-tone hearing loss. (United States)

    Im, Gi Jung; Kim, Sung Kyun; Choi, June; Song, Jae Jun; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun


    Conclusion This study demonstrated excellent hearing recovery following the combined treatment of diuretic and oral steroid, and electrocochleography (ECoG) was significantly higher than normal side. This study reports characteristics of acute low-tone hearing loss (ALHL) that show the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG, and excellent recovery, even-though low-tone hearing loss is worse, which can be different compared with sudden deafness. Objective To analyze ALHL without vertigo, this study compared the ALHL group with all patients exhibiting low-tone hearing loss and ear fullness. Hearing changes and vestibular functions were analyzed. Materials and methods ALHL was defined as a mean hearing loss of ≥ 30 dB at 125, 250, and 500 Hz, and ≤ 20 dB at 2, 4, and 8 kHz. From 156 cases of low-tone hearing loss of more than 10 dB without vertigo, 31 met the ALHL criteria and were subjected to audio-vestibular assessments including PTA, ECoG, vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing, and caloric testing. Results In ALHL, low-tone hearing loss was 42.7 ± 9.5 dB, and 83.9% of ALHL significantly recovered by more than 10 dB. The ECoG in ALHL was 0.334 ± 0.11 (higher than 0.25 ± 0.08 on the normal side) and ECoG abnormality was 35.5% (the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG value). PMID:26963446

  6. Risk factors and the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on cardiac and non-cardiac mortality in MADIT-CRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkiomaki, Juha S; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Kutyifa, Valentina;


    causes, 108 (63.9%) deemed cardiac, and 61 (36.1%) non-cardiac. In multivariate analysis, increased baseline creatinine was significantly associated with both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths [hazard ratio (HR) 2.97, P ...AIMS: To understand modes of death and factors associated with the risk for cardiac and non-cardiac deaths in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) vs. implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy, which may help clarify...

  7. In vitro research of the alteration of neurons in vagal core in medulla oblongata at asphyxic deaths. (United States)

    Haliti, Naim; Islami, Hilmi; Elezi, Nevzat; Shabani, Ragip; Abdullahu, Bedri; Dragusha, Gani


    The aim of this study was to research the morphological changes of neurons in the vagus nerve nuclei in medulla oblongata in asphyxia related death cases. Morphological changes that were investigated were mainly in the dorsal motor respiratory center (DMRC), nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and nucleus ambigus (nA) in the medulla oblongata. In our research, the autopsy material from asphyxia related death cases was used from various etiologies: monoxide carbon (CO), liquid drowning, strangulation, electricity, clinical-pathological death, firing weapon, explosive weapon, sharp and blunt objects and death cases due to accident. The material selected for research was taken from medulla oblongata and lungs from all lobes. The material from the medulla oblongata and lungs was fixed in a 10% solution of buffered formalin. Special histochemical methods for central nervous system (CNS) were employed like: Cresyl echt violet, toluidin blue, Sevier-Munger modification and Grimelius. For stereometrical analysis of the quantitative density of the neurons the universal testing system Weibel M42 was used. The acquired results show that in sudden asphyxia related death cases, there are alterations in the nuclei of vagal nerve in form of: central chromatolysis, axonal retraction, axonal fragmentation, intranuclear vacuolization, cytoplasmic vacuolization, edema, condensation and dispersion of substance of Nissl, proliferation of oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. The altered population of vagus nerve neurons does not show an important statistical significance compared to the overall quantity of the neurons in the nuclei of the vagus nerve (p<0.05). PMID:20846134

  8. Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactive sensory neurons in the vagal and glossopharyngeal ganglia innervating the larynx of the rat. (United States)

    Hayakawa, Tetsu; Kuwahara-Otani, Sachi; Maeda, Seishi; Tanaka, Koichi; Seki, Makoto


    We have examined whether calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive (CGRP-ir) neurons in the vagal and glossopharyngeal ganglia innervate the larynx. Many CGRP-ir neurons were located mostly in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex that was fused the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion and the jugular ganglion in the cranial cavity. When Fluorogold was applied to the cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), many Fluorogold-labeled neurons were found in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex and the nodose ganglion. Double-labeling for CGRP and Fluorogold showed that about 80% of Fluorogold-labeled neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex expressed CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the case of application to the SLN, and about 50% of Fluorogold-labeled neurons expressed CGRP-like immunoreactivity in the case of the RLN. Only a few double-labeled neurons were found in the nodose ganglion. The number of the Fluorogold-labeled neurons and double-labeled neurons in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex in the case of the SLN was larger than that in the case of the RLN. These results indicate that sensory information from the larynx might be conveyed by many CGRP-ir neurons located in the superior glossopharyngeal-jugular ganglion complex by way of the SLN and the RLN. PMID:24269509

  9. Vagal nerve stimulation attenuates IL-6 and TNFα expression in respiratory regions of the developing rat brainstem. (United States)

    Johnson, Rhaya L; Murray, Samuel T; Camacho, David K; Wilson, Christopher G


    Pre-term infants are at greater risk for systemic infection due to an underdeveloped immune system. Airway infection results in immune up-regulation of early pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in the brainstem. Current treatment for neonatal infection involves antibiotic administration. We previously showed that LPS injected into the trachea of neonatal rats causes changes in breathing and in IL-1β expression in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and hypoglossal motor nucleus (XII). We hypothesize that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) instilled in the trachea also causes the up-regulation of IL-6 and TNFα in the brainstem autonomic control regions. To test this hypothesis we injected LPS into the trachea of rat pups (postnatal ages 10-12days) and then assessed changes in IL-6 and TNFα. Vagal nerve stimulation has been used in the treatment of many inflammatory disorders, including sepsis. Our experiments show that VNS attenuates the upregulation of IL-6 and TNFα caused by LPS and may be a viable alternative to antibiotics. PMID:27049312

  10. Cardiac output and vasodilation in the vasovagal response: An analysis of the classic papers. (United States)

    Wieling, Wouter; Jardine, David L; de Lange, Frederik J; Brignole, Michele; Nielsen, Henning B; Stewart, Julian; Sutton, Richard


    The simple faint is secondary to hypotension and bradycardia resulting in transient loss of consciousness. According to Ohm's law applied to the circulation, BP = SVR × CO, hypotension can result from a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR), cardiac output (CO), or both. It is important to understand that when blood pressure (BP) is falling, SVR and CO do not change reciprocally as they do in the steady state. In 1932, Lewis, assuming that decreased SVR alone accounted for hypotension, defined "the vasovagal response" along pathophysiologic lines to denote the association of vasodilation with vagal-induced bradycardia in simple faint. Studies performed by Barcroft and Sharpey-Schafer between 1940 and 1950 used volume-based plethysmography to demonstrate major forearm vasodilation during extreme hypotension and concluded that the main mechanism for hypotension was vasodilation. Plethysmographic measurements were intermittent and not frequent enough to capture rapid changes in blood flow during progressive hypotension. However, later investigations by Weissler, Murray, and Stevens performed between 1950 and 1970 used invasive beat-to-beat BP measurements and more frequent measurements of CO using the Fick principle. They demonstrated that CO significantly fell before syncope, and little vasodilation occurred until very late in the vasovagal reaction Thus, since the 1970s, decreasing cardiac output rather than vasodilation has been regarded as the principal mechanism for the hypotension of vasovagal syncope. PMID:26598322

  11. Cardiac fusion and complex congenital cardiac defects in thoracopagus twins: diagnostic value of cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Hye-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Most thoracopagus twins present with cardiac fusion and associated congenital cardiac defects, and assessment of this anatomy is of critical importance in determining patient care and outcome. Cardiac CT with electrocardiographic triggering provides an accurate and quick morphological assessment of both intracardiac and extracardiac structures in newborns, making it the best imaging modality to assess thoracopagus twins during the neonatal period. In this case report, we highlight the diagnostic value of cardiac CT in thoracopagus twins with an interatrial channel and complex congenital cardiac defects. (orig.)

  12. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation. (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena


    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject. PMID:25996699

  13. Positive tone cross-linked resists based on photoacid inhibition of cross linking (United States)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Chun, Jun Sung; Neisser, Mark; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.


    A resist imaging design that utilizes photoacid inhibition of cationic polymerization and cross-linking during a postexposure bake step has been studied. The key to the design approach is the use of two different polymerization catalysts/initiators: (1) a photoacid produced from a photoacid generator (PAG) upon exposure of the resist that can result in polymerization and cross-linking of the resist matrix and (2) a thermal cross-linking catalyst (TCC) designed to thermally catalyze epoxide-phenol cross-linking. The TCC can be chosen from a variety of compounds such as triphenylphosphine (TPP) or imidazole. When only one of these catalysts (e.g TPP or photoacid) is present in an epoxide and phenol containing resist matrix, it will individually catalyze cross-linking. When they are present together, they effectively quench one another and little to no cross-linking occurs. This approach can be used to switch the tone of a resist from negative (photoacid catalyzed) to positive (TCC catalyzed and photoacid inhibited). The effect of the ratio of TCC:PAG was examined and the optimal ratio for positive tone behavior was determined. Resist contrast can be modified by optimization of epoxide:phenol ratio in the formulation. Dual tone behavior with positive tone at low dose and negative tone at higher doses can be observed in certain formulation conditions. Initial EUV patterning shows poor results, but the source of the poor imaging is not yet understood.

  14. Durations required to distinguish noise and tone: Effects of noise bandwidth and frequency. (United States)

    Taghipour, Armin; Moore, Brian C J; Edler, Bernd


    Perceptual audio coders exploit the masking properties of the human auditory system to reduce the bit rate in audio recording and transmission systems; it is intended that the quantization noise is just masked by the audio signal. The effectiveness of the audio signal as a masker depends on whether it is tone-like or noise-like. The determination of this, both physically and perceptually, depends on the duration of the stimuli. To gather information that might improve the efficiency of perceptual coders, the duration required to distinguish between a narrowband noise and a tone was measured as a function of center frequency and noise bandwidth. In experiment 1, duration thresholds were measured for isolated noise and tone bursts. In experiment 2, duration thresholds were measured for tone and noise segments embedded within longer tone pulses. In both experiments, center frequencies were 345, 754, 1456, and 2658 Hz and bandwidths were 0.25, 0.5, and 1 times the equivalent rectangular bandwidth of the auditory filter at each center frequency. The duration thresholds decreased with increasing bandwidth and with increasing center frequency up to 1456 Hz. It is argued that the duration thresholds depended mainly on the detection of amplitude fluctuations in the noise bursts. PMID:27250144

  15. What the [bleep]? Enhanced absolute pitch memory for a 1000Hz sine tone. (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C


    Many individuals are able to perceive when the tuning of familiar stimuli, such as popular music recordings, has been altered. This suggests a kind of ubiquitous pitch memory, though it is unclear how this ability differs across individuals with and without absolute pitch (AP) and whether it plays any role in AP. In the present study, we take advantage of a salient single frequency - the 1000Hz sine tone used to censor taboo words in broadcast media - to assess the nature of this kind of pitch memory across individuals with and without AP. We show that non-AP participants are accurate at selecting the correct version of the censor tone among incorrect versions shifted by either one or two semitones, though their accuracy was still below that of an AP population (Experiment 1). This suggests a benefit for AP listeners that could be due to the use of explicit note categories or greater amounts of musical training. However, AP possessors still outperformed all non-AP participants when incorrect versions of the censor tone were shifted within a note category, even when controlling for musical experience (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 demonstrated that AP listeners did not appear to possess a category label for the censor tone that could have helped them differentiate the censor tones used in Experiment 2. Overall, these results suggest that AP possessors may have better pitch memory, even when divorced from pitch labeling (note categories). As such, these results have implications for how AP may develop and be maintained. PMID:27289485

  16. The effects of tones in noise on human annoyance and performance (United States)

    Lee, Joonhee

    Building mechanical equipment often generates prominent tones because most systems include rotating parts like fans and pumps. These tonal noises can cause unpleasant user experiences in spaces and, in turn, lead to increased complaints by building occupants. Currently, architectural engineers can apply the noise criteria guidelines in standards or publications to achieve acceptable noise conditions for assorted types of spaces. However, these criteria do not apply well if the noise contains perceptible tones. The annoyance thresholds experienced by the general population with regards to the degree of tones in noise is a significant piece of knowledge that has not been well-established. Thus, this dissertation addresses the relationship between human perception and noises with tones in the built environment. Four phases of subjective testing were conducted in an indoor acoustic testing chamber at the University of Nebraska to achieve the research objective. The results indicate that even the least prominent tones in noises can significantly decrease the cognitive performance of participants on a mentally demanding task. Factorial repeated-measures analysis of variance of test results have proven that tonality has a crucial influence on working memory capacity of subjects, whereas loudness levels alone did not. A multidimensional annoyance model, incorporating psycho-acoustical attributes of noise in addition to loudness and tonality, has been proposed as a more accurate annoyance model.

  17. Ouabain-induced increases in resting tone of human hyperplastic prostate following repeated noradrenaline and electrical field stimulation.


    Guh, J. H.; Ko, F. N.; Chueh, S. C.; Lai, M.K.; Teng, C. M.


    1. The effect of ouabain on contractions to repeated noradrenaline stimulation and electrical field stimulation of human hyperplastic prostate was examined. Ouabain (1 microM) did not induce contractile response per se but progressively increased the resting tone (i.e., the tone between one noradrenaline stimulation, or electrical field stimulation, and the following) of human hyperplastic prostate. 2. The increased tone by ouabain following repeated noradrenaline stimulations or electrical f...

  18. Patterned Tone Sequences Reveal Non-Linear Interactions in Auditory Spectrotemporal Receptive Fields in the Inferior Colliculus


    BRIMIJOIN, W. OWEN; O'Neill, William E.


    Linear measures of auditory receptive fields do not always fully account for a neuron's response to spectrotemporally-complex signals such as frequency-modulated sweeps (FM) and communication sounds. A possible source of this discrepancy is cross-frequency interactions, common response properties which may be missed by linear receptive fields but captured using two-tone masking. Using a patterned tonal sequence that included a balanced set of all possible tone-to-tone transitions, we have her...

  19. Cardiac arrest in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tress Erika


    Full Text Available Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners.

  20. Cardiac arrest in children. (United States)

    Tress, Erika E; Kochanek, Patrick M; Saladino, Richard A; Manole, Mioara D


    Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners. PMID:20930971

  1. Socially differentiated cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Larsen, Finn Breinholt;


    recruitment and participation among low educated and socially vulnerable patients must be addressed to lower inequality in post-MI health. Our aim was to improve referral, attendance, and adherence rates among socially vulnerable patients by systematic screening and by offering a socially differentiated...... standard rehabilitation programme (SRP). If patients were identified as socially vulnerable, they were offered an extended version of the rehabilitation programme (ERP). Excluded patients were offered home visits by a cardiac nurse. Concordance principles were used in the individualised programme elements......%. Patients were equally distributed to the SRP and the ERP. No inequality was found in attendance and adherence among referred patients. Conclusions: It seems possible to overcome unequal referral, attendance, and adherence in cardiac rehabilitation by organisation of systematic screening and social...

  2. The effect of L1 prosodic backgrounds of Cantonese and Japanese speakers on the perception of Mandarin tones after training (United States)

    So, Connie K.


    The present study investigated to what extent ones' L1 prosodic backgrounds affect their learning of a new tonal system. The question as to whether native speakers of a tone language perform differently from those of a pitch accent language will be addressed. Twenty native speakers of Hong Kong Cantonese (a tone language) and Japanese (a pitch accent language) were assigned to two groups. All of them had had no prior knowledge of Mandarin, and had never received any form of musical training before they participated in the study. Their performance of the identification of Mandarin tones before and after a short-term training was compared. Analysis of listeners' tonal confusions in the pretest, posttest, and generalization tests revealed that both Cantonese and Japanese listeners had more confusion for two contrastive tone pairs: Tone 1-Tone 4, and Tone 2-Tone 3. Moreover, Cantonese speakers consistently had greater difficulty than Japanese speakers in distinguishing the tones in each pair. These imply that listeners L1 prosodic backgrounds are at work during the process of learning a new tonal system. The findings will be further discussed in terms of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best, 1995). [Work supported by SSHRC.

  3. Cardiac metastases of osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma is a malignancy whose various sites of metastasis greatly modify its ultimate prognosis. We report a case of simultaneous pulmonary and cardiac metastases in a 41-year-old male patient with osteosarcoma of the tibia, presenting after more then one year of completion of adjuvant therapy with progressive dyspnea and cyanosis. Diagnosis was made on computerized tomogram and echocardiogram. The metastatic mass entirely occupying the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery proved fatal. (author)

  4. Cardiac Tissue Engineering




    We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick),compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3) can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of p...

  5. Cardiac developmental toxicity


    Mahler, Gretchen J.; Jonathan T Butcher


    Congenital heart disease is a highly prevalent problem with mostly unknown origins. Many cases of CHD likely involve an environmental exposure coupled with genetic susceptibility, but practical and ethical considerations make nongenetic causes of CHD difficult to assess in humans. The development of the heart is highly conserved across all vertebrate species, making animal models an excellent option for screening potential cardiac teratogens. This review will discuss exposures known to cause ...

  6. Penetrating Cardiac Injuries




    Objectives: To present our experience of penetrating cardiac injuries treated at Atatürk University hospital; in 17 years 38 patients were analyzed. Methods: Patients were classified into three groups: group A (stable), 12; group B (shock), 21; and group C (agonal), five. Five patients were treated by pericardial window and three by pericardiocentesis. Two patients in group C, 19 patients in group B and five patients in group A underwent median sternotomy or thoracotomy in the operating room...

  7. Benign cardiac tumours: cardiac CT and MRI imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary benign cardiac tumours are rarely found in clinical practice and are generally evaluated with echocardiography. However, with the increasing usage of helical multislice CT, the initial detection and evaluation of these masses may be made by the radiologist during routine daily practice for other indications. The echocardiographic, CT and cardiac MRI appearances of various benign cardiac tumours and masses are described and illustrated in this review

  8. Cardiac tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick,compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3 can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of perfluorocarbons, or with electrical stimulation (continuous application of biphasic pulses, 2 ms, 5 V, 1 Hz. Tissue constructs cultured without perfusion or electrical stimulation served as controls. Medium perfusion and addition of perfluorocarbons resulted in compact, thick constructs containing physiologic density of viable, electromechanically coupled cells, in contrast to control constructs which had only a ~100 mm thick peripheral region with functionally connected cells. Electrical stimulation of cultured constructs resulted in markedly improved contractile properties, increased amounts of cardiac proteins, and remarkably well developed ultrastructure (similar to that of native heart as compared to non-stimulated controls. We discuss here the state of the art of cardiac tissue engineering, in light of the biomimetic approach that reproduces in vitro some of the conditions present during normal tissue development.

  9. Tone model integration based on discriminative weight training for Putonghua speech recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hao; ZHU Jie


    A discriminative framework of tone model integration in continuous speech recognition was proposed. The method uses model dependent weights to scale probabilities of the hidden Markov models based on spectral features and tone models based on tonal features.The weights are discriminatively trahined by minimum phone error criterion. Update equation of the model weights based on extended Baum-Welch algorithm is derived. Various schemes of model weight combination are evaluated and a smoothing technique is introduced to make training robust to over fitting. The proposed method is ewluated on tonal syllable output and character output speech recognition tasks. The experimental results show the proposed method has obtained 9.5% and 4.7% relative error reduction than global weight on the two tasks due to a better interpolation of the given models. This proves the effectiveness of discriminative trained model weights for tone model integration.

  10. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels (United States)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William


    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  11. IBM-JSR 193-nm negative tone resist: polymer design, material properties, and lithographic performance (United States)

    Patel, Kaushal S.; Lawson, Margaret C.; Varanasi, Pushkara Rao; Medeiros, David R.; Wallraff, Gregory M.; Brock, Phillip J.; DiPietro, Richard A.; Nishimura, Yukio; Chiba, Takashi; Slezak, Mark


    It has been previously proposed that negative-tone resist process would have an intrinsic advantage for printing narrow trench geometry. To demonstrate this for 193nm lithography, a negative resist with performance comparable to a leading positive resist is required. In this paper we report the joint development of a hexafluoroalcohol containing, 193nm, negative-tone, chemically amplified resist based on the crosslinking approach. Lithographic performance is presented which includes the ability of the negative-tone resist to print 90nm line/space and isolated trenches with standard resist processing. The impact of the fluorinated polymer on etch performance is also quantified. Finally, key resist characteristics and their influence on performance and limiting factors such as microbridging are discussed.

  12. Regulation of Arterial Tone by Activation of Calcium-Dependent Potassium Channels (United States)

    Brayden, Joseph E.; Nelson, Mark T.


    Blood pressure and tissue perfusion are controlled in part by the level of intrinsic (myogenic) vascular tone. However, many of the molecular determinants of this response are unknown. Evidence is now presented that the degree of myogenic tone is regulated in part by the activation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in arterial smooth muscle. Tetraethylammonium ion (TEA^+) and charybdotoxin (CTX), at concentrations that block calcium-activated potassium channels in smooth muscle cells isolated from cerebral arteries, depolarized and constricted pressurized cerebral arteries with myogenic tone. Both TEA^+ and CTX had little effect on arteries when intracellular calcium was reduced by lowering intravascular pressure or by blocking calcium channels. Elevation of intravascular pressure through membrane depolarization and an increase in intracellular calcium may activate calcium-activated potassium channels. Thus, these channels may serve as a negative feedback pathway to control the degree of membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction.

  13. Problems in Mandarin Tone Acquisition by American Students--The Interference of American English Intonation Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Chao Gui


    It is intended in this paper to discuss the common patterns of American intonation that interfere the tone acquisition by American students. Similar to the linguistic phenomenon that nonnative speakers of English speak the language with foreign accent due to the influence and linguistic constraints of their own mother tongue, American students face interference from the intonation patterns of American English in their acquisition of tones in the study of Mandarin Chinese. The syntactic structure that most clearly reflects this fact is the two-syllable Chinese word groups. After a close study of the most common mistakes made by American students in .their study of Mandarin tones, some general patterns are observed. It is concluded that the major causes of these mistakes could be attributed to English intonation pattems on the same level of syntactic structure

  14. The affective tone of narration and posttraumatic growth in organ transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zięba Mariusz


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that positive affective tone of narratives is connected to the experience of posttraumatic growth among transplant patients. Kidney transplant patients (N = 51 and liver transplant patients (N = 48 participated in the study. In the first stage, about 10 weeks after transplant, the participants told two stories about important, freely chosen events from their lives. During the second meeting 10-12 months later we measured posttraumatic growth. Results indicated that the affective tone of narratives about past events was associated with the level of post-traumatic growth measured 10-12 months later. This proves that the affective tone of narratives about life, understood as a relatively constant individual characteristic, promote posttraumatic growth.

  15. Detection of time-varying harmonic amplitude alterations due to spectral interpolations between musical instrument tones. (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B; Beauchamp, James W; So, Richard H Y


    Gradated spectral interpolations between musical instrument tone pairs were used to investigate discrimination as a function of time-averaged spectral difference. All possible nonidentical pairs taken from a collection of eight musical instrument sounds consisting of bassoon, clarinet, flute, horn, oboe, saxophone, trumpet, and violin were tested. For each pair, several tones were generated with different balances between the primary and secondary instruments, where the balance was fixed across the duration of each tone. Among primary instruments it was found that changes to horn and bassoon [corrected] were most easily discriminable, while changes to saxophone and trumpet timbres were least discriminable. Among secondary instruments, the clarinet had the strongest effect on discrimination, whereas the bassoon had the least effect. For primary instruments, strong negative correlations were found between discrimination and their spectral incoherences, suggesting that the presence of dynamic spectral variations tends to increase the difficulty of detecting time-varying alterations such as spectral interpolation. PMID:19173434

  16. Lexical prosody beyond first-language boundary: Chinese lexical tone sensitivity predicts English reading comprehension. (United States)

    Choi, William; Tong, Xiuli; Cain, Kate


    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the role of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity in predicting English reading comprehension and the pathways underlying their relation. Multiple measures of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity, English lexical stress sensitivity, Cantonese segmental phonological awareness, general auditory sensitivity, English word reading, and English reading comprehension were administered to 133 Cantonese-English unbalanced bilingual second graders. Structural equation modeling analysis identified transfer of Cantonese lexical tone sensitivity to English reading comprehension. This transfer was realized through a direct pathway via English stress sensitivity and also an indirect pathway via English word reading. These results suggest that prosodic sensitivity is an important factor influencing English reading comprehension and that it needs to be incorporated into theoretical accounts of reading comprehension across languages. PMID:27135168

  17. The Siren's Song: Exploitation of Female Flight Tones to Passively Capture Male Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J; Ritchie, Scott A


    The need to capture male mosquitoes has intensified recently as a result of a number of male-based sterile insect technique (SIT) and population-modification programs focused on Aedes aegypti (L.) having initiated field releases. Here, we report the results of the successful exploitation of the attraction of male Ae. aegypti to female flight tones to enhance male collections in nonmechanical passive (nonbattery powered) Gravid Aedes Traps (GAT). Prior to field studies, male attraction to female flight tones of 484 and 560 Hz, as well as to a male flight tone of 715 Hz, were assessed in a series of controlled release-recapture and semifield trials. These trials determined that a pure tone of 484 Hz was significantly more attractive to free-flying males than the other flight tones and enabled their collection in sound-baited GATs (ca. 95% capture rate after 2 h; 484 Hz at 65 dB). In contrast, gravid females were unresponsive to male or female flight tones and were evenly distributed among sound-baited and control GATs. Importantly, under normal field conditions sound-baited GATs (484 Hz at 70 dB) captured significantly more male Ae. aegypti per 24-h trap interval (1.3 ± 0.37) than controls (0.2 ± 0.13). Overall, sound-bated GATs captured approximately twice as many Ae. aegypti (male and female; 3.0 ± 0.68 per interval, 30 total) than controls (1.5 ± 0.56 per interval, 15 total). These results reveal that sound-baited GATs are a simple and effective surveillance tool for Ae. aegypti that would allow current male-based SIT and population-modification programs to effectively monitor males in their target populations. PMID:26502754

  18. Indeterminacy of Spatiotemporal Cardiac Alternans

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xiaopeng


    Cardiac alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration (at the cellular level) or in ECG morphology (at the whole heart level), is a marker of ventricular fibrillation, a fatal heart rhythm that kills hundreds of thousands of people in the US each year. Investigating cardiac alternans may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias and eventually better algorithms for the prediction and prevention of such dreadful diseases. In paced cardiac tissue, alternans develops under increasingly shorter pacing period. Existing experimental and theoretical studies adopt the assumption that alternans in homogeneous cardiac tissue is exclusively determined by the pacing period. In contrast, we find that, when calcium-driven alternans develops in cardiac fibers, it may take different spatiotemporal patterns depending on the pacing history. Because there coexist multiple alternans solutions for a given pacing period, the alternans pattern on a fiber becomes unpredictable. Usin...

  19. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter


    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac p...... competent endocrine cells. The structurally related atrial natriuretic peptide will be mentioned where appropriate, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide will not be considered as a cardiac peptide of relevance in mammalian physiology....... characterized. An ongoing characterization of the molecular heterogeneity will help appreciate the biosynthetic capacity of the endocrine heart and could introduce new diagnostic possibilities. Notably, different biosynthetic products may not be equal markers of the same pathophysiological processes. An...... inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...

  20. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter


    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac...... inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...... competent endocrine cells. The structurally related atrial natriuretic peptide will be mentioned where appropriate, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide will not be considered as a cardiac peptide of relevance in mammalian physiology....

  1. An overview of cardiac morphogenesis. (United States)

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Abdulla, Tariq; Summers, Ron; Houyel, Lucile


    Accurate knowledge of normal cardiac development is essential for properly understanding the morphogenesis of congenital cardiac malformations that represent the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. The heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development and is fully formed at 8 weeks of gestation. Recent studies stemming from molecular genetics have allowed specification of the role of cellular precursors in the field of heart development. In this article we review the different steps of heart development, focusing on the processes of alignment and septation. We also show, as often as possible, the links between abnormalities of cardiac development and the main congenital heart defects. The development of animal models has permitted the unraveling of many mechanisms that potentially lead to cardiac malformations. A next step towards a better knowledge of cardiac development could be multiscale cardiac modelling. PMID:24138816

  2. Generation of tone burst laser ultrasonic waves and its acoustic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical system for generating tone burst ultrasonic wave is introduced and the actual waveform is demonstrated. 4 high power pulse lasers were used for excitation and the stabilized Michelson laser interferometer was used as detection. On the other hand, we tried to investigate the nonlinear acoustic effect of the generated tone burst laser ultrasonic wave. In thermo-elastic region, the nonlinearity did not appear because the absolute amplitude of ultrasonic wave was so small less than 0.5 nm. Whereas, in ablation region, fairly strong nonlinearity appeared because the absolute amplitude of receiving signal was quite large up to about 2 nm.

  3. Overtone and combination tone bands in the DRIFT spectra of molecular sieves (United States)

    Peuker, Ch.; Splett, Ch.


    The DRIFT spectra of molecular sieves of type A, X, ZSM-5 and SAPO are measured. It is demonstrated that in some cases the overtone and combination tone bands of the lattice vibrations may be used for characterizing the structure of molecular sieves. For instance crystal phase transition due to thermal or hydrothermal treatment, can easily be studied in the region between 2500 and 1500 cm -1. In general the variations in the spectra of the samples due to structural distortion are less significant in the overtone and combination tone bands than in fundamental ones.

  4. Dark-toned dunes in the western Medusae Fossae Formation: Characteristics, distribution, and source (United States)

    Burr, D. M.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Brown, A. J.; Qualls, F. B.; Michaels, T. I.; Chojnacki, M.


    Aeolian bedforms are nearly ubiquitous on Mars but the origin of the sediments remains unidentified. Dark-toned Martian sand may originate as volcaniclastic sediment (Edgett and Lancaster 1993). The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) has been hypothesized to be a volcaniclastic deposit. The two lobes of the western-most MFF (westMFF) host dark -toned sediments (Fig. 1) categorized here as aeolian based on morphologies, surface textures, and locations within lows. These sediments are bright in both day and night infrared (IR) images, indicating a large grain size and low albedo, and are concentrated along the westMFF southern margin, below the highland-lowland boundary (HLB) scarp. Indications of an MFF origin for this dark-toned dune sediment include: 1) gradation of tone: the dark sediments frequently grade into lighter toned MFF slope materials. 2) morphology and location: The dark dune morphologies indicate emplacement by a northerly (toward the south) wind regime (Fig. 1), for which the westMFF immediately to the north provides a sediment origin. 3) composition: Limited spectral data of the dark dunes indicate an olivine-poor composition, in contrast to the olivine-rich spectra of dunes in southern highland (SH) and Cerberus plains (Cp) craters, indicating a different source for those SH or Cp dunes than for the westMFF dunes. Thus, while minor amounts of sediment have likely been contributed from elsewhwere, we hypothesize that the dark-toned dunes in the westMFF originate(d) from the breakdown of MFF sediments, winnowing of bright fines, and concentration of dark, coarse sand into dunes. Given the putative origin of the MFF as volcaniclastic, this identification of the origin of the westMFF dark-toned dunes supports the paradigm of dark aeolian sediments on Mars originating as volcaniclastic material. Portion of P07_003769_1742_XN_05S209W, showing gradation between lighter- and dark-toned sediments (upper portion of image), and echo dune morphology (white oval

  5. Active noise control to reduce the blade tone noise of centrifugal fans (United States)

    Koopmann, G. H.; Neise, W.; Chen, W.


    An active noise control method for suppressing the blade tones of centrifugal fans is presented which uses two secondary sound sources mounted into the cutoff region of the fan casing. Experiments were conducted for centrifugal fans with impeller diameters between 280 and 710 mm using two different designs for the secondary sources. The results indicate that the sound field inside the casing is dominated by the rotor locked pressure field, and that the blade tone noise measured in the far-field is generated by the unsteady pressures at the cutoff, which in turn are produced by the flow leaving the impeller.

  6. Reduced cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing: A heritable vulnerability trait in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy first-degree relatives. (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An


    Reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV) has been observed in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, suggesting genetic predispositions. However, findings have not been consistent. We assessed cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (n=45; 26 female; aged 39.69±14.82 years). Data were compared to healthy controls (n=45; 26 female; aged 38.27±9.79 years) matched for age, gender, body mass index and physical activity as well as to unmedicated patients with acute schizophrenia (n=45; 25 female; aged 37.31±12.65 years). Electrocardiograms were recorded under supine resting and deep-breathing conditions (10-12breaths/min). We measured HRV components including variance, low-frequency (LF) power, which may reflect baroreflex function, high-frequency (HF) power, which reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, and LF/HF ratio, which may reflect sympatho-vagal balance. Patients rather than relatives exhibited lower resting-state HRV (variance, LF, and HF) than controls. As expected, deep breathing induced an increase in variance and HF-HRV in controls. However, such a response was significantly reduced in both patients and their relatives. In conclusion, the diminished cardiac autonomic reactivity to deep breathing seen in patients and their unaffected relatives indicates that this pattern of cardiac autonomic dysregulation may be regarded as a genetic trait marker for schizophrenia. PMID:27442977

  7. Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes. (United States)

    Wasfy, Meagan M; Hutter, Adolph M; Weiner, Rory B


    There are clear health benefits to exercise; even so, patients with cardiac conditions who engage in exercise and athletic competition may on rare occasion experience sudden cardiac death (SCD). This article reviews the epidemiology and common causes of SCD in specific athlete populations. There is ongoing debate about the optimal mechanism for SCD prevention, specifically regarding the inclusion of the ECG and/or cardiac imaging in routine preparticipation sports evaluation. This controversy and contemporary screening recommendations are also reviewed. PMID:27486488

  8. Cardiac Rehabilitation: Guidelines and Recommendations


    Catherine Monpere


    Cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to improve exercise tolerance and symptomatology in patients experiencing angina or heart failure and reduce long term mortality after myocardial infarction, with a good cost-effectiveness ratio. In addition to these `hard' endpoints, cardiac rehabilitation improves the patient's quality of life and risk factor profile through a multifactorial intervention. Indeed, cardiac rehabilitation is no longer restricted to physical reconditioning, but should now b...

  9. A Model of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Vaso-Vagal Responses Produced by Vestibulo-Sympathetic Activation. (United States)

    Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard; Xiang, Yongqing; Yakushin, Sergei B


    Blood Pressure (BP), comprised of recurrent systoles and diastoles, is controlled by central mechanisms to maintain blood flow. Periodic behavior of BP was modeled to study how peak amplitudes and frequencies of the systoles are modulated by vestibular activation. The model was implemented as a relaxation oscillator, driven by a central signal related to Desired BP. Relaxation oscillations were maintained by a second order system comprising two integrators and a threshold element in the feedback loop. The output signal related to BP was generated as a nonlinear function of the derivative of the first state variable, which is a summation of an input related to Desired BP, feedback from the states, and an input from the vestibular system into one of the feedback loops. This nonlinear function was structured to best simulate the shapes of systoles and diastoles, the relationship between BP and Heart Rate (HR) as well as the amplitude modulations of BP and Pulse Pressure. Increases in threshold in one of the feedback loops produced lower frequencies of HR, but generated large pulse pressures to maintain orthostasis, without generating a VasoVagal Response (VVR). Pulse pressures were considerably smaller in the anesthetized rats than during the simulations, but simulated pulse pressures were lowered by including saturation in the feedback loop. Stochastic changes in threshold maintained the compensatory Baroreflex Sensitivity. Sudden decreases in Desired BP elicited non-compensatory VVRs with smaller pulse pressures, consistent with experimental data. The model suggests that the Vestibular Sympathetic Reflex (VSR) modulates BP and HR of an oscillating system by manipulating parameters of the baroreflex feedback and the signals that maintain the oscillations. It also shows that a VVR is generated when the vestibular input triggers a marked reduction in Desired BP. PMID:27065779

  10. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the dorsal vagal complex lowers glucose production. (United States)

    Lam, Carol K L; Chari, Madhu; Su, Brenda B; Cheung, Grace W C; Kokorovic, Andrea; Yang, Clair S; Wang, Penny Y T; Lai, Teresa Y Y; Lam, Tony K T


    Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia due partly to increased hepatic glucose production. The hypothalamus regulates hepatic glucose production in rodents. However, it is currently unknown whether other regions of the brain are sufficient in glucose production regulation. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is composed of NR1 and NR2 subunits, which are activated by co-agonist glycine and glutamate or aspartate, respectively. Here we report that direct administration of either co-agonist glycine or NMDA into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), targeting the nucleus of the solitary tract, lowered glucose production in vivo. Direct infusion of the NMDA receptor blocker MK-801 into the DVC negated the metabolic effect of glycine. To evaluate whether NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor mediates the effect of glycine, NR1 in the DVC was inhibited by DVC NR1 antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid or DVC shRNA-NR1. Pharmacological and molecular inhibition of DVC NR1 negated the metabolic effect of glycine. To evaluate whether the NMDA receptors mediate the effects of NR2 agonist NMDA, DVC NMDA receptors were inhibited by antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-APV). DVC D-APV fully negated the ability of DVC NMDA to lower glucose production. Finally, hepatic vagotomy negated the DVC glycine ability to lower glucose production. These findings demonstrate that activation of NR1 and NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptors in the DVC is sufficient to trigger a brain-liver axis to lower glucose production, and suggest that DVC NMDA receptors serve as a therapeutic target for diabetes and obesity. PMID:20448042

  11. Impaired intestinal afferent nerve satiety signalling and vagal afferent excitability in diet induced obesity in the mouse. (United States)

    Daly, Donna M; Park, Sung Jin; Valinsky, William C; Beyak, Michael J


    Gastrointestinal vagal afferents transmit satiety signals to the brain via both chemical and mechanical mechanisms. There is indirect evidence that these signals may be attenuated in obesity. We hypothesized that responses to satiety mediators and distension of the gut would be attenuated after induction of diet induced obesity. Obesity was induced by feeding a high fat diet (60% kcal from fat). Low fat fed mice (10% kcal from fat) served as a control. High fat fed mice were obese, with increased visceral fat, but were not hyperglycaemic. Recordings from jejunal afferents demonstrated attenuated responses to the satiety mediators cholecystokinin (CCK, 100 nm) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 10 μm), as was the response to low intensity jejunal distension, while responses to higher distension pressures were preserved. We performed whole cell patch clamp recordings on nodose ganglion neurons, both unlabelled, and those labelled by fast blue injection into the wall of the jejunum. The cell membrane of both labelled and unlabelled nodose ganglion neurons was less excitable in HFF mice, with an elevated rheobase and decreased number of action potentials at twice rheobase. Input resistance of HFF neurons was also significantly decreased. Calcium imaging experiments revealed reduced proportion of nodose ganglion neurons responding to CCK and 5-HT in obese mice. These results demonstrate a marked reduction in afferent sensitivity to satiety related stimuli after a chronic high fat diet. A major mechanism underlying this change is reduced excitability of the neuronal cell membrane. This may explain the development of hyperphagia when a high fat diet is consumed. Improving sensitivity of gastrointestinal afferent nerves may prove useful to limit food intake in obesity. PMID:21486762

  12. Limits on Monolingualism? A Comparison of Monolingual and Bilingual Infants’ Abilities to Integrate Lexical Tone in Novel Word Learning (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Poh, Felicia L. S.; Fu, Charlene S. L.


    To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English–Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12–13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12–13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17–18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  13. A Tale of Two Features: Perception of Cantonese Lexical Tone and English Lexical Stress in Cantonese-English Bilinguals (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Burnham, Denis


    This study investigated the similarities and differences in perception of Cantonese tones and English stress patterns by Cantonese-English bilingual children, adults, and English monolingual adults. All three groups were asked to discriminate pairs of syllables that minimally differed in either Cantonese tone or in English stress. Bilingual children’s performance on tone perception was comparable to their performance on stress perception. By contrast, bilingual adults’ performance on tone perception was lower than their performance on stress perception, and there was a similar pattern in English monolingual adults. Bilingual adults tended to perform better than English monolingual adults on both the tone and stress perception tests. A significant correlation between tone perception and stress perception performance was found in bilingual children but not in bilingual adults. All three groups showed lower accuracy in the high rising-low rising contrast than any of the other 14 Cantonese tone contrasts. The acoustic analyses revealed that average F0, F0 onset, and F0 major slope were the critical acoustic correlates of Cantonese tones, whereas multiple acoustic correlates were salient in English stress, including average F0, spectral balance, duration and intensity. We argue that participants’ difficulty in perceiving high rising-low rising contrasts originated from the contrasts’ similarities in F0 onset and average F0; indeed the difference between their major slopes was the only cue with which to distinguish them. Acoustic-perceptual correlation analyses showed that although the average F0 and F0 onset were associated with tone perception performance in all three groups, F0 major slope was only associated with tone perception in the bilingual adult group. These results support a dynamic interactive account of suprasegmental speech perception by emphasizing the positive prosodic transfer between Cantonese tone and English stress, and the role that level of

  14. Diagnostic imaging of cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As imaging techniques for cardiac hypertrophy, the ultrasonic dimension gauze technique, echocardiography, ventriculography and the RI technique including emission RI tomography were outlined. (Chiba, N.)

  15. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric


    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  16. Comparação entre métodos de avaliação da modulação vagal cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Clayton de Paiva


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Diversos métodos têm sido utilizados para avaliar a modulação vagal cardíaca; entretanto, há lacunas quanto a associação e acurácia desses métodos. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre três métodos válidos, reprodutíveis e comumente utilizados para avaliação da modulação vagal cardíaca, e comparar as suas acurácias. MÉTODOS: Trinta homens saudáveis (23 ± 4 anos e 15 homens com coronariopatia (61 ± 10 anos foram avaliados em ordem contrabalanceada pela Variabilidade da Frequência Cardíaca (VFC; variáveis: domínio do tempo = pNN50, DPNN e RMSSD, domínio da frequência = AF ms² e AF u.n., Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória (ASR e Teste de Exercício de 4 segundos (T4s. RESULTADOS: Indivíduos saudáveis apresentaram maior modulação vagal nos três métodos (p < 0,05. No grupo saudável houve correlação (p < 0,05 entre os resultados da VFC (pNN50 e DPNN e da ASR, mas não houve correlação entre o T4s e os outros dois métodos estudados. No grupo com coronariopatia houve correlação entre os resultados da VFC (pNN50, DPNN, RMSSD, AF ms² e AF u.n. e da ASR. Em adição, houve correlação entre o T4s e a ASR. Por fim, os métodos ASR e T4s apresentaram tamanho do efeito mais preciso e melhor acurácia (p < 0,05 comparados à VFC. CONCLUSÃO: A VFC e a ASR geraram resultados parcialmente redundantes em indivíduos saudáveis e em pacientes com coronariopatia, enquanto o T4s gerou resultados complementares a VFC e ASR em indivíduos saudáveis. Além disso, os métodos ASR e T4s foram mais precisos para discriminar a modulação vagal cardíaca entre indivíduos saudáveis e pacientes com coronariopatia comparados à VFC.

  17. Cardiac manifestations of myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Helle; Vissing, John; Witting, Nanna; Bundgaard, Henning; Køber, Lars


    To estimate the degree of cardiac involvement regarding left ventricular ejection fraction, conduction abnormalities, arrhythmia, risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and the associations between cardiac involvement and cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG)-repeat, neuromuscular involvement, age and gender...

  18. Antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Dhir


    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery exerts a significant strain on the blood bank services and is a model example in which a multi-modal blood-conservation strategy is recommended. Significant bleeding during cardiac surgery, enough to cause re-exploration and/or blood transfusion, increases morbidity and mortality. Hyper-fibrinolysis is one of the important contributors to increased bleeding. This knowledge has led to the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents especially in procedures performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Nothing has been more controversial in recent times than the aprotinin controversy. Since the withdrawal of aprotinin from the world market, the choice of antifibrinolytic agents has been limited to lysine analogues either tranexamic acid (TA or epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA. While proponents of aprotinin still argue against its non-availability. Health Canada has approved its use, albeit under very strict regulations. Antifibrinolytic agents are not without side effects and act like double-edged swords, the stronger the anti-fibrinolytic activity, the more serious the side effects. Aprotinin is the strongest in reducing blood loss, blood transfusion, and possibly, return to the operating room after cardiac surgery. EACA is the least effective, while TA is somewhere in between. Additionally, aprotinin has been implicated in increased mortality and maximum side effects. TA has been shown to increase seizure activity, whereas, EACA seems to have the least side effects. Apparently, these agents do not differentiate between pathological and physiological fibrinolysis and prevent all forms of fibrinolysis leading to possible thrombotic side effects. It would seem prudent to select the right agent knowing its risk-benefit profile for a given patient, under the given circumstances.

  19. "How, When, Why"--A Comparison of Two Action Research Methods to Examine the Hidden Tones in Annotation Feedback (United States)

    Ball, Elaine; Regan, Paul


    This recent study broadly confirms earlier conclusions in which action research findings identified that annotated feedback on student assignments carried an unfavourable lecturer tone and, because of which, failed to motivate the student as a learner. It was important to take the action research process further to show how tone is so easily…

  20. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  1. Reduced Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone Predisposes to Persistence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandana Bhat


    Full Text Available Pregnant primiparous women at term were enrolled in the study. ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire was used to find out prevalence of LUTS. MOS was used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength. Women were followed up after 8–10 weeks of delivery to find out remission or persistence of these symptoms. We found that increased frequency of micturition was the most common (82% LUTS seen in primiparous women at term. More than half (51% of these women who complained of LUTS had a poor pelvic floor muscle tone (MOS grade 3. Out of those who had symptoms during pregnancy 11% remained symptomatic even after puerperium. Interestingly 61% of those with persistence of symptoms demonstrated a very poor pelvic floor muscle tone at term (MOS grade 2, while the remaining 39% also had a tone of only MOS grade 3. Thus women with LUTS during pregnancy should be screened for their pelvic floor muscle tone with simple MOS system which will help to predict the persistence of these symptoms later on. Women with a low score (three or less should be triaged for regular pelvic floor muscle exercises.

  2. Known-Groups and Concurrent Validity of the Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Zhu

    Full Text Available The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI. Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT.The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT.81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41 and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40.Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity.The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence.

  3. Songbirds use pulse tone register in two voices to generate low-frequency sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Cooper, Brenton G.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Goller, Franz


    generation alternates between the left and right sound sources. Spontaneously calling crows can also generate similar pulse characteristics with only one sound generator. Airflow recordings in zebra finches and starlings show that pulse tone sounds can be generated unilaterally, synchronously or by...

  4. Communicative Focus on Form and Second Language Suprasegmental Learning: Teaching Cantonese Learners to Perceive Mandarin Tones (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Wu, Xianghua


    The current study examined how form-focused instruction (FFI) with and without corrective feedback (CF) as output enhancement facilitated second language (L2) perception of Mandarin tones at both the phonetic and phonological levels by 41 Cantonese learners of Mandarin. Two experimental groups, FFI only and FFI-CF, received a 90-min FFI treatment…

  5. Tone Sequences with Conflicting Fundamental Pitch and Timbre Changes Are Heard Differently by Musicians and Nonmusicians (United States)

    Seither-Preisler, Annemarie; Johnson, Linda; Krumbholz, Katrin; Nobbe, Andrea; Patterson, Roy; Seither, Stefan; Lutkenhoner, Bernd


    An Auditory Ambiguity Test (AAT) was taken twice by nonmusicians, musical amateurs, and professional musicians. The AAT comprised different tone pairs, presented in both within-pair orders, in which overtone spectra rising in pitch were associated with missing fundamental frequencies (F0) falling in pitch, and vice versa. The F0 interval ranged…

  6. Known-Groups and Concurrent Validity of the Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT) (United States)

    Zhu, Shufeng; Wong, Lena L. N.; Chen, Fei; Chen, Yuan; Wang, Bin


    Objective The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT) is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI). Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT. Design The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI) were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT. Study sample 81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41) and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40). Results Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. Conclusions The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence. PMID:27191394

  7. Auditory Pattern Recognition and Brief Tone Discrimination of Children with Reading Disorders (United States)

    Walker, Marianna M.; Givens, Gregg D.; Cranford, Jerry L.; Holbert, Don; Walker, Letitia


    Auditory pattern recognition skills in children with reading disorders were investigated using perceptual tests involving discrimination of frequency and duration tonal patterns. A behavioral test battery involving recognition of the pattern of presentation of tone triads was used in which individual components differed in either frequency or…

  8. Cues for Lexical Tone Perception in Children: Acoustic Correlates and Phonetic Context Effects (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; McBride, Catherine; Burnham, Denis


    Purpose: The authors investigated the effects of acoustic cues (i.e., pitch height, pitch contour, and pitch onset and offset) and phonetic context cues (i.e., syllable onsets and rimes) on lexical tone perception in Cantonese-speaking children. Method: Eight minimum pairs of tonal contrasts were presented in either an identical phonetic context…

  9. The ensemble variance of pure-tone measurements in reverberation rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Molares, Alfonso Rodriguez


    statistics of measurements in such rooms. Below the Schroeder frequency, the relative variance is much larger, particularly if the source emits a pure-tone. The established theory for this frequency range is based on ensemble statistics of modal sums and requires knowledge of mode shapes and the distribution...

  10. Discrimination of Tone Contrasts in Mandarin Disyllables by Naive American English Listeners (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari Salzhauer


    The present study examined the perception of Mandarin disyllabic tones by inexperienced American English speakers. Participants heard two naturally-produced Mandarin disyllables, and indicated if the two were the same or different. A small native Mandarin-speaking control group participated as well. All 21 possible Mandarin contrasts where the…

  11. An Empirical Study on the Acquisition of English Rising Tone by Chinese EFL Learners (United States)

    Chen, Wenkai


    Intonation is the melody and soul of speech, and plays an important role in oral communication. Nevertheless, the acquisition of English intonation by Chinese EFL learners is far from being satisfactory. It is found by empirical study that the main problems existing in acquiring English rising tone are improper placement of nucleus stress, failure…

  12. Effect of Intensive Voice Treatment on Tone-Language Speakers with Parkinson's Disease (United States)

    Whitehill, Tara L.; Wong, Lina L. -N.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive voice therapy on Cantonese speakers with Parkinson's disease. The effect of the treatment on lexical tone was of particular interest. Four Cantonese speakers with idiopathic Parkinson's disease received treatment based on the principles of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT).…

  13. The Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones by English, Japanese and Korean Speakers (United States)

    Zhang, Hang


    This dissertation explores the second language acquisition of Mandarin Chinese tones by speakers of non-tonal languages within the framework of Optimality Theory. The effects of three L1s are analyzed: American English, a stress-accent language; Tokyo Japanese, a lexical pitch accent language; and Seoul Korean, a non-stress and non-pitch accent…

  14. Within-category variance and lexical tone discrimination in native and non-native speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, C.W.G.; Sadakata, M.; Chen, A.; Desain, P.W.M.; McQueen, J.M.


    In this paper, we show how acoustic variance within lexical tones in disyllabic Mandarin Chinese pseudowords affects discrimination abilities in both native and non-native speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Within-category acoustic variance did not hinder native speakers in discriminating between lexical

  15. Effects of Clarinet Embouchure on Band Director Tone Quality Preferences: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Enloe, Loraine D.


    Woodwind methods classes are where most teachers learn the basics of woodwind embouchure and tone production. Woodwind methods texts and beginning band methods disagree on clarinet embouchure. One cannot readily reduce any embouchure to one or two attributes; however, clarinet teachers and band directors often disagree about whether the corners of…

  16. Multi-tone parallel coherent matched detection for demultiplexing of superchannels. (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takahide; Lu, Guo-Wei; Kawanishi, Tetsuya


    This paper presents multi-tone parallel coherent matched detection that orthogonally detects superchannels without crosstalk between neighboring channels. The receiver consists of multiple sets of multi-tone coherent matched detector employed in parallel. In each detector, the received superchannels signal is homodyne mixed in multi frequency with locally generated multi-tone optical frequency comb; detected is a signal set that has the amplitude and phase exactly matched with the local comb. By launching orthogonal sets of local comb to the multiple parallel coherent matched detectors, the received superchannels are orthogonally downconverted to the baseband frequencies keeping the amplitude and phase information of all channels included. With an aid of n × n transform matrix, all channels are separately recovered from the downconverted signal sets. The system does not rely on any optical filters for channel demultiplexing and separation, with increased flexibility in wavelength arrangement. In addition, the parallel configuration equivalently enhance the bandwidth of the coherent matched detector keeping the speed in each tributary channel as high as possible. In this paper, it is experimentally demonstrated that even-odd interleaved 23 × 20-Gb/s QPSK superchannels are orthogonally demultiplexed and detected by two-tone coherent matched detection. PMID:23938777

  17. How to Study a Tone Language, with Exemplification from Oku (Grassfields Bantu, Cameroon) (United States)

    Hyman, Larry M.


    In response to requests I have often got as to how one approaches a tone language, I present a personal view of the three stages involved, starting from scratch and arriving at an analysis: Stage I: Determining the tonal contrasts and their approximate phonetic allotones. Stage II: Discovering any tonal alternations ("morphotonemics").…

  18. Pre-attentive modulation of brain responses to tones in coloured-hearing synesthetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäncke Lutz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coloured-hearing (CH synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which an acoustic stimulus (the inducer initiates a concurrent colour perception (the concurrent. Individuals with CH synesthesia "see" colours when hearing tones, words, or music; this specific phenomenon suggesting a close relationship between auditory and visual representations. To date, it is still unknown whether the perception of colours is associated with a modulation of brain functions in the inducing brain area, namely in the auditory-related cortex and associated brain areas. In addition, there is an on-going debate as to whether attention to the inducer is necessarily required for eliciting a visual concurrent, or whether the latter can emerge in a pre-attentive fashion. Results By using the EEG technique in the context of a pre-attentive mismatch negativity (MMN paradigm, we show that the binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is associated with increased MMN amplitudes in response to deviant tones supposed to induce novel concurrent colour perceptions. Most notably, the increased MMN amplitudes we revealed in the CH synesthetes were associated with stronger intracerebral current densities originating from the auditory cortex, parietal cortex, and ventral visual areas. Conclusions The automatic binding of tones and colours in CH synesthetes is accompanied by an early pre-attentive process recruiting the auditory cortex, inferior and superior parietal lobules, as well as ventral occipital areas.

  19. Reduced Pelvic Floor Muscle Tone Predisposes to Persistence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms after Puerperium. (United States)

    Bhat, Chandana; Khan, Mahjabeen; Ballala, Kirthinath; Kamath, Asha; Pandey, Deeksha


    Pregnant primiparous women at term were enrolled in the study. ICIQ-FLUTS questionnaire was used to find out prevalence of LUTS. MOS was used to assess pelvic floor muscle strength. Women were followed up after 8-10 weeks of delivery to find out remission or persistence of these symptoms. We found that increased frequency of micturition was the most common (82%) LUTS seen in primiparous women at term. More than half (51%) of these women who complained of LUTS had a poor pelvic floor muscle tone (MOS grade 3). Out of those who had symptoms during pregnancy 11% remained symptomatic even after puerperium. Interestingly 61% of those with persistence of symptoms demonstrated a very poor pelvic floor muscle tone at term (MOS grade 2), while the remaining 39% also had a tone of only MOS grade 3. Thus women with LUTS during pregnancy should be screened for their pelvic floor muscle tone with simple MOS system which will help to predict the persistence of these symptoms later on. Women with a low score (three or less) should be triaged for regular pelvic floor muscle exercises. PMID:27119044


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    This study analyzes the effect of electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus (LC) and adjacent brainstem structures on the tonic reflex (TVR), the tonic stretch reflex (TSR) and on muscle tone (MT) in anaesthetized rat. Increases in TVR. TSR and MT of the m. biceps were evoked from regions rostra